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Sample records for methylparaben ethylparaben propylparaben

  1. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

  2. Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V. Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A.

    2013-01-01

    A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:23833716

  3. Identification of ethylparaben as the antimicrobial substance produced by Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX.

    PubMed

    Jianmei, Che; Bo, Liu; Zheng, Chen; Huai, Shi; Guohong, Liu; Cibin, Ge

    2015-03-01

    In this study, crude antimicrobial extract from the culture supernatant of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX was extracted, and its antimicrobial activity was investigated with the agar diffusion method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the culture supernatant of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX increased with the extension of the incubation time of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX. The antimicrobial spectrum assays showed that this crude antimicrobial extract from culture supernatant of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX could inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi. A heat stability test was performed, and different temperatures (30°C, 50°C and 70°C) did not affect the antibiotic activity of this crude antimicrobial extract. The crude antimicrobial extract was also tolerable to changes in pH levels. Its antibiotic activity against Escherichia coli was stable at pH 1 to pH 11, with zone sizes ranging from 18.46mm to 22.19mm. Almost all of the crude extracts extracted using different solvents showed variable degrees of inhibition zones against E. coli, with zone sizes ranging from 17.29mm to 19.62mm, except petroleum ether and butanol extracts, which were found to be completely inactive. Purification of the antimicrobial components was carried out using a column chromatographic technique with column chromatography grade silica gel and analyzed by an Agilent 7890A Network GC system. The separated compound was identified as ethylparaben, with a retention time of 21.980min and a relative amount of 95.50%. The antimicrobial activity of ethylparaben on different types of bacteria and fungi was investigated, and ethylparaben was shown to inhibit different types of microbes to different extents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the bacterium B. brevis could produce ethylparaben. PMID:25542595

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  5. Influence of fat addition on the antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate, lauric arginate and methylparaben in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Magrinyà, Núria; Terjung, Nino; Loeffler, Myriam; Gibis, Monika; Bou, Ricard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-12-23

    A minced meat model system containing three different fat levels (0, 15, and 50wt.%) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three antimicrobials with different aqueous solubilities (sodium lactate>lauric arginate (N?-lauroyl-l-arginine ethyl ester, LAE)>methylparaben). Various concentrations of sodium lactate (20, 40, and 60mg/g), lauric arginate (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5mg/g) and methylparaben (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0mg/g) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against natural meat microbiota (total aerobic mesophilic colony counts, coliform bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria). The results indicate that the three antimicrobials tested are influenced at different strengths by the changes of the fat addition of the minced meat. The antimicrobial efficacy of LAE and methylparaben is increased by a higher fat content in the meat batter, whereas for lactate no clear lactate proportionality relationship can be seen. This structure sensitivity is most strongly pronounced with lauric arginate, which we attributed to the amphiphilic character of the molecule. PMID:26344644

  6. Influence of inorganic ions and selected emerging contaminants on the degradation of Methylparaben: A sonochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Subha; Rayaroth, Manoj P; Devadasan, Dineep; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2015-12-30

    The study on the possible pathway of hydroxyl radicals mediated sonolytic degradation of paraben in water is reported. Methylparaben (MPB) which is the most utilized of paraben family is selected as a model emerging pollutant. The influence of common anions and some selected emerging contaminants that may coexist in typical water matrix on the degradation pattern is analyzed alongside. Among the anions, carbonate presents a negative influence which is attributed to the competition for OH radical. Some emerging contaminants also showed negative impact on degradation as was clear from HPLC data. The intermediates, analyzed by LC-Q-TOF-MS include hydroxylated and hydrolytic products. Three major steps (aromatic hydroxylation, hydroxylation at the ester chain and hydrolysis) are proposed to involve in the reaction of OH radical with MPB which ultimately leads to mineralization. The intensity of formation and decay of mono and dihydroxy products of MPB in the presence of additives have also been evaluated. COD analysis indicates a percentage reduction of 98% at 90min of sonolysis and further increase in the degradation time resulted complete mineralization, which became evident from the mass spectrometric data. MTT assay revealed considerable decrease in the potential cytotoxicity. PMID:26184803

  7. Degradation of methylparaben in water by corona plasma coupled with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Dobrin, D; Magureanu, M; Bradu, C; Mandache, N B; Ionita, P; Parvulescu, V I

