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Sample records for methylococcus capsulatus bath

  1. Cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B; Dispirito, A A

    1996-09-15

    Cytochrome c' was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The native and subunit molecular masses of the cytochrome were 34.9 kDa and 16.2 kDa, respectively, with an isoelectric pH of 7.0. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid sequence were consistent with identification of the protein as a cytochrome c'. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the monoheme cytochrome indicated the presence of a high spin, S = 5/2, heme center that is diagnostic of cytochromes c'. The optical absorption spectra of ferric or ferrous cytochrome c' were also characteristic of cytochromes c'. The ferrocytochrome bound carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, but not isocyanide, cyanide, or azide. Changes in physical properties due to binding of CO or NO to some other c'-type cytochromes have been interpreted as an indication of dimer dissociation. In the case of cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath, analytical ultracentrifugation of the ferricytochrome, the ferrocytochrome, and the ferrocytochrome-CO complex indicate that the changes induced by binding of CO are conformational and are not consistent with dimer dissociation. EPR spectra show that cytochrome c' was reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine only when in a complex with cytochrome P-460. The value of the midpoint potential, Em 7.0, was -250 mV for cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath, which is well below the range of values reported for other cytochromes c'. The values of midpoint potentials for cytochrome P-460 (Em 7.0 = -300 mV to -380 mV) and cytochrome C555 (Em 7.0 = +175 mV to +195 mV) are less than and greater than, respectively, the value for cytochrome c' and suggest the possibility that the latter may function as an electron shuttle between cytochrome P-460 and cytochrome C555. PMID:8856071

  2. Cytochrome c peroxidase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B; Coats, J R; DiSpirito, A A

    1997-11-01

    A bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase was purified from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath in either the fully oxidized or the half reduced form depending on the purification procedure. The cytochrome was a homo-dimer with a subunit mol mass of 35.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.5. At physiological temperatures, the enzyme contained one high-spin, low-potential (Em7 = -254 mV) and one low-spin, high-potential (Em7 = +432 mM ) heme. The low-potential heme center exhibited a spin-state transition from the penta-coordinated, high-spin configuration to a low-spin configuration upon cooling the enzyme to cryogenic temperatures. Using M. capsulatus Bath ferrocytochrome c555 as the electron donor, the KM and Vmax for peroxide reduction were 510 +/- 100 nM and 425 +/- 22 mol ferrocytochrome c555 oxidized min-1 (mole cytochrome c peroxidase)-1, respectively. PMID:9325424

  3. Outer membrane proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kleivdal, H; Joergensen, C; Thestrup, H; Jensen, H B

    1997-08-01

    Membranes obtained from whole-cell lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were separated by Triton X-100 extraction. The resulting insoluble fraction was enriched in outer membranes as assessed by electron microscopy and by the content of beta-hydroxy palmitic acid and particulate methane monooxygenase. Major proteins with molecular masses of approximately 27, 40, 46, 59, and 66 kDa were detected by SDS-PAGE of the Triton-X-100-insoluble membranes. MopA, MopB, MopC, MopD, and MopE (Methylococcus outer membrane protein) are proposed to designate these proteins. Several of the Mop proteins exhibited heat-modifiable properties in SDS-PAGE and were influenced by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the sample buffer. The 46- and 59-kDa bands migrated as a single high-molecular-mass 95-kDa oligomer under mild denaturing conditions. When reconstituted into black lipid membranes, this oligomer was shown to serve as a channel with an estimated single-channel conductance of 1.4 nS in 1 M KCl. PMID:9238104

  4. Isolation, purification and characterization of hemerythrin from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Wang, Vincent C-C; Huang, Yi-Che; Yu, Steve S-F; Chang, Ta-Chau; Chan, Sunney I

    2008-08-01

    Earlier work from our laboratory has indicated that a hemerythrin-like protein was over-produced together with the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) when Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was grown under high copper concentrations. A homologue of hemerythrin had not previously been found in any prokaryote. To confirm its identity as a hemerythrin, we have isolated and purified this protein by ion-exchange, gel-filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and characterized it by mass spectrometry, UV-visible, CD, EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy. On the basis of biophysical and multiple sequence alignment analysis, the protein isolated from M. capsulatus (Bath) is in accord with hemerythrins previously reported from higher organisms. Determination of the Fe content in conjunction with molecular-weight estimation and mass analysis indicates that the native hemerythrin in M. capsulatus (Bath) is a monomer with molecular mass 14.8 kDa, in contrast to hemerythrins from other eukaryotic organisms, where they typically exist as a tetramer or higher oligomers. PMID:18397812

  5. Cytochrome P460 genes from the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus bath.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Zahn, J A; Hooper, A B; DiSpirito, A A

    1998-12-01

    P460 cytochromes catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. They have been isolated from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (R. H. Erickson and A. B. Hooper, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 275:231-244, 1972) and the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (J. A. Zahn et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:5879-5887, 1994). A degenerate oligonucleotide probe was synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome P460 and used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains cyp, the gene encoding cytochrome P460. cyp is part of a gene cluster that contains three open reading frames (ORFs), the first predicted to encode a 59,000-Da membrane-bound polypeptide, the second predicted to encode a 12, 000-Da periplasmic protein, and the third (cyp) encoding cytochrome P460. The products of the first two ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The overall sequence similarity of the P460 cytochromes from M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea was low (24.3% of residues identical), although short regions of conserved residues are present in the two proteins. Both cytochromes have a C-terminal, c-heme binding motif (CXXCH) and a conserved lysine residue (K61) that may provide an additional covalent cross-link to the heme (D. M. Arciero and A. B. Hooper, FEBS Lett. 410:457-460, 1997). Gene probing using cyp indicated that a cytochrome P460 similar to that from M. capsulatus Bath may be present in the type II methanotrophs Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylocystis parvus OBBP but not in the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylomicrobium albus BG8, and Methylomonas sp. strains MN and MM2. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies against cytochrome P460 from M. capsulatus Bath indicated that the expression level of cytochrome P460 was not affected either by expression of the two different methane monooxygenases or by addition of ammonia to the culture medium. PMID:9851984

  6. Response to mercury (II) ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-11-01

    The mercury (II) ion is toxic and is usually detoxified in Bacteria by reduction to elemental mercury, which is less toxic. This is catalysed by an NAD(P)H-dependent mercuric reductase (EC 1.16.1.1). Here, we present strong evidence that Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) - a methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria - uses this enzyme to detoxify mercury. In radiorespirometry studies, it was found that cells exposed to mercury dissimilated 100% of [(14) C]-methane provided to generate reducing equivalents to fuel mercury (II) reduction, rather than the mix of assimilation and dissimilation found in control incubations. The detoxification system is constitutively expressed with a specific activity of 352 (±18) nmol NADH oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) . Putative mercuric reductase genes were predicted in the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome and found in mRNA microarray studies. The MerA-derived polypeptide showed high identity (> 80%) with MerA sequences from the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:22092810

  7. Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) from genome to protein function, and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Bagstevold, June I; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), considered a model methylotroph, was published in 2004 [Ward, N., et al. (2004). Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). PLoS Biol.2, e303]. In the postgenomic era, the challenge is to determine the gene function, and to this end, genomics must be complemented with proteomic approaches. This chapter describes some experimental and computational approaches we have used and developed for the exploration of the genome and proteome of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:21419915

  8. Membrane-Associated Quinoprotein Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, James A.; Bergmann, David J.; Boyd, Jeffery M.; Kunz, Ryan C.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2001-01-01

    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 μmol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159–167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351–5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b559/569 complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  9. Membrane-associated quinoprotein formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Bergmann, D J; Boyd, J M; Kunz, R C; DiSpirito, A A

    2001-12-01

    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 micromol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)(+)-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159-167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351-5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b(559/569) complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  10. Membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1996-01-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl beta-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified as the polypeptides induced when cells expressing the soluble MMO are switched to culture medium in which the pMMO is expressed. The 27,000-Da polypeptide was identified as the acetylene-binding protein. The active enzyme complex contained 2.5 iron atoms and 14.5 copper atoms per 99,000 Da. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the enzyme showed evidence for a type 2 copper center (g perpendicular = 2.057, g parallel = 2.24, and magnitude of A parallel = 172 G), a weak high-spin iron signal (g = 6.0), and a broad low-field (g = 12.5) signal. Treatment of the pMMO with nitric oxide produced the ferrous-nitric oxide derivative observed in the membrane fraction of cells expressing the pMMO. When duroquinol was used as a reductant, the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 11.1 nmol of propylene oxidized.min-1.mg of protein-1, which accounted for approximately 30% of the cell-free propylene oxidation activity. The activity was stimulated by ferric and cupric metal ions in addition to the cytochrome b-specific inhibitors myxothiazol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. PMID:8576034

  11. Membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1996-02-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl beta-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified as the polypeptides induced when cells expressing the soluble MMO are switched to culture medium in which the pMMO is expressed. The 27,000-Da polypeptide was identified as the acetylene-binding protein. The active enzyme complex contained 2.5 iron atoms and 14.5 copper atoms per 99,000 Da. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the enzyme showed evidence for a type 2 copper center (g perpendicular = 2.057, g parallel = 2.24, and magnitude of A parallel = 172 G), a weak high-spin iron signal (g = 6.0), and a broad low-field (g = 12.5) signal. Treatment of the pMMO with nitric oxide produced the ferrous-nitric oxide derivative observed in the membrane fraction of cells expressing the pMMO. When duroquinol was used as a reductant, the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 11.1 nmol of propylene oxidized.min-1.mg of protein-1, which accounted for approximately 30% of the cell-free propylene oxidation activity. The activity was stimulated by ferric and cupric metal ions in addition to the cytochrome b-specific inhibitors myxothiazol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. PMID:8576034

  12. Expression of Individual Copies of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Stolyar, Sergei; Franke, Marion; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    The expression of the two gene clusters encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was assessed by analysis of transcripts and by use of chromosomal gene fusions. The results suggest that the two clusters are functionally redundant but that relative expression alters depending on the copper levels available for growth. PMID:11160118

  13. Some properties of a soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1976-01-01

    Soluble extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by centrifugation of crude extracts at 160000g for 1h, catalyse the NAD(P)H- and O2-dependent disappearance of bromomethane, and also the formation of methanol from methane. Soluble methane mono-oxygenase is not inhibited by chelating agents or by most electron-transport inhibitors, and is a multicomponent enzyme. PMID:962879

  14. Expression of individual copies of Methylococcus capsulatus bath particulate methane monooxygenase genes.

    PubMed

    Stolyar, S; Franke, M; Lidstrom, M E

    2001-03-01

    The expression of the two gene clusters encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was assessed by analysis of transcripts and by use of chromosomal gene fusions. The results suggest that the two clusters are functionally redundant but that relative expression alters depending on the copper levels available for growth. PMID:11160118

  15. Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Secretome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    Indrelid, Stine; Mathiesen, Geir; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was recently demonstrated to abrogate inflammation in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting interactions with cells involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis and emphasizing the importance of understanding the many properties of M. capsulatus. Secreted proteins determine how bacteria may interact with their environment, and a comprehensive knowledge of such proteins is therefore vital to understand bacterial physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze protein secretion in M. capsulatus (Bath) by identifying the secretion systems present and the respective secreted substrates. Computational analysis revealed that in addition to previously recognized type II secretion systems and a type VII secretion system, a type Vb (two-partner) secretion system and putative type I secretion systems are present in M. capsulatus (Bath). In silico analysis suggests that the diverse secretion systems in M.capsulatus transport proteins likely to be involved in adhesion, colonization, nutrient acquisition and homeostasis maintenance. Results of the computational analysis was verified and extended by an experimental approach showing that in addition an uncharacterized protein and putative moonlighting proteins are released to the medium during exponential growth of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:25479164

  16. Computational and experimental analysis of the secretome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Indrelid, Stine; Mathiesen, Geir; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte R

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was recently demonstrated to abrogate inflammation in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting interactions with cells involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis and emphasizing the importance of understanding the many properties of M. capsulatus. Secreted proteins determine how bacteria may interact with their environment, and a comprehensive knowledge of such proteins is therefore vital to understand bacterial physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze protein secretion in M. capsulatus (Bath) by identifying the secretion systems present and the respective secreted substrates. Computational analysis revealed that in addition to previously recognized type II secretion systems and a type VII secretion system, a type Vb (two-partner) secretion system and putative type I secretion systems are present in M. capsulatus (Bath). In silico analysis suggests that the diverse secretion systems in M.capsulatus transport proteins likely to be involved in adhesion, colonization, nutrient acquisition and homeostasis maintenance. Results of the computational analysis was verified and extended by an experimental approach showing that in addition an uncharacterized protein and putative moonlighting proteins are released to the medium during exponential growth of M. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:25479164

  17. Molecular characterization of structural genes coding for a membrane bound hydrogenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Csáki, R; Hanczár, T; Bodrossy, L; Murrell, J C; Kovács, K L

    2001-12-18

    The first gene cluster encoding for a membrane bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from a methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), was cloned and sequenced. The cluster consisted of the structural genes hupS and hupL and accessory genes hupE, hupC and hupD. A DeltahupSL deletion mutant of Mc. capsulatus was constructed by marker exchange mutagenesis. Membrane associated hydrogenase activity disappeared. The membrane associated hydrogenase appeared to have a hydrogen uptake function in vivo. PMID:11750803

  18. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene cluster of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Baxter, Nardia J; Hirt, Robert P; Bodrossy, Levente; Kovacs, Kornel L; Embley, T Martin; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2002-04-01

    The genes encoding the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were localised to an 8.3-kb EcoRI fragment of the genome. Genes encoding the large subunit ( cbbL), small subunit ( cbbS) and putative regulatory gene ( cbbQ) were shown to be located on one cluster. Surprisingly, cbbO, a second putative regulatory gene, was not located in the remaining 1.2-kb downstream (3') of cbbQ. However, probing of the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome with cbbO from Nitrosomonas europaea demonstrated that a cbbO homologue was contained within a separate 3.0-kb EcoRI fragment. Instead of a cbbR ORF being located upstream (5') of cbbL, there was a moxR-like ORF that was transcribed in the opposite direction to cbbL. There were three additional ORFs within the large 8.3-kb EcoRI fragment: a pyrE-like ORF, an rnr-like ORF and an incomplete ORF with no sequence similarity to any known protein. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbL from M. capsulatus (Bath) placed it within clade A of the green-type Form 1 Rubisco. cbbL was expressed in M. capsulatus (Bath) when grown with methane as a sole carbon and energy source under both copper-replete and copper-limited conditions. M. capsulatus (Bath) was capable of autotrophic growth on solid medium but not in liquid medium. Preliminarily investigations suggested that other methanotrophs may also be capable of autotrophic growth. Rubisco genes were also identified, by PCR, in Methylococcus-like strains and Methylocaldum species; however, no Rubisco genes were found in Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomonas methanica S1, Methylomonas rubra, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b or Methylocystis parvus OBBP. PMID:11889481

  19. Effects of the non-commensal Methylococcus capsulatus Bath on mammalian immune cells.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Olsen Hult, Lene Therese; Solberg, Henriette; Bakke, Anne; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Huseby, Eirin; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad

    2015-08-01

    Dietary inclusions of a bacterial meal consisting mainly of the non-commensal, methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus Bath have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of intestinal inflammation in different animal models. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms causing these effects, we have studied the influence of this strain on different immune cells central for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Effects were compared to those induced by the closely related strain M. capsulatus Texas and the well-described probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but not to the extent observed after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917. Likewise, dose-dependent abilities to activate NF-κB transcription in U937 cells were observed, with E. coli Nissle 1917 being most potent. High levels of CD141 on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were only detected after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917, which collectively indicate a superior capacity to induce Th1 cell responses for this strain. On the other hand, the M. capsulatus strains were more potent in increasing the expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83 and CD86 than E. coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced the highest levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells, suggesting that this strain generally the post potent inducer of cytokine secretion. These results show that M. capsulatus Bath exhibit immunogenic properties in mammalian in vitro systems which diverge from that of E. coli Nissle 1917. This may provide clues to how M. capsulatus Bath influence the adaptive immune system in vivo. However, further in vivo experiments are required for a complete understanding of how this strain ameliorates intestinal inflammation in animal models. PMID:25771177

  20. Structure and Protein–Protein Interactions of Methanol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ∼450–560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α2β2 dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein–protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes. PMID:25185034

  1. Structure and protein-protein interactions of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Megen A; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2014-10-01

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ∼450-560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α2β2 dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein-protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes. PMID:25185034

  2. Direct electrochemistry of the hydroxylase of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, J; Hill, H A; Wilkins, P C; Dalton, H

    1996-10-15

    The redox properties of the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) have been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies used redox indicator titrations and spectroscopic methods for the determination of the concentrations of reduced species. Herein we report, for the first time, direct electrochemistry (i.e. without the use of mediators) of the diiron centers of the hydroxylase from M. capsulatus (Bath) at a modified gold electrode giving rise to two waves at 4(+/- 10) mV and -386(+/- 14) mV versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). In addition, the effects of proteins B and B' on the redox reactions were determined. The redox potentials of the complex with protein B are -25(+/- 14) mV and -433(+/- 8) mV versus SCE whereas protein B' had no effect though it did alter the effect of protein B on the redox potentials. PMID:8917455

  3. Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Sutka, R L; Ostrom, N E; Ostrom, P H; Gandhi, H; Breznak, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways. Concentrated cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Nitrosomonas europaea were used to investigate the site preference of N(2)O by microbial processes during nitrification. The average site preference of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath (5.5 +/- 3.5 per thousand) and N. europaea (-2.3 +/- 1.9 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (-8.3 +/- 3.6 per thousand) differed significantly (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 247.9, p = 0). These results demonstrate that the mechanisms for hydroxylamine oxidation are distinct in M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea. The average delta(18)O-N(2)O values of N(2)O formed during hydroxylamine oxidation for M. capsulatus Bath (53.1 +/- 2.9 per thousand) and N. europaea (-23.4 +/- 7.2 per thousand) and nitrite reduction by N. europaea (4.6 +/- 1.4 per thousand) were significantly different (ANOVA, f((2,35)) = 279.98, p = 0). Although the nitrogen isotope value of the substrate, hydroxylamine, was similar in both cultures, the observed fractionation (delta(15)N) associated with N(2)O production via hydroxylamine oxidation by M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea (-2.3 and 26.0 per thousand, respectively) provided evidence that differences in isotopic fractionation were associated with these two organisms. The site preferences in this study are the first measured values for isolated microbial processes. The differences in site preference are significant and indicate that isotopomers provide a basis for apportioning biological processes producing N(2)O. PMID:12661029

  4. Transcription of nitrification genes by the methane-oxidizing bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath.

    PubMed

    Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Graham, James E; Gulledge, Jay; Klotz, Martin G

    2008-12-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath, a methane-oxidizing bacterium, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) carry out the first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, through the intermediate hydroxylamine. AOB use hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) to produce nitrite. M. capsulatus Bath was thought to oxidize hydroxylamine with cytochrome P460 (cytL), until the recent discovery of an hao gene in its genome. We used quantitative PCR analyses of cDNA from M. capsulatus Bath incubated with CH(4) or CH(4) plus 5 mM (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to determine whether cytL and hao transcript levels change in response to ammonia. While mRNA levels for cytL were not affected by ammonia, hao mRNA levels increased by 14.5- and 31-fold in duplicate samples when a promoter proximal region of the transcript was analyzed, and by sixfold when a region at the distal end of the transcript was analyzed. A conserved open reading frame, orf2, located 3' of hao in all known AOB genomes and in M. capsulatus Bath, was cotranscribed with hao and showed increased mRNA levels in the presence of ammonia. These data led to designating this gene pair as haoAB, with the role of haoB still undefined. We also determined mRNA levels for additional genes that encode proteins involved in N-oxide detoxification: cytochrome c'-beta (CytS) and nitric oxide (NO) reductase (NorCB). Whereas cytS mRNA levels increased in duplicate samples by 28.5- and 40-fold in response to ammonia, the cotranscribed norC-norB mRNA did not increase. Our results strongly suggest that M. capsulatus Bath possesses a functional, ammonia-responsive HAO involved in nitrification. PMID:18650926

  5. Characterization of recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Rozova, O N; Khmelenina, V N; Mustakhimov, I I; Reshetnikov, A S; Trotsenko, Y A

    2010-07-01

    The gene fba from the thermotolerant obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) carrying six His on the C-end was purified by affinity metal chelating chromatography. The Mc. capsulatus FBA is a hexameric enzyme (240 kDa) that is activated by Co2+ and inhibited by EDTA. The enzyme displays low K(m) to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and higher K(m) to the substrates of aldol condensation, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The FBA also catalyzes sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate cleavage. The presence of Co2+ in the reaction mixture changes the kinetics of FBP hydrolysis and is accompanied by inhibition of the reaction by 2 mM FBP. Phylogenetically, the Mc. capsulatus enzyme belongs to the type B of class II FBAs showing high identity of translated amino acid sequence with FBAs from autotrophic bacteria. The role of the FBA in metabolism of Mc. capsulatus Bath, which realizes simultaneously three C(1) assimilating pathways (the ribulose monophosphate, the ribulose bisphosphate, and the serine cycles), is discussed. PMID:20673213

  6. Heterotrophic bacteria growing in association with Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in a single cell protein production process.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Harald; Møller Jensen, K; Mergel, A; Larsen, J; Jørgensen, C; Bothe, Hermann; Jørgensen, L

    2002-06-01

    The methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) grows on pure methane. However, in a single cell protein production process using natural gas as methane source, a bacterial consortium is necessary to support growth over longer periods in continuous cultures. In different bioreactors of Norferm Danmark A/S, three bacteria consistently invaded M. capsulatus cultures growing under semi-sterile conditions in continuous culture. These bacteria have now been identified as a not yet described member of the Aneurinibacillus group, a Brevibacillus agri strain, and an acetate-oxidiser of the genus Ralstonia. The physiological roles of these bacteria in the bioreactor culture growing on natural, non-pure methane gas are discussed. The heterotrophic bacteria do not have the genetic capability to produce either the haemolytic enterotoxin complex HBL or non-haemolytic enterotoxin. PMID:12073128

  7. Characterization of the pyrophosphate-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Rozova, Olga N; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Beschastny, Alexander P; Murrell, J Colin; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2008-11-01

    An active pyrophosphate-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) from the thermotolerant methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, containing a six-residue polyhistidine tag, was characterized. The enzyme was homodimeric (2 x 45 kDa), nonallosteric and most active at pH 7.0. PPi-PFK catalyzed reactions of PPi-dependent phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) (K(m) 2.27 mM and V(max) 7.6 U mg(-1) of protein), sedoheptulose-7-phosphate (K(m) 0.027 mM and V(max) 31 U mg(-1)) and ribulose-5-phosphate. In the reaction with F-6-P, the apparent K(m) for PPi was 0.027 mM, while in the reverse reaction, K(m) for orthophosphate was 8.69 mM and that for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 0.328 mM (V(max) 9.0 U mg(-1)). Phylogenetically, M. capsulatus PPi-PFK was most similar to PPi-PFKs from the lithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizers Nitrosomonas europaea (74.0%), Nitrosospira multiformis (73.6%) and Betaproteobacterial methylotroph Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 (71.6% identity). Genes coding PPi-PFK and a putative V-type H(+)-translocating pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPi-ase) were cotranscribed as an operon. The potential significance of the PPi-PFK for regulation of carbon and energy fluxes in M. capsulatus Bath is discussed. PMID:19054082

  8. Analysing the outer membrane subproteome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) using proteomics and novel biocomputing tools.

