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Sample records for methylparaben ethylparaben propylparaben

  1. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to skin penetrate the stratum corneum in inverse relation to the ester chain length. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze parabens in the skin. Parabens do not accumulate in the body. Serum concentrations of parabens, even after intravenous administration, quickly decline and remain low. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that parabens are not significantly toxic by various routes of administration. Subchronic and chronic oral studies indicate that parabens are practically nontoxic. Numerous genotoxicity studies, including Ames testing, dominant lethal assay, host-mediated assay, and cytogenic assays, indicate that the Parabens are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethylparaben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay. Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben in the diet produced cell proliferation in the forestomach of rats, with the activity directly related to chain length of the alkyl chain, but Isobutylparaben and Butylparaben were noncarcinogenic in a mouse chronic feeding study. Methylparaben was noncarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice or rats, or when administered intravaginally in rats, and was not cocarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice. Propylparaben was noncarcinogenic in a study of transplacental carcinogenesis. Methylparaben was nonteratogenic in rabbits, rats, mice, and hamsters, and Ethylparaben was nonteratogenic in rats. Parabens, even at levels that produce maternal toxicity, do not produce fetal anomalies in animal studies. Parabens have been extensively studied to evaluate male reproductive toxicity. In one in vitro study, sperm were not viabile at concentrations as low as 6 mg/ml Methylparaben, 8 mg/ml Ethylparaben, 3 mg/ml Propylparaben, or 1 mg/ml Butylparaben, but an in vivo study of 0.1% or 1.0% Methylparaben or Ethylparaben in the diet of mice reported no spermatotoxic effects. Propylparaben did affect sperm counts at all levels from 0.01% to 1.0%. Epididymis and seminal vesicle weight decreases were reported in rats given a 1% oral Butylparaben dose; and decreased sperm number and motile activity in F(1) offspring of rats maternally exposed to 100 mg/kg day(- 1) were reported. Decreased sperm numbers and activity were reported in F(1) offspring of female rats given Butylparaben (in DMSO) by subcutaneous injection at 100 or 200 mg/kg day(- 1), but there were no abnormalities in the reproductive organs. Methylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1141.1 mg/kg day(- 1) with no adverse testicular effects. Butylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1087.6 mg/kg day(- 1) in a repeat of the study noted above, but using a larger number of animals and a staging analysis of testicular effects-no adverse reproductive effects were found. Butylparaben does bind to estrogen receptors in isolated rat uteri, but with an affinity orders of magnitude less than natural estradiol. Relative binding (diethylstilbesterol binding affinity set at 100) to the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta increases as a function of chain length from not detectable for Methylparaben to 0.267 +/- 0.027 for human estrogen receptor alpha and 0.340 +/- 0.031 for human estrogen receptor beta for Isobutylparaben. In a study of androgen receptor binding, Propylparaben exhibited weak competitive binding, but Methylparaben had no binding effect at all. PHBA at 5 mg/kg day(-1) subcutaneously (s.c.) was reported to produce an estrogenic response in one uterotrophic assay using mice, but there was no response in another study using rats (s.c. up to 5 mg/kg day(- 1)) and mice (s.c. up to 100 mg/kg day(- 1)) and in a study using rats (s.c. up to 100 mg/kg day(- 1)). Methylparaben failed to produce any effect in uterotrophic assays in two laboratories, but did produce an effect in other studies from another laboratory. The potency of Methylparaben was at least 1000x less when compared to natural estradiol. The same pattern was reported for Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben when potency was compared to natural estradiol. In two studies, Isobutylparaben did produce an estrogenic response in the uterotrophic assay, but the potency was at least 240,000x less than estradiol. In one study, Benzylparaben produced an estrogenic response in the uterotrophic assay, but the potency was at least 330,000x less than estradiol. Estrogenic activity of parabens and PHBA was increased in human breast cancer cells in vitro, but the increases were around 4 orders of magnitude less than that produced by estradiol. Parabens are practically nonirritating and nonsensitizing in the population with normal skin. Paraben sensitization has occurred and continues to be reported in the case literature, but principally when exposure involves damaged or broken skin. Even when patients with chronic dermatitis are patch-tested to a parabens mix, parabens generally induce sensitization in less than 4% of such individuals. Many patients sensitized to paraben-containing medications can wear cosmetics containing these ingredients with no adverse effects. Clinical patch testing data available over the past 20 years demonstrate no significant change in the overall portion of dermatitis patients that test positive for parabens. As reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, the available acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity tests, using a range of exposure routes, demonstrate a low order of parabens' toxicity at concentrations that would be used in cosmetics. Parabens are rarely irritating or sensitizing to normal human skin at concentrations used in cosmetics. Although parabens do penetrate the stratum corneum, metabolism of parabens takes place within viable skin, which is likely to result in only 1% unmetabolized parabens available for absorption into the body. The Expert Panel did consider data in the category of endocrine disruption, including male reproductive toxicity and various estrogenic activity studies. The CIR Expert Panel compared exposures to parabens resulting from use of cosmetic products to a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 1000 mg/kg day(- 1) based on the most statistically powerful and well-conducted study of the effects of Butylparabens on the male reproductive system. The CIR Expert Panel considered exposures to cosmetic products containing a single parabens preservative (use level of 0.4%) separately from products containing multiple parabens (use level of 0.8%) and infant exposures separately from adult exposures in determining margins of safety (MOS). The MOS for infants ranged from approximately 6000 for single paraben products to approximately 3000 for multiple paraben products. The MOS for adults ranged from 1690 for single paraben products to 840 for multiple paraben products. The Expert Panel considers that these MOS determinations are conservative and likely represent an overestimate of the possibility of an adverse effect (e.g., use concentrations may be lower, penetration may be less) and support the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used. PMID:19101832

  2. A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben.

    PubMed

    Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E

    2007-09-01

    A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs. PMID:17960329

  3. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 μg/ml & 0.05 μg/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 μg/ml & 0.15 μg/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

  4. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Mometasone Furoate, and Tazarotene in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2013-01-01

    A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol (PE), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), mometasone furoate (MF), and tazarotene (TA) in topical pharmaceutical dosage formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters X-Bridge C18 (504.6mm, 3.5?) column using gradient elution at 256 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 0.1%v/v orthophosphoric acid in water as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The method showed linearity over the range of 5.8861.76 ?g/mL, 0.1862.36 ?g/mL, 0.176.26 ?g/mL, 0.4731.22 ?g/mL, and 0.4430.45 ?g/mL for PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA, respectively. The recovery for all of the components was in the range of 98102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples, in which the spectral purity of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA in a cream sample. PMID:24482766

  5. Quality by Design-Based Development of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate, and Octinoxate in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the KinetexTM C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using gradient elution at 257 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a buffer : acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) as solvent A and acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (70 : 30, v/v) as solvent B. The method showed linearity over the range of 0.19–148.4 μg/mL, 0.23–15.3 μg/mL, 1.97–600.5 μg/mL, and 1.85–451.5 μg/mL for MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, respectively. Recovery for all the components was found to be in the range of 98–102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, along with the separation of the degradation products from the analyte peaks, was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT in the lotion sample. The design expert with ANOVA software with the linear model was applied and a 24 full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients and also to check the robustness of the method. Results of the two-level full factorial design, 24 with 20 runs including four centrepoint analysis based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that all four factors, as well as the interactions of resolution between DAHHB and OCT are statistically significant. PMID:25853065

  6. Ethylparaben affects lifespan, fecundity, and the expression levels of ERR, EcR and YPR in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Li, Yajuan; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Parabens, which mainly include methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP), are widely used as cosmetic and food preservatives. Although these chemicals, when used as preservatives, are thought to be safe for humans, many studies have demonstrated that they have estrogenic effects, and can affect the normal development and functions of the reproductive systems in a number of animal species. By treating fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with EP, here we show that lower concentration of EP (0.02%) enhanced fertility while higher concentration of EP (0.10% and 0.20%) shortened the lifespan and reduced the fecundity of fruit flies. When we analyzed the expression levels of the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) and Yolk protein receptor gene (YPR) from control and EP-treated fruit flies by using quantitative real-time PCR, we found that the expression levels of all three genes were significantly changed by EP treatment, and that female fruit flies are more sensitive to EP than males. Our data suggests that the estrogenic and the toxic effects of EP to fruit flies may have a molecular basis through the hormonal effect of EP. PMID:25265034

  7. Development and validation of a novel stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid, potassium sorbate, methylparaben and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jonathan; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Reinhardt, Robert

    2014-08-01

    A novel stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid and potassium sorbate as well as methyl- and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation has been developed. A 100mm×3.0mm ID. Ascentis Express C18 column maintained at 30°C and UV detection at 240nm were used. A gradient programme was employed at a flow-rate of 0.75ml/min. Mobile phase A comprised of an 83:17 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and methanol and mobile phase B of a 10g/l solution of 85% phosphoric acid in purified water. The method has been validated according to current International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and applied during formulation development and stability studies. The procedure has been shown to be stability-indicating for the topical cream. PMID:24731970

  8. 21 CFR 582.3670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylparaben. 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylparaben. 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylparaben. 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylparaben. 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylparaben. 184.1670 Section 184.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3670 - Propylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylparaben. 582.3670 Section 582.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylparaben. 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylparaben. 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylparaben. 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylparaben. 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylparaben. 184.1490 Section 184.1490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS ...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3490 - Methylparaben.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylparaben. 582.3490 Section 582.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives ...

  20. Degradation of ethylparaben under simulated sunlight using photo-Fenton.

    PubMed

    Ziga-Bentez, Henry; Peuela, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Ethylparaben (EPB) has been classified by different research groups as a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical, implying that it can potentially interfere with the normal balance of the endocrine system of living beings, which with its presence in different effluents, including drinking water, generates the need to seek methods that allow its removal from different water bodies. Advanced oxidation processes have been employed widely to remove organic compounds from different matrices. In this way, Fenton technology (process based on the reaction between ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide) has been able to degrade different substrates, but due to the Fe(2+) requirements to carry out the reaction optimally, combination of the conventional Fenton process with visible light radiation (photo-Fenton) is an alternative used in the treatment of pollution due to the presence of chemicals. In this way, the effectiveness of photo-Fenton on EPB degradation was assessed using a face-centered central composite experimental design that allowed assessment of the effects of Fe(2+) and H2O2 initial concentrations on process. In general, results indicated that after 180 min of reaction almost all EPB was eliminated, the dissolved organic carbon in solution was reduced and the sample biodegradability index was increased. PMID:26901724

  1. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez; BOTTOLI, Carla Beatriz Grespan; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; VOLPATO, Maria Cristina; RANALI, Jos; RAMACCIATO, Juliana Cama; MOTTA, Rogrio Heldio Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. Material and methods Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges) of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and So Paulo). Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v), pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. Results When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v) to 0.16% (m/v). One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. Conclusion 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence. PMID:23032206

  2. Identification of ethylparaben as the antimicrobial substance produced by Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX.

    PubMed

    Jianmei, Che; Bo, Liu; Zheng, Chen; Huai, Shi; Guohong, Liu; Cibin, Ge

    2015-03-01

    In this study, crude antimicrobial extract from the culture supernatant of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX was extracted, and its antimicrobial activity was investigated with the agar diffusion method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the culture supernatant of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX increased with the extension of the incubation time of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX. The antimicrobial spectrum assays showed that this crude antimicrobial extract from culture supernatant of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX could inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi. A heat stability test was performed, and different temperatures (30C, 50C and 70C) did not affect the antibiotic activity of this crude antimicrobial extract. The crude antimicrobial extract was also tolerable to changes in pH levels. Its antibiotic activity against Escherichia coli was stable at pH 1 to pH 11, with zone sizes ranging from 18.46mm to 22.19mm. Almost all of the crude extracts extracted using different solvents showed variable degrees of inhibition zones against E. coli, with zone sizes ranging from 17.29mm to 19.62mm, except petroleum ether and butanol extracts, which were found to be completely inactive. Purification of the antimicrobial components was carried out using a column chromatographic technique with column chromatography grade silica gel and analyzed by an Agilent 7890A Network GC system. The separated compound was identified as ethylparaben, with a retention time of 21.980min and a relative amount of 95.50%. The antimicrobial activity of ethylparaben on different types of bacteria and fungi was investigated, and ethylparaben was shown to inhibit different types of microbes to different extents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the bacterium B. brevis could produce ethylparaben. PMID:25542595

  3. Investigation into the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin using multispectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Naik, Keerti M; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied for the first time using spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence quenching under physiological conditions. The binding parameters were evaluated using a fluorescence quenching method. Based on Frster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r between the donor (HSA) and the acceptor (methylparaben and erythromycin) was evaluated. UV/vis absorption, FTIR, synchronous and 3D spectral results showed that the conformation of HSA was changed in the presence of methylparaben and erythromycin. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation and are discussed. The effect of some biological metal ions and site probes on the binding of methylparaben and erythromycin to HSA were further examined. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26239839

