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A novel reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 2-phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben preservatives. The method uses a Lichrosorb C8 (150×4.6 mm, 5 µm) column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and water (21:13:66, v/v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The UV detection was set at 258 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), specificity, linearity and range. All the parameters examined met the current recommendations for bioanalytical method validation. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of commercially available pharmaceutical gel products for these preservatives. The procedure describes here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests.
A novel reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 2-phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben preservatives. The method uses a Lichrosorb C8 (150×4.6 mm, 5 µm) column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and water (21:13:66, v/v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The UV detection was set at 258 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), specificity, linearity and range. All the parameters examined met the current recommendations for bioanalytical method validation. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of commercially available pharmaceutical gel products for these preservatives. The procedure describes here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests. PMID:21218050
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms.
Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V. Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A.
A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants.
A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants. PMID:24019569
A reversed-phased HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives benzoic (BA) and sorbic acids (SA), methyl- (MP) and propylparabens (PP) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (35:65) to elute BA, SA and MP and changing the mobile phase composition to methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4)
21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives Â§ 582.3670 Propylparaben....
21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives Â§ 582.3490 Methylparaben....
Parabens are widely used as preservatives in many foods, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals due to their relatively low toxicity profile and to a long history of safe use. Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and typically include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben and benzylparaben. These compounds are known to have a null or very weak estrogenic activity in
Renata S. Tavares; Fátima C. Martins; Paulo J. Oliveira; João Ramalho-Santos; Francisco P. Peixoto
The interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellobiose) and sugar alcohols (lactitol, maltitol) were demonstrated in this study. It was observed that the formation of transesterification reaction products between methylparaben and the selected sugars occurred only under mild reaction conditions (e.g., pH 7.4 at 50 degrees C ), which were confirmed by HPLC-UV studies and mass spectrometry. On the other hand, under alkaline conditions and high temperature, degradation of the sugars predominated. Because sugars could easily undergo many possible degradation reactions and isomerization including on-column anomerization, the chromatograms of the reaction products were more complicated than those obtained from sugar alcohols. Sucrose, a nonreducing sugar, was much more stable than other selected sugars. The chromatogram of the transesterification reaction products of methylparaben with sucrose clearly showed eight peaks, which were likely to correspond to the same number of hydroxyl groups of sucrose. To compare the rate of the transesterification reaction of methylparaben with sucrose to that with sorbitol, kinetic studies were carried out. Similar rate constants were observed: 5.4 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) and 4.9 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) for sucrose and sorbitol, respectively. PMID:12115834
We examined expression profiles of estrogen-responsive genes after treatment with alkylphenols (p-cresol (pC), 4-n-ethylphenol (4EP), 4-n-heptylphenol (4HP), 4-t-octylphenol (4OP) and nonylphenol (NP)), chlorinated phenols (4-chlorophenol (4CP), 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol (CDP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP)), parabens (methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB) propylparaben (PPB) and butylparaben (BuPB)), or bis- and benzoylphenols (bisphenols A and B and p-hydroxybenzophenone (pHBP)) by means of a DNA microarray
The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of methylparaben as a solid-state plasticizer for Eudragit® RS PO during a hot-melt extrusion process. Extruded matrices containing different levels of methylparaben and Eudragit® RS PO, were prepared by feeding the powder blend through a hot melt extruder. The melt viscosity of the polymer blends was assessed by torque rheometry
The binding of methylparaben with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques under physiological conditions i.e., pH 7.4. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching at different temperatures revealed that the quenching mechanism of bovine serum albumin by methylparaben shows a dynamic quenching. The binding sites number n and binding constants, K were obtained at various temperatures. The distance, r between methylparaben and BSA was evaluated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The result of FT-IR spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra showed that the conformation of bovine serum albumin has been changed in the presence of methylparaben. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H(0)) and entropy change (?S(0)) were calculated according to van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. The effect of common ions and site probes were also carried on the binding of methylparaben to BSA. PMID:23334503
Studies on the determination of seven kinds of phthalates, i.e. diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dioctyl phthalate, and four parabens, i.e. methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, in 15 kinds of cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc., by HPLC with diode array detection and GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring have been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative detection of phthalates and parabens. Extraction, clean-up, and analysis procedures have been optimized. HPLC and GC-MS determinations were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol and clean-up with C18 SPE. These techniques permit detection of phthalates at a level of 10.0-100.0 microg/kg and of parabens at a level of 20.0-200.0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 85-108% with RSD values of 4.2-8.8%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The remaining 14 samples were found to contain at least three or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates and parabens detected in the studied samples were methylparaben, propylparaben, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The residue level is at 1.22-5289 mg/kg. PMID:17313141
Precise measurements of electrical conductivities of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben sodium salts in dilute aqueous solutions were performed from 278.15 to 313.15 K in 5 K intervals. Experimental conductivity data were analyzed applying the Quint-Viallard conductivity equations by taking into account the salt hydrolysis in aqueous solutions. These evaluations yield the limiting conductances of paraben anions and the dissociation constants of the investigated parabens in water. From temperature dependence of dissociation constants, the thermodynamic functions associated with the dissociation process were estimated. It was discovered that the contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the Gibbs free energy are quite similar. The Walden products of paraben anions in water are independent of temperature, indicating that the hydrodynamic radii are not significantly affected by temperature. PMID:22220814
Krofli?, Ana; Apelblat, Alexander; Bešter-Roga?, Marija
The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.
Propyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (propylparaben [PRPA]) is a phenolic antioxidant, known to occur in nature and used as a microbiostat in foods, feeds, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and medications. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) requires that liquid egg white (LEW) be pasteurized at 56.7°C for 3.5 min. This study evaluated the effects of PRPA on the pasteurization sensitivity of Salmonella in LEW. When LEW (pH 7.8) was pasteurized under FSIS conditions, salmonellae declined by 0.5, 4.6, 4.5, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, and D(56.7°C)-values were 2.99, 1.05, 0.68, 0.26 and ?0.16 min. Albumen (pH 8.9) pasteurized under FSIS standards incurred salmonellae reductions of 3.3, 2.8, 5.2, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, while D(56.7°C)-values were 0.87, 0.99, 0.66, 0.22, and 0.09 min. Adding 500 ppm of PRPA to albumen (pH 7.8) reduced D(56.7°C)-values more than 11-fold, and reduced the time to achieve a 5-log reduction from 15.0 to only 1.3 min. A 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 7.8) at 56.7°C required 20.9 min, versus only 1.8 and 1.1 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. Furthermore, a 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 8.9) required 6.1 min, versus only 1.5 and 0.6 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. This study is the first to report the efficacy of PRPA (pK(a) = 8.4) in sensitizing Salmonella in LEW to thermal pasteurization, while documenting that PRPA retains its antibacterial efficacy at pH levels as high as 8.9. PMID:22410216
A sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction for preconcentration followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed for determination of 19 biocides: eight azole fungicides (climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole, and carbendazim), two insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and icaridin (also known as picaridin)), three isothiazolinone antifouling agents (1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (OIT), and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolinone (DCOIT)), four paraben preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben), and two disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban) in surface water, wastewater, sediment, sludge, and soil. Recovery of the target compounds from surface water, influent, effluent, sediment, sludge, and soil was mostly in the range 70-120%, with corresponding method quantification limits ranging from 0.01 to 0.31 ng L(-1), 0.07 to 7.48 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 3.90 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 0.45 ng g(-1), 0.01 to 6.37 ng g(-1), and 0.01 to 0.73 ng g(-1), respectively. Carbendazim, climbazole, clotrimazole, methylparaben, miconazole, triclocarban, and triclosan were detected at low ng L(-1) (or ng g(-1)) levels in surface water, sediment, and sludge-amended soil. Fifteen target compounds were found in influent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 372 ng L(-1) (methylparaben). Fifteen target compounds were found in effluent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 114 ng L(-1) (carbendazim). Ten target compounds were found in dewatered sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 1.1 (DEET) and 887 ng g(-1) (triclocarban). PMID:23052884
The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7days of incubation at 25°C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24h later, and incubated at 20°C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. PMID:24026010
Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís
There are many cosmetic ingredients, such as preservatives and fragrances, known to elicit adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the side-effects of cosmetic preservatives, by evaluating objective and subjective skin irritation. The method comprised of 2 parts. In part 1, we tried to compare 24-hr patch test results with the sensory irritation potential of several preservatives. In part 2, skin cumulative irritation test for 21 days and sensory irritation test were performed to compare various combinations of preservatives in 4 types of formulations. Our data showed that methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, phenoxyethanol (PE) and chlorphenesin (CPN) have similar objective skin irritation potential at the minimal inhibitory concentration of each preservative, but CPN has higher potential than other preservatives in subjective irritation. Sensory irritation of preservatives changed according to formulation type, and PE combined with CPN highly increased irritation. There was correlation between antimicrobial activity and skin objective irritation but not sensory irritation. Influence on skin sensory irritation varies with the combination of preservatives. Therefore, for the development of new preservatives and cosmetics, it is important to evaluate skin sensory irritation of preservatives used in cosmetic products according to the type of formulations. PMID:17295686
Lee, Eunyoung; An, Susun; Choi, Dongwon; Moon, Seongjoon; Chang, Ihseop
The potential of carbon nanotubes for the solid phase extraction of parabens in cosmetic products and the detection using a corona-charged aerosol detector (C-CAD) is presented in this work. The analytical procedure is based on a conventional solid phase extraction step for which 20mg of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were packed in a 3-mL commercial SPE cartridge. Methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben were thus isolated and preconcentrated from the pre-treated samples and subsequently separated on a RP-C18 column using acetonitrile:water, 50:50 (v/v) as mobile phase. The analytical signals for the individual parabens were obtained using C-CAD. The experimental variables affecting the extraction procedure and the instrumental detection have been deeply studied. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-2.1mgL(-1), while the linear range was extended up to 400mgL(-1). The average precision of the method varied between 3.3-3.8% (repeatability) and 4.3-7.6% (reproducibility). Finally, the optimized procedure was applied to the determination of the target preservatives in a variety of cosmetic products with satisfactory results. PMID:19932486
Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel
...sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the âFood Chemicals Codex,â 3d Ed. (1981), p. 258, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy...
