A novel reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 2-phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben preservatives. The method uses a Lichrosorb C8 (150×4.6 mm, 5 µm) column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and water (21:13:66, v/v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The UV detection was set at 258 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), specificity, linearity and range. All the parameters examined met the current recommendations for bioanalytical method validation. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of commercially available pharmaceutical gel products for these preservatives. The procedure describes here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests.
Shabir, G. A.
A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya
Validated Stability-indicating Reverse-phase Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Methylparaben, Sodium Propylparaben and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Topical Dosage Forms
A sensitive, fast, and stability-indicating isocratic reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for quantitative simultaneous determination of sodium methylparaben, sodium propylparaben and ketorolac tromethamine in topical dosage forms. Separation of all peaks was achieved by using acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 (50×2.1 mm, 1.7 ?) as stationary phase, mobile phase used was triethylamine buffer (pH 2.5):tetrahydrofuran:methanol (665:35:300, v/v/v) with isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.40 ml/min. All component were detected at 252 nm with 10 min run time. The described method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 248-744 ?g/ml for ketorolac tromethamine, 20.8-62.4 ?g/ml for sodium methylparaben and 2.38-7.13 ?g/ml for sodium propylparaben with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability, filter equivalency, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guideline. Formulation was exposed to the stress conditions of peroxide, acid, base, thermal, and photolytic degradation and proven all components were well separated in the presence of degradants.
Roy, C.; Chakrabarty, J.; Modi, P. B.
Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation.
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:23833716
Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A
Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 ?m (250 × 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms.
Goswami, Nishant; Gupta, V. Rama Mohan; Jogia, Hitesh A.
A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ?m column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 ?g/ml & 0.05 ?g/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 ?g/ml & 0.15 ?g/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334
Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya
A reversed-phased HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives benzoic (BA) and sorbic acids (SA), methyl- (MP) and propylparabens (PP) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (35:65) to elute BA, SA and MP and changing the mobile phase composition to methanol–acetate buffer (pH 4.4)
Bahruddin Saad; Muhammad Idiris Saleh; Kamarudzaman Ahmad; Mohd. Khairuddin Mohd. Talib
Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Mometasone Furoate, and Tazarotene in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation.
A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol (PE), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), mometasone furoate (MF), and tazarotene (TA) in topical pharmaceutical dosage formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters X-Bridge™ C18 (50×4.6mm, 3.5?) column using gradient elution at 256 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 0.1%v/v orthophosphoric acid in water as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The method showed linearity over the range of 5.88-61.76 ?g/mL, 0.18-62.36 ?g/mL, 0.17-6.26 ?g/mL, 0.47-31.22 ?g/mL, and 0.44-30.45 ?g/mL for PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA, respectively. The recovery for all of the components was in the range of 98-102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples, in which the spectral purity of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA in a cream sample. PMID:24482766
Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu
Development and validation of a novel stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid, potassium sorbate, methylparaben and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation.
A novel stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid and potassium sorbate as well as methyl- and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation has been developed. A 100mm×3.0mm ID. Ascentis Express C18 column maintained at 30°C and UV detection at 240nm were used. A gradient programme was employed at a flow-rate of 0.75ml/min. Mobile phase A comprised of an 83:17 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and methanol and mobile phase B of a 10g/l solution of 85% phosphoric acid in purified water. The method has been validated according to current International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and applied during formulation development and stability studies. The procedure has been shown to be stability-indicating for the topical cream. PMID:24731970
Byrne, Jonathan; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Reinhardt, Robert
Fast simultaneous determination of naphazoline nitrate and methylparaben in pharmaceuticals using separation method based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) is described in this contribution as an alternative to classical HPLC. A Chromolithtrade mark Flash RP-18e (25mmx4.6mm) column (Merck((R)), Germany) and a FIAlab((R)) 3000 system (USA) with a six-port selection valve and 5.0ml syringe pump were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was methanol/water (40:65, v/v), pH 5.2 adjusted with triethylamine 0.8mulml(-1) and acetic acid, at flow rate 0.9mlmin(-1). UV detection provided by DAD detector and two wavelengths were simultaneously monitored for increasing sensitivity of determination. Detector was set up at 220nm for naphazoline nitrate and 256nm for methylparaben and ethylparaben (IS). There is no necessity to use pre-adjustment of sample of nasal drops (only dilution with mobile phase) so the time of the whole analysis is very short. The validation parameters have shown good results: linearity of determination for both components (naphazoline nitrate and methylparaben), correlation coefficient >0.999; repeatability of determination (R.S.D.) in the range 0.5-1.6% at three different concentration levels, detection limits 0.02mugml(-1) (naphazoline nitrate) and 0.20mugml(-1) (methylparaben and ethylparaben), and recovery from the pharmaceutical preparations in the range 100.06-102.55%. The chromatographic resolution between peaks of compounds was more than 4.0 and analysis time was less than 4min under the optimal conditions. The advantages and drawbacks of SIC against classical HPLC are discussed showing that SIC can be an advantageous alternative in many cases. PMID:18970784
Chocholous, Petr; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr
...SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS Â§ 184.1670 Propylparaben. (a) Propylparaben is the chemical propyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the n -propanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence...
...1490 Methylparaben. (a) Methylparaben is the chemical methyl p -hydroxybenzoate. It is produced by the methanol esterification of p -hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, with subsequent distillation. (b) The...
Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17?-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.
Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used widely as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products, including pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics. We showed previously that methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben parabens, even at low doses, stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this represents a direct effect on cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression. MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells were exposed to methyl, butyl- and propylparaben (20?nm) or 17?-estradiol (10?nm). Cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by Western blot. 17?-estradiol upregulated G1 /S phase genes and downregulated cell cycle progression inhibitors in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Upregulation of Bcl-xL and downregulation of caspase 9 was observed in MCF-7, while upregulation of Bcl-xL, BCL2L2 and caspase 9 was noted in MCF-10A. Cyclins in MCF-7 cells were not affected by any of the parabens. Methyl- and butylparaben had no effect on the expression of selected apoptotic genes in MCF-7. In MCF-10A, all parabens tested increased the expression of G1 /S phase genes, and downregulated cell cycle inhibitors. Methylparaben increased pro-survival gene. Butylparaben increased BCL2L1 gene, as did 17?-estradiol, while propylparaben upregulated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. There are differences in cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression between parabens and 17?-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells, most of the genes activated by parabens were comparable to those activated by 17?-estradiol. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24481588
Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja
The antimicrobial and antifungal chemical methylparaben (methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) was added to the adult sucrose diet of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, and its effect on longevity was determined. In all cases, significant increases in longevity were observed when 0.2% (w/v) methylparaben was added to meals that were refreshed weekly. When fresh sugar diet was refreshed daily, no increase in longevity was observed due to methylparaben suggesting that the effect of methylparaben is to preserve the quality of the sugar diet. No longevity effect of providing pure water in addition to sugar- or methylparaben-supplemented meals was observed. Feeding preference tests were performed to determine whether meals containing methylparaben were preferred, and whether, when given no choice but the less-preferred diet, mosquitoes would consume less sugar. Using the stable carbon isotope (13)C in paired tests, we show that the sugar diet containing methylparaben was clearly avoided by A. gambiae but not A. arabiensis. Little effect of methylparaben on the total amount of sugar consumed was observed when mosquitoes were given no diet choice. Methylparaben effects on Plasmodium cynomolgi B oocyst formation and encapsulation were observed in a normal A. gambiae stock and one which encapsulates at a high frequency. Nearly two-fold increases in the number of both normal and encapsulated oocysts were observed as a result of methylparaben in the diet. Because of its longevity effects, we have implemented methylparaben use for all mosquitoes in our holdings and recommend it as a routine sugar meal supplement. PMID:19041323
Benedict, Mark Q; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca C; Howell, Paul I; Wilkins, Elien E
The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745
IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary and Ternary Systems. Part II. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Nonaqueous Systems
The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.