    2014-11-01

    The degradation of methylparaben (MeP) in water was investigated using a pulsed corona discharge generated in oxygen, above the liquid. A comparison was made between results obtained in semi-batch corona (SBC) configuration (stationary solution, continuous gas flow) and results obtained in a semi-batch corona with recirculation combined with ozonation (SBCR?+?O3), where the liquid is continuously circulated between a solution reservoir and the plasma reactor and the effluent gas containing ozone is bubbled through the solution in the reservoir. It was found that MeP was completely degraded after 10-15 min of treatment in both configurations. Oxidation by ozone alone, in the absence of plasma, was a slower process. The energy efficiency for MeP removal (Y MeP) and for mineralization (Y TOC) was significantly higher in the SBCR?+?O3 configuration (Y MeP?=?7.1 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.41 g/kWh at 50 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal) than in the SBC configuration (Y MeP?=?0.6 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC?=?0.11 g/kWh at 50 % TOC removal). PMID:24801291

  8. Propylparaben-induced disruption of energy metabolism in human HepG2 cell line leads to increased synthesis of superoxide anions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Szel?g, S; Zab?ocka, A; Trzeciak, K; Drozd, A; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Kolasa, A; Goschorska, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2016-03-01

    The effect of propylparaben (in final concentrations 0.4ng/ml, 2.3ng/ml and 4.6ng/ml) on the energy metabolism of HepG2 hepatocytes, superoxide anion synthesis, apoptosis and necrosis is described. Propylparaben can be toxic to liver cells due to the increased production of superoxide anions, which can contribute to a reduced concentration of superoxide dismutase in vivo and impairment of the body's antioxidant mechanisms. Finally, a further reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and uncoupling of the respiratory chain resulting in a reduction in ATP concentration as a result of mitochondrial damage may lead to cell death by apoptosis. PMID:26616278

  9. Structural Changes in PEO?PPO?PEO Gels Induced by Methylparaben and Dexamethasone Observed Using Time-Resolved SAXS

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, Norman A.K.; Juggernauth, K. Anne; Batzli, Kiersten M.; Love, Brian J.

    2011-11-17

    Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers (commercially available as Pluronic surfactants) micellize and structurally arrange into cubic quasicrystalline lattices as their temperature is raised. This structural evolution is seen macroscopically as a gelation, and the presence of these ordered phases can be controlled through both polymer concentration and temperature. The presence of added solutes within the dispersions can also affect the onset and kinetics of structure formation. Here we investigate the structures formed in Pluronic F127 solutions ranging from 20 to 30% with two pharmaceutical additives [methylparaben (MP) and dexamethasone (DX)] using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We observe both the progressive evolution and breakdown of these structures as the temperature is increased from 0 to 80 C. Additionally, we conducted time-resolved SAXS measurements to elucidate the kinetics of the structural evolution. On the basis of the evolution of scattering peaks as the samples were being heated, we suggest that added MP changes the nucleation behavior of fcc phases within the sample from a heterogeneous process to a more homogeneous distribution of nucleated species. MP and DX also stabilize the micelle lattices, allowing them to persevere at higher temperatures. We observed the unusual result that the presence of DX caused the primary peaks of the structure factor to be suppressed, while preserving the higher order peaks. The primary peaks reappeared at the highest temperatures tested.

  10. Porous-membrane-protected polyaniline-coated SBA-15 nanocomposite micro-solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of parabens in cosmetic products and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Pandidan, Sara; Aliakbari, Azam; Raofie, Farhad; Amini, Mostafa M

    2015-04-01

    A SBA-15/polyaniline para-toluenesulfonic acid nanocomposite supported micro-solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed for the extraction of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben) from wastewater and cosmetic products. The variables of interest in the extraction process were pH of sample, sample and eluent volumes, sorbent amount, salting-out effect, extraction and desorption time, and stirring rate. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for the screening of variables in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design. The optimum experimental conditions found at 50 mL sample solution, extraction and desorption times of 40 and 20 min, respectively, 500 ?L of 3% v/v acetic acid in methanol as eluent, 0.01 M salt addition, and 10 mg of the sorbent. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided detection limits in the range of 0.08-0.4 ng/mL with good repeatability (RSD% < 7) and linearity (r(2) = 0.997-0.999) for the three parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was employed for the determination of target analytes in cosmetic products and wastewater, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25677831

  11. Physicochemical interactions between drugs and superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Fransén, Nelly; Morin, Malin; Björk, Erik; Edsman, Katarina