    PubMed

    Berven, Frode S; Karlsen, Odd André; Straume, Anne Hege; Flikka, Kristian; Murrell, J Colin; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Lillehaug, Johan R; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Jensen, Harald B

    2006-02-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has been used to identify the outer membrane (OM) subproteome of the Gram-negative bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Twenty-eight unique polypeptide sequences were identified from protein samples enriched in OMs. Only six of these polypeptides had previously been identified. The predictions from novel bioinformatic methods predicting beta-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and OM lipoproteins were compared to proteins identified experimentally. BOMP ( http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/bomp ) predicted 43 beta-barrel OMPs (1.45%) from the 2,959 annotated open reading frames. This was a lower percentage than predicted from other Gram-negative proteomes (1.8-3%). More than half of the predicted BOMPs in M. capsulatus were annotated as (conserved) hypothetical proteins with significant similarity to very few sequences in Swiss-Prot or TrEMBL. The experimental data and the computer predictions indicated that the protein composition of the M. capsulatus OM subproteome was different from that of other Gram-negative bacteria studied in a similar manner. A new program, Lipo, was developed that can analyse entire predicted proteomes and give a list of recognised lipoproteins categorised according to their lipo-box similarity to known Gram-negative lipoproteins ( http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/lipo ). This report is the first using a proteomics and bioinformatics approach to identify the OM subproteome of an obligate methanotroph. PMID:16311759

  9. Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Ward, Naomi; Larsen, Øivind; Sakwa, James; Bruseth, Live; Khouri, Hoda; Durkin, A Scott; Dimitrov, George; Jiang, Lingxia; Scanlan, David; Kang, Katherine H; Lewis, Matt; Nelson, Karen E; Methé, Barbara; Wu, Martin; Heidelberg, John F; Paulsen, Ian T; Fouts, Derrick; Ravel, Jacques; Tettelin, Hervé; Ren, Qinghu; Read, Tim; DeBoy, Robert T; Seshadri, Rekha; Salzberg, Steven L; Jensen, Harald B; Birkeland, Nils Kåre; Nelson, William C; Dodson, Robert J; Grindhaug, Svenn H; Holt, Ingeborg; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Jonasen, Inge; Vanaken, Susan; Utterback, Terry; Feldblyum, Tamara V; Fraser, Claire M; Lillehaug, Johan R; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2004-10-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that

  10. Genomic Insights into Methanotrophy: The Complete Genome Sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath) deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for genetic components that

  11. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the azido complex of methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Lu, Shen; Sazinsky, Matthew H; Whittaker, James W; Lippard, Stephen J; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre

    2005-03-30

    The azido complex formed in oxidized methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was investigated with resonance Raman and FTIR techniques. These experiments show the presence of a nuas(NNN) at approximately 2077 cm-1 which splits to two components at 2059 and 2073 cm-1 with 15N14N2. The vibrational data are assigned to an azido complex bound terminally to one iron(III) at the diiron center. When the azido complex is illuminated at 15 K, a new nuas(NNN) is observed at 2136 cm-1 which is assigned to a photodissociated HN3 within the substrate pocket. We propose a model where an aqua ligand engages a hydrogen bond interaction with the 1N atom of the azido group and acts as at a proton donor during the photolysis process. PMID:15783178

  12. Oxidation of hydroxylamine by cytochrome P-460 of the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, J A; Duncan, C; DiSpirito, A A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme capable of the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The absorption spectra in cell extracts, electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, molecular weight, covalent attachment of heme group to polypeptide, and enzymatic activities suggest that the enzyme is similar to cytochrome P-460, a novel iron-containing protein previously observed only in Nitrosomonas europaea. The native and subunit molecular masses of the M. capsulatus Bath protein were 38,900 and 16,390 Da, respectively; the isoelectric point was 6.98. The enzyme has approximately one iron and one copper atom per subunit. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the protein showed evidence for a high-spin ferric heme. In contrast to the enzyme from N. europaea, a 13-nm blue shift in the soret band of the ferrocytochrome (463 nm in cell extracts to 450 nm in the final sample) occurred during purification. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme from M. capsulatus Bath was similar but not identical to those of cytochrome P-460 of N. europaea. In cell extracts, the identity of the biological electron acceptor is as yet unestablished. Cytochrome c-555 is able to accept electrons from cytochrome P-460, although the purified enzyme required phenazine methosulfate for maximum hydroxylamine oxidation activity (specific activity, 366 mol of O2 per s per mol of enzyme). Hydroxylamine oxidation rates were stimulated approximately 2-fold by 1 mM cyanide and 1.5-fold by 0.1 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline. Images PMID:7928947

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of metabolic regulation by copper ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yi, Eugene C; Lee, Hookeun; Tian, Qiang; Wu, Keh-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Yu, Steve S-F; Chen, Yu-Ju; Aebersold, Ruedi; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-12-01

    Copper ions switch the oxidation of methane by soluble methane monooxygenase to particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Toward understanding the change in cellular metabolism related to this transcriptional and metabolic switch, we have undertaken genomic sequencing and quantitative comparative analysis of the proteome in M. capsulatus (Bath) grown under different copper-to-biomass ratios by cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag technology. Of the 682 proteins identified, the expressions of 60 proteins were stimulated by at least 2-fold by copper ions; 68 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold or more. The 60 proteins overexpressed included the methane and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, while the 68 proteins suppressed were mainly responsible for cellular signaling processes, indicating a role of copper ions in the expression of the genes associated with the metabolism of the organism downstream of methane oxidation. The study has also provided a complete map of the C1 metabolism pathways in this methanotroph and clarified the interrelationships between them. PMID:15385566

  14. Characterization of a prokaryotic haemerythrin from the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Ramsevik, Linda; Bruseth, Live J; Larsen, Øivind; Brenner, Annette; Berven, Frode S; Jensen, Harald B; Lillehaug, Johan R

    2005-05-01

    For a long time, the haemerythrin family of proteins was considered to be restricted to only a few phyla of marine invertebrates. When analysing differential protein expression in the methane-oxidizing bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), grown at a high and low copper-to-biomass ratio, respectively, we identified a putative prokaryotic haemerythrin expressed in high-copper cultures. Haemerythrins are recognized by a conserved sequence motif that provides five histidines and two carboxylate ligands which coordinate two iron atoms. The diiron site is located in a hydrophobic pocket and is capable of binding O(2). We cloned the M. capsulatus haemerythrin gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with NusA. The haemerythrin protein was purified to homogeneity cleaved from its fusion partner. Recombinant M. capsulatus haemerythrin (McHr) was found to fold into a stable protein. Sequence similarity analysis identified all the candidate residues involved in the binding of diiron (His22, His58, Glu62, His77, His81, His117, Asp122) and the amino acids forming the hydrophobic pocket in which O(2) may bind (Ile25, Phe59, Trp113, Leu114, Ile118). We were also able to model a three-dimensional structure of McHr maintaining the correct positioning of these residues. Furthermore, UV/vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated the presence of conjugated diiron atoms in McHr. A comprehensive genomic database search revealed 21 different prokaryotes containing the haemerythrin signature (PROSITE 00550), indicating that these putative haemerythrins may be a conserved prokaryotic subfamily. PMID:15885093

  15. Transcriptomic profiling of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) during growth with two different methane monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Øivind; Karlsen, Odd A

    2016-04-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a methanotroph that possesses both a membrane-embedded (pMMO) and a soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The expression of these two MMO's is tightly controlled by the availability of copper in the growth medium, but the underlying mechanisms and the number of genes involved in this switch in methane oxidation is not yet fully elucidated. Microarray analyses were used to assess the transcriptome in cells producing either pMMO or sMMO. A total of 137 genes were differentially expressed, with 87 genes showing a significant up-regulation during sMMO production. The majority of the differentially expressed genes could be assigned to functional roles in the energy metabolism and transport. Furthermore, three copper responding gene clusters were discovered, including an extended cluster that also harbors the genes for sMMO. Our data also indicates that major changes takes place in the respiratory chain between pMMO- and sMMO-producing cells, and that quinone are predominantly used as the electron donors for methane oxidation by pMMO. Intriguingly, a large proportion of the differentially expressed genes between pMMO- and sMMO-producing cells encode c-type cytochromes. By combining microarray- and mass spectrometry data, a total of 35 c-type cytochromes are apparently expressed in M. capsulatus when grown in nitrate mineral salt medium with methane as sole energy and carbon source, and the expression of 21 of these respond to the availability of copper. Interestingly, several of these c-type cytochromes are recovered from the cell surface, suggesting that extracellular electron transfers may occur in M. capsulatus. PMID:26687591

  16. High-molecular-mass multi-c-heme cytochromes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1999-02-01

    The polypeptide and structural gene for a high-molecular-mass c-type cytochrome, cytochrome c553O, was isolated from the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. Cytochrome c553O is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 124,350 Da and an isoelectric point of 6. 0. The heme c concentration was estimated to be 8.2 +/- 0.4 mol of heme c per subunit. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed the presence of multiple low spin, S = 1/2, hemes. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome c553O was used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains occ, the gene encoding cytochrome c553O. occ is part of a gene cluster which contains three other open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative periplasmic c-type cytochrome with a molecular mass of 118, 620 Da that shows approximately 40% amino acid sequence identity with occ and contains nine c-heme-binding motifs. ORF3 encodes a putative periplasmic c-type cytochrome with a molecular mass of 94, 000 Da and contains seven c-heme-binding motifs but shows no sequence homology to occ or ORF1. ORF4 encodes a putative 11,100-Da protein. The four ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The subunit molecular masses, arrangement and number of hemes, and amino acid sequences demonstrate that cytochrome c553O and the gene products of ORF1 and ORF3 constitute a new class of c-type cytochrome. PMID:9922265

  17. The Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Secreted Protein, MopE*, Binds Both Reduced and Oxidized Copper

    PubMed Central

    Ve, Thomas; Mathisen, Karina; Helland, Ronny; Karlsen, Odd A.; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Andersson, K. Kristoffer; Pedersen, Rolf-Birger; Lillehaug, Johan R.; Jensen, Harald B.

    2012-01-01

    Under copper limiting growth conditions the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) secrets essentially only one protein, MopE*, to the medium. MopE* is a copper-binding protein whose structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of MopE* revealed a unique high affinity copper binding site consisting of two histidine imidazoles and one kynurenine, the latter an oxidation product of Trp130. In this study, we demonstrate that the copper ion coordinated by this strong binding site is in the Cu(I) state when MopE* is isolated from the growth medium of M. capsulatus. The conclusion is based on X-ray Near Edge Absorption spectroscopy (XANES), and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. EPR analyses demonstrated that MopE*, in addition to the strong copper-binding site, also binds Cu(II) at two weaker binding sites. Both Cu(II) binding sites have properties typical of non-blue type II Cu (II) centres, and the strongest of the two Cu(II) sites is characterised by a relative high hyperfine coupling of copper (A|| = 20 mT). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography binding studies suggests that residues in the N-terminal part of MopE* are involved in forming binding site(s) for Cu(II) ions. Our results support the hypothesis that MopE plays an important role in copper uptake, possibly making use of both its high (Cu(I) and low Cu(II) affinity properties. PMID:22916218

  18. The Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) secreted protein, MopE*, binds both reduced and oxidized copper.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Mathisen, Karina; Helland, Ronny; Karlsen, Odd A; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Røhr, Åsmund K; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Pedersen, Rolf-Birger; Lillehaug, Johan R; Jensen, Harald B

    2012-01-01

    Under copper limiting growth conditions the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) secrets essentially only one protein, MopE*, to the medium. MopE* is a copper-binding protein whose structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of MopE* revealed a unique high affinity copper binding site consisting of two histidine imidazoles and one kynurenine, the latter an oxidation product of Trp130. In this study, we demonstrate that the copper ion coordinated by this strong binding site is in the Cu(I) state when MopE* is isolated from the growth medium of M. capsulatus. The conclusion is based on X-ray Near Edge Absorption spectroscopy (XANES), and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. EPR analyses demonstrated that MopE*, in addition to the strong copper-binding site, also binds Cu(II) at two weaker binding sites. Both Cu(II) binding sites have properties typical of non-blue type II Cu (II) centres, and the strongest of the two Cu(II) sites is characterised by a relative high hyperfine coupling of copper (A(||) =20 mT). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography binding studies suggests that residues in the N-terminal part of MopE* are involved in forming binding site(s) for Cu(II) ions. Our results support the hypothesis that MopE plays an important role in copper uptake, possibly making use of both its high (Cu(I) and low Cu(II) affinity properties. PMID:22916218

  19. Structure of the redox sensor domain of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) MmoS‡

    PubMed Central

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    MmoS from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is the multidomain sensor protein of a two component signaling system proposed to play a role in the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). MmoS binds an FAD cofactor within its N-terminal tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains, suggesting that it functions as a redox sensor. The crystal structure of the MmoS tandem PAS domains, designated PAS-A and PAS-B, has been determined to 2.34 Å resolution. Both domains adopt the typical PAS domain α/β topology and are structurally similar. The two domains are linked by a long α helix and do not interact with one another. The FAD cofactor is housed solely within PAS-A and is stabilized by an extended hydrogen bonding network. The overall fold of PAS-A is similar to other flavin-containing PAS domains, but homodimeric interactions in other structures are not observed in the MmoS sensor, which crystallized as a monomer. The structure both provides new insight into the architecture of tandem PAS domains and suggests specific residues that may play a role in MmoS FAD redox chemistry and subsequent signal transduction. PMID:19271777

  20. Steady-state kinetic analysis of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1986-01-01

    A steady-state kinetic analysis of purified soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was performed. The enzyme was found to follow a concerted-substitution mechanism. Methane binds to the enzyme followed by NADH, which reacts to yield reduced enzyme and NAD+. The reduced enzyme-methane complex binds O2 to give a second ternary complex, which breaks down to release water and methanol. In this way the enzyme can control the supply of electrons to the active site to coincide with the arrival of methane. Product-inhibition studies (with propylene as substrate) supported the reaction mechanism proposed. Ki values for NAD+ and propylene oxide are reported. The Km for NADH varied from 25 microM to 300 microM, depending on the nature of the hydrocarbon substrate, and thus supports the proposed reaction sequence. With methane as substrate the Km values for methane, NADH and O2 were shown to be 3 microM, 55.8 microM and 16.8 microM respectively. With propylene as substrate the Km values for propylene, NADH and O2 were 0.94 microM, 25.2 microM and 12.7-15.9 microM respectively. Methane mono-oxygenase was shown to be well adapted to the oxidation of methane compared with other straight-chain alkanes. PMID:3098230

  1. Oxidation of ultrafast radical clock substrate probes by the soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Valentine, A M; LeTadic-Biadatti, M H; Toy, P H; Newcomb, M; Lippard, S J

    1999-04-16

    Radical clock substrate probes were used to assess the viability of a discrete substrate radical species in the mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation by the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). New substituted cyclopropane probes were used with very fast ring-opening rate constants and other desirable attributes, such as the ability to discriminate between radical and cationic intermediates. Oxidation of these substrates by a reconstituted sMMO system resulted in no rearranged products, allowing an upper limit of 150 fs to be placed on the lifetime of a putative radical species. This limit strongly suggests that there is no such substrate radical intermediate. The two enantiomers of trans-1-methyl-2-phenyl-cyclopropane were prepared, and the regioselectivity of their oxidation to the corresponding cyclopropylmethanol and cyclopropylphenol products was determined. The results are consistent with selective orientation of the two enantiomeric substrates in the hydrophobic cavity at the active site of sMMO, specific models for which were examined by molecular modeling. PMID:10196150

  2. NMR structure of the flavin domain from soluble methane monooxygenase reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chatwood, Lisa L; Müller, Jens; Gross, John D; Wagner, Gerhard; Lippard, Stephen J

    2004-09-28

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) catalyzes the hydroxylation of methane by dioxygen to methanol, the first step in carbon assimilation by methanotrophs. This multicomponent system transfers electrons from NADH through a reductase component to the non-heme diiron center in the hydroxylase where O(2) is activated. The reductase component comprises three distinct domains, a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin domain along with FAD- and NADH-binding domains. We report the solution structure of the reduced 27.6 kDa FAD- and NADH-binding domains (MMOR-FAD) of the reductase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). The FAD-binding domain consists of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel and one alpha-helix, with the first 10 N-terminal residues unstructured. In the interface between the two domains, the FAD cofactor is tightly bound in an unprecedented extended conformation. The NADH-binding domain consists of a five-stranded parallel beta-sheet with four alpha-helices packing closely around this sheet. MMOR-FAD is structurally homologous to other FAD-containing oxidoreductases, and we expect similar structures for the FAD/NADH-binding domains of reductases that occur in other multicomponent monooxygenases. PMID:15379538

  3. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Ekundayo K; Smith, Thomas J; Hoberg, Anne-Mette; Velarde, Giles; Ford, Robert; Dalton, Howard

    2004-03-01

    In methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is an important but potentially toxic metabolic intermediate that can be assimilated into biomass or oxidized to yield energy. Previously reported was the purification of an NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) from the obligate methane-oxidizing methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), presumably important in formaldehyde oxidation, which required a heat-stable factor (known as the modifin) for FDH activity. Here, the major protein component of this FDH preparation was shown by biophysical techniques to comprise subunits of 64 and 8 kDa in an alpha(2)beta(2) arrangement. N-terminal sequencing of the subunits of FDH, together with enzymological characterization, showed that the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer was a quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase of the type found in other methylotrophs. The FDH preparations were shown to contain a highly active NAD(P)(+)-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase that was the probable source of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde oxidation activity. These results support previous findings that methylotrophs possess multiple pathways for formaldehyde dissimilation. PMID:14993320

  4. Presence of methyl sterol and bacteriohopanepolyol in an outer-membrane preparation from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Kato, Katharine; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic/intracytoplasmic and outer membrane preparations of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of a total membrane fraction prepared by disruption using a French pressure cell. The cytoplasmic and/or intracytoplasmic membrane fraction consisted of two distinct bands, Ia and Ib (buoyant densities 1.16 and 1.18 g ml (exp -1), respectively) that together contained 57% of the protein, 68% of the phospholipid, 73% of the ubiquinone and 89% of the CN-sensitive NADH oxidase activity. The only apparent difference between these two cytoplasmic bands was a much higher phospholipid content for Ia. The outer membrane fraction (buoyant density 1.23-1.24 g ml (exp -1)) contained 60% of the lipopolysaccharide-associated, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, 74% of the methylsterol, and 66% of the bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP); phospholipid to methyl sterol or BHP ratios were 6:1. Methanol dehydrogenase activity and a c-type cytochrome were also present in this outer membrane fraction. Phospholipase A activity was present in borh the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane fractions. The unique distribution of cyclic triterpenes may reflect a specific role in conferring outer membrane stability in this methanotrophic bacterium.

  5. The bacteriohemerythrin from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): Crystal structures reveal that Leu114 regulates a water tunnel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelvin H-C; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Wu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Chun-Jung; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2015-09-01

    The bacteriohemerythrin (McHr) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is an oxygen carrier that serves as a transporter to deliver O2 from the cytosol of the bacterial cell body to the particulate methane monooxygenase residing in the intracytoplasmic membranes for methane oxidation. Here we report X-ray protein crystal structures of the recombinant wild type (WT) McHr and its L114A, L114Y and L114F mutants. The structure of the WT reveals a possible water tunnel in the McHr that might be linked to its faster autoxidation relative to hemerythrin in marine invertebrates. With Leu114 positioned at the end of this putative water tunnel, the hydrophobic side chain of this residue seems to play a prominent role in controlling the access of the water molecule required for autoxidation. This hypothesis is examined by comparing the autoxidation rates of the WT McHr with those of the L114A, L114Y and L114F mutants. The biochemical data are correlated with structural insights derived from the analysis of the putative water tunnels in the various McHr proteins provided by the X-ray structures. PMID:25890483

  6. Structure of the redox sensor domain of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) MmoS.

    PubMed

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2009-03-17

    MmoS from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is the multidomain sensor protein of a two-component signaling system proposed to play a role in the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). MmoS binds an FAD cofactor within its N-terminal tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains, suggesting that it functions as a redox sensor. The crystal structure of the MmoS tandem PAS domains, designated PAS-A and PAS-B, has been determined to 2.34 A resolution. Both domains adopt the typical PAS domain alpha/beta topology and are structurally similar. The two domains are linked by a long alpha helix and do not interact with one another. The FAD cofactor is housed solely within PAS-A and is stabilized by an extended hydrogen bonding network. The overall fold of PAS-A is similar to those of other flavin-containing PAS domains, but homodimeric interactions in other structures are not observed in the MmoS sensor, which crystallized as a monomer. The structure both provides new insight into the architecture of tandem PAS domains and suggests specific residues that may play a role in MmoS FAD redox chemistry and subsequent signal transduction. PMID:19271777

  7. Structure of the Redox Sensor Domain of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) MmoS

    SciTech Connect

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2009-06-01

    MmoS from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is the multidomain sensor protein of a two-component signaling system proposed to play a role in the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). MmoS binds an FAD cofactor within its N-terminal tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains, suggesting that it functions as a redox sensor. The crystal structure of the MmoS tandem PAS domains, designated PAS-A and PAS-B, has been determined to 2.34 {angstrom} resolution. Both domains adopt the typical PAS domain {alpha}/{beta} topology and are structurally similar. The two domains are linked by a long {alpha} helix and do not interact with one another. The FAD cofactor is housed solely within PAS-A and is stabilized by an extended hydrogen bonding network. The overall fold of PAS-A is similar to those of other flavin-containing PAS domains, but homodimeric interactions in other structures are not observed in the MmoS sensor, which crystallized as a monomer. The structure both provides new insight into the architecture of tandem PAS domains and suggests specific residues that may play a role in MmoS FAD redox chemistry and subsequent signal transduction.

  8. Bacteriohemerythrin bolsters the activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelvin H-C; Wu, Hsin-Hui; Ke, Si-Fu; Rao, Ya-Ting; Tu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ping; Kuei, Kuo-Hsuan; Chen, Ying-Siao; Wang, Vincent C-C; Kao, Wei-Chun; Chan, Sunney I

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a native bacteriohemerythrin (McHr) has been identified in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Both the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and McHr are over-expressed in cells of this bacterium when this strain of methanotroph is cultured and grown under high copper to biomass conditions. It has been suggested that the role of the McHr is to provide a shuttle to transport dioxygen from the cytoplasm of the cell to the intra-cytoplasmic membranes for consumption by the pMMO. Indeed, McHr enhances the activity of the pMMO when pMMO-enriched membranes are used to assay the enzyme activity. We find that McHr can dramatically improve the activity of pMMO toward the epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide. The maximum activity is observed at a pMMO to McHr concentration ratio of 4:1, where we have obtained specific activities of 103.7nmol propylene oxide/min/mg protein and 122.8nmol propylene oxide/min/mg protein at 45°C when the turnover is driven by NADH and duroquinol, respectively. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the bacterium requires McHr to deliver dioxygen to the pMMO in the intra-cytoplasmic membranes to accomplish efficient catalysis of methane oxidation when the enzyme is over-expressed in the cells. PMID:22484247

  9. Detection and localization of two hydrogenases in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and their potential role in methane metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hanczár, Tímea; Csáki, Robert; Bodrossy, Levente; Murrell, J Colin; Kovács, Kornél L

    2002-02-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was shown to contain two distinct hydrogenases, a soluble hydrogenase and a membrane-bound hydrogenase. This is the first report of a membrane-bound hydrogenase in methanotrophs. Both enzymes were expressed apparently constitutively under normal growth conditions. The soluble hydrogenase was capable of reducing NAD(+) with molecular hydrogen. The activities of both soluble and particulate methane monooxygenases could be driven by molecular hydrogen. This confirmed that molecular hydrogen could be used as a source of reducing power for methane oxidation. Hydrogen-driven methane monooxygenase activities tolerated elevated temperatures and moderate oxygen concentrations. The significance of these findings for biotechnological applications of methanotrophs is discussed. PMID:11807566

  10. Domain engineering of the reductase component of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Blazyk, Jessica L; Lippard, Stephen J

    2004-02-13

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a three-component enzyme system that catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol. A reductase (MMOR), which contains [2Fe-2S] and FAD cofactors, facilitates electron transfer from NADH to the hydroxylase diiron active sites where dioxygen activation and substrate hydroxylation take place. By separately expressing the ferredoxin (MMORFd, MMOR residues 1-98) and FAD/NADH (MMOR-FAD, MMOR residues 99-348) domains of the reductase, nearly all biochemical properties of full-length MMOR are retained, except for interdomain electron transfer rates. To investigate the extent to which rapid electron transfer between domains might be restored and further to explore the modularity of MMOR, MMOR-Fd and MMOR-FAD were connected in a non-native fashion. Four different linker sequences were employed to create MMOR reversed-domain (MMOR-RD) constructs, MMOR(99-342)-linker-MMOR(2-98), with a domain connectivity observed in other homologous oxidoreductases. The optical, redox, and electron transfer properties of the four MMOR-RD proteins were characterized and compared with those of wild-type MMOR. The linker sequence plays a key role in controlling solvent accessibility to the FAD cofactor, as evidenced by perturbed flavin optical spectra, decreased FADox/FADsq redox potentials, and increased steady-state oxidase activities in three of the constructs. Stopped-flow optical spectroscopy revealed slow interdomain electron transfer (k < 0.04 s(-1) at 4 degrees C, compared with 90 s(-1) for wild-type MMOR) for all three MMOR-RD proteins with 7-residue linkers. A long (14-residue), flexible linker afforded much faster electron transfer between the FAD and [2Fe-2S] cofactors (k = 0.9 s(-1) at 4 degrees C). PMID:14613937

  11. Component interactions in the soluble methane monooxygenase system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Gassner, G T; Lippard, S J

    1999-09-28

    The soluble methane monooxygenase system of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) includes three protein components: a 251-kDa non-heme dinuclear iron hydroxylase (MMOH), a 39-kDa iron-sulfur- and FAD-containing reductase (MMOR), and a 16-kDa regulatory protein (MMOB). The thermodynamic stability and kinetics of formation of complexes between oxidized MMOH and MMOB or MMOR were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 3.3 to 45 degrees C. The results, in conjunction with data from equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation studies of MMOR and MMOB, indicate that free MMOR and MMOB exist as monomers in solution and bind MMOH with 2:1 stoichiometry. The role of component interactions in the catalytic mechanism of sMMO was investigated through simultaneous measurement of oxidase and hydroxylase activities as a function of varied protein component concentrations during steady-state turnover. The partitioning of oxidase and hydroxylase activities of sMMO is highly dependent on both the MMOR concentration and the nature of the organic substrate. In particular, NADH oxidation is significantly uncoupled from methane hydroxylation at MMOR concentrations exceeding 20% of the hydroxylase concentration but remains tightly coupled to propylene epoxidation at MMOR concentrations ranging up to the MMOH concentration. The steady-state kinetic data were fit to numerical simulations of models that include both the oxidase activities of free MMOR and of MMOH/MMOR complexes and the hydroxylase activity of MMOH/MMOB complexes. The data were well described by a model in which MMOR and MMOB bind noncompetitively at distinct interacting sites on the hydroxylase. MMOB manifests its regulatory effects by differentially accelerating intermolecular electron transfer from MMOR to MMOH containing bound substrate and product in a manner consistent with its activating and inhibitory effects on the hydroxylase. PMID:10504247

  12. Electron-transfer reactions of the reductase component of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kopp, D A; Gassner, G T; Blazyk, J L; Lippard, S J

    2001-12-11

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) catalyzes the hydroxylation of methane by dioxygen to afford methanol and water, the first step of carbon assimilation in methanotrophic bacteria. This enzyme comprises three protein components: a hydroxylase (MMOH) that contains a dinuclear nonheme iron active site; a reductase (MMOR) that facilitates electron transfer from NADH to the diiron site of MMOH; and a coupling protein (MMOB). MMOR uses a noncovalently bound FAD cofactor and a [2Fe-2S] cluster to mediate electron transfer. The gene encoding MMOR was cloned from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield. Purified recombinant MMOR was indistinguishable from the native protein in all aspects examined, including activity, mass, cofactor content, and EPR spectrum of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Redox potentials for the FAD and [2Fe-2S] cofactors, determined by reductive titrations in the presence of indicator dyes, are FAD(ox/sq), -176 +/- 7 mV; FAD(sq/hq), -266 +/- 15 mV; and [2Fe-2S](ox/red), -209 +/- 14 mV. The midpoint potentials of MMOR are not altered by the addition of MMOH, MMOB, or both MMOH and MMOB. The reaction of MMOR with NADH was investigated by stopped-flow UV-visible spectroscopy, and the kinetic and spectral properties of intermediates are described. The effects of pH on the redox properties of MMOR are described and exploited in pH jump kinetic studies to measure the rate constant of 130 +/- 17 s(-)(1) for electron transfer between the FAD and [2Fe-2S] cofactors in two-electron-reduced MMOR. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters determined significantly extend our understanding of the sMMO system. PMID:11732913

  13. Inactivation of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by acetylene.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh D; Lin, Ya-Ping; Van Vuong, Quan; Nagababu, Penumaka; Chang, Brian T-A; Ng, Kok Yaoh; Chen, Chein-Hung; Han, Chau-Chung; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Li, Mai Suan; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2015-12-01

    Acetylene (HCCH) has a long history as a mechanism-based enzyme inhibitor and is considered an active-site probe of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Here, we report how HCCH inactivates pMMO in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and computational simulation. High-resolution MALDI-TOF MS of intact pMMO complexes has allowed us to confirm that the enzyme oxidizes HCCH to the ketene (C2H2O) intermediate, which then forms an acetylation adduct with the transmembrane PmoC subunit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the peptides derived from in-gel proteolytic digestion of the protein subunit identifies K196 of PmoC as the site of acetylation. No evidence is obtained for chemical modification of the PmoA or PmoB subunit. The inactivation of pMMO by a single adduct in the transmembrane PmoC domain is intriguing given the complexity of the structural fold of this large membrane-protein complex as well as the complicated roles played by the various metal cofactors in the enzyme catalysis. Computational studies suggest that the entry of hydrophobic substrates to, and migration of products from, the catalytic site of pMMO are controlled tightly within the transmembrane domain. Support of these conclusions is provided by parallel experiments with two related alkynes: propyne (CH3CCH) and trifluoropropyne (CF3CCH). Finally, we discuss the implication of these findings to the location of the catalytic site in pMMO. PMID:26275807

  14. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a family 6 carboxylesterase from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath).

    PubMed

    Soni, Surabhi; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K

    2016-06-01

    The genome of Methylococcus capsulatus (bath) encodes a protein R-est6 that is annotated as a lipase family 3 protein. The phylogenetic and the sequence analyses linked this protein to the family 6 carboxylesterase. The gene encoding R-est6 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant 6x-His tagged protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The buffers used in the purification were modified by adding 1% glycerol instead of the salt to prevent the protein aggregation. Far UV-CD spectrum and gel filtration chromatography of the purified R-est6 confirmed that the protein was well folded like a typical α/β hydrolase and had the quaternary structure of a tetramer, in addition to a compact monomer. The optimum pH was in the range of 7.0-9.0 and the optimum temperature was at 55 °C for the hydrolysis of pNP-butyrate. As expected, being a member of the family 6 carboxylesterase, R-est6 hydrolyzed triglycerides, pNP esters of the small and the medium fatty acid chain esters and an aryl ester-phenyl acetate. However, R-est6 was also found to hydrolyze the long-chain fatty acid ester which had never been reported for the family 6 carboxylesterase. Additionally, R-est6 was stable and active in the different water-miscible organic solvents. Therefore, the broad substrate range and the structural stability of R-est6 would be advantageous for its application in industrial processes. PMID:26899525

  15. Squalene-hopene cyclase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): a bacterium producing hopanoids and steroids.

