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1

DLLME Combined with GC–MS for the Determination of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben and Butylparaben in Beverage Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) has been developed\\u000a for the determination of four parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) in beverage samples.\\u000a Some important parameters, such as the kinds and volumes of extraction solvent and dispersive solvent, extraction time and\\u000a salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the enrichment factors for

Yi Han; Xiaoyu Jia; Xinli Liu; Taicheng Duan; Hangting Chen

2010-01-01

2

Liquid chromatographic determination of methylparaben and propylparaben in nortriptyline hydrochloride oil-water microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A reversed-phase LC method using UV detection has been developed and validated for the analysis of methylparaben and propylparaben\\u000a in nortriptyline hydrochloride oil-water (o-w) microemulsions. The precision and accuracy of the method was excellent with\\u000a RSD values of 4.53% and 2.13% respectively for methylparaben, and 3.69% and 2.06% respectively for propylparaben. The linearity\\u000a established was 50–150% of theoretical concentrations of

M. A. Moreno; D. Castro; P. Frutos; M. P. Ballesteros; J. L. Lastres

2000-01-01

3

Assay of artemether, methylparaben and propylparaben in a formulated paediatric antimalarial dry suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two HPLC–UV methods are described for the separate determination of artemether (AM) and the combined preservatives, methylparaben and propylparaben in a pharmaceutical dosage form. These analytes are contained in a dry suspension with a high amount of non-soluble excipients, some of which can interfere with the analysis. This makes their separation and analysis of the actives complex. Moreover, due to

Magnus A. Atemnkeng; Els Marchand; Jacqueline Plaizier-Vercammen

2007-01-01

4

Simultaneous determination of methylparaben, propylparaben and thimerosal by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using amperometric detection has been developed for the analysis of methylparaben, propylparaben and thimerosal. The liquid chromatographic separation of the three preservatives was made possible on a C18-bonded silica column with a mixed solvent consisting of methanol and aqueous 0.02 M phosphoric acid (59:41, v\\/v). A potential value of + 1.25 V versus Ag\\/AgCl

Seong Ho Kang; Hasuck Kim

1997-01-01

5

Determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride, methylparaben, and propylparaben in nalbuphine hydrochloride injection by high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride,\\u000a methylparaben, and propylparaben in nalbuphine hydrochloride injection. Reversed-phase chromatography was carried out using\\u000a a mobile phase containing 0.05 % trifuoroacetic acid, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Quantitation was achieved with UV\\u000a detection at 280 nm. Validation data for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness are presented. The chromatographic

M. A. Quarry; D. S. Sebastian; R. C. Williams

1998-01-01

6

Determination of methylparaben, propylparaben, clotrimazole and its degradation products in topical cream by RP-HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods with UV detection were developed and validated for\\u000a determination of compounds in a topical cream. The first method describes determination of the active component clotrimazole\\u000a and two preservatives present in the cream; methylparaben and propylparaben. The second method describes determination of\\u000a two degradation products of clotrimazole, imidazole and (2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethanol, in a topical cream

P. Solich; R. Hájková; M. Pospíšilová; J. Šícha

2002-01-01

7

Separation and determination of ketoprofen, methylparaben and propylparaben in pharmaceutical preparation by micellar electrokinetic chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of ketoprofen as the active substance and methylparaben and propylparaben as preservatives in a semisolid pharmaceutical preparation. Separation was carried out with a fused silica capillary and UV detection at 200nm. Optimized background electrolyte was 50mM tricine buffer containing 30mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant and 15% (v\\/v) of

Ji?í Šafra; Marie Pospíšilová

2008-01-01

8

Determination of indinavir, potassium sorbate, methylparaben, and propylparaben in aqueous pediatric suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient, reversed phase, HPLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of potassium sorbate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and indinavir in aqueous suspensions that contain a proprietary orange flavoring and Magnasweet® sweetener enhancer (MacSanrews and Forbes Company, Magnasweet® product brochure). The chromatographic separation is performed on an Eclipse XDB-C8 column using a gradient run with an analysis time of 35 min. The

Dawn M. Kreuz; Angela L. Howard; Dominic Ip

1999-01-01

9

Methylparaben and propylparaben do not alter cerebral blood flow in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro studies suggest that the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben included in some multidose vials of succinylcholine\\u000a are the cerebral vasodilators responsible for the increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) documented after succinylcholine\\u000a administration. To test this hypothesis, we measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) with\\u000a inhaled133Xenon and transcranial Doppler respectively in healthy humans before and

Adrian W. Gelb; Elise Gignac; Pirjo H. Manninen; J. Keith Farrar; Donald H. Lee

1992-01-01

10

Separation and determination of clotrimazole, methylparaben and propylparaben in pharmaceutical preparation by micellar electrokinetic chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of clotrimazole (CLO), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in a pharmaceutical preparation. Separation was carried out in a fused silica capillary (60cm×75?m i.d.) at 25kV with UV detection at 212nm. Optimized background electrolyte (BGE) was 15mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) containing 30mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as

Rafífa Hamoudová; Marie Pospíšilová; Andrea Kavalírová; Petr Solich; Jan Šícha

2006-01-01

11

Determination of methylparaben, propylparaben, triamcinolone acetonide and its degradation product in a topical cream by RP-HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of active component triamcinolone acetonide, its degradation product triamcinolone (occurring in formulation after long-term stability tests) and two preservatives presented in the cream—methylparaben and propylparaben, using hydrocortisone as an internal standard.

L. Matysová; R. Hájková; J. Šícha; P. Solich

2003-01-01

12

Determination of methylparaben, propylparaben and chlorpromazine in chlorpromazine hydrochloride oral solution by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben and propylparaben preservatives and chlorpromazine hydrochloride active component in a liquid oral pharmaceutical formulation. The method separated the analytes as well as some degradants and other components, providing good resolution and moderate tailing. The performance of various C18 columns was compared. There were

Diane Kollmorgen; Bela Kraut

1998-01-01

13

Stability indicating simultaneous determination of domperidone (DP), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, specific and precise high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and domperidone (DP) in oral suspension. Isocratic mobile phase consists of 0.5% w\\/v aqueous ammonium acetate buffer:methanol, 40:60 (v\\/v). Column containing octylsilyl chemically bonded to porous silica particles (Optimapak, OP C8, 150mm×4.6mm, 5?m, stainless steel analytical

Mohammed Shahid Ali; Mohsin Ghori; Aamer Roshanali Khatri

2006-01-01

14

Simultaneous determination of methylparaben, propylparaben, hydrocortisone acetate and its degradation products in a topical cream by RP-HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV spectrophotometric detection was developed and validated for the determination of compounds in topical cream. The method describes determination of active component hydrocortisone acetate (HCA), its degradation products hydrocortisone (HC) and cortisone acetate (occurring in formulation after long-term stability tests) and two preservatives presented in the cream-methylparaben and propylparaben, using dexamethasone as

R. Hájková; P. Solich; J. Dvo?ák; J. Š??cha

2003-01-01

15

HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL, PSEDOEPHEDRINE, TRIPROLIDINE, METHYLPARABEN, PROPYLPARABEN, SODIUM BENZOATE AND THEIR RELATED SUBSTANCES IN PHARMACEUTICAL SYRUP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A validated HPLC method was developed for the analysis of paracetamol, psedoephedrine, triprolidine, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate and their related substances including p-aminophenol, triprolidine Z-isomer, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and 4-chloracetailide in syrup using symmetry C18 column at 25°C with UV detection at 214 nm. A linear gradient elution was employed starting with 100% mobile phase A and 0% mobile phase B

Alaa El-Gindy; Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia; Mohammad Wafaa Nassar; Hamed Hamed Abu Seada; Maisra Al-Shabrawi Shoeib

2012-01-01

16

A novel gradient HPLC method for simultaneous determination of ranitidine, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral liquid pharmaceutical formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ranitidine, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in oral liquids. Samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a copolymeric [poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone)] sorbent. The chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC using a mixture of ammonium acetate solution (0.5M), acetonitrile and methanol as the mobile

Magdalene Xenou Kokoletsi; Stella Kafkala; Michael Tsiaganis

2005-01-01

17

Simultaneous determination of methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium diclofenac and its degradation product in a topical emulgel by reversed-phase liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method with UV spectrophotometric detection was developed and validated for the determination of compounds in topical emulgel. The method describes determination of active component sodium diclofenac, its degradation product 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-indolin-2-one (occurring in formulation after long-term stability tests) and two preservatives presented in the emulgel, methylparaben and propylparaben, using flurbiprofen as an internal standard. The chromatographic

R Hájková; P Solich; M Posp??šilová; J Š??cha

2002-01-01

18

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities  

PubMed Central

A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

2013-01-01

19

Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation  

PubMed Central

A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:23833716

Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V. Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A.

2013-01-01

20

Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation.  

PubMed

A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:23833716

Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A

2013-06-01

21

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

2013-03-01

22

Validated Stability-indicating Reverse-phase Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Methylparaben, Sodium Propylparaben and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Topical Dosage Forms  

PubMed Central

A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants. PMID:24019569

Roy, C.; Chakrabarty, J.; Modi, P. B.

2013-01-01

23

Validated Stability-indicating Reverse-phase Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Methylparaben, Sodium Propylparaben and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Topical Dosage Forms.  

PubMed

A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants. PMID:24019569

Roy, C; Chakrabarty, J; Modi, P B

2013-03-01

24

Simultaneous determination of preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methylparaben and propylparaben) in foodstuffs using high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phased HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives benzoic (BA) and sorbic acids (SA), methyl- (MP) and propylparabens (PP) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (35:65) to elute BA, SA and MP and changing the mobile phase composition to methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4)

Bahruddin Saad; Muhammad Idiris Saleh; Kamarudzaman Ahmad; Mohd. Khairuddin Mohd. Talib

2005-01-01

25

A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical\\u000a use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally\\u000a validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a\\u000a preservative widely used in food,

Alan Talevi; Carolina L. Bellera; Eduardo A. Castro; Luis E. Bruno-Blanch

2007-01-01

26

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Mometasone Furoate, and Tazarotene in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation.  

PubMed

A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol (PE), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), mometasone furoate (MF), and tazarotene (TA) in topical pharmaceutical dosage formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters X-Bridge™ C18 (50×4.6mm, 3.5?) column using gradient elution at 256 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 0.1%v/v orthophosphoric acid in water as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The method showed linearity over the range of 5.88-61.76 ?g/mL, 0.18-62.36 ?g/mL, 0.17-6.26 ?g/mL, 0.47-31.22 ?g/mL, and 0.44-30.45 ?g/mL for PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA, respectively. The recovery for all of the components was in the range of 98-102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples, in which the spectral purity of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA in a cream sample. PMID:24482766

Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

2013-12-01

27

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Mometasone Furoate, and Tazarotene in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation  

PubMed Central

A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol (PE), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), mometasone furoate (MF), and tazarotene (TA) in topical pharmaceutical dosage formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters X-Bridge™ C18 (50×4.6mm, 3.5?) column using gradient elution at 256 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 0.1%v/v orthophosphoric acid in water as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The method showed linearity over the range of 5.88–61.76 ?g/mL, 0.18–62.36 ?g/mL, 0.17–6.26 ?g/mL, 0.47–31.22 ?g/mL, and 0.44–30.45 ?g/mL for PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA, respectively. The recovery for all of the components was in the range of 98–102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples, in which the spectral purity of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA in a cream sample. PMID:24482766

Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

2013-01-01

28

Ethylparaben affects lifespan, fecundity, and the expression levels of ERR, EcR and YPR in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Parabens, which mainly include methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP), are widely used as cosmetic and food preservatives. Although these chemicals, when used as preservatives, are thought to be safe for humans, many studies have demonstrated that they have estrogenic effects, and can affect the normal development and functions of the reproductive systems in a number of animal species. By treating fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with EP, here we show that lower concentration of EP (0.02%) enhanced fertility while higher concentration of EP (0.10% and 0.20%) shortened the lifespan and reduced the fecundity of fruit flies. When we analyzed the expression levels of the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) and Yolk protein receptor gene (YPR) from control and EP-treated fruit flies by using quantitative real-time PCR, we found that the expression levels of all three genes were significantly changed by EP treatment, and that female fruit flies are more sensitive to EP than males. Our data suggests that the estrogenic and the toxic effects of EP to fruit flies may have a molecular basis through the hormonal effect of EP. PMID:25265034

Liu, Ting; Li, Yajuan; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wei

2014-12-01

29

Development and validation of a novel stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid, potassium sorbate, methylparaben and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation.  

PubMed

A novel stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid and potassium sorbate as well as methyl- and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation has been developed. A 100mm×3.0mm ID. Ascentis Express C18 column maintained at 30°C and UV detection at 240nm were used. A gradient programme was employed at a flow-rate of 0.75ml/min. Mobile phase A comprised of an 83:17 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and methanol and mobile phase B of a 10g/l solution of 85% phosphoric acid in purified water. The method has been validated according to current International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and applied during formulation development and stability studies. The procedure has been shown to be stability-indicating for the topical cream. PMID:24731970

Byrne, Jonathan; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Reinhardt, Robert

2014-08-01

30

Gas chromatographic determination of parabens in various pharmaceutical dosage forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific, sensitive and general applicabla gas chromatographic method is described for the determination of parabens in various liquid pharmaceutical preparations: propylparaben and butylparaben in a liquid antacid dosage form (I); methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben in a syrup (II); methylparaben and propylparaben in a solution for injection (III). Each time one of the parabens is used as internal standard. The

F. De Croo; J. de Schutter; W. Van den Bossche; P. De Moerloose

1984-01-01

31

21 CFR 556.390 - Methylparaben.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylparaben. 556.390 Section 556.390...New Animal Drugs § 556.390 Methylparaben. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of methylparaben in milk from dairy...

2010-04-01

32

Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) combined with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) to determine trace preservatives and antioxidants including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ?-tocopherol (?-t) and ?-tocopherol acetate (?-ta) in cosmetic products. A supercritical fluid extraction procedure was used to isolate four paraben preservatives and four antioxidants from the

Maw-Rong Lee; Chueh-Yu Lin; Zu-Guang Li; Tzu-Feng Tsai

2006-01-01

33

High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)–rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using

Qunlin Zhang; Mei Lian; Lijuan Liu; Hua Cui

2005-01-01

34

Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of parabens in a cosmetic product  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and a capillary zone electrophoresis method (CZE) have been developed for the analysis of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben in a commercial cosmetic product. A very simple extraction procedure with acidified diethylether was developed. The HPLC method involved a C18 reversed-phase column and a gradient of methanol and water-acetic acid (1%). Electrophoretic separation was

L Labat; E Kummer; P Dallet; J. P Dubost

2000-01-01

35

Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of paraben preservative in food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of a group of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben using flow injection analysis technique with chemiluminescence detection has been carried out. The method is based on the enhancement by parabens of cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence reaction in sulfuric acid medium. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of 4.5 × 10?10 to 1.5 × 10?7, 3.0 ×

Aung Myint; Qunlin Zhang; Lijuan Liu; Hua Cui

2004-01-01

36

ER-dependent estrogenic activity of parabens assessed by proliferation of human breast cancer MCF7 cells and expression of ER? and PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogenic activities of the phenolic preservatives methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isopropylparaben and isobutylparaben were examined by assaying estrogen-receptor (ER)-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 cells. All the compounds stimulated the proliferation to about the same level as the maximal cell yield attained with 3×10?11m 17?-estradiol, but at a concentration in the order of 105 to 107 higher than 17?-estradiol. The cell-proliferative effects

T. Okubo; Y. Yokoyama; K. Kano; I. Kano

2001-01-01

37

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for determining the presence of eleven personal care products in surface and wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal care products (PCPs) are widely used emerging contaminants which can cause adverse environmental effects. This paper reports the development and validation of a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–(ESI)MS–MS) for simultaneously determining eleven PCPs: 4 preservatives (methylparaben; ethylparaben; benzylparaben; propylparaben); 2 antimicrobial agents (triclocarban and triclosan) and 5 UV filters (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone;

Marta Pedrouzo; Francesc Borrull; Rosa Maria Marcé; Eva Pocurull

2009-01-01

38

Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17?-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.  