    2008-12-01

    We have evaluated the interactions between superdisintegrants and drugs with different physicochemical characteristics, which may affect the in-vivo absorption e.g. after mucosal administration. The binding of sodium salicylate, naproxen, methyl hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben), ethyl hydroxybenzoate (ethylparaben), propyl hydroxybenzoate (propylparaben), atenolol, alprenolol, diphenhydramine, verapamil, amitriptyline and cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC) to different superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate (SSG), croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and crospovidone) and one unsubstituted comparator (starch) was studied spectrophotometrically. An indication of the in-vivo effect was obtained by measuring the interactions at physiological salt concentrations. SSG was investigated more thoroughly to obtain release profiles and correlation between binding and ionic strength. The results showed that the main interactions with the anionic hydrogels formed by SSG and CCS were caused by ion exchange, whereas the neutral crospovidone exhibited lipophilic interactions with the non-ionic substances. The effect of increased ionic strength was most pronounced at low salt concentrations and the ion exchange interactions were almost completely eradicated at physiological conditions. The release profile of diphenhydramine was significantly affected by the addition of salt. It was thus concluded that the choice of buffer was of great importance for in-vitro experiments with ionic drugs. At physiological salt concentrations the interactions did not appear to be strong enough to influence the in-vivo bioavailability of any of the drug molecules. PMID:19000362

  12. Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 ?g/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of

  13. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  14. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their log K(ow) values. Linear relationship between recoveries and log K(ow) values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126 µg L(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446 µg L(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. PMID:26078168

  15. LC for analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing cough cold suppressant drugs.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Sallam, Shehab; Abdel-Salam, Randa A

    2010-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic method was applied for the analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing dextromethorphane hydrobromide, carbinoxamine maleate with either phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical capsules (Mix 1) or phenyl-propanolamine, methylparaben, and propylparaben, which bonds as a drug base to ion exchange resin in pharmaceutical syrup (Mix 2). The method was used for their simultaneous determination using a CN column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-12 mM ammonium acetate in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 1 and 45:55 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 2. PMID:20822669

  16. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Berglund, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6–11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother–child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5 ?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8 ?g/L; MBzP 19.9 ?g/L; MnBP 76.9 ?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4 ?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8 ?g/L; MBzP 12.8 ?g/L; MnBP 63.0 ?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 ?g/L; ProP 13.9 ?g/L) and MEP (43.4 ?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 ?g/L; ProP 2.1 ?g/L) and MEP (28.8 ?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p = < 0.001; MnBP p = 0.001–0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p = 0.003; ProP p = 0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

  17. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5 ?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8 ?g/L; MBzP 19.9 ?g/L; MnBP 76.9 ?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4 ?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8 ?g/L; MBzP 12.8 ?g/L; MnBP 63.0 ?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 ?g/L; ProP 13.9 ?g/L) and MEP (43.4 ?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 ?g/L; ProP 2.1 ?g/L) and MEP (28.8 ?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

  18. "Parabenoia" Debunked, or "Who's Afraid of Parabens?".

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis; Alfalah, Maisa; Lacroix, Jean-Philip

    2015-01-01

    Parabens have been used as preservatives in foods, injectables, and topical preparations for nearly 10 decades. Present in nature, rapidly metabolized by skin and liver enzymes, they have an excellent safety record. However, in the past 15 years, they have been under scrutiny for their alleged estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, as well as their putative role in promoting cancerogenesis through endocrine disruption. Scientific articles supporting these assertions have led the European Community to ban or restrict the use of some parabens. Despite that methylparaben and ethylparaben have negligible endocrine disruption activity, the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries are under pressure from scare campaigns in the media and are responding by replacing parabens with other biocides that cause multiple cases, and even worldwide epidemics, of allergic contact sensitization. In the present review, we present a balanced account of the published literature about the metabolism and potential toxicology of parabens. PMID:26551603

  19. Occurrence of preservatives and antimicrobials in Japanese rivers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakada, Norihide; Tamura, Ikumi; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-07-01

    We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000 ng L(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water. PMID:24556546