    PubMed

    Tippelt, A; Jahnke, L; Poralla, K

    1998-03-30

    We report the cloning and characterisation of the Methylococcus capsulatus shc gene, which encodes the squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC). This enzyme catalyses the complex cyclization of squalene to the pentacyclic triterpene skeleton of hopanoids and represents the key reaction in this biosynthesis. Using a combination of PCR amplification and DNA hybridization, two overlapping 2.6 kb PstI and 3.3 kb SalI DNA fragments were cloned bearing a 1962 bp open reading frame encoding a 74 kDa protein with 654 amino acids and a predicted isoelectric point at about pH 6.3. The deduced amino acid sequence of the M. capsulatus shc gene showed significant similarity to known prokaryotic SHCs and to a lesser degree to the related eukaryotic oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Like other triterpene cyclases, the M. capsulatus SHC contains seven so-called QW-motifs as well as an aspartate-rich domain. The recombinant M. capsulatus SHC was expressed in Escherichia coli and in vitro activity of the recombinant cyclase was demonstrated using crude cell-free lysate or solubilized membrane preparation. The cyclization products hop-22-ene and hopan-22-ol (diplopterol) were identified by GC and GC-MS. PMID:9555026

  16. Structure and protein–protein interactions of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-10-07

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ~450–560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α₂β₂ dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein–protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  17. Multiple polypeptide forms observed in two-dimensional gels of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) polypeptides are generated during the separation procedure.

    PubMed

    Berven, Frode S; Karlsen, Odd A; Murrell, J Colin; Jensen, Harald B

    2003-02-01

    We have examined two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel maps of polypeptides from the Gram-negative bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and found the same widespread trains of spots as often reported in 2-DE gels of polypeptides of other Gram-negative bacteria. Some of the trains of polypeptides, both from the outer membrane and soluble protein fraction, were shown to be generated during the separation procedure of 2-DE, and not by covalent post-translational modifications. The trains were found to be regenerated when rerunning individual polypeptide spots. The polypeptides analysed giving this type of trains were all found to be classified as stable polypeptides according to the instability index of Guruprasad et al. (Protein Eng. 1990, 4, 155-161). The phenomenon most likely reflects conformational equilibria of polypeptides arising from the experimental conditions used, and is a clear drawback of the standard 2-DE procedure, making the gel picture unnecessarily complex to analyse. PMID:12601748

  18. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the delta 9, delta 10 and delta 11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 degrees C cells and the lowest in 50 degrees C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  19. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the Delta9, Delta10, and Delta11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 C cells and the lowest in 50 C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  20. Characterization of the recombinant pyrophosphate-dependent 6-phosphofructokinases from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Khmelenina, Valentina N; Rozova, Olga N; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2011-01-01

    The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) glycolysis is the starting point of the core carbon metabolism. Aerobic methanotrophs possessing activity of the pyrophosphate-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) instead of the classical glycolytic enzyme ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK) are promising model bacteria for elucidation of the role of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and PPi-dependent glycolysis in microorganisms. Characterization of the His(6)-tagged PPi-PFKs from two methanotrophs, halotolerant alkaliphilic Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and thermotolerant Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, showed differential capabilities of PPi-PFKs to phosphorylate sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and this property correlated well with the metabolic patterns of these bacteria assimilating C(1) substrate either via the ribulosemonophosphate (RuMP) pathway (Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z) or simultaneously via the RuMP and serine pathways and the Calvin cycle (Mc. capsulatus Bath). Analysis of the genomic draft of Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z (https://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/mage) has provided in silico evidence for the existence of a PPi-dependent pyruvate-phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Expression of the ppdk gene at oxygen limitation along with the presence of PPi-PFK in Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z implied functioning of PPi-dependent glycolysis and PPi recycling under conditions when oxidative phosphorylation is hampered. PMID:21419911

  1. The Surface-Associated and Secreted MopE Protein of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Responds to Changes in the Concentration of Copper in the Growth Medium

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Odd A.; Berven, Frode S.; Stafford, Graham P.; Larsen, Øivind; Murrell, J. Colin; Jensen, Harald B.; Fjellbirkeland, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Expression of surface-associated and secreted protein MopE of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in response to the concentration of copper ions in the growth medium was investigated. The level of protein associated with the cells and secreted to the medium changed when the copper concentration in the medium varied and was highest in cells exposed to copper stress. PMID:12676726

  2. The surface-associated and secreted MopE protein of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) responds to changes in the concentration of copper in the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Stafford, Graham P; Larsen, Øivind; Murrell, J Colin; Jensen, Harald B; Fjellbirkeland, Anne

    2003-04-01

    Expression of surface-associated and secreted protein MopE of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in response to the concentration of copper ions in the growth medium was investigated. The level of protein associated with the cells and secreted to the medium changed when the copper concentration in the medium varied and was highest in cells exposed to copper stress. PMID:12676726

  3. Role of multiple gene copies in particulate methane monooxygenase activity in the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Stolyar, S; Costello, A M; Peeples, T L; Lidstrom, M E

    1999-05-01

    Genes for the subunits of particulate methane monooxygenase, PmoABC, have been sequenced from the gamma-proteobacterial methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. M. capsulatus Bath contains two complete copies of pmoCAB, as well as a third copy of pmoC. The two pmoCAB regions were almost identical at the nucleotide sequence level, differing in only 13 positions in 3183 bp. At the amino acid level, each translated gene product contained only one differing residue in each copy. However, the pmoC3 sequence was more divergent from the two other pmoC copies at both the far N-terminus and far C-terminus. Chromosomal insertion mutations were generated in all seven genes. Null mutants could not be obtained for pmoC3, suggesting that it may play an essential role in growth on methane. Null mutants were obtained for pmoC1, pmoC2, pmoA1, pmoA2, pmoB1 and pmoB2. All of these mutants grew on methane, demonstrating that both gene copies were functional. Copy 1 mutants showed about two-thirds of the wild-type whole-cell methane oxidation rate, while copy 2 mutants showed only about one-third of the wild-type rate, indicating that both gene copies were necessary for wild-type particulate methane monooxygenase activity. It was not possible to obtain double null mutants that were defective in both pmo copies, which may indicate that some expression of pMMO is important for growth. PMID:10376840

  4. The membrane-associated form of methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a copper/iron protein.

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Piku; Katterle, Bettina; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Dalton, Howard

    2003-01-01

    A protocol has been developed which permits the purification of a membrane-associated methane-oxidizing complex from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). This complex has approximately 5 fold higher specific activity than any purified particulate methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) previously reported from M. capsulatus (Bath). This efficiently functioning methane-oxidizing complex consists of the pMMO hydroxylase (pMMOH) and an unidentified component we have assigned as a potential pMMO reductase (pMMOR). The complex was isolated by solubilizing intracytoplasmic membrane preparations containing the high yields of active membrane-bound pMMO (pMMO(m)), using the non-ionic detergent dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside, to yield solubilized enzyme (pMMO(s)). Further purification gave rise to an active complex (pMMO(c)) that could be resolved (at low levels) by ion-exchange chromatography into two components, the pMMOH (47, 27 and 24 kDa subunits) and the pMMOR (63 and 8 kDa subunits). The purified complex contains two copper atoms and one non-haem iron atom/mol of enzyme. EPR spectra of preparations grown with (63)Cu indicated that the copper ion interacted with three or four nitrogenic ligands. These EPR data, in conjunction with other experimental results, including the oxidation by ferricyanide, EDTA treatment to remove copper and re-addition of copper to the depleted protein, verified the essential role of copper in enzyme catalysis and indicated the implausibility of copper existing as a trinuclear cluster. The EPR measurements also demonstrated the presence of a tightly bound mononuclear Fe(3+) ion in an octahedral environment that may well be exchange-coupled to another paramagnetic species. PMID:12379148

  5. The membrane-associated form of methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a copper/iron protein.

    PubMed

    Basu, Piku; Katterle, Bettina; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Dalton, Howard

    2003-01-15

    A protocol has been developed which permits the purification of a membrane-associated methane-oxidizing complex from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). This complex has approximately 5 fold higher specific activity than any purified particulate methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) previously reported from M. capsulatus (Bath). This efficiently functioning methane-oxidizing complex consists of the pMMO hydroxylase (pMMOH) and an unidentified component we have assigned as a potential pMMO reductase (pMMOR). The complex was isolated by solubilizing intracytoplasmic membrane preparations containing the high yields of active membrane-bound pMMO (pMMO(m)), using the non-ionic detergent dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside, to yield solubilized enzyme (pMMO(s)). Further purification gave rise to an active complex (pMMO(c)) that could be resolved (at low levels) by ion-exchange chromatography into two components, the pMMOH (47, 27 and 24 kDa subunits) and the pMMOR (63 and 8 kDa subunits). The purified complex contains two copper atoms and one non-haem iron atom/mol of enzyme. EPR spectra of preparations grown with (63)Cu indicated that the copper ion interacted with three or four nitrogenic ligands. These EPR data, in conjunction with other experimental results, including the oxidation by ferricyanide, EDTA treatment to remove copper and re-addition of copper to the depleted protein, verified the essential role of copper in enzyme catalysis and indicated the implausibility of copper existing as a trinuclear cluster. The EPR measurements also demonstrated the presence of a tightly bound mononuclear Fe(3+) ion in an octahedral environment that may well be exchange-coupled to another paramagnetic species. PMID:12379148

  6. Why OrfY? Characterization of MMOD, a long overlooked component of the soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Merkx, Maarten; Lippard, Stephen J

    2002-02-22

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has been studied intensively to understand the mechanism by which it catalyzes the remarkable oxidation of methane to methanol. The cluster of genes that encode for the three characterized protein components of sMMO (MMOH, MMOB, and MMOR) contains an additional open reading frame (orfY) of unknown function. In the present study, MMOD, the protein encoded by orfY, was overexpressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Pure MMOD was obtained in high yields after proteolytic cleavage and a two-step purification procedure. Western blot analysis of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) soluble cell extracts showed that MMOD is expressed in the native organism although at significantly lower levels than the other sMMO proteins. The cofactorless MMOD protein is a potent inhibitor of sMMO activity and binds to the hydroxylase protein (MMOH) with an affinity similar to that of MMOB and MMOR. The addition of up to 2 MMOD per MMOH results in changes in the optical spectrum of the hydroxylase that suggest the formation of a (micro-oxo)diiron(III) center in a fraction of the MMOH-MMOD complexes. Possible functions for MMOD are discussed, including a role in the assembly of the MMOH diiron center similar to that suggested for DmpK, a protein that shares some properties with MMOD. PMID:11709550

  7. Three-dimensional structure determination of a protein supercomplex that oxidizes methane to formaldehyde in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Myronova, Natalia; Kitmitto, Ashraf; Collins, Richard F; Miyaji, Aki; Dalton, Howard

    2006-10-01

    The oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophs is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO). Two distinct forms of this enzyme exist, a soluble cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound particulate form (pMMO). The active protein complex termed pMMO-C was purified recently from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). The complex consists of pMMO hydroxylase and an additional component pMMO-R, which was proposed to be the reductase for the pMMO complex. Further study of this complex has led here to the proposal that the pMMO-R is in fact methanol dehydrogenase, the subsequent enzyme in the methane oxidation pathway by methanotrophs. We describe here the biochemical and biophysical characterization of a stable purified complex of pMMO hydroxylase (pMMO-H) with methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) and report the first three-dimensional (3D) structure, determined by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis to approximately 16 A resolution. The 3D structure reported here provides the first insights into the supramolecular organization of pMMO with MDH. These studies of pMMO-MDH complexes have provided further understanding of the structural basis for the particular functions of the enzymes in this system which might also be of relevance to the complete process of methane oxidation by methanotrophs under high copper concentration in the environment. PMID:17002291

  8. Kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of intermediates and component interactions in reactions of methane monooxygenase from methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.E.; Valentine, A.M.; Salifoglou, A.; Lippard, S.J.; Wang, D.; Huynh, B.H.; Edmondson, D.E.

    1995-10-18

    We describe mechanistic studies of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Interactions among the three sMMO components, the hydroxylase (H), reductase (R), and protein B (B), were investigated by monitoring conversion of nitrobenzene to nitrophenol under both single turnover and catalytic conditions. During catalytic turnover, hydroxylation occurs to afford 3-nitrophenol (43%) and 4-nitrophenol (57%), whereas hydroxylation takes place exclusively (> 95%) to give 4-nitrophenol under single turnover conditions in the absence of reductase. Protein B exerts a strong influence on single turnover reactions of nitrobenzene, with optimal rate constants and yields obtained by using 1.5-2 equiv of protein R per equivalent of hydroxylase. The temperature dependence of these kinetic values was determined. Changes in dioxygen concentration and pH, as well as exchange of solvent accessible protons with D{sub 2}O, did not significantly affect the rate constants for either of these processes, the implications of which for the kinetic mechanism are discussed. From the present and related evidence, structures for H{sub peroxo} and Q are proposed. 54 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Tritiated chiral alkanes as substrates for soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): Probes for the mechanism of hydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, A.M.; Liu, K.E.; Komar-Panicucci, S.; Lippard, S.J.; Wilkinson, B.; Priestley, N.D.; Floss, H.G.; Williams, P.G.; Morimoto, Hiromi

    1997-02-26

    The tritiated chiral alkanes (S)-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 1}, 1-{sup 3}H]ethane, (R)-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 1},1-{sup 3}H]ethane, (S)-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 1},1-{sup 3}H]butane, (R)-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 1}, 1-{sup 3}H]butane, (S)-[2-{sup 3}H]butane, (R)-[2-{sup 3}H]butane, and racemic [2-{sup 3}H]butane were oxidized by soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the absolute stereochemistry of the resulting product alcohols was determined in order to probe the mechanism of substrate hydroxylation. When the hydroxylations were performed with purified hydroxylase but only a partially purified cellular extract for the coupling and reductase proteins, different product distributions were observed. These apparently anomalous results could be explained by invoking exchange of hydrogen atoms at the {alpha} carbon of the product alcohols. The characteristics of this exchange reaction are discussed. Together with the mechanistic information available from a range of substrate probes, the results are best accounted for by a nonsynchronous concerted process involving attack on the C-H bond by one or more of several pathways discussed in the text. 65 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Primary structure of cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath: evidence of a phylogenetic link between P460 and c'-type cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is involved in electron flow from the enzyme responsible for hydroxylamine oxidation, cytochrome P460, to cytochrome C555. This cytochrome is spectrally similar to other cytochromes c' but is larger (16,000 Da) and has a lower midpoint potential (-205 mV). By a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectroscopy, and gene sequencing, we have obtained the primary structure of cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath. The cytochrome shows low sequence similarity to other cytochromes c', only residues R12, Y53, G56, and the C-terminal heme-binding region (GXXCXXCHXXXK) being conserved. In contrast, cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath shows considerable sequence similarity to cytochromes P460 from M. capsulatus Bath (31% identity) and from Nitrosomonas europaea (18% identity). This suggests that P460-type cytochromes may have originated from a c'-type cytochrome which developed a covalent cross-link between a lysine residue and the c'-heme. PMID:10648101

  11. The Noncommensal Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Influencing Mechanisms Essential for Maintenance of the Colonic Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Lene T. Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription. PMID:23064342

  12. The noncommensal bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) ameliorates dextran sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by influencing mechanisms essential for maintenance of the colonic barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription. PMID:23064342

  13. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  14. Crystal structures of the methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): implications for substrate gating and component interactions.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, A C; Brandstetter, H; Whittington, D A; Nordlund, P; Lippard, S J; Frederick, C A

    1997-10-01

    The crystal structure of the nonheme iron-containing hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been solved in two crystal forms, one of which was refined to 1.7 A resolution. The enzyme is composed of two copies each of three subunits (alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2), and all three subunits are almost completely alpha-helical, with the exception of two beta hairpin structures in the alpha subunit. The active site of each alpha subunit contains one dinuclear iron center, housed in a four-helix bundle. The two iron atoms are octahedrally coordinated by 2 histidine and 4 glutamic acid residues as well as by a bridging hydroxide ion, a terminal water molecule, and at 4 degrees C, a bridging acetate ion, which is replaced at -160 degrees C with a bridging water molecule. Comparison of the results for two crystal forms demonstrates overall conservation and relative orientation of the domain structures. The most prominent structural differences identified between the two crystal forms is in an altered side chain conformation for Leu 110 at the active site cavity. We suggest that this residue serves as one component of a hydrophobic gate controlling access of substrates to and products from the active site. The leucine gate may be responsible for the effect of the B protein component on the reactivity of the reduced hydroxylase with dioxygen. A potential reductase binding site has been assigned based on an analysis of crystal packing in the two forms and corroborated by inhibition studies with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the proposed docking position. PMID:9329079

  15. Structural characterization by EXAFS spectroscopy of the binuclear iron center in protein A of methane monooxygenase from methylococcus capsulatus (bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Green, J.; Dalton, H.; Bentsen, J.G.; Beer, R.H.; Lippard, S.J.

    1988-03-30

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) activates dioxygen for incorporation into a remarkable variety of substrates including methane, which is required for bacterial growth (eq 1). MMO is a three component CH/sub 4/ + NADH + H/sup +/ + O/sub 2/ /sup MMO/ ..-->.. CH/sub 3/OH + NAD/sup +/ + H/sub 2/O (1) enzyme. Protein A (M/sub r/ 210,000), believed to be the oxygenase component, contains two iron atoms. Protein B (M/sub r/ 15,700) serves a regulatory function and lacks prosthetic groups, while protein C, the reductase component of the enzyme, is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein (M/sub r/ 42,000) responsible for electron transfer from NADH to protein A. Recently, a binuclear iron center was postulated to occur in protein A based on the finding that one-electron reduction gives rise to electron spin resonance (ESR) signals (g 1.95, 1.88, 1.78) very similar to those observed for the binuclear mixed-valence Fe/sub 2/(III,II) centers in semimet hemerythrin (Hr) and purple acid phosphatase (PAP). In conjunction with model studies, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful method for identifying bridged binuclear iron centers in Hr, ribonucleotide reductase (RR), and PAP. Here the authors report iron K-edge EXAFS results on semireduced protein A of MMO which support the occurrence of a binuclear iron center (Fe-Fe distance, 3.41 A), with no short ..mu..-oxo bridge.

  16. Insights into the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Donovan P; Anthony, Christopher; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-05-01

    Completion of the genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is an important event in molecular microbiology, and an achievement for which the authors deserve congratulation. M. capsulatus, along with other methanotrophs, has been the subject of intense biochemical and molecular study because of its role in the global carbon cycle: the conversion of biogenic methane to carbon dioxide. The methane monooxygenase enzymes that are central to this process also have high biotechnological potential. Analysis of the genome sequence will potentially accelerate elucidation of the regulation of methane-dependent metabolism in obligate methanotrophs, and help explain the cause of obligate methanotrophy, the phenomenon making most methanotrophs unable to grow on any substrates other than methane and a very small number of other one-carbon compounds. PMID:15866035

  17. Determination of the carbon kinetic isotope effects on propane hydroxylation mediated by the methane monooxygenases from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ded-Shih; Wu, Suh-Huey; Wang, Yane-Shih; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2002-08-01

    Authentic propane with known position-specific carbon isotope composition at each carbon atom was subjected to hydroxylation by the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenase (pMMO and sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the corresponding position-specific carbon isotope content was redetermined for the product 2-propanol. Neither the reaction mediated by pMMO nor that with sMMO showed an intermolecular (12)C/(13)C kinetic isotope effect effect on the propane hydroxylation at the secondary carbon; this indicates that there is little structural change at the carbon center attacked during formation of the transition state in the rate-determining step. This finding is in line with the concerted mechanism proposed for pMMO (Bath), and suggested for sMMO (Bath), namely, direct side-on insertion of an active "O" species across the C-H bond, as has been previously reported for singlet carbene insertion. PMID:12203974

  18. Physiological evidence for the presence of a cis-trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath to adapt to the presence of toxic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Claudia; Eberlein, Christian; Mäusezahl, Ines; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-07-01

    The physiology of the response in the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath towards thermal and solvent stress was studied. A systematic investigation of the toxic effects of organic compounds (chlorinated phenols and alkanols) on the growth of this bacterium was carried out. The sensitivity to the tested alkanols correlated with their chain length and hydrophobicity; methanol was shown to be an exception to which the cells showed a very high tolerance. This can be explained by the adaptation of these bacteria to growth on C1 compounds. On the other hand, M. capsulatus Bath was very sensitive towards the tested chlorinated phenols. The high toxic effect of phenolic compounds on methanotrophic bacteria might be explained by the occurrence of toxic reactive oxygen species. In addition, a physiological proof of the presence of cis-trans isomerization as a membrane-adaptive response mechanism in M. capsulatus was provided. This is the first report on physiological evidence for the presence of the unique postsynthetic membrane-adaptive response mechanism of the cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in a bacterium that does not belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Vibrio where this mechanism was already reported and described extensively. PMID:20487020

  19. Comparison of EPR-visible Cu(2+) sites in pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylomicrobium album BG8.

    PubMed

    Lemos, S S; Perille Collins, M L; Eaton, S S; Eaton, G R; Antholine, W E

    2000-08-01

    X-band (9.1 GHz) and S-band (3.4 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in whole cells from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) grown on (63)Cu and (15)N were obtained and compared with previously reported spectra for pMMO from Methylomicrobium album BG8. For both M. capsulatus (Bath) and M. album BG8, two nearly identical Cu(2+) EPR signals with resolved hyperfine coupling to four nitrogens are observed. The EPR parameters for pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) (g( parallel) = 2.244, A( parallel) = 185 G, and A(N) = 19 G for signal one; g( parallel) = 2.246, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 19 G for signal two) and for pMMO from M. album BG8 (g( parallel) = 2.243, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 18 G for signal one; g( parallel) = 2. 251, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 18 G for signal two) are very similar and are characteristic of type 2 Cu(2+) in a square planar or square pyramidal geometry. In three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) data for natural-abundance samples, nitrogen quadrupolar frequencies due to the distant nitrogens of coordinated histidine imidazoles were observed. The intensities of the quadrupolar combination bands indicate that there are three or four coordinated imidazoles, which implies that most, if not all, of the coordinated nitrogens detected in the continuous wave spectra are from histidine imidazoles. PMID:10920038

  20. Comparison of EPR-visible Cu(2+) sites in pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylomicrobium album BG8.

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, S S; Perille Collins, M L; Eaton, S S; Eaton, G R; Antholine, W E

    2000-01-01

    X-band (9.1 GHz) and S-band (3.4 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in whole cells from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) grown on (63)Cu and (15)N were obtained and compared with previously reported spectra for pMMO from Methylomicrobium album BG8. For both M. capsulatus (Bath) and M. album BG8, two nearly identical Cu(2+) EPR signals with resolved hyperfine coupling to four nitrogens are observed. The EPR parameters for pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) (g( parallel) = 2.244, A( parallel) = 185 G, and A(N) = 19 G for signal one; g( parallel) = 2.246, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 19 G for signal two) and for pMMO from M. album BG8 (g( parallel) = 2.243, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 18 G for signal one; g( parallel) = 2. 251, A( parallel) = 180 G, and A(N) = 18 G for signal two) are very similar and are characteristic of type 2 Cu(2+) in a square planar or square pyramidal geometry. In three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) data for natural-abundance samples, nitrogen quadrupolar frequencies due to the distant nitrogens of coordinated histidine imidazoles were observed. The intensities of the quadrupolar combination bands indicate that there are three or four coordinated imidazoles, which implies that most, if not all, of the coordinated nitrogens detected in the continuous wave spectra are from histidine imidazoles. PMID:10920038

  1. The presence of multiple c-type cytochromes at the surface of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is regulated by copper.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, O A; Lillehaug, J R; Jensen, H B

    2008-10-01

    Identification of surface proteins is essential to understand bacterial communication with its environment. Analysis of the surface-associated proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) revealed a highly dynamic structure responding closely to the availability of copper in the medium in the range from approximately 0 to 10 microM. Several c-type cytochromes, including three novel multihaem proteins, are present at the cellular surface, a feature that is otherwise a peculiarity of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. At low copper concentrations, the cytochrome c(553o) and the cytochrome c(553o) family protein, encoded by the MCA0421 and MCA0423 genes, respectively, are major constituents of the surfaceome and show a fine-tuned copper-dependent regulation of expression. Two novel members of the cytochrome c(553o) family were identified: MCA0338 was abundant between 5 and 10 microM copper, while MCA2259 was detected only in the surface fraction obtained from approximately 0 microM copper cultures. The presence at the bacterial surface of several c-type cytochromes, generally involved in energy transduction, indicates strongly that redox processes take place at the bacterial surface. Due to the unique role of copper in the biology of M. capsulatus (Bath), it appears that c-type cytochromes have essential functions in copper homeostasis allowing the cells to adapt to varying copper exposure. PMID:18681943

  2. Development and validation of promoter-probe vectors for the study of methane monooxygenase gene expression in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanif; Murrell, J Colin

    2009-03-01

    A series of integrative and versatile broad-host-range promoter-probe vectors carrying reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (XylE) or beta-galactosidase (LacZ) were constructed for use in methanotrophs. These vectors facilitated the measurement of in vivo promoter activity in methanotrophs under defined growth conditions. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) sigma(54) promoter or particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) sigma(70) promoter from Methylococcus capsulatus and the reporter genes. Reporter gene activity was measured under high- and low-copper growth conditions and the data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the sMMO or pMMO operon, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in methanotrophs. When beta-galactosidase expression was coupled with the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide it yielded a sensitive and powerful screening system for detecting cells expressing this reporter gene. These data were substantiated with independent experiments using RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot analysis. PMID:19246747

  3. Genes involved in the copper-dependent regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): cloning, sequencing and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Csáki, Róbert; Bodrossy, Levente; Klem, József; Murrell, J Colin; Kovács, Kornél L

    2003-07-01

    The key enzyme in methane metabolism is methane monooxygenase (MMO), which catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol. Some methanotrophs, including Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), possess two distinct MMOs. The level of copper in the environment regulates the biosynthesis of the MMO enzymes in these methanotrophs. Under low-copper conditions, soluble MMO (sMMO) is expressed and regulation takes place at the level of transcription. The structural genes of sMMO were previously identified as mmoXYBZ, mmoD and mmoC. Putative transcriptional start sites, containing a sigma(70)- and a sigma(N)-dependent motif, were identified in the 5' region of mmoX. The promoter region of mmoX was mapped using truncated 5' end regions fused to a promoterless green fluorescent protein gene. A 9.5 kb region, adjacent to the sMMO structural gene cluster, was analysed. Downstream (3') from the last gene of the operon, mmoC, four ORFs were found, mmoG, mmoQ, mmoS and mmoR. mmoG shows significant identity to the large subunit of the bacterial chaperonin gene, groEL. In the opposite orientation, two genes, mmoQ and mmoS, showed significant identity to two-component sensor-regulator system genes. Next to mmoS, a gene encoding a putative sigma(N)-dependent transcriptional activator, mmoR was identified. The mmoG and mmoR genes were mutated by marker-exchange mutagenesis and the effects of these mutations on the expression of sMMO was investigated. sMMO transcription was impaired in both mutants. These results indicate that mmoG and mmoR are essential for the expression of sMMO in Mc. capsulatus (Bath). PMID:12855730

  4. Effect of methanobactin on the activity and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong W; Antholine, William E; Do, Young S; Semrau, Jeremy D; Kisting, Clint J; Kunz, Ryan C; Campbell, Damon; Rao, Vinay; Hartsel, Scott C; DiSpirito, Alan A