PubMed

Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used widely as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products, including pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics. We showed previously that methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben parabens, even at low doses, stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this represents a direct effect on cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression. MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells were exposed to methyl, butyl- and propylparaben (20?nm) or 17?-estradiol (10?nm). Cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by Western blot. 17?-estradiol upregulated G1 /S phase genes and downregulated cell cycle progression inhibitors in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Upregulation of Bcl-xL and downregulation of caspase 9 was observed in MCF-7, while upregulation of Bcl-xL, BCL2L2 and caspase 9 was noted in MCF-10A. Cyclins in MCF-7 cells were not affected by any of the parabens. Methyl- and butylparaben had no effect on the expression of selected apoptotic genes in MCF-7. In MCF-10A, all parabens tested increased the expression of G1 /S phase genes, and downregulated cell cycle inhibitors. Methylparaben increased pro-survival gene. Butylparaben increased BCL2L1 gene, as did 17?-estradiol, while propylparaben upregulated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. There are differences in cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression between parabens and 17?-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells, most of the genes activated by parabens were comparable to those activated by 17?-estradiol. PMID:24481588

Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

2014-09-01

39

Stability of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben) to gamma radiolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate during 60Co ?-radiolysis was studied in the solid state and in 10 ?M water solution. The work was undertaken as a model to be extended to radiolytic sterilization of pharmaceutical preparations. Only in water moderate decomposition was observed at high doses (50 KGy, whilst at 5 kGy sterilization was verified. Methylparaben labelled with carbon-14 on

Giancarlo Angelini; Roberto Bucci; Marcello Colosimo; Andrea Margonelli

1998-01-01

40

Methylparaben potentiates UV-induced damage of skin keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, methylparaben (MP) has been used as a preservative in cosmetics. In this study, we investigated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure on MP-treated human skin keratinocytes. HaCaT keratinocyte was cultured in MP-containing medium for 24h, exposed to UVB (15 or 30mJ\\/cm2) and further cultured for another 24h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by MTT-based assay and cell

Osamu Handa; Satoshi Kokura; Satoko Adachi; Tomohisa Takagi; Yuji Naito; Toru Tanigawa; Norimasa Yoshida; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

41

Photocatalytic degradation of methylparaben by TiO 2: Multivariable experimental design and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylparaben is widely used as a bactericide and as an antimicrobial agent in the formulation of personal care products (PCPs) such as tooth pastes, deodorants, beauty creams, solar filters, and bath gels. Owing to a certain estrogenic activity, a possible relationship with breast cancer has been proved by many researchers. Photocatalytic degradation of methylparaben was carried out in an aqueous

Yixin Lin; Corinne Ferronato; Nansheng Deng; Feng Wu; Jean-Marc Chovelon

2009-01-01

42

The effects of methylparaben on the gelatinization and thermal decomposition of corn starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methylparaben, frequently used preservative, on the gelatinization and solid state decomposition of corn starch were determined. It was observed that methylparaben causes a decrease in the gelatinization temperature of the starch by up to 14.8°C. The starch was shown to degrade in two consecutive reactions, an initial dehydration, followed by the formation of a carbonaceous residue. The

Carolyn O’Connell

1999-01-01

43

Stability of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben) to gamma radiolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate during 60Co ?-radiolysis was studied in the solid state and in 10 ?M water solution. The work was undertaken as a model to be extended to radiolytic sterilization of pharmaceutical preparations. Only in water moderate decomposition was observed at high doses (50 KGy, whilst at 5 kGy sterilization was verified. Methylparaben labelled with carbon-14 on the carboxyl group provided the decomposition yield by the reverse isotope dilution method; mass balances were drawn and mechanisms suggested.

Angelini, Giancarlo; Bucci, Roberto; Colosimo, Marcello; Margonelli, Andrea

1998-01-01

44

Methylparaben isolated in solid argon: structural characterization and UV-induced conversion into methylparaben radical and isomeric ketenes.  

PubMed

Methylparaben (methyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid; MP) is a widely used antimicrobial preservative, being the most frequently used antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics. The generalized use of MP has become controversial, with several recent reports of dangerous side effects. For example, the presence of MP in human breast tumors and its harmful effects on human skin exposed to the sunlight have been demonstrated. In spite of the important practical relevance of the compound and of the controversy about its practical use, its structural and photochemical characterization had not been undertaken hitherto. To fill this gap, in the present study, MP was isolated in solid argon (T = 15 K) and structurally characterized by a combined infrared spectroscopy/quantum chemistry approach. The potential energy surface (PES) of the molecule was investigated in detail, revealing the existence of two almost isoenergetic (?E(0) = 0.37 kJ mol(-1)) s-cis carboxylic ester low-energy conformers, with an estimated population ratio in the gas phase at room temperature (?298 K) of ca. 0.83. The calculations also predicted the existence of two high-energy (?E(0) = ?50 kJ mol(-1)) s-trans carboxylic ester conformers of MP. Upon isolation of the compound in an argon matrix, only the lowest energy conformer was found to survive, due to occurrence of extensive conformational cooling during matrix deposition. The infrared spectrum of this conformer was obtained and interpreted. In addition, the chemical processes resulting from in situ irradiation of the matrix-isolated MP with a broadband UV source (? > 234 nm) were investigated, revealing extensive conversion of MP into highly reactive methylparaben radical and isomeric ketenes. These observations support the recent concerns regarding uses of MP, in particular when the compound has to be exposed to UV light. PMID:24083322

Ku?, Nihal; Bayar?, Sevgi H; Fausto, Rui

2013-10-31

45

Determination of parabens in beverage samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient method for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben in real beverage samples was developed. It is making use of solidified floating organic droplets of 1-dodecanol which has low density and a proper melting point. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the type of extraction and dispersive solvent, the volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, salt effect, pH, extraction time, were optimized and resulted in enrichment factors (EFs) of 84 for methylparaben, 103 for ethylparaben, 115 for propylparaben and 126 for butylparaben. The limits of detection for parabens were 1.52, 1.06, 0.32 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent linearity with coefficients of correlation from 0.9970 to 0.9997 was observed in the concentration range of 5-1,000 ng/mL. The repeatability of the proposed method expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.54 to 3.89% (n = 5). The relative recoveries for parabens in beverage samples were good and in the ranges of 89.8-109.9, 90.2-107.3, 90.9-101.7 and 92.3-118.1%, respectively. Thus, the proposed method has excellent potential for the determination of parabens in beverage samples. PMID:24297525

Hou, Fang; Deng, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang

2014-01-01

46

Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for specific IgE antibody to lidocaine, procaine and methylparaben  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although anaphylactoid reactions to local anesthetics are well known, a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) to detect specific\\u000a drug reagin (IgE) anti-body has not been developed. We established RAST for local anesthetics by using carboxylic acid derivatives\\u000a of lidocaine, procaine and methylparaben. Serum samples were taken from 100 volunteers who were regarded to be nonallergic\\u000a to the drugs used. Negative RAST values

Masahiro Kokubu; Kazuaki Oda; Noboru Shinya

1989-01-01

47

Fast simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of naphazoline nitrate and methylparaben by sequential injection chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast simultaneous determination of naphazoline nitrate and methylparaben in pharmaceuticals using separation method based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) is described in this contribution as an alternative to classical HPLC. A Chromolith™ Flash RP-18e (25mm×4.6mm) column (Merck®, Germany) and a FIAlab® 3000 system (USA) with a six-port selection valve and 5.0ml syringe pump were used for sequential

Petr Chocholouš; Dalibor Šatínský; Petr Solich

2006-01-01

48

Influence of methylparaben as a solid-state plasticizer on the physicochemical properties of Eudragit® RS PO hot-melt extrudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of methylparaben as a solid-state plasticizer for Eudragit® RS PO during a hot-melt extrusion process. Extruded matrices containing different levels of methylparaben and Eudragit® RS PO, were prepared by feeding the powder blend through a hot melt extruder. The melt viscosity of the polymer blends was assessed by torque rheometry

Chuanbin Wu; James W McGinity

2003-01-01

49

Synthesis of biodegradable poly(methylparaben\\/glycine ethyl ester) phosphazene and further research of its degradation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polydichlorophosphazene (PDCP) was synthesized from PCl5 and NH4Cl via a one-pot approach, and then further reacted with glycine ethyl ester and methylparaben via a two-step nucleophilic\\u000a substitution approach to give poly(methylparaben\\/glycine ethyl ester)phosphazene (PMGP), which was a kind of mix-substituted\\u000a biodegradable polymer. NMR and FT-IR were used to characterize its structure. A series of experiments were conducted to study\\u000a the

XiaoBin Huang; KuiYong Chen; Jing Li; YuanLi Zheng; JinGui Jiang; XiaoZhen Tang

2011-01-01

50

Determination of S-Carboxymethyl-L-Cysteine, Methylparaben and their Degradation Products in Syrup Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method was developed for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, methylparaben and related compounds in cough syrup preparations. The HPLC operating conditions used were acetonitrile-methanol-water (120:280:600, V\\/V\\/V) pH adjusted to 4.0 with 0.1 M HCl, on a 5um Spherisorb ODS2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) with a flow rate of 1 mL min ?1. The injection volume was 10

D. Orlovic; D. Radulovic; Z. Vujic

2004-01-01

51

Dissociation constants of parabens and limiting conductances of their ions in water.  

PubMed

Precise measurements of electrical conductivities of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben sodium salts in dilute aqueous solutions were performed from 278.15 to 313.15 K in 5 K intervals. Experimental conductivity data were analyzed applying the Quint-Viallard conductivity equations by taking into account the salt hydrolysis in aqueous solutions. These evaluations yield the limiting conductances of paraben anions and the dissociation constants of the investigated parabens in water. From temperature dependence of dissociation constants, the thermodynamic functions associated with the dissociation process were estimated. It was discovered that the contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the Gibbs free energy are quite similar. The Walden products of paraben anions in water are independent of temperature, indicating that the hydrodynamic radii are not significantly affected by temperature. PMID:22220814

Krofli?, Ana; Apelblat, Alexander; Bešter-Roga?, Marija

2012-02-01

52

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary and Ternary Systems. Part II. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Nonaqueous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.

Goto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Salomon, Mark; Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi; Scharlin, Pirketta

2011-06-01

53

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

54

21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Substances classified as antimycotics, when migrating from food-packaging material shall include: Calcium propionate. Methylparaben (methyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium...

2011-04-01

55

21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Substances classified as antimycotics, when migrating from food-packaging material shall include: Calcium propionate. Methylparaben (methyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium...

2013-04-01

56

21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Substances classified as antimycotics, when migrating from food-packaging material shall include: Calcium propionate. Methylparaben (methyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium...

2014-04-01

57

21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Substances classified as antimycotics, when migrating from food-packaging material shall include: Calcium propionate. Methylparaben (methyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium...

2010-04-01

58

21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Substances classified as antimycotics, when migrating from food-packaging material shall include: Calcium propionate. Methylparaben (methyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p -hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium...

2012-04-01

59

Methylparaben in Anopheles gambiae s.l. sugar meals increases longevity and malaria oocyst abundance but is not a preferred diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antifungal chemical methylparaben (methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) was added to the adult sucrose diet of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, and its effect on longevity was determined. In all cases, significant increases in longevity were observed when 0.2% (w\\/v) methylparaben was added to meals that were refreshed weekly. When fresh sugar diet was refreshed daily, no increase in longevity was

Mark Q. Benedict; Rebecca C. Hood-Nowotny; Paul I. Howell; Elien E. Wilkins

2009-01-01

60

Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, methylparaben and benzoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations based on sequential injection technique coupled with monolithic column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method.In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography

Dalibor Šatínský; Jitka Huclová; Raquel L. C. Ferreira; Maria Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro; Petr Solich

2006-01-01

61

Simultaneous spectrophotometric-multivariate calibration determination of several components of ophthalmic solutions: phenylephrine, chloramphenicol, antipyrine, methylparaben and thimerosal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of multivariate spectrophotometric calibration for the simultaneous determination of several active components and excipients in ophthalmic solutions is presented. The resolution of five-component mixtures of phenylephrine, chloramphenicol, antipyrine, methylparaben and thimerosal has been accomplished by using partial least-squares (PLS-1) and a variant of the so-called hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Notwithstanding the presence of a large number of components

Mar??a S. Collado; V??ctor E. Mantovani; Héctor C. Goicoechea; Alejandro C. Olivieri

2000-01-01

62

X-ray crystallographic studies on hexameric insulins in the presence of helix-stabilizing agents, thiocyanate, methylparaben, and phenol.  

PubMed

Three X-ray crystallographic studies have been carried out on pig insulin in the presence of three ligands, thiocyanate, methylparaben (methyl p-hydroxybenzoate), and phenol. In each case, rhombohedral crystals were obtained, which diffracted to 1.8, 1.9, and 2.3 A, respectively. Each crystal structure was very similar to that of 4-zinc pig insulin, which was used as a starting model for PROLSQ refinement (Collaborative Computational Project, Number 4, 1994). The R factors for the refined structures of thiocyanate insulin, methylparaben insulin, and phenol insulin were 19.6, 18.4, and 19.1, respectively. Each crystal structure consists of T3R3f insulin hexamers with two zinc ions per hexamer. In the R3f trimer of the thiocyanate insulin hexamer, one thiocyanate ion is coordinated to the zinc on the hexamer 3-fold axis, but there is no evidence of zinc ion binding in the off-axis zinc ion sites seen in the 4-zinc pig insulin structure. In the methylparaben insulin and phenol insulin hexamers, the phenolic ligands are bound at the dimer-dimer interfaces in the R3f trimers in a manner similar to that of phenol in R6 phenol insulin. The binding of methylparaben appears to make the hexamer more compact by drawing the A and the B chains closer together in the binding site. In all three structures presented herein, the conformations of the first three residues of the B chain in the R3f trimer are extended rather than alpha-helical, as is seen in R6 phenol insulin. The energetics of ligand binding in the insulin hexamer are discussed. PMID:7492558

Whittingham, J L; Chaudhuri, S; Dodson, E J; Moody, P C; Dodson, G G

1995-11-28

63

Spectral characterization of the binding and conformational changes of bovine serum albumin upon interaction with an anti-fungal drug, methylparaben.  

PubMed

The binding of methylparaben with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques under physiological conditions i.e., pH 7.4. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching at different temperatures revealed that the quenching mechanism of bovine serum albumin by methylparaben shows a dynamic quenching. The binding sites number n and binding constants, K were obtained at various temperatures. The distance, r between methylparaben and BSA was evaluated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The result of FT-IR spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra showed that the conformation of bovine serum albumin has been changed in the presence of methylparaben. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H(0)) and entropy change (?S(0)) were calculated according to van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. The effect of common ions and site probes were also carried on the binding of methylparaben to BSA. PMID:23334503

Naik, Keerti M; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

2013-03-15

64

Spectral characterization of the binding and conformational changes of bovine serum albumin upon interaction with an anti-fungal drug, methylparaben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding of methylparaben with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques under physiological conditions i.e., pH 7.4. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching at different temperatures revealed that the quenching mechanism of bovine serum albumin by methylparaben shows a dynamic quenching. The binding sites number n and binding constants, K were obtained at various temperatures. The distance, r between methylparaben and BSA was evaluated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The result of FT-IR spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra showed that the conformation of bovine serum albumin has been changed in the presence of methylparaben. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H0) and entropy change (?S0) were calculated according to van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. The effect of common ions and site probes were also carried on the binding of methylparaben to BSA.

Naik, Keerti M.; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T.

2013-03-01

65

Development and validation of chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of two multicomponent mixtures containing bronchodilator drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods are developed for the determination of two multicomponent mixtures containing guaiphenesine (GU) with salbutamol sulfate (SL), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) [mixture 1]; and acephylline piperazine (AC) with bromhexine hydrochloride (BX), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) [mixture 2]. The resolution of the two multicomponent mixtures has been accomplished by using numerical spectrophotometric methods such as partial least squares

Alaa El-Gindy; Samy Emara; Heba Shaaban

2007-01-01

66

Degradation of methylparaben in water by corona plasma coupled with ozonation.  