  4. Methylparaben isolated in solid argon: structural characterization and UV-induced conversion into methylparaben radical and isomeric ketenes.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Nihal; Bayarı, Sevgi H; Fausto, Rui

    2013-10-31

    Methylparaben (methyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid; MP) is a widely used antimicrobial preservative, being the most frequently used antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics. The generalized use of MP has become controversial, with several recent reports of dangerous side effects. For example, the presence of MP in human breast tumors and its harmful effects on human skin exposed to the sunlight have been demonstrated. In spite of the important practical relevance of the compound and of the controversy about its practical use, its structural and photochemical characterization had not been undertaken hitherto. To fill this gap, in the present study, MP was isolated in solid argon (T = 15 K) and structurally characterized by a combined infrared spectroscopy/quantum chemistry approach. The potential energy surface (PES) of the molecule was investigated in detail, revealing the existence of two almost isoenergetic (ΔE(0) = 0.37 kJ mol(-1)) s-cis carboxylic ester low-energy conformers, with an estimated population ratio in the gas phase at room temperature (∼298 K) of ca. 0.83. The calculations also predicted the existence of two high-energy (ΔE(0) = ∼50 kJ mol(-1)) s-trans carboxylic ester conformers of MP. Upon isolation of the compound in an argon matrix, only the lowest energy conformer was found to survive, due to occurrence of extensive conformational cooling during matrix deposition. The infrared spectrum of this conformer was obtained and interpreted. In addition, the chemical processes resulting from in situ irradiation of the matrix-isolated MP with a broadband UV source (λ > 234 nm) were investigated, revealing extensive conversion of MP into highly reactive methylparaben radical and isomeric ketenes. These observations support the recent concerns regarding uses of MP, in particular when the compound has to be exposed to UV light. PMID:24083322

  5. The antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the toxic effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Martn, Jos Manuel Prez; Freire, Paloma Fernndez; Daimiel, Lidia; Martnez-Botas, Javier; Snchez, Covadonga Martn; Lasuncin, Miguel ngel; Peropadre, Ana; Hazen, Mara Jos

    2014-10-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben are phenolic preservatives commonly used in food, pharmaceutical and personal care products. Both chemicals have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, due to the growing concern regarding their possible impacts on environmental and human health. However, the cytotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these compounds have not been explored. In this study, a set of relevant cytotoxicity endpoints including cell viability and proliferation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and gene expression changes were analyzed to assess whether the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole could prevent the pro-oxidant effects caused by propylparaben in Vero cells. We demonstrated that binary mixtures of both chemicals induce greater cytotoxic effects than those reported after single exposureto each compound. Simultaneous treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest as a result of enhanced generation of oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a cross-talk between transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) pathways regulates the response of Vero cells to the tested compounds in binary mixture. Our findings indicate that butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the pro-oxidant effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells and provide useful information for their safety assessment. PMID:25086368

  6. [Determination of the Sodium Methylparaben Content Based on Spectrum Fluorescence Spectral Technology and GA-BP Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-tao; Chen, Dong-ying; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Xing-long; Wang, Zhi-fang; Wei, Meng

    2015-06-01

    Sodium methylparaben as one kind of preservatives is widely used in our life, but it will do harm to health if it is eaten too much. So there are strict rules on the dosage of sodium methylparaben in every country. The fluorescence spectral properties of sodium methylparaben in aqueous solution and orange juice solution are analyzed with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer. The research result shows that the fluorescence characteristic peak of sodium methylparaben solution is in λ(ex)/λ(em) = 380/5 10 nm, while sodium methylparaben orange juice solution has two fluorescence characteristic peaks which are in λ(ex)/λ(em) = 440/520 nm and 470/530 nm, and its best excitation wavelength is 440 nm. So it can be concluded from the result that there is a significant change between the characteristic peaks of sodium methylparaben in the two solution. Compared with the fluorescence characteristic peak of sodium methylparaben solution, thoses of sodium methylparaben orange juice solution are changed significantly, which are caused by the interference of orange juice fluorescence characteristics. In order to determine the content of sodium methylparaben in the fresh orange juice, a detection model of sodium methylparaben content in orange juice is built based on GA-BP neural network, according to the relationship between fluorescence intensity in λ(ex) = 440 nm and the content of sodium methylparaben orange juice solution. When the accuracy of the mean square error in the process of network training reaches 10(-3), the correlation coefficient of network output and that of the expected is 0.996. At the same time, a better prediction result can be obtained that the average recovery of the forecast samples is 98.67% and the average relative standard deviation is 0.86%. When the concentration ranges from 0.02 to 1.0 g x L(-1), the results testify that detection method based on fluorescence spectroscopy and GA-BP neural network can accurately determine the content of sodium methylparaben in orange juice. This method has the features of novelty and simplicity and it is expected to be applied to the determination of sodium methylparaben in other kinds of drink. PMID:26601376

  7. Determination of parabens in beverage samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fang; Deng, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben in real beverage samples was developed. It is making use of solidified floating organic droplets of 1-dodecanol which has low density and a proper melting point. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the type of extraction and dispersive solvent, the volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, salt effect, pH, extraction time, were optimized and resulted in enrichment factors (EFs) of 84 for methylparaben, 103 for ethylparaben, 115 for propylparaben and 126 for butylparaben. The limits of detection for parabens were 1.52, 1.06, 0.32 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent linearity with coefficients of correlation from 0.9970 to 0.9997 was observed in the concentration range of 5-1,000 ng/mL. The repeatability of the proposed method expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.54 to 3.89% (n = 5). The relative recoveries for parabens in beverage samples were good and in the ranges of 89.8-109.9, 90.2-107.3, 90.9-101.7 and 92.3-118.1%, respectively. Thus, the proposed method has excellent potential for the determination of parabens in beverage samples. PMID:24297525

  8. Determination of parabens in pharmaceutical formulations by solid-phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lokhnauth, John K; Snow, Nicholas H

    2005-09-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the detection and quantitation of 4-hydroxybenzoate preservatives, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, in commercial pharmaceutical products. For the first time, SPME-IMS is described for the simultaneous detection, separation, and quantitation of multiple analytes in complex matrixes. The parabens are extracted from the samples using SPME, and the analytes on the fiber are heated by the IMS desorber unit and vaporized into the drift tube. The four preservatives differing only by a methyl group were separated in less than 18 ms. The analytical procedure was optimized for fiber coating selection, extraction time, sample pH, sample volume, ionic strength, and IMS conditions. Separation characteristics such as resolution, theoretical plates, and drift times of the parabens were also evaluated based on the direct interfacing of SPME to IMS. The conditions were tested using six over-the-counter topical products containing various combinations of preservatives. Analysis of the samples by SPME-IMS using benzyl paraben as an internal standard yields good comparison to an HPLC method, thereby reinforcing the applicability of this technique as a method for routine analysis. Limits of detection were 10 ng/mL for methylparaben and ethylparaben and 5 ng/mL for propylparaben and butylparaben. Good linearity range and reproducibility of less than 8% were obtained. PMID:16159125

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5%), essential oils (2.5%), methylparaben (0.4%) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  10. Influence of fat addition on the antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate, lauric arginate and methylparaben in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Magriny, Nria; Terjung, Nino; Loeffler, Myriam; Gibis, Monika; Bou, Ricard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-12-23

    A minced meat model system containing three different fat levels (0, 15, and 50 wt.%) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three antimicrobials with different aqueous solubilities (sodium lactate>lauric arginate (N?-lauroyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, LAE)>methylparaben). Various concentrations of sodium lactate (20, 40, and 60 mg/g), lauric arginate (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/g) and methylparaben (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/g) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against natural meat microbiota (total aerobic mesophilic colony counts, coliform bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria). The results indicate that the three antimicrobials tested are influenced at different strengths by the changes of the fat addition of the minced meat. The antimicrobial efficacy of LAE and methylparaben is increased by a higher fat content in the meat batter, whereas for lactate no clear lactate proportionality relationship can be seen. This structure sensitivity is most strongly pronounced with lauric arginate, which we attributed to the amphiphilic character of the molecule. PMID:26344644

  11. Degradation of methylparaben in water by corona plasma coupled with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Dobrin, D; Magureanu, M; Bradu, C; Mandache, N B; Ionita, P; Parvulescu, V I

    2014-11-01

    The degradation of methylparaben (MeP) in water was investigated using a pulsed corona discharge generated in oxygen, above the liquid. A comparison was made between results obtained in semi-batch corona (SBC) configuration (stationary solution, continuous gas flow) and results obtained in a semi-batch corona with recirculation combined with ozonation (SBCR + O3), where the liquid is continuously circulated between a solution reservoir and the plasma reactor and the effluent gas containing ozone is bubbled through the solution in the reservoir. It was found that MeP was completely degraded after 10-15 min of treatment in both configurations. Oxidation by ozone alone, in the absence of plasma, was a slower process. The energy efficiency for MeP removal (Y MeP) and for mineralization (Y TOC) was significantly higher in the SBCR + O3 configuration (Y MeP = 7.1 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC = 0.41 g/kWh at 50 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal) than in the SBC configuration (Y MeP = 0.6 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC = 0.11 g/kWh at 50 % TOC removal). PMID:24801291

  12. Anaerobic biological treatment of methylparaben in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB).

    PubMed

    Londoo, Yudy Andrea; Peuela, Gustavo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the behavior of an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed system using different methylparaben (MPB) concentrations. The assay was conducted for 268 days and was divided into seven stages of operation, which included the starting stage and subsequent stages where the MPB concentration was increased. The inoculum that was used was a mixture of anaerobic granular sludge with flocculent active sludge that contained 21.7 g/L of total suspended solids and 17.4 g/L of volatile suspended solids, resulting in an organic content of approximately 80%. The MPB removals after applying concentrations of 300 mg/L, 500 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L during the different stages and adding glucose to the influent were 942.4%, 845.8% and 887.4%, respectively. For phases without glucose, the results were 97.40.4%, 961.6% and 98.20.3%, respectively. The results showed a high pollutant removal and good progress in terms of the physical and biological characteristics of the granular biomass, which showed no change in the presence of the compound or a concentration increase. PMID:26038924

  13. Influence of inorganic ions and selected emerging contaminants on the degradation of Methylparaben: A sonochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Subha; Rayaroth, Manoj P; Devadasan, Dineep; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2015-12-30

    The study on the possible pathway of hydroxyl radicals mediated sonolytic degradation of paraben in water is reported. Methylparaben (MPB) which is the most utilized of paraben family is selected as a model emerging pollutant. The influence of common anions and some selected emerging contaminants that may coexist in typical water matrix on the degradation pattern is analyzed alongside. Among the anions, carbonate presents a negative influence which is attributed to the competition for OH radical. Some emerging contaminants also showed negative impact on degradation as was clear from HPLC data. The intermediates, analyzed by LC-Q-TOF-MS include hydroxylated and hydrolytic products. Three major steps (aromatic hydroxylation, hydroxylation at the ester chain and hydrolysis) are proposed to involve in the reaction of OH radical with MPB which ultimately leads to mineralization. The intensity of formation and decay of mono and dihydroxy products of MPB in the presence of additives have also been evaluated. COD analysis indicates a percentage reduction of 98% at 90 min of sonolysis and further increase in the degradation time resulted complete mineralization, which became evident from the mass spectrometric data. MTT assay revealed considerable decrease in the potential cytotoxicity. PMID:26184803

  14. Simultaneous determination of seven phthalates and four parabens in cosmetic products using HPLC-DAD and GC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Liang; Mao, Hong-Lei; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu; Cao, Yun-Feng

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the determination of seven kinds of phthalates, i.e. diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dioctyl phthalate, and four parabens, i.e. methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, in 15 kinds of cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc., by HPLC with diode array detection and GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring have been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative detection of phthalates and parabens. Extraction, clean-up, and analysis procedures have been optimized. HPLC and GC-MS determinations were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol and clean-up with C18 SPE. These techniques permit detection of phthalates at a level of 10.0-100.0 microg/kg and of parabens at a level of 20.0-200.0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 85-108% with RSD values of 4.2-8.8%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The remaining 14 samples were found to contain at least three or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates and parabens detected in the studied samples were methylparaben, propylparaben, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The residue level is at 1.22-5289 mg/kg. PMID:17313141

  15. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary and Ternary Systems. Part II. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Nonaqueous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Salomon, Mark; Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Knigsberger, Erich; Knigsberger, Lan-Chi; Scharlin, Pirketta

    2011-06-01

    The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.