    2005-10-01

    Improvements in the purification of methanobactin (mb) from either Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b(T) or Methylococcus capsulatus Bath resulted in preparations that stimulated methane-oxidation activity in both whole-cell and cell-free fractions of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO). By using washed membrane factions with pMMO activities in the 290 nmol propylene oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) range, activities approaching 400 nmol propylene oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) were commonly observed following addition of copper-containing mb (Cu-mb), which represented 50-75 % of the total whole-cell activity. The stimulation of methane-oxidation activity by Cu-mb was similar to or greater than that observed with equimolar concentrations of Cu(II), without the inhibitory effects observed with high copper concentrations. Stimulation of pMMO activity was not observed with copper-free mb, nor was it observed when the copper-to-mb ratio was <0.5 Cu atoms per mb. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of mb differed depending on the copper-to-mb ratio. At copper-to-mb ratios of <0.4 Cu(II) per mb, Cu(II) addition to mb showed an initial coordination by both sulfur and nitrogen, followed by reduction to Cu(I) in <2 min. At Cu(II)-to-mb ratios between 0.4 and 0.9 Cu(II) per mb, the intensity of the Cu(II) signal in EPR spectra was more representative of the Cu(II) added and indicated more nitrogen coordination. The EPR spectral properties of mb and pMMO were also examined in the washed membrane fraction following the addition of Cu(II), mb and Cu-mb in the presence or absence of reductants (NADH or duroquinol) and substrates (CH4 and/or O2). The results indicated that Cu-mb increased electron flow to the pMMO, increased the free radical formed following the addition of O2 and decreased the residual free radical following the addition of O2 plus CH4. The increase in pMMO activity and EPR spectral changes

  5. Purified particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a dimer with both mononuclear copper and a copper-containing cluster

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Raquel L.; Shrestha, Deepak B.; Doan, Peter E.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2003-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotropic bacteria. Understanding how this enzyme hydroxylates methane at ambient temperature and pressure is of fundamental chemical and potential commercial importance. Difficulties in solubilizing and purifying active pMMO have led to conflicting reports regarding its biochemical and biophysical properties, however. We have purified pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and detected activity. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of ≈200 kDa, probably corresponding to an α2β2γ2 polypeptide arrangement. Each 200-kDa pMMO complex contains 4.8 ± 0.8 copper ions and 1.5 ± 0.7 iron ions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters corresponding to 40–60% of the total copper are consistent with the presence of a mononuclear type 2 copper site. X-ray absorption near edge spectra indicate that purified pMMO is a mixture of Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine structure data are best fit with oxygen/nitrogen ligands and a 2.57-Å Cu-Cu interaction, providing direct evidence for a copper-containing cluster in pMMO. PMID:12634423

  6. The hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exists in several forms as shown by electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buzy, A; Millar, A L; Legros, V; Wilkins, P C; Dalton, H; Jennings, K R

    1998-06-15

    The hydroxylase of the soluble methane monooxygenase from the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been investigated by means of electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and liquid chromatography ESI-MS (LC/ESI-MS). The hydroxylase is a non-heme diiron protein consisting of three pairs of non-identical subunits (alpha approximately 60 kDa, beta approximately 45 kDa and gamma approximately 20 kDa). Liquid chromatographic separation of the hydroxylase subunits was required before MS analysis in order to detect the alpha-subunit. The masses measured for the three subunits were found to disagree with those calculated from their gene sequences. Experiments involving the use of CNBr and trypsin cleavage followed by LC/ESI-MS and MS/MS analyses permitted the location and correction of errors in the sequences deduced from the use of cDNA. The ESI-MS results also showed that the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase exists in multiple forms which result from cleavage of the protein. This observation explains a number of enigmatic features of the protein previously reported in the literature and illustrates the pivotal role of ESI-MS in complementing data obtained from molecular biology for the characterisation of the primary sequence of proteins. PMID:9688272

  7. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R L; Haygood, M G; Lidstrom, M E

    1988-01-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes, and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs. Images PMID:3129400

  8. Purified particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a dimer with both mononuclear copper and a copper-containing cluster.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Raquel L; Shrestha, Deepak B; Doan, Peter E; Hoffman, Brian M; Stemmler, Timothy L; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotropic bacteria. Understanding how this enzyme hydroxylates methane at ambient temperature and pressure is of fundamental chemical and potential commercial importance. Difficulties in solubilizing and purifying active pMMO have led to conflicting reports regarding its biochemical and biophysical properties, however. We have purified pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and detected activity. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of approximately 200 kDa, probably corresponding to an alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) polypeptide arrangement. Each 200-kDa pMMO complex contains 4.8 +/- 0.8 copper ions and 1.5 +/- 0.7 iron ions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters corresponding to 40-60% of the total copper are consistent with the presence of a mononuclear type 2 copper site. X-ray absorption near edge spectra indicate that purified pMMO is a mixture of Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine structure data are best fit with oxygennitrogen ligands and a 2.57-A Cu-Cu interaction, providing direct evidence for a copper-containing cluster in pMMO. PMID:12634423

  9. The C-terminal part of the surface-associated protein MopE of the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is secreted into the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kruger, P G; Bemanian, V; Høgh, B T; Murrell, J C; Jensen, H B

    2001-09-01

    A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa was detected as the major polypeptide in the culture medium of the biotechnologically important methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). The protein cross-reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the outer-membrane-associated protein MopE. The antiserum was used to identify a positive clone from a lambda gt11 library. The nucleotide sequence determined for the clone demonstrated that MopE and the secreted protein are encoded by the same gene, and that the secreted protein represents an N-terminally truncated form of MopE. By using monospecific antibodies against MopE in immunogold electron microscopy, the protein was localized at the cell surface and cell periphery. The mopE gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The MopE protein synthesized was found in the periplasmic space of E. coli. No protein with sequence similarity over the entire length of MopE was detected in the databases, but some sequence similarity to the copper-repressible CorA protein of the methanotroph Methylomicrobium albus (Berson and Lidstrom 1997) was observed for the C-terminal region of MopE. PMID:11511867

  10. A low-molecular-mass protein from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is responsible for the regulation of formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tate, S; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    An 8.6 kDa protein, which the authors call a modifin, has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and has been shown to alter the substrate specificity and kinetics of NAD+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) isolated from the same organism. Purification methods for both the modifin and FDH are presented which reliably produced pure protein for further analysis. Analysis of the molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of both FDH and the modifin indicate that they are unique proteins and show no similarity to alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes isolated from methylotrophic bacteria. Substrate specificity studies demonstrated that FDH oxidized formaldehyde exclusively in the presence of the modifin; a diverse range of aldehydes and alcohols were oxidized by FDH in the absence of the modifin. No formaldehyde oxidation was detected in the absence of the modifin. Attempts to replace the modifin with glutathione or high concentrations of methanol to stimulate formaldehyde oxidation failed. With acetaldehyde as substrate, FDH showed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics; interaction of FDH with the modifin using formaldehyde as substrate altered the kinetics of the reaction to sigmoidal. Kinetic analysis during turnover experiments indicated that the FDH may be associated with bound formaldehyde following enzyme isolation and that NAD may also be associated with the enzyme but in a form that is less tightly bound than found with the methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus. Data are presented which indicate that the modifin may play an important role in regulating formaldehyde concentration in vivo. PMID:10206695

  11. Molecular analysis of an outer membrane protein, MopB, of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and structural comparisons with proteins of the OmpA family.

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Bemanian, V; McDonald, I R; Murrell, J C; Jensen, H B

    2000-01-01

    The gene encoding a major outer membrane protein (MopB) of the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was cloned and sequenced. The cloned DNA contained an open reading frame of 1044 bp coding for a 348-amino-acid polypeptide with a 21-amino-acid leader peptide. Comparative sequence analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the C-terminal part of MopB possessed sequences that are conserved in the OmpA family of proteins. The N-terminal half of the protein had no significant sequence similarity to other proteins in the databases, but the predicted secondary structure showed stretches of amphipathic beta-strands typical of transmembrane segments of outer membrane proteins. A region with four cysteines similar to the cysteine-encompassing region of the OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found toward the C-terminal part of MopB. Results from whole-cell labeling with the fluorescent thiol-reacting reagent 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein indicated a surface-exposed location for these cysteines. A probe consisting of the 3'-end of the mopB gene hybridized to the type I methanotroph Methylomonas methanica S in Southern blots containing DNA from nine methanotrophic strains representing six different genera. PMID:10896213

  12. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor. PMID:411486

  13. Regulation of bacterial methane oxidation: transcription of the soluble methane mono-oxygenase operon of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is repressed by copper ions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A K; Gerdes, K; Degn, H; Murrell, J C

    1996-05-01

    Methane is oxidized to methanol by the enzyme methane mono-oxygenase (MMO) in methanotrophic bacteria. In previous work, this multicomponent enzyme system has been extensively characterized at the biochemical and molecular level. Copper ions have been shown to irreversibly inhibit MMO activity in vivo and in vitro, but the effect of copper ions on transcription of the genes encoding the soluble (cytoplasmic) MMO (sMMO) has not previously been investigated. To examine more closely the regulation of bacterial methane oxidation and to determine the role of copper in this process, we have investigated transcriptional regulation of the sMMO gene cluster in the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Using Northern blot analysis and primer extension experiments, it was shown that the six ORFs of the sMMO gene cluster are organized as an operon and the transcripts produced upon expression of this operon have been identified. The synthesis of these transcripts was under control of a single copper-regulated promoter, which is as yet not precisely defined. PMID:8704968

  14. Resolution of the methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) into three components. Purification and properties of component C, a flavoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1978-01-01

    1. Ion-exchange chromatography resolves the methane mono-oxygenase from soluble extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) into three fractions. 2. Fractions A and B are comparatively stable at 0 degrees C, whereas fraction C is very unstable unless kept in the presence of sodium thioglycollate (1-10 mM) or dithiothreitol (5-10mM). 3. The active component from fraction C was purified some 80-fold. 4. Purified component C has mol. wt. 42000. Its solutions are yellow with absorption maxima at 270 and 465 nm and a shoulder at 395 nm. The 465 nm peak is abolished by reduction with NADH or sodium dithionite, or by photoreduction in the presence of EDTA. A new spectral species, probably a neutral flavin semiquinone, is observed on partial reduction of component C. 5. No copper was detected in samples of purified component C, but the protein contains 1.3-1.5 atoms of iron/molecule. 6. On boiling, component C releases a yellow-green fluorescent material that has been identified as FAD from its absorption and fluorescence spectra and by t.l.c. 7. Component C contains 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. PMID:418777

  15. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L.; Haygood, M.G.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1988-05-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes,a and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs.

  16. Crystal structures of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) demonstrating geometrical variability at the dinuclear iron active site.

    PubMed

    Whittington, D A; Lippard, S J

    2001-02-01

    The oxidation of methane to methanol is performed at carboxylate-bridged dinuclear iron centers in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). Previous structural studies of MMOH, and the related R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, have demonstrated the occurrence of carboxylate shifts involving glutamate residues that ligate the catalytic iron atoms. These shifts are thought to have important mechanistic implications. Recent kinetic and theoretical studies have also emphasized the importance of hydrogen bonding and pH effects at the active site. We report here crystal structures of MMOH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in the diiron(II), diiron(III), and mixed-valent Fe(II)Fe(III) oxidation states, and at pH values of 6.2, 7.0, and 8.5. These structures were investigated in an effort to delineate the range of possible motions at the MMOH active site and to identify hydrogen-bonding interactions that may be important in understanding catalysis by the enzyme. Our results present the first view of the diiron center in the mixed-valent state, and they indicate an increased lability for ferrous ions in the enzyme. Alternate conformations of Asn214 near the active site according to redox state and a distortion in one of the alpha-helices adjacent to the metal center in the diiron(II) state have also been identified. These changes alter the surface of the protein in the vicinity of the catalytic core and may have implications for small-molecule accessibility to the active site and for protein component interactions in the methane monooxygenase system. Collectively, these results help to explain previous spectroscopic observations and provide new insight into catalysis by the enzyme. PMID:11456616

  17. Positively charged amino acids are essential for electron transfer and protein-protein interactions in the soluble methane monooxygenase complex from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Balendra, Suki; Lesieur, Claire; Smith, Thomas J; Dalton, Howard

    2002-02-26

    The soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) complex from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses oxygen- and NAD(P)H-dependent oxygenation of methane, propene, and other substrates. Whole-complex sMMO oxygenase activity requires all three sMMO components: the hydroxylase, the reductase, and protein B. Also, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxylase alone catalyzes substrate oxygenation via the peroxide shunt reaction. We investigated the effect of amine cross-linking on hydroxylase activity to probe the role of a gross conformational change that occurs in the hydroxylase upon binding of the other protein components. The cross-linker inhibited hydroxylase activity in the whole complex, but this effect was due to covalent modification of primary amine groups rather than cross-linking. Covalent modification of arginine side-chains on the hydroxylase had a similar effect, but, most remarkably, neither form of modification affected the activity of the hydroxylase via the peroxide shunt reaction. It was shown that covalent modification of positively charged groups on the hydroxylase, which occurred at multiple sites, interfered with its physical and functional interactions with protein B and with the passage of electrons from the reductase. These results indicate that protein B and the reductase of the sMMO complex interact via positively charged groups on the surface of the hydroxylase to induce a conformational change that is necessary for delivery of electrons into the active site of the hydroxylase. Modification of positively charged groups on protein B had no effect on its function, consistent with the hypothesis that positively charged groups on the hydroxylase interact with negative charges on protein B. Thus, we have discovered a means of specifically inactivating the interactions between the sMMO complex while preserving the catalytic activity of the hydroxylase active site which provides a new method of studying intercomponent interactions within s

  18. Inactivation of the regulatory protein B of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by proteolysis can be overcome by a Gly to Gln modification.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J S; Bhambra, A; Murrell, J C; Dalton, H

    1997-08-15

    The regulatory protein B of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), exists as a mixture of the full-length active form and truncated forms, B' and B". Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to identify a cleavage site between Met12 and Gly13, such that 12 amino acids were lost from the N-terminus of protein B. This truncate was designated B' and molecular masses were assigned to proteins B and B' of 15,852.6+/-0.4 Da and 14,629.5+/-0.3 Da, respectively. A cleavage site between Gln29 and Val30 was also identified such that 29 amino acids were lost from the N-terminus of protein B. This truncate was designated B" and had a molecular mass of 12,709.93+/-0.02 Da. Proteins B' and B" were found to be inactive in the sMMO system. Addition of protease inhibitors or the heterologous expression of protein B in various strains of lon-deficient or ompT-deficient Escherichia coli, did not inhibit B' formation. Expression of protein B as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and subsequent purification of protein B from E. coli using affinity chromatography resulted in preparations of protein B with higher enzyme activities than that of wild-type protein B. However, ESI-MS confirmed that protein B' was still present. Alteration of the Met12-Gly13 cleavage site to Met12-Gln13 revealed that the stability of G13Q at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C was higher than that of wild-type preparations. ESI-MS indicated that protein B' was absent and could only be identified after prolonged incubation at room temperature. The amount of active protein B present in the cell may be controlled by protein B cleavage, thereby regulating electron transfer. Alternatively, it may allow protein B to maintain a certain conformation necessary for enzyme activity and this may control the activity of sMMO in response to the supply of methane to the cell. PMID:9310362

  19. The stereospecific hydroxylation of [2,2-2H2]butane and chiral dideuteriobutanes by the particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Wu, Lo-Ying; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Luo, Wen-I; Huang, Ded-Shih; Chan, Sunney I

    2003-10-17

    Experiments on cryptically chiral ethanes have indicated that the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyzes the hydroxylation of ethane with total retention of configuration at the carbon center attacked. This result would seem to rule out a radical mechanism for the hydroxylation chemistry, at least as mediated by this enzyme. The interpretation of subsequent experiments on n-propane, n-butane, and n-pentane has been complicated by hydroxylation at both the pro-R and pro-S secondary C-H bonds, where the hydroxylation takes place. It has been suggested that these results merely reflect presentation of both the pro-R and pro-S C-H bonds to the hot "oxygen atom" species generated at the active site, and that the oxo-transfer chemistry, in fact, proceeds concertedly with retention of configuration. In the present work, we have augmented these earlier studies with experiments on [2,2-2H2]butane and designed d,l form chiral dideuteriobutanes. Essentially equal amounts of (2R)-[3,3-2H2]butan-2-ol and (2R)-[2-2H1]butan-2-ol are produced upon hydroxylation of [2,2-2H2]butane. The chemistry is stereospecific with full retention of configuration at the secondary carbon oxidized. In the case of the various chiral deuterated butanes, the extent of configurational inversion has been shown to be negligible for all the chiral butanes examined. Thus, the hydroxylation of butane takes place with full retention of configuration in butane as well as in the case of ethane. These results are interpreted in terms of an oxo-transfer mechanism based on side-on singlet oxene insertion across the C-H bond similar to that previously noted for singlet carbene insertion (Kirmse, W., and Ozkir, I. S. (1992) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 7590-7591). Finally, we discuss how even the oxene insertion mechanism, with "spin crossover" in the transition state, could lead to small amounts of radical rearrangement products, if and when such products are observed. A

  20. Production of High-Quality Particulate Methane Monooxygenase in High Yields from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) with a Hollow-Fiber Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Steve S.-F.; Chen, Kelvin H.-C.; Tseng, Mandy Y.-H.; Wang, Yane-Shih; Tseng, Chiu-Feng; Chen, Yu-Ju; Huang, Ded-Shih; Chan, Sunney I.

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO)-enriched membranes from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) with high activity and in high yields, we devised a method to process cell growth in a fermentor adapted with a hollow-fiber bioreactor that allows easy control and quantitative adjustment of the copper ion concentration in NMS medium over the time course of cell culture. This technical improvement in the method for culturing bacterial cells allowed us to study the effects of copper ion concentration in the growth medium on the copper content in the membranes, as well as the specific activity of the enzyme. The optimal copper concentration in the growth medium was found to be 30 to 35 μM. Under these conditions, the pMMO is highly expressed, accounting for 80% of the total cytoplasmic membrane proteins and having a specific activity as high as 88.9 nmol of propylene oxide/min/mg of protein with NADH as the reductant. The copper stoichiometry is ∼13 atoms per pMMO molecule. Analysis of other metal contents provided no evidence of zinc, and only traces of iron were present in the pMMO-enriched membranes. Further purification by membrane solubilization in dodecyl β-d-maltoside followed by fractionation of the protein-detergent complexes according to molecular size by gel filtration chromatography resulted in a good yield of the pMMO-detergent complex and a high level of homogeneity. The pMMO-detergent complex isolated in this way had a molecular mass of 220 kDa and consisted of an αβγ protein monomer encapsulated in a micelle consisting of ca. 240 detergent molecules. The enzyme is a copper protein containing 13.6 mol of copper/mol of pMMO and essentially no iron (ratio of copper to iron, 80:1). Both the detergent-solubilized membranes and the purified pMMO-detergent complex exhibited reasonable, if not excellent, specific activity. Finally, our ability to control the level of expression of the pMMO allowed us to clarify the sensitivity of the

  1. The particulate methane monooxygenase from methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a novel copper-containing three-subunit enzyme. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H H; Elliott, S J; Yip, J H; Chan, S I

    1998-04-01

    The particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is known to be very difficult to study mainly due to its unusual activity instability in vitro. By cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) under methane stress conditions and high copper levels in the growth medium, membranes highly enriched in the pMMO with exceptionally stable activity can be isolated from these cells. Purified and active pMMO can be subsequently obtained from these membrane preparations using protocols in which an excess of reductants and anaerobic conditions were maintained during membrane solubilization by dodecyl beta-D-maltoside and purification by chromatography. The pMMO was found to be the major constituent in these membranes, constituting 60-80% of total membrane proteins. The dominant species of the pMMO was found to consist of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, with an apparent molecular mass of 45, 26, and 23 kDa, respectively. A second species of the pMMO, a proteolytically processed version of the enzyme, was found to be composed of three subunits, alpha', beta, and gamma, with an apparent molecular mass of 35, 26, and 23 kDa, respectively. The alpha and alpha' subunits from these two forms of the pMMO contain identical N-terminal sequences. The gamma subunit, however, exhibits variation in its N-terminal sequence. The pMMO is a copper-containing protein only and shows a requirement for Cu(I) ions. Approximately 12-15 Cu ions per 94-kDa monomeric unit were observed. The pMMO is sensitive to dioxygen tension. On the basis of dioxygen sensitivity, three kinetically distinct forms of the enzyme can be distinguished. A slow but air-stable form, which is converted into a "pulsed" state upon direct exposure to atmospheric oxygen pressure, is considered as type I pMMO. This form was the subject of our pMMO isolation effort. Other forms (types II and III) are deactivated to various extents upon exposure to atmospheric dioxygen pressure. Under inactivating conditions, these unstable forms

  2. Expression and characterization of ferredoxin and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding domains of the reductase component of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Blazyk, Jessica L; Lippard, Stephen J

    2002-12-31

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyzes the selective oxidation of methane to methanol, the first step in the primary catabolic pathway of methanotrophic bacteria. A reductase (MMOR) mediates electron transfer from NADH through its FAD and [2Fe-2S] cofactors to the dinuclear non-heme iron sites housed in a hydroxylase (MMOH). The structurally distinct [2Fe-2S], FAD, and NADH binding domains of MMOR facilitated division of the protein into its functional ferredoxin (MMOR-Fd) and FAD/NADH (MMOR-FAD) component domains. The 10.9 kDa MMOR-Fd (MMOR residues 1-98) and 27.6 kDa MMOR-FAD (MMOR residues 99-348) were expressed and purified from recombinant Escherichia coli systems. The Fd and FAD domains have absorbance spectral features identical to those of the [2Fe-2S] and flavin components, respectively, of MMOR. Redox potentials, determined by reductive titrations that included indicator dyes, for the [2Fe-2S] and FAD cofactors in the domains are as follows: -205.2 +/- 1.3 mV for [2Fe-2S](ox/red), -172.4 +/- 2.0 mV for FAD(ox/sq), and -266.4 +/- 3.5 mV for FAD(sq/hq). Kinetic and spectral properties of intermediates observed in the reaction of oxidized MMOR-FAD (FAD(ox)) with NADH at 4 degrees C were established with stopped-flow UV-visible spectroscopy. Analysis of the influence of pH on MMOR-FAD optical spectra, redox potentials, and NADH reaction kinetics afforded pK(a) values for the semiquinone (FAD(sq)) and hydroquinone (FAD(hq)) MMOR-FAD species and two protonatable groups near the flavin cofactor. Electron transfer from MMOR-FAD(hq) to oxidized MMOR-Fd is extremely slow (k = 1500 M(-1) s(-1) at 25 degrees C, compared to 90 s(-1) at 4 degrees C for internal electron transfer between cofactors in MMOR), indicating that cofactor proximity is essential for efficient interdomain electron transfer. PMID:12501207

  3. Production of high-quality particulate methane monooxygenase in high yields from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath) with a hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Tseng, Mandy Y-H; Wang, Yane-Shih; Tseng, Chiu-Feng; Chen, Yu-Ju; Huang, Ded-Shih; Chan, Sunney I

    2003-10-01

    In order to obtain particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO)-enriched membranes from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) with high activity and in high yields, we devised a method to process cell growth in a fermentor adapted with a hollow-fiber bioreactor that allows easy control and quantitative adjustment of the copper ion concentration in NMS medium over the time course of cell culture. This technical improvement in the method for culturing bacterial cells allowed us to study the effects of copper ion concentration in the growth medium on the copper content in the membranes, as well as the specific activity of the enzyme. The optimal copper concentration in the growth medium was found to be 30 to 35 micro M. Under these conditions, the pMMO is highly expressed, accounting for 80% of the total cytoplasmic membrane proteins and having a specific activity as high as 88.9 nmol of propylene oxide/min/mg of protein with NADH as the reductant. The copper stoichiometry is approximately 13 atoms per pMMO molecule. Analysis of other metal contents provided no evidence of zinc, and only traces of iron were present in the pMMO-enriched membranes. Further purification by membrane solubilization in dodecyl beta-D-maltoside followed by fractionation of the protein-detergent complexes according to molecular size by gel filtration chromatography resulted in a good yield of the pMMO-detergent complex and a high level of homogeneity. The pMMO-detergent complex isolated in this way had a molecular mass of 220 kDa and consisted of an alphabetagamma protein monomer encapsulated in a micelle consisting of ca. 240 detergent molecules. The enzyme is a copper protein containing 13.6 mol of copper/mol of pMMO and essentially no iron (ratio of copper to iron, 80:1). Both the detergent-solubilized membranes and the purified pMMO-detergent complex exhibited reasonable, if not excellent, specific activity. Finally, our ability to control the level of expression of the pMMO allowed us to clarify

  4. Identification of a copper-repressible C-type heme protein of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). A member of a novel group of the bacterial di-heme cytochrome c peroxidase family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Kindingstad, Louise; Angelskår, Solveig M; Bruseth, Live J; Straume, Daniel; Puntervoll, Pål; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Lillehaug, Johan R; Jensen, Harald B

    2005-12-01

    Genomic sequencing of the methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), revealed an open reading frame (MCA2590) immediately upstream of the previously described mopE gene (MCA2589). Sequence analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that the MCA2590-encoded protein shared significant, but restricted, sequence similarity to the bacterial di-heme cytochrome c peroxidase (BCCP) family of proteins. Two putative C-type heme-binding motifs were predicted, and confirmed by positive heme staining. Immunospecific recognition and biotinylation of whole cells combined with MS analyses confirmed expression of MCA2590 in M. capsulatus as a protein noncovalently associated with the cellular surface of the bacterium exposed to the cell exterior. Similar to MopE, expression of MCA2590 is regulated by the bioavailability of copper and is most abundant in M. capsulatus cultures grown under low copper conditions, thus indicating an important physiological role under these growth conditions. MCA2590 is distinguished from previously characterized members of the BCCP family by containing a much longer primary sequence that generates an increased distance between the two heme-binding motifs in its primary sequence. Furthermore, the surface localization of MCA2590 is in contrast to the periplasmic location of the reported BCCP members. Based on our experimental and bioinformatical analyses, we suggest that MCA2590 is a member of a novel group of bacterial di-heme cytochrome c peroxidases not previously characterized. PMID:16336269

  5. Cytochrome P460 Genes from the Methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath†

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, David J.; Zahn, James A.; Hooper, Alan B.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    1998-01-01

    P460 cytochromes catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. They have been isolated from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (R. H. Erickson and A. B. Hooper, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 275:231–244, 1972) and the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (J. A. Zahn et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:5879–5887, 1994). A degenerate oligonucleotide probe was synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome P460 and used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains cyp, the gene encoding cytochrome P460. cyp is part of a gene cluster that contains three open reading frames (ORFs), the first predicted to encode a 59,000-Da membrane-bound polypeptide, the second predicted to encode a 12,000-Da periplasmic protein, and the third (cyp) encoding cytochrome P460. The products of the first two ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The overall sequence similarity of the P460 cytochromes from M. capsulatus Bath and N. europaea was low (24.3% of residues identical), although short regions of conserved residues are present in the two proteins. Both cytochromes have a C-terminal, c-heme binding motif (CXXCH) and a conserved lysine residue (K61) that may provide an additional covalent cross-link to the heme (D. M. Arciero and A. B. Hooper, FEBS Lett. 410:457–460, 1997). Gene probing using cyp indicated that a cytochrome P460 similar to that from M. capsulatus Bath may be present in the type II methanotrophs Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylocystis parvus OBBP but not in the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylomicrobium albus BG8, and Methylomonas sp. strains MN and MM2. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies against cytochrome P460 from M. capsulatus Bath indicated that the expression level of cytochrome P460 was not affected either by expression of the two different methane monooxygenases or by addition of ammonia to the culture medium. PMID