PubMed

The degradation of methylparaben (MeP) in water was investigated using a pulsed corona discharge generated in oxygen, above the liquid. A comparison was made between results obtained in semi-batch corona (SBC) configuration (stationary solution, continuous gas flow) and results obtained in a semi-batch corona with recirculation combined with ozonation (SBCR?+?O3), where the liquid is continuously circulated between a solution reservoir and the plasma reactor and the effluent gas containing ozone is bubbled through the solution in the reservoir. It was found that MeP was completely degraded after 10-15 min of treatment in both configurations. Oxidation by ozone alone, in the absence of plasma, was a slower process. The energy efficiency for MeP removal (Y MeP) and for mineralization (Y TOC) was significantly higher in the SBCR?+?O3 configuration (Y MeP?=?7.1 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.41 g/kWh at 50 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal) than in the SBC configuration (Y MeP?=?0.6 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.11 g/kWh at 50 % TOC removal). PMID:24801291

Dobrin, D; Magureanu, M; Bradu, C; Mandache, N B; Ionita, P; Parvulescu, V I

2014-11-01

67

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING LC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOMPERIDONE, SORBIC ACID, AND PROPYLPARABEN IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, selective, and sensitive stability-indicating LC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, propylparaben, and domperidone in pharmaceutical oral suspension formulations. The separations was achieved on a Lichrosorb C8, 150 mm × 4.6 mm and 5 ?m column with detection of 280 nm using an isocratic mobile phase mixture of phosphate buffer (0.05 M) and methanol (40:60 v\\/v) at flow rate

Ghulam A. Shabir

2010-01-01

68

Thermodynamic properties of aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO micelles with added methylparaben determined by differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

DSC experiments were performed on aqueous solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO (P105) amphiphiles in the low concentration regime (0-1%) to resolve the critical micelle concentration (cmc) both neat and co-formulated with methylparaben (MP). Further work was done at 10% amphiphilic copolymer concentrations and co-formulated with MP to resolve the variations in enthalpy. The compensation temperature, T(compensation), was determined from the analyses for neat P105 as 293.9 K; adding MP raises this to 328.43 K. PMID:23474225

Thompson, Andre Lamont; Love, Brian James

2013-05-15

69

Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 2: Personal care product ingredients.  

PubMed

An intensive study was conducted to provide data on intra- and inter-individual variation in urinary excretion of a series of ingredients in personal care products (parabens, triclosan, benzophenones) and bisphenol A (BPA, not expected to be an ingredient) in 8 volunteers over 6 days. Exposure diaries recorded use of personal care products with identified target analytes as ingredients. Participants' usual products were replaced with products without the target analytes for 2 of the 6 days. Urine void volumes and times were recorded. Methyl, ethyl, and n-propylparabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3, and BPA were frequently detected (?70% of samples). Urinary concentrations of the parabens and triclosan were lower on product replacement days. First morning void concentrations correlated moderately to highly with 24-h composite concentrations for all analytes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for spot samples collected on days with usual product use were low for BPA (0.15), moderate for n-propylparaben and methylparaben (0.39 and 0.56, respectively), and high for ethylparaben, benzophenone-3, and triclosan (0.76, 0.81, and 0.934, respectively); ICCs were consistently higher on the basis of cr-adjusted concentrations. Hydration status adjustment methods were assessed by comparing unadjusted and adjusted concentrations to urinary excretion rates (ER, ng/kg-h) for all analytes and samples. Specific gravity-adjusted concentrations correlated slightly better with ER than creatinine-adjusted concentrations. Within-individual variation in biomarker concentrations was highest for methyl and ethylparabens (2 orders of magnitude variation in spot sample concentrations) and lower for the other analytes (1-1.5 orders of magnitude). This dataset provides insight into the design and interpretation of urinary biomonitoring studies for non-persistent chemicals. PMID:24956590

Koch, Holger M; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M; Smolders, Roel; Moos, Rebecca K; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Warren, Nicholas; Levy, Len; Bevan, Ruth

2014-12-01

70

Influence of relative humidity on the mechanical and drug release properties of theophylline pellets coated with an acrylic polymer containing methylparaben as a non-traditional plasticizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical and dissolution properties of theophylline pellets coated with Eudragit® RS 30 D\\/RL 30 D containing methylparaben (MP) as a non-traditional plasticizer. The coated beads were stored at 23°C and at different relative humidities (0, 29, 51, 75 and 84% RH). The effect of

Chuanbin Wu; James W McGinity

2000-01-01

71

Propylparaben sensitizes heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Oranienburg to thermal inactivation in liquid egg albumen.  

PubMed

Propyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (propylparaben [PRPA]) is a phenolic antioxidant, known to occur in nature and used as a microbiostat in foods, feeds, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and medications. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) requires that liquid egg white (LEW) be pasteurized at 56.7°C for 3.5 min. This study evaluated the effects of PRPA on the pasteurization sensitivity of Salmonella in LEW. When LEW (pH 7.8) was pasteurized under FSIS conditions, salmonellae declined by 0.5, 4.6, 4.5, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, and D(56.7°C)-values were 2.99, 1.05, 0.68, 0.26 and ?0.16 min. Albumen (pH 8.9) pasteurized under FSIS standards incurred salmonellae reductions of 3.3, 2.8, 5.2, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, while D(56.7°C)-values were 0.87, 0.99, 0.66, 0.22, and 0.09 min. Adding 500 ppm of PRPA to albumen (pH 7.8) reduced D(56.7°C)-values more than 11-fold, and reduced the time to achieve a 5-log reduction from 15.0 to only 1.3 min. A 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 7.8) at 56.7°C required 20.9 min, versus only 1.8 and 1.1 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. Furthermore, a 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 8.9) required 6.1 min, versus only 1.5 and 0.6 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. This study is the first to report the efficacy of PRPA (pK(a) = 8.4) in sensitizing Salmonella in LEW to thermal pasteurization, while documenting that PRPA retains its antibacterial efficacy at pH levels as high as 8.9. PMID:22410216

Gurtler, Joshua B; Jin, Tony Z

2012-03-01

72

Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction for preconcentration followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed for determination of 19 biocides: eight azole fungicides (climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole, and carbendazim), two insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and icaridin (also known as picaridin)), three isothiazolinone antifouling agents (1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (OIT), and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolinone (DCOIT)), four paraben preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben), and two disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban) in surface water, wastewater, sediment, sludge, and soil. Recovery of the target compounds from surface water, influent, effluent, sediment, sludge, and soil was mostly in the range 70-120%, with corresponding method quantification limits ranging from 0.01 to 0.31 ng L(-1), 0.07 to 7.48 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 3.90 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 0.45 ng g(-1), 0.01 to 6.37 ng g(-1), and 0.01 to 0.73 ng g(-1), respectively. Carbendazim, climbazole, clotrimazole, methylparaben, miconazole, triclocarban, and triclosan were detected at low ng L(-1) (or ng g(-1)) levels in surface water, sediment, and sludge-amended soil. Fifteen target compounds were found in influent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 372 ng L(-1) (methylparaben). Fifteen target compounds were found in effluent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 114 ng L(-1) (carbendazim). Ten target compounds were found in dewatered sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 1.1 (DEET) and 887 ng g(-1) (triclocarban). PMID:23052884

Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Feng; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

2012-12-01

73

Structural Changes in PEO?PPO?PEO Gels Induced by Methylparaben and Dexamethasone Observed Using Time-Resolved SAXS  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers (commercially available as Pluronic surfactants) micellize and structurally arrange into cubic quasicrystalline lattices as their temperature is raised. This structural evolution is seen macroscopically as a gelation, and the presence of these ordered phases can be controlled through both polymer concentration and temperature. The presence of added solutes within the dispersions can also affect the onset and kinetics of structure formation. Here we investigate the structures formed in Pluronic F127 solutions ranging from 20 to 30% with two pharmaceutical additives [methylparaben (MP) and dexamethasone (DX)] using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We observe both the progressive evolution and breakdown of these structures as the temperature is increased from 0 to 80 C. Additionally, we conducted time-resolved SAXS measurements to elucidate the kinetics of the structural evolution. On the basis of the evolution of scattering peaks as the samples were being heated, we suggest that added MP changes the nucleation behavior of fcc phases within the sample from a heterogeneous process to a more homogeneous distribution of nucleated species. MP and DX also stabilize the micelle lattices, allowing them to persevere at higher temperatures. We observed the unusual result that the presence of DX caused the primary peaks of the structure factor to be suppressed, while preserving the higher order peaks. The primary peaks reappeared at the highest temperatures tested.

Meznarich, Norman A.K.; Juggernauth, K. Anne; Batzli, Kiersten M.; Love, Brian J. (Michigan)

2011-11-17

74

Computational consideration on advanced oxidation degradation of phenolic preservative, methylparaben, in water: mechanisms, kinetics, and toxicity assessments.  

PubMed

Hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) are strong oxidants that can degrade organic pollutants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The mechanisms, kinetics, and toxicity assessment of the (•)OH-initiated oxidative degradation of the phenolic preservative, methylparaben (MPB), were systematically investigated using a computational approach, as the supplementary information for experimental data. Results showed that MPB can be initially attacked by (•)OH via OH-addition and H-abstraction routes. Among these routes, the (•)OH addition to the C atom at the ortho-position of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most significant route. However, the methyl-H-abstraction route also cannot be neglected. Further, the formed transient intermediates, OH-adduct ((•)MPB-OH1) and dehydrogenated radical ((•)MPB(-H)?), could be easily transformed to several stable degradation products in the presence of O2 and (•)OH. To better understand the potential toxicity of MPB and its products to aquatic organisms, both acute and chronic toxicities were assessed computationally at three trophic levels. Both MPB and its products, particularly the OH-addition products, are harmful to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the application of AOPs to remove MPB should be carefully performed for safe water treatment. PMID:24997257

Gao, Yanpeng; An, Taicheng; Fang, Hansun; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying

2014-08-15

75

Application of vesicular coacervate phase for microextraction based on solidification of floating drop.  

PubMed

A new, efficient and environmentally friendly method for the analysis of parabens as model compounds was developed using solidified floating vesicular coacervative drop microextraction (SFVCDME). A supramolecular solvent consisting of vesicles of decanoic acid in the nano- and microscale regimes was firstly used as the solvent in solidification of floating drop microextraction. The solvent was produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles in the presence of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). Methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), and propylparaben (PP) were extracted on the basis of hydrophobic and ?-cation interactions and the formation of hydrogen bonds. Microliter volume of vesicular coacervative droplet was delivered to the surface of the aqueous sample, and the sample was stirred for a desired time. The sample vial was cooled by immersing it into an ice bath for 3 min. The solidified solvent was transferred into a suitable vial and melted immediately. Twenty microliter of the vesicular coacervative solvent was directly injected to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, with no need to dilution or solvent evaporation. Several parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including sample temperature, stirring rate, pH, salt effect, volume of the solvent and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors and relative recoveries of the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 81-174 and 91-108%, respectively; and the performance of the method was comparable with that of solid-phase extraction as the reference method. PMID:22305363

Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah

2012-03-16

76

Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. PMID:24026010

Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

2013-09-16

77

Direct rapid analysis of multiple PPCPs in municipal wastewater using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without SPE pre-concentration.  

PubMed

Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to develop a rapid, sensitive and reliable method without solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration for trace analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in in?uent and ef?uent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This method not only shortened the analysis time but also reduced analysis cost significantly by omitting SPE process and avoiding the consumption of SPE cartridge. Detection parameters for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis were optimized, including sample pH, eluent, mobile phase (solvent and additive), column temperature, and ?ow rate. Under the optimal conditions, all analytes were well separated and detected within 8.0min by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method quantification limits (MQLs) for the 11 PPCPs ranged from 0.040 to 88ngL(-1) and from 0.030 to 90ngL(-1) for influent and effluent, respectively. The matrix effect was systematically investigated and quantified for different types of samples. The analysis of in?uent and ef?uent samples of two WWTPs in Hong Kong revealed the presence of 11 PPCPs, including acyclovir, benzophenone-3, benzylparaben, carbamazepine, ethylparaben, fluconazole, fluoxetine, methylparaben, metronidazole, propylparaben, and ranitidine. Their concentrations ranged from 9.1 to 1810ngL(-1) in influent and from 6.5 to 823ngL(-1) in effluent samples collected from Hong Kong WWTPs. PMID:22790701

Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2012-08-13

78

A proposed study on the transplacental transport of parabens in the human placental perfusion model.  

PubMed

Human exposure to parabens as a preservative used in personal care products is of increasing concern, as there is evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies of hormone disruption in association with exposure to parabens. Transport across the placenta could be critical for risk assessment, but the available data are sparse. The aim is to develop a method for estimating fetal exposure, via the placenta, to the most commonly-used parabens, by using a human placental perfusion model. The use of human tissue is vital for determining human fetal exposure, because animal studies are of little relevance, since the placenta exhibits significant interspecies variation. An HPLC model is currently being established to simultaneously quantify four different parabens, namely, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, and their main metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. With this model, we aim to determine the transport kinetics of these parabens across the human placenta, and to investigate placental metabolism, including differences in transport due to molecular characteristics. This will facilitate assessment of the risks associated with the use of paraben-containing products during pregnancy. PMID:24512231

Mathiesen, Line; Zuri, Giuseppina; Andersen, Maria H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2013-12-01

79

Comparison of objective and sensory skin irritations of several cosmetic preservatives.  

PubMed

There are many cosmetic ingredients, such as preservatives and fragrances, known to elicit adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the side-effects of cosmetic preservatives, by evaluating objective and subjective skin irritation. The method comprised of 2 parts. In part 1, we tried to compare 24-hr patch test results with the sensory irritation potential of several preservatives. In part 2, skin cumulative irritation test for 21 days and sensory irritation test were performed to compare various combinations of preservatives in 4 types of formulations. Our data showed that methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, phenoxyethanol (PE) and chlorphenesin (CPN) have similar objective skin irritation potential at the minimal inhibitory concentration of each preservative, but CPN has higher potential than other preservatives in subjective irritation. Sensory irritation of preservatives changed according to formulation type, and PE combined with CPN highly increased irritation. There was correlation between antimicrobial activity and skin objective irritation but not sensory irritation. Influence on skin sensory irritation varies with the combination of preservatives. Therefore, for the development of new preservatives and cosmetics, it is important to evaluate skin sensory irritation of preservatives used in cosmetic products according to the type of formulations. PMID:17295686

Lee, Eunyoung; An, Susun; Choi, Dongwon; Moon, Seongjoon; Chang, Ihseop

2007-03-01

80

Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.  

PubMed

Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

2007-07-01

81

Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum.  

