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1

Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.  

PubMed

Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to skin penetrate the stratum corneum in inverse relation to the ester chain length. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze parabens in the skin. Parabens do not accumulate in the body. Serum concentrations of parabens, even after intravenous administration, quickly decline and remain low. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that parabens are not significantly toxic by various routes of administration. Subchronic and chronic oral studies indicate that parabens are practically nontoxic. Numerous genotoxicity studies, including Ames testing, dominant lethal assay, host-mediated assay, and cytogenic assays, indicate that the Parabens are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethylparaben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay. Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben in the diet produced cell proliferation in the forestomach of rats, with the activity directly related to chain length of the alkyl chain, but Isobutylparaben and Butylparaben were noncarcinogenic in a mouse chronic feeding study. Methylparaben was noncarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice or rats, or when administered intravaginally in rats, and was not cocarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice. Propylparaben was noncarcinogenic in a study of transplacental carcinogenesis. Methylparaben was nonteratogenic in rabbits, rats, mice, and hamsters, and Ethylparaben was nonteratogenic in rats. Parabens, even at levels that produce maternal toxicity, do not produce fetal anomalies in animal studies. Parabens have been extensively studied to evaluate male reproductive toxicity. In one in vitro study, sperm were not viabile at concentrations as low as 6 mg/ml Methylparaben, 8 mg/ml Ethylparaben, 3 mg/ml Propylparaben, or 1 mg/ml Butylparaben, but an in vivo study of 0.1% or 1.0% Methylparaben or Ethylparaben in the diet of mice reported no spermatotoxic effects. Propylparaben did affect sperm counts at all levels from 0.01% to 1.0%. Epididymis and seminal vesicle weight decreases were reported in rats given a 1% oral Butylparaben dose; and decreased sperm number and motile activity in F(1) offspring of rats maternally exposed to 100 mg/kg day(- 1) were reported. Decreased sperm numbers and activity were reported in F(1) offspring of female rats given Butylparaben (in DMSO) by subcutaneous injection at 100 or 200 mg/kg day(- 1), but there were no abnormalities in the reproductive organs. Methylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1141.1 mg/kg day(- 1) with no adverse testicular effects. Butylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1087.6 mg/kg day(- 1) in a repeat of the study noted above, but using a larger number of animals and a staging analysis of testicular effects-no adverse reproductive effects were found. Butylparaben does bind to estrogen receptors in isolated rat uteri, but with an affinity orders of magnitude less than natural estradiol. Relative binding (diethylstilbesterol binding affinity set at 100) to the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta increases as a function of chain length from not detectable for Methylparaben to 0.267 +/- 0.027 for human estrogen receptor alpha and 0.340 +/- 0.031 for human estrogen receptor beta for Isobutylparaben. In a study of androgen receptor binding, Propylparaben exhibited weak competitive binding, but Methylparaben had no binding effect at all. PHBA at 5 mg/kg day(-1) subcutaneously (s.c.) was reported to produce an estrogenic response in one uterotrophic

2008-01-01

2

Determination of indinavir, potassium sorbate, methylparaben, and propylparaben in aqueous pediatric suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient, reversed phase, HPLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of potassium sorbate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and indinavir in aqueous suspensions that contain a proprietary orange flavoring and Magnasweet® sweetener enhancer (MacSanrews and Forbes Company, Magnasweet® product brochure). The chromatographic separation is performed on an Eclipse XDB-C8 column using a gradient run with an analysis time of 35 min. The

Dawn M. Kreuz; Angela L. Howard; Dominic Ip

1999-01-01

3

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities  

PubMed Central

A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

2013-01-01

4

Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation.  

PubMed

A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:23833716

Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A

2013-06-01

5

Validated Stability-indicating Reverse-phase Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Methylparaben, Sodium Propylparaben and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Topical Dosage Forms.  

PubMed

A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants. PMID:24019569

Roy, C; Chakrabarty, J; Modi, P B

2013-03-01

6

Development of a selective and sensitive voltammetric sensor for propylparaben based on a nanosized molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode.  

PubMed

The design and construction of a selective voltammetric sensor for propylparaben (PP) in cosmetics by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition element was introduced. The MIP was synthesized by using PP as template and methacrylic acid as functional monomer and then incorporated in the carbon paste electrode as PP sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (MIP-CPE) showed very high recognition ability in comparison to non-imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (NIP-CPE). It was shown that electrode washing after PP extraction, led to enhanced selectivity, without noticeably decreasing the sensitivity. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized, and a calibration curve was then plotted using differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique. A dynamic linear range of 1 nM to 100 nM was obtained. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated to be equal to 0.32 nM. The imprinted electrode also displayed good selectivity for PP and selectivity coefficients were 2.29 and 1.66 for methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) respectively. Structural analogs, such as phenol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid had almost no response. This sensor was used successfully for propylparaben determination in cosmetic sample. PMID:24433892

Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dehdashtian, Sara; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

2014-03-01

7

21 CFR 184.1670 - Propylparaben.  

...Propylparaben. (a) Propylparaben is the chemical propyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the n -propanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...

2014-04-01

8

21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1490 Methylparaben. (a) Methylparaben is the chemical methyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the methanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...

2012-04-01

9

21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.  

...1490 Methylparaben. (a) Methylparaben is the chemical methyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the methanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...

2014-04-01

10

21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1490 Methylparaben. (a) Methylparaben is the chemical methyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the methanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1490 Methylparaben. (a) Methylparaben is the chemical methyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the methanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...