  6. The copper responding surfaceome of Methylococccus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-10-01

    Proteins on the cellular surface of a bacterium, its surfaceome, are part of the interface between the bacterium and its environment, and are essential for the cells response to its habitat. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is one of the most extensively studied methane-oxidizers and is considered as a model-methanotroph. The composition of proteins of the surfaceome of M. capsulatus Bath varies with the availability of copper and changes significantly upon only minor changes of copper concentration in the sub-μM concentration range. Proteins that respond to the changes in copper availability include the assumed copper acquisition protein MopE, c-type heme proteins (SACCP, cytochrome c(553o) proteins) and several proteins of unknown function. The most intriguing observation is that multi-heme c-type cytochromes are major constituents of the M. capsulatus Bath surfaceome. This is not commonly observed in bacteria, but is a feature shared with the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Their presence on the M. capsulatus Bath cellular surface may be linked to the cells ability to efficiently adapt to changing growth conditions and environmental challenges. However, their possible role(s) in methane oxidation, nitrogen metabolism, copper acquisition, redox-reactions and/or electron transport remain(s) at present an open question. This review will discuss the possible significance of these findings. PMID:22092708

  7. Delta8(14)-steroids in the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, P; Rohmer, M; Benveniste, P; Ourisson, G

    1976-01-01

    The 4,4-dimethyl and 4alpha-methyl sterols of the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus were identified as 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-ol and 4,4-dimethyl- and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholesta-8(14),24-dien-3beta-ol. Sterol biosynthesis is blocked at the level of 4alpha-methyl delta8(14)-sterols. PMID:999649

  8. The Membrane-Associated Methane Monooxygenase (pMMO) and pMMO-NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase Complex from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-W.; Kunz, Ryan C.; Boyd, Eric S.; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Antholine, William E.; Han, J.-I.; Zahn, James A.; Boyd, Jeffrey M.; de la Mora, Arlene M.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2003-01-01

    Improvements in purification of membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) have resulted in preparations of pMMO with activities more representative of physiological rates: i.e., >130 nmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1. Altered culture and assay conditions, optimization of the detergent/protein ratio, and simplification of the purification procedure were responsible for the higher-activity preparations. Changes in the culture conditions focused on the rate of copper addition. To document the physiological events that occur during copper addition, cultures were initiated in medium with cells expressing soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and then monitored for morphological changes, copper acquisition, fatty acid concentration, and pMMO and sMMO expression as the amended copper concentration was increased from 0 (approximately 0.3 μM) to 95 μM. The results demonstrate that copper not only regulates the metabolic switch between the two methane monooxygenases but also regulates the level of expression of the pMMO and the development of internal membranes. With respect to stabilization of cell-free pMMO activity, the highest cell-free pMMO activity was observed when copper addition exceeded maximal pMMO expression. Optimization of detergent/protein ratios and simplification of the purification procedure also contributed to the higher activity levels in purified pMMO preparations. Finally, the addition of the type 2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex (NADH dehydrogenase [NDH]) from M. capsulatus Bath, along with NADH and duroquinol, to enzyme assays increased the activity of purified preparations. The NDH and NADH were added to maintain a high duroquinol/duroquinone ratio. PMID:13129946

  9. The membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and pMMO-NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-W; Kunz, Ryan C; Boyd, Eric S; Semrau, Jeremy D; Antholine, William E; Han, J-I; Zahn, James A; Boyd, Jeffrey M; de la Mora, Arlene M; DiSpirito, Alan A

    2003-10-01

    Improvements in purification of membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) have resulted in preparations of pMMO with activities more representative of physiological rates: i.e., >130 nmol.min(-1).mg of protein(-1). Altered culture and assay conditions, optimization of the detergent/protein ratio, and simplification of the purification procedure were responsible for the higher-activity preparations. Changes in the culture conditions focused on the rate of copper addition. To document the physiological events that occur during copper addition, cultures were initiated in medium with cells expressing soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and then monitored for morphological changes, copper acquisition, fatty acid concentration, and pMMO and sMMO expression as the amended copper concentration was increased from 0 (approximately 0.3 microM) to 95 microM. The results demonstrate that copper not only regulates the metabolic switch between the two methane monooxygenases but also regulates the level of expression of the pMMO and the development of internal membranes. With respect to stabilization of cell-free pMMO activity, the highest cell-free pMMO activity was observed when copper addition exceeded maximal pMMO expression. Optimization of detergent/protein ratios and simplification of the purification procedure also contributed to the higher activity levels in purified pMMO preparations. Finally, the addition of the type 2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex (NADH dehydrogenase [NDH]) from M. capsulatus Bath, along with NADH and duroquinol, to enzyme assays increased the activity of purified preparations. The NDH and NADH were added to maintain a high duroquinol/duroquinone ratio. PMID:13129946

  10. Probing the hydrophobic pocket of the active site in the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by variable stereoselective alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok-Yaoh; Tu, Li-Chun; Wang, Yane-Shih; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2008-05-01

    pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides. According to experiments performed with cryptically chiral ethane and D,L-[2-(2)H(1),3-(2)H(1)]butane, the reactions proceed through the concerted O-atom insertion mechanism. However, when propene and but-1-ene are used as epoxidation substrates, the enantiomeric excesses (ees) of the enzymatic products are only 18 and 37 %, respectively. This relatively poor stereoselectivity in the enzymatic epoxidation presumably reflects low stereochemical differentiation between the re and si faces in the hydrophobic pocket of the active site. Further insights into the reaction mechanism are now provided by studies on trans-but-2-ene, which reveal only the D,L-2,3-dimethyloxirane products, and on cis-but-2-ene, which yield only the meso product. These observations indicate that the enzymatic epoxidation indeed proceeds through electrophilic syn addition. To achieve better facial selectivity, we have also used 3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene as the substrate. The products obtained are 90 % (2S)-oxirane. When 1,1,1-trifluoropropane is the substrate, the hydroxylation at the 2-carbon exhibits an inverse chiral selectivity relative to that seen with normal butane, if we consider the size of the CF(3) group in the fluorinated propane to be comparable to one of the ethyl groups in butane. These experiments are beginning to delineate the factors that influence the orientations of various substrates in the hydrophobic cavity of the active site in the enzyme. PMID:18383583

  11. Preparation and X-ray structures of metal-free, dicobalt and dimanganese forms of soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Merkx, Maarten; Cadieux, Elisabeth; Tang, Sonya; Lippard, Stephen J

    2004-12-28

    A three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme system catalyzes the hydroxylation of methane to methanol at a carboxylate-bridged diiron center housed in the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase (MMOH). Catalysis is facilitated by the presence of a regulatory protein (MMOB) and inhibited by MMOD, a protein of unknown function encoded in the sMMO operon. Both MMOB and MMOD are presumed to bind to the same region of the MMOH alpha-subunit. A colorimetric method for monitoring removal of Fe(II) from MMOH was developed using 1,10-phenanthroline and yields apo MMOH with <0.1 Fe/homodimer. With the use of this method, it was possible to investigate the X-ray structure of the apoenzyme and to perform metal reconstitution studies. Using MMOH from Methylococccus capsulatus (Bath), the effects of MMOB and MMOD on metal binding were studied and structural perturbations relevant to the function of this enzyme were identified. X-ray crystal structures of the apo, Mn(II)-soaked, and Co(II)-grown MMOH, determined to 2.3 A or greater resolution, reveal that the presence of metal ions is essential for the proper folding of helices E, F, and H of the alpha-subunit. The active sites of Mn(II)-soaked and Co(II)-grown MMOH are similar to that of reduced, native MMOH with notable differences in the metal-metal distances and ligand coordination sphere that may reflect how this dinuclear metal center might change in the presence of MMOB. MMOB and MMOD decrease the rate of removal of Fe(II) from the enzyme by 22- and 16-fold, respectively. On the basis of previous studies, it is hypothesized that MMOB, and perhaps MMOD, function to block solvent access to the MMOH active site. Finally, ITC studies and the observed disorder in helices E, F, and H in the apo and Mn(II)-soaked structures suggest that these regions of MMOH are critical for MMOB and MMOD binding. PMID:15610020

  12. Optimization of solubilization and purification procedures for the hydroxylase component of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, V I; Tikhonova, T V; Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Popov, V O

    2006-12-01

    The hydroxylase component of membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M was isolated and purified to homogeneity. The pMMO molecule comprises three subunits of molecular masses 47, 26, and 23 kD and contains three copper atoms and one iron atom. In solution the protein exists as a stable oligomer of 660 kD with possible subunit composition (alpha beta gamma)6. Mass spectroscopy shows high homology of the purified protein with methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath. Pilot screening of crystallization conditions has been carried out. PMID:17223785

  13. Incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle in a type I methylotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Hoare, L; Hoare, D S; Taylor, B F

    1975-01-01

    Alpha-Ketoglutaratedehydrogenase was undetectable in extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus. Cells incorporated [1-14-C] acetate into only four protein amino acids (glutamate, proline, arginine, and leucine) and the C5, but not C1, of glutamate. PMID:806581

  14. The C-terminal aqueous-exposed domain of the 45 kDa subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a Cu(I) sponge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Ji, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Ya Ping; Lee, Tsu-Lin; Lai, Chien-Hung; Lin, Su-Ching; Yang, Zong-Lin; Wang, Vincent C-C; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Chan, Sunney I

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been reported recently [Lieberman, R. L., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005) Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane, Nature 434, 177-182]. Subsequent work has shown that the preparation on which the X-ray analysis is based might be missing many of the important metal cofactors, including the putative trinuclear copper cluster at the active site as well as ca. 10 copper ions (E-clusters) that have been proposed to serve as a buffer of reducing equivalents to re-reduce the copper atoms at the active site following the catalytic chemistry [Chan, S. I., Wang, V. C.-C., Lai, J. C.-H., Yu, S. S.-F., Chen, P. P.-Y., Chen, K. H.-C., Chen, C.-L., and Chan, M. K. (2007) Redox potentiometry studies of particulate methane monooxygenase: Support for a trinuclear copper cluster active site, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 46, 1992-1994]. Since the aqueous-exposed domains of the 45 kDa subunit (PmoB) have been suggested to be the putative binding domains for the E-cluster copper ions, we have cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli the two aqueous-exposed subdomains toward the N- and C-termini of the subunit: the N-terminal subdomain (residues 54-178) and the C-terminal subdomain (residues 257-394 and 282-414). The recombinant C-terminal water-exposed subdomain is shown to behave like a Cu(I) sponge, taking up to ca. 10 Cu(I) ions cooperatively when cupric ions are added to the protein fragment in the presence of dithiothreitol or ascorbate. In addition, circular dichroism measurements reveal that the C-terminal subdomain folds into a beta-sheet structure in the presence of Cu(I). The propensity for the C-terminal subdomain to bind Cu(I) is consistent with the high redox potential(s) determined for the E-cluster copper ions in the pMMO. These properties of the E-clusters are in accordance with the function proposed

  15. Inhibition of Methane Oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Fluorinated Methanes.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L J; Jahnke, L L; Oremland, R S

    1997-07-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF(inf2)Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl(inf2)]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH(inf3)F) and difluoromethane (CH(inf2)F(inf2)) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF(inf3)) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF(inf4)) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C(inf1) catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity. PMID:16535662

  16. Inhibition of Methane Oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Fluorinated Methanes

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, L. J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Oremland, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF(inf2)Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl(inf2)]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH(inf3)F) and difluoromethane (CH(inf2)F(inf2)) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF(inf3)) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF(inf4)) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C(inf1) catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity. PMID:16535662

  17. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c-555 from the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Dalton, H; Meyer, T E; Bartsch, R G; Kamen, M D

    1986-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome c-555 from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath (N.C.I.B. 11132) was determined. It is a single polypeptide chain of 96 residues, binding a haem group through the cysteine residues at positions 19 and 22, and the only methionine residue is a position 59. The sequence does not closely resemble that of any other cytochrome c that has yet been characterized. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the protein has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50131 (12 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies are available on prepayment. PMID:3006666

  18. Inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with hydrochlorofluorocarbons and fluorinated methanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matheson, L.J.; Jahnke, L.L.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF2Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl2]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH3F) and difluoromethane (CH2F2) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF3) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C1 catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity.

  19. Copper-dependent reciprocal transcriptional regulation of methane monooxygenase genes in Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A K; Gerdes, K; Murrell, J C

    1997-07-01

    The methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b convert methane to methanol using the enzyme, methane monooxygenase (MMO). These bacteria are able to express two distinct MMOs: a cytoplasmic or soluble form (sMMO) and a membrane-bound or particulate form (pMMO). Differential expression of sMMO and pMMO is regulated by the amount of copper ions available to the cells; sMMO is expressed at low copper-biomass ratios, whereas pMMO is expressed at high copper-biomass ratios. In both methanotrophs, transcription of the sMMO gene cluster is negatively regulated by copper ions. Data suggest that transcription of the M. trichosporium OB3b sMMO gene cluster is directed from a sigma54-like and a sigma70-like promoter. The pMMO (pmo) genes of M. capsulatus (Bath) are transcribed into a polycistronic mRNA of 3.3 kb. The synthesis of this mRNA was activated by copper ions. Activation of pmo transcription by copper ions was concomitant with repression of sMMO gene transcription in both methanotrophs. This suggests that a common regulatory pathway may be involved in the transcriptional switch between sMMO and pMMO gene expression. PMID:9282751

  20. Synthesis of cell constituents by methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus and Methanomonas methanooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. J.; Kemp, M. B.; Quayle, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. A study was made of the incorporation of carbon from [14C]methanol by cultures of Methylococcus capsulatus and Methanomonas methanooxidans growing on methane. 2. The distribution of radioactivity within the non-volatile constituents of the ethanol-soluble fractions of the cells, after incubation with labelled substrate for periods of up to 3min, was analysed by chromatography and radioautography. 3. Over 80% of the radioactivity fixed by Methylococcus capsulatus at 30°C at the earliest times of sampling appeared in phosphorylated compounds, of which glucose phosphate constituted 60%. 4. Most of the radioactivity fixed by Methanomonas methanooxidans at 30°C at the earliest times of sampling appeared in serine, malate, aspartate and an unknown compound(s) tentatively suggested to be folate derivative(s). At 16°C, [14C]methanol was fixed predominantly into serine and the unknown compound(s). 5. Extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus contain an enzyme system that catalyses the condensation of formaldehyde and ribose 5-phosphate to give a mixture consisting mainly of fructose phosphate and allulose phosphate. No similar activity was detected in extracts of Methanomonas methanooxidans. A convenient method was developed for assay of this enzyme system. 6. The enzyme system catalysing the condensation of formaldehyde with ribose 5-phosphate is particle-bound in both Methylococcus capsulatus and Pseudomonas methanica and is unstable in the absence of Mg2+. 7. Extracts of Methanomonas methanooxidans contain high activities of d-glycerate–NAD oxidoreductase, whereas extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus and Pseudomonas methanica contain negligible activities of this enzyme. 8. These results indicate that during growth of Methylococcus capsulatus on methane, as with Pseudomonas methanica, cell constituents are made by the ribose phosphate cycle of formaldehyde fixation. This contrasts with Methanomonas methanooxidans, whose assimilation pathway resembles in some features

  1. An oxidized tryptophan facilitates copper binding in Methylococcus capsulatus-secreted protein MopE.

    PubMed

    Helland, Ronny; Fjellbirkeland, Anne; Karlsen, Odd Andre; Ve, Thomas; Lillehaug, Johan R; Jensen, Harald B

    2008-05-16

    Proteins can coordinate metal ions with endogenous nitrogen and oxygen ligands through backbone amino and carbonyl groups, but the amino acid side chains coordinating metals do not include tryptophan. Here we show for the first time the involvement of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine in a protein metal-binding site. The crystal structure to 1.35 angstroms of MopE* from the methane-oxidizing Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) provided detailed information about its structure and mononuclear copper-binding site. MopE* contains a novel protein fold of which only one-third of the structure displays similarities to other known folds. The geometry around the copper ion is distorted tetrahedral with one oxygen ligand from a water molecule, two histidine imidazoles (His-132 and His-203), and at the fourth distorted tetrahedral position, the N1 atom of the kynurenine, an oxidation product of Trp-130. Trp-130 was not oxidized to kynurenine in MopE* heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, nor did this protein bind copper. Our findings indicate that the modification of tryptophan to kynurenine and its involvement in copper binding is an innate property of M. capsulatus MopE*. PMID:18348978

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas)

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Lene T. Olsen; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Pope, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria perform major roles in global carbon cycles via their unique enzymatic activities that enable the oxidation of one-carbon compounds, most notably methane. Here we describe the annotated draft genome sequence of the aerobic methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas), a type strain originally isolated from sewer sludge. PMID:23144383

  3. Inhibition of dimethyl ether and methane oxidation in Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Hou, C T; Felix, A

    1976-01-01

    Metal-chelating or -binding agents inhibited the oxidation of dimethyl ether and methane, but not methanol, by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium. Evidence suggests that the involvement of metal-containing enzymatic systems in the initial step of oxidation of dimethyl ether and methane. PMID:4428

  4. Draft genome sequence of the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas).

    PubMed

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Pope, Phillip B

    2012-12-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria perform major roles in global carbon cycles via their unique enzymatic activities that enable the oxidation of one-carbon compounds, most notably methane. Here we describe the annotated draft genome sequence of the aerobic methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas), a type strain originally isolated from sewer sludge. PMID:23144383

  5. High-Molecular-Mass Multi-c-Heme Cytochromes from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath†

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, David J.; Zahn, James A.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    1999-01-01

    The polypeptide and structural gene for a high-molecular-mass c-type cytochrome, cytochrome c553O, was isolated from the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. Cytochrome c553O is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 124,350 Da and an isoelectric point of 6.0. The heme c concentration was estimated to be 8.2 ± 0.4 mol of heme c per subunit. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed the presence of multiple low spin, S = 1/2, hemes. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe synthesized based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome c553O was used to identify a DNA fragment from M. capsulatus Bath that contains occ, the gene encoding cytochrome c553O. occ is part of a gene cluster which contains three other open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative periplasmic c-type cytochrome with a molecular mass of 118,620 Da that shows approximately 40% amino acid sequence identity with occ and contains nine c-heme-binding motifs. ORF3 encodes a putative periplasmic c-type cytochrome with a molecular mass of 94,000 Da and contains seven c-heme-binding motifs but shows no sequence homology to occ or ORF1. ORF4 encodes a putative 11,100-Da protein. The four ORFs have no apparent similarity to any proteins in the GenBank database. The subunit molecular masses, arrangement and number of hemes, and amino acid sequences demonstrate that cytochrome c553O and the gene products of ORF1 and ORF3 constitute a new class of c-type cytochrome. PMID:9922265

  6. Reduction of RNA and DNA in Methylococcus capsulatus by endogenous nucleases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J; Joergensen, L

    1996-03-01

    A method for reducing RNA and DNA in the bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been developed. Endogenous RNase and DNase were activated by a 10 s heat shock at 90 degrees C. Cells were then incubated at 60 degrees C for 20 min to allow degradation of the nucleic acids. The optimum pH for the process was 7.0. The protein loss was less than 10% and occurred during the initial heat shock. No protein loss was found during incubation. The total dry-weight loss in connection with an 80% reduction of the nucleic acid content was 20%-25%, giving a final product with a raw protein content of approximately 75%. Reduction of both RNA and DNA was inhibited by CuSO4 and ZnSO4. DNA reduction was stimulated by other minerals. Optimal stimulation was found at 1 mM FeSO4. Reduction of RNA was not increased by any of the minerals tested. PMID:8920188

  7. (14C)acetate assimilation by a type I obligate methylotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R N; Hoare, S L; Hoare, D S; Taylor, B F

    1977-01-01

    Methanol and formate oxidation supported the assimilation of [14C]acetate by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; oxidation of other primary alcohols, except ethanol, did not. The extent of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was decreased in the presence of primary alcohols, except ethanol. Potassium cyanide (0.33 mM) completely inhibited the oxidation of formate and its stimulation of [1-14C]acetate assimilation. The amount of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was significantly inhibited by cyanide. PMID:412469

  8. An EPR study of the dinuclear iron site in the soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) reduced by one electron at 77 K: the effects of component interactions and the binding of small molecules to the diiron(III) center.

    PubMed

    Davydov, R; Valentine, A M; Komar-Panicucci, S; Hoffman, B M; Lippard, S J

    1999-03-30

    Reduction of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in frozen 4:1 buffer/glycerol solutions at 77 K by mobile electrons generated by gamma-irradiation produces an EPR-detectable, mixed-valent Fe(II)Fe(III) center. At this temperature the conformation of the enzyme remains essentially unaltered during reduction, so the mixed-valent EPR spectra serve to probe the active site structure of the EPR-silent, diiron(III) state. The EPR spectra of the cryoreduced samples reveal that the diiron(III) cluster of the resting hydroxylase has at least two chemically distinct forms, the structures of which differ from that of the equilibrium Fe(II)Fe(III) site. Their relative populations depend on pH, the presence of component B, and formation of the MMOH/MMOB complex by reoxidation of the reduced, diiron(II) hydroxylase. The formation of complexes between MMOB, MMOR, and the oxidized hydroxylase does not measurably affect the structure of the diiron(III) site. Cryogenic reduction in combination with EPR spectroscopy has also provided information about interaction of MMOH in the diiron(III) state with small molecules. The diiron(III) center binds methanol and phenols, whereas DMSO and methane have no measurable effect on the EPR properties of cryoreduced hydroxylase. Addition of component B favors the binding of some exogenous ligands, such as DMSO and glycerol, to the active site diiron(III) state and markedly perturbs the structure of the diiron(III) cluster complexed with methanol or phenol. The results reveal different reactivity of the Fe(III)Fe(III) and Fe(II)Fe(III) redox states of MMOH toward exogenous ligands. Moreover, unlike oxidized hydroxylase, the binding of exogenous ligands to the protein in the mixed-valent state is allosterically inhibited by MMOB. The differential reactivity of the hydroxylase in its diiron(III) and mixed-valent states toward small molecules, as well as the structural basis for the regulatory

  9. Evidence that a type-2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase mediates electron transfer to particulate methane monooxygenase in methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Scott A; Shiemke, Andrew K

    2002-02-01

    NADH readily provides reducing equivalents to membrane-bound methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in isolated membrane fractions, but detergent solubilization disrupts this electron-transfer process. Addition of exogenous quinones (especially decyl-plastoquinone and duroquinone) restores the NADH-dependent pMMO activity. Results of inhibitor and substrate dependence of this activity indicate the presence of only a type-2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2). A 100-fold purification of the NDH-2 was achieved using lauryl-maltoside solubilization followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified NDH-2 has a subunit molecular weight of 36 kDa and exists as a monomer in solution. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy identified flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor present in stoichiometric amounts. NADH served as the source of electrons, whereas NADPH could not. The purified NDH-2 enzyme reduced coenzyme Q(0), duroquinone, and menaquinone at high rates, whereas the decyl analogs of ubiquinone and plastoquinone were reduced at approximately 100-fold lower rates. Rotenone and flavone did not inhibit the NDH-2, whereas amytal caused partial inhibition but only at high concentrations. PMID:11811946

  10. Hexose phosphate synthetase from Methylococcus capsulatus makes d-arabino-3-hexulose phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The product of the reaction catalysed by hexose phosphate synthase prepared from Methylococcus capsulatus was dephosphorylated and the sugar moiety purified. The sugar and derivatives were compared by various chromatographic and other methods with authentic samples of allulose (psicose), d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose and d-erythro-d-glycero-3-hexulose. The sugar is not allulose, as was previously thought on the basis of less extensive evidence (Kemp & Quayle, 1966), but is in fact d-erythro-l-glycero-3-hexulose (d-arabino-3-hexulose). This identification is consistent with recent studies which have shown that hexose phosphate synthase catalyses the condensation of formaldehyde with d-ribulose 5-phosphate rather than with d-ribose 5-phosphate (Kemp, 1972). PMID:4463938

  11. Lanosterol biosynthesis in the prokaryote Methylococcus capsulatus: insight into the evolution of sterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lamb, David C; Jackson, Colin J; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Manning, Nigel J; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2007-08-01

    A putative operon containing homologues of essential eukaryotic sterol biosynthetic enzymes, squalene monooxygenase and oxidosqualene cyclase, has been identified in the genome of the prokaryote Methylococcus capsulatus. Expression of the squalene monooxygenase yielded a protein associated with the membrane fraction, while expression of oxidosqualene cyclase yielded a soluble protein, contrasting with the eukaryotic enzyme forms. Activity studies with purified squalene monooxygenase revealed a catalytic activity in epoxidation of 0.35 nmol oxidosqualene produced/min/nmol squalene monooxygenase, while oxidosqualene cyclase catalytic activity revealed cyclization of oxidosqualene to lanosterol with 0.6 nmol lanosterol produced/min/nmol oxidosqualene cyclase and no other products observed. The presence of prokaryotic sterol biosynthesis is still regarded as rare, and these are the first representatives of such prokaryotic enzymes to be studied, providing new insight into the evolution of sterol biosynthesis in general. PMID:17567593

  12. Methyl sterol and cyclopropane fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus grown at low oxygen tensions.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, L L; Nichols, P D

    1986-01-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus contained extensive intracytoplasmic membranes when grown in fed-batch cultures over a wide range of oxygen tensions (0.1 to 10.6%, vol/vol) and at a constant methane level. Although the biomass decreased as oxygen levels were lowered, consistently high amounts of phospholipid and methyl sterol were synthesized. The greatest amounts of sterol and phospholipid were found in cells grown between 0.5 and 1.1% oxygen (7.2 and 203 mumol/g [dry weight], respectively). While sterol was still synthesized in significant amounts in cells grown at 0.1% oxygen, the major sterol product was the dimethyl form. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry showed that the phospholipid esterified fatty acids were predominantly 16:0 and 16:1 and that the hexadecenoates consisted of cis delta 9, delta 10, and delta 11 isomers. At low oxygen tensions, the presence of large amounts (25%) of cyclopropane fatty acids (cy 17:0) with the methylene groups at the delta 9, delta 10, and delta 11 positions was detected. Although the delta 9 monoenoic isomer was predominant, growth at low oxygen levels enhanced the synthesis of the delta 10 isomers of 16:1 and cy 17:0. As the oxygen level was increased, the amount of cyclopropanes decreased, such that only a trace of cy 17:0 could be detected in cells grown at 10.6% oxygen. Although M. capsulatus grew at very low oxygen tensions, this growth was accompanied by changes in the membrane lipids. PMID:3087955

  13. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in lipids of the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Hayes, John M.

    2002-11-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions of individual lipids from Methylococcus capsulatus, an aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium, were analyzed by hydrogen isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The purposes of the study were to measure isotopic fractionation factors between methane, water, and lipids and to examine the biochemical processes that determine the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids. M. capsulatus was grown in six replicate cultures in which the δD values of methane and water were varied independently. Measurement of concomitant changes in δD values of lipids allowed estimation of the proportion of hydrogen derived from each source and the isotopic fractionation associated with the utilization of each source. All lipids examined, including fatty acids, sterols, and hopanols, derived 31.4 ± 1.7% of their hydrogen from methane. This was apparently true whether the cultures were harvested during exponential or stationary phase. Examination of the relevant biochemical pathways indicates that no hydrogen is transferred directly (with C-H bonds intact) from methane to lipids. Accordingly, we hypothesize that all methane H is oxidized to H 2O, which then serves as the H source for all biosynthesis, and that a balance between diffusion of oxygen and water across cell membranes controls the concentration of methane-derived H 2O at 31%. Values for α l/ w, the isotopic fractionation between lipids and water, were 0.95 for fatty acids and 0.85 for isoprenoid lipids. These fractionations are significantly smaller than those measured in higher plants and algae. Values for α l/ m, the isotopic fractionation between lipids and methane, were 0.94 for fatty acids and 0.79 for isoprenoid lipids. Based on these results, we predict that methanotrophs living in seawater and consuming methane with typical δD values will produce fatty acids with δD between -50 and -170‰, and sterols and hopanols with δD between -150 and -270‰.