PubMed

The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for primary breast cancer in England between 2005 and 2008. One or more paraben esters were quantifiable in 158/160 (99%) of the tissue samples and in 96/160 (60%) all five esters were measured. Variation was notable with respect to individual paraben esters, location within one breast and similar locations in different breasts. Overall median values in nanograms per gram tissue for the 160 tissue samples were highest for n-propylparaben [16.8 (range 0-2052.7)] and methylparaben [16.6 (range 0-5102.9)]; levels were lower for n-butylparaben [5.8 (range 0-95.4)], ethylparaben [3.4 (range 0-499.7)] and isobutylparaben 2.1 (range 0-802.9). The overall median value for total paraben was 85.5 ng g(-1) tissue (range 0-5134.5). The source of the paraben cannot be identified, but paraben was measured in the 7/40 patients who reported never having used underarm cosmetics in their lifetime. No correlations were found between paraben concentrations and age of patient (37-91 years), length of breast feeding (0-23 months), tumour location or tumour oestrogen receptor content. In view of the disproportionate incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant, paraben concentrations were compared across the four regions of the breast: n-propylparaben was found at significantly higher levels in the axilla than mid (P = 0.004 Wilcoxon matched pairs) or medial (P = 0.021 Wilcoxon matched pairs) regions (P = 0.010 Friedman ANOVA). PMID:22237600

Barr, L; Metaxas, G; Harbach, C A J; Savoy, L A; Darbre, P D

2012-03-01

82

Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Analysis of several emerging contaminants (steroids, caffeine and methylparaben) in water using automated solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS) is presented. Experimental design was used to determine the best SPME extraction conditions and the steroids were not derivatized prior to injection. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS provided linear ranges from 0.6 to 1200?gL(-1) and limits of detection and quantitation from 0.02 to 100?gL(-1). A series of river water samples obtained locally were subjected to analysis. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS is readily automated, straightforward and competitive with other methods for low level analysis of emerging contaminants. PMID:23768536

Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Barnes, Brian B; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lancas, Fernando M; Snow, Nicholas H

2013-07-19

83

Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid\\/methanol\\/acetic acid\\/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees

1981-01-01

84

Glucocorticoid-like activity of propylparaben, butylparaben, diethylhexyl phthalate and tetramethrin mixtures studied in the MDA-kb2 cell line.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting compounds can interfere with the endocrine organs or hormone system and cause tumors, birth defects and developmental disorders in humans. The estrogen-like activity of compounds has been widely studied but little is known concerning their possible modulation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Steroidal (synthetic and natural) and non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in human environments. Identification of such molecular species, which are responsible for modulating the glucocorticoid receptor are necessary to fully assess their risk. We have used the MDA-kb2 cell line, which expresses endogenous glucocorticoid receptor and a stably transfected luciferase reporter gene construct, to quantify the glucocorticoid-like activity of four compounds present in products in everyday use - propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and tetramethrin (TM). We tested all possible combinations of these compounds at two concentrations (1?M and 10nM) and compared their glucocorticoid-like activity. At the concentration of 1?M seven mixtures were identified to have glucocorticoid-like activity except: DEHP+TM, BP+TM, DEHP+PP+TM, BP+PP+TM. At the concentration of 10nM only three mixtures have glucocorticoid modulatory activity: DEHP+PP, BP+PP, DEHP+BP+PP+TM. Identified glucocorticoid-like activities were between 1.25 and 1.51 fold at the concentration of 1?M and between 1.23 and 1.44 fold at the concentration of 10nM in comparison with the solvent control. Individually BP, PP, and DEHP had glucocorticoid-like activity of 1.60, 1.57 and 1.50 fold over the solvent control at the concentration of 1?M. On the other hand PP and DEHP, at the concentration of 10nM, showed no glucocorticoid-like activity, while BP showed 1.44 fold. The assertion that individual glucocorticoid-like compounds do not produce harm because they are present at low, ineffective levels in humans may be irrelevant when we include mixed exposures. This study emphasizes that risk assessment of compounds should take mixture effects into account. PMID:25448277

Klop?i?, Ivana; Kolšek, Katra; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

2015-01-22

85

Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.  

PubMed

Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 ?g/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of

Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

2013-09-01

86

Methylparaben protects 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and improved behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Considerable evidence suggests that free radical formation and oxidative stress might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present investigation we evaluated the therapeutic potential of methylparaben (MP) a well known pharmaceutical preservative against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in a mouse model of PD. At nanomolar concentrations MP (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nM) significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The reactive oxygen species generated by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells was also inhibited by MP in a concentration dependent fashion. Further, intranigral damage induced by stereotaxically injecting 6-OHDA in mouse brain was significantly attenuated by MP treatment. MP (1, 10 or 50 ?g/kg, i.p.) prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and significantly improved motor deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. The cognitive impairments as evaluated by passive avoidance and Y-maze task in mice were also attenuated by MP concentration dependently. Immunohistochemical analysis of substantia nigra in MP treated mice showed significantly higher number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells. Furthermore, MP also suppressed the lipid peroxidation products in 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse brain tissues. Considering the results obtained, the marked neuroprotection exhibited by MP might be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. In conclusion, this study reports the neuroprotective properties of MP in experimental models of PD for the first time and can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23068419

Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Noh, Su-Jin; Koppula, Sushruta; Suh, Yoo-Hun

2013-01-01

87

Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- < ethyl- < propyl- < butylparaben. The extension of the linear alkyl chain with an aromatic ring in benzylparaben further augments the adipogenic ability, whereas 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the common metabolite of all parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further. PMID:22956630

Hu, Pan; Chen, Xin; Whitener, Rick J; Boder, Eric T; Jones, Jeremy O; Porollo, Aleksey; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

2013-01-01

88

Morphometric analysis of mice uteri treated with the preservatives methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben.  

PubMed

The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) known as parabens (Pbens) are widely used as preservatives in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown these compounds to be estrogenic. Here, for the first time, we present evidence of their estrogenicity using a morphometric analysis of uteri from mice treated with the preservatives methylparaben (MePben), ethylparaben (EtPben), propylparaben (PrPben), and butylparaben (BuPben) compared with estradiol (E2). Different groups of adult ovariectomized (Ovx) CD1 mice were subcutaneously (sc) treated daily for three days with two different equimolar doses (362 and 1086 micromol/kg) of the Pbens: MePben (55 and 165 mg/kg), EtPben (60 and 180 mg/kg), PrPben (65 and 195 mg/kg), BuPben (70 and 210 mg/kg), E2 (10 microg/kg; 0.036 micromol/kg), and vehicle (propyleneglycol; V, 10 mL/kg). On the fourth day, uteri were dissected, blotted, weighed, and placed in a fixative solution for 24 h. The paraffin embeded uteri were cut to obtain 7 microm thick transversal sections. Luminal epithelium heights (LEH), glandular epithelium heights (GEH), and myometrium widths (MW) were measured. The highest Pbens dose was able to produce uterotrophic effects (38 to 76%) compared to E2 efects (100%). The relative uterotrophic potency to E2 (100) was from 0.02 to 0.009. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in LEH, GEH, and MW as compared with V were obtained: LEH from 87 to 113% (E2 153%), GEH from 10 to 40% (E2 60%), and MW from 35 to 43% (E2 88%). These results confirm that Pbens at the doses assayed here induce estrogenic histological changes in the uteri of Ovx mice. PMID:15941009

Lemini, C; Hernández, A; Jaimez, R; Franco, Y; Avila, M E; Castell, A

2004-09-01

89

Analysis of parabens in cosmetics by low pressure liquid chromatography with monolithic column and chemiluminescent detection.  

PubMed

This paper presents an application of chromatographic separation based on an ultra-short monolithic column and chemiluminescent detection in an FIA type instrument manifold for the determination of four paraben mixtures: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP). The separation is achieved in 150 s using two consecutive carriers: first 12% ACN:water that changes 75 s after injection to 27% ACN:water. The detection is based on the oxidation of the hydrolysis product of parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with Ce(IV) in the presence of Rhodamine 6G which evokes chemiluminescence of sufficient intensity to enable a sensitive determination of these species. After optimization of the variables involved, the analytical method is characterized, displaying the following values for concentration ranges, detection limits and precision, as relative standard deviation at low concentration (0.15 mg l(-1))-MP: from 9.9x10(-7) to 3.3x10(-4)M; 1.9x10(-8); 5.6%; EP: from 9.0x10(-7) to 3.3x10(-4)M; 2.8x10(-8); 3.5%; PP: from 8.3x10(-7) to 9.9x10(-5)M; 2.3x10(-8); 4.2%; and BP: from 7.7x10(-7) to 9.9x10(-5)M; 4.2x10(-8)M; 6.2%. The method was applied and validated satisfactorily for the determination of these parabens in cosmetic samples, comparing the results against a liquid chromatography reference method. PMID:19559911

Ballesta Claver, J; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

2009-07-15

90

Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

Smith, D.J.

1981-05-01

91

Zero-crossing derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of haloperidol in presence of parabens  

Microsoft Academic Search

First derivative spectrophotometry with a zero-crossing technique of measurement is used for the quantitative determination of haloperidol in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben, which is added as antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceuticals. This technique permits the quantification of haloperidol in the presence of parabens, with closely overlapping spectral bands, and without any separation step. Linear calibration graphs of first derivative

S Ouanês; M Kallel; H Trabelsi; F Safta; K Bouzouita

1998-01-01

92

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for...

2012-04-01

93

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for...

2011-04-01

95

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for...

2013-04-01

96

GC-MS determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in water by in situ derivatisation and stir-bar sorptive extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stir-bar sorptive extraction in combination with an in situ derivatisation reaction and thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry was successfully applied to determine parabens (methylparaben, isopropylparaben, n-propylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben), triclosan and methyltriclosan in water samples. This approach improves both\\u000a the extraction efficiency and the sensitivity in the GC in a simple way since the derivatisation reaction occurs at the same\\u000a time

Ana María Casas Ferreira; Monika Möder; María Esther Fernández Laespada

2011-01-01

97

Simultaneous HPLC determination of ketoprofen and its degradation products in the presence of preservatives in pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and quick high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV spectrophotometric detection was developed and validated for the determination of five compounds in topical gel. The described method is suitable for simultaneous determination of active component ketoprofen, two preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben and two degradation products of ketoprofen—3-acetylbenzophenone and 2-(3-carboxyphenyl) propionic acid—in a topical cream after long-term stability tests

J. Dvo?ák; R. Hájková; L. Matysová; L. Nováková; M. A. Koupparis; P. Solich

2004-01-01

98

Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl?1 for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute\\/chronic toxicity tests were conducted

Hiroshi Yamamoto; Ikumi Tamura; Yoshiko Hirata; Jun Kato; Keiichiro Kagota; Shota Katsuki; Atsushi Yamamoto; Yoshihiro Kagami; Norihisa Tatarazako

2011-01-01

99

Hydrolysis of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Esters (Parabens) and Their Aerobic Transformation into Phenol by the Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Strain EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and

NELLY VALKOVA; FRANCOIS LEPINE; LOREDANA VALEANU; MARYSE DUPONT; LOUISETTE LABRIE; JEAN-GUY BISAILLON; REJEAN BEAUDET; FRANCOIS SHARECK; RICHARD VILLEMUR

2001-01-01

100

Mechanism of p-hydroxybenzoate ester-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The relationship between the metabolism and the cytotoxic effects of the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) has been studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatocytes with propyl-paraben (0.5 to 2.0 mM) elicited a concentration- and time-dependent cell death that was enhanced when enzymatic hydrolysis of propyl-paraben to p-hydroxybenzoic acid was inhibited by a carboxylesterase inhibitor, diazinon. The cytotoxicity was accompanied by losses of cellular ATP, total adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione, independently of lipid peroxidation and protein thiol oxidation. In the comparative toxic effects based on cell viability, ATP level, and rhodamine 123 retention, butyl- and isobutyl-parabens were more toxic than propyl- and isopropyl-parabens, and ethyl- and methyl-parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were less toxic than propyl-paraben. The addition of propyl-paraben to isolated hepatic mitochondria reduced state 3 respiration with NAD+-linked substrates (pyruvate plus malate) and/or with an FAD-linked substrate (succinate plus rotenone), whereas state 3 respiration with ascorbate plus tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (cytochrome oxidase-linked respiration) was not affected significantly by propyl-paraben. Further, the addition of these parabens caused a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption, indicating an uncoupling effect. The rate of state 3 oxygen consumption was inhibited by propyl-paraben, butyl-paraben, and their chain isomers. These results indicate that a) propyl-paraben-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by the parent compound rather than by its metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid; b) the toxicity is associated with ATP depletion via impairment of mitochondrial function related to membrane potential and/or oxidative phosphorylation; and c) the toxic potency of parabens to hepatocytes or mitochondria depends on the relative elongation of alkyl side-chains esterified to the carboxyl group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. PMID:9714309

Nakagawa, Y; Moldéus, P

1998-06-01

101

Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain).  

PubMed

A rapid method for determination of seven parabens and two chlorinated by-products in sewage sludge was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure showed good recoveries that ranged from 80 to 125%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12% and low detection limits, ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 ng g(-1) dry weight. The developed method was applied to the analysis of sewage sludge collected during 2010 in 19 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in various urban, industrial or rural zones in Madrid (Spain). Methylparaben was found in most of the WWTPs sampled (95%) at levels between 5.1 and 26.2 ng g(-1) dry weight and propylparaben was detected in 74% of the WWTPs at levels up to 44.1 ng g(-1) dry weight. In order to study the temporal variation of parabens and two chlorinated parabens during a four-year period, sludge samples were collected from 3 selected WWTPs. The levels of methylparaben encountered were rather constant throughout the sampling period whereas propylparaben levels slightly increased. In one of the WWTPs monitored, isopropylparaben was found at the beginning of the sampling period but its content decreased and was not detected in the 2010 sampling. PMID:22640822

Albero, Beatriz; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Tadeo, José Luis

2012-11-15

102

Surfactant and temperature effects on paraben transport through silicone membranes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of two surfactants (one anionic and one non-ionic) and controlled modifications in temperature (298-323K) on the permeation of two structurally similar compounds through a silicone membrane using a Franz diffusion cell system. In all cases the presence of an anionic surfactant, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), reduced the permeation of both compounds (methylparaben and ethylparaben) over a period of 24h. The degree of permeation reduction was proportional to the concentration of surfactant with a maximum effect observed, with an average reduction of approximately 50%, at the highest surfactant concentration of 20mM. Differences were seen around the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS implying the effect was partially connected with the favoured formation of micelles. In contrast, the presence of non-ionic surfactant (Brij 35) had no effect on the permeation of methylparaben or ethylparaben at any of the concentrations investigated, both above and below the CMC of the surfactant. From these findings the authors conclude that the specific effects of SDS are a consequence of ionic surfactant-silicone interactions retarding the movement of paraben through the membrane through indirect modifications to the surface of the membrane. As expected, an increase in experimental temperature appeared to enhance the permeation of both model compounds, a finding that is in agreement with previously reported data. Interestingly, in the majority of cases this effect was optimum at the second highest temperature studied (45°C) which suggests that permeation is a temperature-dependent phenomenon. PMID:23511625

Waters, Laura J; Dennis, Laura; Bibi, Aisha; Mitchell, John C

2013-08-01

103

Role of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in p-hydroxybenzoate ester-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The relationship between mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) and the toxic effects of the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) has been studied in mitochondria and hepatocytes isolated from rat liver. MPT has been proposed as a common final pathway in acute cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction. In isolated mitochondria, propyl-paraben (0.1 to 0.5 mM) in the presence of Ca2+ (50 microM) elicited a concentration-dependent induction of mitochondrial swelling dependent on MPT. This was prevented by pretreatment with a specific inhibitor of MPT, cyclosporin A (0.2 microM). For the other parabens tested, the induction of MPT depended on the relative elongation of alkyl side-chains in their molecular structure and was associated with the partition coefficients. In contrast, the induction caused by p-hydroxybenzoic acid was more potent than that of methyl- or ethyl-paraben. The pretreatment of freshly isolated hepatocytes with cyclosporin A (5 microM) and trifluoperazine (10 microM), which inhibit MPT in a synergistic manner, partially but not completely prevented propyl-paraben (1 mM; plus diazinon, 100 microM)-induced cell death, ATP loss, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that the onset of paraben-induced cytotoxicity is linked to mitochondrial failure dependent upon induction of MPT accompanied by the mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of cellular ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:10449191

Nakagawa, Y; Moore, G

1999-09-01

104

Determination of local anesthetics in illegal products using HPLC method with amperometric detection.  

PubMed

An HPLC method with amperometric detection was developed for analysis of two local anesthetics (lidocaine and benzocaine) in products for delaying ejaculation illegally marketed in Polish sex shops. Chromatographic elution on an RP column C18 with mobile phase composed of acetate buffer with acetonitrile, provides an optimal separation not only of active substances but also electroactive preservatives which are occasionally added to cosmetic creams (methylparaben and propylparaben). Application of glassy carbon electrode as a working electrode and a procedure with pulsed potential waveforms enables a sensitive, accurate measurement within a relatively short analysis time (250 s). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of local anesthetics in products under investigation. The obtained results show that most samples contained therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine or benzocaine. According to European law, a sale of products containing lidocaine or benzocaine outside the pharmacy sector is forbidden. PMID:22594253

Jadach, Magdalena; B?azewicz, Agata; Fijalek, Zbigniew

2012-01-01

105

Occurrence of preservatives and antimicrobials in Japanese rivers.  