2013-04-01

12

The antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the toxic effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben are phenolic preservatives commonly used in food, pharmaceutical and personal care products. Both chemicals have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, due to the growing concern regarding their possible impacts on environmental and human health. However, the cytotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these compounds have not been explored. In this study, a set of relevant cytotoxicity endpoints including cell viability and proliferation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and gene expression changes were analyzed to assess whether the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole could prevent the pro-oxidant effects caused by propylparaben in Vero cells. We demonstrated that binary mixtures of both chemicals induce greater cytotoxic effects than those reported after single exposureto each compound. Simultaneous treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest as a result of enhanced generation of oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a cross-talk between transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) pathways regulates the response of Vero cells to the tested compounds in binary mixture. Our findings indicate that butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the pro-oxidant effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells and provide useful information for their safety assessment. PMID:25086368

Martín, José Manuel Pérez; Freire, Paloma Fernández; Daimiel, Lidia; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Sánchez, Covadonga Martín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Peropadre, Ana; Hazen, María José

2014-10-01

13

Determination of parabens in beverage samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient method for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben in real beverage samples was developed. It is making use of solidified floating organic droplets of 1-dodecanol which has low density and a proper melting point. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the type of extraction and dispersive solvent, the volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, salt effect, pH, extraction time, were optimized and resulted in enrichment factors (EFs) of 84 for methylparaben, 103 for ethylparaben, 115 for propylparaben and 126 for butylparaben. The limits of detection for parabens were 1.52, 1.06, 0.32 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent linearity with coefficients of correlation from 0.9970 to 0.9997 was observed in the concentration range of 5-1,000 ng/mL. The repeatability of the proposed method expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.54 to 3.89% (n = 5). The relative recoveries for parabens in beverage samples were good and in the ranges of 89.8-109.9, 90.2-107.3, 90.9-101.7 and 92.3-118.1%, respectively. Thus, the proposed method has excellent potential for the determination of parabens in beverage samples. PMID:24297525

Hou, Fang; Deng, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang

2014-11-01

14

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

15

Simultaneous determination of electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives by novel capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.  

PubMed

A novel capillary electrophoresis and amperometric detection method was achieved by adding an electroactive additive (3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, 3,4-DHBA) to the running buffer, so that both electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives were simultaneously determined. Under the selected optimum conditions, four electroactive preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) and two non-electroactive preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium lactate) were well separated and sensitively detected with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 1.06×10(-8) to 2.73×10(-6) g mL(-1). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of both electroactive and non-electroactive preservatives in several food commodities. PMID:20869502

Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Junbo; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong

2010-09-23

16

Degradation of methylparaben in water by corona plasma coupled with ozonation.  

PubMed

The degradation of methylparaben (MeP) in water was investigated using a pulsed corona discharge generated in oxygen, above the liquid. A comparison was made between results obtained in semi-batch corona (SBC) configuration (stationary solution, continuous gas flow) and results obtained in a semi-batch corona with recirculation combined with ozonation (SBCR?+?O3), where the liquid is continuously circulated between a solution reservoir and the plasma reactor and the effluent gas containing ozone is bubbled through the solution in the reservoir. It was found that MeP was completely degraded after 10-15 min of treatment in both configurations. Oxidation by ozone alone, in the absence of plasma, was a slower process. The energy efficiency for MeP removal (Y MeP) and for mineralization (Y TOC) was significantly higher in the SBCR?+?O3 configuration (Y MeP?=?7.1 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.41 g/kWh at 50 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal) than in the SBC configuration (Y MeP?=?0.6 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.11 g/kWh at 50 % TOC removal). PMID:24801291

Dobrin, D; Magureanu, M; Bradu, C; Mandache, N B; Ionita, P; Parvulescu, V I

2014-11-01

17

Thermodynamic properties of aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO micelles with added methylparaben determined by differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

DSC experiments were performed on aqueous solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO (P105) amphiphiles in the low concentration regime (0-1%) to resolve the critical micelle concentration (cmc) both neat and co-formulated with methylparaben (MP). Further work was done at 10% amphiphilic copolymer concentrations and co-formulated with MP to resolve the variations in enthalpy. The compensation temperature, T(compensation), was determined from the analyses for neat P105 as 293.9 K; adding MP raises this to 328.43 K. PMID:23474225

Thompson, Andre Lamont; Love, Brian James

2013-05-15

18

Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction for preconcentration followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed for determination of 19 biocides: eight azole fungicides (climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole, and carbendazim), two insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and icaridin (also known as picaridin)), three isothiazolinone antifouling agents (1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (OIT), and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolinone (DCOIT)), four paraben preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben), and two disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban) in surface water, wastewater, sediment, sludge, and soil. Recovery of the target compounds from surface water, influent, effluent, sediment, sludge, and soil was mostly in the range 70-120%, with corresponding method quantification limits ranging from 0.01 to 0.31 ng L(-1), 0.07 to 7.48 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 3.90 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 0.45 ng g(-1), 0.01 to 6.37 ng g(-1), and 0.01 to 0.73 ng g(-1), respectively. Carbendazim, climbazole, clotrimazole, methylparaben, miconazole, triclocarban, and triclosan were detected at low ng L(-1) (or ng g(-1)) levels in surface water, sediment, and sludge-amended soil. Fifteen target compounds were found in influent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 372 ng L(-1) (methylparaben). Fifteen target compounds were found in effluent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 114 ng L(-1) (carbendazim). Ten target compounds were found in dewatered sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 1.1 (DEET) and 887 ng g(-1) (triclocarban). PMID:23052884

Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Feng; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

2012-12-01

19

Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Analysis of several emerging contaminants (steroids, caffeine and methylparaben) in water using automated solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS) is presented. Experimental design was used to determine the best SPME extraction conditions and the steroids were not derivatized prior to injection. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS provided linear ranges from 0.6 to 1200?gL(-1) and limits of detection and quantitation from 0.02 to 100?gL(-1). A series of river water samples obtained locally were subjected to analysis. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS is readily automated, straightforward and competitive with other methods for low level analysis of emerging contaminants. PMID:23768536

Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Barnes, Brian B; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lancas, Fernando M; Snow, Nicholas H

2013-07-19

20

Application of vesicular coacervate phase for microextraction based on solidification of floating drop.  