  16. Simultaneous determination of electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives by novel capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Junbo; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong

    2010-09-23

    A novel capillary electrophoresis and amperometric detection method was achieved by adding an electroactive additive (3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, 3,4-DHBA) to the running buffer, so that both electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives were simultaneously determined. Under the selected optimum conditions, four electroactive preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) and two non-electroactive preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium lactate) were well separated and sensitively detected with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 1.0610(-8) to 2.7310(-6) g mL(-1). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of both electroactive and non-electroactive preservatives in several food commodities. PMID:20869502

  17. Propylparaben-induced disruption of energy metabolism in human HepG2 cell line leads to increased synthesis of superoxide anions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Szel?g, S; Zab?ocka, A; Trzeciak, K; Drozd, A; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Kolasa, A; Goschorska, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2016-03-01

    The effect of propylparaben (in final concentrations 0.4ng/ml, 2.3ng/ml and 4.6ng/ml) on the energy metabolism of HepG2 hepatocytes, superoxide anion synthesis, apoptosis and necrosis is described. Propylparaben can be toxic to liver cells due to the increased production of superoxide anions, which can contribute to a reduced concentration of superoxide dismutase in vivo and impairment of the body's antioxidant mechanisms. Finally, a further reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and uncoupling of the respiratory chain resulting in a reduction in ATP concentration as a result of mitochondrial damage may lead to cell death by apoptosis. PMID:26616278

  18. Structural Changes in PEO-PPO-PEO Gels Induced by Methylparaben and Dexamethasone Observed Using Time-Resolved SAXS

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, Norman A.K.; Juggernauth, K Anne; Batzli, Kiersten M; Love, Brian J

    2011-11-17

    Aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers (commercially available as Pluronic surfactants) micellize and structurally arrange into cubic quasicrystalline lattices as their temperature is raised. This structural evolution is seen macroscopically as a gelation, and the presence of these ordered phases can be controlled through both polymer concentration and temperature. The presence of added solutes within the dispersions can also affect the onset and kinetics of structure formation. Here we investigate the structures formed in Pluronic F127 solutions ranging from 20 to 30% with two pharmaceutical additives [methylparaben (MP) and dexamethasone (DX)] using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We observe both the progressive evolution and breakdown of these structures as the temperature is increased from 0 to 80 °C. Additionally, we conducted time-resolved SAXS measurements to elucidate the kinetics of the structural evolution. On the basis of the evolution of scattering peaks as the samples were being heated, we suggest that added MP changes the nucleation behavior of fcc phases within the sample from a heterogeneous process to a more homogeneous distribution of nucleated species. MP and DX also stabilize the micelle lattices, allowing them to persevere at higher temperatures. We observed the unusual result that the presence of DX caused the primary peaks of the structure factor to be suppressed, while preserving the higher order peaks. The primary peaks reappeared at the highest temperatures tested.

  19. Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 2: personal care product ingredients.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M; Smolders, Roel; Moos, Rebecca K; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Warren, Nicholas; Levy, Len; Bevan, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    An intensive study was conducted to provide data on intra- and inter-individual variation in urinary excretion of a series of ingredients in personal care products (parabens, triclosan, benzophenones) and bisphenol A (BPA, not expected to be an ingredient) in 8 volunteers over 6 days. Exposure diaries recorded use of personal care products with identified target analytes as ingredients. Participants' usual products were replaced with products without the target analytes for 2 of the 6 days. Urine void volumes and times were recorded. Methyl, ethyl, and n-propylparabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3, and BPA were frequently detected (?70% of samples). Urinary concentrations of the parabens and triclosan were lower on product replacement days. First morning void concentrations correlated moderately to highly with 24-h composite concentrations for all analytes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for spot samples collected on days with usual product use were low for BPA (0.15), moderate for n-propylparaben and methylparaben (0.39 and 0.56, respectively), and high for ethylparaben, benzophenone-3, and triclosan (0.76, 0.81, and 0.934, respectively); ICCs were consistently higher on the basis of cr-adjusted concentrations. Hydration status adjustment methods were assessed by comparing unadjusted and adjusted concentrations to urinary excretion rates (ER, ng/kg-h) for all analytes and samples. Specific gravity-adjusted concentrations correlated slightly better with ER than creatinine-adjusted concentrations. Within-individual variation in biomarker concentrations was highest for methyl and ethylparabens (2 orders of magnitude variation in spot sample concentrations) and lower for the other analytes (1-1.5 orders of magnitude). This dataset provides insight into the design and interpretation of urinary biomonitoring studies for non-persistent chemicals. PMID:24956590

  20. Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Feng; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2012-12-01

    A sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction for preconcentration followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed for determination of 19 biocides: eight azole fungicides (climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole, and carbendazim), two insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and icaridin (also known as picaridin)), three isothiazolinone antifouling agents (1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (OIT), and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolinone (DCOIT)), four paraben preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben), and two disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban) in surface water, wastewater, sediment, sludge, and soil. Recovery of the target compounds from surface water, influent, effluent, sediment, sludge, and soil was mostly in the range 70-120%, with corresponding method quantification limits ranging from 0.01 to 0.31 ng L(-1), 0.07 to 7.48 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 3.90 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 0.45 ng g(-1), 0.01 to 6.37 ng g(-1), and 0.01 to 0.73 ng g(-1), respectively. Carbendazim, climbazole, clotrimazole, methylparaben, miconazole, triclocarban, and triclosan were detected at low ng L(-1) (or ng g(-1)) levels in surface water, sediment, and sludge-amended soil. Fifteen target compounds were found in influent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 372 ng L(-1) (methylparaben). Fifteen target compounds were found in effluent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 114 ng L(-1) (carbendazim). Ten target compounds were found in dewatered sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 1.1 (DEET) and 887 ng g(-1) (triclocarban). PMID:23052884

  1. Glucocorticoid-like activity of propylparaben, butylparaben, diethylhexyl phthalate and tetramethrin mixtures studied in the MDA-kb2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Klop?i?, Ivana; Kolek, Katra; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2015-01-22

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds can interfere with the endocrine organs or hormone system and cause tumors, birth defects and developmental disorders in humans. The estrogen-like activity of compounds has been widely studied but little is known concerning their possible modulation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Steroidal (synthetic and natural) and non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in human environments. Identification of such molecular species, which are responsible for modulating the glucocorticoid receptor are necessary to fully assess their risk. We have used the MDA-kb2 cell line, which expresses endogenous glucocorticoid receptor and a stably transfected luciferase reporter gene construct, to quantify the glucocorticoid-like activity of four compounds present in products in everyday use - propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and tetramethrin (TM). We tested all possible combinations of these compounds at two concentrations (1 ?M and 10 nM) and compared their glucocorticoid-like activity. At the concentration of 1 ?M seven mixtures were identified to have glucocorticoid-like activity except: DEHP+TM, BP+TM, DEHP+PP+TM, BP+PP+TM. At the concentration of 10 nM only three mixtures have glucocorticoid modulatory activity: DEHP+PP, BP+PP, DEHP+BP+PP+TM. Identified glucocorticoid-like activities were between 1.25 and 1.51 fold at the concentration of 1 ?M and between 1.23 and 1.44 fold at the concentration of 10 nM in comparison with the solvent control. Individually BP, PP, and DEHP had glucocorticoid-like activity of 1.60, 1.57 and 1.50 fold over the solvent control at the concentration of 1 ?M. On the other hand PP and DEHP, at the concentration of 10nM, showed no glucocorticoid-like activity, while BP showed 1.44 fold. The assertion that individual glucocorticoid-like compounds do not produce harm because they are present at low, ineffective levels in humans may be irrelevant when we include mixed exposures. This study emphasizes that risk assessment of compounds should take mixture effects into account. PMID:25448277

  2. Determination of parabens in cosmetic products by solid-phase microextraction of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate thin film on fibers and ultra high-speed liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ting; Li, Haifang; Ding, Mingyu; Ito, Masahito; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber through UV-induced polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) for determination of parabens in cosmetic products is presented in this work. The PEG-DA polymer coating was covalently attached to the fiber by introducing a surface modification with 3-(trichlorosilyl)propyl methacrylate (TPM). The PEG-DA polymer thin film coated on the fiber was homogeneous and wrinkled, which led to an increase of the surface area and high extraction efficiency. The extraction performances of the prepared SPME fibers were assessed by preconcentration of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and benzylparaben from cosmetic products. The analysis was performed on an ultra high-speed liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The prepared SPME fibers exhibited good repeatability (for one fiber) and reproducibility (fiber-to-fiber) with RSDs of 5.4 and 6.9%, respectively. The optimized SPME method supported a wide linear range of 0.50-160 ?g/mL and the detection limits for parabens were in the range of 0.12-0.15 ?g/mL (S/N=3). The developed method was successfully applied for determination of parabens in cosmetic products with different natures. PMID:21608130

  3. Direct rapid analysis of multiple PPCPs in municipal wastewater using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without SPE pre-concentration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2012-08-13

    Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to develop a rapid, sensitive and reliable method without solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration for trace analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influent and effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This method not only shortened the analysis time but also reduced analysis cost significantly by omitting SPE process and avoiding the consumption of SPE cartridge. Detection parameters for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis were optimized, including sample pH, eluent, mobile phase (solvent and additive), column temperature, and flow rate. Under the optimal conditions, all analytes were well separated and detected within 8.0min by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method quantification limits (MQLs) for the 11 PPCPs ranged from 0.040 to 88ngL(-1) and from 0.030 to 90ngL(-1) for influent and effluent, respectively. The matrix effect was systematically investigated and quantified for different types of samples. The analysis of influent and effluent samples of two WWTPs in Hong Kong revealed the presence of 11 PPCPs, including acyclovir, benzophenone-3, benzylparaben, carbamazepine, ethylparaben, fluconazole, fluoxetine, methylparaben, metronidazole, propylparaben, and ranitidine. Their concentrations ranged from 9.1 to 1810ngL(-1) in influent and from 6.5 to 823ngL(-1) in effluent samples collected from Hong Kong WWTPs. PMID:22790701

  4. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Garca-Jimnez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitn-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  5. Theoretical investigation on the kinetics and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical-induced transformation of parabens and its consequences for toxicity: Influence of alkyl-chain length.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanpeng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2016-03-15

    As emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), the ubiquitous presence of preservative parabens in water causes a serious environmental concern. Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is a strong oxidant that can degrade EOCs through photochemistry in surface water environments as well as in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). To better understand the degradation mechanisms, kinetics, and products toxicity of the preservative parabens in aquatic environments and AOPs, the (•)OH-initiated degradation reactions of the four parabens were investigated systematically using a computational approach. The four studied parabens with increase of alkyl-chain length were methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propylparaben (PPB), and dibutylparaben (BPB). Results showed that the four parabens can be initially attacked by (•)OH through (•)OH-addition and H-abstraction routes. The (•)OH-addition route was more important for the degradation of shorter alkyl-chain parabens like MPB and EPB, while the H-abstraction route was predominant for the degradation of parabens with longer alkyl-chain for example PPB and BPB. In assessing the aquatic toxicity of parabens and their degradation products using the model calculations, the products of the (•)OH-addition route were found to be more toxic to green algae than original parabens. Although all degradation products were less toxic to daphnia and fish than corresponding parental parabens, they could be still harmful to these aquatic organisms. Furthermore, as alkyl-chain length increased, the ecotoxicity of parabens and their degradation products was found to be also increased. PMID:26773489

  6. Determination of personal care products and hormones in leachate and groundwater from Polish MSW landfills by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kapelewska, Justyna; Kotowska, Urszula; Wi?niewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in leachate and groundwater samples from the landfill sites is very important because of the proven harmful effects of these compounds on human and animal organisms. A method combining ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven personal care products (PCPs): methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), buthylparaben (BP), benzophenone (BPh), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC), N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET), and two hormones: estrone (E1) and ?-estradiol (E2) in landfill leachate and groundwater samples. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) values in landfill leachate and groundwater samples were in the range of 0.003-0.083/0.009-0.277?gL(-1) and 0.001-0.015/0.002-0.049?gL(-1), respectively. Quantitative recoveries and satisfactory precision were obtained. All studied compounds were found in the landfill leachates from Polish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills; the concentrations were between 0.66 and 202.42?gL(-1). The concentration of pollutants in groundwater samples was generally below 0.1?gL(-1). PMID:26381788

  7. Rapid determination of parabens in seafood sauces by high-performance liquid chromatography: A practical comparison of core-shell particles and sub-2 ?m fully porous particles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Cao, Xiaoji; Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Ye; Lu, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the chromatographic performance of superficially porous particles (Halo core-shell C18 column, 50 mm 2.1 mm, 2.7 ?m) was compared with that of sub-2 ?m fully porous particles (Acquity BEH C18 , 50 mm 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m). Four parabens, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, were used as representative compounds for calculating the plate heights in a wide flow rate range and analyzed on the basis of the Van Deemter and Knox equations. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Both phases gave similar minimum plate heights when using nonreduced coordinates. Meanwhile, the flat C-term of the core-shell column provided the possibilities for applying high flow rates without significant loss in efficiency. The low backpressure of core-shell particles allowed this kind of column, especially compatible with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography systems. Based on these factors, a simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was established and validated for the determination of parabens in various seafood sauces using the Halo core-shell C18 column for separation. PMID:26383987

  8. Porous-membrane-protected polyaniline-coated SBA-15 nanocomposite micro-solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of parabens in cosmetic products and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Pandidan, Sara; Aliakbari, Azam; Raofie, Farhad; Amini, Mostafa M