PubMed

We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000 ng L(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water. PMID:24556546

Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakada, Norihide; Tamura, Ikumi; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Masunaga, Shigeki

2014-07-01

106

Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues. Concerns of a potential link between parabens and breast cancer have been raised, but mechanistic studies have centred on their oestrogenic activity and little attention has been paid to any carcinogenic properties. In the present study, we report that parabens can induce anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, a property closely related to transformation and a predictor of tumour growth in vivo. In semi-solid methocel suspension culture, MCF-10A cells produced very few colonies and only of a small size but the addition of 5?×?10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben resulted in a greater number of colonies per dish (P?methylparaben, 10(-7) M n-propylparaben and 10(-7) M n-butylparaben could increase colony numbers (P?=?0.016, P?=?0.010, P?=?0.008, respectively): comparison with a recent measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue samples from 40 mastectomies (Barr et al., 2012) showed that 22/40 of the patients had at least one of the parabens at the site of the primary tumour at or above these concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that parabens can induce a transformed phenotype in human breast epithelial cells in vitro, and further investigation is now justified into a potential link between parabens and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:22744862

Khanna, Sugandha; Darbre, Philippa D

2013-05-01

107

Resolution of five-component mixture using mean centering ratio and inverse least squares chemometrics  

PubMed Central

Background A comparative study of the use of mean centering of ratio spectra and inverse least squares for the resolution of paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride has been achieved showing that the two chemometric methods provide a good example of the high resolving power of these techniques. Method (I) is the mean centering of ratio spectra which depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in four successive steps that eliminates the derivative steps and therefore the signal to noise ratio is improved. The absorption spectra of prepared solutions were measured in the range of 220–280 nm. Method (II) is based on the inverse least squares that depend on updating developed multivariate calibration model. The absorption spectra of the prepared mixtures in the range 230–270 nm were recorded. Results The linear concentration ranges were 0–25.6, 0–15.0, 0–15.0, 0–45.0 and 0–100.0 ?g mL-1 for paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recoveries for simultaneous determination were between 99.9-101.3% for the two methods. The two developed methods have been successfully used for prediction of five-component mixture in Decamol Flu syrup with good selectivity, high sensitivity and extremely low detection limit. Conclusion No published method has been reported for simultaneous determination of the five components of this mixture so that the results of the mean centering of ratio spectra method were compared with those of the proposed inverse least squares method. Statistical comparison was performed using t-test and F-ratio at P?=?0.05. There was no significant difference between the results. PMID:24028626

2013-01-01

108

Exposure to parabens at the concentration of maximal proliferative response increases migratory and invasive activity of human breast cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Their oestrogenic activity, their measurement in human breast tissue and their ability to drive proliferation of oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells has opened a debate on their potential to influence breast cancer development. As proliferation is not the only hallmark of cancer cells, we have investigated the effects of exposure to parabens at concentrations of maximal proliferative response on migratory and invasive properties using three oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47-D, ZR-75-1). Cells were maintained short-term (1?week) or long-term (20?±?2?weeks) in phenol-red-free medium containing 5% charcoal-stripped serum with no addition, 10(-8) ?M 17?-oestradiol, 1-5?×?10(-4) ?M methylparaben, 10(-5) ?M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) ?M n-butylparaben. Long-term exposure (20?±?2?weeks) of MCF-7 cells to methylparaben, n-propylparaben or n-butylparaben increased migration as measured using a scratch assay, time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology: invasive properties were found to increase in matrix degradation assays and migration through matrigel on xCELLigence. Western immunoblotting showed an associated downregulation of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in the long-term paraben-exposed cells which could be consistent with a mechanism involving epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Increased migratory activity was demonstrated also in long-term paraben-exposed T-47-D and ZR-75-1 cells using a scratch assay and time-lapse microscopy. This is the first report that in vitro, parabens can influence not only proliferation but also migratory and invasive properties of human breast cancer cells. PMID:24652746

Khanna, Sugandha; Dash, Philip R; Darbre, Philippa D

2014-09-01

109

Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture  

SciTech Connect

Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig.

Jewell, Christopher [Toxicology Unit, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4EA (United Kingdom); Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Ackermann, Chrisita; Payne, N. Ann; Fate, Gwendolyn; Voorman, Richard [Pfizer Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Williams, Faith M. [Toxicology Unit, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4EA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.m.williams@ncl.ac.uk

2007-12-01

110

Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26?gL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7?gL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health. PMID:24686145

Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

2014-06-15

111

New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 ?g kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD?15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

2014-04-01

112

Structural Changes in PEO--PPO--PEO Gels Induced by Methylparaben and Dexamethasone Observed Using Time-Resolved SAXS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers (commercially available as Pluronic surfactants) micellize and structurally arrange into cubic quasicrystalline lattices as their temperature is raised. This structural evolution is seen macroscopically as a gelation, and the presence of these ordered phases can be controlled through both polymer concentration and temperature. The presence of added solutes within the dispersions can also

Norman A. K. Meznarich; K. Anne Juggernauth; Kiersten M. Batzli; Brian J. Love

2011-01-01

113

The stimulatory effect of chronic lithium treatment on basal thyrotropin secretion in rats: In vivo antagonism by methylparaben  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment of rats with lithium chloride was examined in order to determine its effect on hypothalamic monoamine and metabolite content, basal thyrotropin (TSH) secretion and thyroid function. The hypothalamic concentrations of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the lithium treated rats remained unaltered when compared to control levels. NA turnover

Abdullah Jaffer; Brian Harvey; Vivienne Ann Russell; Machteld Elizabeth Carstens; Anna Susanna de Villiers; Joshua Joachim Fransua Taljaard

1993-01-01

114

New validated liquid chromatographic and chemometrics-assisted UV spectroscopic methods for the determination of two multicomponent cough mixtures in syrup.  

PubMed

Multivariate spectrophotometric calibration and liquid chromatographic (LC) methods were applied to the determination of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing diprophylline, guaiphenesin, methylparaben, and propylparaben (Mixture 1), or clobutinol, orciprenaline, saccharin sodium, and sodium benzoate (Mixture 2). For the multivariate spectrophotometric calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-1), a calibration set of the mixtures consisting of the components of each mixture was prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, limit of quantitation, and limit of detection were determined for both PLS-1 and PCR. The LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 analytical column by using isocratic elution with 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.3-acetonitrile (55 + 45, v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 260 and 220 nm for Mixture 1 and Mixture 2, respectively. The proposed methods were validated and successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and laboratory-prepared mixtures containing the 2 multicomponent combinations. PMID:18376584

Hadad, Ghada M; El-Gindy, Alaa; Mahmoud, Waleed M M

2008-01-01

115

Effect of environmental contaminants on Beta cell function.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern that chemicals in the environment are contributing to the global rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence for direct effects of these chemicals on beta cell function. Therefore, the goals of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that environmental contaminants can directly affect beta cell function and (2) examine mechanistic pathways by which these contaminants could affect beta cell function. Using mouse beta TC-6 cells, we examined the acute effects of 6 substances (benzo[a]pyrene, bisphenol A [BPA], propylparaben, methylparaben, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctyl sulfone) on insulin secretion. Only BPA treatment directly affected insulin secretion. Furthermore, chronic exposure to BPA altered the expression of key proteins in the cellular and endoplasmic reticulum stress response. These data suggest that long-term BPA exposure may be detrimental to beta cell function and ultimately be an important contributor to the etiology of T2D. PMID:21705745

Makaji, Emilija; Raha, Sandeep; Wade, Michael G; Holloway, Alison C

2011-08-01

116

A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation  

PubMed Central

A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

2011-01-01

117

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic  

PubMed Central

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

118

Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water.  

PubMed

Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC), were analyzed in the effluent of the aerobic gray water treatment system in full operation. The effluent was used for lab-scale experiments with an electrochemical cell operated in batch mode. Three different anodes and five different cathodes have been tested. Among the anodes, Ru/Ir mixed metal oxide showed the best performance. Ag and Pt cathodes worked slightly better than Ti and mixed metal oxide cathodes. The compounds that contain a phenolic ring (parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan) were completely transformed on this anode at a specific electric charge Q = 0.03 Ah/L. The compounds, which contain a benzene ring and multiple side methyl methyl groups (galaxolide, 4-MBC) required high energy input (Q ? 0.6 Ah/L) for transformation. Concentrations of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) in the gray water effluent increased significantly upon treatment for all electrode combinations tested. Oxidation of gray water on mixed metal oxide anodes could not be recommended as a post-treatment step for gray water treatment according to the results of this study. Possible solutions to overcome disadvantages revealed within this study are proposed. PMID:24364736

Butkovskyi, Andrii; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hernandez Leal, Lucia; van der Zande, Ton; Rijnaarts, Huub; Zeeman, Grietje

2014-02-01

119

Investigation of parabens in commercial cosmetics for children in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Parabens are one of the most common preservatives in cosmetics. Because allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety and parabens are xenoestrogens, safety levels of parabens have been restricted in "Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics" (2007 edition) by the Ministry of Public Health of China, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous determination of parabens is recommended. To investigate whether the commonly used parabens in children's cosmetics were at a safety level, 105 cosmetics for children were randomly purchased from the local market in Beijing and analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. The detection rate of methylparaben was the highest and the next was propylparaben. Among the 105 samples, two or more kinds of parabens were detected in 72 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 0.75%; 18 samples contained one kind of paraben with concentrations ranging from 0.002% to 0.06%. In this study, the contents of parabens in the 105 samples were all below the restricted levels. PMID:23449132

Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Tian, Hanmei; Ding, Xiaojing

2013-01-01

120

In vitro induction of apoptosis, necrosis and genotoxicity by cosmetic preservatives: application of flow cytometry as a complementary analysis by NRU.  

PubMed

Preservatives are used in cosmetics to prevent microbial contamination; however, some preservatives are not free of allergenic and cytotoxic potential. Allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety, which determine limitations and maximum concentration dose in a cosmetic product. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the in vitro apoptosis, necrosis and genotoxicity-inducing potential of five different types of preservatives: Phenoxyethanol (PE), Propylparaben (PP), Methylparaben (MP), Benzyl Alcohol (BA) and Ethylhexyl Glycerine (EG). In vitro experiments were carried out on human dermal fibroblasts by a quantitative flow cytometry method, using specific cell markers (Annexin V, Propidium Iodide and H2AX). We compared the resulting cell viability by means of neutral red uptake (NRU) and established the IC(50) . Our results showed that PE, PP, MP and BA have similar cytotoxic mechanisms (high apoptosis and necrosis levels only at the test concentration of 1%), whereas EG showed only an apoptosis pathway. For genotoxicity, both parabens yielded the highest values. Results obtained by flow cytometry for necrosis were comparable to those produced by NRU; however, NRU does not distinguish apoptosis from necrosis. We propose that flow cytometry is a more sophisticated methodology for understanding the cytotoxic mechanisms of cosmetic preservatives and can be used to complement the NRU. PMID:22118339

Carvalho, C M de; Menezes, P F C; Letenski, G C; Praes, C E O; Feferman, I H S; Lorencini, M

2012-04-01

121

Minimizing hemodialysis catheter dysfunction: an ounce of prevention.  

PubMed

The maintenance of tunneled catheter (TC) patency is critical for the provision of adequate hemodialysis in patients who are TC-dependent. TC dysfunction results in the need for costly and inconvenient interventions, and reduced quality of life. Since the introduction of TCs in the late 1980s, heparin catheter lock has been the standard prophylactic regimen for the prevention of TC dysfunction. More recently, alternative catheter locking agents have emerged, and in some cases have shown to be superior to heparin lock with respect to improving TC patency and reducing TC-associated infections. These include citrate, tissue plasminogen activator, and a novel agent containing sodium citrate, methylene blue, methylparaben, and propylparaben. In addition, prophylaxis using oral anticoagulants/antiplatelet agents, including warfarin, aspirin, ticlodipine, as well as the use of modified heparin-coated catheters have also been studied for the prevention of TC dysfunction with variable results. The use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents as primary or secondary prevention of TC dysfunction must be weighed against their potential adverse effects, and should be individualized for each patient. PMID:22518310

Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine; Vazquez, Miguel; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Mokrzycki, Michele

2012-01-01

122

Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: A review.  

PubMed

Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, with an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or heptyl) or benzyl group. They are mainly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs. Parabens may act as weak endocrine disrupter chemicals, but controversy still surrounds the health effects of these compounds. Despite being used since the mid-1920s, it was only in 1996 that the first analytical results of their occurrence in water were published. Considered as emerging contaminants, it is useful to review the knowledge acquired over the last decade regarding their occurrence, fate and behavior in aquatic environments. Despite treatments that eliminate them relatively well from wastewater, parabens are always present at low concentration levels in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Although they are biodegradable, they are ubiquitous in surface water and sediments, due to consumption of paraben-based products and continuous introduction into the environment. Methylparaben and propylparaben predominate, reflecting the composition of paraben mixtures in common consumer products. Being compounds containing phenolic hydroxyl groups, parabens can react readily with free chlorine, yielding halogenated by-products. Chlorinated parabens have been detected in wastewater, swimming pools and rivers, but not yet in drinking water. These chlorinated by-products are more stable and persistent than the parent species and further studies are needed to improve knowledge regarding their toxicity. PMID:25462712

Haman, Camille; Dauchy, Xavier; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

2014-10-01

123

Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.  

PubMed

This study analyzed levels of parabens in commercial dentifrices and saliva. HPLC was performed using 35% acetonitrile and measuring absorbance at 254?nm. Thirteen toothpastes and five mouthwashes were analyzed. Of these, volunteers used three toothpastes and two mouthwashes, and levels of parabens were analyzed in saliva and water used for mouth rinsing. In toothpastes, the highest concentrations of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and n-butylparaben (nBP) were 1.86, 1.42 and 1.87?mg/g, respectively. In mouthwashes, the highest concentrations of MP and PP were 0.97 and 0.11?mg/mL, respectively. After volunteers used 500?mg toothpaste T-1, which contained 895?µg MP, the first and tenth mouth rinse samples contained means of 64.63 and 1.89?µg MP, respectively. After rinsing the mouth three or five times, 37?µg or 18?µg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity, respectively. After using 20?mL mouthwash S-1, which contained 19?mg MP, 1.53?mg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity. Immediately after using this mouthwash, the mean salivary concentration of MP was 237?µg/mL. The daily intake of parabens from dentifrices was predicted to be insignificant compared with the intake from food; however, parabens can be ingested from dentifrices. PMID:24733628

Park, Yong-Duk; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Song, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

2014-12-01

124

Separation of Small Molecules on Novel Monolithic Poly(Vinylphosphonic Acid/Ethylene Dimethacrylate) Columns.  

PubMed

In HPLC, monolithic organic stationary phases are usually restricted to the separation of high-molecular-weight compounds such as proteins or oligonucleotides. The aim of this study was to enlarge the applicability of monolithic stationary phases to the micro-liquid chromatography separation of smaller molecules. For this, a new monolithic stationary phase was synthesized by radical polymerization of vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) using azobisisobutyronitrile as radical initiator. In situ reactions at two different temperatures and reaction times resulted in poly(VPA/EDMA) capillaries and allowed fast separations for small molecules, especially parabens and alkylbenzenes. The capillaries showed high mechanical stability, low-swelling properties, high permeability and lower surface area as expected. Polymerization at 75°C for 20 min exhibited efficient separation of parabens within 1.5 min with short half-peak widths and satisfactory resolutions. Apart from attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-IR) measurements, the pH-dependent separation of alkylbenzenes confirmed the incorporation of phosphonate groups into the polymeric network, resulting into deprotonation of the stationary phase at pH >4. Moreover, methylparaben and propylparaben were quantitatively determined in human saliva after treatment with paraben-containing tooth paste. PMID:25015376

Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Thalinger, Ramona; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Guenther K

2014-07-11

125

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.  

PubMed

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

126

Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.  

PubMed

Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

2014-06-01

127

Analysis of multi-class preservatives in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics by matrix solid-phase dispersion.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-class preservatives in a wide variety of cosmetic samples including rinse-off and leave-on products. After extraction, derivatization with acetic anhydride, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were performed. Optimization studies were done on real non-spiked and spiked leave-on and rinse-off cosmetic samples. The selection of the most suitable extraction conditions was made using statistical tools such as ANOVA, as well as factorial experimental designs. The final optimized conditions were common for both groups of cosmetics and included the dispersion of the sample with Florisil (1:4), and the elution of the MSPD column with 5 mL of hexane/acetone (1:1). After derivatization, the extract was analyzed without any further clean-up or concentration step. Accuracy, precision, linearity and detection limits were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. The recovery studies on leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics gave satisfactory values (>78% for all analytes in all the samples) with an average relative standard deviation value of 4.2%. The quantification limits were well below those set by the international cosmetic regulations, making this multi-component analytical method suitable for routine control. The analysis of a broad range of cosmetics including body milk, moisturizing creams, anti-stretch marks creams, hand creams, deodorant, shampoos, liquid soaps, makeup, sun milk, hand soaps, among others, demonstrated the high use of most of the target preservatives, especially butylated hydroxytoluene, methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. PMID:21947013

Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

2011-12-01

128

Chronic toxicity of parabens and their chlorinated by-products in Ceriodaphnia dubia.  