...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antimicrobial agent as defined in Â§ 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used in food at levels not...
In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl?1 for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute\\/chronic toxicity tests were conducted
Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for determination of econazole nitrate, preservatives (methylparaben and propylparaben) and its main impurities (4-chlorobenzyl alcohol and alpha-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol) in cream formulations, has been developed and validated. Separation was achieved on a column Bondclone® C18 (300mm×3.9mm i.d., 10?m) using a gradient method with mobile phase composed of methanol and water. The flow rate was
Angel Arturo Gaona-Galdos; Pedro López García; María Segunda Aurora-Prado; Maria Inês Rocha Miritello Santoro; Érika Rosa Maria Kedor-Hackmann
A rapid method for determination of seven parabens and two chlorinated by-products in sewage sludge was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure showed good recoveries that ranged from 80 to 125%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12% and low detection limits, ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 ng g(-1) dry weight. The developed method was applied to the analysis of sewage sludge collected during 2010 in 19 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in various urban, industrial or rural zones in Madrid (Spain). Methylparaben was found in most of the WWTPs sampled (95%) at levels between 5.1 and 26.2 ng g(-1) dry weight and propylparaben was detected in 74% of the WWTPs at levels up to 44.1 ng g(-1) dry weight. In order to study the temporal variation of parabens and two chlorinated parabens during a four-year period, sludge samples were collected from 3 selected WWTPs. The levels of methylparaben encountered were rather constant throughout the sampling period whereas propylparaben levels slightly increased. In one of the WWTPs monitored, isopropylparaben was found at the beginning of the sampling period but its content decreased and was not detected in the 2010 sampling. PMID:22640822
Albero, Beatriz; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Tadeo, José Luis
In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630?gl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10?gl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as large-scale monitoring for chronic toxicity tests including full-life cycle tests for fish. PMID:22051549
The vasoactivity of lignocaine has an important influence on its clinical efficacy and systemic vascular absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate its vasoactive properties when administered by the non-invasive technique of iontophoresis. We used laser Doppler imaging to measure the forearm skin blood flow responses of seven healthy young males to iontophoretic delivery of two preparations of 20 g/l of lignocaine hydrochloride, one containing the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben and one without. The subjects were blind to the order of drug administration, and we assessed analgesia at the sites using a pinprick test. Delivery of both preparations of (positively charged) lignocaine under the anode caused demonstrable analgesia, but no change in skin blood flow. An increase in perfusion was measured, however, when the preservative-containing preparation was administered under the cathode. There was little or no response to the solution without preservatives, although the difference in response between the two preparations was not statistically significant (P =0.063). Although there were no vasoactive effects of lignocaine at the relatively low dose used in the present study, our results suggest that the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben are the most likely cause of the vasodilatation that we observed under the cathode, and may therefore have a significant influence on the vasoactivity of this preparation when administered by injection. Both are negatively charged in solution and have been reported to possess vasodilator properties. It might be worth considering the use of alternative, non-vasoactive preservatives in local anaesthetic preparations, or avoiding the use of additives altogether, when this is feasible. PMID:12519091
Newton, David J; Amyes, Alexandra K B; Khan, Faisel; McLeod, Graeme A; Bannister, Jonathan; Belch, Jill J F
Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues. Concerns of a potential link between parabens and breast cancer have been raised, but mechanistic studies have centred on their oestrogenic activity and little attention has been paid to any carcinogenic properties. In the present study, we report that parabens can induce anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, a property closely related to transformation and a predictor of tumour growth in vivo. In semi-solid methocel suspension culture, MCF-10A cells produced very few colonies and only of a small size but the addition of 5?×?10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben resulted in a greater number of colonies per dish (P?0.05 in each case) and an increased average colony size (P?0.001 in each case). Dose-responses showed that concentrations as low as 10(-6) M methylparaben, 10(-7) M n-propylparaben and 10(-7) M n-butylparaben could increase colony numbers (P?=?0.016, P?=?0.010, P?=?0.008, respectively): comparison with a recent measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue samples from 40 mastectomies (Barr et al., 2012) showed that 22/40 of the patients had at least one of the parabens at the site of the primary tumour at or above these concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that parabens can induce a transformed phenotype in human breast epithelial cells in vitro, and further investigation is now justified into a potential link between parabens and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:22744862
A stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin (GUA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. The method was specific and stability indicating as chromatographic conditions were selected to provide adequate separation of GUA, MHB and PHB from the putative degradation products guaiacol (GUAI)
Giorgio Grosa; Erika Del Grosso; Roberta Russo; Gianna Allegrone
...propylparaben (propyl p- hydroxybenzoate), calcium propionate, sodium propionate, benzoic...propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate), and calcium propionate from the list of prohibited...propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate), and calcium propionate would continue to be...
Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig.
Jewell, Christopher [Toxicology Unit, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4EA (United Kingdom); Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Ackermann, Chrisita; Payne, N. Ann; Fate, Gwendolyn; Voorman, Richard [Pfizer Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Williams, Faith M. [Toxicology Unit, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4EA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms.
Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.
Preservatives are used in cosmetics to prevent microbial contamination; however, some preservatives are not free of allergenic and cytotoxic potential. Allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety, which determine limitations and maximum concentration dose in a cosmetic product. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the in vitro apoptosis, necrosis and genotoxicity-inducing potential of five different types of preservatives: Phenoxyethanol (PE), Propylparaben (PP), Methylparaben (MP), Benzyl Alcohol (BA) and Ethylhexyl Glycerine (EG). In vitro experiments were carried out on human dermal fibroblasts by a quantitative flow cytometry method, using specific cell markers (Annexin V, Propidium Iodide and H2AX). We compared the resulting cell viability by means of neutral red uptake (NRU) and established the IC(50) . Our results showed that PE, PP, MP and BA have similar cytotoxic mechanisms (high apoptosis and necrosis levels only at the test concentration of 1%), whereas EG showed only an apoptosis pathway. For genotoxicity, both parabens yielded the highest values. Results obtained by flow cytometry for necrosis were comparable to those produced by NRU; however, NRU does not distinguish apoptosis from necrosis. We propose that flow cytometry is a more sophisticated methodology for understanding the cytotoxic mechanisms of cosmetic preservatives and can be used to complement the NRU. PMID:22118339
Carvalho, C M de; Menezes, P F C; Letenski, G C; Praes, C E O; Feferman, I H S; Lorencini, M
The following review provides a comprehensive summary of antimicrobial preservatives that are commonly used in licensed parenteral products to date. The information reviewed includes the general properties of the preservatives, the doses and frequency of their use, the classes of the preserved products (peptide, protein, vaccine, and small molecule products), the interactions with other formulation components, and the criteria commonly used for their selection in parental product formulations. It was revealed that phenol and benzyl alcohol are the two most common antimicrobial preservatives used in peptide and protein products, while phenoxyethanol is the most frequently used preservative in vaccines. Benzyl alcohol or a combination of methylparaben and propylparaben are generally found in small molecule parenteral formulations. The key criteria for antimicrobial preservative selection are the preservative's dose, antimicrobial functionality, and effect on the active ingredient. Additionally, the use of spectroscopic techniques (circular dicroism (CD) and fluorescence) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were identified as common techniques used in evaluating an antimicrobial preservative for its impact on the conformational stability of peptide, protein, and vaccine antigens. The future use of preservatives is also discussed, including antimicrobial agents such as peptides, and regulatory requirements for antimicrobial effectiveness testing. PMID:17722087
This paper deals with the development of a novel method for simultaneous determination of estradiol, its degradation product estrone, and two preservatives, methylparaben and propylparaben, in the topical preparation Estradiol HBF. After optimization of the analytical conditions the method was validated and applied in studies of the stability of the topical preparation Estrogel HBF. Separation of all these compounds was performed on a Supelco Discovery C18 (250 mm x 3.0 mm, 5 microm) analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and water (23:24:53 v/ v) was chosen as mobile phase. UV absorbance at 225 nm was used for detection and quantitation of analytes. The total analysis time was less than 12 min at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min(-1). All the compounds were isolated from the topical gel by simple extraction with an acetonitrile solution of hydrocortisone, as internal standard, and using sonication and centrifugation thereafter. The supernatant was injected directly on to the analytical column. The recovery of the procedure was from 96.9 to 100.4%. Validation of method according international guidelines was successfully performed. PMID:14997260
Nováková, Lucie; Solich, Petr; Matysová, Ludmila; Sícha, Jan
Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients) used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo"), or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML) formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8). For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility.