    2015-04-01

    A SBA-15/polyaniline para-toluenesulfonic acid nanocomposite supported micro-solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed for the extraction of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben) from wastewater and cosmetic products. The variables of interest in the extraction process were pH of sample, sample and eluent volumes, sorbent amount, salting-out effect, extraction and desorption time, and stirring rate. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for the screening of variables in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design. The optimum experimental conditions found at 50 mL sample solution, extraction and desorption times of 40 and 20 min, respectively, 500 ?L of 3% v/v acetic acid in methanol as eluent, 0.01 M salt addition, and 10 mg of the sorbent. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided detection limits in the range of 0.08-0.4 ng/mL with good repeatability (RSD% < 7) and linearity (r(2) = 0.997-0.999) for the three parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was employed for the determination of target analytes in cosmetic products and wastewater, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25677831

  9. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40 µg L(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method. PMID:26078157

  10. Physicochemical interactions between drugs and superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Fransn, Nelly; Morin, Malin; Bjrk, Erik; Edsman, Katarina

    2008-12-01

    We have evaluated the interactions between superdisintegrants and drugs with different physicochemical characteristics, which may affect the in-vivo absorption e.g. after mucosal administration. The binding of sodium salicylate, naproxen, methyl hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben), ethyl hydroxybenzoate (ethylparaben), propyl hydroxybenzoate (propylparaben), atenolol, alprenolol, diphenhydramine, verapamil, amitriptyline and cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC) to different superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate (SSG), croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and crospovidone) and one unsubstituted comparator (starch) was studied spectrophotometrically. An indication of the in-vivo effect was obtained by measuring the interactions at physiological salt concentrations. SSG was investigated more thoroughly to obtain release profiles and correlation between binding and ionic strength. The results showed that the main interactions with the anionic hydrogels formed by SSG and CCS were caused by ion exchange, whereas the neutral crospovidone exhibited lipophilic interactions with the non-ionic substances. The effect of increased ionic strength was most pronounced at low salt concentrations and the ion exchange interactions were almost completely eradicated at physiological conditions. The release profile of diphenhydramine was significantly affected by the addition of salt. It was thus concluded that the choice of buffer was of great importance for in-vitro experiments with ionic drugs. At physiological salt concentrations the interactions did not appear to be strong enough to influence the in-vivo bioavailability of any of the drug molecules. PMID:19000362

  11. Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 μg/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of

  12. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  13. Determination of parabens in shampoo using high performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isarita; Carreira, Franciely Cristiani; Canaes, Larissa S; de Souza Campos Junior, Francisco Alberto; da Silva Cruz, Letcia Maria; Rath, Susanne

    2011-07-15

    Methylparaben (MePa), ethylparaben (EtPa) and propylparaben (PrPa) have been widely used, among others, as chemical preservatives in cosmetics, drugs and foods. As these compounds are linked with allergies, dermatitis and estrogenic properties, it is necessary to control the concentration of these substances in different matrices. The aim of this paper are: to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of parabens on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and the development of a chromatographic method, with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), for determination of parabens in shampoo. A BDD (8000 ppm) electrode was adapted in a thin layer mode analytical cell consisting of a stainless steel and a platinum wire as reference and auxiliary electrodes, respectively. Chromatographic separations were obtained with a reversed phase C8 analytical column and a mobile phase of 0.025 molL(-1) disodium phosphate, pH 7.0, and acetonitrile (40:60, v/v), delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Sample preparation was performed by solid phase extraction using C18 cartridges and acetonitrile for elution. Benzylparaben was employed as internal standard. The HPLC-ED method developed, using the BDD electrode, was validated for the determination of parabens in shampoos and presented adequate linearity (>0.999), in the range of 0.0125-0.500% (w/w), detectability 0.01% (w/w), precision (RSD of 2.3-9.8%) and accuracy (93.1-104.4%) and could be applied for routine quality control of shampoos containing MePa, EtPa and PrPa. PMID:21645663

  14. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Martn, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their log K(ow) values. Linear relationship between recoveries and log K(ow) values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126 g L(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446 g L(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. PMID:26078168

  15. Effects of Parabens on Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- < ethyl- < propyl- < butylparaben. The extension of the linear alkyl chain with an aromatic ring in benzylparaben further augments the adipogenic ability, whereas 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the common metabolite of all parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose–derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further. PMID:22956630

  16. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or...

  19. In vivo and in vitro estrogen bioactivities of alkyl parabens.

    PubMed

    Lemini, Cristina; Jaimez, Ruth; Avila, Mara Estela; Franco, Yanira; Larrea, Fernando; Lemus, Ana Elena

    2003-07-01

    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid known as parabens (Pbens) are used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations. They have been reported as estrogenic. Here, we present evidence for the in vivo and in vitro bioactivities and receptor binding affinities of methylparaben (MePben), ethylparaben (EtPben), propylparaben (PrPben), and butylparaben (BuPben) compared with those of estradiol (E2). Estrogenicity was studied using the uterotrophic assay in immature (Im) and adult ovariectomized (Ovx) CD1 mice, and in immature female Wistar rats (IW). Animals were subcutaneously (sc) treated for three consecutive days with different molar equivalent doses ranging from 3.62 to 1086 micromol/kg body weight of Pbens, E2 (0.036 micromol/kg), or vehicle. Pbens increased uterine weight in Im and Ovx animals and their relative uterotrophic effect to E2 (100) (RUEE2) were from 34 to 91. The relative uterotrophic potencies related to E2 (100) (RUPE2) of these compounds were from 0.003 to 0.007. The E2 ED50 for CD1 animals able to increase the uterine weight was 7 microg/kg (0.9-55 confidence limits); and that of Pbens ranged from 18 to 74 mg/kg. In IW rats, the ED50 were from 33 to 338 mg/kg. All Pbens, except MePb, competed with [3H]E2 for the estrogen receptor binding sites. The uterotrophic effects of Pbens in Im mice have a positive correlation with the side-chain length of the ester group of these compounds. The E2 and Pbens relative binding affinities (RBA) and Ki values correlated to their estrogenic activity. The NOELs values for Pbens uterotrophic activity in Im were from 0.6 to 6.5 mg/kg per day; and Ovx from 6 to 55 mg/kg. The NOELs IW ranged from 16.5 to 70 mg/kg indicating that Im were more susceptible than Ovx and IW to these effects. The data shown here confirm the estrogenicity of Pbens. PMID:15697177

  20. Subconjunctival injections. Preservative-related changes in the corneal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, R N; Wood, I; Tomazzoli, L; Alvarado, J

    1986-04-01

    The morphologic effects on rabbit corneal endothelium of several common ophthalmic vehicle constituents were examined following subconjunctival administration. Profound dose-dependent changes consisting of intercellular vacuolization and thickening of the endothelial layer were noted within 1 day following administration of solutions that contained sodium bisulfite or methylparaben and propylparaben. These changes persisted for at least 5 days except in those eyes treated with the lowest concentration of sodium bisulfite. In contrast, administration of sodium citrate and creatinine or unpreserved normal saline resulted in only minimal effects. These changes are of concern because these agents are present in many preparations used to treat a wide variety of eye diseases. PMID:3957570

  1. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Bjrklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H.; Jnsson, Bo A.G.; Berglund, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (611years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 motherchild couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8?g/L; MBzP 19.9?g/L; MnBP 76.9?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8?g/L; MBzP 12.8?g/L; MnBP 63.0?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8?g/L; ProP 13.9?g/L) and MEP (43.4?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8?g/L; ProP 2.1?g/L) and MEP (28.8?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.0010.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

  2. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Bjrklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jnsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ?DEHP 65.5 ?g/L; ?DiNP 37.8 ?g/L; MBzP 19.9 ?g/L; MnBP 76.9 ?g/L) than the mothers (?DEHP 38.4 ?g/L; ?DiNP 33.8 ?g/L; MBzP 12.8 ?g/L; MnBP 63.0 ?g/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 ?g/L; ProP 13.9 ?g/L) and MEP (43.4 ?g/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 ?g/L; ProP 2.1 ?g/L) and MEP (28.8 ?g/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products. PMID:25216151

  3. The importance of the cosolvent propylene glycol on the antimicrobial preservative efficacy of a pharmaceutical formulation by DOE-ruggedness testing.

    PubMed

    De Spiegeleer, B; Wattyn, E; Slegers, G; Van der Meeren, P; Vlaminck, K; Van Vooren, L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to statistically evaluate the influence of the concentration of the co-solvent propylene glycol on the preservative efficacy of a complex pharmaceutical suspension-emulsion formulation containing methyl- and propylparaben. Preservative Efficacy Tests (PETs) were performed using the validated pharmacopoeial methodology with five test organisms over 1 month on lab-scale test formulations. These were independently prepared according to a Box-Behnken experimental design with a triplicate central point at 0.22% m/m methylparaben, 0.22% m/m propylparaben, and 2.75% m/m propylene glycol, and with an additional corner point of the Box-Behnken cube. We evaluated the preservative efficacies against the criteria of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeias (PhEur) for formulations for oral use, as well as by the statistical comparison of the slopes obtained by linear regression of log (CFU/g) vs. time. With an initial bacterial challenge of 10(6) CFU/g for each of the three bacterial strains, no survivals were detected after 7 days. For the two fungal strains, box plots and analysis of variance showed significant, concentration-dependent, main effects: the three variables significantly influenced the kill-rate of C. albicans, while A. niger was predominantly influenced by the cosolvent propylene glycol, and only to a minor extent by methylparaben and not at all by propylparaben. These findings were confirmed by taking the pharmacopoeial criteria as the evaluation basis, where the dominant influence of propylene glycol concentration is apparent. It was concluded that the cosolvent propylene glycol is at least of equal preservative importance than both parabens. PMID:16895838

  4. "Parabenoia" Debunked, or "Who's Afraid of Parabens?".

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis; Alfalah, Maisa; Lacroix, Jean-Philip

    2015-01-01

    Parabens have been used as preservatives in foods, injectables, and topical preparations for nearly 10 decades. Present in nature, rapidly metabolized by skin and liver enzymes, they have an excellent safety record. However, in the past 15 years, they have been under scrutiny for their alleged estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, as well as their putative role in promoting cancerogenesis through endocrine disruption. Scientific articles supporting these assertions have led the European Community to ban or restrict the use of some parabens. Despite that methylparaben and ethylparaben have negligible endocrine disruption activity, the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries are under pressure from scare campaigns in the media and are responding by replacing parabens with other biocides that cause multiple cases, and even worldwide epidemics, of allergic contact sensitization. In the present review, we present a balanced account of the published literature about the metabolism and potential toxicology of parabens. PMID:26551603

  5. Determination of local anesthetics in illegal products using HPLC method with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Jadach, Magdalena; Błazewicz, Agata; Fijalek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    An HPLC method with amperometric detection was developed for analysis of two local anesthetics (lidocaine and benzocaine) in products for delaying ejaculation illegally marketed in Polish sex shops. Chromatographic elution on an RP column C18 with mobile phase composed of acetate buffer with acetonitrile, provides an optimal separation not only of active substances but also electroactive preservatives which are occasionally added to cosmetic creams (methylparaben and propylparaben). Application of glassy carbon electrode as a working electrode and a procedure with pulsed potential waveforms enables a sensitive, accurate measurement within a relatively short analysis time (250 s). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of local anesthetics in products under investigation. The obtained results show that most samples contained therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine or benzocaine. According to European law, a sale of products containing lidocaine or benzocaine outside the pharmacy sector is forbidden. PMID:22594253

  6. Resolution of five-component mixture using mean centering ratio and inverse least squares chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative study of the use of mean centering of ratio spectra and inverse least squares for the resolution of paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride has been achieved showing that the two chemometric methods provide a good example of the high resolving power of these techniques. Method (I) is the mean centering of ratio spectra which depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in four successive steps that eliminates the derivative steps and therefore the signal to noise ratio is improved. The absorption spectra of prepared solutions were measured in the range of 220280nm. Method (II) is based on the inverse least squares that depend on updating developed multivariate calibration model. The absorption spectra of the prepared mixtures in the range 230270nm were recorded. Results The linear concentration ranges were 025.6, 015.0, 015.0, 045.0 and 0100.0?gmL-1 for paracetamol, methylparaben, propylparaben, chlorpheniramine maleate and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recoveries for simultaneous determination were between 99.9-101.3% for the two methods. The two developed methods have been successfully used for prediction of five-component mixture in Decamol Flu syrup with good selectivity, high sensitivity and extremely low detection limit. Conclusion No published method has been reported for simultaneous determination of the five components of this mixture so that the results of the mean centering of ratio spectra method were compared with those of the proposed inverse least squares method. Statistical comparison was performed using t-test and F-ratio at P?=?0.05. There was no significant difference between the results. PMID:24028626

  7. Design Space Approach for Preservative System Optimization of an Anti-Aging Eye Fluid Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Loureno, Felipe Rebello; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ferreira, Mrcia Regina Spuri; Andreoli, Terezinha De Jesus; Lbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Ndia