PubMed

The chronic toxicity of 12 compounds of parabens and their chlorinated by-products was investigated using 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia test under static renewal condition in order to generate information on how to disinfect by-products of preservatives that are discharged in aquatic systems. The mortality and inhibition of reproduction tended to increase with increasing hydrophobicity and decreased with the degree of chlorination of parabens. The EC50 values for mortality, offspring number, and first brood production ranged between 0.30-3.1, 0.047-12, and 1.3-6.3 mg L(-1) , respectively. For the number of neonates, the most sensitive endpoint, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) values ranged from 0.63 to 10 mg L(-1) and from 1.2 to 19 mg L(-1) , respectively. Methylparaben (MP), benzylparaben (BnP), and dichlorinated BnP (Cl2 BnP) elicited a significant decrease in offspring numbers even at their lowest concentration tested; the NOEC for these compounds was determined to be less than the lowest test concentration (1.3, 0.04, and 0.63 mg L(-1) for MP, BnP, and Cl2 BnP, respectively). Propylparaben (PP), chlorinated PP, isopropylparaben (iPP), and chlorinated iPP exhibited nonmonotonic concentration-dependent response; their NOEC and LOEC values could not be determined. The multivariate approach involving principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four groups that corresponded to the toxicological profiles of parabens. Our results suggested that disinfection of parabens by chlorination could reduce aquatic toxicity of original compounds. The findings obtained in our study together with the data available on paraben concentrations in aquatic systems can be used to perform preliminary risk assessment by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. The calculated PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from 0.0012 to 0.2, with the highest value observed in MP. This suggested that there are negligible environmental risks for aquatic organisms at current use levels. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:24376163

Terasaki, Masanori; Abe, Ryoko; Makino, Masakazu; Tatarazako, Norihisa

2013-12-27

129

Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:1299–1305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

2013-01-01

130

The preservation of Lanette Wax Cream (FNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the free concentration methylparaben in Lanette Wax Cream (fna) were studied. These factors are the partitioning of the preservative between oil and water phase and solubilisation by the micelles of emulsifier, sodium lauryl sulphate. Solubilisation could be described as simple partitioning provided that the free concentration of methylparaben did not exceed 0.1% (w\\/v). The influence of propylene glycol

H. Van Doorne; F. L. Dubois

1980-01-01

131

Antithyroid effect of a food or drug preservative: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (methylparaben) inhibits organification of iodide by isolated hog thyroid cells. The concentration which produces a 50% inhibition was about 2.0×10?4M. A similar inhibition was observed in nonstimulated and TSH- or dibutyryl cyclic AMP-stimulated cells. Neither iodide uptake nor cyclic AMP generation were altered by methylparaben.

B. Rousset

1981-01-01

132

The preservation of some oral liquid preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness of possible alternatives for chloroform in three oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a microbiological challenge test. Magnesium trisilicate mixture (British Pharmacopoeia) can be adequately preserved with methylparaben (2 g\\/l). Only insignificant amounts of methylparaben were absorbed

H. van Doorne; J. B. Leijen

1994-01-01

133

9 CFR 424.23 - Prohibited uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sorbate, propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate), calcium propionate, sodium propionate, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate may be used in or on any product, only as provided in 9 CFR Chapter III. (b) Nitrates. Nitrates shall not be...

2010-01-01

134

Inhibition of Escherichia coli trimethylamine-N-oxide reductase by food preservatives.  

E-print Network

??Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMA-0) reductase activity of resting cells of Escherichia coli was inhibited by tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na?EDTA), benzoic acid (BA), and methylparaben (MP). The 50% inhibitory… (more)

Kruk, Mark W.

1981-01-01

135

Assessment of combined antiandrogenic effects of binary parabens mixtures in a yeast-based reporter assay.  

PubMed

To date, toxicological studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have typically focused on single chemical exposures and associated effects. However, exposure to EDCs mixtures in the environment is common. Antiandrogens represent a group of EDCs, which draw increasing attention due to their resultant demasculinization and sexual disruption of aquatic organisms. Although there are a number of in vivo and in vitro studies investigating the combined effects of antiandrogen mixtures, these studies are mainly on selected model compounds such as flutamide, procymidone, and vinclozolin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined antiandrogenic effects of parabens, which are widely used antiandrogens in industrial and domestic commodities. A yeast-based human androgen receptor (hAR) assay (YAS) was applied to assess the antiandrogenic activities of n-propylparaben (nPrP), iso-propylparaben (iPrP), methylparaben (MeP), and 4-n-pentylphenol (PeP), as well as the binary mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. All of the four compounds could exhibit antiandrogenic activity via the hAR. A linear interaction model was applied to quantitatively analyze the interaction between nPrP and each of the other three antiandrogens. The isoboles method was modified to show the variation of combined effects as the concentrations of mixed antiandrogens were changed. Graphs were constructed to show isoeffective curves of three binary mixtures based on the fitted linear interaction model and to evaluate the interaction of the mixed antiandrogens (synergism or antagonism). The combined effect of equimolar combinations of the three mixtures was also considered with the nonlinear isoboles method. The main effect parameters and interaction effect parameters in the linear interaction models of the three mixtures were different from zero. The results showed that any two antiandrogens in their binary mixtures tended to exert equal antiandrogenic activity in the linear concentration ranges. The antiandrogenicity of the binary mixture and the concentration of nPrP were fitted to a sigmoidal model if the concentrations of the other antiandrogens (iPrP, MeP, and PeP) in the mixture were lower than the AR saturation concentrations. Some concave isoboles above the additivity line appeared in all the three mixtures. There were some synergistic effects of the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP at low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges. Interesting, when the antiandrogens concentrations approached the saturation, the interaction between chemicals were antagonistic for all the three mixtures tested. When the toxicity of the three mixtures was assessed using nonlinear isoboles, only antagonism was observed for equimolar combinations of nPrP and iPrP as the concentrations were increased from the no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) to effective concentration of 80%. In addition, the interactions were changed from synergistic to antagonistic as effective concentrations were increased in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP. The combined effects of three binary antiandrogens mixtures in the linear ranges were successfully evaluated by curve fitting and isoboles. The combined effects of specific binary mixtures varied depending on the concentrations of the chemicals in the mixtures. At low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges, there was synergistic interaction existing in the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP. The interaction tended to be antagonistic as the antiandrogens approached saturation concentrations in mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. The synergistic interaction was also found in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP, at low concentrations with another method of nonlinear isoboles. The mixture activities of binary antiandrogens had a tendency towards antagonism at high concentrations and synergism at low concentrations. PMID:24469767

Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Li, Feifei; Liu, Cong; Liu, Rui

2014-05-01

136

Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.  

PubMed

The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

2013-06-01

137

Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (?M). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 ?M. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lakemethylparaben were identified by GC-MS analyses and the degradation pathway was proposed. PMID:24291138

Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

2014-02-15

138

Subconjunctival Gentamicin Induction of Extraocular Toxic Muscle Myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subconjunctival injection of commercially available gentamicin, delivered in one of several protocols, caused an acute toxic reaction myopathy of the extraocular muscles. The response began as a small focal infiltrate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and as the lesion progressed it assumed a mononuclear cell predominance accompanied by muscle fiber degeneration. The injection of individual components of the commercial preparation (gentamicin, methylparaben,

Jack M. Chapman; Osama M. A. Abdelatif; Lisa Cheeks; Keith Green

1992-01-01

139

Development of a multidose formulation for a humanized monoclonal antibody using experimental design techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify optimal preservatives for a multidose formulation of a humanized monoclonal antibody\\u000a using experimental design techniques. The effect of antimicrobial parenteral preservatives (benzyl alcohol, chlorobutanol,\\u000a methyl paraben, propylparaben, phenol, and m-cresol) on protein stability was assessed using size-exclusion chromatography,\\u000a differential scanning calorimetry, right-angle light scattering, UV spectroscopy, and potency testing using a cell-based

Supriya Gupta; Elizabet Kaisheva

2003-01-01

140

Analysis of parishin, parishin B and parishin C in Gastrodiae Rhizoma by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the quality of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, a simple, rapid and accurate micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method was developed for the assay of three marker constituents — parishin, parishin B and parishin C. The electrolyte was a buffer solution containing 100 mM sodium cholate and 20 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate adjusted to pH 6.5 with 20 mM sodium tetraborate. Methylparaben was

Yoe-Ray Ku; Yaa-Tzy Lin; Kuo-Ching Wen; Jer-Huei Lin; Chun-Heng Liao

1998-01-01

141

Effect of Ternary Solutes on the Evolution of Structure and Gel Formation in Amphiphilic Copolymer Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) amphiphilic triblock copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic surfactants) undergo reversible and temperature-dependent micellization and arrangement into cubic ordered lattices known as "micelle gels". The macroscopic behavior of the ordering is a transition from a liquid to a gel. While the phase behavior and gel structure of pure Pluronic surfactant solutions have been well studied, less is known about the effects of added ternary solutes. In this dissertation, a comprehensive investigation into the effects of the added pharmaceutical methylparaben on solutions of F127 ranging from 10 to 30 wt% was conducted in order to better understand the behavior of F127 in multicomponent pharmaceutical formulations. The viscoelastic properties of F127 gel formation were studied using rheometry, where heating rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 degrees C/min were also used to probe the kinetics of the gel transition. In solutions containing methylparaben, F127 gelation occurred at up to 15 degrees C lower temperatures and was accelerated by a factor of three to four. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize the structure of the ordered domains, and how they were affected by the presence of dissolved pharmaceuticals. It was found that ordered domain formation changed from heterogeneous nucleation and growth to possible homogeneous nucleation and growth. A roughly 2% reduction in the cubic lattice parameter was also observed for solutions containing methylparaben. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed on a series of different Pluronic surfactants in order to characterize the micellization behavior as a function of PPO center block length and PEO/PPO ratio. Added methylparaben suppressed the micellization endotherm, the degree of suppression depending linearly on the amount of added methylparaben, as well as the length of the PPO center block and PEO/PPO ratio. This dissertation yielded a thorough characterization of the changes in micellization and gelation behavior in F127 gels as a result of added pharmaceuticals. Previously unobserved behavior such as the onset of ordered domain formation in F127 gels was observed, and a greater understanding of the interactions between amphiphilic copolymer solutions and dissolved solutes was achieved.

Meznarich, Norman Anthony Kang

142

Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples). PMID:23324734

Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

2014-01-01

143

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LORATADINE AND PRESERVATIVES IN SYRUPS BY THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Simple, rapid, and precise densitometric TLC methods have been established for simultaneous determination of loratadine and preservatives in loratadine-sodium benzoate and loratadine-methylparaben-propylpara- ben mixtures. Chromatography was performed on aluminium plates pre- coated with silica gel 60 F254. The mobile phases were n-butyl acetate-car- bon tetrachloride-acetic acid-acetonitrile 3:6:0.2:3 (v\\/v) for loratadine-so- dium benzoate mixtures and ethyl acetate-n-hexane-methanol-ammonia- diethylamine 1:4:0.8:0.4:2 (v\\/v)

G. Popovi?; D. Agbaba

144

Interfacial process of nucleation and molecular nucleation templator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial effects of nucleation inhibition and promotion were identified from the nucleation of paracetamol. Unlike the classic interfacial effects, which are caused by the change in nucleation barrier, the nonepitaxial interfacial effects are only associated with kink integration kinetics. Methylparaben inhibits nucleation by increasing the desolvation free energy barrier, which is revealed as the nonepitaxial interfacial effect of nucleation inhibition. Polysaccharide revealed its nonepitaxial interfacial effects of nucleation promotion by lowering the conformation entropic barrier via liquid molecule preordering. Polysaccharide can be regarded as an example of molecular nucleation promoter based on the nonepitaxial interfacial effects.

Liu, X. Y.

2001-07-01

145

Effects of parabens on apoptosis induced by serum-free medium.  

PubMed

Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acids (parabens), an endocrine disrupter, are used as preservatives in cosmetics and foods. In this study, to understand the relationship between parabens and differentiation in infants, the effects of parabens on apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells were investigated. In addition, apoptosis-related factors were assayed. As results, a tendency toward enhancement of apoptosis was observed in the cells cultured in the serum-free medium with methylparaben, and this tendency was suggested to be related to the contents of BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein. Butylparaben did not show any tendency to enhance apoptosis. PMID:22375591

Egawa, Mari; Aoki, Kentaro; Sun, Yongkun; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

2012-01-01

146

Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-? and -? and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that widely used parabens possess estrogenic properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? (ESR1) and -? (ESR2) and the progesterone receptor (PGR). Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells were exposed to parabens at a concentration of 20nM; 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10nM, was used as a positive control. Both propyl- and butylparaben stimulated PGR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells, whereas methyl- and propylparaben PGR protein expression. In MCF-10A cells, butyl- and propylparaben increased only PGR mRNA expression. All parabens increased ESR1 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and with the exception of butylparaben in MCF-10A cells. All parabens significantly increased ESR2 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells, but in MCF-10A cells only ESR2 protein expression. In summary, by virtue of their stimulatory action on the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR in cancer cells, parabens can be viewed as potential contributors to breast cancer progression. Extension, the actions of these parabens on the expression of ERs and PGR in non-cancerous cells point to possible actions on breast cancer initiation. PMID:25128701

Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

2014-11-01

147

Toxicological evaluation of three contaminants of emerging concern by use of the Allium cepa test.  

PubMed

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, triclosan and propylparaben are contaminants of emerging concern that have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, but for which limited information is currently available concerning adverse effects on terrestrial plant systems. The Allium cepa test, which is considered one of the most efficient approaches to assess toxic effects of environmental chemicals, was selected to evaluate the potential risks of these ubiquitous pollutants. Our data demonstrate that all three compounds studied may in some way be considered toxic, but different effects were noted depending on the chemical and the end point analysed. Results derived from the analysis of macroscopic parameters used in testing for general toxicity, revealed that while di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate had no apparent effects, the other two chemicals inhibited A. cepa root growth in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, although all three compounds caused alterations in the mitotic index of root-tip cells, propylparaben was the only one that did not show evidence of genotoxicity in assays for chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. The results of the present study clearly indicate that sensitive plant bioassays are useful and complementary tools to determine environmental impact of contaminants of emerging concern. PMID:22249112

Herrero, O; Pérez Martín, J M; Fernández Freire, P; Carvajal López, L; Peropadre, A; Hazen, M J

2012-03-18

148

Drug-excipient compatibility studies in binary mixtures of avobenzone.  

PubMed

During preformulation studies of cosmetic/pharmaceutical products, thermal analysis techniques are very useful to detect physical or chemical incompatibilities between the active and the excipients of interest that might interfere with safety and/or efficacy of the final product. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of avobenzone with some currently used cosmetic excipients. In the first phase of the study, DSC was used as a tool to detect any interaction. Based on the DSC results alone, cetearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, propylparaben, diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, caprylic capric triglyceride, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glycerin, cetearyl alcohol/ceteareth 20, cetearyl alcohol/sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium cetearyl sulfate, and paraffinum liquidum exhibit interaction with avobenzone. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50°C for 15 days) of avobenzone and excipients were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary mixtures were further investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Based on DSC, isothermal stress testing, and fourier transform infrared results; avobenzone is incompatible with caprylic capric triglyceride, propylparaben, and BHT. PMID:24139431

Ceresole, Rita; Han, Yong K; Rosasco, Maria A; Orelli, Liliana R; Segall, Adriana

2013-01-01

149

Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens. PMID:24418712

Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

2014-02-01

150

The consequence of the chemical composition of HPMC in matrix tablets on the release behaviour of model drug substances having different solubility.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of the chemical heterogeneity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the release of model drug substances from hydrophilic matrix tablets. The hypothesis was that the release of drug substances could be influenced by possible interactions with HPMC batches having different chemical heterogeneity. The cloud point of the most heterogeneous batch was more affected by the model drug substances, methylparaben and butylparaben, and most by butylparaben with the lowest solubility. The different clouding behaviour was explained by the heterogeneously substituted batches being more associative and the more lipophilic butylparaben being able to interact more efficiently with the hydrophobic HPMC transient crosslinks that formed. Interestingly, tablet compositions of the heterogeneously substituted HPMC batches released the more soluble methylparaben at lower rates than butylparaben. The explanation is that the hydrophobic HPMC interactions with butylparaben made the gel of the tablet less hydrated and more fragile and therefore more affected by erosional stresses. In contrast, drug release from compositions consisting of the more homogeneously substituted batches was affected to a minor extent by the drugs and was very robust within the experimental variations. The present study thus reveals that there can be variability in drug release depending on the lipophilicity of the drug and the substituent heterogeneity of the HPMC used. PMID:21081160

Viridén, Anna; Wittgren, Bengt; Larsson, Anette

2011-01-01

151

A systematic review of the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a plant source of the ethnomedicine "dragon's blood".  