PubMed

A new, efficient and environmentally friendly method for the analysis of parabens as model compounds was developed using solidified floating vesicular coacervative drop microextraction (SFVCDME). A supramolecular solvent consisting of vesicles of decanoic acid in the nano- and microscale regimes was firstly used as the solvent in solidification of floating drop microextraction. The solvent was produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles in the presence of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). Methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), and propylparaben (PP) were extracted on the basis of hydrophobic and ?-cation interactions and the formation of hydrogen bonds. Microliter volume of vesicular coacervative droplet was delivered to the surface of the aqueous sample, and the sample was stirred for a desired time. The sample vial was cooled by immersing it into an ice bath for 3 min. The solidified solvent was transferred into a suitable vial and melted immediately. Twenty microliter of the vesicular coacervative solvent was directly injected to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, with no need to dilution or solvent evaporation. Several parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including sample temperature, stirring rate, pH, salt effect, volume of the solvent and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors and relative recoveries of the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 81-174 and 91-108%, respectively; and the performance of the method was comparable with that of solid-phase extraction as the reference method. PMID:22305363

Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah

2012-03-16

21

Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. PMID:24026010

Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

2013-09-16

22

Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.  

PubMed

Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 ?g/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of

Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

2013-09-01

23

Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

Smith, D.J.

1981-05-01

24

Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- < ethyl- < propyl- < butylparaben. The extension of the linear alkyl chain with an aromatic ring in benzylparaben further augments the adipogenic ability, whereas 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the common metabolite of all parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further. PMID:22956630

Hu, Pan; Chen, Xin; Whitener, Rick J; Boder, Eric T; Jones, Jeremy O; Porollo, Aleksey; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

2013-01-01

25

21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), p. 199, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy...

2010-04-01

26

LC for analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing cough cold suppressant drugs.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method was applied for the analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing dextromethorphane hydrobromide, carbinoxamine maleate with either phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical capsules (Mix 1) or phenyl-propanolamine, methylparaben, and propylparaben, which bonds as a drug base to ion exchange resin in pharmaceutical syrup (Mix 2). The method was used for their simultaneous determination using a CN column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-12 mM ammonium acetate in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 1 and 45:55 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 2. PMID:20822669

El-Gindy, Alaa; Sallam, Shehab; Abdel-Salam, Randa A

2010-07-01

27

Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.  

PubMed

Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8?g/L; MBzP 19.9?g/L; MnBP 76.9?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8?g/L; MBzP 12.8?g/L; MnBP 63.0?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8?g/L; ProP 13.9?g/L) and MEP (43.4?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8?g/L; ProP 2.1?g/L) and MEP (28.8?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

2014-12-01

28

Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children  

PubMed Central

Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6–11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother–child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5 ?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8 ?g/L; MBzP 19.9 ?g/L; MnBP 76.9 ?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4 ?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8 ?g/L; MBzP 12.8 ?g/L; MnBP 63.0 ?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 ?g/L; ProP 13.9 ?g/L) and MEP (43.4 ?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 ?g/L; ProP 2.1 ?g/L) and MEP (28.8 ?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p = < 0.001; MnBP p = 0.001–0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p = 0.003; ProP p = 0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Berglund, Marika

2014-01-01

29

Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.  

PubMed

In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630?gl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10?gl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as large-scale monitoring for chronic toxicity tests including full-life cycle tests for fish. PMID:22051549

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

2011-12-01

30

Occurrence of preservatives and antimicrobials in Japanese rivers.  

PubMed

We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000 ng L(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water. PMID:24556546

Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakada, Norihide; Tamura, Ikumi; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Masunaga, Shigeki

2014-07-01

31

Resolution of five-component mixture using mean centering ratio and inverse least squares chemometrics  

PubMed Central

Background A comparative study of the use of mean centering of ratio spectra and inverse least squares for the resolution of paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride has been achieved showing that the two chemometric methods provide a good example of the high resolving power of these techniques. Method (I) is the mean centering of ratio spectra which depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in four successive steps that eliminates the derivative steps and therefore the signal to noise ratio is improved. The absorption spectra of prepared solutions were measured in the range of 220–280 nm. Method (II) is based on the inverse least squares that depend on updating developed multivariate calibration model. The absorption spectra of the prepared mixtures in the range 230–270 nm were recorded. Results The linear concentration ranges were 0–25.6, 0–15.0, 0–15.0, 0–45.0 and 0–100.0 ?g mL-1 for paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recoveries for simultaneous determination were between 99.9-101.3% for the two methods. The two developed methods have been successfully used for prediction of five-component mixture in Decamol Flu syrup with good selectivity, high sensitivity and extremely low detection limit. Conclusion No published method has been reported for simultaneous determination of the five components of this mixture so that the results of the mean centering of ratio spectra method were compared with those of the proposed inverse least squares method. Statistical comparison was performed using t-test and F-ratio at P?=?0.05. There was no significant difference between the results. PMID:24028626

2013-01-01

32

Spalling and sorption of tubing for peristaltic pumps.  