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives must be optimized in order to ensure the efficacy of an antimicrobial system as well as the product safety. Despite the wide variety of preservatives, the synergistic or antagonistic effects of their combinations are not well established and it is still an issue in the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The purpose of this paper was to establish a space design using a simplex-centroid approach to achieve the lowest effective concentration of 3 preservatives (methylparaben, propylparaben, and imidazolidinyl urea) and EDTA for an emulsion cosmetic product. Twenty-two formulae of emulsion differing only by imidazolidinyl urea (A: 0.00 to 0.30% w/w), methylparaben (B: 0.00 to 0.20% w/w), propylparaben (C: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) and EDTA (D: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) concentrations were prepared. They were tested alone and in binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. Aliquots of these formulae were inoculated with several microorganisms. An electrochemical method was used to determine microbial burden immediately after inoculation and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h. An optimization strategy was used to obtain the concentrations of preservatives and EDTA resulting in a most effective preservative system of all microorganisms simultaneously. The use of preservatives and EDTA in combination has the advantage of exhibiting a potential synergistic effect against a wider spectrum of microorganisms. Based on graphic and optimization strategies, we proposed a new formula containing a quaternary combination (A: 55%; B: 30%; C: 5% and D: 10% w/w), which complies with the specification of a conventional challenge test. A design space approach was successfully employed in the optimization of concentrations of preservatives and EDTA in an emulsion cosmetic product. PMID:26517141

  8. Spalling and sorption of tubing for peristaltic pumps.

    PubMed

    Bahal, Surendra M; Romansky, Jamie M

    2002-01-01

    Available tubing for peristaltic pumps tend to shed particulates into the solution due to their poor abrasion characteristics. Most commonly used flexible tubing is silicone rubber or polyvinyl chloride (Tygon) tubing. Two newly available tubing are manufactured from a composite of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon PTFE) with platinum-cured silicone rubber (Sta-Pure) and a tubing composite of PTFE with fluoroelastomer (Chem-Sure). These are claimed to resist spalling and deliver constant volume when used in peristaltic pumps. The four tubing were compared for spallation. They were also compared for sorption of methylparaben, propylparaben, and benzyl alcohol over a 72 hr study. Spallation studies indicate that Tygon and silicone tubing are prone to damage and shedding of particulates due to abrasion during use in peristaltic pumps while the Chem-Sure and Sta-Pure tubing are resistant to abrasion and spalling and show negligible shedding of particulates over 72 hr use in the peristaltic pump. Chem-Sure shows no spalling after 48 hr. Decrease in volume delivered is expected using Tygon and silicone tubing only. Chem-Sure tubing did not show any preservative losses. Tygon sorbed all preservatives tested to the greatest extent, followed by Silastic and Sta-Pure tubing, in decreasing order of sorption. Propylparaben was sorbed to the greatest extent. The tubing used appear to approach saturation in 24-48 hr. Chem-Sure and Sta-Pure tubing are ideal for use in peristaltic pumps or for general use for any demanding pharmaceutical applications. PMID:12229263

  9. Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, Christopher; Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Ackermann, Chrisita; Payne, N. Ann; Fate, Gwendolyn; Voorman, Richard; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-12-01

    Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig.

  10. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Pic, Yolanda

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26?gL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7?gL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health. PMID:24686145

  11. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 ?g kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD?15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  12. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  13. New validated liquid chromatographic and chemometrics-assisted UV spectroscopic methods for the determination of two multicomponent cough mixtures in syrup.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ghada M; El-Gindy, Alaa; Mahmoud, Waleed M M

    2008-01-01

    Multivariate spectrophotometric calibration and liquid chromatographic (LC) methods were applied to the determination of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing diprophylline, guaiphenesin, methylparaben, and propylparaben (Mixture 1), or clobutinol, orciprenaline, saccharin sodium, and sodium benzoate (Mixture 2). For the multivariate spectrophotometric calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-1), a calibration set of the mixtures consisting of the components of each mixture was prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, limit of quantitation, and limit of detection were determined for both PLS-1 and PCR. The LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 analytical column by using isocratic elution with 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.3-acetonitrile (55 + 45, v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 260 and 220 nm for Mixture 1 and Mixture 2, respectively. The proposed methods were validated and successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and laboratory-prepared mixtures containing the 2 multicomponent combinations. PMID:18376584

  14. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  15. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  16. Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Haman, Camille; Dauchy, Xavier; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-Franois

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, with an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or heptyl) or benzyl group. They are mainly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs. Parabens may act as weak endocrine disrupter chemicals, but controversy still surrounds the health effects of these compounds. Despite being used since the mid-1920s, it was only in 1996 that the first analytical results of their occurrence in water were published. Considered as emerging contaminants, it is useful to review the knowledge acquired over the last decade regarding their occurrence, fate and behavior in aquatic environments. Despite treatments that eliminate them relatively well from wastewater, parabens are always present at low concentration levels in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Although they are biodegradable, they are ubiquitous in surface water and sediments, due to consumption of paraben-based products and continuous introduction into the environment. Methylparaben and propylparaben predominate, reflecting the composition of paraben mixtures in common consumer products. Being compounds containing phenolic hydroxyl groups, parabens can react readily with free chlorine, yielding halogenated by-products. Chlorinated parabens have been detected in wastewater, swimming pools and rivers, but not yet in drinking water. These chlorinated by-products are more stable and persistent than the parent species and further studies are needed to improve knowledge regarding their toxicity. PMID:25462712

  17. Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Duk; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Song, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed levels of parabens in commercial dentifrices and saliva. HPLC was performed using 35% acetonitrile and measuring absorbance at 254?nm. Thirteen toothpastes and five mouthwashes were analyzed. Of these, volunteers used three toothpastes and two mouthwashes, and levels of parabens were analyzed in saliva and water used for mouth rinsing. In toothpastes, the highest concentrations of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and n-butylparaben (nBP) were 1.86, 1.42 and 1.87?mg/g, respectively. In mouthwashes, the highest concentrations of MP and PP were 0.97 and 0.11?mg/mL, respectively. After volunteers used 500?mg toothpaste T-1, which contained 895?g MP, the first and tenth mouth rinse samples contained means of 64.63 and 1.89?g MP, respectively. After rinsing the mouth three or five times, 37?g or 18?g MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity, respectively. After using 20?mL mouthwash S-1, which contained 19?mg MP, 1.53?mg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity. Immediately after using this mouthwash, the mean salivary concentration of MP was 237?g/mL. The daily intake of parabens from dentifrices was predicted to be insignificant compared with the intake from food; however, parabens can be ingested from dentifrices. PMID:24733628

  18. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C; Jadhav, Sushant B

    2011-09-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  19. Ecological risk assessment associated to the removal of endocrine-disrupting parabens and benzophenone-4 in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of four widely used and endocrine disrupting parabens (PBs) (methylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben) and a polar UV filter (benzophenone-4) were determined in influent and effluent wastewater from the 19 major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Catalonia, Spain. For their analysis an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated. Laboratory analysis revealed high levels for both PBs and BP4, with maximum concentrations of 5700ngL(-1) and 1806ngL(-1), respectively, in influent samples, and 137ngL(-1) and 1080ngL(-1), respectively in effluent wastewaters. Removal rates (RE%) for the target compounds in each WWTPs were calculated. RE% for parabens were almost 100%, whereas for BP4 values where in the range 5-91%. The half-life time (t1/2), hydraulic retention time (HRT), and annual mass load (ML) for each facility was estimated. Results indicated that there was no clear influence of HRT on the RE% of BP4. MLs for BP4 were in the range 0.9-110.1kgy(-1), with the highest values in the most populated areas. Finally, a risk assessment, estimated in terms of hazard quotients (HQs), was carried out for aquatic biota. HQs for the target compounds in effluent wastewaters indicated a negligible effect, whereas for some influent wastewaters' HQs pointed out that some species are at risk. PMID:26905612

  20. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  1. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  2. Sorption of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, benzyl alcohol, and benzalkonium chloride by flexible tubing.

    PubMed

    Bahal, Surendra M; Romansky, Jamie M

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies using methylparaben, propylparaben, and several types of flexible tubing showed that the parabens are sorbed by a number of commonly used tubing. The sorption increased with increase in time of contact and the tubing surface area. The temperature and pH ranges tested did not affect sorption. Current studies evaluated other commonly used antimicrobial preservatives used in oral, parenteral, opthalmic, nasal, and other pharmaceutical products. These preservatives include benzoic acid, sorbic acid, benzyl alcohol, and benzalkonium chloride. Results show that all preservatives, except benzalkonium chloride, are sorbed by several types of flexible tubing. After 24 hr, some types of tubing sorbed over 40% of benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, and about 30% of sorbic acid. Significant losses were observed within a few hours. No sorption of benzalkonium chloride occurred in the tubing tested. Three different types of fluoropolymer resin tubing, Teflon (flourinated ethylene propylene (FEP), Teflon perfluoroalkoxy) (PFA) and Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, NXT), fluoropolymer FEP laminated Tygon tubing, and Zelite do not sorb any of the preservatives. Silicone tubing shows the highest sorption of preservatives. After 120 hr, as much as 64% of the preservative is sorbed by some tubing. Detailed studies using silicone tubing show that the sorption increases with increase in surface area at 25 degrees C, and increasing the temperature to 40 degrees C shows little change in sorption. At the concentration range generally used in formulations, the concentration of the preservative has no significant effect on sorption. Refilling the tubing with fresh preservative solution after contact with preservative solution for 168 hr still causes extensive sorption of the preservative. Desorption studies indicate that the sorbed preservatives are desorbed in water to a limited extent over 120 hr. Results are important in situations where short or extended interruptions occur in the processing and filling of products. This can lead to decreased and variable results due to residence of the solution in the tubing. PMID:11852696

  3. Analysis of multi-class preservatives in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics by matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-class preservatives in a wide variety of cosmetic samples including rinse-off and leave-on products. After extraction, derivatization with acetic anhydride, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were performed. Optimization studies were done on real non-spiked and spiked leave-on and rinse-off cosmetic samples. The selection of the most suitable extraction conditions was made using statistical tools such as ANOVA, as well as factorial experimental designs. The final optimized conditions were common for both groups of cosmetics and included the dispersion of the sample with Florisil (1:4), and the elution of the MSPD column with 5 mL of hexane/acetone (1:1). After derivatization, the extract was analyzed without any further clean-up or concentration step. Accuracy, precision, linearity and detection limits were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. The recovery studies on leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics gave satisfactory values (>78% for all analytes in all the samples) with an average relative standard deviation value of 4.2%. The quantification limits were well below those set by the international cosmetic regulations, making this multi-component analytical method suitable for routine control. The analysis of a broad range of cosmetics including body milk, moisturizing creams, anti-stretch marks creams, hand creams, deodorant, shampoos, liquid soaps, makeup, sun milk, hand soaps, among others, demonstrated the high use of most of the target preservatives, especially butylated hydroxytoluene, methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. PMID:21947013

  4. [Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg. PMID:17580703

  5. Chronic toxicity of parabens and their chlorinated by-products in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Masanori; Abe, Ryoko; Makino, Masakazu; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of 12 compounds of parabens and their chlorinated by-products was investigated using 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia test under static renewal condition in order to generate information on how to disinfect by-products of preservatives that are discharged in aquatic systems. The mortality and inhibition of reproduction tended to increase with increasing hydrophobicity and decreased with the degree of chlorination of parabens. The EC50 values for mortality, offspring number, and first brood production ranged between 0.30-3.1, 0.047-12, and 1.3-6.3 mg L(-1) , respectively. For the number of neonates, the most sensitive endpoint, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) values ranged from 0.63 to 10 mg L(-1) and from 1.2 to 19 mg L(-1) , respectively. Methylparaben (MP), benzylparaben (BnP), and dichlorinated BnP (Cl2 BnP) elicited a significant decrease in offspring numbers even at their lowest concentration tested; the NOEC for these compounds was determined to be less than the lowest test concentration (1.3, 0.04, and 0.63 mg L(-1) for MP, BnP, and Cl2 BnP, respectively). Propylparaben (PP), chlorinated PP, isopropylparaben (iPP), and chlorinated iPP exhibited nonmonotonic concentration-dependent response; their NOEC and LOEC values could not be determined. The multivariate approach involving principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four groups that corresponded to the toxicological profiles of parabens. Our results suggested that disinfection of parabens by chlorination could reduce aquatic toxicity of original compounds. The findings obtained in our study together with the data available on paraben concentrations in aquatic systems can be used to perform preliminary risk assessment by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. The calculated PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from 0.0012 to 0.2, with the highest value observed in MP. This suggested that there are negligible environmental risks for aquatic organisms at current use levels. PMID:24376163

  6. Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 20042010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age SD, 36.1 4.5 years; range, 21.046.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were 5.0% (23.7, 18.4) and 16.3% (30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:12991305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

  7. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rager, Julia E; Strynar, Mark J; Liang, Shuang; McMahen, Rebecca L; Richard, Ann M; Grulke, Christopher M; Wambaugh, John F; Isaacs, Kristin K; Judson, Richard; Williams, Antony J; Sobus, Jon R

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast™ program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC-TOF/molecular feature data (match score≥90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along with exposure and bioactivity estimates from ExpoCast and Tox21, respectively. Chemicals with elevated exposure and/or toxicity potential were further examined using a mixture of 100 chemical standards. A total of 33 chemicals were confirmed present in the dust samples by formula and retention time match; nearly half of these do not appear to have been associated with house dust in the published literature. Chemical matches found in at least 10 of the 56 dust samples include Piperine, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), Triclocarban, Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Propylparaben, Methylparaben, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and Nicotine. This study demonstrates a novel suspect screening methodology to prioritize chemicals of interest for subsequent targeted analysis. The methods described here rely on strategic integration of available public resources and should be considered in future non-targeted and suspect screening assessments of environmental and biological media. PMID:26812473

  8. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of 1 percent glacial acetic acid (V/V) in denatured ethanol. The denatured ethanol should not contain... Preparation A Lanolin 5.00 Homosalate 8.00 White petrolatum 2.50 Stearic acid 4.00 Propylparaben...