Goto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Salomon, Mark; Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi; Scharlin, Pirketta
The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method.In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography
Dalibor Šatínský; Jitka Huclová; Raquel L. C. Ferreira; Maria Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro; Petr Solich
The binding of methylparaben with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques under physiological conditions i.e., pH 7.4. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching at different temperatures revealed that the quenching mechanism of bovine serum albumin by methylparaben shows a dynamic quenching. The binding sites number n and binding constants, K were obtained at various temperatures. The distance, r between methylparaben and BSA was evaluated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The result of FT-IR spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra showed that the conformation of bovine serum albumin has been changed in the presence of methylparaben. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H0) and entropy change (?S0) were calculated according to van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. The effect of common ions and site probes were also carried on the binding of methylparaben to BSA.
Naik, Keerti M.; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T.
Two rugged liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the determination of propylparaben, its major metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA), and their sulfate conjugates have been developed and validated in citric acid-treated rat plasma. To prevent propylparaben being hydrolyzed to pHBA ex vivo, rat plasma was first treated with citric acid; then collected and processed at a reduced temperature (ice bath). Stable isotope labeled internal standards, d4-propylparaben, (13)C6-pHBA, and the d4-labeled internal standards of their sulfate conjugates were used in the methods. The analytes were extracted from the matrix using protein precipitation, followed by chromatographic separation on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column. Quantification using negative ion electrospray was performed on a Sciex API 4000 mass spectrometer. The analytical ranges were established from 2.00 to 200 ng/mL for propylparaben, 50.0-5000 ng/mL for pHBA, 50.0-10,000 ng/mL for the sulfate conjugate of propylparaben (SPP) and 200-40,000 ng/mL for the sulfate conjugate of pHBA (SHBA). Inter- and intra-run precision for the quality control samples were less than 5.3% and 4.4% for all analytes; and the overall accuracy was within ±5.7% of the nominal values. The validated bioanalytical methods demonstrated excellent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision and were successfully applied to a rat toxicology study under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Strategies have been developed and applied toward overcoming the challenges related to analyte stability, and environmental and endogenous background. PMID:24412689
Zhao, Yue; Liu, Guowen; Shen, Hongwu; Shen, Jim X; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Sivaraman, Lakshmi; Arnold, Mark E
DSC experiments were performed on aqueous solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO (P105) amphiphiles in the low concentration regime (0-1%) to resolve the critical micelle concentration (cmc) both neat and co-formulated with methylparaben (MP). Further work was done at 10% amphiphilic copolymer concentrations and co-formulated with MP to resolve the variations in enthalpy. The compensation temperature, T(compensation), was determined from the analyses for neat P105 as 293.9 K; adding MP raises this to 328.43 K. PMID:23474225
Thompson, Andre Lamont; Love, Brian James
The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method. In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique with UV detection. A Chromolith SpeedROD RP-18e, 50-4.6 mm column with 10 mm precolumn and a FIAlab 3000 system with a six-port selection valve and 5 ml syringe were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.05M acetic acid (10:10:90, v/v/v), pH 3.75 adjusted with triethylamine, flow rate 0.48 mlmin(-1), UV-detection was at 245 nm. The analysis time was <11 min. A new SIC method was validated and compared with HPLC. The method was found to be useful for the routine analysis of the active compounds ambroxol and preservatives (methylparaben or benzoic acid) in various pharmaceutical syrups and drops. PMID:16165338
Satínský, Dalibor; Huclová, Jitka; Ferreira, Raquel L C; Montenegro, Maria Conceição B S M; Solich, Petr
Hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) are strong oxidants that can degrade organic pollutants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The mechanisms, kinetics, and toxicity assessment of the (•)OH-initiated oxidative degradation of the phenolic preservative, methylparaben (MPB), were systematically investigated using a computational approach, as the supplementary information for experimental data. Results showed that MPB can be initially attacked by (•)OH via OH-addition and H-abstraction routes. Among these routes, the (•)OH addition to the C atom at the ortho-position of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most significant route. However, the methyl-H-abstraction route also cannot be neglected. Further, the formed transient intermediates, OH-adduct ((•)MPB-OH1) and dehydrogenated radical ((•)MPB(-H)?), could be easily transformed to several stable degradation products in the presence of O2 and (•)OH. To better understand the potential toxicity of MPB and its products to aquatic organisms, both acute and chronic toxicities were assessed computationally at three trophic levels. Both MPB and its products, particularly the OH-addition products, are harmful to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the application of AOPs to remove MPB should be carefully performed for safe water treatment. PMID:24997257
Gao, Yanpeng; An, Taicheng; Fang, Hansun; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying
A stability-indicating, robust, fast, and user friendly reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) assay method has been developed and validated for the analysis of commercial raw material batches of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These four parabens are widely used as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Accurate assay value of each of the parabens in their respective commercial lots is critical to determine the correct weight of the paraben that is needed to obtain the target concentration of the paraben in a specific lot of pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Currently, there are no single HPLC assay methods (validated as per ICH requirements) available in the literature that can be used to analyze the commercial lots of each of the four parabens. The analytical method reported herein analyzes all four parabens in less than 10 min. The method presented in this report was successfully validated as per ICH guidelines. Therefore, this method can be implemented in QC laboratories to analyze and assay the commercial bulk lots of the four parabens. PMID:21549034
Kumar, S; Mathkar, S; Romero, C; Rustum, A M
Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and propylparaben, respectively, per liter or 11.2 and 1.0 mM) and in very high concentrations of methylparaben (3,000 mg liter?1, or 19.7 mM). This strain was able to hydrolyze approximately 500 mg of methyl-, ethyl-, or propylparaben liter?1 (3 mM) in less than 2 h in liquid culture, and the supernatant of a sonicated culture, after a 30-fold dilution, was able to hydrolyze 1,000 mg of methylparaben liter?1 (6.6 mM) in 15 min. The first step of paraben degradation was the hydrolysis of the ester bond to produce 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, followed by a decarboxylation step to produce phenol under aerobic conditions. The transformation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid into phenol was stoichiometric. The conversion of approximately 500 mg of parabens liter?1 (3 mM) to phenol in liquid culture was completed within 5 h without significant hindrance to the growth of strain EM, while higher concentrations of parabens partially inhibited its growth.