PubMed

"Dragon's blood" is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of "dragon's blood". It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis. PMID:25054444

Fan, Jia-Yi; Yi, Tao; Sze-To, Chui-Mei; Zhu, Lin; Peng, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

2014-01-01

152

A multiclass method for the analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals in human urine samples. Sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

The population is continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This has influenced an increase in diseases and syndromes that are more frequent nowadays. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new analytical procedures to evaluate the exposure with the ultimate objective of establishing, in an accurate way, relationships between EDCs and harmful health effects. In the present work, a new method based on a sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, isopropyl-, propyl-, isobutyl and butylparaben), six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) and two bisphenols (bisphenol A and bisphenol S) in human urine samples, followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis is proposed. An enzymatic treatment allows determining the total content of the target EDCs. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-(13)C6 and bisphenol A-d16 were used as surrogates. Found limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) and inter-day variability (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranging from 2.0% to 14.9%. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94% to 105%. A good linearity, for concentrations up to 300 ng mL(-1) for parabens and 40 ng mL(-1) for benzophenones and bisphenols, respectively, was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human urine samples from 20 randomly selected individuals. PMID:25127586

Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Navalón, A

2014-11-01

153

Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).  

PubMed

Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics. PMID:25395006

Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

2014-11-14

154

A new treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human serum samples.  

PubMed

Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are a family of compounds that have been in use since the 1920s as preservatives in cosmetic formulations, with one of the lowest rates of skin problems reported in dermatological patients. However, in the last few years, many scientific publications have demonstrated that parabens are weak endocrine disruptors, meaning that they can interfere with the function of endogenous hormones, increasing the risk of breast cancer. In the present work, a new sample treatment method is introduced based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of the most commonly used parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben) from human serum samples followed by separation and quantification using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method involves an enzymatic treatment to quantify the total content of parabens. The extraction parameters (solvent and disperser solvent, extractant and dispersant volume, pH of the sample, salt addition, and extraction time) were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring (13)C6-labeled was used as surrogate. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 ng mL(-1) and an interday variability (evaluated as relative standard deviations) from 3.8 to 11.9 % were obtained. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration standard and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 96 to 106 %, and a good linearity up to concentrations of 100 ng mL(-1) was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human serum samples. PMID:23857141

Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Rodríguez, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Cela, R; Navalón, A

2013-09-01

155

Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old  

PubMed Central

In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed “safe” MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

2014-01-01

156

Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.  

PubMed

Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin. PMID:21879392

Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

2011-12-01

157

High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for quantitation of marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.  

PubMed

Two stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed that could quantitatively analyze 10 major marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb and could also distinguish among 'Injinho' and 'Myeon-injin' and 'Haninjin'--A. capillaris collected in autumn, A. capillaris collected in spring and A. iwayomogi, which can be misused as 'Injinho' in Korean herbal drug markets. The first HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with an isocratic solvent system of phosphoric acid (0.05%) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration and quantitation were made by using acetaminophen as an internal standard (I.S-A) and chlorogenic acid (1) was determined within 20 min. The second HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with a gradient solvent system of phosphate buffer (0.015 M, pH 6) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration and quantitation were made by using ethylparaben as an internal standard (I.S-B) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), hyperoside (5), isoquercitrin (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (8), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (9) and scoparone (10) were determined within 60 min. Pattern recognition analysis of data from the 60 samples classified them clearly into three groups. These assay methods could be applied for QA/QC of A. capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi. PMID:23263810

Park, Kyung Min; Li, Ying; Kim, Bora; Zhang, Haiyan; Hwangbo, Kyong; Piao, Dong Gen; Chi, Mei Juan; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Je-Hyun; Moon, Dong-Cheul; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Son, Jong Keun

2012-12-01

158

Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies  

PubMed Central

Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a cross between these two species all were excellent vectors for P. knowlesi. High donor monkey parasitaemia was associated with poor mosquito survival. A single infected mosquito bite is likely sufficient to infect a monkey with P. knowlesi. It is possible to efficiently challenge large groups of monkeys by mosquito bite, which will be useful for P. knowlesi vaccine studies. PMID:24893777

2014-01-01

159

A simple and rapid 3D view method for selective and sensitive determination of paclitaxel in micro volume rat plasma by LC-diode array UV and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A simple, highly repeatable and reproducible method for the estimation of Paclitaxel (TAX) in micro volume amounts of rat plasma is successfully developed and validated. The extraction procedure using 800 µL of ice-cold acetonitrile is very simple and economical with high sensitivity. The rectangular ratiograms and purity curve demonstrate the selectivity of the method. The validation and stability results show that propylparaben (PP) is a suitable internal standard (resolution 7.70 ± 0.15 min) for the estimation of TAX in micro volume rat plasma. TAX and PP are separated by isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array UV method with a retention time of 8.0 ± 0.25 and 5.3 ± 0.15 min, respectively, with a total run time of 10 min. The system suitability results show that the method has good reproducibility. The stability of TAX is well studied in rat plasma, and the % RSD of all stability studies of TAX are well within the acceptable range of ± 20 % at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) and ± 15% at all quality control levels. The limit of detection (LOD) and LLOQ of the method are 5 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. This rapid method is successfully used to study the i.v pharmacokinetic of TAX at 10 mg/kg in wistar rats, and drug concentration is detected up to 24 h. PMID:22337803

Kumar, Sekar Vasantha; Srinath, Selladurai; Saha, Ranendra N

2012-03-01

160

Model drug release from matrix tablets composed of HPMC with different substituent heterogeneity.  

PubMed

The release of a model drug substance, methylparaben, was studied in matrix tablets composed of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) batches of the USP 2208 grade that had different chemical compositions. It was found that chemically heterogeneous HPMC batches with longer sections of low substituted regions and lower hydroxypropoxy content facilitated the formation of reversible gel structures at a temperature as low as 37°C. Most importantly, these structures were shown to affect the release of the drug from matrix tablets, where the drug release decreased with increased heterogeneity and a difference in T80 values of 7h was observed between the compositions. This could be explained by the much lower erosion rate of the heterogeneous HPMC batches, which decreased the drug release rate and also released the drug with a more diffusion based release mechanism compared to the less heterogeneous batches. It can therefore be concluded that the drug release from matrix tablets is very sensitive to variations in the chemical heterogeneity of HPMC. PMID:20883761

Viridén, Anna; Larsson, Anette; Schagerlöf, Herje; Wittgren, Bengt

2010-11-30

161

Gene expression responses for detecting sublethal effects of xenobiotics and whole effluents on a Xenopus laevis embryo assay.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos, methylparaben, and 2 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants located in the province of Madrid, Spain, on the messenger RNA expression of specific genes involved in early development (ESR1, pax6, bmp4, and myf5) and a gene involved in the general stress response (hsp70) during Xenopus laevis embryo development. Gene expression was analyzed after 4?h, 24?h, and 96?h of exposure by semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Concentration ranges of the compounds and dilutions for the samples were selected to cause morphological alterations in embryos after 96?h of exposure. Transcript levels of ESR1, pax6, and hsp70 were differentially altered at early developmental stages with patterns specific to the contaminant and the exposure time. However, further studies are needed to establish transcript levels of specific genes as biomarkers of sublethal effects in an environmental risk-assessment framework. Besides, studies including more generic responses, such as genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, together with genes related to embryonic development have to be developed to look for a battery of mechanistic endpoints for the evaluation of chemical exposure at the molecular level in a first-tier assessment. PMID:23637088

San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Pablos, M Victoria

2013-09-01

162

Rapid resolution liquid chromatography for monitoring the quality of stockpiled atropine preparations for injection.  

PubMed

We describe a rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) method for analyzing atropine sulfate, its degradation products (tropic acid, apoatropine, atropic acid) and other components (e.g. phenol, methylparaben) in injectable medicines that are used by the German armed forces in emergency situations. Chromatography is performed using an acetonitrile/phosphate buffer gradient (pH?=?1.0) and an RP 18 column (50 x 4.6?mm, 1.8?µm) with the detection wavelength set at 220?nm. The concentration of the active ingredient (atropine sulfate) in the tested products ranges from about 1?mg•ml(-1) to 10?mg•ml(-1) . The concentrations of the detected degradation products range from 0.2% to 4.7% (tropic acid) in relation to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Using shorter separation columns and smaller particle sizes of the stationary phase improved analysis time from 40 to 10?min and reduced the consumption of solvents by approximately 75%. Owing to the pressure conditions (< 200?bar), UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) systems are not needed. Comparison of the atropine and tropic acid results obtained with the previously used HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method of the MAH (marketing authorization holder) show that there is no indication of a significant difference between the two methods. PMID:22467254

Zimmermann, Thomas; Dimmel, Andre; Jüttemeyer, Sandra; Springer, Dietmar; Loch, Michael

2012-01-01

163

New concept for HPTLC peak purity assessment and identification of drugs in multi-component mixtures.  

PubMed

Simple methods for HPTLC peak purity assessment and identification of the HPTLC peaks were presented. The spectrodensitograms - selected at different time intervals across the elution time of the HPTLC peak - were extracted and digital algorithms for manipulating the data were carried out in the wavelength domain. Three different methods were developed for testing the HPTLC peak purity using the mathematically transformed data of the spectrodensitograms. These included the method of relative absorption, the method of logA versus the wavelength plots and the derivative (first, second, third and fourth) method. The identification of the HPTLC peaks was based on the use of the derivative profile of the spectrodensitogram and the derivative ratios as fingerprints for the compounds. The wavelengths of absorbance and derivative (first, second, third and fourth) optima of the extracted spectrodensitograms were allocated. The data were compared with those obtained using the corresponding reference standard. The validity of the proposed methods was performed by chromatography of a mixture containing mebendazole and methylparaben as a model versus the winCATS(®) spectral correlation method as a reference method. The study indicated that the proposed concept is a reliable non-confusing valuable tool for testing the purity and identity of the HPTLC peaks as the results are easily and rigorously interpreted. PMID:22265550

Hewala, Ismail I; Bedair, Mona M; Shousha, Sherif M

2012-01-15

164

p-Hydroxybenzoate esters metabolism in MCF7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Parabens are among the most frequently used preservatives to inhibit microbial growth and extend the shelf life of a range of consumer products. The objective of the present study was to gain insight into the metabolism of parabens in breast cancer cells (MCF7) since they have demonstrated estrogenic activity towards these cells and have been detected in breast cancer tissues. The toxicity of parabens to MCF7 cells was determined using MTT assays. Hydrolysis of methyl-, butyl and benzyl-paraben to p-hydroxybenzoic acid was analyzed in cultured MCF7 cells and in cellular homogenates. Glucuronidation and sulfoconjugation were studied in MCF7 homogenates, and parabens were analyzed by HPLC. Methyl-paraben was shown to be far less toxic than butyl and benzyl-paraben. Parabens were completely stable in MCF7 homogenates whereas p-nitrophenyl acetate, a substrate type, underwent hydrolysis. MCF7 cell homogenates did not express glucuronidation and sulfoconjugation activities toward parabens. The higher stability of parabens may explain their accumulation in breast cancer tissue as previously reported in the literature. PMID:22917524

Dagher, Zeina; Borgie, Mireille; Magdalou, Jacques; Chahine, Ramez; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

2012-11-01

165

Thymol nanospheres as an effective anti-bacterial agent.  

PubMed

Among thymol, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol and terpinen-4-ol, thymol showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol was then encapsulated into water dispersible submicron sized ethylcellulose/methylcellulose spheres, attaining the relatively high thymol loading level of 43.53% (weight of encapsulated thymol to weight of the thymol-loaded spheres). When tested against the same three bacterial strains, the encapsulated thymol gave comparable minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values to the unencapsulated compound while mostly showing lower MIC and MBC values than the conventionally used preservative, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben). The use of encapsulated thymol at 0.078, 0.156 and 0.625 mg ml(-1) (0.52, 1.04 and 4.16 mmol(-1), respectively) in cosmetic lotion formulations provided total suppression of viable E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth (all initially seeded at 10(5) cfu ml(-1)), respectively, over the three month test period, whereas unencapsulated thymol showed effective suppression for only 2-4 weeks. Effective bacterial suppression by encapsulated thymol was also observed when used in cream and aqueous gel cosmetic formulations. PMID:22698863

Wattanasatcha, Anna; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

2012-09-15

166

Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17?-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. PMID:24051129

Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

2013-12-01

167

[Severe allergic reaction due to a rectal enema].  

PubMed

Allergic drug reactions must always be considered when prescribing treatment, even in frequent pediatric problems such as acute abdominal pain due to constipation. We describe an original case of anaphylactic shock due to the administration of hypertonic rectal enema in a child. A 9-year-old child admitted to the emergency department for an acute complaint of abdominal pain related to constipation received an administration of a hypertonic rectal enema to allow the passage of stools. Afterwards, the child presented a life-threatening episode, requiring emergency treatment with transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, suggesting an anaphylactic shock. The absence of any other drug or food intake, the chronology of events, and favorable outcome after treatment led to the diagnosis of a probable allergy to methylparaben, sodium parahydroxybenzoate, present as the excipient in the rectal enema. Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction, setting in rapidly, which may lead to fatal outcome. Most reactions to parabens reported concern, almost exclusively, the cutaneous application of paraben-containing topical preparations. The present observation underscores the original and undescribed risk of an allergic general reaction following the rectal administration of parabens. The indications of any prescription must be carefully observed and potential drug contraindications, considering the patient's history of allergy, should be sought. PMID:24183833

Raulin-Gaignard, H; Berlengi, N; Gatin, A; Loeb, O; Borsa-Dorion, A; Monin, P

2013-12-01

168

Determination of parabens and endocrine-disrupting alkylphenols in soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following matrix solid-phase dispersion or in-column microwave-assisted extraction: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Two rapid methods were evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of seven parabens and two alkylphenols from soil based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Soil extracts were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Extraction and clean-up of samples were carried out by both methods in a single step. A glass sample holder, inside the microwave cell, was used in MAE to allow the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of samples and shorten the MAE procedure. The detection limits achieved by MSPD were lower than those obtained by MAE because the presence of matrix interferences increased with this extraction method. The extraction yields obtained by MSPD and MAE for three different types of soils were compared. Both procedures showed good recoveries and sensitivity for the determination of parabens and alkylphenols in two of the soils assayed, however, only MSPD yielded good recoveries with the other soil. Finally, MSPD was applied to the analysis of soils collected in different sites of Spain. In most of the samples analyzed, methylparaben and butylparaben were detected at levels ranging from 1.21 to 8.04 ng g(-1) dry weight and 0.48 to 1.02 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. PMID:21792551