  14. Biochemical characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus reveals a unique NAD+-dependent homotetrameric enzyme.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Madern, Dominique; Fedøy, Anita-Elin; Karlsen, Solveig; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Steen, Ida Helene

    2007-05-01

    The gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) of Methylococcus capsulatus (McIDH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was NAD+-dependent with a thermal optimum for activity at 55-60 degrees C and an apparent midpoint melting temperature (Tm) of 70 degrees C. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) revealed a homotetrameric state, and McIDH thus represents the first homotetrameric NAD+-dependent IDH that has been characterized. Based on a structural alignment of McIDH and homotetrameric homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HDH) from Thermus thermophilus (TtHDH), we identified the clasp-like domain of McIDH as a likely site for tetramerization. McIDH showed moreover, higher sequence identity (48%) to TtHDH than to previously characterized IDHs. Putative NAD+-IDHs with high sequence identity (48-57%) to McIDH were however identified in a variety of bacteria showing that NAD+-dependent IDHs are indeed widespread within the domain, Bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis including these new sequences revealed a close relationship with eukaryal allosterically regulated NAD+-IDH and the subfamily III of IDH was redefined to include bacterial NAD+- and NADP+-dependent IDHs. This apparent relationship suggests that the mitochondrial genes encoding NAD+-IDH are derived from the McIDH-like IDHs. PMID:17160675

  15. [Purification and properties of membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    PubMed

    Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Tumanova, L V

    2008-01-01

    Membrane fraction of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) were treated with [14C]acetylene, an affinity label binding to the active center of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase (MMO). High-purity particulate form of methane hydroxylase (pMH) was obtained by ion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. According to SDS-PAGE data, the enzyme contained three polypeptides with molecular weights of 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 (gamma) kDa in the ratio 1:1:1. The radiolabel was contained in the beta-subunit of pMH. The protein contained 1 or 2 atoms of nonheme iron and 2-4 atoms of copper per a minimum molecular weight of 99 kDa. This protein did not oxidize methane or propylene in the presence of NADH but was able to oxidize low quantities of methane in the presence of duroquinol. It was established that methanol dehydrogenase (MD) and NADH oxidoreductase (NADH-OR) are peripheral membrane proteins. Possible causes of low activity of high-purity methane hydroxylase are discussed. PMID:18946992

  16. Physiological Studies of Methane- and Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria: Immunological Comparison of a Primary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus and Pseudomonas sp. M27

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R. N.; Mandy, W. J.; Hoare, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A primary alcohol dehydrogenase was purified from cell extracts of two apparently unrelated microorganisms, namely, Pseudomonas sp. M27 and Methylococcus capsulatus. Rabbit antiserum prepared against the purified enzyme from M. capsulatus revealed distinctive antigenic determinants by quantitative and gel precipitin reactions. Rabbit antiserum to M27 enzyme detected both distinctive and shared antigenic determinants. Certain methane- and methanol-oxidizing bacteria were grouped on the basis of serological cross-reacting enzyme specificities. Images PMID:4120569

  17. Pteridines produced by Methylococcus capsulatus. Isolation and identification of a neopterin 2′:3′-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Urushibara, T.; Forrest, H. S.; Hoare, D. S.; Patel, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    Three pteridines have been isolated from the methane- or methanol-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus. Two of these are known compounds, 2-amino-6-carboxy-4-hydroxypteridine and 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylpteridine. The third is shown by degradative and synthetic experiments to be l-threo-neopterin 2′:3′-phosphate. Labelling experiments show that both the pteridine moiety and phosphate residue are derived from a single GTP molecule. The possible metabolic significance of these compounds in methanol oxidation is discussed. PMID:5158900

  18. Purification and properties of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase from Methylococcus capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, Thomas; Strøm, Terje; Quayle, J. Rodney

    1974-01-01

    3-Hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase were purified 40- and 150-fold respectively from methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus. The molecular weights of the enzymes were approximately 310000 and 67000 respectively, as determined by gel filtration. Dissociation of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase into subunits of molecular weight approx. 49000 under conditions of low pH or low ionic strength was observed. Within the range of compounds tested, 3-hexulose phosphate synthase is specific for formaldehyde and d-ribulose 5-phosphate (forward reaction) and d-arabino-3-hexulose 6-phosphate (reverse reaction), and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase is specific for d-arabino-3-hexulose 6-phosphate (forward reaction) and d-fructose 6-phosphate (reverse reaction). A bivalent cation is essential for activity and stability of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase; phospho-3-hexuloisomerase is inhibited by many bivalent cations. The pH optima of the two enzymes are 7.0 and 8.3 respectively and the equilibrium constants are 4.0×10−5m and 1.9×102m respectively. The apparent Michaelis constants for 3-hexulose phosphate synthase are: d-ribulose 5-phosphate, 8.3×10−5m; formaldehyde, 4.9×10−4m; d-arabino-3-hexulose 6-phosphate, 7.5×10−5m. The apparent Michaelis constants for phospho-3-hexuloisomerase are: d-arabino-3-hexulose 6-phosphate, 1.0×10−4m; d-fructose 6-phosphate, 1.1×10−3m. PMID:4219834

  19. [The binuclear iron site of the membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    PubMed

    Tumanova, L V; Tukhvatullin, I A; Burbaev, T Sh; Gvozdev, R I; Andersson, K K

    2008-01-01

    The particulate membrane-bound methane hydroxylase (pMMOH) was isolated from methane-oxidizing cells of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). At SDS PAGE, pMMOH displays three bands: 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 kDa (gamma). The ESR spectrum of pMMOH incubated with hydrogen peroxide (final concentration 20 mM) at 4 degrees C exhibited, along with the copper signal of type I with g = 2.05, signals of cytochrome with g = 3.0 and of high-spin ferriheme with g = 6.00. After incubation at -30 degrees C, additional signals with g 8.5 and 13.5 were observed. These signals, which have not been recorded previously in pMMOH preparations, are due to an intermediate of the pMMOH active site, which arises in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with pMMOH at -30 degrees C. It was established that this intermediate is a high-spin dimer [Fe(IlI)-Fe(IV)] with S = 9/2 and different degree of rhombic distortion of structure (it is responsible for both signals). Presumably, the signal with g = 8.5 also arises from the same dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(IV)], but with S = 7/2. The presence of the intermediate [Fe(lII)-Fe(IV)] in pMMOH preparations suggests that the original state of the pMMOH active site is the dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(III)] which is located in the beta-subunit and cannot be detected by ESR. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 34, no. 2; see also http:// www.maik.ru. PMID:18522275

  20. Physiological Studies of Methane and Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria: Oxidation of C-1 Compounds by Methylococcus capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramesh N.; Hoare, Derek S.

    1971-01-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus grows only on methane or methanol as its sole source of carbon and energy. Some amino acids serve as nitrogen sources and are converted to keto acids which accumulate in the culture medium. Cell suspensions oxidize methane, methanol, formaldehyde, and formate to carbon dioxide. Other primary alcohols are oxidized only to the corresponding aldehydes. Oxidation of formate by cell suspensions is more sensitive to inhibition by cyanide than is the oxidation of other one carbon compounds. This is due to the cyanide sensitivity of a soluble nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol is catalyzed by a nonspecific primary alcohol dehydrogenase which is activated by ammonium ions and is independent of pyridine nucleotides. Some comparisons are made with a strain of Pseudomonas methanica. PMID:5563868

  1. Oxidation of C1 compounds by particulate fractions from Methylococcus capsulatus: properties of methanol oxidase and methanol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Wadzinski, A M; Ribbons, D W

    1975-01-01

    Methanol (and formaldehyde) oxidizing activities in crude extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus are associated mainly with particulate fractions sedimenting between 3,000 and 40,000 X g. Most of the phenazine methosulfate (PMS)-dependent methanol (and formaldehyde) dehydrogenase activity observed resides in the soluble fraction but represents only 40% of the total (PMS dependent plus independent) activity. Both PMS-dependent methanol dehydrogenase activity and PMS-independent methanol oxidase activity are found in particulate fractions, and the PMS-dependent dehydrogenase is easily solubilized by treatment with certain phospholipases or detergents. The properties of the PMS-dependent dehydrogenase activities in the soluble fraction and that solubilized from the particles suggested that they may be identical proteins. Their pH optima, temperature dependence, thermolabilities, and sensitivities to the presence of specific antisera were indistinguishable. Homogeneous preparations of the enzyme proteins obtained from the soluble fractions of extracts and the particulate fractions solubilized by detergents had similar: (i) electrophoretic mobilities in native and denatured states (subunit size in sodium dodecyl sulfate 62,000 daltons); (ii) molecular radii under native conditions, (iii) visible absorption spectra, lambdamax 350 nm, (iv) kinetic constants for methanol and formaldehyde; (v) substrate specificity; and (vi) immunological characteristics--antisera to each enzyme preparation showed precipitin lines of identity to either of the enzymes. It is suggested that the major site of methanol and formaldehyde oxidation in M. capsulatus occurs on the intracytoplasmic membranes in vivo and is coupled to oxygen reduction. Images PMID:238947

  2. The carbon assimilation pathways of Methylococcus capsulatus, Pseudomonas methanica and Methylosinus trichosporium (OB3B) during growth on methane

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Terje; Ferenci, Thomas; Quayle, J. Rodney

    1974-01-01

    d-arabino-3-Hexulose 6-phosphate was prepared by condensation of formaldehyde with ribulose 5-phosphate in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase from methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus. The 3-hexulose phosphate was unstable in solutions of pH greater than 3, giving a mixture of products in which, after dephosphorylation, allulose and fructose were detected. A complete conversion of d-ribulose 5-phosphate and formaldehyde into d-fructose 6-phosphate was demonstrated in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (prepared from methane-grown M. capsulatus). d-Allulose 6-phosphate was prepared from d-allose by way of d-allose 6-phosphate. No evidence was found for its metabolism by extracts of M. capsulatus, thus eliminating it as an intermediate in the carbon assimilation process of this organism. A survey was made of the enzymes involved in the regeneration of pentose phosphate during C1 assimilation via a modified pentose phosphate cycle. On the basis of the presence of the necessary enzymes, two alternative routes for cleavage of fructose 6-phosphate are suggested, one route involves fructose diphosphate aldolase and the other 6-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase. A detailed formulation of the complete ribulose monophosphate cycle of formaldehyde fixation is presented. The energy requirements for carbon assimilation by this cycle are compared with those for the serine pathway and the ribulose diphosphate cycle of carbon dioxide fixation. A cyclic scheme for oxidation of formaldehyde via 6-phosphogluconate is suggested. PMID:4377654

  3. Novel hopanoids from the methylotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylomonas methanica. (22S)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol and (22S)-35-amino-3 beta-methylbacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol.

    PubMed Central

    Neunlist, S; Rohmer, M

    1985-01-01

    The major hopanoid of the methylotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylomonas methanica was identified by spectroscopic methods as (22S)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol. Minor companions were, in both bacteria, 35-aminobacteriohopane-31,32,33,34-tetrol and in Methylomonas methanica, 35-aminobacteriohopane-32,33,34-triol. In Methylococcus capsulatus the aminopentol and the aminotetrol were accompanied by their homologues possessing an extra methyl group at C-3. Bacterial hopanoids with a functionalized C-30 carbon atom such as these two new aminopentols are possible precursors of widespread C29 hopanoid chemical fossils. PMID:3935106

  4. Physiological Studies of Methane- and Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria: Comparison of a Primary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas Strain) and Pseudomonas Species M27

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R. N.; Bose, H. R.; Mandy, W. J.; Hoare, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    A primary alcohol dehydrogenase has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas strain). The purified enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde to formate; other primary alcohols are oxidized to their corresponding aldehydes. Ammonium ions are required for enzyme activity. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 120,000 daltons and consists of two 62,000 molecular-weight subunits which dissociate at acidic pH. The enzyme is similar to an alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas sp. M27. Images PMID:5022170

  5. Methyl sterol and cyclopropane fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus grown at low oxygen tensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Nichols, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    The sterol and fatty acid concentrations for M. capsulatus grown in fed-batch cultures over a wide range of oxygen tensions (0.1-10.6 percent) and at a constant methane level are evaluated. The analyses reveal that the biomass decreases as oxygen levels are lowered; the sterol concentration increases when the oxygen range is between 0.5-1.1 percent and decreases when the oxygen range is below 0.5 percent; and the amount of monounsaturated C16 decreases and the concentration of cyclopropane fatty acids increases after oxygen is reduced. It is noted that growth and membrane synthesis occur at low oxygen concentrations and that the synthesis of membrane lipids responds to growth conditions.

  6. A novel sterol 14alpha-demethylase/ferredoxin fusion protein (MCCYP51FX) from Methylococcus capsulatus represents a new class of the cytochrome P450 superfamily.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Colin J; Lamb, David C; Marczylo, Timothy H; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Manning, Nigel J; Lowe, David J; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2002-12-01

    Sterol 14alpha-demethylase encoded by CYP51 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes and has been shown to have an essential role in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, with orthologues recently being described in some bacteria. Examination of the genome sequence data for the proteobacterium Methylococcus capsulatus, a bacterial species known to produce sterol, revealed the presence of a single CYP with strong homology to CYP51, particularly to a form in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This M. capsulatus CYP51 protein represents a new class of CYP consisting of the CYP domain naturally fused to a ferredoxin domain at the C terminus via an alanine-rich linker. Expression of the M. capsulatus MCCYP51FX fusion in Escherichia coli yielded a P450, which, when purified to homogeneity, had the predicted molecular mass approximately 62 kDa on SDS/PAGE and bound lanosterol as a putative substrate. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase activity was shown (0.24 nmol of lanosterol metabolized per minute per nanomole of MCCYP51FX fusion) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with the activity dependent upon the presence of ferredoxin reductase and NADPH. Our unique findings describe a new class of naturally existing cytochrome P450, which will provide pivotal information for CYP structure/function in general. PMID:12235134

  7. Sterol biosynthesis by a prokaryote: first in vitro identification of the genes encoding squalene epoxidase and lanosterol synthase from Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Motegi, Akihiro; Sato, Tsutomu; Onodera, Masayuki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2007-10-01

    Sterol biosynthesis by prokaryotic organisms is very rare. Squalene epoxidase and lanosterol synthase are prerequisite to cyclic sterol biosynthesis. These two enzymes, from the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus, were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Structural analyses of the enzymatic products indicated that the reactions proceeded in a complete regio- and stereospecific fashion to afford (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualene from squalene and lanosterol from (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualene, in full accordance with those of eukaryotes. However, our result obtained with the putative lanosterol synthase was inconsistent with a previous report that the prokaryote accepts both (3R)- and (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualenes to afford 3-epi-lanosterol and lanosterol, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the existence of the genes encoding squalene epoxidase and lanosterol synthase in prokaryotes by establishing the enzyme activities. The evolutionary aspect of prokaryotic squalene epoxidase and lanosterol synthase is discussed. PMID:17928701

  8. A stopped-flow kinetic study of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1989-01-01

    1. The roles of the three protein components of soluble methane mono-oxygenase were investigated by the use of rapid-reaction techniques. The transfer of electrons through the enzyme complex from NADH to methane/O2 was also investigated. 2. Electron transfer from protein C, the reductase component, to protein A, the hydroxylase component, was demonstrated. Protein C was shown to undergo a three-electron--one-electron catalytic cycle. The interaction of protein C with NADH was investigated. Reduction of protein C was shown to be rapid, and a charge-transfer interaction between reduced FAD and NAD+ was observed; this intermediate was also found in static titration experiments. Thus the binding of NADH, the reduction of protein C and the intramolecular transfer of electrons through protein C were shown to be much more rapid than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. 3. The rate of transfer of electrons from protein C to protein A was shown to be lower than the reduction of protein C but higher than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. Association of the proteins was not rate-limiting. The amount of protein A present in the system had a small effect on the rate of reduction of protein C, indicating some co-operativity between the two proteins. 4. Protein B was shown to prevent electron transfer between protein C and protein A in the absence of methane. On addition of saturating concentrations of methane electron transfer was restored. With saturating concentrations of methane and O2 the observed rate constant for the conversion of methane into methanol was 0.26 s-1 at 18 degrees C. 5. By the use of [2H4]methane it was demonstrated that C-H-bond breakage is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the conversion of methane into methanol. PMID:2497729

  9. Characterization and structural analysis of an active particulate methane monooxygenase trimer from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Kitmitto, Ashraf; Myronova, Natalia; Basu, Piku; Dalton, Howard

    2005-08-23

    The oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophs is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO). Two distinct forms of this enzyme exist, a soluble cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound particulate form (pMMO). We describe here the biochemical characterization of a stable and active purified pMMO hydroxylase (pMMO-H) and report a three-dimensional (3D) structure, determined by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis at 23 A resolution. Both biochemical and structural data indicate that pMMO hydroxylase is trimeric, with each monomer unit comprised of three polypeptides of 47, 26, and 23 kDa. Comparison of the recent crystal structure [Lieberman, R. L., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005) Nature 434, 177] of an uncharacterized pMMO-H complex with the three-dimensional (3D) structure determined here yielded a good match between the principal features and the organization of the enzyme monomers into trimers. The data presented here advance our current understanding of particulate methane monooxygenase function by the characterization of an active form of the enzyme and the corresponding 3D structure. PMID:16101279

  10. Preparation and characterization of a (Cu,Zn)-pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Li; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-12-01

    We report the preparation of a (Cu,Zn)-particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in which the bulk of the copper ions of the electron-transfer clusters (E-clusters) has been replaced by divalent Zn ions. The Cu and Zn contents in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were determined by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption K-edge spectroscopy. Further characterization of the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was provided by pMMO-activity assays as well as low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy following reductive titration and incubation in air or air/propylene mixtures. The pMMO-activity assays indicated that the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was no longer capable of supporting catalytic turnover of hydrocarbon substrates. However, the EPR studies revealed that the catalytic cluster (C-cluster) copper ions in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were still capable of supporting the activation of dioxygen when reduced, and that the 14N-superhyperfine features associated with one of the type 2 Cu(II) centers in the hydroxylation C-cluster remained unperturbed. The replacement of the E-cluster copper ions by Zn ions did compromise the ability of the protein to mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents from exogenous reductants to the C-clusters. These observations provide strong support for the electron transfer and catalytic roles for the E-cluster and C-cluster copper ions, respectively. PMID:15541502

  11. Overexpression and purification of the particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chan, Sunney I; Nguyen, H-Hoa T; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Yu, Steve S-F

    2011-01-01

    The particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a multi-copper enzyme that mediates the facile conversion of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As a membrane-bound multi-subunit metalloprotein, the highly active protein has been difficult to isolate and purify to homogeneity for biochemical and biophysical studies. In this chapter, we describe a method to overexpress pMMO with good specific activity in high yields in the intracytoplasmic membranes of the host organism, together with two protocols to isolate and purify the enzyme from pMMO-enriched membranes without loss of the copper cofactors and enzymatic activity. PMID:21419922

  12. Concerted mechanism for ethane hydroxylation by the particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, B.; Priestly, N.D.; Floss, H.G.; Zhu, M.; Nguyen, H.H.T.; Chan, S.I.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, P.G.

    1996-01-31

    The ethanol samples in the isolated alcohol/water mixtures were converted into their (2R)-2-acetoxy-2-phenylethanoate derivatives (2-34 mCi). Examination of the well-resolved {sup 3}H NMR spectra for these derivatives produced an exceptionally consistent set of stereochemical data. When corrected for the enantiomeric purity of the ethyl tosylate starting materials, the data clearly show that the reaction occurs with complete retention of configuration, i.e., with 100% stereoselection. Barring substantial slowing of the carbon-carbon bond rotation of the ethyl radical when bound to the enzyme, this result rules out mechanisms proceeding via alkyl radical (and/or cation) structures, even very short-lived ones, as such intermediates would have to have a lifetime of < 1 x 10{sup -14} s in order not to undergo any detectable C-C bond rotation, i.e., the capture reaction would have to be much faster than the decay of a transition state. The data instead point to a mechanism in which C-H bond cleavage is preceded by bond formation at the alkyl carbon, i.e., one proceeding through a pentacoordinated carbon species. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Oxidation of C1 Compounds by Particulate fractions from Methylococcus capsulatus: distribution and properties of methane-dependent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase (methane hydroxylase).

    PubMed Central

    Ribbons, D W

    1975-01-01

    Cell-free particulate fractions of extracts from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus catalyze the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and O2-dependent oxidation of methane (methane hydroxylase). The only oxidation product detected was formate. These preparations also catalyze the oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde to formate in the presence or absence of phenazine methosulphate with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Methane hydroxylase activity cannot be reproducibly obtained from disintegrated cell suspensions even though the whole cells actively respired when methane was presented as a substrate. Varying the disintegration method or extraction medium had no significant effect on the activities obtained. When active particles were obtained, hydroxylase activity was stable at 0 C for days. Methane hydroxylase assays were made by measuring the methane-dependent oxidation of NADH by O2. In separate experiments, methane consumption and the accumulation of formate were also demonstrated. Formate is not oxidized by these particulate fractions. The effects of particle concentration, temperature, pH, and phosphate concentration on enzymic activity are described. Ethane is utilized in the presence of NADH and O2. The stoichiometric relationships of the reaction(s) with methane as substrate were not established since (i) the presumed initial product, methanol, is also oxidized to formate, and (ii) the contribution that NADH oxidase activity makes to the observed consumption of reactants could not be assessed in the presence of methane. Studies with known inhibitors of electron transport systems indicate that the path of electron flow from NADH to oxygen is different for the NADH oxidase, methane hydroxylase, and methanol oxidase activities. Images PMID:238946

  14. Copper-containing protein from the membranes of methane oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) containing methane monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Burbaev, D.Sh.; Moroz, I.A.; Gvozdev, R.I. |

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the present work was to study copper-containing center of the membrane of methane oxidizing bacterium, M. capsulatus, strain M, by ESR spectroscopy. The bacteria were grown and the membrane preparation particles, fraction O{sub 1} were isolated as described earlier. The results reveal that the fraction of particles mediating oxidation of CH{sub 4} includes a Cu-protein with a minimal molecular mass of 49 kD. This protein has the type 2 ESR signal characteristic of copper with nitrogen-containing ligands. Histidine residues are most probable ligands. The protein is likely to be incorporated into pMMO, although its function (electron transfer, activation of {sub 2}) is far for clear.

  15. Biochemical characterization of the water-soluble squalene synthase from Methylococcus capsulatus and the functional analyses of its two DXXD(E)D motifs and the highly conserved aromatic amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Kana; Saito, Naoki; Shibuya, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Wakako; Amano, Ryosuke; Hirai, Takumi; Sasaki, Shinji; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2014-12-01

    Information regarding squalene synthases (SQSs) from prokaryotes is scarce. We aimed to characterize the SQS from Methylococcus capsulatus. We studied its reaction mechanism by kinetic analysis and evaluated the structure of the substrate/inhibitor-binding sites via homology modeling. The cloned M. capsulatus SQS was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid column chromatography. Interestingly, M. capsulatus SQS was water-soluble and did not require any detergent for its higher activity, unlike other SQSs studied previously; supplementation of any type of detergent inhibited enzyme activity. The specific activity and the kinetic values (Km and kcat ) for the substrate farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH are reported. The substrate analog farnesyl methylenediphosphonate showed potent inhibition toward the enzyme. We prepared the site-specific mutants directed at potential active-site residues (58) DXX(61) E(62) D (S1 site) and (213) DXX(216) D(217) D (S2 site), which were assumed to be involved in the binding of the substrate farnesyl diphosphate through the Mg(2+) ion. We first demonstrated that the S1 site and the two basic residues (R55 and K212) were responsible for the binding of farnesyl diphosphate. Furthermore, we examined the catalytic roles of the highly conserved aromatic residues and demonstrated that the Y164 residue abstracts the proton of cation 5, which is produced during the first half-reaction (Scheme 1), to afford presqualene diphosphate, and that the W224 residue stabilizes the intermediary cation 5 via the cation-π interaction. Furthermore, we confirm for the first time that the F32 and the Y51 residues also stabilize the carbocation intermediate(s) generated during the second half-reaction. PMID:25283713

  16. Product bound structures of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): protein motion in the alpha-subunit.