Valkova, Nelly; Lepine, Francois; Valeanu, Loredana; Dupont, Maryse; Labrie, Louisette; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Beaudet, Rejean; Shareck, Francois; Villemur, Richard
Development and validation of chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of two multicomponent mixtures containing bronchodilator drugs.
Three methods are developed for the determination of two multicomponent mixtures containing guaiphenesine (GU) with salbutamol sulfate (SL), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) [mixture 1]; and acephylline piperazine (AC) with bromhexine hydrochloride (BX), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) [mixture 2]. The resolution of the two multicomponent mixtures has been accomplished by using numerical spectrophotometric methods such as partial least squares (PLS-1) and principal component regression (PCR) applied to UV absorption spectra of the two mixtures. In addition HPLC method was developed using a RP 18 column at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 4.3 (60:40, v/v), with UV detection at 243 nm for mixture 1, and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3 (50:50, v/v), with UV detection at 245 nm for mixture 2. The methods were validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, precision and linearity in the range of 20-60 microg ml(-1) for GU, 1-3 microg ml(-1) for SL, 20-80 microg ml(-1) for AC, 0.2-1.8 microgml(-1) for PP and 1-5 microg ml(-1) for BX and MP. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the two multicomponent combinations in laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial syrups. PMID:17046190
El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Shaaban, Heba
We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000ngL(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water. PMID:24556546
Kimura, Kumiko; Kameda, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakada, Norihide; Tamura, Ikumi; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Masunaga, Shigeki
The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26?gL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7?gL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health. PMID:24686145
Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda
Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 ?g kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD?15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G 2014-04-01
Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G
The following review provides a comprehensive summary of antimicrobial preservatives that are commonly used in licensed parenteral products to date. The information reviewed includes the general properties of the preservatives, the doses and frequency of their use, the classes of the preserved products (peptide, protein, vaccine, and small molecule products), the interactions with other formulation components, and the criteria commonly used for their selection in parental product formulations. It was revealed that phenol and benzyl alcohol are the two most common antimicrobial preservatives used in peptide and protein products, while phenoxyethanol is the most frequently used preservative in vaccines. Benzyl alcohol or a combination of methylparaben and propylparaben are generally found in small molecule parenteral formulations. The key criteria for antimicrobial preservative selection are the preservative's dose, antimicrobial functionality, and effect on the active ingredient. Additionally, the use of spectroscopic techniques (circular dicroism (CD) and fluorescence) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were identified as common techniques used in evaluating an antimicrobial preservative for its impact on the conformational stability of peptide, protein, and vaccine antigens. The future use of preservatives is also discussed, including antimicrobial agents such as peptides, and regulatory requirements for antimicrobial effectiveness testing. PMID:17722087
Meyer, Brian K; Ni, Alex; Hu, Binghua; Shi, Li
Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods are presented for the determination of oxeladin citrate (OL) and oxybutynin hydrochloride (OB) and their degradation products. The first method was based on HPLC separation of OL from its degradation product using a Nucleosil C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile -0.1% phosphoric acid (60:40 v/v). The second method was based on HPLC separation of OB from its degradation product using a VP-ODS C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate/diethylamine (60:40:0.2). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 220 nm based on peak area. The two HPLC methods were applied for the determination of OL or OB, their degradation products, methylparaben and propylparaben in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods were used to investigate the kinetics of acidic and alkaline degradation processes of OL and OB at different temperatures and the apparent pseudofirst-order rate constant, half-life and activation energy were calculated. The pH-rate profiles of degradation of OL and OB in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions within the pH range 2-12 were studied. PMID:16023117
Parabens are one of the most common preservatives in cosmetics. Because allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety and parabens are xenoestrogens, safety levels of parabens have been restricted in "Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics" (2007 edition) by the Ministry of Public Health of China, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous determination of parabens is recommended. To investigate whether the commonly used parabens in children's cosmetics were at a safety level, 105 cosmetics for children were randomly purchased from the local market in Beijing and analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. The detection rate of methylparaben was the highest and the next was propylparaben. Among the 105 samples, two or more kinds of parabens were detected in 72 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 0.75%; 18 samples contained one kind of paraben with concentrations ranging from 0.002% to 0.06%. In this study, the contents of parabens in the 105 samples were all below the restricted levels. PMID:23449132
Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Tian, Hanmei; Ding, Xiaojing
Simple, accurate, sensitive and validated UV spectrophotometric, chemometric and HPTLC-densitometric methods were developed for determination of oxybutynin hydrochloride (OX) in presence of its degradation product and additives in its pharmaceutical formulations. Method A is the first derivative of ratio spectra (DD(1)) which allows the determination of OX in presence of its degradate in pure form and tablets by measuring the peaks amplitude at 216 nm. Method B and C are principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) for determination of OX in presence of its degradate in pure form, tablets and syrup. While, the developed high performance thin layer chromatography HPTLC-densitometric method was based on the separation of OX from its degradation product, methylparaben and propylparaben followed by densitometric measurement at 220 nm which allows the determination of OX in pure form, tablets and syrup. The separation was achieved using HPTLC silica gel F(254) plates and chloroform:methanol:ammonia solution:triethylamine (100:3:0.5:0.2, v/v/v/v) as the developing system. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the developed methods were determined. The results obtained were statistically compared with each other and to that of a reported HPLC method, and there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method regarding both accuracy and precision. PMID:20152446
Wagieh, Nour E; Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelkawy, M; Abdelaleem, Eglal A
In Candida glabrata, an opportunistic yeast pathogen, adherence to host cells is mediated in part by the Epa family of adhesins, which are encoded largely at subtelomeric loci where they are subject to transcriptional silencing. In analyzing the regulation of the subtelomeric EPA6 gene, we found that its transcription is highly induced after exposure to methylparaben, propylparaben or sorbate. These weak acid-related chemicals are widely used as antifungal preservatives in many consumer goods, including over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal products. Culture of C. glabrata in a variety of vaginal products induced expression of EPA6, leading to increased adherence to cultured human cells as well as primary human vaginal epithelial cells. We present evidence that paraben/sorbate-induction of EPA6 expression involves both preservative stress and growth under hypoxic conditions. We further show that activation of EPA6 transcription depends on the Flo8 and Mss11 transcription factors and does not require the classical weak acid transcription factors War1 or Msn2/Msn4. We conclude that exposure of C. glabrata to commonly used preservatives can alter expression of virulence-related genes.