  9. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 1 percent glacial acetic acid (V/V) in denatured ethanol. The denatured ethanol should not contain... Preparation A Lanolin 5.00 Homosalate 8.00 White petrolatum 2.50 Stearic acid 4.00 Propylparaben...

  10. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of 1 percent glacial acetic acid (V/V) in denatured ethanol. The denatured ethanol should not contain... Preparation A Lanolin 5.00 Homosalate 8.00 White petrolatum 2.50 Stearic acid 4.00 Propylparaben...

  11. Assessment of combined antiandrogenic effects of binary parabens mixtures in a yeast-based reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Li, Feifei; Liu, Cong; Liu, Rui

    2014-05-01

    To date, toxicological studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have typically focused on single chemical exposures and associated effects. However, exposure to EDCs mixtures in the environment is common. Antiandrogens represent a group of EDCs, which draw increasing attention due to their resultant demasculinization and sexual disruption of aquatic organisms. Although there are a number of in vivo and in vitro studies investigating the combined effects of antiandrogen mixtures, these studies are mainly on selected model compounds such as flutamide, procymidone, and vinclozolin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined antiandrogenic effects of parabens, which are widely used antiandrogens in industrial and domestic commodities. A yeast-based human androgen receptor (hAR) assay (YAS) was applied to assess the antiandrogenic activities of n-propylparaben (nPrP), iso-propylparaben (iPrP), methylparaben (MeP), and 4-n-pentylphenol (PeP), as well as the binary mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. All of the four compounds could exhibit antiandrogenic activity via the hAR. A linear interaction model was applied to quantitatively analyze the interaction between nPrP and each of the other three antiandrogens. The isoboles method was modified to show the variation of combined effects as the concentrations of mixed antiandrogens were changed. Graphs were constructed to show isoeffective curves of three binary mixtures based on the fitted linear interaction model and to evaluate the interaction of the mixed antiandrogens (synergism or antagonism). The combined effect of equimolar combinations of the three mixtures was also considered with the nonlinear isoboles method. The main effect parameters and interaction effect parameters in the linear interaction models of the three mixtures were different from zero. The results showed that any two antiandrogens in their binary mixtures tended to exert equal antiandrogenic activity in the linear concentration ranges. The antiandrogenicity of the binary mixture and the concentration of nPrP were fitted to a sigmoidal model if the concentrations of the other antiandrogens (iPrP, MeP, and PeP) in the mixture were lower than the AR saturation concentrations. Some concave isoboles above the additivity line appeared in all the three mixtures. There were some synergistic effects of the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP at low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges. Interesting, when the antiandrogens concentrations approached the saturation, the interaction between chemicals were antagonistic for all the three mixtures tested. When the toxicity of the three mixtures was assessed using nonlinear isoboles, only antagonism was observed for equimolar combinations of nPrP and iPrP as the concentrations were increased from the no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) to effective concentration of 80%. In addition, the interactions were changed from synergistic to antagonistic as effective concentrations were increased in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP. The combined effects of three binary antiandrogens mixtures in the linear ranges were successfully evaluated by curve fitting and isoboles. The combined effects of specific binary mixtures varied depending on the concentrations of the chemicals in the mixtures. At low concentrations in the linear concentration ranges, there was synergistic interaction existing in the binary mixture of nPrP and MeP. The interaction tended to be antagonistic as the antiandrogens approached saturation concentrations in mixtures of nPrP with each of the other three antiandrogens. The synergistic interaction was also found in the equimolar combinations of nPrP and MeP, as well as nPrP and PeP, at low concentrations with another method of nonlinear isoboles. The mixture activities of binary antiandrogens had a tendency towards antagonism at high concentrations and synergism at low concentrations. PMID:24469767

  12. Action of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on GPR30 gene and protein expression, cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wrbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

    2015-10-14

    In the present study, we examined cAMP levels and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in response to the actions of parabens on GPR30 in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. Cells were exposed to methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben at a concentration of 20nM; 17-?-estradiol (10nM) was used as a positive control. 17?-estradiol and all tested parabens increased GPR30 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. No parabens affected cAMP levels in either cell line, with the exception of propylparaben in MCF-10A cells. 17?-estradiol, propylparaben, and butylparaben increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells, whereas 17?-estradiol, methyl- and butylparaben, but not propylparaben, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-10A cells. Akt activation was noted only in MCF-7 cells and only with propylparaben treatment. Collectively, the data presented here point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through ?? dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, among investigated parabens, propylparaben appears to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells through activation of Akt kinases, confirming conclusions suggested by our previously published data. Nevertheless, continuing research on the carcinogenic action of parabens is warranted. PMID:26253279

  13. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5%), essential oils (2.5%) and methylparaben (0.4%) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  14. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, L; Armstrong, F; Stewart, J

    1997-01-01

    This study describes inhibitory properties of combinations of oil of fennel, oil of anise or oil of basil with either benzoic acid or methyl-paraben against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis. Micro-organisms were cultured at 37 degrees C in broth and viable counts measured over a 48-h period. S. enteriditis was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a combination of oil of anise, fennel or basil with methyl-paraben where there was < 10 CFU/ml after 1 h. L. monocytogenes was less sensitive to inhibition by each combination however there was a significant reduction in growth of 4-8 log by combinations of all oils and methyl-paraben at 8, 24 and 48 h. Synergistic inhibition by one or more combinations was evident against each micro-organism. PMID:9552716

  15. 77 FR 26706 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... at the address listed above between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday. FOR FURTHER... potassium sorbate, propylparaben (propyl p- hydroxybenzoate), calcium propionate, sodium propionate, benzoic... definite improvements'' (9 CFR 303.1(h) and 381.3(b)). Under the regulations, FSIS may only grant...

  16. 21 CFR 181.23 - Antimycotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (methyl p-hydroxybenzoate). Propylparaben (propyl p-hydroxybenzoate). Sodium benzoate. Sodium propionate... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antimycotics. 181.23 Section 181.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED...

  17. 76 FR 16290 - Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food; 2-Acetylamino-5-Nitrothiazole; Buquinolate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...) and as Sec. 556.550 (40 FR 13802 at 13956). 12. Salicylic acid (Sec. 556.590). In 2005, FDA...; Prednisolone; Prednisone; Progesterone; Propylparaben; and Salicylic Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... (44 FR 40888, July 13, 1979), but did not amend part 556 to remove the associated tolerances....

  18. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41?ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54?ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54?ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5?ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children. PMID:25944699

  19. Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Clindamycin Phosphate and Adapalene along with Preservatives in Topical Gel Formulations.

    PubMed

    Modi, Prakash B; Shah, Nehal J

    2014-12-01

    A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of clindamycin phosphate (hydrophilic), adapalene (hydro-phobic), phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in topical gel formulations. Optimum chromatographic separation among the analytes and stress-induced degradants peaks was achieved on the XBridge C18 (50 4.6 mm, 3.5 m) column using a mobile phase consisting of a variable mixture of pH 2.50 ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran with gradient elution. Detection was performed at 210 nm for phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, and clindamycin phosphate and 321 nm for adapalene. The method was optimized with a unique diluent selection for the extraction of clindamycin phosphate and adapalene from the gel matrix. The developed method was validated for method precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ, linearity, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be employed for the quantification of clindamycin phosphate, adapalene, phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in commercial topical gel formulations. PMID:26171325

  20. Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Clindamycin Phosphate and Adapalene along with Preservatives in Topical Gel Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Prakash B.; Shah, Nehal J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of clindamycin phosphate (hydrophilic), adapalene (hydro-phobic), phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in topical gel formulations. Optimum chromatographic separation among the analytes and stress-induced degradants peaks was achieved on the XBridge C18 (50 4.6 mm, 3.5 m) column using a mobile phase consisting of a variable mixture of pH 2.50 ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran with gradient elution. Detection was performed at 210 nm for phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, and clindamycin phosphate and 321 nm for adapalene. The method was optimized with a unique diluent selection for the extraction of clindamycin phosphate and adapalene from the gel matrix. The developed method was validated for method precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ, linearity, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be employed for the quantification of clindamycin phosphate, adapalene, phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in commercial topical gel formulations. PMID:26171325

  1. Drug-excipient compatibility studies in binary mixtures of avobenzone.

    PubMed

    Ceresole, Rita; Han, Yong K; Rosasco, Maria A; Orelli, Liliana R; Segall, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    During preformulation studies of cosmetic/pharmaceutical products, thermal analysis techniques are very useful to detect physical or chemical incompatibilities between the active and the excipients of interest that might interfere with safety and/or efficacy of the final product. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a screening technique for assessing the compatibility of avobenzone with some currently used cosmetic excipients. In the first phase of the study, DSC was used as a tool to detect any interaction. Based on the DSC results alone, cetearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, propylparaben, diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, caprylic capric triglyceride, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glycerin, cetearyl alcohol/ceteareth 20, cetearyl alcohol/sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium cetearyl sulfate, and paraffinum liquidum exhibit interaction with avobenzone. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50C for 15 days) of avobenzone and excipients were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary mixtures were further investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Based on DSC, isothermal stress testing, and fourier transform infrared results; avobenzone is incompatible with caprylic capric triglyceride, propylparaben, and BHT. PMID:24139431

  2. Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-? and -? and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.

    PubMed

    Wrbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

    2014-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that widely used parabens possess estrogenic properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? (ESR1) and -? (ESR2) and the progesterone receptor (PGR). Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells were exposed to parabens at a concentration of 20nM; 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10nM, was used as a positive control. Both propyl- and butylparaben stimulated PGR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells, whereas methyl- and propylparaben PGR protein expression. In MCF-10A cells, butyl- and propylparaben increased only PGR mRNA expression. All parabens increased ESR1 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and with the exception of butylparaben in MCF-10A cells. All parabens significantly increased ESR2 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells, but in MCF-10A cells only ESR2 protein expression. In summary, by virtue of their stimulatory action on the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR in cancer cells, parabens can be viewed as potential contributors to breast cancer progression. Extension, the actions of these parabens on the expression of ERs and PGR in non-cancerous cells point to possible actions on breast cancer initiation. PMID:25128701

  3. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

  4. A novel application of Onyxtrade mark monolithic column for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and triamcinolone acetonide by sequential injection chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chocholous, Petr; Holk, Pavel; Satnsk, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2007-04-30

    A novel and fast simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) and salicylic acid (SA) in topical pharmaceutical formulations by sequential injection chromatography (SIC) as an alternative to classical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. A recently introduced Onyxtrade mark monolithic C18 (50mmx4.6mm, Phenomenex((R))) with 5mm monolithic precolumn were used for the first time for creating sequential injection chromatography system based on a FIAlab((R)) 3000 with a six-port selection valve and 5.0mL syringe pump in study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile/water (35:65, v/v), pH 3.3 adjusted with acetic acid at flow rate 0.9mLmin(-1). UV detection provided by fibre-optic DAD detector was set up at 240nm. Propylparaben was chosen as suitable internal standard (IS). There is only simple pre-adjustment of the sample of topical solution (dilution with mobile phase) so the analysis is not uselessly elongated. Parameters of the method showed good linearity in wide range, correlation coefficient >0.999; system precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) in the range 0.45-1.95% at three different concentration levels, detection limits (3sigma) 1.00mugmL(-1) (salicylic acid), 0.66mugmL(-1) (triamcinolone acetonide) and 0.33mugmL(-1) (propylparaben) and recovery from the pharmaceutical preparations in the range 97.50-98.94%. The chromatographic resolution between peaks of compounds was more than 4.5 and analysis time was 5.1min under the optimal conditions. The advantages of sequential injection chromatography against classical HPLC are discussed and showing that SIC can be a method of option in many cases. PMID:19071698

  5. Rapid and specific high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay for folic acid in multivitamin-mineral pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Tafolla, W H; Sarapu, A C; Dukes, G R