PubMed

Available tubing for peristaltic pumps tend to shed particulates into the solution due to their poor abrasion characteristics. Most commonly used flexible tubing is silicone rubber or polyvinyl chloride (Tygon) tubing. Two newly available tubing are manufactured from a composite of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon PTFE) with platinum-cured silicone rubber (Sta-Pure) and a tubing composite of PTFE with fluoroelastomer (Chem-Sure). These are claimed to resist spalling and deliver constant volume when used in peristaltic pumps. The four tubing were compared for spallation. They were also compared for sorption of methylparaben, propylparaben, and benzyl alcohol over a 72 hr study. Spallation studies indicate that Tygon and silicone tubing are prone to damage and shedding of particulates due to abrasion during use in peristaltic pumps while the Chem-Sure and Sta-Pure tubing are resistant to abrasion and spalling and show negligible shedding of particulates over 72 hr use in the peristaltic pump. Chem-Sure shows no spalling after 48 hr. Decrease in volume delivered is expected using Tygon and silicone tubing only. Chem-Sure tubing did not show any preservative losses. Tygon sorbed all preservatives tested to the greatest extent, followed by Silastic and Sta-Pure tubing, in decreasing order of sorption. Propylparaben was sorbed to the greatest extent. The tubing used appear to approach saturation in 24-48 hr. Chem-Sure and Sta-Pure tubing are ideal for use in peristaltic pumps or for general use for any demanding pharmaceutical applications. PMID:12229263

Bahal, Surendra M; Romansky, Jamie M

2002-01-01

33

Liquid chromatography and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of two multicomponent mixtures containing cough suppressant drugs.  

PubMed

Three methods were applied for the analysis of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing dextromethorphan hydrobromide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate, methylparaben, and propylparaben, together with either sodium benzoate (Mix 1) or ephedrine hydrochloride and benzoic acid (Mix 2). In the first method, liquid chromatography was used for their simultaneous determination using an ODS column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer, pH 2.7 (40 + 60, v/v), containing 5mM heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 214 nm. Also, 2 chemometric methods, principal component regression, and partial least squares were used. For both chemometric calibrations, a concentration set of the mixture consisting of each compound in each mixture was prepared in distilled water. The absorbance data in the UV spectra were measured for the 76 or 71 wavelength points in the spectral region 210-240 or 210-224 nm considering the intervals of deltagamma = 0.4 or 0.2 nm for Mix 1 and Mix 2, respectively. The 2 chemometric methods did not require any separation step. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of the 2 multicomponent combinations in synthetic mixtures and in commercial syrups, and the results were compared with each other. PMID:16152922

El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mesbah, Mostafa K; Hadad, Ghada M

2005-01-01

34

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic  

PubMed Central

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

35

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.  

PubMed

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

36

Application and validation of chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of six-component pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Three methods are developed for the simultaneous determination of theophylline anhydrous (TH), guaiphenesin (GP), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DP), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and sodium benzoate (BZ) in pharmaceutical syrup. The chromatographic method depends on a high performance liquid chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase C(18) column at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of 25 mM KH2PO4, pH 3.2-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 222 nm based on peak area. The other two chemometric methods applied were partial least squares (PLS-1) and principal component regression (PCR). These approaches were successfully applied to quantify the six components in the studied mixture using information included in the UV absorption spectra of appropriate solutions in the wavelength range of 220-270 nm with Deltalambda=0.4 nm. The calibration PLS-1 and PCR models were evaluated by internal validation (prediction of compounds in its own designed training set of calibration), by cross-validation (obtaining statistical parameters that show the efficiency for a calibration fit model) and by external validation over synthetic and pharmaceutical preparation. The results of PLS-1 and PCR methods were compared with the HPLC method and a good agreement was found. PMID:16414231

El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mostafa, Ahmed

2006-05-01

37

Minimizing Hemodialysis Catheter Dysfunction: An Ounce of Prevention  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of tunneled catheter (TC) patency is critical for the provision of adequate hemodialysis in patients who are TC-dependent. TC dysfunction results in the need for costly and inconvenient interventions, and reduced quality of life. Since the introduction of TCs in the late 1980s, heparin catheter lock has been the standard prophylactic regimen for the prevention of TC dysfunction. More recently, alternative catheter locking agents have emerged, and in some cases have shown to be superior to heparin lock with respect to improving TC patency and reducing TC-associated infections. These include citrate, tissue plasminogen activator, and a novel agent containing sodium citrate, methylene blue, methylparaben, and propylparaben. In addition, prophylaxis using oral anticoagulants/antiplatelet agents, including warfarin, aspirin, ticlodipine, as well as the use of modified heparin-coated catheters have also been studied for the prevention of TC dysfunction with variable results. The use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents as primary or secondary prevention of TC dysfunction must be weighed against their potential adverse effects, and should be individualized for each patient. PMID:22518310

Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine; Vazquez, Miguel; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Mokrzycki, Michele

2012-01-01

38

A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation.  

PubMed

A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C; Jadhav, Sushant B

2011-09-01

39

Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water.  