Mundy, Renee Domergue; Cormack, Brendan
Certain safe over-the-counter (OTC) sexual lubricants such as Astroglide, KY Liquid, Replens, Vagisil, ViAmor, and Wet Stuff inhibit both cell-free HIV and the production of HIV by infected leukocytes in vitro even in the presence of seminal fluid. To identify which components of the lubricants were active against HIV, we tested five components (glycerin, methylparaben, propylparaben, polyquaternium-32, and propylene glycol). The paraben preservatives and propylene glycol in the lubricants did not inhibit HIV, while the common natural homeostatic metabolite, glycerin, and the thickener polyquaternium-32 did strongly inactivate infectious HIV and HIV-infected leukocytes. Activity against HIV and HIV-infected cells by glycerin was stable through 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Glycerin and polyquaternium-32 were active at minimum concentrations of approximately 2% and 0.01%, respectively--well within the highest FDA safety guidelines. Both active components disrupted infected leukocytes within 5 minutes which resulted in inhibition of infectious HIV production by infected leukocytes of greater than 25 to 100-fold. These components do not disrupt vaginal epithelial cells in vivo. These components also rapidly inactivate cell-free HIV by 10- to 30-fold. Thus, we may conclude that the active components of the OTC lubricants are glycerin and polyquaternium-32. Using these components, OTC sexual lubricants could be reformulated to optimize their anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, clinical trials of these lubricants and components seem to be indicated because of their FDA safety level, wide availability, and low cost. PMID:15786693
Nguyen, D; Lee, H; Poast, J; Cloyd, M W; Baron, S
A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms.
Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.
A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901
Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C; Jadhav, Sushant B
Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996
Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís
A selective, sensitive, rapid and reliable method based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with dual templates to determine total content of parabens in cosmetics was developed. With methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) as dual-templates, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) as a cross-linker, MIPs film on a glassy carbon electrode was constructed as paraben sensor. At oxidation potential of 0.94 V (vs. SCE), the peak currents on the MIPs sensor were proportional to the concentration of parabens with square wave voltammetry. As the ratio of MP to PP in the MIPs was 1:1.25, the regression equations for four parabens were almost the same. The linear range was 20-100 microM for MP and EP, 5-100 microM for PP, and 5-80 microM for BP, with detection limit of 0.4 microM for MP and EP, 0.2 microM for the others. The total content of parabens could be calculated according to the average of these four regress equations. At least 10 times of structural analogs, such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid and phenol would not interfere with the determination of parabens. Nonanalogous coexistences such as vitamin C had no response on the sensor at all. Rapid response of the MIPs sensor was obtained within 1 min. MIPs sensor had been used to determine total content of parabens in cosmetic samples with recoveries between 98.7% and 101.8%. It reveals that the MIPs sensor with multi-templates has a potential to determine the total content of a group of homologous compounds. PMID:20599028
Wang, Yang; Cao, Yuhua; Fang, Cheng; Gong, Qianqian
A method for preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble organic materials is presented. By this method, an oil-in-water microemulsion containing a volatile solvent with dissolved model material, propylparaben, undergoes solvent evaporation and conversion into nanoparticles by spray drying. The resulting powder can be easily dispersed in water to give a clear, stable dispersion of nanoparticles with a high loading of propylparaben. By filtration of this dispersion it was found that more than 95wt.% of the dispersed propylparaben is in particles of less than 450nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that propylparaben is present as nanocrystals of 40-70nm. After dispersion of the powder in water, formation of large crystals rapidly occurs. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) prevented crystal growth during dispersion of the powder in water. The inhibition of propylparaben crystal growth by PVP was studied by molecular dynamic simulations that addressed the binding of PVP to the propylparaben crystal. A comparison was made between PVP and polyvinylalcohol, which did not display crystal inhibition properties. PMID:19919861
Margulis-Goshen, Katrin; Netivi, Hadas Donio; Major, Dan T; Gradzielski, Michael; Raviv, Uri; Magdassi, Shlomo
To date, toxicological studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have typically focused on single chemical exposures and associated effects. However, exposure to EDCs mixtures in the environment is common. Antiandrogens represent a group of EDCs, which draw increasing attention due to their resultant demasculinization and sexual disruption of aquatic organisms. Although there are a number of in vivo and in vitro studies investigating the combined effects of antiandrogen mixtures, these studies are mainly on selected model compounds such as flutamide, procymidone, and vinclozolin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined antiandrogenic effects of parabens, which are widely used antiandrogens in industrial and domestic commodities. A yeast-based human androgen receptor (hAR) assay (YAS) was applied to assess the antiandrogenic activities of n-propylparaben (nPrP), iso-propylparaben (iPrP), methylparaben (MeP), and 4-n-pentylphenol (PeP), as well as the binary mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. All of the four compounds could exhibit antiandrogenic activity via the hAR. A linear interaction model was applied to quantitatively analyze the interaction between nPrP and each of the other three antiandrogens. The isoboles method was modified to show the variation of combined effects as the concentrations of mixed antiandrogens were changed. Graphs were constructed to show isoeffective curves of three binary mixtures based on the fitted linear interaction model and to evaluate the interaction of the mixed antiandrogens (synergism or antagonism). The combined effect of equimolar combinations of the three mixtures was also considered with the nonlinear isoboles method. The main effect parameters and interaction effect parameters in the linear interaction models of the three mixtures were different from zero. The results showed that any two antiandrogens in their binary mixtures tended to exert equal antiandrogenic activity in the linear concentration ranges. The antiandrogenicity of the binary mixture and the concentration of nPrP were fitted to a sigmoidal model if the concentrations of the other antiandrogens (iPrP, MeP, and PeP) in the mixture were lower than the AR saturation concentrations. Some concave isoboles above the additivity line appeared in all the three mixtures. There were some synergistic effects of the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP at low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges. Interesting, when the antiandrogens concentrations approached the saturation, the interaction between chemicals were antagonistic for all the three mixtures tested. When the toxicity of the three mixtures was assessed using nonlinear isoboles, only antagonism was observed for equimolar combinations of nPrP and iPrP as the concentrations were increased from the no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) to effective concentration of 80%. In addition, the interactions were changed from synergistic to antagonistic as effective concentrations were increased in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP. The combined effects of three binary antiandrogens mixtures in the linear ranges were successfully evaluated by curve fitting and isoboles. The combined effects of specific binary mixtures varied depending on the concentrations of the chemicals in the mixtures. At low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges, there was synergistic interaction existing in the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP. The interaction tended to be antagonistic as the antiandrogens approached saturation concentrations in mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. The synergistic interaction was also found in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP, at low concentrations with another method of nonlinear isoboles. The mixture activities of binary antiandrogens had a tendency towards antagonism at high concentrations and synergism at low concentrations. PMID:24469767
Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Li, Feifei; Liu, Cong; Liu, Rui
Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, including 7 food preservatives, 6 antifungal drugs, and 6 agricultural fungicides, were screened for their inhibitory activities on Aspergillus niger in diets. The results demonstrated that most of the tested chemicals are unsuitable as mold inhibitors in the diets of the rice leaffolder, and the rice leaffolder neonate is sensitive to sorbic acid and methylparaben. These two mold inhibitors at commonly used concentrations were shown to impact the survival of rice leaffolder larvae fed on artificial diets. Among the tested mold inhibitors, natamycin was the safest for the rice leaffolder larvae. Much higher larva survival was observed for the larvae fed on diets containing natamycin as an antifungal agent (59 and 72% at 200 and 400 ppm, respectively). Two agricultural fungicides, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin, are also potent as mold inhibitors when used in insect diets. The mixed use of natamycin and sorbic acid, or methylparaben, and the mixed use of sorbic acid and azoxystrobin resulted in significantly higher larva survival than sorbic acid + methylparaben. Natamycin + azoxystrobin and sorbic acid + tebuconazole resulted in larva survival similar to that of sorbic acid + methylparaben. The ternary combination of natamycin, sorbic acid, and methylparaben was the best combination for the rearing of rice leaffolder. PMID:25026669
Su, Jianya; Wang, Ye-Cheng; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Ren, Xiu-Bei
The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114
Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej
To evaluate the quality of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, a simple, rapid and accurate micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method was developed for the assay of three marker constituents — parishin, parishin B and parishin C. The electrolyte was a buffer solution containing 100 mM sodium cholate and 20 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate adjusted to pH 6.5 with 20 mM sodium tetraborate. Methylparaben was
Yoe-Ray Ku; Yaa-Tzy Lin; Kuo-Ching Wen; Jer-Huei Lin; Chun-Heng Liao
Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) amphiphilic triblock copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic surfactants) undergo reversible and temperature-dependent micellization and arrangement into cubic ordered lattices known as "micelle gels". The macroscopic behavior of the ordering is a transition from a liquid to a gel. While the phase behavior and gel structure of pure Pluronic surfactant solutions have been well studied, less is known about the effects of added ternary solutes. In this dissertation, a comprehensive investigation into the effects of the added pharmaceutical methylparaben on solutions of F127 ranging from 10 to 30 wt% was conducted in order to better understand the behavior of F127 in multicomponent pharmaceutical formulations. The viscoelastic properties of F127 gel formation were studied using rheometry, where heating rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 degrees C/min were also used to probe the kinetics of the gel transition. In solutions containing methylparaben, F127 gelation occurred at up to 15 degrees C lower temperatures and was accelerated by a factor of three to four. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize the structure of the ordered domains, and how they were affected by the presence of dissolved pharmaceuticals. It was found that ordered domain formation changed from heterogeneous nucleation and growth to possible homogeneous nucleation and growth. A roughly 2% reduction in the cubic lattice parameter was also observed for solutions containing methylparaben. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed on a series of different Pluronic surfactants in order to characterize the micellization behavior as a function of PPO center block length and PEO/PPO ratio. Added methylparaben suppressed the micellization endotherm, the degree of suppression depending linearly on the amount of added methylparaben, as well as the length of the PPO center block and PEO/PPO ratio. This dissertation yielded a thorough characterization of the changes in micellization and gelation behavior in F127 gels as a result of added pharmaceuticals. Previously unobserved behavior such as the onset of ordered domain formation in F127 gels was observed, and a greater understanding of the interactions between amphiphilic copolymer solutions and dissolved solutes was achieved.
Meznarich, Norman Anthony Kang
During preformulation studies of cosmetic/pharmaceutical products, thermal analysis techniques are very useful to detect physical or chemical incompatibilities between the active and the excipients of interest that might interfere with safety and/or efficacy of the final product. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of avobenzone with some currently used cosmetic excipients. In the first phase of the study, DSC was used as a tool to detect any interaction. Based on the DSC results alone, cetearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, propylparaben, diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, caprylic capric triglyceride, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glycerin, cetearyl alcohol/ceteareth 20, cetearyl alcohol/sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium cetearyl sulfate, and paraffinum liquidum exhibit interaction with avobenzone. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50°C for 15 days) of avobenzone and excipients were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary mixtures were further investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Based on DSC, isothermal stress testing, and fourier transform infrared results; avobenzone is incompatible with caprylic capric triglyceride, propylparaben, and BHT. PMID:24139431
Ceresole, Rita; Han, Yong K; Rosasco, Maria A; Orelli, Liliana R; Segall, Adriana
A method for the simultaneous determination of six perfluoroalkyl compounds (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids), five phenolic compounds (nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and methyl-, ethyl- and propylparabens), and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in surface water and effluent wastewater has been developed. The selected pollutants include eight of the industrial pollutants (PFOS and derivatives, NP, and HBCDD) that could be regulated in surface water according to an European Union Directive proposal and four compounds of great concern because their estrogenicity (BPA and parabens). The method is based on solid-phase extraction and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization mode. Method quantitation limits of NP, PFOS and derivatives, and HBCDD allow its application for routinely control of surface water according to the EU proposal of directive. PMID:24633504
Martín, Julia; Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban
Zirconia-based stationary phases represent an interesting alternative to silica-based materials. Two zirconia-based stationary phases were studied as an option for use in drug analysis. The different properties of zirconia material, distinct from RP silica-columns, were employed for the development of a novel and rapid stability monitoring HPLC method. This method enables simultaneous control of possible degradation processes of active substance (ibuprofen) as well as antimicrobial excipients (methyl-and propylparaben). The separation of ibuprofen, its two main degradation products 2-(4-isobutyrylphenyl)propionic acid and 4-isobutylacetophenone, parabens, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as their degradation product was successfully accomplished on a Zr-CarbonC18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 4.8)-propan-2-ol (27:56:17, v/v/v). Detection was performed at 258 nm and the analysis was completed within 17 minutes. PMID:16138683
Kucera, Radim; Zizkovský, Václav; Sochor, Jaroslav; Klimes, Jirí; Dohnal, Jirí