    PubMed

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Lippard, Stephen J

    2005-04-27

    The soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH) alpha-subunit contains a series of cavities that delineate the route of substrate entrance to and product egress from the buried carboxylate-bridged diiron center. The presence of discrete cavities is a major structural difference between MMOH, which can hydroxylate methane, and toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH), which cannot. To understand better the functions of the cavities and to investigate how an enzyme designed for methane hydroxylation can also accommodate larger substrates such as octane, methylcubane, and trans-1-methyl-2-phenylcyclopropane, MMOH crystals were soaked with an assortment of different alcohols and their X-ray structures were solved to 1.8-2.4 A resolution. The product analogues localize to cavities 1-3 and delineate a path of product exit and/or substrate entrance from the active site to the surface of the protein. The binding of the alcohols to a position bridging the two iron atoms in cavity 1 extends and validates previous crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational work indicating this site to be where substrates are hydroxylated and products form. The presence of these alcohols induces perturbations in the amino acid side-chain gates linking pairs of cavities, allowing for the formation of a channel similar to one observed in ToMOH. Upon binding of 6-bromohexan-1-ol, the pi helix formed by residues 202-211 in helix E of the alpha-subunit is extended through residue 216, changing the orientations of several amino acid residues in the active site cavity. This remarkable secondary structure rearrangement in the four-helix bundle has several mechanistic implications for substrate accommodation and the function of the effector protein, MMOB. PMID:15839679

  17. Mössbauer studies of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus bath: evidence for a Diiron center.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Marlène; Choi, Dong W; Dispirito, Alan A; Antholine, William E; Semrau, Jeremy D; Münck, Eckard

    2007-12-26

    Two methane monooxygenase (MMO) systems have been identified in methanotrophic bacteria, namely, a soluble or cytoplasmic MMO and a membrane-associated or particulate MMO. The active site of the well-characterized soluble MMO contains a bis-mu-hydroxo-bridged diiron cluster. X-ray crystallographic studies of the particulate enzyme, pMMO, have identified two copper centers on the alpha subunit (pmoB) of the alphabetagamma trimer and a site at the interface of the betagamma subunits filled by a Zn, apparently from the crystallization buffer. In our hands, pMMO preparations containing 1-2 iron atoms per alphabetagamma show the highest catalytic activity. We have employed Mössbauer spectroscopy to characterize the iron in our preparations. Interestingly, we find in pMMO a component with the same spectral properties as the antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(III) cluster in the soluble enzyme. In whole cells, we find nearly 1 diiron center per alphabetagamma of pMMO; in purified enzyme preparations, only 10% of the sites appear to be occupied. These occupancies correlate well with the measured specific activities of purified pMMO and pMMO in whole cells. We suggest that it is the "Zn site" that accommodates the diiron center in active pMMO. PMID:18052283

  18. Spectroscopic detection of intermediates in the reaction of dioxygen with the reduced methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.E.; Salifoglou, A.; Lippard, S.J. ); Wang, D.; Huynh, B.H.; Edmondson, D.E. )

    1994-08-10

    Soluble methane monoxygenase (MMO), an enzyme system isolated from methanotrophic bacteria, which catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol, has three components, a hydroxylase (H), a coupling protein (B), and a reductase (R). In this communication we present the results of stopped-flow and freeze-quench kinetic investigations of the reaction of dioxygen with the reduced hydroxylase, H[sub red], which elaborate upon and extend the findings of parallel work on MMOH from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Characterization of the second prosthetic group of the flavoenzyme NADH-acceptor reductase (component C) of the methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-01-01

    1. A new two-step purification is described that routinely yields 100mg quantities of component C for biochemical studies. 2. Chemical analyses show component C purified by this procedure to contain 2 g-atoms of iron, 2 mol of acid-labile sulphide (S) and 1 mol of FAD per mol of protein. 3. The Fe-S core of component C was extruded by treating the protein with p-methoxybenzenethiol in hexamethyl phosphoramide/50mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5 (4:1, v/v), under anaerobic conditions. The spectral properties of the extruded core suggest that component C contains 1 mol of [2Fe-2S(S-Cys)4] centre per mol of protein. 4. E.p.r. spectroscopy confirms the presence of a Fe-S centre in component C. 5. Component C catalyses the reduction by NADH of ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol or horse heart cytochrome c, with specific activities of 50--230 units/mg of protein. 6. The optimum pH for the NADH-acceptor reductase activity is 8.5--9.0, and the apparent Km values for NADH and NADPH are 0.05mM and 15.5mM respectively. 7. Unlike methane mono-oxygenase activity, NADH-acceptor reductase activity of component C is not inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline or by acetylene. PMID:220953

  20. X-ray absorption and EPR studies on the copper ions associated with the particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Cu(I) ions and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.H.T.; Elliott, S.J.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Chan, S.I.; Nakagawa, K.H.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1996-12-18

    Parallel X-ray absorption edge and EPR studies of the particulate methane monooxygenase in situ reveal that the enzyme contains unusually high levels of copper ions with a significant portion of the copper ions existing as Cu(I) in the `as-isolated` form (70-80%). The observation of high levels of reduced copper in a monooxygenase is surprising considering that the natural cosubstrate of the enzyme is dioxygen. Toward clarifying the roles of the various copper ions in the enzyme, we have successfully prepared different states of the protein in the membrane-bound form at various levels of reduction using dithionite, dioxygen, and ferricyanide. EPR intensity analysis of the fully-oxidized preparations indicates that the bulk of copper ions are arranged in cluster units. The fully-reduced protein obtained by reduction by dithionite has been used to initiate the single turnover of the enzyme in the presence of dioxygen. Differential reactivity toward dioxygen was observed upon analyzing the copper reduction levels in these synchronized preparations. The enzyme is capable of supporting turnover in the absence of external electron donors in the highly reduced states. These results suggest the presence of at least two classes of copper ions in the particulate methane monoxygenase. As a working hypothesis, we have referred to these classes of copper ions as (1) the catalytic (C) clusters, and (2) the electron transfer (E) clusters. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Revisiting the mechanism of dioxygen activation in soluble methane monooxygenase from M. capsulatus (Bath): evidence for a multi-step, proton-dependent reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Tinberg, Christine E; Lippard, Stephen J

    2009-12-29

    Stopped-flow kinetic investigations of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. capsulatus (Bath) have clarified discrepancies that exist in the literature regarding several aspects of catalysis by this enzyme. The development of thorough kinetic analytical techniques has led to the discovery of two novel oxygenated iron species that accumulate in addition to the well-established intermediates H(peroxo) and Q. The first intermediate, P*, is a precursor to H(peroxo) and was identified when the reaction of reduced MMOH and MMOB with O(2) was carried out in the presence of >or=540 microM methane to suppress the dominating absorbance signal due to Q. The optical properties of P* are similar to those of H(peroxo), with epsilon(420) = 3500 M(-1) cm(-1) and epsilon(720) = 1250 M(-1) cm(-1). These values are suggestive of a peroxo-to-iron(III) charge-transfer transition and resemble those of peroxodiiron(III) intermediates characterized in other carboxylate-bridged diiron proteins and synthetic model complexes. The second identified intermediate, Q*, forms on the pathway of Q decay when reactions are performed in the absence of hydrocarbon substrate. Q* does not react with methane, forms independently of buffer composition, and displays a unique shoulder at 455 nm in its optical spectrum. Studies conducted at different pH values reveal that rate constants corresponding to P* decay/H(peroxo) formation and H(peroxo) decay/Q formation are both significantly retarded at high pH and indicate that both events require proton transfer. The processes exhibit normal kinetic solvent isotope effects (KSIEs) of 2.0 and 1.8, respectively, when the reactions are performed in D(2)O. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the observations of these novel intermediates and the proton dependencies of P* to H(peroxo) and H(peroxo) to Q conversion. PMID:19921958

  2. Bathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tub or shower. • Always check the water temperature before he or she gets in the tub ... to do, step by step. • Make sure the water temperature is comfortable. • Don’t use bath oil. It ...

  3. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Katterle, Bettina; Gvozdev, Rudolf I; Abudu, Ntei; Ljones, Torbjørn; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2002-05-01

    All methanotrophic bacteria express a membrane-bound (particulate) methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO). In the present study, we have investigated pMMO in membrane fragments from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). pMMO contains a typical type-2 Cu(2+) centre with the following EPR parameters: g(z) 2.24, g(x,y) 2.06, A(Cu)(z) 19.0 mT and A(Cu)(x,y) 1.0 mT. Simulation of the Cu(2+) spectrum yielded a best match by using four equivalent nitrogens (A(N)=1.5 mT, 42 MHz). Incubation with ferricyanide neither changed nor increased the amount of EPR-active Cu(2+), in contrast with other reports. The EPR visible copper seems not to be part of any cluster, as judged from the microwave power saturation behaviour. Continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (CW ENDOR; 9.4 GHz, 5-20 K) experiments at g( perpendicular) of the Cu(II) spectrum show a weak coupling to protons with an A(H) of 2.9 MHz that corresponds to a distance of 3.8 A (1 A identical with 0.1 nm), assuming that it is a purely dipolar coupling. Incubation in (2)H(2)O leads to a significant decrease in these (1)H-ENDOR intensities, showing that these protons are exchangeable. This result strongly suggests that the EPR visible copper site of pMMO is accessible to solvent, which was confirmed by the chelation of the Cu(2+) by diethyldithiocarbamic acid. The (1)H and (14)N hyperfine coupling constants confirm a histidine ligation of the EPR visible copper site in pMMO. The hyperfine structure in the ENDOR or EPR spectra of pMMO is not influenced by the inhibitors azide, cyanide or ammonia, indicating that they do not bind to the EPR visible copper. We compared pMMO with the type-2 Cu(2+) enzyme, dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DbetaM). For DbetaM, it is assumed that the copper site is solvent-accessible. CW ENDOR shows similar weakly coupled and (2)H(2)O-exchangeable protons (2.9 MHz), as observed in pMMO, as well as the strongly coupled nitrogens (40 MHz) from the co-ordinating N of the histidines in DbetaM. In

  4. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Katterle, Bettina; Gvozdev, Rudolf I; Abudu, Ntei; Ljones, Torbjørn; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    All methanotrophic bacteria express a membrane-bound (particulate) methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO). In the present study, we have investigated pMMO in membrane fragments from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). pMMO contains a typical type-2 Cu(2+) centre with the following EPR parameters: g(z) 2.24, g(x,y) 2.06, A(Cu)(z) 19.0 mT and A(Cu)(x,y) 1.0 mT. Simulation of the Cu(2+) spectrum yielded a best match by using four equivalent nitrogens (A(N)=1.5 mT, 42 MHz). Incubation with ferricyanide neither changed nor increased the amount of EPR-active Cu(2+), in contrast with other reports. The EPR visible copper seems not to be part of any cluster, as judged from the microwave power saturation behaviour. Continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (CW ENDOR; 9.4 GHz, 5-20 K) experiments at g( perpendicular) of the Cu(II) spectrum show a weak coupling to protons with an A(H) of 2.9 MHz that corresponds to a distance of 3.8 A (1 A identical with 0.1 nm), assuming that it is a purely dipolar coupling. Incubation in (2)H(2)O leads to a significant decrease in these (1)H-ENDOR intensities, showing that these protons are exchangeable. This result strongly suggests that the EPR visible copper site of pMMO is accessible to solvent, which was confirmed by the chelation of the Cu(2+) by diethyldithiocarbamic acid. The (1)H and (14)N hyperfine coupling constants confirm a histidine ligation of the EPR visible copper site in pMMO. The hyperfine structure in the ENDOR or EPR spectra of pMMO is not influenced by the inhibitors azide, cyanide or ammonia, indicating that they do not bind to the EPR visible copper. We compared pMMO with the type-2 Cu(2+) enzyme, dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DbetaM). For DbetaM, it is assumed that the copper site is solvent-accessible. CW ENDOR shows similar weakly coupled and (2)H(2)O-exchangeable protons (2.9 MHz), as observed in pMMO, as well as the strongly coupled nitrogens (40 MHz) from the co-ordinating N of the histidines in DbetaM. In

  5. Inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with hydrochlorofluorocarbons and fluorinated methanes

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, L.J.; Oremland, R.S.; Jahnke, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    Concerns about stratospheric ozone and global warming have focused some inquiries upon the microbial degradation of some atmospheric halocarbons. Little is known about the interaction of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This study examines possible interactions, including the inhibition of methane oxidation by chlorinated solvents, whether oxidation products formed may have inhibitory effects of their own, and whether other fluorinated methanes inhibit methane oxidation by whole cells. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  7. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodobacter capsulatus: genes, mutants, expression, and physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Gabbert, K K; Locke, T A; Madigan, M T

    1997-01-01

    Like many other prokaryotes, the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus produces high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when a suitable carbon source is available. The three genes that are traditionally considered to be necessary in the PHA biosynthetic pathway, phaA (beta-ketothiolase), phaB (acetoacetylcoenzyme A reductase), and phaC (PHA synthase), were cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus. In R. capsulatus, the phaAB genes are not linked to the phaC gene. Translational beta-galactosidase fusions to phaA and phaC were constructed and recombined into the chromosome. Both phaC and phaA were constitutively expressed regardless of whether PHA production was induced, suggesting that control is posttranslational at the enzymatic level. Consistent with this conclusion, it was shown that the R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus grown on numerous carbon sources were determined, indicating that this bacterium grows on C2 to C12 fatty acids. Grown on acetone, caproate, or heptanoate, wild-type R. capsulatus produced high levels of PHAs. Although a phaC deletion strain was unable to synthesize PHAs on any carbon source, phaA and phaAB deletion strains were able to produce PHAs, indicating that alternative routes for the synthesis of substrates for the synthase are present. The nutritional versatility and bioenergetic versatility of R. capsulatus, coupled with its ability to produce large amounts of PHAs and its genetic tractability, make it an attractive model for the study of PHA production. PMID:9251189

  8. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  9. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  10. Secretion of flavins by three species of methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Levinson, Benjamin T; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2010-11-01

    We detected flavins in the growth medium of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylocystis species strain M. Flavin secretion correlates with growth stage and increases under iron starvation conditions. Two other methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), secrete flavins, suggesting that flavin secretion may be common to many methanotrophic bacteria. PMID:20833792

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Bacteriophages That Infect Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Bollivar, David W; Bernardoni, Brooke; Bockman, Matthew R; Miller, Brenda M; Russell, Daniel A; Delesalle, Veronique A; Krukonis, Gregory P; Hatfull, Graham F; Cross, Madeline R; Szewczyk, Marlena M; Eppurath, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Five bacteriophages that infect the Rhodobacter capsulatus strain YW1 were isolated from stream water near Bloomington, Illinois, USA. Two distinct genome types are represented in the newly isolated bacteriophages. These genomes are different from other bacteriophage genomes previously described. PMID:27231352

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Bacteriophages That Infect Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brooke; Bockman, Matthew R.; Miller, Brenda M.; Russell, Daniel A.; Delesalle, Veronique A.; Krukonis, Gregory P.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Cross, Madeline R.; Szewczyk, Marlena M.; Eppurath, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Five bacteriophages that infect the Rhodobacter capsulatus strain YW1 were isolated from stream water near Bloomington, Illinois, USA. Two distinct genome types are represented in the newly isolated bacteriophages. These genomes are different from other bacteriophage genomes previously described. PMID:27231352

  13. Physical map of the genome of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB 1003.

    PubMed Central

    Fonstein, M; Zheng, S; Haselkorn, R

    1992-01-01

    A map of the chromosome of Rhodobacter capsulatus was constructed by overlapping the large restriction fragments generated by endonucleases AseI and XbaI. The analyses were done by hybridization of single fragments with the restriction fragments blotted from pulsed-field gels and by grouping cosmids of a genomic library of R. capsulatus into contigs, corresponding to the restriction fragments, and further overlapping of the contigs. A technical difficulty due to a repeated sequence made it necessary to use hybridization with cloned genes and prior knowledge of the genetic map in order to close the physical circle in a unique way. In all, 41 restriction sites were mapped on the 3.6-Mb circular genome and 22 genes were positioned at 26 loci of the map. Cosmid clones were grouped in about 80 subcontigs, forming two groups, one corresponding to the chromosome of R. capsulatus and the other corresponding to a 134-kb plasmid. cos site end labeling and partial digestion of cosmids were used to construct a high-resolution EcoRV map of the 134-kb plasmid. The same method can be extended to the entire chromosome. The cosmid clones derived in this work can be used as a hybridization panel for the physical mapping of new genes as soon as they are cloned. Images PMID:1597421

  14. Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

  15. Characterization of a diiron(III) peroxo intermediate in the reaction cycle of methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus cupsulatus (Bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.E.; Valentine, A.M.; Lippard, S.J.; Qiu, D.; Spiro, T.G.; Edmondson, D.E.; Appelman, E.H.

    1995-05-03

    We present new optical and resonance Raman spectroscopic data that characterize the first intermediate as a diiron(III) peroxo species. The time-resolved optical and freeze-quench resonance Raman spectroscopic experiments strongly support assignment of the first intermediate, variously designated P or L, in the MMO hydroxylase reaction cycle as a symmetrical diiron(III) peroxo species. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  16. [Immersion in a bath despite a safety bath chair].

    PubMed

    Christensen, H B; Lange, A

    1989-01-01

    A case of submersion is described. A mother left her child aged 8 1/2 months sitting in a "safety bath chair" in a full bath and found the child lying under the water shortly afterwards. The infant was hypotonic for a brief period but rapidly recovered without sequelae. Use of a "safety bath chair" gives a false sense of security and its use is warned against. PMID:2911907

  17. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  18. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  19. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  20. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  1. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. 165.104 Section 165.104 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.104 Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine. (a... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron...

  2. Cytochromes P460 and c'-beta; a new family of high-spin cytochromes c.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Bradley O; Bergmann, David J; Klotz, Martin G; Hooper, Alan B

    2007-03-01

    Cytochromes-P460 of Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the cytochrome c' of M. capsulatus, believed to be involved in binding or transformation of N-oxides, are shown to represent an evolutionarily related new family of monoheme, approximately 17kDa, cytochromes c found in the genomes of diverse Proteobacteria. All members of this family have a predicted secondary structure predominantly of beta-sheets in contrast to the predominantly alpha-helical cytochromes c' found in photoheterotrophic and denitrifying Proteobacteria. PMID:17292891

  3. Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?

    PubMed

    Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

  4. Grooming, Bathing and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wet One of the most common problems that amputees encounter is maintaining balance while bathing and climbing ... 18/2014 Back to Top © Copyrighted by the Amputee Coalition . Local reproduction for use by Amputee Coalition ...

  5. The Rhodobacter capsulatus glnB gene is regulated by NtrC at tandem rpoN-independent promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Foster-Hartnett, D; Kranz, R G

    1994-01-01

    The protein encoded by glnB of Rhodobacter capsulatus is part of a nitrogen-sensing cascade which regulates the expression of nitrogen fixation genes (nif). The expression of glnB was studied by using lacZ fusions, primer extension analysis, and in vitro DNase I footprinting. Our results suggest that glnB is transcribed from two promoters, one of which requires the R. capsulatus ntrC gene but is rpoN independent. Another promoter upstream of glnB is repressed by NtrC; purified R. capsulatus NtrC binds to sites that overlap this distal promoter region. Images PMID:8051036

  6. Analysis of the fnrL gene and its function in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Zeilstra-Ryalls, J H; Gabbert, K; Mouncey, N J; Kaplan, S; Kranz, R G

    1997-01-01

    The fnr gene encodes a regulatory protein involved in the response to oxygen in a variety of bacterial genera. For example, it was previously shown that the anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides requires the fnrL gene for growth under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. Additionally, the FnrL protein in R. sphaeroides is required for anaerobic growth in the dark with an alternative electron acceptor, but it is not essential for aerobic growth. In this study, the fnrL locus from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. Surprisingly, an R. capsulatus strain with the fnrL gene deleted grows like the wild type under either photosynthetic or aerobic conditions but does not grow anaerobically with alternative electron acceptors such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine oxide. It is demonstrated that the c-type cytochrome induced upon anaerobic growth on DMSO is not synthesized in the R. capsulatus fnrL mutant. In contrast to wild-type strains, R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus fnrL mutants do not synthesize the anaerobically, DMSO-induced reductase. Mechanisms that explain the basis for FnrL function in both organisms are discussed. PMID:9393689

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus response regulator CtrA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Molly M.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus response regulator CtrA controls the expression of 227 genes, some of which are upregulated by both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of CtrA. Therefore, CtrA concentration alone, regardless of phosphorylation state, may determine expression of downstream genes, yet little is known about the regulation of ctrA in R. capsulatus. In this study we used a ctrA : : lacZ fusion plasmid to study the effects of medium composition, growth conditions and growth phase on R. capsulatus ctrA gene expression. These experiments indicate that ctrA expression is higher when cultures are grown in phototrophic (anaerobic) conditions compared with chemotrophic (aerobic) conditions, and is higher when grown in a minimal medium compared with a rich medium. We used several mutants to investigate possible regulatory pathways, and found that in R. capsulatus ctrA is not autoregulated but is regulated by a quorum-sensing system. The expression of ctrA increased as cell cultures moved through exponential phase and into stationary phase, with high levels of expression persisting long after culture turbidity plateaued. Although this growth phase-dependent pattern of expression was also observed in a quorum-sensing mutant, the magnitude of ctrA expression was about 50 % of the wild-type strain at all phases. Furthermore, reduction of phosphate concentration in the growth medium decreased ctrA expression in a culture density-independent manner, whereas reduction of malic acid (carbon source) or ammonium (nitrogen source) concentration had no effect. The regulation of ctrA expression in R. capsulatus appears to require the coordination of multiple pathways involved in detecting a variety of environmental conditions. PMID:23154973

  8. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a)...

  13. Bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy.

    PubMed

    Nechay, Alla; Stephenson, John B P

    2009-05-01

    We reviewed those paroxysmal disorders of infancy and of the newborn in which the normal process of bathing may be an important trigger. We focused on infant bathing in normal temperature water (37 degrees C, range 36-38 degrees C) rather than in hot water that is above body temperature. Four principal diagnostic categories emerged: bathing epilepsy, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, hyperekplexia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. Bathing or water immersion epilepsy was the best studied and is arguably distinct from hot water epilepsy. The paroxysmal episodes previously attributed to aquagenic urticaria may have been examples of bathing epilepsy with a genetic component. Despite suggestions in the literature to the contrary, no convincing reports of bath-induced infantile syncope have been found. The underlying mechanisms of bath-induced paroxysmal disorders in infancy remain poorly understood, but all have autonomic manifestations and some if not all may be channelopathies. PMID:18571948

  14. Rhodobacter capsulatus nifA1 Promoter: High-GC −10 Regions in High-GC Bacteria and the Basis for Their Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Cynthia L.; Tandon, Animesh; Kranz, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    It was previously shown that the Rhodobacter capsulatus NtrC enhancer-binding protein activates the R. capsulatus housekeeping RNA polymerase but not the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at the nifA1 promoter. We have tested the hypothesis that this activity is due to the high G+C content of the −10 sequence. A comparative analysis of R. capsulatus and other α-proteobacterial promoters with known transcription start sites suggests that the G+C content of the −10 region is higher than that for E. coli. Both in vivo and in vitro results obtained with nifA1 promoters with −10 and/or −35 variations are reported here. A major conclusion of this study is that α-proteobacteria have evolved a promiscuous sigma factor and core RNA polymerase that can transcribe promoters with high-GC −10 regions in addition to the classic E. coli Pribnow box. To facilitate studies of R. capsulatus transcription, we cloned and overexpressed all of the RNA polymerase subunits in E. coli, and these were reconstituted in vitro to form an active, recombinant R. capsulatus RNA polymerase with properties mimicking those of the natural polymerase. Thus, no additional factors from R. capsulatus are necessary for the recognition of high-GC promoters or for activation by R. capsulatus NtrC. The addition of R. capsulatus σ70 to the E. coli core RNA polymerase or the use of −10 promoter mutants did not facilitate R. capsulatus NtrC activation of the nifA1 promoter by the E. coli RNA polymerase. Thus, an additional barrier to activation by R. capsulatus NtrC exists, probably a lack of the proper R. capsulatus NtrC-E. coli RNA polymerase (protein-protein) interaction(s). PMID:14729700

  15. Bed bathing patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lindsey; Lloyd, Hilary

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct procedure and the importance of maintaining patient dignity and respect in clinical practice. PMID:18543852

  16. [Ofuji papuloerythroderma: PUVA bath treatment].

    PubMed

    Michel, S; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji is a rare skin disorder described primarily in Japanese patients. It occurs primarily in elderly men. The initial lesions are diffuse red papules, sparing the face, palms and soles. Later the papules coalesce into an erythroderma, with typical sparing of the skin folds and creases (the deck chair sign). Pruritus is usually intense. Lymphadenopathy, peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated IgE levels all are common. Both systemic corticosteroids and systemic PUVA therapy have been recommended. We describe a German male who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for papuloerythroderma of Ofuji and responded well to PUVA bath therapy with both improvement in skin findings and reduction in pruritus. PMID:10412634

  17. Transcriptional Profiling of Hydrogen Production Metabolism of Rhodobacter capsulatus under Temperature Stress by Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gürgan, Muazzez; Erkal, Nilüfer Afşar; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Eroglu, Inci; Yücel, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable form of hydrogen, which can be produced by photosynthetic bacteria in outdoor large-scale photobioreactors using sunlight. In this study, the transcriptional response of Rhodobacter capsulatus to cold (4 °C) and heat (42 °C) stress was studied using microarrays. Bacteria were grown in 30/2 acetate/glutamate medium at 30 °C for 48 h under continuous illumination. Then, cold and heat stresses were applied for two and six hours. Growth and hydrogen production were impaired under both stress conditions. Microarray chips for R. capsulatus were custom designed by Affymetrix (GeneChip®. TR_RCH2a520699F). The numbers of significantly changed genes were 328 and 293 out of 3685 genes under cold and heat stress, respectively. Our results indicate that temperature stress greatly affects the hydrogen production metabolisms of R. capsulatus. Specifically, the expression of genes that participate in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and the electron transport system were induced by cold stress, while decreased by heat stress. Heat stress also resulted in down regulation of genes related to cell envelope, transporter and binding proteins. Transcriptome analysis and physiological results were consistent with each other. The results presented here may aid clarification of the genetic mechanisms for hydrogen production in purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria under temperature stress. PMID:26086826

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of Hydrogen Production Metabolism of Rhodobacter capsulatus under Temperature Stress by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gürgan, Muazzez; Afşar Erkal, Nilüfer; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Eroglu, Inci; Yücel, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable form of hydrogen, which can be produced by photosynthetic bacteria in outdoor large-scale photobioreactors using sunlight. In this study, the transcriptional response of Rhodobacter capsulatus to cold (4 °C) and heat (42 °C) stress was studied using microarrays. Bacteria were grown in 30/2 acetate/glutamate medium at 30 °C for 48 h under continuous illumination. Then, cold and heat stresses were applied for two and six hours. Growth and hydrogen production were impaired under both stress conditions. Microarray chips for R. capsulatus were custom designed by Affymetrix (GeneChip®. TR_RCH2a520699F). The numbers of significantly changed genes were 328 and 293 out of 3685 genes under cold and heat stress, respectively. Our results indicate that temperature stress greatly affects the hydrogen production metabolisms of R. capsulatus. Specifically, the expression of genes that participate in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and the electron transport system were induced by cold stress, while decreased by heat stress. Heat stress also resulted in down regulation of genes related to cell envelope, transporter and binding proteins. Transcriptome analysis and physiological results were consistent with each other. The results presented here may aid clarification of the genetic mechanisms for hydrogen production in purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria under temperature stress. PMID:26086826

  19. Extracellular production of tellurium nanoparticles by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Roberto; Brucale, Marco; Fortunato, Gianuario; Lanzi, Massimiliano; Mezzi, Alessio; Valle, Francesco; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Zannoni, Davide

    2016-05-15

    The toxic oxyanion tellurite (TeO3(2-)) is acquired by cells of Rhodobacter capsulatus grown anaerobically in the light, via acetate permease ActP2 and then reduced to Te(0) in the cytoplasm as needle-like black precipitates. Interestingly, photosynthetic cultures of R. capsulatus can also generate Te(0) nanoprecipitates (TeNPs) outside the cells upon addition of the redox mediator lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone). TeNPs generation kinetics were monitored to define the optimal conditions to produce TeNPs as a function of various carbon sources and lawsone concentration. We report that growing cultures over a 10 days period with daily additions of 1mM tellurite led to the accumulation in the growth medium of TeNPs with dimensions from 200 up to 600-700 nm in length as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This result suggests that nucleation of TeNPs takes place over the entire cell growth period although the addition of new tellurium Te(0) to pre-formed TeNPs is the main strategy used by R. capsulatus to generate TeNPs outside the cells. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of TeNPs indicate they are coated with an organic material which keeps the particles in solution in aqueous solvents. PMID:26894294

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Heat-Resistant Mutant Strains (A52 and B41) of the Photosynthetic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Abdulmecit; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Yucel, Meral; Ozcan, Orhan; Sencan, Sevde; Sertdemir, Ibrahim; Erguner, Bekir; Yuceturk, Betul; Sarac, Aydan; Yuksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two heat-resistant mutant strains, A52 and B41, derived from Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710, and with different hydrogen production levels, are reported here. These sequences may help understand the molecular basis of heat resistance and hydrogen production in R. capsulatus. PMID:27284151

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Heat-Resistant Mutant Strains (A52 and B41) of the Photosynthetic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Abdulmecit; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Yucel, Meral; Ozcan, Orhan; Sencan, Sevde; Sertdemir, Ibrahim; Erguner, Bekir; Yuceturk, Betul; Sarac, Aydan; Yuksel, Bayram; Ozturk, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two heat-resistant mutant strains, A52 and B41, derived from Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710, and with different hydrogen production levels, are reported here. These sequences may help understand the molecular basis of heat resistance and hydrogen production in R. capsulatus. PMID:27284151

  2. Noncyanide cadmium plating baths. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, F.; Agarwala, V.S.

    1991-10-04

    One approach to minimizing toxic wastes is to eliminate the use of cyanide plating baths. Non-cyanide zinc plating baths have been successfully developed and have found widespread use. An investigation was conducted in an attempt to accomplish similar results with cadmium plating baths. The focus of this study was on additives to a near neutral cadmium bath, free of complexing agents. A Hull cell was used to enable visualization of deposits over a broad range of cathode current densities. Experimental design (Taguchi Method) was used to optimize bath parameters and constituent concentrations. Bath parameters have been developed which indicate promise for producing dense deposits with good covering power, and relatively low tendency for hydrogen embrittlement.