PubMed

Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC), were analyzed in the effluent of the aerobic gray water treatment system in full operation. The effluent was used for lab-scale experiments with an electrochemical cell operated in batch mode. Three different anodes and five different cathodes have been tested. Among the anodes, Ru/Ir mixed metal oxide showed the best performance. Ag and Pt cathodes worked slightly better than Ti and mixed metal oxide cathodes. The compounds that contain a phenolic ring (parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan) were completely transformed on this anode at a specific electric charge Q = 0.03 Ah/L. The compounds, which contain a benzene ring and multiple side methyl methyl groups (galaxolide, 4-MBC) required high energy input (Q ? 0.6 Ah/L) for transformation. Concentrations of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) in the gray water effluent increased significantly upon treatment for all electrode combinations tested. Oxidation of gray water on mixed metal oxide anodes could not be recommended as a post-treatment step for gray water treatment according to the results of this study. Possible solutions to overcome disadvantages revealed within this study are proposed. PMID:24364736

Butkovskyi, Andrii; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hernandez Leal, Lucia; van der Zande, Ton; Rijnaarts, Huub; Zeeman, Grietje

2014-02-01

40

Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.  

PubMed

Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

2014-06-01

41

Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients) used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo"), or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML) formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8). For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility. PMID:21087496

2010-01-01

42

[Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].  

PubMed

Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg. PMID:17580703

Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu

2007-03-01

43

Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:1299–1305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

2013-01-01

44

77 FR 50462 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE, Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Novartis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...methylparaben NF; diphenhydramine citrate USP; aspartame NF; aspartame; coated acetaminophen crystals; xylometazoline HCL; heterocyclic compounds; dextromethorphan hydrobromide USP; crospovideone NF; polyplasdone xl-10; clomicalm A.S.;...

2012-08-21

45

Addition of 2.5% lactate and 0.25% acetate controls growth of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum-packed, sensory-acceptable servelat sausage and cooked ham stored at 4°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the inhibitory effects of propylparaben and of a combination of lactate and acetate against growth of Listeria monocytogenes in inoculated liquid medium, sliced servelat sausage and cooked ham, were performed using rifampicin resistant Listeria strains in inoculation experiments. A consumer acceptance test of products produced with and without the compounds was also performed. Propylparaben was found to

Hans Blom; Eva Nerbrink; Richard Dainty; Therese Hagtvedt; Elisabeth Borch; Hilde Nissen; Truls Nesbakken

1997-01-01

46

76 FR 16290 - Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food; 2-Acetylamino-5-Nitrothiazole; Buquinolate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Methylprednisolone; Prednisolone; Prednisone; Progesterone; Propylparaben...520 (40 FR 13802 at 13956). 10. Prednisone (Sec. 556.530). In 1964, FDA established a tolerance for prednisone in milk of dairy animals at...

2011-03-23

47

Rearing the wheat stem sawfly on an artificial Tulio B. Macedo,1  

E-print Network

these conditions, McGinnis and Kasting (1962) improved larval survival by placing evenly spaced plastic plates, methylparaben, sorbic acid, vitamin mix (Vanderzant), ascorbic acid, stabilized wheat germ, casein, sterile corn

Peterson, Robert K. D.

48

Assessment of combined antiandrogenic effects of binary parabens mixtures in a yeast-based reporter assay.  

PubMed

To date, toxicological studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have typically focused on single chemical exposures and associated effects. However, exposure to EDCs mixtures in the environment is common. Antiandrogens represent a group of EDCs, which draw increasing attention due to their resultant demasculinization and sexual disruption of aquatic organisms. Although there are a number of in vivo and in vitro studies investigating the combined effects of antiandrogen mixtures, these studies are mainly on selected model compounds such as flutamide, procymidone, and vinclozolin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined antiandrogenic effects of parabens, which are widely used antiandrogens in industrial and domestic commodities. A yeast-based human androgen receptor (hAR) assay (YAS) was applied to assess the antiandrogenic activities of n-propylparaben (nPrP), iso-propylparaben (iPrP), methylparaben (MeP), and 4-n-pentylphenol (PeP), as well as the binary mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. All of the four compounds could exhibit antiandrogenic activity via the hAR. A linear interaction model was applied to quantitatively analyze the interaction between nPrP and each of the other three antiandrogens. The isoboles method was modified to show the variation of combined effects as the concentrations of mixed antiandrogens were changed. Graphs were constructed to show isoeffective curves of three binary mixtures based on the fitted linear interaction model and to evaluate the interaction of the mixed antiandrogens (synergism or antagonism). The combined effect of equimolar combinations of the three mixtures was also considered with the nonlinear isoboles method. The main effect parameters and interaction effect parameters in the linear interaction models of the three mixtures were different from zero. The results showed that any two antiandrogens in their binary mixtures tended to exert equal antiandrogenic activity in the linear concentration ranges. The antiandrogenicity of the binary mixture and the concentration of nPrP were fitted to a sigmoidal model if the concentrations of the other antiandrogens (iPrP, MeP, and PeP) in the mixture were lower than the AR saturation concentrations. Some concave isoboles above the additivity line appeared in all the three mixtures. There were some synergistic effects of the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP at low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges. Interesting, when the antiandrogens concentrations approached the saturation, the interaction between chemicals were antagonistic for all the three mixtures tested. When the toxicity of the three mixtures was assessed using nonlinear isoboles, only antagonism was observed for equimolar combinations of nPrP and iPrP as the concentrations were increased from the no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) to effective concentration of 80%. In addition, the interactions were changed from synergistic to antagonistic as effective concentrations were increased in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP. The combined effects of three binary antiandrogens mixtures in the linear ranges were successfully evaluated by curve fitting and isoboles. The combined effects of specific binary mixtures varied depending on the concentrations of the chemicals in the mixtures. At low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges, there was synergistic interaction existing in the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP. The interaction tended to be antagonistic as the antiandrogens approached saturation concentrations in mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. The synergistic interaction was also found in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP, at low concentrations with another method of nonlinear isoboles. The mixture activities of binary antiandrogens had a tendency towards antagonism at high concentrations and synergism at low concentrations. PMID:24469767

Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Li, Feifei; Liu, Cong; Liu, Rui

2014-05-01

49

Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (?M). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 ?M. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lakemethylparaben were identified by GC-MS analyses and the degradation pathway was proposed. PMID:24291138

Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

2014-02-15

50

Allergies to local anesthetics — the real truth  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the amino-ester compounds are derivatives of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is a known allergen. All ester compounds are hydrolyzed and yield PABA as an intermediate metabolite. Many patients may have already been exposed to parabens before they receive their first local anesthetic injection. Methyl- and propylparaben are additives in many lotions, cosmetics and foodstuffs and are used to

Brendan T. Finucane

2003-01-01

51

Antimycobacterial activity of ferutinin alone and in combination with antitubercular drugs against a rapidly growing surrogate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the major daucane constituent, ferutinin (jaeschkeandiol p-hydroxybenzoate, 1), four of its natural analogues, its hydrolysis products, as well as methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben) against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapidly growing surrogate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The agar dilution assay was utilised for an antimycobacterial evaluation of single compounds. A modified agar

Ehab A. Abourashed; Ahmed M. Galal; Atef M. Shibl

2011-01-01

52

Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5?-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, d(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C18) (250mm×4.6mm, 5?m) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was

Stojanka Vidovi?; Biljana Stojanovi?; Jelena Veljkovi?; Ljiljana Praži?-Arsi?; Goran Rogli?; Dragan Manojlovi?

2008-01-01

53

Interfacial process of nucleation and molecular nucleation templator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial effects of nucleation inhibition and promotion were identified from the nucleation of paracetamol. Unlike the classic interfacial effects, which are caused by the change in nucleation barrier, the nonepitaxial interfacial effects are only associated with kink integration kinetics. Methylparaben inhibits nucleation by increasing the desolvation free energy barrier, which is revealed as the nonepitaxial interfacial effect of nucleation inhibition. Polysaccharide revealed its nonepitaxial interfacial effects of nucleation promotion by lowering the conformation entropic barrier via liquid molecule preordering. Polysaccharide can be regarded as an example of molecular nucleation promoter based on the nonepitaxial interfacial effects.

Liu, X. Y.

2001-07-01

54

Drug-excipient compatibility studies in binary mixtures of avobenzone.  

PubMed

During preformulation studies of cosmetic/pharmaceutical products, thermal analysis techniques are very useful to detect physical or chemical incompatibilities between the active and the excipients of interest that might interfere with safety and/or efficacy of the final product. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of avobenzone with some currently used cosmetic excipients. In the first phase of the study, DSC was used as a tool to detect any interaction. Based on the DSC results alone, cetearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, propylparaben, diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, caprylic capric triglyceride, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glycerin, cetearyl alcohol/ceteareth 20, cetearyl alcohol/sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium cetearyl sulfate, and paraffinum liquidum exhibit interaction with avobenzone. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50°C for 15 days) of avobenzone and excipients were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary mixtures were further investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Based on DSC, isothermal stress testing, and fourier transform infrared results; avobenzone is incompatible with caprylic capric triglyceride, propylparaben, and BHT. PMID:24139431

Ceresole, Rita; Han, Yong K; Rosasco, Maria A; Orelli, Liliana R; Segall, Adriana

2013-01-01

55

Toxicological evaluation of three contaminants of emerging concern by use of the Allium cepa test.  

PubMed

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, triclosan and propylparaben are contaminants of emerging concern that have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, but for which limited information is currently available concerning adverse effects on terrestrial plant systems. The Allium cepa test, which is considered one of the most efficient approaches to assess toxic effects of environmental chemicals, was selected to evaluate the potential risks of these ubiquitous pollutants. Our data demonstrate that all three compounds studied may in some way be considered toxic, but different effects were noted depending on the chemical and the end point analysed. Results derived from the analysis of macroscopic parameters used in testing for general toxicity, revealed that while di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate had no apparent effects, the other two chemicals inhibited A. cepa root growth in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, although all three compounds caused alterations in the mitotic index of root-tip cells, propylparaben was the only one that did not show evidence of genotoxicity in assays for chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. The results of the present study clearly indicate that sensitive plant bioassays are useful and complementary tools to determine environmental impact of contaminants of emerging concern. PMID:22249112

Herrero, O; Pérez Martín, J M; Fernández Freire, P; Carvajal López, L; Peropadre, A; Hazen, M J

2012-03-18

56

Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-? and -? and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that widely used parabens possess estrogenic properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? (ESR1) and -? (ESR2) and the progesterone receptor (PGR). Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells were exposed to parabens at a concentration of 20nM; 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10nM, was used as a positive control. Both propyl- and butylparaben stimulated PGR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells, whereas methyl- and propylparaben PGR protein expression. In MCF-10A cells, butyl- and propylparaben increased only PGR mRNA expression. All parabens increased ESR1 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and with the exception of butylparaben in MCF-10A cells. All parabens significantly increased ESR2 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells, but in MCF-10A cells only ESR2 protein expression. In summary, by virtue of their stimulatory action on the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR in cancer cells, parabens can be viewed as potential contributors to breast cancer progression. Extension, the actions of these parabens on the expression of ERs and PGR in non-cancerous cells point to possible actions on breast cancer initiation. PMID:25128701

Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

2014-11-01

57

Determination of emerging and priority industrial pollutants in surface water and wastewater by liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of six perfluoroalkyl compounds (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids), five phenolic compounds (nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and methyl-, ethyl- and propylparabens), and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in surface water and effluent wastewater has been developed. The selected pollutants include eight of the industrial pollutants (PFOS and derivatives, NP, and HBCDD) that could be regulated in surface water according to an European Union Directive proposal and four compounds of great concern because their estrogenicity (BPA and parabens). The method is based on solid-phase extraction and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization mode. Method quantitation limits of NP, PFOS and derivatives, and HBCDD allow its application for routinely control of surface water according to the EU proposal of directive. PMID:24633504

Martín, Julia; Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2014-06-01

58

A systematic review of the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a plant source of the ethnomedicine "dragon's blood".  

PubMed

"Dragon's blood" is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of "dragon's blood". It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis. PMID:25054444

Fan, Jia-Yi; Yi, Tao; Sze-To, Chui-Mei; Zhu, Lin; Peng, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

2014-01-01

59

Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old  

PubMed Central

In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed “safe” MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

2014-01-01

60

Toxicological interactions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with selected pollutants.  

PubMed

The combined toxicity of the perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and several pollutants (Hg(2+), Cd(2+), 2,4-D, propylparaben, mitomycin C and furazolidone) has been examined with a bioluminescent cyanobacterial toxicity test. Hg(2+), Cd(2+), mitomycin C and furazolidone could be included in the "Acute aquatic hazard" category established in the Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 being "very toxic to aquatic life". Toxicological interactions of PFOA, PFOS with these pollutants in binary, ternary and multicomponent mixtures were studied using the combination-index method. PFOA and PFOS showed an antagonistic interaction at the whole range of effect levels, this may explain in part the finding that PFOA and PFOS interacted in an inverse way with the organic pollutants; the relative hydrophobicity of the tested compounds would also explain this interaction pattern. The interaction of both PFOS and PFOA with heavy metals was mostly antagonistic, decreasing metal toxicity. With increasing complexity of the mixtures, the CI method predicted synergism at low to very low levels of effect; pollutant combinations at their mixture NOECs were tested and confirmed the predicted synergism. PMID:22177019

Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

2012-01-30

61

Occurrence of steroid estrogens, endocrine-disrupting phenols, and acid pharmaceutical residues in urban riverine water of the Pearl River Delta, South China.  

PubMed

A scoping study was conducted to investigate the residues of nineteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including 4 natural and 3 synthetic steroid estrogens, 7 endocrine-disrupting phenols, and 5 acid pharmaceuticals in three urban streams and the Major Pearl River at Guangzhou, a megapolis in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Estrone was detected in >60% water samples with a maximum concentration of 65 ng L(-1). Endocrine-disrupting phenols (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, triclosan, 2-phenylphenol, methyparaben, and propylparaben) were found to be widely present at rather high concentrations in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou. Salicylic acid, clofibric acid and ibuprofen were detected in most water samples with maximum concentrations of 2098, 248 and 1417 ng L(-1) respectively, whereas naproxen was less frequently detected and also at lower concentration. Both the detection frequencies and median concentrations of the PPCPs appeared higher during the low-flow season than during the high-flow season. The seasonal difference in PPCPs occurrence was probably attributed to the dilution effect caused by the rainfall. PPCPs in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou originated mainly from random discharge and/or leakage of municipal wastewater. PPCPs contamination in the Major Pearl River may be of a potential environmental issue, especially during the low-flow season. PMID:18407320

Peng, Xianzhi; Yu, Yiyi; Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Huang, Qiuxin; Wang, Zhendi

2008-07-01

62

Gene expression responses for detecting sublethal effects of xenobiotics and whole effluents on a Xenopus laevis embryo assay.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos, methylparaben, and 2 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants located in the province of Madrid, Spain, on the messenger RNA expression of specific genes involved in early development (ESR1, pax6, bmp4, and myf5) and a gene involved in the general stress response (hsp70) during Xenopus laevis embryo development. Gene expression was analyzed after 4?h, 24?h, and 96?h of exposure by semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Concentration ranges of the compounds and dilutions for the samples were selected to cause morphological alterations in embryos after 96?h of exposure. Transcript levels of ESR1, pax6, and hsp70 were differentially altered at early developmental stages with patterns specific to the contaminant and the exposure time. However, further studies are needed to establish transcript levels of specific genes as biomarkers of sublethal effects in an environmental risk-assessment framework. Besides, studies including more generic responses, such as genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, together with genes related to embryonic development have to be developed to look for a battery of mechanistic endpoints for the evaluation of chemical exposure at the molecular level in a first-tier assessment. PMID:23637088