    1981-11-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay for folic acid in multivitamin-mineral pharmaceutical formulations was developed. The internal standard solution used for sample extraction contained a chelating agent, pentetic acid, for prevention of metal ion-catalyzed degradation of folic acid in th prepared samples. Samples were chromatographed using a paired-ion mobile phase (water-methanol, approximately 76:24; 0.015 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0; and 0.3% tetrabutylammonium hydroxide) on a column packed with octadecylsilane bonded to microparticulate silica gel. Sample preparation was rapid, and total chromatographic time was approximately 20 min. The method was accurate, precise, and highly specific. Folic acid and the internal standard, methylparaben, were separated from other tablet components and a number of potential impurities and degradation products of folic acid. PMID:7299676

  6. Evaluation of preparations of patent blue (Alphazurine 2G) dye for parenteral use.

    PubMed

    Newton, D W; Rogers, A G; Becker, C H; Torosian, G

    1975-09-01

    The stability and the behavior of patent blue (Alphazurine 2G) dye in a vehicle such as lidocaine hydrochloride injection were studied with regard to medication orders which may be prepared by hospital pharmacists. The patent blue family of dyes are sulfonated diaminotriphenylmethane, vital, acid dyes which have been used as diagnostic aids in both lymphography and burn debridement. A literature review, including some toxicological information, is presented. The occurrence of the sodium salt form and the equilibrium solubility of the patent blue sample studied are reported. Some implications of patent blue injections include: Clinical literature reports of toxicities, the unapproved status of patent blue by the Food and Drug Administration, results of stability studies, and the formation of viscid, water-insoluble precipitates of patent blue in combination with lidocaine hydrochloride. The extemporaneous preparation and subsequent use of parenteral prescriptions of patent blue dye in vehicles containing lidocaine hydrochloride and methylparaben are not recommended. PMID:1190249

  7. Biocides in the Yangtze River of China: spatiotemporal distribution, mass load and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Nineteen biocides were investigated in the Yangtze River to understand their spatiotemporal distribution, mass loads and ecological risks. Fourteen biocides were detected, with the highest concentrations up to 166 ng/L for DEET in surface water, and 54.3 ng/g dry weight (dw) for triclocarban in sediment. The dominant biocides were DEET and methylparaben, with their detection frequencies of 100% in both phases. An estimate of 152 t/y of 14 biocides was carried by the Yangtze River to the East China Sea. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting dominant input sources from domestic wastewater of the cities along the river. Risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by carbendazim in both phases and by triclosan in sediment. Therefore, proper measures should be taken to reduce the input of biocides into the river systems. PMID:25697474

  8. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Snchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  9. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  10. Determination of selected parabens, benzophenones, triclosan and triclocarban in agricultural soils after and before treatment with compost from sewage sludge: A lixiviation study.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Dorival-García, N; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Vílchez, J L

    2016-04-01

    An accurate and sensitive method for the determination of selected EDCs in soil and compost from wastewater treatment plants is developed and validated. Five parabens, six benzophenone-UV filters and the antibacterials triclosan and triclocarban were selected as target analytes. The parameters for ultrasound-assisted extraction were thoroughly optimized. After extraction, the analytes were detected and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labelled) and deuterated benzophenone (BP-d10) were used as internal standards. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.40ngg(-1) and the limits of quantification from 0.1 to 1.0ngg(-1), while precision in terms of relative standard deviation was between 9% and 21%. Recovery rates ranged from 83% to 107%. The validated method was applied for the study of the behavior of the selected compounds in agricultural soils treated and un-treated with compost from WWTP. A lixiviation study was developed in both agricultural soil and treated soil and first order kinetic models of their disappearance at different depths are proposed. The application of organic composts in the soil leads to an increase of the disappearance rate of the studied compounds. The lixiviation study also shows the risk of pollution of groundwater aquifers after disposal or waste of these EDCs in agricultural soils is not high. PMID:26838425

  11. Development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of carbamazepine in rabbit plasma.

    PubMed

    Mowafy, Hammam A; Alanazi, Fars K; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2012-01-01

    An isocratic simple rapid assay has been developed and validated for the determination of carbamazepine (CBZ) in both solution form and rabbit plasma using propylparaben as an internal standard. The assay was performed using a ?-Bondapak C18 (150mmנ4.6mm i.d) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (50:50), the flow rate was 1ml/min and UV detection at 285nm. The method was found to be specific for CBZ, no interfering peaks were observed with an overall analytical run time of 15min. Accuracy reported as % recovery were found to be 98.37-100.45% and 97.53-103.58% for inter-day and intra-day accuracies, respectively. Inter-day precision (reproducibility) was found to be 0.53-2.75% RSD, while intra-day precision (repeatability) was found to be 1.06-3.7% RSD for the samples studied. The calibration curve was found to be linear with the equation y=0.2847x+0.0138, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 (R (2)) over a concentration range of 0.5-40?g/ml. The limit of quantitation was the lowest concentration. The method is simple and rapid and does not require any preliminary treatment of the sample. The method was fully validated. PMID:23960774

  12. Effect-directed identification of endocrine disruptors in plastic baby teethers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Elisabeth; Potouridis, Theodoros; Haeger, Astrid; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Wagner, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the human health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), many of which are associated with and leaching from plastics. As infants are particularly vulnerable to EDCs, we have investigated whether plastic teethers for babies represent a relevant source of exposure. Applying effect-directed analysis, we use bioassays to screen teethers, toys used to soothe a baby's teething ache, for endocrine activity and chemical analysis to identify the causative compounds. We detected significant endocrine activity in two of 10 plastic teethers. Those samples leached estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity as detected in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and Yeast Antiandrogen Screen. After sample fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry non-target screening revealed that methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben were responsible for the observed estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in one product. The second product is likely to contain at least six different antiandrogenic compounds that remain so far unidentified. This study demonstrates that plastic teethers can be a source of infant exposure to well-established and unknown EDCs. Because of their limited value to the product, but potential toxicity, manufacturers should critically revisit the use of parabens in plastic teethers and further toys. Moreover, plastic teethers might leach EDCs that escape routine analysis and, thus, toxicological evaluation. The resulting uncertainty in product safety poses a problem to consumers, producers and regulators that remain to be resolved. PMID:25988240

  13. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  14. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghi??, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codru?a; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an overall paraben index, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  15. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics. PMID:25395006

  16. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old

    PubMed Central

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed safe MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  17. Simplified matrix solid phase dispersion procedure for the determination of parabens and benzophenone-ultraviolet filters in human placental tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Rodrguez, I; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gmez, A; Ballesteros, L; Cela, R; Navaln, A

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, the industrial development has resulted in the appearance of a large amount of new chemicals that are able to produce disorders in the human endocrine system. These substances, so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), include many families of compounds, such as parabens and benzophenone-UV filters. Taking into account the demonstrated biological activity of these compounds, it is necessary to develop new analytical procedures to assess the exposure in order to establish, in an accurate way, relationships between EDCs and harmful health effects in population. In the present work, a new method based on a simplified sample treatment by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, is validated for the determination of four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben) and six benzophenone-UV filters (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) in human placental tissue samples. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-13C6 and benzophenone-d10 were used as surrogates. The found limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 ng g(-1) and inter-day variability (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranged from 5.4% to 12.8%. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 96% to 104%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at the moment of delivery from 10 randomly selected women. PMID:25456585

  18. A multiclass method for the analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals in human urine samples. Sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gmez, A; Ballesteros, L; Navaln, A

    2014-11-01

    The population is continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This has influenced an increase in diseases and syndromes that are more frequent nowadays. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new analytical procedures to evaluate the exposure with the ultimate objective of establishing, in an accurate way, relationships between EDCs and harmful health effects. In the present work, a new method based on a sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, isopropyl-, propyl-, isobutyl and butylparaben), six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) and two bisphenols (bisphenol A and bisphenol S) in human urine samples, followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis is proposed. An enzymatic treatment allows determining the total content of the target EDCs. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-(13)C6 and bisphenol A-d16 were used as surrogates. Found limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) and inter-day variability (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranging from 2.0% to 14.9%. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94% to 105%. A good linearity, for concentrations up to 300 ng mL(-1) for parabens and 40 ng mL(-1) for benzophenones and bisphenols, respectively, was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human urine samples from 20 randomly selected individuals. PMID:25127586

  19. New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive and accurate analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben and bisphenol A in human milk samples has been developed and validated. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a simplified and rapid clean-up technique that uses sorbent materials has been successfully applied for the preparation of samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were extracted from freeze-dried human milk samples using acetonitrile and ultrasonic radiation (three 15-min cycles at 70% amplitude), and further cleaned-up with C18 sorbents. The most influential parameters affecting the UAE method and the clean-up steps were optimized using design of experiments. Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for MS detection. The use of two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. The analytes were separated in less than 10min. Deuterium-labeled ethylparaben-d5 (EPB-d5) and deuterium-labeled bisphenol A-d16 (BPA-d16) were used as surrogates. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 0.7ngmL(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 11.1% in all cases. In the absence of certified reference materials, recovery assays with spiked samples using matrix-matched calibration were used to validate the method. Recovery rates ranged from 93.8% to 112.2%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of four selected parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples obtained from nursing mothers living in the province of Granada (Spain). PMID:25942557

  20. A new method for rapid determination of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation products in nutraceuticals using core-shell column chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; atnsk, Dalibor; Havlkov, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-20

    Indole-3-carbinol is a natural glucosinolate known for prevention of human breast, prostate and other types of cancer and it started to be used in commercial preparations, as food supplements. However no analytical method has been proposed for quality control of nutraceuticals with this substance yet. In this paper a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using core-shell column for separation of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation/degradation products was developed and used for the quantitative determination of indole-3-carbinol in nutraceuticals. Separation of indole-3-carbinol, its condensation/degradation products and internal standard ethylparaben was performed on the core-shell column Kinetex 5? XB-C18 100A (1004.6mm), particle size 5.0?m, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water according to the gradient program at a flow rate of 1.25mLmin(-1) and at temperature 50C. The detection wavelength was set at 270nm. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions good linearity of determination was achieved. Available commercial samples of nutraceuticals were extracted with 100% methanol using ultrasound bath. A 5-?L sample volume of the supernatant was directly injected into the HPLC system. The developed method provided rapid and accurate tool for quality control of nutraceuticals based on cruciferous vegetable extracts with indole-3-carbinol content. The presented study showed that the declared content of indole-3-carbinol significantly varied in the different nutraceuticals available on the market. Two analyzed preparations showed the presence of condensation/degradation products of indole-3-carbinol which were not officially declared by the manufacturer. Moreover, further two analyzed nutraceutical preparations showed absolutely no content of declared amount of indole-3-carbinol. PMID:26795880

  1. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin. PMID:21879392

  2. Gene expression responses for detecting sublethal effects of xenobiotics and whole effluents on a Xenopus laevis embryo assay.

    PubMed

    San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Pablos, M Victoria

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of bisphenol A, chlorpyrifos, methylparaben, and 2 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants located in the province of Madrid, Spain, on the messenger RNA expression of specific genes involved in early development (ESR1, pax6, bmp4, and myf5) and a gene involved in the general stress response (hsp70) during Xenopus laevis embryo development. Gene expression was analyzed after 4 h, 24 h, and 96 h of exposure by semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Concentration ranges of the compounds and dilutions for the samples were selected to cause morphological alterations in embryos after 96 h of exposure. Transcript levels of ESR1, pax6, and hsp70 were differentially altered at early developmental stages with patterns specific to the contaminant and the exposure time. However, further studies are needed to establish transcript levels of specific genes as biomarkers of sublethal effects in an environmental risk-assessment framework. Besides, studies including more generic responses, such as genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, together with genes related to embryonic development have to be developed to look for a battery of mechanistic endpoints for the evaluation of chemical exposure at the molecular level in a first-tier assessment. PMID:23637088

  3. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17?-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. PMID:24051129

  4. Synthesis and analysis of nanostructured composite particles from gas-saturated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil'mutdinov, I. I.; Gil'mutdinov, I. M.; Kuznetsova, I. V.; Sabirzyanov, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Ibuprofen/polyethylene glycol 4000 and methylparaben/polyethylene glycol 4000 nanostructured composite particles are synthesized from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS, particles from gas saturated solution). The dependences of the mean size of composite particles on pressure, temperature, and the expansion channel diameter are revealed. The studies are conducted in the pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa, at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80°C, and for expansion channel diameters in the range of 200 to 500 μm. The physicochemical properties of the composite particles are investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter and phase analysis is performed by means of X-ray diffraction. The composition of composite particles is determined via mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electronic ionization is used for the quantitative analysis of ibuprofen, while mass spectrometry of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is used in the analysis of polyethylene glycol 4000. The dependence of the concentration of components in composite particles on pressure is obtained.