  20. Determination of local anesthetics in illegal products using HPLC method with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Jadach, Magdalena; B?azewicz, Agata; Fijalek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    An HPLC method with amperometric detection was developed for analysis of two local anesthetics (lidocaine and benzocaine) in products for delaying ejaculation illegally marketed in Polish sex shops. Chromatographic elution on an RP column C18 with mobile phase composed of acetate buffer with acetonitrile, provides an optimal separation not only of active substances but also electroactive preservatives which are occasionally added to cosmetic creams (methylparaben and propylparaben). Application of glassy carbon electrode as a working electrode and a procedure with pulsed potential waveforms enables a sensitive, accurate measurement within a relatively short analysis time (250 s). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of local anesthetics in products under investigation. The obtained results show that most samples contained therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine or benzocaine. According to European law, a sale of products containing lidocaine or benzocaine outside the pharmacy sector is forbidden. PMID:22594253

  1. Resolution of five-component mixture using mean centering ratio and inverse least squares chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative study of the use of mean centering of ratio spectra and inverse least squares for the resolution of paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride has been achieved showing that the two chemometric methods provide a good example of the high resolving power of these techniques. Method (I) is the mean centering of ratio spectra which depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in four successive steps that eliminates the derivative steps and therefore the signal to noise ratio is improved. The absorption spectra of prepared solutions were measured in the range of 220–280 nm. Method (II) is based on the inverse least squares that depend on updating developed multivariate calibration model. The absorption spectra of the prepared mixtures in the range 230–270 nm were recorded. Results The linear concentration ranges were 0–25.6, 0–15.0, 0–15.0, 0–45.0 and 0–100.0 ?g mL-1 for paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recoveries for simultaneous determination were between 99.9-101.3% for the two methods. The two developed methods have been successfully used for prediction of five-component mixture in Decamol Flu syrup with good selectivity, high sensitivity and extremely low detection limit. Conclusion No published method has been reported for simultaneous determination of the five components of this mixture so that the results of the mean centering of ratio spectra method were compared with those of the proposed inverse least squares method. Statistical comparison was performed using t-test and F-ratio at P?=?0.05. There was no significant difference between the results. PMID:24028626

  2. Design Space Approach for Preservative System Optimization of an Anti-Aging Eye Fluid Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ferreira, Márcia Regina Spuri; Andreoli, Terezinha De Jesus; Löbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Nádia

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives must be optimized in order to ensure the efficacy of an antimicrobial system as well as the product safety. Despite the wide variety of preservatives, the synergistic or antagonistic effects of their combinations are not well established and it is still an issue in the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The purpose of this paper was to establish a space design using a simplex-centroid approach to achieve the lowest effective concentration of 3 preservatives (methylparaben, propylparaben, and imidazolidinyl urea) and EDTA for an emulsion cosmetic product. Twenty-two formulae of emulsion differing only by imidazolidinyl urea (A: 0.00 to 0.30% w/w), methylparaben (B: 0.00 to 0.20% w/w), propylparaben (C: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) and EDTA (D: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) concentrations were prepared. They were tested alone and in binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. Aliquots of these formulae were inoculated with several microorganisms. An electrochemical method was used to determine microbial burden immediately after inoculation and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h. An optimization strategy was used to obtain the concentrations of preservatives and EDTA resulting in a most effective preservative system of all microorganisms simultaneously. The use of preservatives and EDTA in combination has the advantage of exhibiting a potential synergistic effect against a wider spectrum of microorganisms. Based on graphic and optimization strategies, we proposed a new formula containing a quaternary combination (A: 55%; B: 30%; C: 5% and D: 10% w/w), which complies with the specification of a conventional challenge test. A design space approach was successfully employed in the optimization of concentrations of preservatives and EDTA in an emulsion cosmetic product. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:26517141

  3. Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, Christopher; Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Ackermann, Chrisita; Payne, N. Ann; Fate, Gwendolyn; Voorman, Richard; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-12-01

    Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  5. Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Haman, Camille; Dauchy, Xavier; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, with an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or heptyl) or benzyl group. They are mainly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs. Parabens may act as weak endocrine disrupter chemicals, but controversy still surrounds the health effects of these compounds. Despite being used since the mid-1920s, it was only in 1996 that the first analytical results of their occurrence in water were published. Considered as emerging contaminants, it is useful to review the knowledge acquired over the last decade regarding their occurrence, fate and behavior in aquatic environments. Despite treatments that eliminate them relatively well from wastewater, parabens are always present at low concentration levels in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Although they are biodegradable, they are ubiquitous in surface water and sediments, due to consumption of paraben-based products and continuous introduction into the environment. Methylparaben and propylparaben predominate, reflecting the composition of paraben mixtures in common consumer products. Being compounds containing phenolic hydroxyl groups, parabens can react readily with free chlorine, yielding halogenated by-products. Chlorinated parabens have been detected in wastewater, swimming pools and rivers, but not yet in drinking water. These chlorinated by-products are more stable and persistent than the parent species and further studies are needed to improve knowledge regarding their toxicity. PMID:25462712