Matrix solid-phase extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-class preservatives in a wide variety of cosmetic samples including rinse-off and leave-on products. After extraction, derivatization with acetic anhydride, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were performed. Optimization studies were done on real non-spiked and spiked leave-on and rinse-off cosmetic samples. The selection of the most suitable extraction conditions was made using statistical tools such as ANOVA, as well as factorial experimental designs. The final optimized conditions were common for both groups of cosmetics and included the dispersion of the sample with Florisil (1:4), and the elution of the MSPD column with 5 mL of hexane/acetone (1:1). After derivatization, the extract was analyzed without any further clean-up or concentration step. Accuracy, precision, linearity and detection limits were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. The recovery studies on leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics gave satisfactory values (>78% for all analytes in all the samples) with an average relative standard deviation value of 4.2%. The quantification limits were well below those set by the international cosmetic regulations, making this multi-component analytical method suitable for routine control. The analysis of a broad range of cosmetics including body milk, moisturizing creams, anti-stretch marks creams, hand creams, deodorant, shampoos, liquid soaps, makeup, sun milk, hand soaps, among others, demonstrated the high use of most of the target preservatives, especially butylated hydroxytoluene, methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. PMID:21947013
Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg. PMID:17580703
Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu
The relationship between the metabolism and the cytotoxic effects of the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) has been studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatocytes with propyl-paraben (0.5 to 2.0 mM) elicited a concentration- and time-dependent cell death that was enhanced when enzymatic hydrolysis of propyl-paraben to p-hydroxybenzoic acid was inhibited by a carboxylesterase inhibitor, diazinon. The
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the major daucane constituent, ferutinin (jaeschkeandiol p-hydroxybenzoate, 1), four of its natural analogues, its hydrolysis products, as well as methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben) against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapidly growing surrogate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The agar dilution assay was utilised for an antimycobacterial evaluation of single compounds. A modified agar
A rapid, sensitive and convenient ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and\\u000a validated for the determination of armillarisin A in rat plasma. Following hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction,\\u000a armillarisin A and propylparaben (internal standard) were separated using a gradient elution program on a C18 column and detected by mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode with the multiple reaction
Lei Li; Shaojie Wang; Xiaohong Liu; Jin Sun; Meng Zhu; Yongbing Sun; Ping Meng; Xiaofan Sui; Xiuli Yang; Yinghua Sun; Zhonggui He
A novel voltammetric sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coupled with Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the detection of methylparaben (MP). The sensor exhibited good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of MP in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 6.5). It displayed good sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak
Peili Luo; Jie Liu; Yamin Li; Yurui Miao; Baoxian Ye
Liquid mixing scale-up in pharmaceutical industry has often been based on empirical approach in spite of tremendous understanding\\u000a of liquid mixing scale-up in engineering fields. In this work, we attempt to provide a model-based approach to scale-up dissolution\\u000a process from a 2 l lab-scale vessel to a 4,000 l scale vessel used in manufacturing. Propylparaben was used as a model compound\\u000a to
Venkat Koganti; Fred Carroll; Richard Ferraina; Rick Falk; Yogesh Waghmare; Mark Berry; Yang Liu; Kenneth Norris; Robert Leasure; Jeffrey Gaudio
This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%.The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples). PMID:23324734
During preformulation studies of cosmetic/pharmaceutical products, thermal analysis techniques are very useful to detect physical or chemical incompatibilities between the active and the excipients of interest that might interfere with safety and/or efficacy of the final product. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of avobenzone with some currently used cosmetic excipients. In the first phase of the study, DSC was used as a tool to detect any interaction. Based on the DSC results alone, cetearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, propylparaben, diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, caprylic capric triglyceride, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glycerin, cetearyl alcohol/ceteareth 20, cetearyl alcohol/sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium cetearyl sulfate, and paraffinum liquidum exhibit interaction with avobenzone. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50°C for 15 days) of avobenzone and excipients were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary mixtures were further investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Based on DSC, isothermal stress testing, and fourier transform infrared results; avobenzone is incompatible with caprylic capric triglyceride, propylparaben, and BHT. PMID:24139431
Both phenoxyethanol and parabens are kinds of preservatives in cosmetics and are nominated as the restricted ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Low. So the analytical methods for phenoxyethanol and parabens were investigated by HPLC. After adding methanol to phenoxyethanol and parabens in lotions, the testing solutions were analyzed by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250 mm), the mixture either of 50 mmol/l phosphate(pH3.5) and acetonitrile (7:3) for phenoxyethanol or of 50 mmol/l phosphate buffer(pH3.5) and acetonitrile (3:2) for parabens and the detection wavelength of either 270 nm for pehnoxyethanol or 255 nm for parabens. The working curves from 0.5 to 5 micrograms/ml passed through the origin. There were no interference of peaks of phenoxyethanol and parabens from the cosmetics. Eleven lotions out of 42 lotions did not have phenoxyethanol. Phenoxyethanol in thirty-one cosmetics ranged from 0.009 to 1.043% and those average was 0.264%. Parabens, especially methylparaben, were detected in all lotions. The amounts of parabens ranged from 0.016 to 0.267% and their average was 0.120%. There were 7 kinds of lotions whose contents of phenoxyethanol and methylparaben were below 0.1%. PMID:14740401
Parabens, a class of preservatives routinely added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods, have estrogenic properties. Given that intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova in inseminated females can be disrupted by minute levels of exogenous estrogens, we assessed the impact of parabens upon early gestation. In Experiment 1, butylparaben was administered subcutaneously in several doses ranging from 0.05 to 35 mg/animal/day to inseminated CF-1 mice on days 1-4 of pregnancy. Butylparaben exposure did not affect litter size, the number of pups born, postnatal day 3 litter weights, or the number of pups surviving to postnatal day 5. In contrast, administration of 500 ng/animal/day 17beta-estradiol terminated all pregnancies. In Experiment 2, propylparaben was subcutaneously administered to inseminated CF-1 mice on gestational days 1-4. Dams were sacrificed on gestation day 6 and the number of implantation sites was counted. Propylparaben had no impact on the number of implantation sites observed. Since Experiments 1 and 2 did not yield the anticipated results, an uterotrophic assay was conducted in Experiment 3 to re-evaluate the in vivo estrogenicity of parabens. Ovariectomized CF-1 and CD-1 mice were administered butylparaben in doses ranging from 0.735 to 35 mg per animal for three consecutive days. Mice were sacrificed on the fourth day, and uterine mass was recorded. There was no effect of butylparaben on uterine wet or dry mass at any dose in either strain. In contrast, administration of 17beta-estradiol consistently increased uterine mass in both strains. These data indicate that the estrogen-sensitive period of implantation is not vulnerable to paraben exposure, and that the in vivo estrogenicity of parabens may not be as potent as previously reported. PMID:19490991
In this paper, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (abbreviated as TESPIC) was modified by ethylparaben (EPB) to produce corresponding organic-inorganic monomers (EPB-TESPIC) with two components equipped with covalent bonds, which not only can coordinate to RE ions (Tb3+ and Eu3+) but also act as a sol-gel precursor. Luminescent hybrid materials consisting of terbium-europium complex, covalently bonded to silica-based network, have been obtained in situ via a sol-gel approach. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to characterize the structure of EPB-TESPIC. UV-visible, phosphorescence, and luminescence spectra were obtained to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. Through co-hydrolysis and polycondensation, Tb3+ and Eu3+ can be introduced into the same organic-inorganic hybrid monomer, forming Si-O backbones. The experimental results show that the strong luminescence of rare-earth ions substantiates the optimum energy match and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of coordination complex and the emissive energy level of the rare-earth ions. The hybrid material systems are expected to have potential applications in photophysical sensors.