San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Pablos, M Victoria

2013-09-01

63

Antimycobacterial activity of ferutinin alone and in combination with antitubercular drugs against a rapidly growing surrogate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the major daucane constituent, ferutinin (jaeschkeandiol p-hydroxybenzoate, 1), four of its natural analogues, its hydrolysis products, as well as methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben) against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapidly growing surrogate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The agar dilution assay was utilised for an antimycobacterial evaluation of single compounds. A modified agar dilution assay, the checkerboard method, was utilised for evaluating the potentiating effect of 1 on different antitubercular drugs, namely isoniazid, ethionamide, rifampin and streptomycin. In the agar dilution assay, 1 exhibited higher potency (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 10?µg?mL?¹) than streptomycin and rifampin (MIC 20?µg?mL?¹ for each). Of the natural analogues, 8,9-epoxyjaeschkeandiol p-hydroxybenzoate and 8,9-epoxyjaeschkeandiol benzoate exhibited marginal activity (MIC???40 and 80?µg?mL?¹, respectively). The checkerboard method showed that the combination of 1 with each antitubercular drug led to mutual enhancement of the antimycobacterial activity with isoniazid and ethionamide, while no such effect was observed with rifampin or streptomycin. Based on this study and earlier studies with Staphylococcus aureus, the major constituent 1 may be responsible for the major part of the antimicrobial activity of the root of Ferula hermonis. PMID:21442547

Abourashed, Ehab A; Galal, Ahmed M; Shibl, Atef M

2011-07-01

64

New concept for HPTLC peak purity assessment and identification of drugs in multi-component mixtures.  

PubMed

Simple methods for HPTLC peak purity assessment and identification of the HPTLC peaks were presented. The spectrodensitograms - selected at different time intervals across the elution time of the HPTLC peak - were extracted and digital algorithms for manipulating the data were carried out in the wavelength domain. Three different methods were developed for testing the HPTLC peak purity using the mathematically transformed data of the spectrodensitograms. These included the method of relative absorption, the method of logA versus the wavelength plots and the derivative (first, second, third and fourth) method. The identification of the HPTLC peaks was based on the use of the derivative profile of the spectrodensitogram and the derivative ratios as fingerprints for the compounds. The wavelengths of absorbance and derivative (first, second, third and fourth) optima of the extracted spectrodensitograms were allocated. The data were compared with those obtained using the corresponding reference standard. The validity of the proposed methods was performed by chromatography of a mixture containing mebendazole and methylparaben as a model versus the winCATS(®) spectral correlation method as a reference method. The study indicated that the proposed concept is a reliable non-confusing valuable tool for testing the purity and identity of the HPTLC peaks as the results are easily and rigorously interpreted. PMID:22265550

Hewala, Ismail I; Bedair, Mona M; Shousha, Sherif M

2012-01-15

65

Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L)?>?WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L)?>?WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity). PMID:24415065

Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

2014-05-01

66

Characterization of the organic contamination pattern of a hyper-saline ecosystem by rapid screening using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Additionally, a non-target analysis was performed in both types of samples with the objective of investigating the presence of other non-selected organic compounds taking advantage of the potential of GC-TOF MS (high sensitivity in full-spectrum acquisition mode, accurate mass measurements) for searching unknowns. Organophosphorus pesticides were the contaminants more frequently detected in brine samples. Other compounds usually present in urban and industrial wastewaters, like caffeine, methylparaben, butylated-hydroxytoluene and N-butylbenzenesulfonamide were also detected in brines. The herbicide simazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were among the contaminants detected in Artemia samples. Results of this work reveal a potential threat to vulnerable populations inhabiting the hyper-saline ecosystem. The valuable contribution of GC-TOF MS in environmental analysis, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of organic contaminants, is also demonstrated in this paper. PMID:22789816

Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A; Hernández, Félix; Navarro, Juan C; Varó, Inmaculada; Amat, Francisco

2012-09-01

67

Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.  

PubMed

HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives. PMID:18644604

Vidovi?, Stojanka; Stojanovi?, Biljana; Veljkovi?, Jelena; Prazi?-Arsi?, Ljiljana; Rogli?, Goran; Manojlovi?, Dragan

2008-08-22

68

Parabens can enable hallmarks and characteristics of cancer in human breast epithelial cells: a review of the literature with reference to new exposure data and regulatory status.  

PubMed

A framework for understanding the complexity of cancer development was established by Hanahan and Weinberg in their definition of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we consider the evidence that parabens can enable development in human breast epithelial cells of four of six of the basic hallmarks, one of two of the emerging hallmarks and one of two of the enabling characteristics. In Hallmark 1, parabens have been measured as present in 99% of human breast tissue samples, possess oestrogenic activity and can stimulate sustained proliferation of human breast cancer cells at concentrations measurable in the breast. In Hallmark 2, parabens can inhibit the suppression of breast cancer cell growth by hydroxytamoxifen, and through binding to the oestrogen-related receptor gamma may prevent its deactivation by growth inhibitors. In Hallmark 3, in the 10 nm-1 ?m range, parabens give a dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis in high-risk donor breast epithelial cells. In Hallmark 4, long-term exposure (>20 weeks) to parabens leads to increased migratory and invasive activity in human breast cancer cells, properties that are linked to the metastatic process. As an emerging hallmark methylparaben has been shown in human breast epithelial cells to increase mTOR, a key regulator of energy metabolism. As an enabling characteristic parabens can cause DNA damage at high concentrations in the short term but more work is needed to investigate long-term, low-dose mixtures. The ability of parabens to enable multiple cancer hallmarks in human breast epithelial cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implications of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. PMID:25047802

Darbre, Philippa D; Harvey, Philip W

2014-09-01

69

[Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].  

PubMed

Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben was also effective against S.epidermidis. However, in our study it was determined that preservatives were not effective against biofilm forms even if the inoculum was lower, equal to or higher than the inocula of the planktonic forms. The data obtained from this study indicated that preservatives used to prevent microbial contamination in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products, are not effective against biofilm forms of the microorganisms. This study is thought to be a guide for further studies to be held in the investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food industry. PMID:24506719

Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurda?, Fatma

2014-01-01