  6. New validated liquid chromatographic and chemometrics-assisted UV spectroscopic methods for the determination of two multicomponent cough mixtures in syrup.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ghada M; El-Gindy, Alaa; Mahmoud, Waleed M M

    2008-01-01

    Multivariate spectrophotometric calibration and liquid chromatographic (LC) methods were applied to the determination of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing diprophylline, guaiphenesin, methylparaben, and propylparaben (Mixture 1), or clobutinol, orciprenaline, saccharin sodium, and sodium benzoate (Mixture 2). For the multivariate spectrophotometric calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-1), a calibration set of the mixtures consisting of the components of each mixture was prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, limit of quantitation, and limit of detection were determined for both PLS-1 and PCR. The LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 analytical column by using isocratic elution with 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.3-acetonitrile (55 + 45, v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 260 and 220 nm for Mixture 1 and Mixture 2, respectively. The proposed methods were validated and successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and laboratory-prepared mixtures containing the 2 multicomponent combinations. PMID:18376584

  7. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  8. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  9. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  10. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  11. 77 FR 50462 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE, Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Novartis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...NF; camphor USP; synthetic; anhydrous citric acid USP/EP find grain; butylparaben NF; methylparaben...flavoring compounds; aniline derivative compounds; amino- alcohol-phenols; amino-acid-phenols; other nitrile function...

  12. Action of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on GPR30 gene and protein expression, cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

    2015-10-14

    In the present study, we examined cAMP levels and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in response to the actions of parabens on GPR30 in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. Cells were exposed to methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben at a concentration of 20nM; 17-?-estradiol (10nM) was used as a positive control. 17?-estradiol and all tested parabens increased GPR30 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. No parabens affected cAMP levels in either cell line, with the exception of propylparaben in MCF-10A cells. 17?-estradiol, propylparaben, and butylparaben increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells, whereas 17?-estradiol, methyl- and butylparaben, but not propylparaben, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-10A cells. Akt activation was noted only in MCF-7 cells and only with propylparaben treatment. Collectively, the data presented here point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through ?? dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, among investigated parabens, propylparaben appears to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells through activation of Akt kinases, confirming conclusions suggested by our previously published data. Nevertheless, continuing research on the carcinogenic action of parabens is warranted. PMID:26253279

  13. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  14. Antimicrobial lubricant formulations containing poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates synthesized by tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Idalina; Botelho, Cláudia M; Teixeira, Ana; Abreu, Ana S; Hilliou, Loïc; Silva, Carla; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates were prepared using methylparaben as substrate of the oxidative enzyme tyrosinase. MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed that the enzymatic oxidation of methylparaben alone leads to the poly(hydroxybenzene) formation. In the presence of trimethoprim, the methylparaben tyrosinase oxidation leads poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates. All of these compounds were incorporated into lubricant hydroxyethyl cellulose/glycerol mixtures. Poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates were the most effective phenolic structures against the bacterial growth reducing by 96 and 97% of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis suspensions, respectively (after 24 h). A novel enzymatic strategy to produce antimicrobial poly(hydroxybenzene)-antibiotic conjugates is proposed here for a wide range of applications on the biomedical field. PMID:25761624

  15. 76 FR 16290 - Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food; 2-Acetylamino-5-Nitrothiazole; Buquinolate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...) and as Sec. 556.550 (40 FR 13802 at 13956). 12. Salicylic acid (Sec. 556.590). In 2005, FDA...; Prednisolone; Prednisone; Progesterone; Propylparaben; and Salicylic Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... (44 FR 40888, July 13, 1979), but did not amend part 556 to remove the associated tolerances....