In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.
A simple, highly repeatable and reproducible method for the estimation of Paclitaxel (TAX) in micro volume amounts of rat plasma is successfully developed and validated. The extraction procedure using 800 µL of ice-cold acetonitrile is very simple and economical with high sensitivity. The rectangular ratiograms and purity curve demonstrate the selectivity of the method. The validation and stability results show that propylparaben (PP) is a suitable internal standard (resolution 7.70 ± 0.15 min) for the estimation of TAX in micro volume rat plasma. TAX and PP are separated by isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array UV method with a retention time of 8.0 ± 0.25 and 5.3 ± 0.15 min, respectively, with a total run time of 10 min. The system suitability results show that the method has good reproducibility. The stability of TAX is well studied in rat plasma, and the % RSD of all stability studies of TAX are well within the acceptable range of ± 20 % at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) and ± 15% at all quality control levels. The limit of detection (LOD) and LLOQ of the method are 5 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. This rapid method is successfully used to study the i.v pharmacokinetic of TAX at 10 mg/kg in wistar rats, and drug concentration is detected up to 24 h. PMID:22337803
Kumar, Sekar Vasantha; Srinath, Selladurai; Saha, Ranendra N
An isocratic simple rapid assay has been developed and validated for the determination of carbamazepine (CBZ) in both solution form and rabbit plasma using propylparaben as an internal standard. The assay was performed using a ?-Bondapak C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (50:50), the flow rate was 1 ml/min and UV detection at 285 nm. The method was found to be specific for CBZ, no interfering peaks were observed with an overall analytical run time of 15 min. Accuracy reported as % recovery were found to be 98.37–100.45% and 97.53–103.58% for inter-day and intra-day accuracies, respectively. Inter-day precision (reproducibility) was found to be 0.53–2.75% RSD, while intra-day precision (repeatability) was found to be 1.06–3.7% RSD for the samples studied. The calibration curve was found to be linear with the equation y = 0.2847x + 0.0138, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 (R2) over a concentration range of 0.5–40 ?g/ml. The limit of quantitation was the lowest concentration. The method is simple and rapid and does not require any preliminary treatment of the sample. The method was fully validated.
Mowafy, Hammam A.; Alanazi, Fars K.; El Maghraby, Gamal M.
Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin. PMID:21879392
Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100 %) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 ?g/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 ?g/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42 % for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures. PMID:23744051
In a survey, results of more than 100 assay determinations of various analytes (active pharmaceutical ingredients, methylparabene, chlorthalidone, and proteins) at different concentration levels were collected with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) levels between 2 and higher than 10?000. It must be concluded that without having a S/N of at least 50, repeatabilities (combination of injection, separation process, and integration) of 2% cannot be achieved, in contrast to the general assumption that a S/N of 10 is sufficient for analytical HPLC. These data now confirm an earlier assumption with a much broader fundamental of measurements. The empirical functions %RSD = 58/(S/N) + 0.30 (for HPLC data) and %RSD = 73/(S/N) + 1.07 (for CE data) could be derived. It was shown that a S/N of greater than 100 is necessary for optimal precision. Before optimizing HPLC or CE methods, for example, for sample pretreatment, S/N > 100 should be the prerequisite, else optimal precision will not be achieved. Only after the detection-related scatter is sufficiently reduced, other sources of variation can be successfully tackled. PMID:22736351
Two rapid methods were evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of seven parabens and two alkylphenols from soil based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Soil extracts were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Extraction and clean-up of samples were carried out by both methods in a single step. A glass sample holder, inside the microwave cell, was used in MAE to allow the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of samples and shorten the MAE procedure. The detection limits achieved by MSPD were lower than those obtained by MAE because the presence of matrix interferences increased with this extraction method. The extraction yields obtained by MSPD and MAE for three different types of soils were compared. Both procedures showed good recoveries and sensitivity for the determination of parabens and alkylphenols in two of the soils assayed, however, only MSPD yielded good recoveries with the other soil. Finally, MSPD was applied to the analysis of soils collected in different sites of Spain. In most of the samples analyzed, methylparaben and butylparaben were detected at levels ranging from 1.21 to 8.04 ng g(-1) dry weight and 0.48 to 1.02 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. PMID:21792551
Pérez, R A; Albero, B; Miguel, E; Sánchez-Brunete, C
A method for the simultaneous determination of eight beta-lactam antibiotics (nafcillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and penicillin G) in fortified milk samples of different origins has been proposed by using CZE with diode-array detection (CZE-DAD). Optimum separation was obtained on a 64.5 cm x 75 microm bubble cell capillary using 175 mM Tris buffer with 20% ethanol at pH 8.0. Methylparaben has been used as an internal standard (IS). Taking into account the lack of sensitivity of the UV-Vis detection, a solvent extraction/SPE method was applied for off-line preconcentration and sample cleanup, and also an on-line preconcentration methodology, such as large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching, was developed, providing LODs ranging from 2 to 10 microg/L. The method permits the quantification of these residues below the levels established in milk by the EU Regulation. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 86 to 93% were also obtained in milk samples of different origins. PMID:17960857
Bailón-Pérez, M Isabel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; Del Olmo Iruela, Monsalud