  3. Mobile wedges in an active turbulent bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Lowen, Hartmut; Aronson, Igor S.

    The motion of micro-wedges in a turbulent bacterial bath is explored using computer simulations with explicit modeling of the bacteria and experiments. We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. We will show that both polar ordering and swirl shielding inside the wedge yield an optimal transport velocity. Finally, we show the behavior of several wedges exposed to a bacterial bath.

  4. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  5. Finite-Size Bath in Qubit Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the above qubit plus finite-size bath, but now the latter is coupled to a practically infinite bath of the same nature of oscillators or two-level systems.

  6. Finite-Size Bath in Qubit Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the above qubit plus finite-size bath, but now the latter is coupled to a practically infinite bath of the same nature of oscillators or two-level systems.

  7. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  8. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2010-06-01

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We report work on an idealized version of this situation, the drag-out of a single bubble in Landau-Levich-Derjaguin flow. We find that a well-defined critical wall speed exists, separating the two regimes of bubble persistence at the meniscus and bubble deposition on the moving wall. Experiments show that this transition occurs at Ca∗˜Bo0.73. A similar result is obtained theoretically by balancing viscous stresses and gravity.

  9. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  10. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  11. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  13. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  14. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  15. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  16. Temperature control of a cryogenic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

  17. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  18. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  19. Alternatives to hexachlorophene bathing of newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hnatko, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    In controlled trials newborn infants were bathed with Lactacyd, pHisoHex, Hibitane, Lanohex or tap water. Bacteriologic samples were taken from three sites (groin, axilla and cord) immediately after birth, following an initial bath with one of the test agents, and on day 3 or 5 after a water bath. Initial bathing with all agents, including water, reduced the concentration of bacteria on the skin to a similar extent. However, comparisons of bacterial flora at birth versus those on days 3 and 5 indicated differences in the actions of the various agents on pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Lactacyd and Hibitane appeared to be suitable alternatives to hexachlorophene in the control of pathogenic bacteria on the skin of newborns. However, their absorption and toxicity in the newborn are unknown and, unless use of a skin disinfectant is warranted, routine bathing of newborns with tap water appears to be satisfactory. PMID:328126

  20. Methylogaea oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic methanotroph isolated from a rice paddy field.

    PubMed

    Geymonat, Estefanía; Ferrando, Lucía; Tarlera, Silvana E

    2011-11-01

    A novel methanotroph, designated strain E10(T), was isolated from a rice paddy field in Uruguay. Strain E10(T) grew on methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources. Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile, non-pigmented, slightly curved rods showing type I intracytoplasmic membranes arranged in stacks. The strain was neutrophilic and mesophilic; optimum growth occurred at 30-35 °C with no growth above 37 °C. The strain possessed only a particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was most closely related to the moderately thermophilic strains Methylocaldum szegediense OR2(T) (91.6 % sequence similarity) and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (91.5 %). Comparative sequence analysis of pmoA genes also confirmed that strain E10(T) formed a new lineage among the genera Methylocaldum and Methylococcus with 89 and 84 % derived amino acid sequence identity to Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylocaldum gracile VKM-14L(T), respectively. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol% and the major cellular fatty acid was C(16 :0) (62.05 %). Thus, strain E10(T) (=JCM 16910(T) = DSM 23452(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species within a new genus, for which the name Methylogaea oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:21131502

  1. Dataset of gene cloning and gel filtration chromatography of R-est6.

    PubMed

    Soni, Surabhi; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are connected to the research article entitled "Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a family 6 carboxylesterase from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath)" (Soni et al., 2016 [1]). The family 6 carboxylesterases are the smallest and display broad substrate specificity. The 1 kb gene encoding, a family 6 carboxylesterase - R-est6, was amplified from the genome of M. capsulatus (bath strain), and showed in the agarose gel. The corresponding purified protein, after overexpression in Escherichia coli, was biochemically studied in the research article (Soni et al., 2016 [1]). R-est6 has hydrophobic patches on the surface so, it is expected to show oligimeric forms. Here, we have confirmed the presence of oligomers by gel filtration chromatography data and the proteins belonging to the different peaks are shown on a SDS-PAGE. PMID:27222859

  2. Dataset of gene cloning and gel filtration chromatography of R-est6

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Surabhi; Odaneth, Annamma A.; Lali, Arvind M.; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are connected to the research article entitled “Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a family 6 carboxylesterase from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath)” (Soni et al., 2016 [1]). The family 6 carboxylesterases are the smallest and display broad substrate specificity. The 1 kb gene encoding, a family 6 carboxylesterase – R-est6, was amplified from the genome of M. capsulatus (bath strain), and showed in the agarose gel. The corresponding purified protein, after overexpression in Escherichia coli, was biochemically studied in the research article (Soni et al., 2016 [1]). R-est6 has hydrophobic patches on the surface so, it is expected to show oligimeric forms. Here, we have confirmed the presence of oligomers by gel filtration chromatography data and the proteins belonging to the different peaks are shown on a SDS-PAGE. PMID:27222859

  3. Mechanism of Substrate and Inhibitor Binding of Rhodobacter Capsulatus Xanthine Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzel, U.; Kuper, J; Doebbler, J; Schulte, A; Truglio, J; Leimkuhler, S; Kisker, C

    2009-01-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an (ae)2 heterotetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme that resembles eukaryotic xanthine oxidoreductases in respect to both amino acid sequence and structural fold. To obtain a detailed understanding of the mechanism of substrate and inhibitor binding at the active site, we solved crystal structures of R. capsulatus XDH in the presence of its substrates hypoxanthine, xanthine, and the inhibitor pterin-6-aldehyde using either the inactive desulfo form of the enzyme or an active site mutant (EB232Q) to prevent substrate turnover. The hypoxanthine- and xanthine-bound structures reveal the orientation of both substrates at the active site and show the importance of residue GluB-232 for substrate positioning. The oxygen atom at the C-6 position of both substrates is oriented toward ArgB-310 in the active site. Thus the substrates bind in an orientation opposite to the one seen in the structure of the reduced enzyme with the inhibitor oxypurinol. The tightness of the substrates in the active site suggests that the intermediate products must exit the binding pocket to allow first the attack of the C-2, followed by oxidation of the C-8 atom to form the final product uric acid. Structural studies of pterin-6-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of R. capsulatus XDH, contribute further to the understanding of the relative positioning of inhibitors and substrates in the binding pocket. Steady state kinetics reveal a competitive inhibition pattern with a Ki of 103.57 {+-} 18.96 nm for pterin-6-aldehyde.

  4. Cu2+ site in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    PubMed

    Utschig, L M; Poluektov, O; Schlesselman, S L; Thurnauer, M C; Tiede, D M

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu(2+). This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn(2+) was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu(2+) sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu(2+) bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled (14)N nuclei in close proximity to Cu(2+). These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu(2+) RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu(2+) at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu(2+) binding site that is involved in modulating the Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q(B) binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in the Rb. sphaeroides RC crystal structure. Further elucidation of these Cu(2+) sites will provide

  5. Gene co-expression network analysis in Rhodobacter capsulatus and application to comparative expression analysis of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Pena-Castillo, Lourdes; Mercer, Ryan; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Westbye, Alexander; Beatty, J. T.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2014-08-28

    The genus Rhodobacter contains purple nonsulfur bacteria found mostly in freshwater environments. Representative strains of two Rhodobacter species, R. capsulatus and R. sphaeroides, have had their genomes fully sequenced and both have been the subject of transcriptional profiling studies. Gene co-expression networks can be used to identify modules of genes with similar expression profiles. Functional analysis of gene modules can then associate co-expressed genes with biological pathways, and network statistics can determine the degree of module preservation in related networks. In this paper, we constructed an R. capsulatus gene co-expression network, performed functional analysis of identified gene modules, and investigated preservation of these modules in R. capsulatus proteomics data and in R. sphaeroides transcriptomics data. Results: The analysis identified 40 gene co-expression modules in R. capsulatus. Investigation of the module gene contents and expression profiles revealed patterns that were validated based on previous studies supporting the biological relevance of these modules. We identified two R. capsulatus gene modules preserved in the protein abundance data. We also identified several gene modules preserved between both Rhodobacter species, which indicate that these cellular processes are conserved between the species and are candidates for functional information transfer between species. Many gene modules were non-preserved, providing insight into processes that differentiate the two species. In addition, using Local Network Similarity (LNS), a recently proposed metric for expression divergence, we assessed the expression conservation of between-species pairs of orthologs, and within-species gene-protein expression profiles. Conclusions: Our analyses provide new sources of information for functional annotation in R. capsulatus because uncharacterized genes in modules are now connected with groups of genes that constitute a joint functional

  6. Regulation of synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) was studied by using quantitative immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against PC purified from Rhodobacter capsulatus and was found to vary 20-fold depending on the growth conditions. The PC content was high in cells grown on pyruvate or on carbon substrates metabolized via pyruvate (lactate, D-malate, glucose, or fructose) and low in cells grown on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates or substrates metabolized without intermediate formation of pyruvate (acetate or glutamate). Under dark aerobic growth conditions with lactate as a carbon source, the PC content was approximately twofold higher than that found under light anaerobic growth conditions. The results of incubation experiments demonstrate that PC synthesis is induced by pyruvate and repressed by TCA cycle intermediates, with negative control dominating over positive control. The content of PC in R. capsulatus cells was also directly related to the growth rate in continuous cultures. The analysis of intracellular levels of pyruvate and TCA cycle intermediates in cells grown under different conditions demonstrated that the content of PC is directly proportional to the ratio between pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. These results suggest that the regulation of PC synthesis by oxygen and its direct correlation with growth rate may reflect effects on the balance of intracellular pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. Thus, this important enzyme is potentially regulated both allosterically and at the level of synthesis. PMID:9045800

  7. Isolation of mutants and genes involved in cytochromes c biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus that have combined deficiencies in the cytochrome b/c1 complex and other c-type cytochromes have been isolated. These mutants were unable to grow anaerobically in the light or dark but could grow aerobically. Cosmids with R. capsulatus wild-type DNA that complement the mutants have been used to construct genetic and physical maps of the affected genes. Complementation profiles with Tn5 and mini-Mu insertions in these cosmids and subcloned fragments from them indicated that at least three genes (called helA, helB, and helC) are involved in the defects in cytochromes c biosynthesis. The genes are clustered, and helC is transcribed away from helA and helB. Stable insertion mutants in each gene were constructed. It is postulated that helA, helB, and helC are involved in posttranslational processing during cytochromes c synthesis. Images PMID:2536664

  8. A Rhodobacter capsulatus Member of a Universal Permease Family Imports Molybdate and Other Oxyanions▿

    PubMed Central

    Gisin, Jonathan; Müller, Alexandra; Pfänder, Yvonne; Leimkühler, Silke; Narberhaus, Franz; Masepohl, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an important trace element that is toxic at high concentrations. To resolve the mechanisms underlying Mo toxicity, Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants tolerant to high Mo concentrations were isolated by random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. The insertion sites of six independent isolates mapped within the same gene predicted to code for a permease of unknown function located in the cytoplasmic membrane. During growth under Mo-replete conditions, the wild-type strain accumulated considerably more Mo than the permease mutant. For mutants defective for the permease, the high-affinity molybdate importer ModABC, or both transporters, in vivo Mo-dependent nitrogenase (Mo-nitrogenase) activities at different Mo concentrations suggested that ModABC and the permease import molybdate in nanomolar and micromolar ranges, respectively. Like the permease mutants, a mutant defective for ATP sulfurylase tolerated high Mo concentrations, suggesting that ATP sulfurylase is the main target of Mo inhibition in R. capsulatus. Sulfate-dependent growth of a double mutant defective for the permease and the high-affinity sulfate importer CysTWA was reduced compared to those of the single mutants, implying that the permease plays an important role in sulfate uptake. In addition, permease mutants tolerated higher tungstate and vanadate concentrations than the wild type, suggesting that the permease acts as a general oxyanion importer. We propose to call this permease PerO (for oxyanion permease). It is the first reported bacterial molybdate transporter outside the ABC transporter family. PMID:20851900

  9. Effects of room temperature on physiological and subjective responses during whole-body bathing, half-body bathing and showering.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Ni, Furong; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    The effects of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses were evaluated before, during, and after whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was controlled at 10 degrees C, 17.5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. The water temperature of the bathtub and shower was controlled at 40 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematocrit: Hct, hemoglobin: Hb) were evaluated. Also, thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort (TC) and thermal acceptability (TA) were recorded. BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath compared to showering. HR during W-bath was significantly higher than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.01). The double products due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for H-bath and showering (p < 0.05). There were no distinct differences in Hct and Hb among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering (p < 0.001). W-bath showed the largest increase in Tre and Tsk, followed by H-bath, and showering. Significant differences in Tre after bathing among the room temperatures were found only at H-bath. The changes in Tre after bathing for H-bath at 25 degrees C were similar to those for W-bath at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed for the three bathing methods at 17.5 degrees C and 10 degrees C (TS: p < 0.01 TC: p < 0.001). Especially, for showering, the largest number of subjects felt "cold" and "uncomfortable". Even though all of the subjects could accept the 10 degrees C condition after W-bath, such conditions were intolerable to half of them after showering. These results suggested that the

  10. Loss of the Response Regulator CtrA Causes Pleiotropic Effects on Gene Expression but Does Not Affect Growth Phase Regulation in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, Ryan; Callister, Stephen J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Strnad, Hynek; Paces, Vaclav; Beatty, J. T.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2010-06-01

    The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been extensively studied for its diverse metabolic capabilities, as well as for its production of a Gene Transfer Agent (RcGTA). Production of RcGTA requires the response regulator protein CtrA. We have used whole genome transcript and whole cell proteome analyses of wild type and ctrA mutant cultures to completely characterize the regulatory role of CtrA in R. capsulatus.

  11. Structural and mechanistic insights into methane oxidation by particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2007-07-01

    Particulate methane monooxygense (pMMO) is an integral membrane copper-containing enzyme that converts methane to methanol. Knowledge of how pMMO selectively oxidizes methane under ambient conditions could impact the development of new catalysts. The crystal structure of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) pMMO reveals the composition and location of three metal centers. Spectroscopic data provide insight into the coordination environments and oxidation states of these metal centers. These results, combined with computational studies and comparisons to relevant systems, are discussed in the context of identifying the most likely site for O 2 activation. PMID:17444606

  12. The metal centres of particulate methane mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-12-01

    pMMO (particulate methane mono-oxygenase) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol. The pMMO metal active site has not been identified, precluding detailed investigation of the reaction mechanism. Models for the metal centres proposed by various research groups have evolved as crystallographic and spectroscopic data have become available. The present review traces the evolution of these active-site models before and after the 2005 Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) pMMO crystal structure determination. PMID:19021511

  13. The Metal Centers of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Hakemian,A.; Kondapalli, K.; Telser, J.; Hoffman, B.; Stemmler, T.; Rosenzweig, A.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. The nature of the pMMO active site and the overall metal content are controversial, with spectroscopic and crystallographic data suggesting the presence of a mononuclear copper center, a dinuclear copper center, a trinuclear center, and a diiron center or combinations thereof. Most studies have focused on pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). pMMO from a second organism, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, has been purified and characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Purified M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO contains 2 copper ions per 100 kDa protomer. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic parameters indicate that type 2 Cu(II) is present as two distinct species. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are best fit with oxygen/nitrogen ligands and reveal a Cu-Cu interaction at 2.52 Angstroms. Correspondingly, X-ray crystallography of M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO shows a dinuclear copper center, similar to that observed previously in the crystal structure of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO. There are, however, significant differences between the pMMO structures from the two organisms. A mononuclear copper center present in M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO is absent in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO, whereas a metal center occupied by zinc in the M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO structure is occupied by copper in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO. These findings extend previous work on pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) and provide new insight into the functional importance of the different metal centers.

  14. The metal centers of particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Hakemian, Amanda S; Kondapalli, Kalyan C; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M; Stemmler, Timothy L; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-07-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. The nature of the pMMO active site and the overall metal content are controversial, with spectroscopic and crystallographic data suggesting the presence of a mononuclear copper center, a dinuclear copper center, a trinuclear center, and a diiron center or combinations thereof. Most studies have focused on pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). pMMO from a second organism, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, has been purified and characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Purified M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO contains approximately 2 copper ions per 100 kDa protomer. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic parameters indicate that type 2 Cu(II) is present as two distinct species. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are best fit with oxygen/nitrogen ligands and reveal a Cu-Cu interaction at 2.52 A. Correspondingly, X-ray crystallography of M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO shows a dinuclear copper center, similar to that observed previously in the crystal structure of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO. There are, however, significant differences between the pMMO structures from the two organisms. A mononuclear copper center present in M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO is absent in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO, whereas a metal center occupied by zinc in the M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO structure is occupied by copper in M. trichosporium OB3b pMMO. These findings extend previous work on pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) and provide new insight into the functional importance of the different metal centers. PMID:18540635

  15. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  16. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  17. Rhodobacter capsulatus OlsA is a bifunctional enzyme active in both ornithine lipid and phosphatidic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Aygun-Sunar, Semra; Bilaloglu, Rahmi; Goldfine, Howard; Daldal, Fevzi

    2007-12-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus genome contains three genes (olsA [plsC138], plsC316, and plsC3498) that are annotated as lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate) acyltransferase (AGPAT). Of these genes, olsA was previously shown to be an O-acyltransferase in the second step of ornithine lipid biosynthesis, which is important for optimal steady-state levels of c-type cytochromes (S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Mandaci, H.-G. Koch, I. V. J. Murray, H. Goldfine, and F. Daldal. Mol. Microbiol. 61:418-435, 2006). The roles of the remaining plsC316 and plsC3498 genes remained unknown. In this work, these genes were cloned, and chromosomal insertion-deletion mutations inactivating them were obtained to define their function. Characterization of these mutants indicated that, unlike the Escherichia coli plsC, neither plsC316 nor plsC3498 was essential in R. capsulatus. In contrast, no plsC316 olsA double mutant could be isolated, indicating that an intact copy of either olsA or plsC316 was required for R. capsulatus growth under the conditions tested. Compared to OlsA null mutants, PlsC316 null mutants contained ornithine lipid and had no c-type cytochrome-related phenotype. However, they exhibited slight growth impairment and highly altered total fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. Heterologous expression in an E. coli plsC(Ts) mutant of either R. capsulatus plsC316 or olsA gene products supported growth at a nonpermissive temperature, exhibited AGPAT activity in vitro, and restored phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. The more vigorous AGPAT activity displayed by PlsC316 suggested that plsC316 encodes the main AGPAT required for glycerophospholipid synthesis in R. capsulatus, while olsA acts as an alternative AGPAT that is specific for ornithine lipid synthesis. This study therefore revealed for the first time that some OlsA enzymes, like the enzyme of R. capsulatus, are bifunctional and involved in both membrane ornithine lipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. PMID

  18. Rhodobacter capsulatus OlsA Is a Bifunctional Enyzme Active in both Ornithine Lipid and Phosphatidic Acid Biosynthesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Aygun-Sunar, Semra; Bilaloglu, Rahmi; Goldfine, Howard; Daldal, Fevzi

    2007-01-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus genome contains three genes (olsA [plsC138], plsC316, and plsC3498) that are annotated as lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate) acyltransferase (AGPAT). Of these genes, olsA was previously shown to be an O-acyltransferase in the second step of ornithine lipid biosynthesis, which is important for optimal steady-state levels of c-type cytochromes (S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Mandaci, H.-G. Koch, I. V. J. Murray, H. Goldfine, and F. Daldal. Mol. Microbiol. 61:418-435, 2006). The roles of the remaining plsC316 and plsC3498 genes remained unknown. In this work, these genes were cloned, and chromosomal insertion-deletion mutations inactivating them were obtained to define their function. Characterization of these mutants indicated that, unlike the Escherichia coli plsC, neither plsC316 nor plsC3498 was essential in R. capsulatus. In contrast, no plsC316 olsA double mutant could be isolated, indicating that an intact copy of either olsA or plsC316 was required for R. capsulatus growth under the conditions tested. Compared to OlsA null mutants, PlsC316 null mutants contained ornithine lipid and had no c-type cytochrome-related phenotype. However, they exhibited slight growth impairment and highly altered total fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. Heterologous expression in an E. coli plsC(Ts) mutant of either R. capsulatus plsC316 or olsA gene products supported growth at a nonpermissive temperature, exhibited AGPAT activity in vitro, and restored phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. The more vigorous AGPAT activity displayed by PlsC316 suggested that plsC316 encodes the main AGPAT required for glycerophospholipid synthesis in R. capsulatus, while olsA acts as an alternative AGPAT that is specific for ornithine lipid synthesis. This study therefore revealed for the first time that some OlsA enzymes, like the enzyme of R. capsulatus, are bifunctional and involved in both membrane ornithine lipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. PMID

  19. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs. PMID:27392413

  20. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect. PMID:22735119

  1. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  2. Cloning, characterization, and regulation of nifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, G; Hübner, P; Sandmeier, U; Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1996-07-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus nifF gene and upstream sequence were cloned by using a probe based on the N-terminal sequence of NifF. nifF was found to not be contained in the previously described nif regions I, II, and III. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that it is highly similar to NifF from Azotobacter vinelandii and NifF from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Analysis of translational fusions demonstrated that the regulation of transcription was the same as previously reported at the protein level. Insertional mutagen esis showed that NifF contributes significantly to nitrogenase activity under normal nitrogen-fixing conditions and that it is absolutely required for nitrogen fixation under iron limitation. PMID:8682802

  3. Enhanced photo-fermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus with pigment content manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Xueqing; Guo, Liejin; Wu, Xiaomin; Yang, Honghui

    2012-08-01

    High content of pigment in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria hinders its photo-hydrogen production rate under intense light irradiation. In order to alleviate the light shielding effect and improve its photo-fermentative hydrogen production performance, pufQ, which is the regulatory gene of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus, was cloned and relocated in the genome under cbb3 promoter by homologous recombination. The UV-vis spectra indicated that the light absorption of the mutant between 300 and 900 nm was reduced. Photo-hydrogen production experiments by the recombinant and wild type strain were carried out in 350 mL photo bioreactors using acetic and butyric acid as substrate. The results showed that the hydrogen production of recombinant with reduced pigment was 27% higher than that of its parental strain, indicating that it is effective on enhancing photo-fermentative hydrogen production by manipulating pigment biosynthesis in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:22717568

  4. In vitro assembly of a prohead-like structure of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent

    SciTech Connect

    Spano, Anthony J. . E-mail: ajs6z@virginia.edu; Chen, Frank S.; Goodman, Benjamin E.; Sabat, Agnes E.; Simon, Martha N.; Wall, Joseph S.; Correia, John J.; McIvor, Wilson; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Schnur, Joel M.; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-07-20

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like particle capable of exchanging double-stranded DNA fragments between cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here we show that the major capsid protein of GTA, expressed in E. coli, can be assembled into prohead-like structures in the presence of calcium ions in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of uranyl acetate staining material and thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed material demonstrates that these associates have spherical structures with diameters in the range of 27-35 nm. The analysis of scanning TEM images revealed particles of mass {approx} 4.3 MDa, representing 101 {+-} 11 copies of the monomeric subunit. The establishment of this simple and rapid method to form prohead-like particles permits the GTA system to be used for genome manipulation within the photosynthetic bacterium, for specific targeted drug delivery, and for the construction of biologically based distributed autonomous sensors for environmental monitoring.

  5. In vitro assembly of a prohead-like structure of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent.

    PubMed

    Spano, Anthony J; Chen, Frank S; Goodman, Benjamin E; Sabat, Agnes E; Simon, Martha N; Wall, Joseph S; Correia, John J; McIvor, Wilson; Newcomb, William W; Brown, Jay C; Schnur, Joel M; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-07-20

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like particle capable of exchanging double-stranded DNA fragments between cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here we show that the major capsid protein of GTA, expressed in E. coli, can be assembled into prohead-like structures in the presence of calcium ions in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of uranyl acetate staining material and thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed material demonstrates that these associates have spherical structures with diameters in the range of 27-35 nm. The analysis of scanning TEM images revealed particles of mass approximately 4.3 MDa, representing 101+/-11 copies of the monomeric subunit. The establishment of this simple and rapid method to form prohead-like particles permits the GTA system to be used for genome manipulation within the photosynthetic bacterium, for specific targeted drug delivery, and for the construction of biologically based distributed autonomous sensors for environmental monitoring. PMID:17408713

  6. Replacement of sugars to hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus using dark fermentation effluent as substrate.

    PubMed

    Silva, Felipe Thales Moreira; Moreira, Luiza Rojas; de Souza Ferreira, Juliana; Batista, Fabiana Regina Xavier; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative for the increased global energy demand since it has high energy density and is a clean fuel. The aim of this work was to evaluate the photo-fermentation by Rhodobacter capsulatus, using the dark fermentation effluent as substrate. Different systems were tested by changing the type of sugar in the dark fermentation, investigating the influence of supplementing DFE with sugar and adding alternate and periodically lactose and glucose throughout the process. The supplementation of the DFE with sugar resulted in higher H2 productivity and the replacement of the sugars repeatedly during the photo-fermentation process was important to maintain the cell culture active. By controlling the residual amount of sugar, bacteria inhibition was avoided; lactic acid, that was toxic to the biomass, was consumed and the metabolic route of butyric acid production was predominant. Under optimum conditions, the H2 productivity reached 208.40mmolH2/Ld in 52h. PMID:26476167

  7. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Events Control Copper-Responsive Expression of a Rhodobacter capsulatus Multicopper Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Corinna; Moser, Roman; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Klinkert, Birgit; Narberhaus, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The copper-regulated Rhodobacter capsulatus cutO (multicopper oxidase) gene confers copper tolerance and is carried in the tricistronic orf635-cutO-cutR operon. Transcription of cutO strictly depends on the promoter upstream of orf635, as demonstrated by lacZ reporter fusions to nested promoter fragments. Remarkably, orf635 expression was not affected by copper availability, whereas cutO and cutR were expressed only in the presence of copper. Differential regulation was abolished by site-directed mutations within the orf635-cutO intergenic region, suggesting that this region encodes a copper-responsive mRNA element. Bioinformatic predictions and RNA structure probing experiments revealed an intergenic stem-loop structure as the candidate mRNA element. This is the first posttranscriptional copper response mechanism reported in bacteria. PMID:22287514

  8. [Surface layers of methanotrophic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional characteristics of the regular glycoprotein layers in prokaryotes are analyzed with a special emphasis on aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. S-layers are present at the surfaces of Methylococcus, Methylothermus, and Methylomicrobium cells. Different Methylomicrobium species either synthesize S-layers with planar (p2, p4) symmetry or form cup-shaped or conicalstructures with hexagonal (p6) symmetry. A unique, copper-binding polypeptide 'CorA'/MopE (27/45 kDa), which is coexpressed with the diheme periplasmic cytochrome c peroxidase 'CorB'/Mca (80 kDa) was found in Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. This tandem of the surface proteins is functionally analogous to a new siderophore, methanobactin. Importantly, no 'CorA'/MopE homologue was found in methanotrophs not forming S-layers. The role of surface proteins in copper metabolism and initial methane oxidation is discussed. PMID:25509389

  9. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Burke-Agueero, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight ``bch`` genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.

  10. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Burke-Agueero, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight bch'' genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.