  16. Effect of Ternary Solutes on the Evolution of Structure and Gel Formation in Amphiphilic Copolymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meznarich, Norman Anthony Kang

    Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) amphiphilic triblock copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic surfactants) undergo reversible and temperature-dependent micellization and arrangement into cubic ordered lattices known as "micelle gels". The macroscopic behavior of the ordering is a transition from a liquid to a gel. While the phase behavior and gel structure of pure Pluronic surfactant solutions have been well studied, less is known about the effects of added ternary solutes. In this dissertation, a comprehensive investigation into the effects of the added pharmaceutical methylparaben on solutions of F127 ranging from 10 to 30 wt% was conducted in order to better understand the behavior of F127 in multicomponent pharmaceutical formulations. The viscoelastic properties of F127 gel formation were studied using rheometry, where heating rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 degrees C/min were also used to probe the kinetics of the gel transition. In solutions containing methylparaben, F127 gelation occurred at up to 15 degrees C lower temperatures and was accelerated by a factor of three to four. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize the structure of the ordered domains, and how they were affected by the presence of dissolved pharmaceuticals. It was found that ordered domain formation changed from heterogeneous nucleation and growth to possible homogeneous nucleation and growth. A roughly 2% reduction in the cubic lattice parameter was also observed for solutions containing methylparaben. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed on a series of different Pluronic surfactants in order to characterize the micellization behavior as a function of PPO center block length and PEO/PPO ratio. Added methylparaben suppressed the micellization endotherm, the degree of suppression depending linearly on the amount of added methylparaben, as well as the length of the PPO center block and PEO/PPO ratio. This dissertation yielded a thorough characterization of the changes in micellization and gelation behavior in F127 gels as a result of added pharmaceuticals. Previously unobserved behavior such as the onset of ordered domain formation in F127 gels was observed, and a greater understanding of the interactions between amphiphilic copolymer solutions and dissolved solutes was achieved.

  17. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples). PMID:23324734

  18. Processes involved in sweeping as sample enrichment method in cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic basic analytes.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Pyell, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Sweeping is an enrichment method in MEKC, which includes following steps: stacking/destacking of the micelles, sweeping of analyte by the stacked/destacked micelles, destacking/stacking of the swept analyte zone and additional focusing/defocusing due to the retention factor gradient effect (RFGE). In this study, we investigate additional processes, regarding online focusing in cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC) of hydrophobic basic analytes: dynamic pH junction (sample with pH different from that of BGE) and adsorption of analyte onto the capillary wall within the sample zone. It is demonstrated that the developed method for the assessment of the sweeping efficiency is also applicable to CD-MEKC taking ethylparaben as an example of acidic analytes and desloratadine as an example of basic analytes using different types of ?-cyclodextrin. Our previous results regarding RFGE as an additional focusing/defocusing effect in sweeping-MEKC are confirmed for the case that the apparent distribution coefficient differs for the sample and the BGE due to a different content of the complex-forming agent cyclodextrin and due to a pH difference between the sample and the BGE. Despite being significantly more hydrophobic than ethylparaben, desloratadine shows an unexpectedly low enrichment factor. This enrichment factor is nearly unaffected by the addition of CD to the BGE. This unexpected behavior is attributed to wall adsorption of the protonated hydrophobic basic analyte within the sample zone, which significantly counteracts the sweeping process. This assumption is corroborated by an improvement in the enrichment factor achieved via addition of a dynamic coating agent (triethylamine) to the sample solution. PMID:24338927

  19. Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-? and -? and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

    2014-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that widely used parabens possess estrogenic properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? (ESR1) and -? (ESR2) and the progesterone receptor (PGR). Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells were exposed to parabens at a concentration of 20nM; 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10nM, was used as a positive control. Both propyl- and butylparaben stimulated PGR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells, whereas methyl- and propylparaben PGR protein expression. In MCF-10A cells, butyl- and propylparaben increased only PGR mRNA expression. All parabens increased ESR1 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and with the exception of butylparaben in MCF-10A cells. All parabens significantly increased ESR2 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells, but in MCF-10A cells only ESR2 protein expression. In summary, by virtue of their stimulatory action on the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR in cancer cells, parabens can be viewed as potential contributors to breast cancer progression. Extension, the actions of these parabens on the expression of ERs and PGR in non-cancerous cells point to possible actions on breast cancer initiation. PMID:25128701