Liquid mixing scale-up in pharmaceutical industry has often been based on empirical approach in spite of tremendous understanding of liquid mixing scale-up in engineering fields. In this work, we attempt to provide a model-based approach to scale-up dissolution process from a 2 l lab-scale vessel to a 4,000 l scale vessel used in manufacturing. Propylparaben was used as a model compound to verify the model predictions for operating conditions at commercial scale that would result in similar dissolution profile as observed in lab scale. Geometric similarity was maintained between both of the scales to ensure similar mixing characteristics. We utilized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to ensure that the operating conditions at laboratory and commercial scale will result in similar power per unit volume (P/V). Utilizing this simple scale-up criterion of similar P/V across different scales, results obtained indicate fairly good reproducibility of the dissolution profiles between the two scales. Utilization of concepts of design of experiments enabled summarizing scale-up results in statistically meaningful parameters, for example ?90% dissolution in lab scale at a given time under certain operating conditions will result in 75–88% at commercial scale with 95% confidence interval when P/V is maintained constant across the two scales. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated that scale-up of solid dissolution can be done using a systematic process of lab-scale experiments followed by simple CFD modeling to predict commercial-scale experimental conditions.
Parabens are esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, including beverages. Information on the occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs and dietary exposure of humans to these chemicals is not available. In this study, food samples (n = 267) collected from Albany, New York, United States, were grouped into eight categories, namely, beverages, dairy products, fats and oils, fish and shellfish, grains, meat, fruits, and vegetables, and analyzed for five parabens by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The majority (>90%) of food samples contained measurable concentrations of parabens, and the total concentrations (?parabens; sum of five parabens) ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 409 ng/g fresh weight (mean: 9.67 ng/g; median: 0.92 ng/g). Methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl-parabens were the predominant compounds, accounting for ?90% of the total concentrations. Butyl- and benzyl-parabens were less frequently detected. There were no significant differences in paraben concentrations among the eight food categories, including the canned foods. On the basis of the concentrations measured and per capita daily ingestion rates of foods, we estimated the daily intake (EDI; ng/kg of body weight (bw)/day)) of parabens through food ingestion. The EDI values of total parabens (calculated from the mean concentrations measured and the mean daily ingestion rates of food items) were 940, 879, 470, 273, and 307 ng/kg bw/day for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs. PMID:23506043
Breast cancer is an estrogen-driven disease. Consequently, hormone replacement therapy correlates with disease incidence. However, increasing male breast cancer rates over the past three decades implicate additional sources of estrogenic exposure including wide spread estrogen-mimicking chemicals or xenoestrogens (XEs), such as bisphenol-A (BPA). By exposing renewable, human, high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) to BPA at concentrations that are detectable in human blood, placenta and milk, we previously identified gene expression profile changes associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genesets likely to trigger prosurvival changes in human breast cells. We now provide functional validation of mTOR activation using pairwise comparisons of 16 independent HRBEC samples with and without BPA exposure. We demonstrate induction of key genes and proteins in the PI3K-mTOR pathway--AKT1, RPS6 and 4EBP1 and a concurrent reduction in the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene protein. Altered regulation of mTOR pathway proteins in BPA-treated HRBECs led to marked resistance to rapamycin, the defining mTOR inhibitor. Moreover, HRBECs pretreated with BPA, or the XE, methylparaben (MP), surmounted antiestrogenic effects of tamoxifen showing dose-dependent apoptosis evasion and induction of cell cycling. Overall, XEs, when tested in benign breast cells from multiple human subjects, consistently initiated specific functional changes of the kind that are attributed to malignant onset in breast tissue. Our observations demonstrate the feasibility of studying renewable human samples as surrogates and reinforce the concern that BPA and MP, at low concentrations detected in humans, can have adverse health consequences. PMID:21890461
Goodson, William H; Luciani, Maria Gloria; Sayeed, S Aejaz; Jaffee, Ian M; Moore, Dan H; Dairkee, Shanaz H
Breast cancer is an estrogen-driven disease. Consequently, hormone replacement therapy correlates with disease incidence. However, increasing male breast cancer rates over the past three decades implicate additional sources of estrogenic exposure including wide spread estrogen-mimicking chemicals or xenoestrogens (XEs), such as bisphenol-A (BPA). By exposing renewable, human, high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) to BPA at concentrations that are detectable in human blood, placenta and milk, we previously identified gene expression profile changes associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genesets likely to trigger prosurvival changes in human breast cells. We now provide functional validation of mTOR activation using pairwise comparisons of 16 independent HRBEC samples with and without BPA exposure. We demonstrate induction of key genes and proteins in the PI3K-mTOR pathway—AKT1, RPS6 and 4EBP1 and a concurrent reduction in the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene protein. Altered regulation of mTOR pathway proteins in BPA-treated HRBECs led to marked resistance to rapamycin, the defining mTOR inhibitor. Moreover, HRBECs pretreated with BPA, or the XE, methylparaben (MP), surmounted antiestrogenic effects of tamoxifen showing dose-dependent apoptosis evasion and induction of cell cycling. Overall, XEs, when tested in benign breast cells from multiple human subjects, consistently initiated specific functional changes of the kind that are attributed to malignant onset in breast tissue. Our observations demonstrate the feasibility of studying renewable human samples as surrogates and reinforce the concern that BPA and MP, at low concentrations detected in humans, can have adverse health consequences.