Pérez, R A; Albero, B; Miguel, E; Sánchez-Brunete, C

2012-03-01

169

Occurrence and ecological potential of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of municipal landfills in China.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics, azole anti-fungals, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, parabens, antiseptics, and bisphenol A, were investigated in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of two municipal landfills in the metropolis of Guangzhou, South China. Dehydroerythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, salicylic acid, methylparaben, triclosan, and bisphenol A were the mostly frequently detected PPCPs in the groundwater at low ng L(-1) levels. In the reservoirs, the PPCPs were widely detected at higher frequencies and concentrations, especially sulfamethoxazole, propiconazole, and ibuprofen, with maximal concentrations above 1 ?g L(-1). The PPCPs in the groundwater did not show significant seasonal differences or spatial trends. However, in the reservoirs, higher PPCP concentrations were observed in spring than in other seasons. The anti-bacterials in the groundwater posed medium risks to algae. In the reservoirs, the sulfonamides and macrolides posed low to high risks, while ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and clofibric acid presented low to medium risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, the results showed that the PPCP contaminants and subsequent ecological risks in the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the landfills may be of serious concern. More research is needed to better correlate the landfill leachates and PPCP contamination in the nearby aquatic environments. PMID:24908648

Peng, Xianzhi; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Chunwei; Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Jin, Jiabin; Tan, Jianhua

2014-08-15

170

Disruption of 3D MCF-12A Breast Cell Cultures by Estrogens – An In Vitro Model for ER-Mediated Changes Indicative of Hormonal Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Estrogens regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. Although the intracellular mechanisms of estrogens in the breast are largely understood, little is known about how they induce changes in the structure of the mammary epithelium, which are characteristic of breast cancer. In vitro three dimensional (3D) cultures of immortalised breast epithelial cells recapitulate features of the breast epithelium in vivo, including formation of growth arrested acini with hollow lumen and basement membrane. This model can also reproduce features of malignant transformation and breast cancer, such as increased cellular proliferation and filling of the lumen. However, a system where a connection between estrogen receptor (ER) activation and disruption of acini formation can be studied to elucidate the role of estrogens is still missing. Methods/Principal Findings We describe an in vitro 3D model for breast glandular structure development, using breast epithelial MCF-12A cells cultured in a reconstituted basement membrane matrix. These cells are estrogen receptor (ER)?, ER? and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) competent, allowing the investigation of the effects of estrogens on mammary gland formation and disruption. Under normal conditions, MCF-12A cells formed organised acini, with deposition of basement membrane and hollow lumen. However, treatment with 17?-estradiol, and the exogenous estrogens bisphenol A and propylparaben resulted in deformed acini and filling of the acinar lumen. When these chemicals were combined with ER and GPER inhibitors (ICI 182,780 and G-15, respectively), the deformed acini recovered normal features, such as a spheroid shape, proliferative arrest and luminal clearing, suggesting a role for the ER and GPER in the estrogenic disruption of acinar formation. Conclusion This new model offers the opportunity to better understand the role of the ER and GPER in the morphogenesis of breast glandular structure as well as the events implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression. PMID:23056216

Marchese, Stephanie; Silva, Elisabete

2012-01-01

171

Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L)?>?WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L)?>?WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity). PMID:24415065

Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

2014-05-01

172

A bioprocess for the production of phytase from Schizophyllum commune: studies of its optimization, profile of fermentation parameters, characterization and stability.  

PubMed

Schizophyllum commune produces phytase through solid-state fermentation using different agroindustrial residues. After optimization of phytase production, a maximal level of phytase (113.7 Units/gram of dry substrate) was obtained in wheat bran based medium containing 5% sucrose, 50% humidity, 7.5% of biomass at 33 °C pH 7.0 during 72 h and a 285% improvement in enzyme titre was achieved. Analysis of fermentation parameters profile for phytase production showed the highest productivity (1.466 Units/gram of dry substrate/hour) in 66 h of fermentation. Phytase has an optimal pH of 5.0, an optimal temperature of 50 °C and K (m) and V (max) values of 0.16 mM and 1.85 ?mol mL(-1) min(-1), respectively. Phytase activity was stimulated essentially in the presence of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), acetate and citrate at concentrations of 1 mM. Phytase had the best shelf life when stored at a cooling temperature, maintaining 38% of its initial activity after 112 days of storage, and still presenting enzymatic activity after 125 days of storage. Stability studies of phytase performed in aqueous enzyme extracts showed satisfactory results using polyethyleneglycol 3350, carboxymethylcellulose, methylparaben, mannitol and benzoic acid in concentrations of 0.25, 0.025, 0.025, 0.25, and 0.0025%, respectively. PEG 3350 was shown to be the best stabilizing agent, resulting in 109% of phytase activity from the initial crude extract remaining activity in after 90 days. PMID:22349925

Salmon, Denise Naomi Xavier; Piva, Luíza Cesca; Binati, Renato Leal; Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Spier, Michele Rigon

2012-09-01

173

Preparation and evaluation of monolithic poly(N-vinylcarbazole-co-1,4-divinylbenzene) capillary columns for the separation of small molecules.  

PubMed

Short-term polymerization or the so-called low-conversion polymerization was applied for the preparation of N-vinylcarbazole (NVC) and 1,4-divinylbenzene (DVB) monolithic capillary columns. The synthesis was carried out by thermally initiated free radical copolymerization under the influence of inert micro- (toluene) and macroporogen (1-decanol) and ?,?'-azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as radical initiator. The morphological and porous properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The copolymerization process was studied by monomer conversion measurements. This approach led to increased porosity and specific surface area. A specific surface area above 400 m(2)/g of the monolith and a distinct bimodal pore size distribution were obtained. The chromatographic performance was determined in terms of theoretical plate heights and number of theoretical plates. The lowest plate height value was found to be 3.9 ?m (corresponding to ?256,000 plates per meter) applying methylparaben utilizing an 80 mm?×?0.2 mm i.d. monolithic capillary. The developed NVC/DVB monolithic supports showed high separation efficiency towards small molecules, which was exemplified applying reversed-phase (RP) separation of alkylbenzenes, beta-blockers, flavanoids, parabens, and phenones. The loading capacity was analyzed for isocratic separation of seven alkylbenzenes and was found to be up to 77 ng total mass of alkylbenzenes. Furthermore, a long-term stability test of 1,000 consecutive runs was performed and resulted in a maximum variance of 0.97, 0.85, and 0.16 % RSD for resolution, peak width at half height, and retention times, respectively. The material was proven to have a high permeability of 1.11E-14 m(2), applying water as a mobile phase. PMID:25056873

Koeck, Rainer; Fischnaller, Martin; Bakry, Rania; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Guenther K

2014-09-01

174

Characterization of the organic contamination pattern of a hyper-saline ecosystem by rapid screening using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Additionally, a non-target analysis was performed in both types of samples with the objective of investigating the presence of other non-selected organic compounds taking advantage of the potential of GC-TOF MS (high sensitivity in full-spectrum acquisition mode, accurate mass measurements) for searching unknowns. Organophosphorus pesticides were the contaminants more frequently detected in brine samples. Other compounds usually present in urban and industrial wastewaters, like caffeine, methylparaben, butylated-hydroxytoluene and N-butylbenzenesulfonamide were also detected in brines. The herbicide simazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were among the contaminants detected in Artemia samples. Results of this work reveal a potential threat to vulnerable populations inhabiting the hyper-saline ecosystem. The valuable contribution of GC-TOF MS in environmental analysis, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of organic contaminants, is also demonstrated in this paper. PMID:22789816

Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A; Hernández, Félix; Navarro, Juan C; Varó, Inmaculada; Amat, Francisco

2012-09-01

175

Comparative study of the hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by microsomes of various rat and human tissues.  

PubMed

Hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, as well as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, was investigated and the structure-metabolic activity relationship was examined. Rat liver microsomes showed the highest activity toward parabens, followed by small-intestinal and lung microsomes. Butylparaben was most effectively hydrolyzed by the liver microsomes, which showed relatively low hydrolytic activity towards parabens with shorter and longer alkyl side chains. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited relatively higher activity toward longer-side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity towards heptylparaben. Rat lung and skin microsomes showed liver-type substrate specificity. Kidney and pancreas microsomes and plasma of rats showed small-intestinal-type substrate specificity. Liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activity was completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Ces1e and Ces1d isoforms were identified as carboxylesterase isozymes catalyzing paraben hydrolysis by anion exchange column chromatography of Triton X-100 extract from liver microsomes. Ces1e and Ces1d expressed in COS cells exhibited significant hydrolase activities with the same substrate specificity pattern as that of liver microsomes. Small-intestinal carboxylesterase isozymes Ces2a and Ces2c expressed in COS cells showed the same substrate specificity as small-intestinal microsomes, being more active toward longer-alkyl-side-chain parabens. Human liver microsomes showed the highest hydrolytic activity toward methylparaben, while human small-intestinal microsomes showed a broadly similar substrate specificity to rat small-intestinal microsomes. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes showed the same substrate specificity patterns as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. PMID:23742084

Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Fujino, Chieri; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

2013-12-01

176

Parabens can enable hallmarks and characteristics of cancer in human breast epithelial cells: a review of the literature with reference to new exposure data and regulatory status.  

PubMed

A framework for understanding the complexity of cancer development was established by Hanahan and Weinberg in their definition of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we consider the evidence that parabens can enable development in human breast epithelial cells of four of six of the basic hallmarks, one of two of the emerging hallmarks and one of two of the enabling characteristics. In Hallmark 1, parabens have been measured as present in 99% of human breast tissue samples, possess oestrogenic activity and can stimulate sustained proliferation of human breast cancer cells at concentrations measurable in the breast. In Hallmark 2, parabens can inhibit the suppression of breast cancer cell growth by hydroxytamoxifen, and through binding to the oestrogen-related receptor gamma may prevent its deactivation by growth inhibitors. In Hallmark 3, in the 10 nm-1 ?m range, parabens give a dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis in high-risk donor breast epithelial cells. In Hallmark 4, long-term exposure (>20 weeks) to parabens leads to increased migratory and invasive activity in human breast cancer cells, properties that are linked to the metastatic process. As an emerging hallmark methylparaben has been shown in human breast epithelial cells to increase mTOR, a key regulator of energy metabolism. As an enabling characteristic parabens can cause DNA damage at high concentrations in the short term but more work is needed to investigate long-term, low-dose mixtures. The ability of parabens to enable multiple cancer hallmarks in human breast epithelial cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implications of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. PMID:25047802

Darbre, Philippa D; Harvey, Philip W

2014-09-01

177

Multi-class determination of personal care products and pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, a multi-class method for the simultaneous determination of 17 emerging contaminants, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has been developed. Target analytes were two anti-inflammatories, a lipid regulator agent, two angiotensin II antagonists, two antiepileptic drugs and a diuretic. Among personal care products, four preservatives and five UV filters were included. The method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Up to three simultaneous transitions per compound were acquired to assure a reliable identification. A detailed study of the extraction process efficiency and matrix effects was carried out in surface water and effluent wastewater. The use of isotope-labeled internal standards (ILIS) was tested to compensate both potential SPE losses during sample extraction and signal suppression/enhancement observed, especially in EWW. Satisfactory correction in all water samples was only ensured when the own analyte ILIS was used. The use of analogues ILIS was a rather useful approach for correction in the majority of the samples tested when analyte ILIS was unavailable. The method was successfully validated in five different surface water (SW) samples and five effluent wastewater (EWW) samples spiked at two concentration levels (0.05 and 0.5 ?g/L in SW; 0.1 and 0.5 ?g/L in EWW). The developed method was applied to the analysis of 22 samples (SW and EWW) from the Spanish Mediterranean area and 51 reservoir water samples from Colombia. Personal care products were frequently detected, with the highest concentrations corresponding to benzophenone and benzophenone-4 (samples from Spain), and methylparaben (samples from Colombia). Several pharmaceuticals were detected in the Spanish samples, where irbesartan and valsartan - two Angiotensin II antagonists that are not commonly monitored in the aquatic environment - were the compounds most frequently detected. PMID:22967656

Gracia-Lor, Emma; Martínez, Marian; Sancho, Juan V; Peñuela, Gustavo; Hernández, Félix

2012-09-15

178

A novel complex of a phenolic derivative with insulin: structural features related to the T-->R transition.  

PubMed

The structure of a symmetric T3R3f insulin hexamer, complexed with 4-hydroxybenzamide, has been determined using X-ray crystallographic techniques. Data were measured from six crystals grown in microgravity to a resolution of 1.4 A and the structure has been refined including the contributions from hydrogen atoms. The crystals are isomorphous with T3R3f complexes of phenolic derivatives as well as with uncomplexed forms. Unlike the structures of complexes with phenol, m-cresol, resorcinol, 4'-hydroxyacetanilide, and methylparaben, which bind one phenolic derivative molecule per R- or Rf-state monomer, two molecules of 4-hydroxybenzamide are bound by each Rf-state monomer. The presence of the second guest molecule results in an extensive hydrogen bonding network, mediated by water molecules, between the T- and Rf-state trimers and adds stability to the formation of the hexamer. The only access to these second sites is through three symmetry-related, narrow channels that originate on the surface of the T-state trimer. Although the conformation of the backbone atoms of the monomers is nearly identical to that of other T3R3f hexamers, significant changes are observed in the conformations of side chains in the vicinity of the second binding site. The side chain of the T-state A11 Cys residue, which forms a disulfide bond to A6 Cys in the same monomer, is observed in two discrete conformations; two discrete conformations are also present for the entire A8 Thr residue in the Rf-state monomer. A procedure is also described for an alternate method of interframe scaling and merging intensity data from an image plate detector. PMID:8844841

Smith, G D; Ciszak, E; Pangborn, W

1996-08-01

179

A novel complex of a phenolic derivative with insulin: structural features related to the T-->R transition.  

PubMed Central

The structure of a symmetric T3R3f insulin hexamer, complexed with 4-hydroxybenzamide, has been determined using X-ray crystallographic techniques. Data were measured from six crystals grown in microgravity to a resolution of 1.4 A and the structure has been refined including the contributions from hydrogen atoms. The crystals are isomorphous with T3R3f complexes of phenolic derivatives as well as with uncomplexed forms. Unlike the structures of complexes with phenol, m-cresol, resorcinol, 4'-hydroxyacetanilide, and methylparaben, which bind one phenolic derivative molecule per R- or Rf-state monomer, two molecules of 4-hydroxybenzamide are bound by each Rf-state monomer. The presence of the second guest molecule results in an extensive hydrogen bonding network, mediated by water molecules, between the T- and Rf-state trimers and adds stability to the formation of the hexamer. The only access to these second sites is through three symmetry-related, narrow channels that originate on the surface of the T-state trimer. Although the conformation of the backbone atoms of the monomers is nearly identical to that of other T3R3f hexamers, significant changes are observed in the conformations of side chains in the vicinity of the second binding site. The side chain of the T-state A11 Cys residue, which forms a disulfide bond to A6 Cys in the same monomer, is observed in two discrete conformations; two discrete conformations are also present for the entire A8 Thr residue in the Rf-state monomer. A procedure is also described for an alternate method of interframe scaling and merging intensity data from an image plate detector. PMID:8844841

Smith, G. D.; Ciszak, E.; Pangborn, W.

1996-01-01

180

Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Phenols: Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid and Variability in Urinary Concentrations during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal urinary biomarkers are often used to assess fetal exposure to phenols and their precursors. Their effectiveness as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies depends on their variability during pregnancy and their ability to accurately predict fetal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between urinary and amniotic fluid concentrations of nine environmental phenols, and the reproducibility of urinary concentrations, among pregnant women. Methods: Seventy-one women referred for amniocentesis were included. Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenols, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens using online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in more than half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were positively correlated (? = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). Other phenols were detected infrequently in amniotic fluid (e.g., bisphenol A was detected in only two samples). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of urinary concentrations in samples from individual women ranged from 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11). Conclusion: Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low. The reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols. Although a single sample may provide a reasonable estimate of exposure for some phenols, collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error in studies regarding the effects of phenol prenatal exposure on health. Citation: Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, Stone J, Slama R, Engel SM. 2013. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 121:1225–1231;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206335 PMID:23942273

Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bausell, Rebecca; Meadows, Molly; Stone, Joanne; Slama, Rémy; Engel, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

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[Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].  

PubMed

Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben was also effective against S.epidermidis. However, in our study it was determined that preservatives were not effective against biofilm forms even if the inoculum was lower, equal to or higher than the inocula of the planktonic forms. The data obtained from this study indicated that preservatives used to prevent microbial contamination in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products, are not effective against biofilm forms of the microorganisms. This study is thought to be a guide for further studies to be held in the investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food industry. PMID:24506719

Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurda?, Fatma

2014-01-01