A novel and fast simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) and salicylic acid (SA) in topical pharmaceutical formulations by sequential injection chromatography (SIC) as an alternative to classical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. A recently introduced Onyxtrade mark monolithic C18 (50mmx4.6mm, Phenomenex((R))) with 5mm monolithic precolumn were used for the first time for creating sequential injection chromatography system based on a FIAlab((R)) 3000 with a six-port selection valve and 5.0mL syringe pump in study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile/water (35:65, v/v), pH 3.3 adjusted with acetic acid at flow rate 0.9mLmin(-1). UV detection provided by fibre-optic DAD detector was set up at 240nm. Propylparaben was chosen as suitable internal standard (IS). There is only simple pre-adjustment of the sample of topical solution (dilution with mobile phase) so the analysis is not uselessly elongated. Parameters of the method showed good linearity in wide range, correlation coefficient >0.999; system precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) in the range 0.45-1.95% at three different concentration levels, detection limits (3sigma) 1.00mugmL(-1) (salicylic acid), 0.66mugmL(-1) (triamcinolone acetonide) and 0.33mugmL(-1) (propylparaben) and recovery from the pharmaceutical preparations in the range 97.50-98.94%. The chromatographic resolution between peaks of compounds was more than 4.5 and analysis time was 5.1min under the optimal conditions. The advantages of sequential injection chromatography against classical HPLC are discussed and showing that SIC can be a method of option in many cases. PMID:19071698
Chocholous, Petr; Holík, Pavel; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with bioluminescence detection using Vibrio fischeri bacteria can be used for screening for unknown substances. This is accomplished by dipping the HPTLC plate in an aqueous bacteria solution. Especially polar substances, however, can start to dissolve during this process, which leads to blurring and tailing of the zones on the plate. To overcome this disadvantage, we applied the bacteria solution by rolling. This method has been described for chemical derivatizations, but is very rarely used. The rolling device was made of commercially available household articles. Using octhilinone and methylparaben as test compounds, rolling was compared with dipping. Despite of performing the rolling process manually, the results were reproducible. Depending on the substance and its amount on the HPTLC plate, peaks were narrower, up to a factor of 4 higher and with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than after dipping. PMID:21329931
Baumgartner, Vera; Hohl, Christopher; Schwack, Wolfgang
In this paper, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (abbreviated as TESPIC) was modified by ethylparaben (EPB) to produce corresponding organic-inorganic monomers (EPB-TESPIC) with two components equipped with covalent bonds, which not only can coordinate to RE ions (Tb3+ and Eu3+) but also act as a sol-gel precursor. Luminescent hybrid materials consisting of terbium-europium complex, covalently bonded to silica-based network, have been obtained in situ via a sol-gel approach. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to characterize the structure of EPB-TESPIC. UV-visible, phosphorescence, and luminescence spectra were obtained to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. Through co-hydrolysis and polycondensation, Tb3+ and Eu3+ can be introduced into the same organic-inorganic hybrid monomer, forming Si-O backbones. The experimental results show that the strong luminescence of rare-earth ions substantiates the optimum energy match and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of coordination complex and the emissive energy level of the rare-earth ions. The hybrid material systems are expected to have potential applications in photophysical sensors.
Wang, F. F.; Yan, B.
In the present work, a new method based on a sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and monochloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, and tetrachlorobisphenol A), four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben), and six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8, and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) in human urine samples, followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, is validated. An enzymatic treatment allows determining the total content of the target EDCs. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-(13)C6, benzophenone-d10, and bisphenol A-d16 were used as surrogates. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 ng mL(-1) and interday variabilities (evaluated as relative standard deviations) from 2.0 to 13.8 % were obtained. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94 to 106 %. A good linearity, for concentrations up to 300 ng mL(-1) for parabens and 40 ng mL(-1) for benzophenones and bisphenols, was also obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human urine samples from 20 randomly selected individuals. PMID:24710638
Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Navalón, A
A new separation method based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique was used for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride and doxycycline in pharmaceutical preparations in this contribution. The coupling of short monolith with SIA system results in an implementation of separation step to until no-separation low-pressure method. A Chromolith((R)) Flash RP-18e, 25-4.6mm column (Merck, Germany) and a FIAlab((R)) 3000 system (USA) with a six-port selection valve and 5ml syringe were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile-water (20:90, v/v), pH 2.5 adjusted with 98% phosphoric acid, flow rate 0.48mlmin(-1), UV detection was at 213nm. The validation parameters have shown good results: linearity of determination for both compounds including internal standard (ethylparaben) >0.999; repeatability of determination (R.S.D.) in the range 0.5-5.4% at three different concentration levels, detection limits in the range 0.5-2.0mugml(-1), and recovery from the pharmaceutical preparation in the range 99.3-99.9%. The chromatographic resolution between peak compounds was >5.0 and analysis time was <9min under the optimal conditions. The method was found to be applicable for routine analysis of the active compounds ambroxol hydrochloride and doxycycline in various pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:18970307
Satínský, Dalibor; Santos, Lucia M L Dos; Sklenárová, Hana; Solich, Petr; Montenegro, M Conceição B S M; Araújo, Alberto N
Human exposure to p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) is a concern, owing to adverse health effects of these compounds. Parabens are metabolized and eliminated from the human bodies within a few hours of exposure. In this study, for the first time, methyl- and ethyl-protocatechuates (OH-MeP and OH-EtP) and their parent compounds, methyl- (MeP) and ethyl-parabens (EtP), were determined in urine samples collected from U.S. children and adults. Alkyl protocatechuates were found in almost all urine samples, with median concentrations of 11.8 (OH-MeP) and 2.90ng/mL (OH-EtP) in adults, and 5.43 (OH-MeP) and 0.85ng/mL (OH-EtP) in children. In adults, the concentrations of urinary OH-MeP and OH-EtP were higher than the corresponding concentrations of MeP and EtP. Significant correlation between OH-MeP/OH-EtP and MeP/EtP was observed. This is the first report to document hydroxylation of parabens in humans, and to propose hydroxylated metabolites (i.e., alkyl protocatechuates) as alternative biomarkers of exposure to parabens in human biomonitoring studies. The rates of transformation of parabens between children and adults appeared to be different, as evidenced from the slopes of regression between alkyl protocatechuates and parabens. In addition to alkyl protocatechuates, hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB) were found at considerable levels in the urine samples. The occurrence of a significant proportion of alkyl protocatechuates and 3,4-DHB suggests the need for inclusion of these derivatives in accurate estimation of human exposure to parabens and in epidemiological studies that associate paraben exposure to health outcomes in populations. PMID:23747757
Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a cross between these two species all were excellent vectors for P. knowlesi. High donor monkey parasitaemia was associated with poor mosquito survival. A single infected mosquito bite is likely sufficient to infect a monkey with P. knowlesi. It is possible to efficiently challenge large groups of monkeys by mosquito bite, which will be useful for P. knowlesi vaccine studies.