Goodson, William H.; Luciani, Maria Gloria; Sayeed, S. Aejaz; Jaffee, Ian M.; Moore, Dan H.
Preservatives are important components in many products, but have a history of purported allergy. Several assays [e.g., guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), local lymph node assay (LLNA)] are used to evaluate allergy potential of preservatives. We recently developed the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT), an in vitro skin sensitization test using human THP-1 cells. This test evaluates the augmentation of CD86 and CD54 expression, which are key events in the sensitization process, as an indicator of allergy following treatment with test chemical. Earlier, we found that a sub-toxic concentration was needed for the up-regulation of surface marker expression. In this study, we further evaluate the capability of h-CLAT to predict allergy potential using eight preservatives. Cytotoxicity was determined using propidium iodide with flow cytometry analysis and five doses that produce a 95, 85, 75, 65, and 50% cell viability were selected. If a material did not have any cytotoxicity at the highest technical dose (HTD), five doses are set using serial 1.3 dilutions of the HTD. The test materials used were six known allergic preservatives (e.g., methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde), and two non-allergic preservatives (methylparaben and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). All allergic preservatives augmented CD86 and/or CD54 expression, indicating h-CLAT correctly identified the allergens. No augmentation was observed with the non-allergic preservatives; also correctly identified by h-CLAT. In addition, we report two threshold concentrations that may be used to categorize skin sensitization potency like the LLNA estimated concentration that yield a three-fold stimulation (EC3) value. These corresponding values are the estimated concentration which gives a relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) = 150 for CD86 and an RFI = 200 for CD54. These data suggest that h-CLAT, using THP-1 cells, may be able to predict the allergy potential of preservatives and possibility classify the potency of an allergen. PMID:17119987
Background: Maternal urinary biomarkers are often used to assess fetal exposure to phenols and their precursors. Their effectiveness as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies depends on their variability during pregnancy and their ability to accurately predict fetal exposure.Objectives: We assessed the relationship between urinary and amniotic fluid concentrations of nine environmental phenols, and the reproducibility of urinary concentrations, among pregnant women.Methods: Seventy-one women referred for amniocentesis were included. Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenols, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens using online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in more than half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were positively correlated (? = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). Other phenols were detected infrequently in amniotic fluid (e.g., bisphenol A was detected in only two samples). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of urinary concentrations in samples from individual women ranged from 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11).Conclusion: Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low. The reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols. Although a single sample may provide a reasonable estimate of exposure for some phenols, collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error in studies regarding the effects of phenol prenatal exposure on health.Citation: Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, Stone J, Slama R, Engel SM. 2013. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 121:1225-1231;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206335. PMID:23942273
Philippat, Claire; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bausell, Rebecca; Meadows, Molly; Stone, Joanne; Slama, Rémy; Engel, Stephanie M
Background: Maternal urinary biomarkers are often used to assess fetal exposure to phenols and their precursors. Their effectiveness as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies depends on their variability during pregnancy and their ability to accurately predict fetal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between urinary and amniotic fluid concentrations of nine environmental phenols, and the reproducibility of urinary concentrations, among pregnant women. Methods: Seventy-one women referred for amniocentesis were included. Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenols, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens using online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in more than half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were positively correlated (? = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). Other phenols were detected infrequently in amniotic fluid (e.g., bisphenol A was detected in only two samples). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of urinary concentrations in samples from individual women ranged from 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11). Conclusion: Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low. The reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols. Although a single sample may provide a reasonable estimate of exposure for some phenols, collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error in studies regarding the effects of phenol prenatal exposure on health. Citation: Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, Stone J, Slama R, Engel SM. 2013. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 121:1225–1231;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206335
Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bausell, Rebecca; Meadows, Molly; Stone, Joanne; Slama, Remy; Engel, Stephanie M.