  5. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration. PMID:19071202

  6. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in an advanced wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-30

    In the present study, parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and chlorinated derivatives, were simultaneously determined in wastewater and sludge samples along the whole process in an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Nine target compounds were detected in this WWTP, and methylparaben and PHBA were the dominant compounds in these samples. It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in this work. Mass balance results showed that 91.8% of the initial parabens mass loading was lost mainly due to degradation, while the contribution of sorption and output of primary and excess sludge was much less (7.5%), indicating that biodegradation played a significant role in the removal of parabens during the conventional treatment process. Specifically, parabens were mainly degraded in the anaerobic tank, and PHBA could be effectively removed at high rates after the advanced treatment. However, both biodegradation and adsorption accounted for minor contribution to the removal of chlorinated parabens during conventional treatment process, and they were only scantly removed by conventional treatment (33.9-40.7%) and partially removed by advanced treatment (59.2-82.8%). Risk assessment indicated that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in second and tertiary effluent are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26151382

  7. Occurrence and ecological potential of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of municipal landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianzhi; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Chunwei; Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Jin, Jiabin; Tan, Jianhua

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics, azole anti-fungals, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, parabens, antiseptics, and bisphenol A, were investigated in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of two municipal landfills in the metropolis of Guangzhou, South China. Dehydroerythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, salicylic acid, methylparaben, triclosan, and bisphenol A were the mostly frequently detected PPCPs in the groundwater at low ng L(-1) levels. In the reservoirs, the PPCPs were widely detected at higher frequencies and concentrations, especially sulfamethoxazole, propiconazole, and ibuprofen, with maximal concentrations above 1 ?g L(-1). The PPCPs in the groundwater did not show significant seasonal differences or spatial trends. However, in the reservoirs, higher PPCP concentrations were observed in spring than in other seasons. The anti-bacterials in the groundwater posed medium risks to algae. In the reservoirs, the sulfonamides and macrolides posed low to high risks, while ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and clofibric acid presented low to medium risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, the results showed that the PPCP contaminants and subsequent ecological risks in the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the landfills may be of serious concern. More research is needed to better correlate the landfill leachates and PPCP contamination in the nearby aquatic environments. PMID:24908648

  8. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: Water uptake kinetics and film permeability.

    PubMed

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of different amounts of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) to polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs, here Eudragit RS and RL). MAS contains negatively charged SiO(-) groups, while QPM contains positively charged quaternary ammonium groups. The basic idea is to be able to provide desired water and drug permeability by simply varying the amount of added MAS. Thin, free films of varying composition were prepared by casting and exposed to 0.1M HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The water uptake kinetics and water vapor permeability of the systems were determined gravimetrically. The transport of propranolol HCl, acetaminophen, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben across thin films was studied using side-by-side diffusion cells. A numerical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to determine the apparent compound diffusion coefficients, partition coefficients between the bulk fluids and the films as well as the apparent film permeability for these compounds. The addition of MAS resulted in denser inner film structures, at least partially due to ionic interactions between the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups and the negatively charged SiO(-) groups. This resulted in lower water uptake, reduced water vapor permeability and decreasing apparent compound diffusivities. In contrast, the affinity of the investigated drugs and parabens to the films substantially increased upon MAS addition. The obtained new knowledge can be helpful for the development of novel coating materials (based on QPM-MAS blends) for controlled-release dosage forms. PMID:26004005

  9. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L)?>?WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L)?>?WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity). PMID:24415065

  10. Antimicrobial activity of bone cements embedded with organic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Stefano; Thenault, Victorien; Abdo, Pauline; Margulis, Katrin; Magdassi, Shlomo; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections after orthopedic surgery are a very unwelcome outcome; despite the widespread use of antibiotics, their incidence can be as high as 10%. This risk is likely to increase as antibiotics are gradually losing efficacy as a result of bacterial resistance; therefore, novel antimicrobial approaches are required. Parabens are a class of compounds whose antimicrobial activity is employed in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. We developed propylparaben nanoparticles that are hydrophilic, thus expanding the applicability of parabens to aqueous systems. In this paper we assess the possibility of employing paraben nanoparticles as antimicrobial compound in bone cements. The nanoparticles were embedded in various types of bone cement (poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], hydroxyapatite, and brushite) and the antimicrobial activity was determined against common causes of postorthopedic surgery infections such as: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanoparticles at concentrations as low as 1% w/w in brushite bone cement were capable of preventing pathogens growth, 5% w/w was needed for hydroxyapatite bone cement, while 7% w/w was required for PMMA bone cement. No detrimental effect was determined by the addition of paraben nanoparticles on bone cement compression strength and cytocompatibility. Our results demonstrate that paraben nanoparticles can be encapsulated in bone cement, providing concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity; furthermore, lower concentrations are needed in calcium phosphate (brushite and hydroxyapatite) than in acrylic (PMMA) bone cements. These nanoparticles are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, including those already resistant to the antibiotics routinely employed in orthopedic applications, such as gentamicin. PMID:26487803

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Phenols and Growth in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Philippat, Claire; Botton, Jérémie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenols interact with nuclear receptors implicated in growth and adipogenesis regulation. Only a few studies have explored their effects on growth in humans. Objectives We studied the associations of maternal exposure to phenols during pregnancy with prenatal and postnatal growth of male newborns. Methods Within a cohort of women recruited during pregnancy, we selected 520 mother–son pairs and quantified 9 phenols in spot urine samples collected during pregnancy. We used ultrasonography during pregnancy, together with birth measurements, to assess fetal growth. We modeled individual postnatal growth trajectories from repeated measures of weight and height in the first 3 years of life. Results Triclosan concentration was negatively associated with growth parameters measured at the third ultrasound examination but not earlier in pregnancy. At birth, this phenol tended to be negatively associated with head circumference (−1.2 mm for an interquartile range [IQR] increase in ln-transformed triclosan concentration [95% confidence interval = −2.6 to 0.3]) but not with weight or height. Parabens were positively associated with weight at birth. This positive association remained for 3 years for methylparaben (β = 193 g [−4 to 389]) for an IQR increase in ln-transformed concentrations. Conclusion We relied on only 1 spot urine sample to assess exposure; because of the high variability in phenol urinary concentrations reported during pregnancy, using only 1 sample may result in exposure misclassification, in particular for bisphenol A. Our study suggested associations between prenatal exposure to parabens and triclosan and prenatal or early postnatal growth. PMID:25061923

  12. Activation of the mTOR pathway by low levels of xenoestrogens in breast epithelial cells from high-risk women.

    PubMed

    Goodson, William H; Luciani, Maria Gloria; Sayeed, S Aejaz; Jaffee, Ian M; Moore, Dan H; Dairkee, Shanaz H

    2011-11-01

    Breast cancer is an estrogen-driven disease. Consequently, hormone replacement therapy correlates with disease incidence. However, increasing male breast cancer rates over the past three decades implicate additional sources of estrogenic exposure including wide spread estrogen-mimicking chemicals or xenoestrogens (XEs), such as bisphenol-A (BPA). By exposing renewable, human, high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) to BPA at concentrations that are detectable in human blood, placenta and milk, we previously identified gene expression profile changes associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genesets likely to trigger prosurvival changes in human breast cells. We now provide functional validation of mTOR activation using pairwise comparisons of 16 independent HRBEC samples with and without BPA exposure. We demonstrate induction of key genes and proteins in the PI3K-mTOR pathway--AKT1, RPS6 and 4EBP1 and a concurrent reduction in the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene protein. Altered regulation of mTOR pathway proteins in BPA-treated HRBECs led to marked resistance to rapamycin, the defining mTOR inhibitor. Moreover, HRBECs pretreated with BPA, or the XE, methylparaben (MP), surmounted antiestrogenic effects of tamoxifen showing dose-dependent apoptosis evasion and induction of cell cycling. Overall, XEs, when tested in benign breast cells from multiple human subjects, consistently initiated specific functional changes of the kind that are attributed to malignant onset in breast tissue. Our observations demonstrate the feasibility of studying renewable human samples as surrogates and reinforce the concern that BPA and MP, at low concentrations detected in humans, can have adverse health consequences. PMID:21890461

  13. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Stojanka; Stojanovi?, Biljana; Veljkovi?, Jelena; Prazi?-Arsi?, Ljiljana; Rogli?, Goran; Manojlovi?, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives. PMID:18644604

  14. Fast and sensitive method to determine parabens by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode: application to hair samples.

    PubMed

    Sako, Alysson V F; Dolzan, Maressa D; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben in hair samples by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode. In the proposed method, solutions are injected using the flush command of the analysis software (940mbar) and the polarity switching is carried out automatically immediately after the sample injection. The advantages compared with conventional stacking methods are the increased analytical frequency, repeatability, and inter-day precision. All analyses were performed in a fused silica capillary (50cm, 41.5cm in effective length, 50?m i.d.), and the background electrolyte was composed of 20mmolL(-1) sodium tetraborate in 10% of methanol, pH 9.3. For the reverse polarity, -25kV/35s was applied followed by application of +30kV for the electrophoretic run. Temperature was set at 20C, and all analytes were monitored at 297nm. The method showed acceptable linearity (r (2)?>?0.997) in the studied range of 0.1-5.0mgL(-1), limits of detection below 0.017mgL(-1), and inter-day, intra-day, and instrumental precision better than 6.2, 3.6, and 4.6%, respectively. Considering parabens is widely used as a preservative in many products and the reported possibility of damage to the hair and also to human health caused by these compounds, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the adsorption of parabens in hair samples. The results indicate that there is a greater adsorption of methylparaben compared to the other parabens tested and also dyed hairs had a greater adsorption capacity for parabens than natural hairs. PMID:26168974

  15. The metal-organic framework HKUST-1 as efficient sorbent in a vortex-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction of parabens from environmental waters, cosmetic creams, and human urine.

    PubMed

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Martínez-Benito, Carla; Pino, Verónica; Pasán, Jorge; Ayala, Juan H; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically HKUST-1, MOF-5, and MIL-53(Al), have been synthetized, characterized, studied and compared in a vortex-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-D-µ-SPE) procedure in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) for determining seven parabens in environmental waters (tap water, swimming pool water, and water coming from a spa pool), human urine (from two volunteers), and cosmetic creams (two commercial brands). Experimental parameters, such as nature and amount of MOF, sample volume, nature of elution solvent and its amount, vortex and centrifugation time, among others, were properly optimized. HKUST-1 was the most adequate MOF to work with. Detection limits for the overall method down to 0.1 μgL(-1) for butylparaben (BPB) and benzylparaben (BzPB) were obtained, with determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9966 for a range of 0.5-147 μgL(-1) (depending on the paraben), average relative recoveries (RR, in %) of 80.3% at the low spiked level (7 μgL(-1)), and relative standard deviation (RSD) values below 10% also at the low spiked level. The strength of the affinity between HKUST-1 and parabens was evaluated, and it ranged from 33.5% for isopropylparaben (iPPB) to 77.0% for isobutylparaben (iBPB). When analyzing complex environmental waters, RR values of 78%, inter-day precision values (as RSD) lower than 15%, and intra-day precision values lower than 7.8% were obtained, despite the observed matrix effect. When analyzing cosmetic creams, parabens were detected, with contents ranging from 0.14 ± 0.01 μgg(-1) for EPB in the healing cream analyzed to 1.12 ± 0.07 mgg(-1) for MPB in the mask cream analyzed, with precision values (RSD) lower than 12% and RR values from 63.7% for propylparaben (PPB) to 121% for iPPB. When analyzing human urine, no parabens were detected but the method could be performed with RSD values lower than 19%. These results show the adequateness of MOFs as sorbents in VA-D-µ-SPE procedures despite sample complexity. PMID:25882402

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Phenols: Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid and Variability in Urinary Concentrations during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bausell, Rebecca; Meadows, Molly; Stone, Joanne; Slama, Rmy; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal urinary biomarkers are often used to assess fetal exposure to phenols and their precursors. Their effectiveness as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies depends on their variability during pregnancy and their ability to accurately predict fetal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between urinary and amniotic fluid concentrations of nine environmental phenols, and the reproducibility of urinary concentrations, among pregnant women. Methods: Seventy-one women referred for amniocentesis were included. Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenols, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens using online solid phase extractionhigh performance liquid chromatographyisotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in more than half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were positively correlated (? = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). Other phenols were detected infrequently in amniotic fluid (e.g., bisphenol A was detected in only two samples). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of urinary concentrations in samples from individual women ranged from 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11). Conclusion: Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low. The reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols. Although a single sample may provide a reasonable estimate of exposure for some phenols, collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error in studies regarding the effects of phenol prenatal exposure on health. Citation: Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, Stone J, Slama R, Engel SM. 2013. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 121:12251231;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206335 PMID:23942273

  17. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data should be generated to assess this fully. Thus future research is needed to investigate ecological effects of these HPCPs on benthic organisms in sediment of rural rivers receiving untreated wastewater discharge. PMID:26379200

  18. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    PubMed

    Gven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurda?, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben was also effective against S.epidermidis. However, in our study it was determined that preservatives were not effective against biofilm forms even if the inoculum was lower, equal to or higher than the inocula of the planktonic forms. The data obtained from this study indicated that preservatives used to prevent microbial contamination in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products, are not effective against biofilm forms of the microorganisms. This study is thought to be a guide for further studies to be held in the investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food industry. PMID:24506719