The aim was to describe the exposure to excipients among neonates hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a public hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. This was a retrospective study based on medicines that were prescribed electronically to neonates (?28 days) who were admitted to the NICU of a hospital in Brasilia between January 1 and March 31, 2012. Excipients were identified from the medicine package leaflets and were classified according to toxicity. Seventy-nine infants received a total of 1,303 prescriptions comprising 77 formulations and 70 active drugs. Eighty-six excipients were identified, of which, 9 were harmful excipients (HE) and 48 were potentially harmful excipients (PHE). Almost all the neonates (98.7 %) were exposed to at least one HE and PHE. Preterm neonates (n?=?64; 1,502 neonate days) presented high risk of exposure to polysorbate 80 (3.26/100 neonate days), sodium hydroxide (3.39), PG (3.19) and propylparaben (3.06). Full-term neonates (n?=?15; 289 neonate days) presented risks in relation to phenol (4.84), ethanol (3.8) and sodium citrate (3.46). Conclusion: Neonates in NICUs in Brazil are exposed to a wide variety of HE and PHE with unpredictable results. Safer alternatives are needed, as well as further studies on the subject. PMID:24500397
Souza, Alcidésio; Santos, Djanilson; Fonseca, Said; Medeiros, Marina; Batista, Lívia; Turner, Mark; Coelho, Helena
A scoping study was conducted to investigate the residues of nineteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including 4 natural and 3 synthetic steroid estrogens, 7 endocrine-disrupting phenols, and 5 acid pharmaceuticals in three urban streams and the Major Pearl River at Guangzhou, a megapolis in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Estrone was detected in >60% water samples with a maximum concentration of 65 ng L(-1). Endocrine-disrupting phenols (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, triclosan, 2-phenylphenol, methyparaben, and propylparaben) were found to be widely present at rather high concentrations in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou. Salicylic acid, clofibric acid and ibuprofen were detected in most water samples with maximum concentrations of 2098, 248 and 1417 ng L(-1) respectively, whereas naproxen was less frequently detected and also at lower concentration. Both the detection frequencies and median concentrations of the PPCPs appeared higher during the low-flow season than during the high-flow season. The seasonal difference in PPCPs occurrence was probably attributed to the dilution effect caused by the rainfall. PPCPs in the urban riverine water of Guangzhou originated mainly from random discharge and/or leakage of municipal wastewater. PPCPs contamination in the Major Pearl River may be of a potential environmental issue, especially during the low-flow season. PMID:18407320
Peng, Xianzhi; Yu, Yiyi; Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Huang, Qiuxin; Wang, Zhendi
The acute toxicity of 21 parabens and their chlorinated derivatives was investigated by means of two toxicity bioassays: Daphnia magna immobilization test and the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri. The median effective concentration (EC(50)) values of the tested parabens ranged from 2.2 to 62 mg l(-1) in the D. magna test and from 0.0038 to 5.9 mg l(-1) in the V. fischeri test at 15 min after exposure. The toxicity of dichlorinated methyl- and n-propylparaben, the most commonly used preservatives in cosmetics, toward D. magna was 3.9- and 2.8-fold that of their corresponding parent compounds. Toxicity toward D. magna showed a linear relationship with log P, indicating that toxicity increases with increasing hydrophobicity. On the other hand, the correlations of toxicity toward V. fischeri with hydrophobicity and with the degree of chlorination were poor. In addition, the results of the present study indicated that the V. fischeri test was more sensitive than the D. magna test for the determination of the acute toxicity of parabens. A complete assessment of the ecological and toxicological risks of parabens may require the examination of chlorinated parabens as well as the parent pollutants, as described in the present study. PMID:19089854
Terasaki, Masanori; Makino, Masakazu; Tatarazako, Norihisa
Sustained prediction ability of net analyte preprocessing methods using reduced calibration sets. Theoretical and experimental study involving the spectrophotometric analysis of multicomponent mixtures.
A newly developed multivariate method involving net analyte preprocessing (NAP) was tested using central composite calibration designs of progressively decreasing size regarding the multivariate simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three active components (phenylephrine, diphenhydramine and naphazoline) and one excipient (methylparaben) in nasal solutions. Its performance was evaluated and compared with that of partial least-squares (PLS-1). Minimisation of the calibration predicted error sum of squares (PRESS) as a function of a moving spectral window helped to select appropriate working spectral ranges for both methods. The comparison of NAP and PLS results was carried out using two tests: (1) the elliptical joint confidence region for the slope and intercept of a predicted versus actual concentrations plot for a large validation set of samples and (2) the D-optimality criterion concerning the information content of the calibration data matrix. Extensive simulations and experimental validation showed that, unlike PLS, the NAP method is able to furnish highly satisfactory results when the calibration set is reduced from a full four-component central composite to a fractional central composite, as expected from the modelling requirements of net analyte based methods. PMID:11478644
Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics, azole anti-fungals, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, parabens, antiseptics, and bisphenol A, were investigated in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of two municipal landfills in the metropolis of Guangzhou, South China. Dehydroerythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, salicylic acid, methylparaben, triclosan, and bisphenol A were the mostly frequently detected PPCPs in the groundwater at low ngL(-1) levels. In the reservoirs, the PPCPs were widely detected at higher frequencies and concentrations, especially sulfamethoxazole, propiconazole, and ibuprofen, with maximal concentrations above 1?gL(-1). The PPCPs in the groundwater did not show significant seasonal differences or spatial trends. However, in the reservoirs, higher PPCP concentrations were observed in spring than in other seasons. The anti-bacterials in the groundwater posed medium risks to algae. In the reservoirs, the sulfonamides and macrolides posed low to high risks, while ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and clofibric acid presented low to medium risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, the results showed that the PPCP contaminants and subsequent ecological risks in the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the landfills may be of serious concern. More research is needed to better correlate the landfill leachates and PPCP contamination in the nearby aquatic environments. PMID:24908648
Peng, Xianzhi; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Chunwei; Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Jin, Jiabin; Tan, Jianhua
Introduction Estrogens regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. Although the intracellular mechanisms of estrogens in the breast are largely understood, little is known about how they induce changes in the structure of the mammary epithelium, which are characteristic of breast cancer. In vitro three dimensional (3D) cultures of immortalised breast epithelial cells recapitulate features of the breast epithelium in vivo, including formation of growth arrested acini with hollow lumen and basement membrane. This model can also reproduce features of malignant transformation and breast cancer, such as increased cellular proliferation and filling of the lumen. However, a system where a connection between estrogen receptor (ER) activation and disruption of acini formation can be studied to elucidate the role of estrogens is still missing. Methods/Principal Findings We describe an in vitro 3D model for breast glandular structure development, using breast epithelial MCF-12A cells cultured in a reconstituted basement membrane matrix. These cells are estrogen receptor (ER)?, ER? and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) competent, allowing the investigation of the effects of estrogens on mammary gland formation and disruption. Under normal conditions, MCF-12A cells formed organised acini, with deposition of basement membrane and hollow lumen. However, treatment with 17?-estradiol, and the exogenous estrogens bisphenol A and propylparaben resulted in deformed acini and filling of the acinar lumen. When these chemicals were combined with ER and GPER inhibitors (ICI 182,780 and G-15, respectively), the deformed acini recovered normal features, such as a spheroid shape, proliferative arrest and luminal clearing, suggesting a role for the ER and GPER in the estrogenic disruption of acinar formation. Conclusion This new model offers the opportunity to better understand the role of the ER and GPER in the morphogenesis of breast glandular structure as well as the events implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression.