  20. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

  1. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  2. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  3. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a cross between these two species all were excellent vectors for P. knowlesi. High donor monkey parasitaemia was associated with poor mosquito survival. A single infected mosquito bite is likely sufficient to infect a monkey with P. knowlesi. It is possible to efficiently challenge large groups of monkeys by mosquito bite, which will be useful for P. knowlesi vaccine studies. PMID:24893777

  4. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics. PMID:25395006

  5. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin. PMID:21879392

  6. Occurrence of steroid estrogens, endocrine-disrupting phenols, and acid pharmaceutical residues in urban riverine water of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianzhi; Yu, Yiyi; Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Huang, Qiuxin; Wang, Zhendi

    2008-07-01

    A scoping study was conducted to investigate the residues of nineteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including 4 natural and 3 synthetic steroid estrogens, 7 endocrine-disrupting phenols, and 5 acid pharmaceuticals in three urban streams and the Major Pearl River at Guangzhou, a megapolis in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Estrone was detected in >60% water samples with a maximum concentration of 65 ng L(-1). Endocrine-disrupting phenols (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, triclosan, 2-phenylphenol, methyparaben, and propylparaben) were found to be widely present at rather high concentrations in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou. Salicylic acid, clofibric acid and ibuprofen were detected in most water samples with maximum concentrations of 2098, 248 and 1417 ng L(-1) respectively, whereas naproxen was less frequently detected and also at lower concentration. Both the detection frequencies and median concentrations of the PPCPs appeared higher during the low-flow season than during the high-flow season. The seasonal difference in PPCPs occurrence was probably attributed to the dilution effect caused by the rainfall. PPCPs in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou originated mainly from random discharge and/or leakage of municipal wastewater. PPCPs contamination in the Major Pearl River may be of a potential environmental issue, especially during the low-flow season. PMID:18407320

  7. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  8. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghi??, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codru?a; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  9. Effect-directed identification of endocrine disruptors in plastic baby teethers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Elisabeth; Potouridis, Theodoros; Haeger, Astrid; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Wagner, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the human health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), many of which are associated with and leaching from plastics. As infants are particularly vulnerable to EDCs, we have investigated whether plastic teethers for babies represent a relevant source of exposure. Applying effect-directed analysis, we use bioassays to screen teethers, toys used to soothe a baby's teething ache, for endocrine activity and chemical analysis to identify the causative compounds. We detected significant endocrine activity in two of 10 plastic teethers. Those samples leached estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity as detected in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and Yeast Antiandrogen Screen. After sample fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry non-target screening revealed that methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben were responsible for the observed estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in one product. The second product is likely to contain at least six different antiandrogenic compounds that remain so far unidentified. This study demonstrates that plastic teethers can be a source of infant exposure to well-established and unknown EDCs. Because of their limited value to the product, but potential toxicity, manufacturers should critically revisit the use of parabens in plastic teethers and further toys. Moreover, plastic teethers might leach EDCs that escape routine analysis and, thus, toxicological evaluation. The resulting uncertainty in product safety poses a problem to consumers, producers and regulators that remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25988240

  10. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration. PMID:19071202

  11. Synthesis and analysis of nanostructured composite particles from gas-saturated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil'mutdinov, I. I.; Gil'mutdinov, I. M.; Kuznetsova, I. V.; Sabirzyanov, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Ibuprofen/polyethylene glycol 4000 and methylparaben/polyethylene glycol 4000 nanostructured composite particles are synthesized from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS, particles from gas saturated solution). The dependences of the mean size of composite particles on pressure, temperature, and the expansion channel diameter are revealed. The studies are conducted in the pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa, at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80°C, and for expansion channel diameters in the range of 200 to 500 ?m. The physicochemical properties of the composite particles are investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter and phase analysis is performed by means of X-ray diffraction. The composition of composite particles is determined via mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electronic ionization is used for the quantitative analysis of ibuprofen, while mass spectrometry of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is used in the analysis of polyethylene glycol 4000. The dependence of the concentration of components in composite particles on pressure is obtained.

  12. Gene expression responses for detecting sublethal effects of xenobiotics and whole effluents on a Xenopus laevis embryo assay.

    PubMed

    San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Pablos, M Victoria

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos, methylparaben, and 2 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants located in the province of Madrid, Spain, on the messenger RNA expression of specific genes involved in early development (ESR1, pax6, bmp4, and myf5) and a gene involved in the general stress response (hsp70) during Xenopus laevis embryo development. Gene expression was analyzed after 4?h, 24?h, and 96?h of exposure by semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Concentration ranges of the compounds and dilutions for the samples were selected to cause morphological alterations in embryos after 96?h of exposure. Transcript levels of ESR1, pax6, and hsp70 were differentially altered at early developmental stages with patterns specific to the contaminant and the exposure time. However, further studies are needed to establish transcript levels of specific genes as biomarkers of sublethal effects in an environmental risk-assessment framework. Besides, studies including more generic responses, such as genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, together with genes related to embryonic development have to be developed to look for a battery of mechanistic endpoints for the evaluation of chemical exposure at the molecular level in a first-tier assessment. PMID:23637088

  13. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in an advanced wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-30

    In the present study, parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and chlorinated derivatives, were simultaneously determined in wastewater and sludge samples along the whole process in an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Nine target compounds were detected in this WWTP, and methylparaben and PHBA were the dominant compounds in these samples. It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in this work. Mass balance results showed that 91.8% of the initial parabens mass loading was lost mainly due to degradation, while the contribution of sorption and output of primary and excess sludge was much less (7.5%), indicating that biodegradation played a significant role in the removal of parabens during the conventional treatment process. Specifically, parabens were mainly degraded in the anaerobic tank, and PHBA could be effectively removed at high rates after the advanced treatment. However, both biodegradation and adsorption accounted for minor contribution to the removal of chlorinated parabens during conventional treatment process, and they were only scantly removed by conventional treatment (33.9-40.7%) and partially removed by advanced treatment (59.2-82.8%). Risk assessment indicated that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in second and tertiary effluent are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26151382

  14. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: Water uptake kinetics and film permeability.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of different amounts of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) to polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs, here Eudragit RS and RL). MAS contains negatively charged SiO(-) groups, while QPM contains positively charged quaternary ammonium groups. The basic idea is to be able to provide desired water and drug permeability by simply varying the amount of added MAS. Thin, free films of varying composition were prepared by casting and exposed to 0.1M HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The water uptake kinetics and water vapor permeability of the systems were determined gravimetrically. The transport of propranolol HCl, acetaminophen, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben across thin films was studied using side-by-side diffusion cells. A numerical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to determine the apparent compound diffusion coefficients, partition coefficients between the bulk fluids and the films as well as the apparent film permeability for these compounds. The addition of MAS resulted in denser inner film structures, at least partially due to ionic interactions between the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups and the negatively charged SiO(-) groups. This resulted in lower water uptake, reduced water vapor permeability and decreasing apparent compound diffusivities. In contrast, the affinity of the investigated drugs and parabens to the films substantially increased upon MAS addition. The obtained new knowledge can be helpful for the development of novel coating materials (based on QPM-MAS blends) for controlled-release dosage forms. PMID:26004005

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin. PMID:26487803

  16. Characterization of the organic contamination pattern of a hyper-saline ecosystem by rapid screening using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A; Hernández, Félix; Navarro, Juan C; Varó, Inmaculada; Amat, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Additionally, a non-target analysis was performed in both types of samples with the objective of investigating the presence of other non-selected organic compounds taking advantage of the potential of GC-TOF MS (high sensitivity in full-spectrum acquisition mode, accurate mass measurements) for searching unknowns. Organophosphorus pesticides were the contaminants more frequently detected in brine samples. Other compounds usually present in urban and industrial wastewaters, like caffeine, methylparaben, butylated-hydroxytoluene and N-butylbenzenesulfonamide were also detected in brines. The herbicide simazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were among the contaminants detected in Artemia samples. Results of this work reveal a potential threat to vulnerable populations inhabiting the hyper-saline ecosystem. The valuable contribution of GC-TOF MS in environmental analysis, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of organic contaminants, is also demonstrated in this paper. PMID:22789816

  17. Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Fahmy, Ossama T; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2010-11-15

    This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and they might not be normally distributed. In addition, it could effectively circumvent any outlier data points. For the purpose of comparison, the results obtained using the above described internal standard method were compared with the external standard method for all types of linearity. PMID:21035649

  18. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-Sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23ng/L, 2.64ng/L and 5.39ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6ng/L, 33.7ng/L and 13.8ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353ng/g, 155ng/g, and 133ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data should be generated to assess this fully. Thus future research is needed to investigate ecological effects of these HPCPs on benthic organisms in sediment of rural rivers receiving untreated wastewater discharge. PMID:26379200