Marchese, Stephanie; Silva, Elisabete
The organic toxicants present in the effluent of the main sewer of the city of Zagreb, Croatia were isolated and identified through the use of effects-directed characterisation techniques. At the time of investigation, the wastewater effluent received no treatment and was comprised of a mixture of effluent from domestic and industrial sources. The organic load of the wastewater was isolated by solid phase extraction and toxicity profiles obtained using reverse-phase HPLC. All procedures were evaluated through the analysis of a series of reference compounds of widely differing polarity. Toxicity profiles for EROD activity (CYP1A induction), vitellogenin induction (estrogenic activity), cytotoxicity (membrane stability and metabolic inhibition) were obtained using a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary hepatocyte bioassay. The suite of bioassays showed biological responses after exposure to the raw extracts for all the endpoints tested. However, a combination of mixture toxicity and cytotoxicity in the complex raw extract had some masking effect on the sub-lethal responses of vitellogenin and EROD induction. Bioassay testing of the fine fractions obtained by HPLC produced a range of endpoint-specific toxicity profiles for each sample. A number of compounds were identified by the use of GC-MS and LC-MS/MS as responsible for the observed effects. The steroid estrogens 17 beta-estradiol and estriol were identified by LC-MS/MS as estrogen receptor agonists in two of the estrogenic fractions. In addition, GC-MS analysis identified different alkylphenols, benzophenone and methylparaben which also contributed to the estrogenic activity of the sample. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl substituted PAHs, nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds (nitro-PACs), carbazoles and alkyl substituted carbazoles and other known CYP1A inducers were identified by GC-MS analysis as responsible for some of the observed EROD activity. Some active compounds remain unidentified. PMID:17166550
Grung, Merete; Lichtenthaler, Rainer; Ahel, Marijan; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Langford, Katherine; Thomas, Kevin V
In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Additionally, a non-target analysis was performed in both types of samples with the objective of investigating the presence of other non-selected organic compounds taking advantage of the potential of GC-TOF MS (high sensitivity in full-spectrum acquisition mode, accurate mass measurements) for searching unknowns. Organophosphorus pesticides were the contaminants more frequently detected in brine samples. Other compounds usually present in urban and industrial wastewaters, like caffeine, methylparaben, butylated-hydroxytoluene and N-butylbenzenesulfonamide were also detected in brines. The herbicide simazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were among the contaminants detected in Artemia samples. Results of this work reveal a potential threat to vulnerable populations inhabiting the hyper-saline ecosystem. The valuable contribution of GC-TOF MS in environmental analysis, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of organic contaminants, is also demonstrated in this paper. PMID:22789816
Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A; Hernández, Félix; Navarro, Juan C; Varó, Inmaculada; Amat, Francisco
A framework for understanding the complexity of cancer development was established by Hanahan and Weinberg in their definition of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we consider the evidence that parabens can enable development in human breast epithelial cells of four of six of the basic hallmarks, one of two of the emerging hallmarks and one of two of the enabling characteristics. In Hallmark 1, parabens have been measured as present in 99% of human breast tissue samples, possess oestrogenic activity and can stimulate sustained proliferation of human breast cancer cells at concentrations measurable in the breast. In Hallmark 2, parabens can inhibit the suppression of breast cancer cell growth by hydroxytamoxifen, and through binding to the oestrogen-related receptor gamma may prevent its deactivation by growth inhibitors. In Hallmark 3, in the 10 nm-1 ?m range, parabens give a dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis in high-risk donor breast epithelial cells. In Hallmark 4, long-term exposure (>20 weeks) to parabens leads to increased migratory and invasive activity in human breast cancer cells, properties that are linked to the metastatic process. As an emerging hallmark methylparaben has been shown in human breast epithelial cells to increase mTOR, a key regulator of energy metabolism. As an enabling characteristic parabens can cause DNA damage at high concentrations in the short term but more work is needed to investigate long-term, low-dose mixtures. The ability of parabens to enable multiple cancer hallmarks in human breast epithelial cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implications of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25047802
Darbre, Philippa D; Harvey, Philip W
Breast cancer is an estrogen-driven disease. Consequently, hormone replacement therapy correlates with disease incidence. However, increasing male breast cancer rates over the past three decades implicate additional sources of estrogenic exposure including wide spread estrogen-mimicking chemicals or xenoestrogens (XEs), such as bisphenol-A (BPA). By exposing renewable, human, high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) to BPA at concentrations that are detectable in human blood, placenta and milk, we previously identified gene expression profile changes associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genesets likely to trigger prosurvival changes in human breast cells. We now provide functional validation of mTOR activation using pairwise comparisons of 16 independent HRBEC samples with and without BPA exposure. We demonstrate induction of key genes and proteins in the PI3K-mTOR pathway—AKT1, RPS6 and 4EBP1 and a concurrent reduction in the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene protein. Altered regulation of mTOR pathway proteins in BPA-treated HRBECs led to marked resistance to rapamycin, the defining mTOR inhibitor. Moreover, HRBECs pretreated with BPA, or the XE, methylparaben (MP), surmounted antiestrogenic effects of tamoxifen showing dose-dependent apoptosis evasion and induction of cell cycling. Overall, XEs, when tested in benign breast cells from multiple human subjects, consistently initiated specific functional changes of the kind that are attributed to malignant onset in breast tissue. Our observations demonstrate the feasibility of studying renewable human samples as surrogates and reinforce the concern that BPA and MP, at low concentrations detected in humans, can have adverse health consequences.
Goodson, William H.; Luciani, Maria Gloria; Sayeed, S. Aejaz; Jaffee, Ian M.; Moore, Dan H.
Preservatives are important components in many products, but have a history of purported allergy. Several assays [e.g., guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), local lymph node assay (LLNA)] are used to evaluate allergy potential of preservatives. We recently developed the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT), an in vitro skin sensitization test using human THP-1 cells. This test evaluates the augmentation of CD86 and CD54 expression, which are key events in the sensitization process, as an indicator of allergy following treatment with test chemical. Earlier, we found that a sub-toxic concentration was needed for the up-regulation of surface marker expression. In this study, we further evaluate the capability of h-CLAT to predict allergy potential using eight preservatives. Cytotoxicity was determined using propidium iodide with flow cytometry analysis and five doses that produce a 95, 85, 75, 65, and 50% cell viability were selected. If a material did not have any cytotoxicity at the highest technical dose (HTD), five doses are set using serial 1.3 dilutions of the HTD. The test materials used were six known allergic preservatives (e.g., methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde), and two non-allergic preservatives (methylparaben and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). All allergic preservatives augmented CD86 and/or CD54 expression, indicating h-CLAT correctly identified the allergens. No augmentation was observed with the non-allergic preservatives; also correctly identified by h-CLAT. In addition, we report two threshold concentrations that may be used to categorize skin sensitization potency like the LLNA estimated concentration that yield a three-fold stimulation (EC3) value. These corresponding values are the estimated concentration which gives a relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) = 150 for CD86 and an RFI = 200 for CD54. These data suggest that h-CLAT, using THP-1 cells, may be able to predict the allergy potential of preservatives and possibility classify the potency of an allergen. PMID:17119987
Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yukiko; Ito, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki