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Sample records for metro manila philippines

  1. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  2. The Use of ICT in School Guidance: Attitudes and Practices of Guidance Counselors in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinluan, Lorelei R.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted among a sample of school guidance counselors in Metro Manila, the Philippines, to determine their level of awareness, attitudes, and extent of practice of ICT in the conduct of their work. The respondents showed a higher level of awareness of communication technologies than of information technologies. They spent an average…

  3. Probabilistic storm surge inundation maps for Metro Manila based on Philippine public storm warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-03-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline

  4. The demographic impact of the Philippine family planning program: a tale of two Metro Manilas.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    This pamphlet predicts the rates of contraceptive prevalence, total fertility, and population growth in the Philippines during 1970-2000. Contraceptive prevalence was 14.5% in 1970 and is expected to be 50% in 2000. Total fertility was 5.9 in 1970 and is expected to be 3.2 in 2000. Population was 36 million in 1970, 65 million in 1993, and is expected to be 75 million in 2000. If the family planning program had not continued to expand after 1970, population would have been 75 million in 1993 and would rise to 96.7 million in 2000. With expanded family planning, the difference in population for 2000 is 22 million people, or the equivalent of 2 metropolitan Manilas. A projected population that is smaller by 22 million is important for carrying capacity. A summary is given of the world situation proposed by Worldwatch. The projection is for increased demand for food from the 90 million people a year added to total world population. Food output during 1950-84 increased dramatically. However recent trends indicate that fish harvests from oceans have leveled off at 100 million tons a year and fish prices have risen rapidly. Fresh water shortages are now apparent in the United States, Mexico, China, India, and the Middle East. Grain production has slowed. Per capita output of rice, corn, and wheat has declined by 11% since 1984. World stocks of rice are low. Grain prices have doubled on the Chicago Board of Trade. Fertilizer use has declined 12% since 1989. Much crop production has reached maximum yields. Topsoil is disappearing, and cropland expanded only 2% in the last 10 years. Since 1945, 2 million hectares of land have been degraded by overgrazing, deforestation, and agricultural mismanagement. PMID:12179226

  5. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. PMID:23588136

  6. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated < 1 km from the Novaliches Watershed Reservation, one of the main sources of drinking water for Metro Manila’s 12 million population! Yet, after dumping operations that have lasted more than 10 years, only recently were the preliminary geologic studies begun. Payatas is not a designed landfill and its untreated leachate is openly polluting the headwaters of the Marikina and Pasig Rivers. In addition, during the summer months, there is always the constant threat of fire due to methane induced burning from the dump, aside from the aerial pollution from dioxins and furans derived from incomplete combustion of municipal solid waste. With limited funding from the Quezon City government, a feasibility study was conducted to assess the methane generation potential of Payatas. This interdisciplinary study comprised bedrock geological studies, topographic mapping of the dump, drilling of the dump to obtain stratigraphic solid waste samples for waste characterization, laying of horizontal methane and dewatering pipes, and preliminary methane flow studies. The waste characterization has highlighted the unusually high organic (especially yard waste) component of the solid waste dumped at Payatas. Waste characterization shows that a significant portion of the waste is plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average

  7. Environmental isotopes and major ions for tracing leachate contamination from a municipal landfill in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, S S; Sucgang, R J; Almoneda, R V; Mendoza, N D S; David, C P C

    2012-08-01

    The surface water and groundwater sources in the vicinity of a major municipal landfill in Metro Manila, Philippines were investigated to determine contamination by landfill leachate. Tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and major ions in the leachate and freshwater within the landfill environment were determined. The leachate contained elevated tritium activities and high concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium. The concentrations of tritium and the leachate related ions in the affected surface water were significantly higher than the non-impacted water and correlated strongly with distance from the leachate source, following a negative exponential relationship, providing evidence of leachate transport along the affected surface water. Enrichment in deuterium was exhibited by leachate in the holding pond but not by the effluent leachate. The stable isotope signature of leachate is masked in the surface water due to dilution by stream water. Dilution similarly masked the effect of leachate in the shallow groundwater which was strongly influenced by precipitation. Evidence of leachate contamination in the deep groundwater was sporadic. In isolated cases, elevated tritium concentrations coincided with enrichment in deuterium. In the same case, leachate related ions, Na, Ca, Mg, and Cl, varied with rainfall but generally increased from 2003 to 2009. The effect on the groundwater of methane produced within the landfill was seen in the depletion in deuterium in groundwater in the drier months. PMID:22343499

  8. Investigating ground deformation and subsidence in northern Metro Manila, Philippines using Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. A.; Bato, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    The extent of ground deformation and subsidence in northern Metro Manila was examined using Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) technique. Using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR (StaMPS/MTI) software, we processed 21 descending ENVISAT radar imageries taken from 2003 to 2006. The processed interferograms show high coherence due to the high density of PS points in the region of interest. The PSInSAR processing reveals several areas in northern Metro Manila, specifically in Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas and Valenzuela-collectively known as CAMANAVA-that exhibit deformation characteristics similar to that of ground subsidence. Results show that the areas manifesting apparent subsidence are moving with a maximum rate of 4.38 cm/year relative to the satellite. This is consistent with the geodetic surveying results from 1979 to 2009 showing subsidence of approximately 1 meter or 3.33 cm/year per year. Government data also identify these areas as among those with the highest rates of groundwater extraction in Metro Manila, suggesting the possibility of anthropogenic activities as the major cause of subsidence. With this study, we hope to get a better understanding of the nature of subsidence affecting parts of northern Metro Manila. Doing so would help mitigate the effects of potential flood disasters.

  9. Nutrition situation in metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Villavieja, G M; Boquecosa, J P; Bacos, F F

    1992-01-01

    Summarizing the general characteristics of food consumption pattern and dietary status of the country's central urban region, the following are brought to focus: Metro Manila as compared to all urban and rural areas consumes less cereal grains but more sugars and fats and oils; consumes more of the high quality protein foods such as meat, poultry, eggs, milk and dried beans; and consumes less of fruits and vegetables. Availability and affordability of foods in the respective sectors could have affected to a large extent the magnitude of consumption differences. Although urban households had the advantage of a more varied and quantitatively higher food consumption, their nutrient intake was not really very different from rural households. Metro Manila still had a 13.7 percent calorie gap in its intake in 1987, and intake of ascorbic acid was notably lower than the rural sector. However, intake of thiamin and riboflavin as well as fat was appreciably higher in the metropolis. Briefly identifying the trends in food consumption with reference to six survey year periods from 1974 to 1987 (excluding 1984 and 1985), Metro Manila diet disclosed the following: increasing trend for sugars and syrups as well as dried beans, nuts and seeds and decreasing trend for cereal products, fruits and vegetables and condiments and others. There was a decrease in overall food consumption among Metro Manila households during the economic crisis that transpired in 1984 and 1985. However, there was a steady consumption of rice which was under price control, and a significant increase in the intake of some food items particularly green leafy and yellow vegetables which were among the cheapest food items available in Metro Manila markets. Some food adjustments were evidently resorted to during the period of economic dislocation showing the resiliency of the urban population. Metro Manila has been apparently drawing inordinately large amounts of the food supply from the rest of the country

  10. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. PMID:24157409

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Tonsil and Jejunum with Lymph Node Tissues of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kamela Charmaine S.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequent antibiotic exposure, swine is now recognized as potential risk in disseminating drug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains. This study thus subjected 20 randomly selected S. enterica isolates from tonsil and jejunum with lymph node (JLN) tissues of swine slaughtered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The test revealed all 20 isolates had resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, in which highest occurrence of resistance was to amikacin (100%), cefazolin (100%), cefuroxime (100%), cefuroxime axetil (100%), cefoxitin (100%), and gentamicin (100%), followed by ampicillin (50%), and then by sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim (30%). Three multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were detected. The sole S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolate showed resistance to 12 different antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, and tigecycline. This study is the first to report worldwide on the novel resistance to tigecycline of MDR S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from swine tonsil tissues. This finding poses huge therapeutic challenge since MDR S. enterica infections are associated with increased rate of hospitalization or death. Thus, continual regulation of antimicrobial use in food animals and prediction of resistant serotypes are crucial to limit the spread of MDR S. enterica isolates among hogs and humans. PMID:24724034

  12. Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila's southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Bagtasa, Gerry; Crisologo, Irene; Racoma, Bernard Alan; David, Carlos Primo

    Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million) and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.

  13. Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo, new species (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) and other aquatic Polyphaga from a small habitat patch in a highly urbanized landscape of Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Seven species of Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae are recorded from temporary freshwater habitats at the Ateneo de Manila University Campus in the metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. They were identified as Enochrus (Lumetus) fragiloides d'Orchymont, Helochares (Hydrobaticus) lepidus d'Orchymont, Helochares (Helochares) pallens (MacLeay), Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) scabra d'Orchymont, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) palawanensis Freitag & Jäch (new record for Luzon Island), Stenelmis sp. A further hydraenid species was unknown to science and is newly described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo Freitag, sp. n. Aedeagus, gonocoxite, spermatheca, and female tergite X are illustrated by computer-based line drawings. Habitus images of all three Hydraena Kugelann species recorded and a checklist of the Philippine Hydraena are provided. The presence of these seven species in the Ateneo campus is briefly discussed in regard to the area's history. Measures to maintain and extend semi-natural islands of biodiversity in urban areas are suggested. PMID:24146550

  14. Teacher Burnout in Metro Manila Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Nenita

    1987-01-01

    Explores and defines teacher burnout and lists characteristics; (1) loss of idealism; (2) loss of motivation; (3) loss of concern; and (4) loss of energy. Specifically focuses on secondary teachers attitudes toward burnout in the Metro-Manila School System. Includes a list of responses to selected questions from the survey on burnout and…

  15. Finding urban waste management solutions and policies: Waste-to-energy development and livelihood support system in Payatas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Serrona, Kevin Roy; Yu, Jeong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas. PMID:25084429

  16. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  17. Who possesses drug resistance genes in the aquatic environment?: sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance genes among the bacterial community in water environment of Metro-Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Miller, Todd W.; Shimizu, Akiko; Takada, Hideshige; Siringan, Maria Auxilia T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are ubiquitous in natural environments, including sites considered pristine. To understand the origin of ARGs and their dynamics, we must first define their actual presence in the natural bacterial assemblage. Here we found varying distribution profiles of sul genes in “colony forming bacterial assemblages” and “natural bacterial assemblages.” Our monitoring for antibiotic contamination revealed that sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a major contaminant in aquatic environments of Metro-Manila, which would have been derived from human and animal use, and subsequently decreased through the process of outflow from source to the sea. The SMX-resistant bacterial rate evaluated by the colony forming unit showed 10 to 86% of the total colony numbers showed higher rates from freshwater sites compared to marine sites. When sul genes were quantified by qPCR, colony-forming bacteria conveyed sul1 and sul2 genes in freshwater and seawater (10−5–10−2 copy/16S) but not sul3. Among the natural bacterial assemblage, all sul1, sul2, and sul3 were detected (10−5–10−3 copy/16S), whereas all sul genes were at an almost non-detectable level in the freshwater assemblage. This study suggests that sul1 and sul2 are main sul genes in culturable bacteria, whereas sul3 is conveyed by non-culturable bacteria in the sea. As a result marine bacteria possess sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in the marine environment. PMID:23641240

  18. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    SciTech Connect

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  19. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible. PMID:20952443

  20. Identification of Critical Vulnerable Areas During a Typhoon Haiyan Event in the Metro Manila Area Using Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones, J. B. L. T.; Puno, J. V.; Lapidez, J. P. B.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Ramos, M. M.; Caro, C. V.; Ladiero, C.; Bahala, M. A.; Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sudden rises in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to an approaching storm are known as storm surges. The development of an early warning system for storm surges is imperative, due to the high threat level of these events; Typhoon Haiyan in 08 November 2013 generated storm surges that caused casualties of over 6,000. Under the Department of Science and Technology, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (DOST - Project NOAH) was tasked to generate storm surge hazard maps for all the coastal areas in the Philippines. The objective of this paper is to create guidelines on how to utilize the storm surge hazard map as a tool for planning and disaster mitigation. This study uses the case of the hypothetical situation in which a tropical storm with an intensity similar to Typhoon Haiyan hits Metro Manila. This site was chosen for various reasons, among them the economic, political, and cultural importance of Metro Manila as the location of the capital of the Philippines and the coastal bay length of the area. The concentration of residential areas and other establishments were also taken into account. Using the Japan Meteorology Association (JMA) Storm Surge Model, FLO-2D flood modelling software and the application of other GIS technology, the impact of Haiyan-strength typhoon passing through Manila was analysed. We were able to identify the population affected, number of affected critical facilities under each storm surge hazard level, and possible evacuation sites. The results of the study can be used as the basis of policies involving disaster response and mitigation by city authorities. The methods used by the study can be used as a replicable framework for the analysis of other sites in the Philippines.

  1. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Manila Bay, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Manila Bay and nearby volcanoes on Luzon Island in the Philippines. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    The city of Manila is on the eastern shore of Manila Bay at the right edge of the image. The large central plain to the north of the bay, irrigated by the Panpanga and Agno rivers, is the most important agricultural region in the Philippines. The Bataan Peninsula and volcanic Mt. Bataan at lower center along with the small island of Corregidor near the bottom edge became famous when the Allied forces made their last stand there during World War II. Dominating the upper left of the scene is 1,600 meter (5,249 foot) high Mt. Pinatubo, whose violent eruption on June 15, 1991, wrought widespread destruction on Luzon as well as injecting dust and gas into the atmosphere, which lowered global average temperatures for over a year.

    The image on the right combines two types of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation measurements. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation

  2. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  3. Nutrient load estimates for Manila Bay, Philippines using population data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bouwman, Lex F.; Jacinto, Gil S.

    2015-06-01

    A major source of nutrient load to periodically hypoxic Manila Bay is the urban nutrient waste water flow from humans and industries to surface water. In Manila alone, the population density is as high as 19,137 people/km2. A model based on a global point source model by Morée et al. (2013) was used to estimate the contribution of the population to nitrogen and phosphorus emissions which was then used in a water transport model to estimate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to Manila Bay. Seven scenarios for 2050 were tested, with varying degrees and amounts for extent of sewage treatment, and population growth rates were also included. In scenario 1, the sewage connection and treatment remains the same as 2010; in scenario 2, sewage connection is improved but the treatment is the same; in scenario 3, the sewage connection as well as treatment is improved (70% tertiary); and in scenario 4, a more realistic situation of 70% primary treatment achieved with 100% connection to pipes is tested. Scenarios 5, 6, and 7 have the same parameters as 1, 2, and 3 respectively, but with the population growth rate per province reduced to half of what was used in 1, 2, and 3. In all scenarios, a significant increase in N and P loads was observed (varying from 27% to 469% relative to 2010 values). This was found even in scenario 3 where 70% of the waste water undergoes tertiary treatment which removes 80% N and 90% P. However, the lowest increase in N and P load into the bay was achieved in scenarios 5 to 7 where population growth rate is reduced to half of 2010 values. The results suggest that aside from improving sewage treatment, the continued increase of the human population in Manila at current growth rates will be an important determinant of N and P load into Manila Bay.

  4. Sex trafficking and health care in Metro Manila: identifying social determinants to inform an effective health system response.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy P; Alpert, Elaine J; Ahn, Roy; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Wolferstan, Nadya; Castor, Judith Palmer; McGahan, Anita M; Burke, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    This social science case study examines the sex trafficking of women and girls in Metro Manila through a public health lens. Through key informant interviews with 51 health care and anti-trafficking stakeholders in Metro Manila, this study reports on observations about sex trafficking in Metro Manila that provide insight into understanding of risk factors for sex trafficking at multiple levels of the social environment: individual (for example, childhood abuse), socio-cultural (for example, gender inequality and a "culture of migration"), and macro (for example, profound poverty caused, inter alia, by environmental degradation disrupting traditional forms of labor). It describes how local health systems currently assist sex-trafficking victims, and provides a series of recommendations, ranging from prevention to policy, for how health care might play a larger role in promoting the health and human rights of this vulnerable population. PMID:21178195

  5. Survey on awareness, perception, and extent of usage of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements in metro manila.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A J; Tanchoco, C C

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT A total of 502 subjects (222 men, 280 women), age 20 years and older from 82 randomly selected barangays in Metro Manila were interviewed during the Fifth National Nutrition Survey in 1998 to determine their awareness, perceptions, and extent of usage of nutraceuticals. The majority of respondents, 62.5%, were not aware of nutraceutical products. Among those who were aware, 77.1% were nonusers, 11.7 were regular users, and the rest (11.2%) were sporadic users of nutraceuticals. The duration of use ranged from 1 day only to 2 years; most subjects had used nutraceutical products intermittently for 1 month. The majority of users reported that nutraceuticals made them healthy and that someone had influenced them to take the products. The most popular supplement used was fish oil, followed by aloe vera and multivitamins plus minerals. Calcium and iron supplements were used by some sporadic users. The respondents' agreement or disagreement with six health belief statements revealed their perception of nutraceuticals. There were no significant differences in the perception of users and nonusers with respect to health belief statements. In general, the level of awareness and usage of nutraceutical products in Metro Manila may be considered low. PMID:19236175

  6. Exploring the realities of HIV/AIDS-related discrimination in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ortega, N L; Bicaldo, B F; Sobritchea, C; Tan, M L

    2005-07-01

    Operating according to UNAIDS' 'Protocol for the Identification of Discrimination against People Living with HIV', this study analysed health infrastructure in Manila, Philippines and determined that despite the existence of anti-discriminatory legislation, discrimination still occurred in practice. This was attributed to an absence of written regulations and inadequate training among health staff. Discrimination associated with HIV/AIDS has been found to be a hindrance to the development of successful preventive strategies, as it discourages people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and other people from contacting health and social services. This paper argues that if the Philippines is to maintain its low prevalence rate of HIV (and even reduce it), the discrimination that PLWHA incur must be addressed taking account of their human rights. PMID:16174626

  7. Interseismic deformation and moment deficit along the Manila subduction zone and the Philippine Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. J.; Yu, S. B.; Loveless, J. P.; Bacolcol, T.; Woessner, J.; Solidum, R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Sunda plate converges obliquely with the Philippine Sea plate with a rate of ~100 mm/yr and results in the sinistral slip along the 1300 km-long Philippine fault. Using GPS data from 1998 to 2013 as well as a block modeling approach, we decompose the crustal motion into multiple rotating blocks and elastic deformation associated with fault slip at block boundaries. Our preferred model composed of 8 blocks, produces a mean residual velocity of 3.4 mm/yr at 93 GPS stations. Estimated long-term slip rates along the Manila subduction zone show a gradual southward decrease from 66 mm/yr at the northwest tip of Luzon to 60 mm/yr at the southern portion of the Manila Trench. We infer a low coupling fraction of 11% offshore northwest Luzon and a coupling fraction of 27% near the subduction of Scarborough Seamount. The accumulated strain along the Manila subduction zone at latitudes 15.5°~18.5°N could be balanced by earthquakes with composite magnitudes of Mw 8.7 and Mw 8.9 based on a recurrence interval of 500 years and 1000 years, respectively. Estimates of sinistral slip rates on the major splay faults of the Philippine fault system in central Luzon increase from east to west: sinistral slip rates are 2 mm/yr on the Dalton fault, 8 mm/yr on the Abra River fault, and 12 mm/yr on the Tubao fault. On the southern segment of the Philippine fault (Digdig fault), we infer left-lateral slip of ~20 mm/yr. The Vigan-Aggao fault in northwest Luzon exhibits significant reverse slip of up to 31 mm/yr, although deformation may be distributed across multiple offshore thrust faults. On the Northern Cordillera fault, we calculate left-lateral slip of ~7 mm/yr. Results of block modeling suggest that the majority of active faults in Luzon are fully locked to a depth of 15-20 km. Inferred moment magnitudes of inland large earthquakes in Luzon fall in the range of Mw 7.0-7.5 based on a recurrence interval of 100 years. Using the long-term plate convergence rate between the Sunda plate

  8. A retrospective survey of dengue fever among Japanese individuals staying in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Atsuo; Tada, Yuki; Fukushima, Shinji; Murata, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Hirohisa

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious concern for Japanese people staying in Southeast Asia. In order to implement necessary prophylactic measures for dengue fever in this population, we investigated the characteristics of dengue fever among Japanese nationals living in Manila, Philippines. From 2012 to 2015, 175 Japanese expatriates were diagnosed with dengue fever at the medical clinic of the Japanese Association Manila, Inc. Most of the patients were employees of Japanese companies and their families and were long-term residents of Manila. Most patients were either <10 years or in their 30s to 40s. Two patients (1.1 %) were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. No deaths due to dengue fever were reported. The reported number of patients with dengue fever has shown a decreasing trend: from 55 cases in 2012 to 53 in 2013, 31 in 2014, and 36 in 2015. The results of this survey could be useful for the development of effective dengue fever preventive measures such as health education and provision of information among not only Japanese but also other foreigners residing in endemic areas. PMID:27579020

  9. The Sense of Place behind Segregating Practices: An Ethnographic Approach to the Symbolic Partitioning of Metro Manila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The literature on cities in the developing world equates segregation with the proliferation of enclaves and slums and tends to overlook how the people associated with those places are further segregated in public spaces and enclaves. To account for the symbolic partitioning of Metro Manila, I document the segregating practices of the residents of…

  10. On-the-Spot Workshop Seminar on Early Childhood Education in the Philippines: Report (Manila, Philippines, January 6-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasik, Lynn Sperber

    The College of Education of the University of Santo Tomas and the Kapit-Bahay Community Center, Incorporated, approached the Israeli Embassy in Manila, Philippines, with a request for expertise in the area of early childhood. As a result of this request, the Mount Carmel International Training Centre, located in Haifa, Israel, submitted a proposal…

  11. Spatiotemporal variability of hypoxia and eutrophication in Manila Bay, Philippines during the northeast and southwest monsoons.

    PubMed

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A; Jacinto, Gil S; Villanoy, Cesar L

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia in Manila Bay, Philippines was previously reported during the northeast monsoon (dry season) in February 2010. In this study, four more field surveys of the same 31 stations were conducted in July 2010, August 2011 and 2012 (wet season, southwest monsoon), and February 2011 (dry season, northeast monsoon). During the wet season, bottom hypoxia spread northward towards the coast with dissolved oxygen (DO) ranging from 0.12 to 9.22 mg/L and the bay-wide average reaching 2.10 mg/L. Nutrient levels were elevated, especially near the bottom where dissolved inorganic nitrogen reached 22.3 μM (July 2010) and phosphorus reached 5.61 μM (August 2011). High nutrient concentrations often coincided with low near-bottom DO content. Our work builds on the preliminary assessment of hypoxia in Manila Bay, the importance of repeated temporal studies, and shows hypoxia to prevail significantly during the southwest monsoon (wet season) when increased freshwater discharge caused strong water column stratification. PMID:24655947

  12. Multiple large earthquakes in the past 1500 years on a fault in metropolitan Manila, the Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Personius, S.F.; Rimando, R.E.; Punongbayan, R.S.; Tungol, N.; Mirabueno, H.; Rasdas, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first 14C-based paleoseismic study of an active fault in the Philippines shows that a right-lateral fault on the northeast edge of metropolitan Manila poses a greater seismic hazard than previously thought. Faulted hillslope colluvium, stream-channel alluvium, and debris-flow deposits exposed in trenches across the northern part of the west Marikina Valley fault record two or three surface-faulting events. Three eroded, clay-rich soil B horizons suggest thousands of years between surface faulting events, whereas 14C ages on detrital charcoal constrain the entire stratigraphic sequence to the past 1300-1700 years. We rely on the 14C ages to infer faulting recurrence of hundreds rather than thousands of years. Minimal soil development and modern 14C ages from colluvium overlying a faulted debris-flow deposit in a nearby stream exposure point to a historic age for a probable third or fourth (most recent) faulting event.

  13. Purchase of antibiotics without prescription in Manila, the Philippines. Inappropriate choices and doses.

    PubMed

    Lansang, M A; Lucas-Aquino, R; Tupasi, T E; Mina, V S; Salazar, L S; Juban, N; Limjoco, T T; Nisperos, L E; Kunin, C M

    1990-01-01

    The purchase of antimicrobial agents in drugstores in a district in Manila. The Philippines was examined in order to determine how these agents might be used. Most antimicrobial agents are imported as bulk products and repackaged by a large number of small firms into 1491 different preparations including 206 marketed as combinations with other drugs. Antimicrobial agents accounted for 20.1% of all drug purchases. Purchases were made without prescription in 66.3% of 1608 transactions. Most of these were aminopenicillins or penicillins G or V (40.0%). The most common perceived indications were respiratory tract infections (20.2%), tuberculosis (8.8%), "prophylaxis" (8.6%) and gastrointestinal infection (8.3%). Almost 90% of purchases were for 10 or less capsules or tablets. The median number of units purchased was 3. Customers with written prescriptions purchased a mean of 8 while those who self-prescribed purchased a mean of 4 units (p = less than 0.05). We believe that these practices can provide only limited clinical efficacy and should favor emergence of resistant bacteria. PMID:2319282

  14. Workshop on the Development of Education and Information Materials on Family Health (Family Planning, Maternal and Child Health, Nutrition). (Manila, Philippines, 8 to 22 February 1972). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Health and communications experts from Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and South Vietnam met in Manila for two weeks of workshop sessions to discuss communication strategies and to develop educational materials for the promotion of family health. The overall aim of the workshop was to encourage the production of educational…

  15. WRF simulation of the heavy rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines during tropical cyclone Ketsana: a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, F. T.; Narisma, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    In September 2009, tropical cyclone Ketsana brought record rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, resulting in widespread flooding and incapacitated the city for days. The extensive damage caused by heavy rainfall events such as this highlights the need to have an effective weather prediction model to forecast these extreme events for the Philippines. As an initial step towards this goal, this study aims to examine the sensitivity of the rainfall simulation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the physical parameterization schemes related to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics processes. Comparison with observation data shows that the PBL scheme influences the spatial distribution of rainfall, whereas the microphysics scheme can affect rainfall magnitudes. The PBL scheme can also affect the intensity and track of the tropical cyclone as indicated in the surface latent heat flux and vertical velocity, as well as the magnitude of the mixing ratio of the different hydrometeors, which consequently affects the simulated rainfall. On the other hand, microphysics schemes can also influence the vertical distribution of each hydrometeor, likely due to differences in the treatment of ice phase processes and its interaction with the PBL scheme. Among the schemes tested, the model simulation using the ACM2 PBL and the WSM6 microphysics schemes captures this particular heavy rainfall event, in terms of spatial distribution, amount and timing. The results of this study show the importance of the PBL and microphysics schemes in simulating heavy rainfall, as well as the high potential of using WRF for future forecasts, especially for extreme weather events in the Philippines.

  16. WRF simulation of the heavy rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines during tropical cyclone Ketsana: a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, F. T.; Narisma, G. T.

    2016-04-01

    In September 2009, tropical cyclone Ketsana brought record rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, resulting in widespread flooding and incapacitated the city for days. The extensive damage caused by heavy rainfall events such as this highlights the need to have an effective weather prediction model to forecast these extreme events for the Philippines. As an initial step towards this goal, this study aims to examine the sensitivity of the rainfall simulation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the physical parameterization schemes related to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics processes. Comparison with observation data shows that the PBL scheme influences the spatial distribution of rainfall, whereas the microphysics scheme can affect rainfall magnitudes. The PBL scheme can also affect the intensity and track of the tropical cyclone as indicated in the surface latent heat flux and vertical velocity, as well as the magnitude of the mixing ratio of the different hydrometeors, which consequently affects the simulated rainfall. On the other hand, microphysics schemes can also influence the vertical distribution of each hydrometeor, likely due to differences in the treatment of ice phase processes and its interaction with the PBL scheme. Among the schemes tested, the model simulation using the ACM2 PBL and the WSM6 microphysics schemes captures this particular heavy rainfall event, in terms of spatial distribution, amount and timing. The results of this study show the importance of the PBL and microphysics schemes in simulating heavy rainfall, as well as the high potential of using WRF for future forecasts, especially for extreme weather events in the Philippines.

  17. 77 FR 40329 - U.S. Renewable Energy Trade Mission Philippines and Thailand, Manila, Philippines and Bangkok...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    .... Wind power. Solar power. Both Thailand and the Philippines rank high on ITA's Renewable Energy Best... average of 5.0-5.1 kWh/m2/day from solar power, and 1.78 GW from mini-hydro plants from 888 sites... a few types of equipment where quality and efficiency are important: Inverters for solar PV...

  18. Historical occurrences of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Manila Bay, Philippines, and in the upper Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Kato, Yoshihisa; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Ito, Maki; Dung, Le Quang; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Santiago, Evangeline C

    2014-02-01

    Historical trends of the accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a typical tropical Asian environment were investigated using radio-dated sediment cores from Manila Bay, the Philippines and from the upper Gulf of Thailand. Vertical profiles indicated earlier usage of PCBs than of PBDEs which coincided with their industrial production. The increasing concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs toward the surface suggested an increased consumption of PBDEs; and possible leakage of PCBs from old machineries into the aquatic environment in recent years. Current input of PCBs to the catchment of Manila Bay was supported by the analyses of air samples and plastic resin pellets. The vertical profiles of total PBDEs in the cores (i.e., rapidly increasing concentrations corresponding to the mid-1980s until mid-1990s, followed by a decrease until the early 2000s, and increasing again toward the surface) likely corresponded to the rapid economic growth in Asia in the 1990s, the Asian financial crisis in 1997, and the economic recovery since early 2000s. BDE-209 was predominant especially on the surface layers. BDEs 47 and 99 generally decreased toward the surface, reflecting the phase-out of the technical penta-PBDE products and the regulation by the Stockholm Convention in recent years. Increasing ratios of BDE-202/209, 206/209, 207/209 and decreasing % of BDE-209 down the core layers may provide evidence for the anaerobic debromination of BDE-209 in the sediment cores. Inventories in ng/cm(2) of total PCBs were higher than total PBDEs (92 vs. 34 and 47 vs. 11 in the Philippines; 47 vs. 33 in Thailand). However, the doubling times indicated faster accumulation of total PBDEs (6-7 years) and BDE-209 (6-7.5 years) than of PCBs (8-11 years). Furthermore, the temporal increase in BDE-209 was comparable to or faster than those reported in other water bodies around the world. PMID:24140702

  19. Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Siringan, Fernando P

    2006-03-01

    Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea-level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land-use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea-level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates. PMID:16512865

  20. Application of 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates and dinoflagellate cyst analyses in understanding Pyrodinium bahamense harmful algal blooms in Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A dM; Sta Maria, E J; Honrado, M C V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Furio, Elsa F

    2004-01-01

    The number of areas affected by toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) in the Philippines has been increasing since its first recorded occurrence in 1983. Thus far, HAB has been reported in about 20 areas in the Philippines including major fishery production areas. The HAB-causing organism (Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum) produces a cyst during its life cycle. Pyrodinium cysts which are deposited in the sediment column may play a role in initiating a toxic bloom. 210Pb-derived sedimentation rate studies in the two important fishing grounds of Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Palawan have shown that Pyrodinium cysts may have been present in the sediment even before the first recorded toxic algal bloom in these areas. High sedimentation rates (approximately 1 cm/year) have been observed in the northern and western parts of Manila Bay. The results indicate that the sedimentation processes occurring in these bays would require subsurface cyst concentration analysis in evaluating the potential of an area to act as seed bed. PMID:15245847

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Temperature on Mortality in Manila City (Philippines) from 2006-2010 Using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model.

    PubMed

    Seposo, Xerxes T; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Honda, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of temperature on the risk of mortality has been described in numerous studies of category-specific (e.g., cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific) mortality in temperate and subtropical countries, with consistent findings of U-, V-, and J-shaped exposure-response functions. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between temperature and mortality in Manila City (Philippines), during 2006-2010 to identify the potential susceptible populations. We collected daily all-cause and cause-specific death counts from the Philippine Statistics Authority-National Statistics Office and the meteorological variables were collected from the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Temperature-mortality relationships were modeled using Poisson regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear models, and were used to perform cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific analyses. The minimum mortality temperature was 30 °C, and increased risks of mortality were observed per 1 °C increase among elderly persons (RR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.80), women (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27-1.69), and for respiratory causes of death (RR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.23-1.88). Seasonal effect modification was found to greatly affect the risks in the lower temperature range. Thus, the temperature-mortality relationship in Manila City exhibited an increased risk of mortality among elderly persons, women, and for respiratory-causes, with inherent effect modification in the season-specific analysis. The findings of this study may facilitate the development of public health policies to reduce the effects of air temperature on mortality, especially for these high-risk groups. PMID:26086706

  2. Evaluating the Effects of Temperature on Mortality in Manila City (Philippines) from 2006–2010 Using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model

    PubMed Central

    Seposo, Xerxes T.; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Honda, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the risk of mortality has been described in numerous studies of category-specific (e.g., cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific) mortality in temperate and subtropical countries, with consistent findings of U-, V-, and J-shaped exposure-response functions. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between temperature and mortality in Manila City (Philippines), during 2006–2010 to identify the potential susceptible populations. We collected daily all-cause and cause-specific death counts from the Philippine Statistics Authority-National Statistics Office and the meteorological variables were collected from the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Temperature-mortality relationships were modeled using Poisson regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear models, and were used to perform cause-, sex-, age-, and season-specific analyses. The minimum mortality temperature was 30 °C, and increased risks of mortality were observed per 1 °C increase among elderly persons (RR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31–1.80), women (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27–1.69), and for respiratory causes of death (RR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.23–1.88). Seasonal effect modification was found to greatly affect the risks in the lower temperature range. Thus, the temperature-mortality relationship in Manila City exhibited an increased risk of mortality among elderly persons, women, and for respiratory-causes, with inherent effect modification in the season-specific analysis. The findings of this study may facilitate the development of public health policies to reduce the effects of air temperature on mortality, especially for these high-risk groups. PMID:26086706

  3. From Bonding Wires to Banding Women. Proceedings of the International Consultation on Micro-Chips Technology (Manila, Philippines, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Women's Resources, Quezon City (Philippines).

    In October 1986, 40 women from 12 countries gathered in the Philippines for a 10-day meeting of organizers, educators, and workers affected by and confronting the international electronics industry in microchip plants and in automated offices. Participants were from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Japan, the Netherlands,…

  4. Sexual functioning and commitment to their current relationship among breastfeeding and regularly cycling women in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Escasa-Dorne, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels. PMID:25847056

  5. Vocational Guidance in Manpower Development: Papers Presented at the Asian Regional Conference-Workshop (Manila, Philippines, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The unemployment of youth and adults has surfaced as a problem and a challenge to Asian Third World governments. Industry and business continue to experience a shortage of skilled and technical manpower. A manpower development conference was held in the Philippines on topics which included: (1) the role of private educational institutions in…

  6. Assessment of trace metal bioaccumulation by Avicennia marina (Forsk.) in the last remaining mangrove stands in Manila Bay, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ana Veronica S; Salmo, Severino G

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in the sediments, roots and leaves of a mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in Las Piñas-Parañaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area (LPPCHEA), Manila Bay. The concentrations showed a general pattern of Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd in sediments, Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd in roots and Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd in leaves. The trace metal concentrations in both sediments and plant tissues were below contamination threshold levels. Based on computed bioaccumulation indices, A. marina could be used for the phytostabilization and phytoextraction of Cu and Cd. The LPPCHEA mangrove ecosystem is an ecologically important ecosystem that will limit the spread of trace metals to the surrounding environment. PMID:25365960

  7. Serologic and Molecular Studies of Leptospira and Leptospirosis among Rats in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Ezoe, Hirokazu; Baterna, Rubelia A.; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Muto, Maki; Koizumi, Nobuo; Fukui, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Cavinta, Lolita L.; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Rats are known to be the most important reservoirs and transmission sources of leptospirosis. However, the status of leptospirosis in the Philippines regarding reservoirs and transmission remains unknown. A survey was conducted in Metro Manila and Laguna that analyzed samples obtained from 106 rats. Using the microscopic agglutination test, we found that 92% of rat serum samples were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies; the most common infecting serovars were Manilae, Hebdomadis, and Losbanos. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gyrase B gene sequence analyses, four groups of rat kidney isolates were found: L. interrogans serovar Manilae, serovar Losbanos, and serogroup Grippotyphosa, and L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica. Most isolates were lethal after experimental infection of golden Syrian hamsters. Results showed that these four Leptospira serovars and serogroups are circulating among rats, and that these animals may be one of the possible transmission sources of leptospirosis in the Philippines. PMID:20439972

  8. Fecal contamination in irrigation water and microbial quality of vegetable primary production in urban farms of Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bea Clarise B; Dimasupil, Ma Angela Z; Vital, Pierangeli G; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination of fresh produce can present a severe risk to public health. By conducting a rigorous survey of irrigation waters, the impacts of fecal contamination on the quality of produce could be assessed. In this study, surface waters were observed to be contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and somatic coliphages. Culture methods show that out of 373 irrigation water, soil, and vegetable samples collected for a 1-year period, 232 (62.20%) were found positive for E. coli, 213 (57.26%) for somatic coliphages, and 2 (0.53%) for Salmonella spp. Out of 190 water samples, 167 (87.9%) were found to have E.coli, 174 (91.6%) have somatic coliphages, and 1 (0.5%) with Salmonella spp. In soil samples, 36 of 91 (39.6%) have E. coli, 31 (34.0%) have somatic coliphages, and none with Salmonella spp. Lastly, out of 92 vegetable samples, 29 (31.5%), 8 (8.7%), and 1 (1.1%) were found to have E. coli, somatic coliphages, and Salmonella spp., respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of bacterial contaminants. Seasonal weather conditions were noted to have an effect on the presence and number of these fecal indicator organisms. The observed data suggest that contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect the quality of fresh produce from these agricultural operations. PMID:26273758

  9. Philippines.

    PubMed

    1983-09-01

    This discussion of the Philippines focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; economy (agriculture, mining, industry, and foreign trade); defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the Philippines. In 1982 the population was estimated at 51.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate was 59/1000 (1982), and life expectancy was 64 years (1981). The Philippine people are mostly of Malay stock, descended from the Indonesians and Malays who migrated to the islands long before the Christian era. The most significant ethnic minority group is the Chinese, who have played an important role in commerce since the 9th century, when they first came to the islands to trade. About 90% of the people are Christian. The Philippine Archipelago extends about 1770 kilometers north to south along the southeastern rim of Asia, forming a land chain between the Pacific Ocean on the east and the South China Sea on the west. The archipelago consists of some 7100 islands and islets. The history of the Philippines may be broken down into 4 distinct phases: the pre Spanish period, the Spanish period (1521-1898); the American period (1898-1946); and the years since independence (1946-present). A new constitution, to replace that of 1935, was completed by a constitutional convention in November 1972 and was proclaimed in effect in January 1973. The 1973 constitution provided for a parliamentary system, initially with extensive powers vested in a prime minister. Major amendments adopted in 1981 revised the system to make the president head of government. From independence of 1972, the Philippines practiced relatively traditional constiutional democracy. In addition to more moderate, legitimate opposition, the government has been opposed by 2 insurgencies, whose roots predated martial law, and by some urban terrorism. The Philippine economy grew rapidly during the period of rehabilitation and expansion

  10. Tobacco use among fourth year Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students of the College of Public Health: University of the Philippines Manila, academic year 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Guevarra, Jonathan P; Cordova, Renerio Q; Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Asaad, Abubakar S

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the prevalence of tobacco use among graduating Public Health students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. It also describes the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, attitudes, behaviors and smoking cessation training of students. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design, adapting a standard questionnaire, pretested and administered to 52 Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) students at the College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila. Data generated from the survey were encoded using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed using Stata version 12. The prevalence of smoking among 4th year BSPH students was 5.8 % (current smokers). In the past 7 days, respondents have been exposed to secondhand smoke (44 % where they live; 79 % in places other than where they live). Majority were aware of the official policy on smoking ban in school, however, 80 % said that the policy is not enforced. Majority had favorable attitudes in terms of banning tobacco sales to adolescents, banning advertising of tobacco products, banning smoking in restaurants, discos/bars/pubs and enclosed public places. Majority of the respondents also believed that health professionals should get specific training on cessation techniques, that they do serve as role models, and that they have a role in giving advice about smoking cessation. More than three-quarters (76.9 %) of students said that health professionals who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit. Most of the graduating students learned about the dangers of smoking, importance of obtaining tobacco use history, and providing educational support materials in their public health education but only a few received formal training about smoking cessation approaches. The implementation of the no-smoking policy of the university must be revisited. Smoking cessation approaches should be incorporated in the public health curriculum and the role

  11. Philippines.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received $3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union. PMID:12178014

  12. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International...

  13. Philippine campaign boosts child immunizations.

    PubMed

    Manuel-santana, R

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, USAID awarded the Philippines a 5-year, US $50 million Child Survival Program targeting improvement in immunization coverage of children, prenatal care coverage for pregnant women, and contraceptive prevalence. Upon successful completion of performance benchmarks at the end of each year, USAID released monies to fund child survival activities for the following year. This program accomplished a major program goal, which was decentralization of health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning in its determination of allocation of resources. Social marketing activities contributed greatly to success in achieving the goal of boosting the immunization coverage rate for the 6 antigens listed under the Expanded Program for Immunization (51%-85% of infants, 1986-1991). In fact, rural health officers in Tarlac Province in Central Luzon went from household to household to talk to mothers about the benefits of immunizing a 1-year-old child, thereby contributing greatly to their achieving a 95% full immunization coverage rate by December 1991. Social marketing techniques included modern marketing strategies and multimedia channels. They first proved successful in metro Manila which, at the beginning of the campaign, had the lowest immunization rate of all 14 regions. Every Wednesday was designated immunization day and was when rural health centers vaccinated the children. Social marketing also successfully publicized oral rehydration therapy (ORT), breast feeding, and tuberculosis control. Another contributing factor to program success in child survival activities was private sector involvement. For example, the Philippine Pediatric Society helped to promote ORT as the preferred treatment for acute diarrhea. Further, the commercial sector distributed packets of oral rehydration salts and even advertised its own ORT product. At the end of 2

  14. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference. PMID:12348421

  15. Review on the occurrence and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Susan A; Wallace, Joshua S; Gross, Michael S; Navarro, Denise D; Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Alaee, Mehran; Montecastro, Doris; Aga, Diana S

    2015-12-01

    The environmental occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been a subject of concern for the past decade because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. These compounds have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention and are expected to disperse in the global environment even after their use and production. While the occurrence of PBDEs has been well characterized in environmental and biological samples from North America, Europe, and some Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan, and Korea), there is a scarcity of available data in developing Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Examination of PBDE contamination in the Philippine environment is particularly important because regulations have only recently been implemented on the production and use of PBDEs in this country. Additionally, the Philippines receives e-waste from Western countries, which is becoming a major source of organic contaminants in the tropical Asian regions. Ultimately, the Philippines may be a hot spot for contributing to on-going global PBDE pollution due to long-range atmospheric transport. This paper presents a review of the available literature on PBDEs in both environmental and biological samples collected from the Philippines. It is also intended to provide an overview on the levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in samples from the Philippines and to compare these data with other Asian countries. New data are presented on PBDE occurrence and congener profiles in fish commonly consumed by Filipinos and in particulate matter samples collected in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Both studies contribute to the available knowledge of PBDEs in the Philippines. We aim to stress the importance of future studies in countries receiving e-wastes, such as the Philippines, and suggest what future directions might be taken to enhance the available data on the presence of PBDEs in the Philippine environment. PMID:26453821

  16. A case of Manila type Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Osamu; Nakajima, Chie; Endo, Shiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Hirakata, Yoichi; Uchiyama, Bine; Kaku, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 76-year-old Japanese woman contracted a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB, Manila type) infection in Japan, despite never having traveled. However, her son was treated for TB in the Philippines 3 years before he stayed at her house. Spoligotyping allows us to identify the TB genotype and identify the route of infection. PMID:26273455

  17. A Community-Based Validation Study of the Short-Form 36 Version 2 Philippines (Tagalog) in Two Cities in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Sison, Olivia T.; Grefal, Mary Lenore; Sy, Rody G.; Alix, Oliver C.; Llanes, Elmer Jasper B.; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Gumatay, Allan Wilbert G.; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R.; Velandria, Felicidad V.; Tai, E. Shyong; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Philippines (Tagalog) Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2®) standard questionnaire among Filipinos residing in two cities. Study Design and Setting The official Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 standard (4-week recall) version was pretested on 30 participants followed by formal and informal cognitive debriefing. To obtain the feedback on translation by bilingual respondents, each SF-36v2 question was stated first in English followed by Tagalog. No revisions to the original questionnaire were needed except that participants thought it was appropriate to incorporate "po" in the instructions to make it more polite. Face-to-face interviews of 562 participants aged 20-50 years living in two barangays (villages) in the highly urbanized city of Makati City (Metro Manila) and in urban and rural barangays in Tanauan City (province of Batangas) were subsequently conducted. Content validity, item level validity, reliability and factor structure of the SF-36v2 (Tagalog) were examined. Results Content validity of the SF-36v2 was assessed to be adequate for assessing health status among Filipinos. Item means of Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 were similar with comparable scales in the US English, Singapore (English and Chinese) and Thai SF-36 version 1. Item-scale correlation exceeded 0.4 for all items except the bathing item in PF (correlation: 0.31). In exploratory factor analysis, the US two-component model was supported. However, in confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese three-component model fit the Tagalog data better than the US two-component model. Conclusions The Philippines (Tagalog) SF-36v2 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health status among residents of Makati City (Metro Manila) and Tanauan City (Province of Batangas). PMID:24386281

  18. College Choice in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  19. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

  20. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  1. First report of Trichomonas tenax infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have reported Trichomonas tenax as a cause of pleuropulmonary infections in humans. In this study, sputum and vaginal swab samples were collected from patients suffering from respiratory ailments in Rodriguez, Rizal and sex workers attending the social hygiene clinics in Angeles City in Pampanga, Mandaluyong City and Pasay City in Metro Manila, Philippines, respectively. DNA was extracted from samples and the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results showed that the new primer sets successfully amplified T. tenax from 14 sputum samples and Trichomonas vaginalis from 19 vaginal swab samples. Consequently, all isolates clustered with high bootstrap support and posterior probability values to their respective reference strains in the phylogenetic tree. Thus, the genus Trichomonas formed a highly supported clade with T. vaginalis in the first clade and T. tenax in the second clade. These findings conclude that T. vaginalis is solely present in the genito-urinary tract of females and that T. tenax can be found in the respiratory tract of humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detection and identification of T. tenax from sputum samples in the Philippines. However, further studies are still needed to determine the pathogenicity of this organism in humans. PMID:24406842

  2. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in rivers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Shiota, Tomoyuki; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Yoshida, Hiromu; Saito, Mariko; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Malbas, Fidelino F; Lupisan, Socorro P; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji

    2014-04-01

    To understand the hepatitis E virus (HEV)-pollution status in the environment in the Philippines, a total of 12 water samples were collected from rivers in Manila City for detection of HEV RNA. Three of 12 samples were positive for HEV RNA indicating that HEV is circulating in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis classified all of the HEV sequences into genotype 3. PMID:24591433

  3. Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Philippines, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Isolde; Dapat, Clyde; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mayuko; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Aniceto, Rapunzel; Quicho, Reynaldo Frederick Negosa; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR) of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%), of which 305 (72.1%) and 118 (27.9%) were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05) and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines. PMID:26540236

  4. Philippine president announces population policy.

    PubMed

    1970-02-01

    President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines has announced a national policy for family planning, following his recent reelection for a second term of office. Under the policy adopted by the President, the Philippine Government is committed to undertake and encourage programs to provide information and advice for couples wishing to space or limit their child-bearing activities. The Presidential Commission on Population, in a report based on recommendations drawn up after more than 20 meetings by the 22 members, and states that the unfettered population growth will gravely hamper efforts to improve living standards for Filipinos and will block the attainment of national development goals. However, the Commission emphasized that the program will be educational and persuasive, not coercive. Family planning services have been growing rapidly in the Philippines over the past few years as a result of the initiative of several pioneer organizations assisted by the IPPF. President Marcos' government signed the United Nations Declaration on Population in 1967 and in January 1969 he established The Commission on Population. The Philippine press has consistently backed the campaign for widespread availability of family planning services. The Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization, under it's Director, Dr. Francisco Dy, which has its headquarters in Manila, has its headquarters in Manila, has fostered a regional interest through its technical discussions and the training of field personnel. Depthnews recently reported that the latest Philippine demographic survey asserts that Filipina women are bearing children so fast that the country will hold on to the undisputed title of possessing the highest birth rate in Asia. The growth rate is 3.5%, and the average completed size of a Filipino family is 6.8 children. This swift rate of growth will boost the 1969 population of 37.1 million to 38.4 at the end of this decade. It is noted that unless curbed, it will

  5. Higher Education in the Philippines: An Overview and Current Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel H.

    1978-01-01

    Among current problems facing higher education in the Philippines are (1) bilingualism (English and Filipino), (2) accreditation, (3) government regulations, (4) overproduction of graduates, (5) mismatch between graduates and needed skills, (6) imbalance between public and private schools, (7) overconcentration of students in Manila, and (8)…

  6. Combined cycle comes to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The first combined cycle power station in the Philippines has gone into operation at National Power Corporation`s (NPC) Limay Bataan site, some 40 km west of Manila. The plant comprises two 300 MW blocks in 3+3+1 configuration, based on ABB Type GT11N gas turbines. It was built by a consortium of ABB, with their Japanese licensee Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Marubeni Corporation. This paper discusses Philippine power production, design and operation of the Limay Bataan plant, and conversion of an existing turbine of the nuclear plant project that was abandoned earlier, into a combined cycle operation. 6 figs.

  7. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-06-15

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  8. From subduction to collision: results of French POP2 program on Taiwan-Philippine festoon

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, R.; Stephan, J.F.; Rangin, C.; Baladad, D.; Bouysse, Ph.; Chen, M.P.; Chotin, P.; Collot, J.Y.; Daniel, J.; Drouhot, J.M.; Marsset, B.; Pelletier, B.; Richard, M.; Tardy, M.

    1986-07-01

    A sea-beam, seismic, magnetic, and gravimetric survey was conducted with the R/V Jean-Charcot in three key regions off the Taiwan-Philippine festoon in the western Pacific: (1) Ryukyu active margin and its junction with Taiwan; (2) northern part of the Manila Trench and its junction with the Taiwan tectonic prism; and (3) southern termination of Manila Trench in front of Mindoro Island. Transitions between active subduction along the Manila Trench and collision of Taiwan and Mindoro, and relations between active subduction and extension in the Okinawa-Ryukyu and the northeastern Taiwan systems are particularly studied.

  9. Country watch: the Philippines.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The bold, rational approach to condom use brought by Dr. Juan Flavier, Secretary of the Department of Health (DOH), to the Philippines has dramatically increased awareness about AIDS as well as the levels of condom promotion and acceptance. Dr. Flavier became Secretary of the Department in July 1992. Since then, the attention to AIDS-related issues in the Filipino media has dramatically increased. With the moral and tangible support of the President and the Cabinet, and against the platitudes of religious leaders and some senators, Dr. Flavier created media hype over condoms which led to an increase in AIDS awareness from 12% to 86% in little over 1 year. The Secretary is so popular that he received more than 200 speaking invitations/month. December was proclaimed National AIDS Awareness month in 1992 by the DOH and includes special AIDS education and condom distribution activities. An AIDS hotline is operational in Manila; condoms are now openly advertised in the media; and an express door-to-door delivery service has even been launched by a condom distributor. The decision of a 23-year old woman living with AIDS to go public has also helped DOH efforts. Finally, city ordinances in some areas require hotels and motels to provide customers with condoms or make them accessible, and condoms have become part of the standard equipment of the Philippine Armed Forces. PMID:12345381

  10. Scientists Investigate Recent Philippine Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A.; Ong, John Burtkenley T.; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D.; Lapus, Mark R.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P.; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Baliatan, Eden G.; Quimba, Zareth L.; Uichanco, Christopher L.; Paguican, Engielle Mae R.; Remedio, Armelle Reca C.; Lorenzo, Genevieve Rose H.; Avila, Francia B.; Valdivia, Waldemar

    2006-03-01

    A massive landslide devastated the community of Barangay Guinsaugon, Municipality of St. Bernard, Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, at about 10:30 local time on 17 February. The landslide occurred along the steep fault scarp of the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ) (Figure 1a), a large and active tectonic structure that traverses the entire length of the Philippines [Allen, 1962]. Barangay Guinsaugon is located at the foot of the scarp, directly in the path of the downward moving mass of earth. As of 24 February, the landslide caused 122 confirmed deaths; 1,328 people still are missing. To assist in the search and rescue operations that followed the landside, a team of geologists and physicists from the University of Philippines (UP-Diliman, Quezon City) and Ateneo de Manila University conducted an investigation of this area on 21-25 February. The UP-Ateneo team provided technical advice on the geology, which included the identification of the type and characteristics of the landslide.

  11. Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2012-09-15

    Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. PMID:22687350

  12. Using TRMM and GPM precipitation radar for calibration of weather radars in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisologo, Irene; Bookhagen, Bodo; Smith, Taylor; Heistermann, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Torrential and sustained rainfall from tropical cyclones, monsoons, and thunderstorms frequently impact the Philippines. In order to predict, assess, and measure storm impact, it is imperative to have a reliable and accurate monitoring system in place. In 2011, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) established a weather radar network of ten radar devices, eight of which are single-polarization S-band radars and two dual-polarization C-band radars. Because of a low-density hydrometeorological monitoring networks in the Philippines, calibration of weather radars becomes a challenging, but important task. In this study, we explore the potential of scrutinizing the calibration of ground radars by using the observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). For this purpose, we compare different TRMM level 1 and 2 orbital products from overpasses over the Philippines, and compare these products to reflectivities observed by the Philippine ground radars. Differences in spatial resolution are addressed by computing adequate zonal statistics of the local radar bins located within the corresponding TRMM cell in space and time. The wradlib package (Heistermann et al. 2013; Heistermann et al. 2015) is used to process the data from the Subic S-band single-polarization weather radar. These data will be analyzed in conjunction with TRMM data for June to August 2012, three months of the wet season. This period includes the enhanced monsoon of 2012, locally called Habagat 2012, which brought sustained intense rainfall and massive floods in several parts of the country including the most populated city of Metro Manila. References Heistermann, M., Jacobi, S., Pfaff, T. (2013): Technical Note: An open source library for processing weather radar data (wradlib). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 863-871, doi: 10.5194/hess-17-863-2013. Heistermann, M., S. Collis, M. J. Dixon, S. Giangrande, J. J. Helmus, B. Kelley, J

  13. Epidemiologic Study of Blastocystis Infection in an Urban Community in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Belleza, Maria Luz B.; Cadacio, Jessa Louise C.; Borja, Maridel P.; Solon, Juan Antonio A.; Padilla, Mildred A.; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita N.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis has been considered as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an augmented impact on public health. However, the prevalence of this parasite in the Philippines has not been determined. To contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and correlates, sociodemographic factors, hygiene practices, source of water supply, and dog ownership, associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out in randomly selected communities at Pateros, Metro Manila. Fecal samples from respondents were collected and cultured in diphasic agar medium for 3–7 days and examined using light microscopy. Of the 1,271 respondents, 12.98% (95% CI: 11.13–14.83) were detected positive for Blastocystis. Among the correlates of Blastocystis infection, dog ownership was found significantly associated as confirmed by multivariate analysis. Therefore, this factor should be considered in information to create awareness about Blastocystis and to prevent and control Blastocystis infection in particular and diarrheal diseases in general. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish subtype and to determine genetic characteristics of isolates from humans and dogs are recommended to analyze their relationship and provide more conclusive evidence of cross-transmission. PMID:26074981

  14. Comparative Analysis of Leptospira Strains Isolated from Environmental Soil and Water in the Philippines and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Chakraborty, Antara; Miyahara, Satoshi; Segawa, Takaya; Asoh, Tatsuma; Ozuru, Ryo; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    There have been few reports on the epidemiological analysis of environmental Leptospira isolates. This is probably because the isolation of leptospires from the environment was usually unsuccessful due to the overgrowth of contaminants and the slow growth of Leptospira. In this study, we collected a total of 88 samples of soil and water from three sites: Metro Manila and Nueva Ecija, Philippines (an area where Leptospira is now endemic), and Fukuoka, Japan (an area where Leptospira was once endemic). We succeeded in isolating Leptospira from 37 samples by using the novel combination of five antimicrobial agents reported in 2011. The frequencies of positive isolation of Leptospira in the Philippines and Japan were 40 and 46%, respectively. For Leptospira-positive samples, five colonies from each sample were isolated and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates from each area showed their respective characteristics in phylogenetic trees based on the PFGE patterns. Some isolates were closely related to each other across borders. Based on 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, four isolates in Fukuoka were identified as a pathogenic species, L. alstonii; however, its virulence had been lost. One isolate from Nueva Ecija was identified as the intermediate pathogenic species Leptospira licerasiae. Most of the isolates from the environment belonged to nonpathogenic Leptospira species. We also investigated the strain variation among the isolates in a puddle over 5 months. We demonstrated, using PFGE analysis, that Leptospira survived in the wet soil on dry days and appeared in the surface water on rainy days. These results showed that the soil could be a reservoir of leptospires in the environment. PMID:23144130

  15. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  16. Subduction of a buoyant plateau at the Manila Trench: Tomographic evidence and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianke; Zhao, Dapeng; Dong, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    We determined P-wave tomographic images by inverting a large number of arrival-time data from 2749 local earthquakes and 1462 teleseismic events, which are used to depict the three-dimensional morphology of the subducted Eurasian Plate along the northern segment of the Manila Trench. Dramatic changes in the dip angle of the subducted Eurasian Plate are revealed from the north to the south, being consistent with the partial subduction of a buoyant plateau beneath the Luzon Arc. Slab tears may exist along the edges of the buoyant plateau within the subducted plate induced by the plateau subduction, and the subducted lithosphere may be absent at depths greater than 250 km at ˜19°N and ˜21°N. The subducted buoyant plateau is possibly oriented toward NW-SE, and the subducted plate at ˜21°N is slightly steeper than that at ˜19°N. These results may explain why the western and eastern volcanic chains in the Luzon Arc are separated by ˜50 km at ˜18°N, whereas they converge into a single volcanic chain northward, which may be related to the oblique subduction along the Manila Trench caused by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. A low-velocity zone is revealed at depths of 20-200 km beneath the Manila Accretionary Prism at ˜22°N, suggesting that the subduction along the Manila Trench may stop there and the collision develops northward. The Taiwan Orogeny may originate directly from the subduction of the buoyant plateau, because the initial time of the Taiwan Orogeny is coincident with that of the buoyant plateau subduction.

  17. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

  18. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use. PMID:22223297

  19. Things Philippine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongteco, Belen C.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Filipino culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Philippine clothing, a traditional fan, games and toys, eating utensils, and a native shopping bag. A biographical sketch of Dr. Jose Rizal, the "martyr of the Filipino…

  20. Results of trench perpendicular wide angle seismic transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. H.; McIntosh, K. D.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data collected in 2009 aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth as part of the TAIGER program delineate the crustal structure of the Manila subduction zone in the northern South China Sea. As part of that project, we recorded marine seismic data using a deployment of ocean-bottom-seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. instrument pool and National Taiwan Ocean University. The region between northern Luzon and southern Taiwan evolves from oceanic subduction to incipient arc-continent collision. This presentation focuses on results of 2 offshore transects across the Manila subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan. Our goal here is to document the transition from pure oceanic subuction in the south to incipient arc-continent collision in the north, an understanding of which is integral for future geodynamic modeling of the advanced arc-continent collision in the north. The northern transect, line T2 is located at 21.4° N and used 30 OBSs. Line T1 was located at 20.5° N and used 27 OBSs across the Manila subduction zone. Data quality is extremely variable due to the local geology and quality of seafloor coupling at each instrument. Preliminary travel-time tomography of transect T2 shows a 10-15 km thick Eurasian crust with crustal velocities of 5-7.5 km/sec entering the Manila trench suggesting thinned continental crust, serpentinized upper mantle, or both in this region. The model shows the accretionary prism to be cored by high velocity material (6-7 km/sec) that may be the result of accretion of crustal material from the subducting Eurasian slab. We also observe asymmetric crustal thickening beneath the Gagua Ridge that is potentially a result of failed subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate westward along the Gagua Ridge. The wide-angle data is complimented by MCS reflection data to constrain sediment thickness, top of the crystalline basement, and moho. Preliminary work is in progress with transect T1 which will be

  1. Effect of Tsunamis generated in the Manila Trench on the Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangrassamee, Anat; Saelem, Nopporn

    2009-09-01

    Tsunamis generated in the Manila Trench can be a threat to Thailand. Besides runup of tsunamis along the eastern coast, infrastructures in the Gulf of Thailand, for example, gas pipelines and platforms can be affected by tsunamis. In this study, the simulation of tsunamis in the Gulf of Thailand is conducted. Six cases of fault ruptures in the Manila trench are considered for earthquakes with magnitudes of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0. The linear shallow water wave theory in spherical coordinate system is used for tsunami simulation in the large area covering Southeast Asia while the nonlinear shallow water wave theory in Cartesian coordinate system is used for tsunami simulation in the Gulf of Thailand. It is found that tsunamis reach the southern part of Thailand in 13 h after an earthquake and reach Bangkok in 19 h. The tsunami amplitude is largest in the direction towards the Philippines and Vietnam. The southern part of China is also severely affected. The Gulf of Thailand is affected by the diffraction of tsunamis around the southern part of Vietnam and Cambodia. The tsunami amplitude at the southernmost coastline is about 0.65 m for the M w 9.0 earthquake. The current velocity in the Gulf of Thailand due to the M w 9.0 earthquake is generally less than 0.2 m/s.

  2. Exhumation of serpentinized peridotite in the northern Manila subduction zone inferred from forward gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chung-Liang; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Brown, Dennis; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2015-10-01

    The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research program (TAIGER) collected two wide-angle and reflection seismic transects across the northern Manila subduction zone that provide constraints on the seismic velocity structure of the crust. Two-dimensional gravity modeling along these two transects shows a significant, relatively high density (3.12 and 3.02 g/cm3) in the fore-arc region, at the interface between the subducting Eurasian Plate and the accretionary prism in front of the Luzon arc on the overriding Philippine Sea Plate. The anomalous density in this zone is higher than that in the fore-arc crust and the accretionary prism but lower than that in mantle. Numerous geophysical and geological data, together with numerical models, have indicated that serpentinization of the fore-arc mantle is both expected and observed. Serpentinization of mantle rocks can dramatically reduce their seismic velocity and therefore their seismic velocity in a density to velocity conversion. Therefore, the source of the high-density material could be serpentinized fore-arc mantle, with serpentinization caused by the dehydration of the subducting Eurasian Plate. We interpret that positive buoyancy combined with weak plate coupling forces in the northern Manila subduction zone is resulting in this serpentinized fore-arc mantle peridotite being exhumed.

  3. Extending lactational amenorrhoea in Manila: a successful breast-feeding education programme.

    PubMed

    Benitez, I; de la Cruz, J; Suplido, A; Oblepias, V; Kennedy, K; Visness, C

    1992-04-01

    An experimental breast-feeding education programme conducted at the Philippine General Hospital in Manila demonstrated that women could be motivated to improve their breast-feeding practices and lengthen their period of lactational amenorrhoea in comparison to a control group. Mothers who participated in the programme breast-fed their babies more frequently, delayed the introduction of regular supplements, used fewer bottles and pacifiers and maintained night feeding longer than mothers who were not exposed to the positive breast-feeding messages. The programme was successful in lengthening the period of amenorrhoea among women with elementary, high school, or technical school education, but not among college-educated women. Different educational approaches may be necessary for women of different education levels. PMID:1583035

  4. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rillera, F.G.

    1995-08-21

    Cophil Exploration Corp., a Filipino public company, spearheaded 1995 Philippine oil and gas exploration activity with the start of its gas delineation drilling operations in Libertad, northern Cebu. Cophil and its Australian partners, Coplex Resources NL and PacRim Energy NL, have set out to complete a seven well onshore drilling program within this block this year. The companies are testing two modest shallow gas plays, Libertad and Dalingding, and a small oil play, Maya, all in northern Cebu about 500 km southeast of Manila. Following a short discussion on the geology and exploration history of the Visayan basin, this article briefly summarizes Cophil`s ongoing Cebu onshore drilling program. Afterwards, discussion focuses on identified exploration opportunities in the basin`s offshore sector.

  5. The buoyancy variation of plate coupling from subduction to collision: an example across the northernmost Manila trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chung-Liang; Doo, Wen-Bin; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2015-04-01

    The Manila trench is the boundary between the South China Sea (SCS) of Eurasian Plate (EU) and Philippine Sea Plate (PSP). The east subducting of SCS is a ceased rifting oceanic crust. To the north, the subduction is obscured and transits to collision extended to the Taiwan orogenesis. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project has implemented several offshore multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle seismic experiments to model the velocity structure of the incipient arc-continental collision. Amongst, along two trench perpendicular transects (MGL0905_23, 25) are associated with ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployed in the northern Manila trench. The transect MCS data and tomographic velocity structure provide well constraint on the recognition between the crust and mantle lithosphere that helps to reconstruct synthetic density structure to fit the observation gravity data. The synthetic gravity result along two transects also show that there exists an anomalous high density (~2.97 g/cm3) mass beneath the accretionary prism in the leading edge of overriding plate; however, unfortunately, the MCS and OBS data have no resolution there. Meanwhile, the buoyancies of crust (Hc) and mantle lithosphere (Hm) can be calculated associated with the residual topography based on the isostatic equilibrium. According to the contribution of Hm, the estimation of the plate coupling effect can be approached. Combining two transects data across the northern Manila trench and one profile across the Hengchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan (T29-33, TAICRUST project), a sequence from subduction to collision of plate coupling effect can therefore be evaluated, and also offers the opportunity to examine the lithospheric structure variation in the zone between Taiwan and northernmost Manila trench.

  6. Tectonics of the Philippines and ambient regions from geophysical inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, C.; Zhou, Z.; Fairhead, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The geological study in the Philippines and ambient regions is relatively low so far for the rather scanty data and complex geological structure. Therefore it is a challenge to do the research with limited data. In this paper, an investigation of the Philippines and surrounding area has been carried out using regional magnetic and gravity anomalies. Owing to the difficulties and limitations in reduction to the pole at the low latitudes, analytical signal amplitudes of magnetic anomalies are calculated as the equivalent substitute. Application of the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm to Bouguer gravity anomalies yields a 3D Moho topography. Curie-point depths are estimated from the magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm. This paper aims to reveal the structure of the Manila subduction zone accurately, and moreover, to clarify the interplay between the magmatism and subduction in the Manila Trench and East Luzon Trough. On the basis of Bouguer gravity anomaly and AS(analytical signal) of magnetic anomaly, the positions of hydrated mantle wedge in the subduction zones of this area are identified in the areas charicterizd by the distribution of high-and low value of Bouguer gravity anomaly or the paralell high value of Bouguer gravity anomaly and AS. Using our inversion results together with some other published information, the boundaries of Palawan Block, Philippine Mobile Belt and Sulu-Celebes Block are defined and the collision history of PCB(Palawan continental block)-PMB (Philippine mobile belt) and PCB-Sulu Sea is also discussed. A "seismic gap" near the 14 degree north latitude on Manila Trench, mentioned in previous studies, is thought to be induced by the slab melting and plastic behavior due to the relatively high geothermal gradient. In the central Philippines, it is likely that an incipient collision-related rifting is proceeding. Furthermore, a possible new evolution model of Sulu Sea, in which the Cagayan Ridge area is thought to be the

  7. Analysis of crustal deformation in Luzon, Philippines using geodetic observations and earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, Gerald; Hamburger, Michael; McCaffrey, Robert; Corpuz, Ernesto; Chen, Qizhi

    2007-03-01

    We utilize regional GPS velocities from Luzon, Philippines, with focal mechanism data from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) Catalog, to constrain tectonic deformation in the complex plate boundary zone between the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasia (the Sundaland block). Processed satellite imagery and digital elevation models are used with existing gravity anomaly, seismicity, and geologic maps to define a suite of six elastic blocks. Geodetic and focal mechanism data are inverted simultaneously to estimate plate rotations and fault-locking parameters for each of the tectonic blocks and faults comprising Luzon. Major tectonic structures that were found to absorb the plate convergence include the Manila Trench (20-100 mm yr - 1 ) and East Luzon Trough (˜ 9-15 mm yr - 1 )/Philippine Trench (˜ 29-34 mm yr - 1 ), which accommodate eastward and westward subduction beneath Luzon, respectively; the left-lateral strike-slip Philippine Fault (˜ 20-40 mm yr - 1 ), and its northward extensions, the Northern Cordillera Fault (˜ 17-37 mm yr - 1 transtension), and the Digdig Fault (˜ 17-27 mm yr - 1 transpression). The Macolod Corridor, a zone of active volcanism, crustal thinning, extension, and extensive normal and strike-slip faulting in southwestern Luzon, is associated with left-lateral, transtensional slip of ˜ 5-10 mm yr - 1 . The Marikina Fault, which separates the Central Luzon block from the Southwestern Luzon block, reveals ˜ 10-12 mm yr - 1 of left-lateral transpression. Our analysis suggests that much of the Philippine Fault and associated splays are locked to partly coupled, while the Manila and Philippine trenches appear to be poorly coupled. Luzon is best characterized as a tectonically active plate boundary zone, comprising six mobile elastic tectonic blocks between two active subduction zones. The Philippine Fault and associated intra-arc faults accommodate much of the trench-parallel component of relative plate motion.

  8. Philippines (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the 1980 Philippine census enumerated 48.1 million persons, a more than 6-fold increase over the 7.6 million of 1903. The 1913-39 average intercensal growth rate of 2.22% declined during World War II but soared to 3.06% from 1948-60. The growth rate was 2.71% between 1975-80. The median age was 20.2 in 1903, 16.9 in 1970 and 18.6 in 1980. The crude birth rate declined from 46.0/1000 in 1960 to 34.8 in 1975, while the crude death rate declined from 13.7/1000 in 1960 to 9.3 in 1975. The average age of Filipino women at marriage increased from 23.2 in 1975 to 24 in 1978, causing a decline of the total fertility rate from 5.89 to 4.70. The infant mortality rate was expected to decline from 59.3 in 1983 to 54.2 in 1987. The Philippines was still 63% rural in 1980 despite the concentration of urban growth in Manila. As of 1983, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration had processed 434,207 employment contracts, of which 65.5% were for production process workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers, 15.3% were for service workers, and 13.9% were for professional and technical workers. The Philippine Family Planning program aims to reduce population growth from an estimated 2.54% in 1983 to 1.92% by 1993 and to achieve replacement level fertility by 2010. As a result of the 1978 review of the Philippine Population Programme, the focus is now on longterm planning to ensure more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. The Population Education Program aims to inculcate values supporting family planning in the areas of family size and welfare, responsible parenthood, and delayed marriage, while the Adolescent Fertility Program seeks to reduce the incidence of early marriage and pregnancy. 3496 clinics, hospitals, and sterilization centers provide family planning and related services

  9. Intelligent metro network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhongsheng; Kan, Yulun; Wang, Licun

    2001-10-01

    Metro networks have evolved dynamically since its position in the network infrastructure. To gain competitive advantage in this attractive market, carriers should emphasize not only just the power of their networks in terms of the speed, number of channels, distance covered, but also the network's versatility in supporting variety of access interfaces, flexibility in bandwidth provisioning, ability of differentiated service offering, and capability of network management. Based on an overview of four emerging metro network technologies, an intelligent metro network control platform is introduced. The intelligent control platform is necessary for carriers to meet the new metro requirements. Intelligent control and management functions of the platform are proposed respectively. Intelligent metro network will bridge the metro gap and open up a whole new set of services and applications.

  10. An Overview of Geothermal Development in Tiwi and Mak-Ban, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1980-12-16

    Commercial-scale geothermal development in the Philippines began i n 1972 with the completion of the discovery well in the southeastern portion of Luzon Island. A second geothermal anomaly was discovered i n 1975 on the southern flank of Mt . Makiling, forty miles south of Manila. Both fields are being developed and operated by Philippine Geothermal, Inc. (PGI) , a wholly-owned subsidiary of Union Oil Company of California. Currently the Philippines ranks second worldwide in installed geothermal-powered electrical generation capacity with 443 MW and PGI has developed 440 PW of the 443 MW country total. Additional generation capacity is planned or under construction in both fields. Over 1.9 billion kilowatt-hours of electrical power have been produced to date. This represents a savings of approximately three million barrels of imported fuel oil for power generation.

  11. People first in the Philippines: Gelia Castillo.

    PubMed

    Yabes, C

    1995-01-01

    Gelia Castillo, a specialist in rural sociology whose ideas have influenced policymakers in government, international development circles, and academe, pioneered the concept of participatory development. Born into a poor family, her father convinced her that academic achievement was the key to her future; her academic training includes a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of the Philippines, a Master's in rural sociology from Pennsylvania State University, and a Doctorate from Cornell University. She served as professor of rural sociology at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and published extensively on women's roles, the sex roles of Filipino adolescents, agricultural school administration, the team approach in community development, rice and potato farming, the changing social images in a developing society, and the protein gap. "Beyond Manila," her most famous book, was the first comprehensive research work on income distribution, employment, labor, education, and migration in the rural Philippines. She underscored the definition of "household" and observed that the role of women and children contributes greatly to the dynamics of society. Her husband, Leopoldo Castillo, an animal nutritionist who is now professor emeritus at the Institute of Animal Science, has long supported his wife's career. The mother of two daughters and one son was the only female member of the board of the International Potato Center for 6 years and served on the boards of the IDRC, the International Service for National Agriculture Research, and the International Council for Research in Agroforestry. At 66, and retired, she believes affirmative action is necessary and that the feminist movement has only helped professional women. PMID:12288549

  12. Plate convergence measured by GPS across the Sundaland/Philippine Sea Plate deformed boundary: the Philippines and eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Mazzotti, S.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Aurelio, M.; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Quebral, R.

    1999-11-01

    The western boundary of the Philippine Sea (PH) Plate in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia corresponds to a wide deformation zone that includes the stretched continental margin of Sundaland, the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB), extending from Luzon to the Molucca Sea, and a mosaic of continental blocks around the PH/Australia/Sunda triple junction. The GPS GEODYSSEA data are used to decipher the present kinematics of this complex area. In the Philippines, the overall scheme is quite simple: two opposing rotations on either side of the left-lateral Philippine Fault, clockwise to the southwest and counterclockwise to the northeast, transfer 55 per cent of the PH/Sundaland convergence from the Manila Trench to the northwest to the Philippine Trench to the southeast. Further south, 80 per cent of the PH/Sunda convergence is absorbed in the double subduction system of the Molucca Sea and less than 20 per cent along both continental margins of northern Borneo. Finally, within the triple junction area between the Sundaland, PH and Australia plates, from Sulawesi to Irian Jaya, preferential subduction of the Celebes Sea induces clockwise rotation of the Sulu block, which is escaping toward the diminishing Celebes Sea oceanic space from the eastward-advancing PH Plate. To the south, we identify an undeformed Banda block that rotates counterclockwise with respect to Australia and clockwise with respect to Sundaland. The kinematics of this block can be defined and enable us to compute the rates of southward subduction of the Banda block within the Flores Trench and of eastward convergence of the Makassar Straits with the Banda block. The analysis made in this paper confirms that this deformation is compatible with the eastward motion of Sundaland with respect to Eurasia determined by the GEODYSSEA programme but is not compatible with the assumption that Sundaland belongs to Eurasia, as was often assumed prior to this study.

  13. Family, Child Labour and Migration: Child Domestic Workers in Metro Manila.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Agnes Zenaida V.

    1999-01-01

    Explored the complex interrelationship between the family, child work and migration, the role of the family in decision making and migration process, and the economic benefits of labor migration for the child's family. Found that migrants' family-based contacts in location and recruitment process were important. Determined priorities identified by…

  14. The Philippines: Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackford, Julie; Aquino, Belinda A., Ed.

    This book provides readings and student lessons about the Philippines. Lessons and activities follow a chronological sequence and provide a good resource for those interested in the Philippines. The materials begin with prehistoric times and continue to the presidency of Corazon Aquino. Each chapter provides background information along with a…

  15. Air quality in Metropolitan Manila: Inferences from a questionable data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, James P.

    Metropolitan Manila, Republic of the Philippines, is one of the more polluted cities in the world. It may be unique in that, to all appearances, the air pollutant loading is virtually all particulate. The Philippine government is now, with support from a number of international agencies, attempting to set priorities and control the most serious of its environmental problems. There have been numerous attempts to estimate the relative contributions of various sources of air pollutants, but the lack of emission factors applicable to the specific technologies used in Manial makes these suspect. Air monitoring data are available, but are seriously compromised by the lack of quality assurance capabilities and calibration facilities for the monitors. During years 1987-1989 several data sets were taken at stations in the area. The sampling/monitoring equipment consisted of the survivors from a larger number of devices bought a number of years earlier, and kept running by progressive cannibalization of less viable instruments to provide parts for the balance. Hence neither the accuracy nor the precision of the data were known. Accuracy could not, of course, be ascertained. However, a number of statistical techniques (some only marginally applicable in the strict statistical sense, since the data were almost certainly not normally distributed) showed the data to have about the expected dispersion, to have some interesting coherences, and to reveal that the airborne particles had, on average, a quite constant iron content. Almost certainly this indicated a significant soil source for particulate matter, not previously identified. On the whole, the data set was probably better than most visiting scientists had believed, and could be used for planning further studies, though not for setting control priorities.

  16. The Garden Cafe. An experiment in vocational education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Olson, J R

    1992-07-01

    The author visited Bohol, a picturesque island in the Philippines 350 miles south of Manila, in 1986 and 1990 to observe and record the emerging deaf culture. Before the Peace Corps started a school program on the island some eight years ago, deaf children grew up functionally illiterate. Those who have not been found and are not enrolled in the fledgling school program still do, as they are completely isolated from the deaf community. This article describes heroic efforts to teach vocational skills to the deaf in Bohol. The project not only succeeded but led to the island's best restaurant, The Garden Cafe. PMID:1414869

  17. Seismotectonics and Crustal Thickness of Northwest Mindoro, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.; Olavere, E. A.; Lee, K. M.; Bautista, B.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Huang, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mindoro Island locates where the Palawan Continental Block (PCB) indented into the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) during the Early Miocene and where the Manila Trench terminates, having ceased convergence due to collision. On the transition from subduction to collision, Northwest Mindoro exhibits vigorous seismic activity and has been debated about its affiliation being PCB or PMB. Here, we use data from both the EHB and Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogues to study the regional seismotectonics. We also deployed five broadband stations to probe the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro using receiver function analysis. Results show that, following the southeasterly reduction of convergence rates at the southern termination of the Manila Trench, the slab dipping angles steepen, were initiated at depth (~200 km) and propagate upwards. The horizontal distances of the trench and slab, as measured from the Wadati-Benioff zone at 200 km depth, also reduce in a southeasterly direction. Observations of intermediate-depth earthquakes that exhibit predominantly down-dip extensional stress patterns attest that the steepening of slab dipping angles is due to the negative buoyancy of the slab. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis suggest that the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro is about 40 km and is probably PCB affiliated.

  18. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  19. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Philippine Ethnoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, D. L.

    2009-03-01

    Ethnoastronomy refers to the system of beliefs and practices of ethno-linguistic groups regarding astronomical and meteorological phenomena which form part of the upper world in their three-world view of the universe. For the Philippines, the study is relevant in the investigation of Philippine pre-colonial society and culture. It is also important in showing the diversity, commonality, richness and depth of what would be referred to later on as Philippine cultures. Through this study, various Philippine groups which are usually neglected in the writing of history are brought to the forefront to share in the limelight with mainstream groups in tracing the development of this society and culture. The study focuses on the indigenous world view, beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding the sun, the moon, the eclipse and the stars. It shows how astronomical, as well as meteorological, phenomena influence the way people look at the world and the way they think, behave and live. Beliefs and knowledge regarding these phenomena inform their everyday life then and now as they continuously engage in agriculture, fishing, hunting, and trading, in observing various rituals, in building a house, and even in securing good fortune in any undertaking.

  20. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  1. AIDS as a political issue: working with the sexually prostituted in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; De Leon, A; Stoltzfus, B; O'donnell, C

    1989-07-01

    An estimated 200,000-500,000 men, women, and children work in prostitution in the Philippines in a variety of venues, including brothels, nightclubs, pubs, massage parlors, and other legitimate entertainment establishments. Few, however, are voluntary prostitutes. Many people who work as prostitutes have been recruited from the provinces, kept in conditions similar to slavery, and forced to earn money from prostitution to pay for their transportation, board, and lodging. Many prostitutes work in urban centers and tourist resorts in the countryside. During the 1970s, then President Ferdinand Marcos promoted tourism as a major industry, effectively marketing attractive Filipinas to tourists. Sex tourism has flourished in the country ever since. Thousands of prostitutes are also located in Olongapo and Angeles, 2 cities north of Manila, from where they serve the sexual desires of US military personnel. The presence of US military personnel in the Philippines has always been associated with prostitution. The country's social hygiene centers, prostitutes in Manila and Davao, and AIDS education are briefly discussed. PMID:12293749

  2. Fine-tuning Philippine transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, R.

    1994-11-01

    Expanding the power generation and distribution capability of the Philippines remains a top priority of the Philippine government. It is therefore not surprising that a number of the most significant legislative initiatives approved by the Philippine legislature in the past few years have been designed to encourage these activities in particular. There are several recent, significant statutes that will affect both power and non-power projects undertaken in the Philippines.

  3. Country Profiles, The Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concepcion, Mercedes B.

    A profile of the Philippines is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  4. A new branch of the Philippine fault system as observed from aeromagnetic and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischke, Richard E.; Suppe, John; del Pilar, Rafael

    1990-11-01

    reconstruction the Central Luzon basin and Luzon volcanic arc are continuous with the forearc basin and volcanic belt on Panay, as a continuous arc and forearc extending from northern Ilocos to southern Panay. After collision with the Palawan-Mindoro continental block, continued motion along the Manila trench north of Mindoro has ruptured the central Philippines along the Sibuyan Sea branch of the Philippine fault. Thus the Sibuyan Sea branch could account for most of the post-early to middle Miocene relative motion between Luzon and the Visayas.

  5. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Philippine Sea plate and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex tectonics surrounding the Philippine Islands are dominated by the interactions of the Pacific, Sunda, and Eurasia plates with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The latter is unique because it is almost exclusively surrounded by zones of plate convergence. At its eastern and southeastern edges, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath the PSP at the Izu-Bonin, Mariana, and Yap trenches. Here, the subduction zone exhibits high rates of seismic activity to depths of over 600 km, though no great earthquakes (M>8.0) have been observed, likely because of weak coupling along the plate interface. In the northeast, the PSP subducts beneath Japan and the eastern margin of the Eurasia plate at the Nankai and Ryukyu trenches, extending westward to Taiwan. The Nankai portion of this subduction zone has hosted some of the largest earthquakes along the margins of the PSP, including a pair of Mw8.1 megathrust events in 1944 and 1946. Along its western margin, the convergence of the PSP and the Sunda plate is responsible for a broad and active plate boundary system extending along both sides of the Philippine Islands chain. The region is characterized by opposite-facing subduction systems on the east and west sides of the islands, and the archipelago is cut by a major transform structure: the Philippine Fault. Subduction of the Philippine Sea plate occurs at the eastern margin of the islands along the Philippine Trench and its northern extension, the East Luzon Trough. On the west side of Luzon, the Sunda Plate subducts eastward along a series of trenches, including the Manila Trench in the north, the smaller Negros Trench in the central Philippines, and the Sulu and Cotabato trenches in the south. Twentieth and early twentyfirst century seismic activity along the boundaries of the Philippine Sea plate has produced seven great (M>8.0) earthquakes and 250 large (M>7) events. Among the most destructive events were the 1923 Kanto, the 1948 Fukui, and the 1995 Kobe, Japan

  6. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  7. Tongonani geothermal power development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Minson, A.A.C.; Fry, T.J.; Kivell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the features, design and construction of a 112 MWe geothermal power project, representing the first stage development of the substantial geothermal resources of the central Philippine region. The project has been undertaken by the Philippine Government. The National Powe Corporation is responsible for generation and distribution facilities and the Philippine National Oil Company Energy Development Corporation is responsible for controlled delivery of steam to the powe station.

  8. Metro passenger behaviors and their relations to metro incident involvement.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xin; Li, Qiming; Yuan, Jingfeng; Schonfeld, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    The frequent incidents caused by metro passengers in China suggest that it is necessary to explore the classification and effects of passenger behaviors and their relations to incident involvement. A metro passenger behavior questionnaire (MPBQ) and a metro station staff questionnaire (MSSQ), both comprising 32 behavior items, were developed and surveyed on a sample of metro passengers (N=579) and metro staff (N=99). Using the MPBQ, the self-reported frequency of each aberrant behavior was measured and subjected to explanatory factor analysis, which revealed a three-factor solution on the 28 retained behavior items: transgressions, self-willed inattentions and abrupt violations. ANOVA was used to examine the effects of demographic and riding profile variables on different types of behaviors. The MSSQ was used to collect metro staff opinions on behavior frequency, severity and entities that might be affected, given that a specific behavior occurred. An importance hierarchy was established over the 32 identified behaviors to determine the most important riding behaviors. Finally, logistic regression showed that riding time, number of stops experienced by a passenger and, more importantly, transgressions and abrupt violations, were significant predictors of incident involvement. The possible explanations and implications of the findings might help in understanding passenger behaviors and targeting metro safety interventions in ways that promote safer operations. PMID:26056970

  9. Estimation of the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Maria Leonila P.; Oike, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine earthquakes from 1589 to 1895 are estimated based on the review, evaluation and interpretation of historical accounts and descriptions. The first step involves the determination of magnitude-felt area relations for the Philippines for use in the magnitude estimation. Data used were the earthquake reports of 86, recent, shallow events with well-described effects and known magnitude values. Intensities are assigned according to the modified Mercalli intensity scale of I to XII. The areas enclosed by Intensities III to IX [ A(III) to A(IX)] are measured and related to magnitude values. The most robust relations are found for magnitudes relating to A(VI), A(VII), A(VIII) and A(IX). Historical earthquake data are obtained from primary sources in libraries in the Philippines and Spain. Most of these accounts were made by Spanish priests and officials stationed in the Philippines during the 15th to 19th centuries. More than 3000 events are catalogued, interpreted and their intensities determined by considering the possible effects of local site conditions, type of construction and the number and locations of existing towns to assess completeness of reporting. Of these events, 485 earthquakes with the largest number of accounts or with at least a minimum report of damage are selected. The historical epicenters are estimated based on the resulting generalized isoseismal maps augmented by information on recent seismicity and location of known tectonic structures. Their magnitudes are estimated by using the previously determined magnitude-felt area equations for recent events. Although historical epicenters are mostly found to lie on known tectonic structures, a few, however, are found to lie along structures that show not much activity during the instrumented period. A comparison of the magnitude distributions of historical and recent events showed that only the period 1850 to 1900 may be considered well-reported in terms of

  10. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  11. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.41 Philippine service. (a) For a Regular Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  12. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.41 Philippine service. (a) For a Regular Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  13. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.41 Philippine service. (a) For a Regular Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  14. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.41 Philippine service. (a) For a Regular Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  15. 38 CFR 3.41 - Philippine service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Philippine service. 3.41..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.41 Philippine service. (a) For a Regular Philippine Scout or a member of one of the regular components of the Philippine Commonwealth Army...

  16. Asian mining '85: Papers presented at the conference, Manila, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference in Asian mining. Contents include: geological characteristics and evolution of a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit at Guinaoang, Luzon, Philippines; influence of cable support in assessing open strope viability; modular processing plants to improve mineral recovery at Indonesian tin mines; development of a new cobalt recovery process at the Sungao Nickel refinery; design and construction of the Padaena zinc refinery; and, design, construction and operation of the carbon in pulp plant, Siana gold mine, Philippines.

  17. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth

  18. Monthly and Seasonal Cloud Cover Patterns at the Manila Observatory (14.64°N, 121.08°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Lagrosas, N.; Caballa, K.

    2014-12-01

    A ground based sky imaging system was developed at the Manila Observatory in 2012 to measure cloud occurrence and to analyse seasonal variation of cloud cover over Metro Manila. Ground-based cloud occurrence measurements provide more reliable results compared to satellite observations. Also, cloud occurrence data aid in the analysis of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a GoPro Hero 2 with almost 180o field of view is employed to take pictures of the atmosphere. These pictures are taken continuously, having a temporal resolution of 1min. Atmospheric images from April 2012 to June 2013 (excluding the months of September, October, and November 2012) were processed to determine cloud cover. Cloud cover in an image is measured as the ratio of the number of pixels with clouds present in them to the total number of pixels. The cloud cover values were then averaged over each month to know its monthly and seasonal variation. In Metro Manila, the dry season occurs in the months of November to May of the next year, while the wet season occurs in the months of June to October of the same year. Fig 1 shows the measured monthly variation of cloud cover. No data was collected during the months of September (wherein the camera was used for the 7SEAS field campaign), October, and November 2012 (due to maintenance and repairs). Results show that there is high cloud cover during the wet season months (80% on average) while there is low cloud cover during the dry season months (62% on average). The lowest average cloud cover for a wet season month occurred in June 2012 (73%) while the highest average cloud cover for a wet season month occurred in June 2013 (86%). The variations in cloud cover average in this season is relatively smaller compared to that of the dry season wherein the lowest average cloud cover in a month was during April 2012 (38%) while the highest average cloud cover in a month was during January 2013 (77%); minimum and maximum averages being 39

  19. Seismic constraints on subduction of the fossil ridge beneath Luzon Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, M.; Yang, T.; Le, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of a preexisting facture zone appears to control many aspects of the subducting process, including the stress field, mantle melting and geochemical signature on the overriding plate. The fossil ridge in South China Sea (SCS), along with the overriding seamounts, is now subducting along Manila trench below the Luzon Island, Philippines, providing a unique setting to study such a complex process. Here we present an upper mantle P-wave velocity structure derived from a finite frequency teleseismic tomography using primarily OBS data in SCS. The OBS data was collected from two passive source experiments carried out along the fossil ridge close to Manila trench. Both the deployments were over six months, and they retrieved valid data at 10 and 6 OBSs, respectively. To constrain the upper mantle structure beneath Luzon, we will employ the Source Side Seismic tomography (3STomo) method, in which the roles of station and earthquake are interchanged compared to the conventional teleseismic tomography. We will combine the 3STomo with the conventional tomography using OBSs and a few land stations to construct an upper mantle structure model for the whole region. We expect our seismic images would be helpful to explain the seismicity pattern and the geochemical signature observed on Luzon Island.

  20. Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Retière, Christian; Olivier, Frédéric

    2008-08-01

    The major French site of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves, 1850) cultivation is located in the Chausey Archipelago where the associated practices are highly mechanized: every steps of production are made with tractor-driven machinery. The Manila clam concessions are concentrated on Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) bioherms, which are known to increase alpha-diversity and to locally modify sediment dynamics. This study focus on the impacts of Manila clam cultivation on (i) the natural populations of L. conchilega and on (ii) the structure of the associated benthic assemblages during the different steps of the farming production cycle. We found that the L. conchilega populations are significantly affected within the concessions where their total abundances drastically decrease, their spatial patterns are modified and the associated benthic assemblages are significantly altered. Our results are discussed in a context of a sustainable management of the Manila clam cultivation in coastal areas. PMID:18561956

  1. A preliminary seismic study of Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S.-H.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Chang, T.-M.; Chang, E. T. Y.; Solidum, R.

    2013-03-01

    The very active Taal Volcano lies in the southern part of Luzon Island only 60 km from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. In March 2008 we deployed a temporary seismic network around Taal that consisted of 8 three-component short period seismometers. This network recorded during the period from March to November 2008 about 1050 local events. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified for a number of stations. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. Initial location of each event was derived by manually picked P-/S-phases arrival times using HYPO71 and a general velocity model based on AK135. Since the velocity structure beneath Taal is essentially unknown, we used travel times of 338 well-located events in order to derive a minimum 1D velocity model using VELEST. The resulting locations show that most events occurred at the shallow depth beneath the Taal Volcano, and two major earthquake groups were noticed, with one lying underneath the western shore of Taal lake and the other one spread around the eastern flank of the Taal Volcano. Since there is no reported volcano activities during the operation period of our seismic array, we are still not confident to interpret these findings in terms of other natures of volcano at the current stage. However, our work represents an important pioneer step towards other more advanced seismic studies in Taal Volcano.

  2. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members. PMID:12292274

  3. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  4. Country watch: Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mercado Carreon, L

    1998-01-01

    The Asian Regional Conference on Gender and Communication, held in the Philippines, developed a plan of action to improve the portrayal of women in the mass media. Even in developing countries with traditional attitudes toward women, pornographic-type images are used to boost product sales. The conference's recommendations address the challenges posed by globalization of the media, commercialization of local media, and the increased violation of women's human rights in the media and the question of who has control over the media. After the conference, ISIS Maila assembled a report, "Status of Women and Media: Focus on Violence Against Women," which will be presented at a forum held during the 1998 meeting of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. Gender justice for women in the media requires collaboration among media specialists, women's groups, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, and local and regional networks. PMID:12348696

  5. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p < 0.001), suggesting that household wastewater is discharged directly into rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries. PMID:26304512

  6. Packet transport network in metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Yi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hanzheng; Gong, Ping

    2008-11-01

    IP packet based services such as high speed internet, IP voice and IP video will be widely deployed in telecom network, which make transport network evolution to packet transport network. Characteristics of transport network and requirements of packet transport network are analyzed, T-MPLS/MPLS-TP based PTN technology is given and it will be used in metro (access, aggregation and core) network.

  7. Structure of Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Microbiota at the Organ Scale in Contrasting Sets of Individuals.

    PubMed

    Meisterhans, Guillaume; Raymond, Natalie; Girault, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Bourrasseau, Line; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Garabetian, Frédéric; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrate microbiota has a key function in host physiology and health. To date, knowledge about bivalve microbiota is poorly documented except public health concerns. This study used a molecular approach to characterize the microbiota associated with the bivalve Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) by determining (1) the difference among organs either or not under the influence of host habitat, (2) small-scale variability of microbiota, and (3) the experimental response of the Manila clam microbiota submitted to different lateral transmissions. These questions were investigated by sampling two groups of individuals living in contrasting habitats and carrying out a transplant experiment. Manila clam microbiota (i.e., bacterial community structure) was determined at organ-scale (gills, gut, and a pool of remaining tissues) by capillary electrophoresis DNA fingerprinting (CE fingerprinting). The Manila clam microbiota structure differed among organs indicating a selection of Manila clam microbiota at organ scale. Habitat strongly influenced gill and gut microbiota. In contrast, microbiota associated with remaining tissues was similar between group individuals suggesting that these communities are mostly autochthonous, i.e., Manila clam specific. Transplant experiment showed that improving living condition did not induce any change in microbiota associated with remaining tissues. In contrast, the reduction in individual habitat quality led to individuals in declining health as strongly suggested by the increase in phagocytosis activity and decrease in condition index together with the change in internal organ microbiota. This study provides a first description of the Manila clam holobiont which can withstand disturbance and respond opportunistically to improved environmental conditions. PMID:26311127

  8. Seismic Structure Beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S. H.; Gung, Y.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The very active Taal Volcano is situated 60 km south of Metro Manila in the southern part of Luzon Island. Based on its frequent explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of several million, Taal Volcano is chosen as one of the 15 most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. We deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of 8 stations since March 2008. The temporal network was operated from late March 2008 to mid March 2010 and recorded over 2270 local earthquakes. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified from ambient noise cross-correlation functions for a number of stations. The drifting rates of all problematic stations were determined as references to correct timing errors prior to further processing. Initial locations of earthquakes were determined from manually picking P- and S-phases arrivals with a general velocity model based on AK135. We used travel times of 305 well-located local events to derive a minimum 1-D model using VELEST. Two major earthquake groups were noticed from refined locations. One was underneath the western shore of Taal Lake with a linear feature, and the other spread at shallower depths showing a less compact feature around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using a well-established algorithm, LOTOS. Some interesting features are noted in the tomographic results, such as a probable solidified past magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a potential large hydrothermal reservoir beneath the central of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Combining the results of seismicity and tomographic images, we also suggest the potential existence of a magma chamber beneath the southwestern Taal Lake, and a magma conduit or fault extending from there to the

  9. Geothermal development in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizagaque, R.F.; Tolentino, B.S.

    1982-06-01

    The development of geothermal resources and energy in the Philippines is discussed. Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation initiated the first semi-commercial generation of geothermal power in July 1977 with the installation of a 3MWe plant. By 1980 the country had 440 MWe on line at Mak-Ban and Tiwi. This placed the Philippines second after the US among countries using geothermal energy for power generation. Before the end of 1981, PNOC-EDC added 6 additional MWe of geothermal power generating capacity to increase the total to 446 MWe. As part of the five-year National Energy Development Programme covering the period 1981-1985, additional power plants will be installed in various project areas to increase the share of geothermal power generation from the present 9.8% to 18.6% of the nationwide power-generation total, or the equivalent of 16.6 million barrels of oil per year. (MJF)

  10. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  11. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Suplido, M L; Ong, C N

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socioeconomic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers (54.23 microg/dL) when compared to radiator workers (20.04 microg/dL) and unexposed adults (12.56 microg/dL) (P<0.001). Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 microg/dL for males and 30 microg/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels (49.88 microg/dL) compared to radiator shop children (11.84 microg/dL) and unexposed children (9.92 microg/dL). For workers with PbB > 40 microg/dL, 90% were anemic (Hb < 13 g/dL for males and <11.5 g/dL for females). Linear regression showed a correlation (r=-0.214; P=0.03) between Hb level and log(10)PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children (r=-0.146). We conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children. PMID:10702330

  12. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Suplido, M.L.; Ong, C.N.

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socio-economic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers when compared to radiator workers and unexposed adults. Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 {micro}g/dL for males and 30 {micro}g/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels compared to radiator shop children and unexposed children. For workers with PbB > 40 {micro}g/dL, 90% were anemic. Linear regression showed a correlation between Hb level and log{sub 10}PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children. The authors conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  13. Responses of Manila clam growth and its food sources to global warming in a subarctic lagoon in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seokjin; Abe, Hiroya; Kishi, Michio J.

    2013-12-01

    Akkeshi Lake is a subarctic shallow brackish lagoon located in Hokkaido, Japan. The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is cultured in sandy sediments at the shallow, intertidal flat near the mouth of the lake. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of environmental factors such as water temperature and food availability on the growth of the Manila clam and to estimate the responses of Manila clam growth and food availability to global warming in Akkeshi Lake, we developed a numerical model by coupling a three-dimensional ecosystem model with a bioenergetics model for the growth of the Manila clam. We ran the model under two different conditions: the present condition and the global warming condition. For the global warming condition, water temperature was increased by 2 °C at the open boundary for the entire computational period. The growth of the Manila clam was limited by water temperature and food availability. The Manila clam grew up to 1.33 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake mouth (station A) for 5 years, whereas it grew up to 1.00 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake center (station B). The difference in the biomass of the Manila clam between two stations was due to the difference in food availability. Under the global warming condition, the water temperature limitation for the Manila clam was relaxed with a water temperature increase. The Manila clam grew up to 1.55 g dry weight ind.-1 at station A and 1.10 g dry weight ind.-1 at station B. While the growth of the Manila clam was improved in the lake under the global warming condition, its food sources, especially phytoplankton, decreased because of ingestion increases of grazers.

  14. A two-way interaction between the Hainan plume and the Manila subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mériaux, Catherine A.; Duarte, João. C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Mériaux, Anne-Sophie

    2015-07-01

    The interaction between mantle plumes and subducting slabs is well accepted, but the influence of slabs on plumes has more often been portrayed than the reverse. Here we present three-dimensional upper mantle laboratory models in which a compositional plume rises underneath a subducting plate. Slab/plume buoyancy flux ratios ranged between 7 and 18. The models exhibit a two-way interaction. While the plume conduit increasingly tilts away from the trench as a result of slab rollback-induced toroidal mantle flow, the slab subduction rate decreases as a function of the amount of plume buoyancy opposing that of the slab, which gets subducted beneath the slab. We propose that our models apply to the Hainan/Manila system and explain the recently imaged tilt of the Hainan plume by the Manila slab-induced mantle return flow. The Hainan plume could lessen the Manila subduction rate from 8 Ma into the future.

  15. Spanish Jesuits in the Philippines: geophysical research and synergies between science, education and trade, 1865-1898.

    PubMed

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2014-10-01

    In 1865, Spanish Jesuits founded the Manila Observatory, the earliest of the Far East centres devoted to typhoon and earthquake studies. Also on Philippine soil and under the direction of the Jesuits, in 1884 the Madrid government inaugurated the first Meteorological Service in the Spanish Kingdom, and most probably in the Far East. Nevertheless, these achievements not only went practically unnoticed in the historiography of science, but neither does the process of geophysical dissemination that unfolded fit in with the two types of transmitter of knowledge identified by historians in the missionary diffusion of the exact sciences in colonial contexts. Rather than regarding science as merely a stimulus to their functionary and missionary tasks, Spanish Jesuits used their overseas posting to produce and publish original research--feature that would place them within the typology of the 'seeker' rather than the 'functionary' (in stark contrast to what the standard typology sustains). This paper also analyses examples of synergies between science, education and trade, which denotes, inter alia, the existence of a broad and solid educational structure in the Manila Mission that sustained the strength of research enterprise. PMID:25470886

  16. Spanish Jesuits in the Philippines: geophysical research and synergies between science, education and trade, 1865-1898.

    PubMed

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2014-10-01

    In 1865, Spanish Jesuits founded the Manila Observatory, the earliest of the Far East centres devoted to typhoon and earthquake studies. Also on Philippine soil and under the direction of the Jesuits, in 1884 the Madrid government inaugurated the first Meteorological Service in the Spanish Kingdom, and most probably in the Far East. Nevertheless, these achievements not only went practically unnoticed in the historiography of science, but neither does the process of geophysical dissemination that unfolded fit in with the two types of transmitter of knowledge identified by historians in the missionary diffusion of the exact sciences in colonial contexts. Rather than regarding science as merely a stimulus to their functionary and missionary tasks, Spanish Jesuits used their overseas posting to produce and publish original research--feature that would place them within the typology of the 'seeker' rather than the 'functionary' (in stark contrast to what the standard typology sustains). This paper also analyses examples of synergies between science, education and trade, which denotes, inter alia, the existence of a broad and solid educational structure in the Manila Mission that sustained the strength of research enterprise. PMID:25508513

  17. Philippine Programme Initiates Local Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Describes a public health program for mothers and children developed by UNICEF workers in the Philippines that incorporates literacy and environmental awareness along with the usual focus on immunizations, nutrition, and clean water. The program contained an organic gardening project intended to empower women at the local level. (LZ)

  18. Center stage in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, W. )

    1993-03-01

    At present, early 5,000 MW of private power capacity is operating or under development in the Philippines. Projects include oil- and coal-fired, geothermal, and hydroelectric projects under a variety of financing and ownership arrangements. If all projects and solicitations come to fruition, more than 80% of new capacity added through the year 2000 will be privately owned.

  19. Alcohol and Hospitalized Road Traffic Injuries in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Lydia R.; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol’s role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence. PMID:25191146

  20. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations. PMID:24771311

  1. Focus+context metro maps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. PMID:22034374

  2. Typologies of Risk and Protection in the Lives of Filipino Street Children in Manila

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sta. Maria, Madelene A.; Martinez, Carmelo L.; Diestro, Jose Maria A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group discussions with the youth living and working in the streets of Manila as well as interviews with key informants involved in intervention programs for these youth reveal several ways by which the youth may be protected from engaging in problem behaviors in and out of the streets. Findings reveal that conditions which promote the…

  3. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  4. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  5. Structural Analysis of Central Luzon, Philippines, Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Garbeil, H.; Bautista, L.; Ramos, E.

    2002-12-01

    Central Luzon Island (13-16°N, 120-122°E), which is bounded to the east by Philippine Trench, to the west by Manila Trench, to the north by Digdig-Dingalan Fault (DDF) and to the south by Verde Island Passage Fault (VIPF), is one of the most seismically and volcanologically active regions in the Philippines. Active seismicity and violent earthquakes in the region are evidently related to the activities along the subduction zones and branches of the Philippine Fault system. Volcanic eruptions and periodic swarms of volcanic earthquakes were also observed in three active volcanoes, i.e., Pinatubo, Taal Volcano Island and Banahaw, while young calderas of Taal and Laguna de Bay are demonstrably fault-bounded. We use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data with 90 m spatial resolution to conduct regional mapping of the faults and volcanic structures in this region. Of particular interests are the NE-SW set of normal faults within the Macolod Corridor, the right-lateral Marikina Valley Fault System (MVFS), the prevalence of N-S trending structures and the series of NW-SE structures that parallel to sub-parallel the active branches of the Philippine Fault. Using ENVI software package, we processed the SRTM data into shaded relief images and examined the lineament features from different azimuth directions and angles of artificial illumination. The prominent NW-SE structures in this area revealed by SRTM data were formed as sinistral shears that parallel the seismically active DDF and VIPF. The N-S trending structures, including some segments of MVFS and N-S oriented fold axes, were apparently generated by an earlier E-W compression, but recently displayed dextral movement with localized vertical component and pull-apart zones. The overprinting of recent fault kinematics on previously formed structures suggest a dramatic shift of regional stress distribution in Central Luzon. The dextral movement along MVFS and the extensional NE-SW faults within the Macolod

  6. Regional Impact on Pollution Event in the Upper Troposphere during CARIBIC Flights between South China and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. R.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Slemr, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The research project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container, phase II) is designed to conduct regular, long-term and detailed observations of the free troposphere and UT/LS regions where passenger aircraft happen to cruise. A fully-automated measurement container (1.5 tons) was equipped onboard an Airbus 340-600 operated by Lufthansa Airlines during regular passenger flights to conduct real time trace gas and aerosol measurements and to collect aerosol and air samples on a near monthly basis. During May 2005 - March 2008, CARIBIC observations have been performed along the flight tracks of Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila. Data have been collected in the upper troposphere during a total of 81 flights over the region between South China and the Philippines. Carbon monoxide was used an indicator to identify the pollution events and to access the regional impacts of fossil fuel burning and biomass/biofuel burning on upper tropospheric air. Five regions, i.e. Northeast Asia, South China, Indochina Peninsula, India and Indonesia/Philippines, are identified as the major source regions to be related to the observed pollution events. The characteristics of the events from these regions are investigated. The contributions of different source categories are also estimated.

  7. Utilization of geothermal energy in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, L.U.; De La Salle Univ, M.

    1981-01-01

    A history of the exploration of the geothermal resources as well as the construction of the geothermal power plants in the Philippines is given. The cost and the viability of such plants under Philippine conditions are presented. The necessity of a planned development around the geothermal plant, such as heat-consuming industries, is stressed. 15 refs.

  8. The Philippine "Hip Hop Stick Dance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…

  9. Drama-in-Schools in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pañares, Alice A.; Cabangon, Maria Gloriosa S.

    2016-01-01

    Drama in the Philippines has been an integral part of the lives of Filipinos. Drama-in-schools came about with the establishment of the formal school system during the Spanish and American period of colonisation of the Philippines. With the establishment of the public schools system, the American teachers introduced drama in the schools, as part…

  10. Metro-oriented multiservice transport platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangcheng

    2004-04-01

    As the link and gateway between backbone network and access network, metro-network becomes next infrastructure hotpot for both telecom and datacom carriers. In the transport plane of metro network, there are many solution choices to meet the various needs of carriers and operators. One of these practical solutions is with the help of metro-oriented Multi-services Transport Platform (MSTP). Inheriting from SDH transmission system, MSTP can process packaged data traffics like Ethernet on L1/L2 layers and ATM cells as well as TDM voice traffic. There has been a trend that packet data service will be the dominate in a metro-network near future. More reliable and efficient packet processing function such as RPR and LCAS will be needed in MSTP equipment. With the development of ASON/ASTN technology, more intelligent functions originated from ASON/ASTN will be added to MSTP and ASON/ASTN will be the development direction of MSTP. With the transition process of metro-network bandwidth limit from electrical domain to optical domain, some WDM and electrical/optical hybrid cross-connection functions will be merged into MSTP as optional modules. Metro-oriented MSTP will act as major node equipment in metro-transport network.

  11. Network centrality of metro systems.

    PubMed

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  12. Resistance of the Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) to infection with Mikrocytos mackini.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gary R; Bower, Susan M; Lowe, Geoff; Davies, Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum) challenged in laboratory trials via bath exposure proved to be resistant to infections with Mikrocytos mackini (protistan parasite of unknown taxonomic affiliation), while Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) challenged simultaneously using identical conditions developed infections. Although M. mackini was detected by a nucleic acid pathogen specific (PCR) assay in 10-30% of the challenged V. philippinarum that were sampled soon after exposure (0-48 h, n=40), all of the subsequent V. philippinarum (n=62) sampled 9-17 weeks post-exposure tested negative for M. mackini by PCR assay. Prevalence of infection for the exposed C. gigas (n=100) during this same period ranged from 50% to 100% by PCR assay. Infection was confirmed in the oysters (58%, n=60) by a digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe designed to detect M. mackini by in situ hybridization, but M. mackini was not found in any of the exposed Manila clams (n=63) using this technique. PMID:18031756

  13. The Philippines: a public awakening.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L D

    1990-01-01

    This is the last of a set of three articles concerning "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." In his discussion of bioethical issues in the Philippines, de Castro focuses primarily on: (a) the impact of Roman Catholicism on the public debate over topics such as abortion, contraception, and population policy, and (b) the issue of justice in the allocation of the country's inadequate health resources. He notes progress on two fronts: recently enacted legislation regulating physician prescribing practices will improve access by the poor to prescription drugs, and national guidelines on biomedical research provide for the establishment of a National Ethics Committee dominated by nonphysicians. PMID:2318625

  14. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  15. Two-way interaction between plume and slab: The Hainan-Manila example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mériaux, Catherine; Duarte, João; Schellart, Wouter

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional upper-mantle laboratory models consisting of a compositional plume that is initiated underneath an entirely dynamically driven dense plate fixed at the surface along its trailing edge exhibit a two-way interaction between plume and slab. The slab influence on the plume is driven by the induced mantle flow generated by the plate motion, which includes a sinking and a retreating phase. Slab/Plume buoyancy flux ratios ranged between 7 and 18. In all models, the plume is being swept away from the slab during its rise, and once it has reached the surface, its head spreads towards the trench as a gravity current while its conduit keeps being deflected away. The plume influence on the slab is seen later, when the slab in its retreat gets closer to the plume. The plume buoyancy spreading under the slab then weakens the subduction rate. The degree to which the subduction rate is lessened is conditioned by the level of asymmetry, which the slab may develop along its free edge during its impact at the bottom surface. A lasting symmetric plate causes maximum disturbance of the plume to the slab retreat rate, while plate asymmetry alleviates the plume influence as the plume buoyancy is no longer trapped underneath the plate in its centreline but can escape sideways. Our laboratory model configuration applies to the Hainan plume and Manila subduction system. The geophysical and seismic observations showing the existence of a NW-SE tilting plume-like mantle low-velocity structure in the crust and in the mantle beneath the north Hainan Island-Leizhou Peninsula basalt province are explained by slab rollback induced toroidal mantle flow from the Manila subduction zone. On the basis of our models, it can be foreseen that the Hainan plume is to spread out under the Manila slab towards the mantle wedge in the future, which could lessen the Manila subduction rate.

  16. Cadmium level of metro sludge steadily decreases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    According to a preliminary review of 1988 cadmium levels, sludge from Seattle Metro's West Point and Renton treatment plants averaged under 25 ppm per year. Data will be officially analyzed and published this spring. The sludge Metro recycles as fertilizer is high-quality for all metals. Federal guidelines require cadmium levels in sludge to be below 25 ppm for sludge to be applied to food-chain crops. As a policy, Metro does not apply the sludge to food chain crops. Instead, the agency recycles its sludge in forestry, soil improvement and composting projects. The metal reduction is attributed to a municipal control project to reduce corrosion of water pipes and to Metro's industrial waste pretreatment program.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the pathogenicity of Perkinsus olseni in juvenile Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Jun; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the pathogenicity of Perkinsus olseni towards the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, by an experimental challenge. For production of prezoosporangia of P. olseni, we injected uninfected Manila clams with cells of a pure strain of P. olseni and reared them for 7d. Prezoosporangia were isolated from the soft tissue of the injected clams after culturing in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. Hatchery-reared, uninfected juvenile clams (3-10 mm shell length) were challenged by immersion in one of two concentrations of a prezoosporangial suspension of P. olseni for 6d. The challenged clams had significantly higher mortality at both the concentrations than the unchallenged clams. The mortality due to infection dose-dependently began approximately 4 weeks and 7 weeks after challenge in the higher and lower concentrations, respectively. This is the first experimental evidence that P. olseni causes direct mortality in Manila clams. The lethal level of infection was estimated at approximately 10⁷ pathogen cells/g soft tissue weight. PMID:20807538

  18. Transcriptomic responses to low temperature stress in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongtao; Jiang, Liwen; Huo, Zhongming; Liu, Lianhui; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-08-01

    The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically important shellfish in marine aquaculture, with a broad thermal tolerance. The ability to cope with cold stress is quite important for the survival of aquatic species under natural conditions. A cold-tolerant clam that can survive the winter at temperatures below 0 °C might extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of the Manila clam to cold stress (-1 °C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. The transcriptomes of a cold-treatment (O) group of clams, which survived under cold stress, and the control group (OC2), which was not subjected to cold stress, were sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform. In all, 148,593 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 1760 unigenes were up regulated and 2147 unigenes were down regulated in the O group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular component organization or biogenesis, and energy production processes were the most highly enriched pathways among the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following biological functions in the cold-tolerant Manila clam: signal response to cold stress, antioxidant response, cell proliferation, and energy production. PMID:27288255

  19. Effect of tributyltin on veliger larvae of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Suguru; Oshima, Yuji; Usuki, Hironori; Hamaguchi, Masami; Hanamura, Yukio; Kai, Norihisa; Shimasaki, Yohei; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of waterborne and maternal exposure to tributyltin (TBT) on veliger larvae of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. In a waterborne exposure test, veliger larvae (D-larvae stage: 24h after fertilization) were exposed to TBT at measured concentrations of <0.01 (control), 0.055, 0.130, 0.340, and 0.600microg/l for 13d. The percentage of normal veliger larvae (the ratio of normal veliger larvae to all larvae) decreased significantly in all TBT treatment groups compared with that in the control group. In a maternal exposure test, 100 clams were exposed to TBT at measured concentrations of <0.01 (control), 0.061, and 0.310microg/l at 20-22 degrees C for 3 weeks, and the percentage of normal veliger larvae assessed for 13d. No maternal effects on veliger larvae from TBT were observed in TBT treatment groups as compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that waterborne TBT affects Manila clam veliger larvae, and indicates that TBT may have reduced Manila clam populations by preventing the development and survival of veliger larvae. PMID:16890269

  20. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  1. Occupational health in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elma B; Greaves, Ian A; Gapas, Joselito L; Ong, Teresita T

    2002-01-01

    The practice of occupational health and safety (OHS) in the Philippines is shaped by both success and failures. Government initiatives have achieved specific goals, particularly in providing better access by local industries to technical services and manpower development. However, the ability to sustain these achievements has been constrained by lack of adequate resources, both financial and human. Large-scale industrial establishments have better success in the implementation of OHS programs in their organizations. Small- and medium-scale enterprises suffer from limited resources to invest in measures for the health and safety of workers. Similarly, the government has little influence on the health and safety conditions migrant workers experience in another nation. The informal sector is the most deprived in terms of access to OHS measures. The deprivation may be alleviated by economic solutions, as their existence is a result of economic situations. Occupational health development in the Philippines is progressing and will be strengthened by better regulation, by increasing awareness among all sector workers of the importance of OHS, and by adequately building up the capacity of government and vital human resources. PMID:12028954

  2. A survey of bovine, bubaline and swine sarcocystosis in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Claveria, F G; Petersen, B; Macabagdal, M R; Farolan, R J; Farrol, M A; Gonzalvo, F; Cadiz, R; Ajero, R; Roque, R; Lozano, G

    1997-01-01

    In a survey conducted from January to December, 1994, muscle tissues in 12 out of 22 slaughtered carabaos ages 8-17 years old and obtained from the Food Terminal Inc, Abbatoir in Laguna showed numerous white and creamy elliptic-shaped soft bodied macrocysts in the throat muscles. Microscopic examination of the throat and cardiac muscle tissues revealed the presence of fusiform-shaped microcysts. Our observations are consistent with previous reports incriminating Sarcocystis fusiformis as the most important etiologic agent of bubaline sarcocystosis in the country. In a survey of bovine sarcocystosis in muscle tissues of imported Australian cattle (Brahman Breed) and native cattle obtained from various slaughter houses in Manila and suburbs, prevalence rates of 17% (98/577) and 3% (1/31) were noted, respectively. Sarcocysts were predominant in skeletal muscles and to a lesser extent in cardiac, esophageal and diaphragm muscle tissues. Light microscopic examination of sarcocysts morphology suggests Sarcocystis cruzi (= Sarcocystis bovis), and Sarcocystis hominis (= Sarcocystis bovihominis) or Sarcocystis hirsuta (= Sarcocystis bovifelis) as the likely etiologic agents of bovine sarcocystosis in the country. Of the 225 swines examined, only muscle tissues from a 6-month old swine revealed very young sarcocysts (= metrocytes). A review of available documented studies on sarcocystosis suggests that to date, our findings may represent the first data on the prevalence of bovine and swine sarcocystosis in the Philippines. PMID:9656372

  3. Quantitative Study of Seismogenic Potential Along Manila Trench: Effects of Scaborough Seamount Chain Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, D.; Ning, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.; Hsu, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismicity record along the Manila Trench shows only infrequent Mw7 earthquakes, the lack of great earthquakes may indicate the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a megathrust earthquake. We conduct numerical simulations of the plate coupling, earthquake nucleation and dynamic rupture propagation processes along the Manila subduction fault (15-19.5ºN), taking into consideration the effects of plate geometry (including subducted seamounts), fault strength, rate-state frictional properties and pore pressure variations. Specifically, we use the bathymetry to depict the outline of Manila trench along its strike, 2681 background seismicity (1970/02/13 to 2013/09/06) from Chinese Earthquake Network Center and 540 focal mechanism solutions (1976/01/01 to 2013/01/27) from Global CMT project to constrain the geometry of the subducting Sunda/Eurasian slab. The compilation of seismicity and focal mechanism indicates the plate dipping angle gradually changes from 28º (south of the Scaborough Seamount Chain) to 12º (north of it). This geometric anomaly may due to the subducted part of the seamount chain. Preliminary modeling results using gabbro gouge friction data show that the Scaborough Seamount Chain could be a barrier to earthquake rupture propagation. Only earthquakes larger than Mw7 can overcome the barrier to rupture the entire Manila trench. Smaller earthquakes would cease rupturing when it encounters the seamount chain. Moreover, we propose that Manila trench subduction zone has the potential of rupturing in a Mw8 megathrust earthquake, if the simulation period is long enough for an Mw8 earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture overcomes the subducted Scaborough Seamount Chain. Our model parameters will be further constrained by laboratory rock mechanics experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples (work in progress at China Earthquake Administration

  4. Seasonal variation of metals in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Yuan; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As) were determined for the first time in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam from Deer Island, Liaoning Province, China. The seawater, sediment, and clam samples were collected seasonally at three clam farming sites around Deer Island during 2010-2011. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the seawater samples were 4.16, 0.72, 5.88, 0.45, 2.51, 0.03, and 1.02 μg/l, respectively. The seasonal variations of trace metals in seawater showed a significant difference in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As among seasons. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the sediment samples were 6.43, 13.80, 53.08, 1.10, 36.40, 0.05, and 4.78 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in sediment seasonally varied significantly except for Cd and Hg. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the clam samples were 11.28, 0.61, 92.50, 0.58, 3.98, 0.03, and 1.98 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and As in Manila clam showed marked seasonal fluctuations with significant difference. Cu and Zn were the metals with the highest mean biosediment accumulation factor values in Manila clam. Besides, significant correlations for the concentrations of Cu and Zn relative to their concentrations in sediment were also found. Such differences in regression analyzes may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of essential and xenobiotic metals. Concentrations of trace metals in Manila clam did not exceed the maximum established regulatory concentrations for human consumption. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the estimated daily intake values for the examined clam samples were below the internationally accepted dietary guidelines and the calculated hazard quotient values were well less than 1, thus strongly indicating that health risk associated with the intake studied metals through the consumption

  5. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  6. Hefty tests buoy Philippine oil sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, has disclosed a test of another hefty oil flow off Philippines. Alcorn last month completed its third high flowing delineation well in the West Linapacan area off Palawan Island. Development of West Linapacan field will help boost lagging Philippines oil production, which fell 31% in 1991 from 1990 levels. Philippines Office of Energy Affairs (OEA) also outlined other aspects of the country's oil and gas activity in 1991. Recent drilling successes have redirected the country's focus north to the West Linapacan area from older Northwest Palawan oil fields. Meantime, two geophysical survey and exploration contracts (GSECs) were awarded in 1991, and two service contracts (SCs) were relinquished during the year. Several seismic program were completed last year, and in agreement between Australia and Philippines will yield added seismic data during the next 3 years.

  7. Burden of stroke in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-02-01

    Based on disability-adjusted life-years, stroke is the second leading cause of death and among the top five diseases with the greatest burden. Although two community-based studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of stroke in the Philippines, the incidence has not been nationally recorded to date. The prevalence ranged from 1·9% to 6·59%, and 'Wiihabilitation', a rehabilitation stroke therapy, is widely practiced. A clinical trial for stroke rehabilitation using the Chinese Medicine NeuroAid®, which consists of several herbs, is ongoing in many hospitals across the Philippines. Due to their ready availability, phytomedicines are widely used, especially in the rural areas, for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia, which are predisposing factors for stroke in the Philippines. Due to the increasing number of stroke cases annually, the government of the Philippines should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:22568853

  8. The complexity and robustness of metro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrible, Sybil; Kennedy, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Transportation systems, being real-life examples of networks, are particularly interesting to analyze from the viewpoint of the new and rapidly emerging field of network science. Two particular concepts seem to be particularly relevant: scale-free patterns and small-worlds. By looking at 33 metro systems in the world, this paper adapts network science methodologies to the transportation literature, and offers one application to the robustness of metros; here, metro refers to urban rail transit with exclusive right-of-way, whether it is underground, at grade or elevated. We find that most metros are indeed scale-free (with scaling factors ranging from 2.10 to 5.52) and small-worlds; they show atypical behaviors, however, with increasing size. In particular, the presence of transfer-hubs (stations hosting more than three lines) results in relatively large scaling factors. The analysis provides insights/recommendations for increasing the robustness of metro networks. Smaller networks should focus on creating transfer stations, thus generating cycles to offer alternative routes. For larger networks, few stations seem to detain a certain monopole on transferring, it is therefore important to create additional transfers, possibly at the periphery of city centers; the Tokyo system seems to remarkably incorporate these properties.

  9. Technologies for convergence in the metro network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Michael Y.

    2005-02-01

    Traditional metro network architectures comprise multiple layers of networking equipment supporting a wide array of services and packet-oriented applications. Among others, these include WDM, SDH, ATM, Ethernet and IP, each requiring its own network elements and associated management solutions to perform its own independent networking functions. While these work well individually, the combined network is cumbersome and inefficient. Recent advancements in network technologies are now changing the way metro networks are designed. Multi-functional consolidation through technology integration and the standardization of protocol inter-networking methods are leading to a converged network solution in support of a diverse set of packet-aware service offerings. This presentation will explore new technologies that are enabling convergence in the metro network, both across layers and across services.

  10. Transcriptome sequencing and microarray development for the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: genomic tools for environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is one of the major aquaculture species in the world and a potential sentinel organism for monitoring the status of marine ecosystems. However, genomic resources for R. philippinarum are still extremely limited. Global analysis of gene expression profiles is increasingly used to evaluate the biological effects of various environmental stressors on aquatic animals under either artificial conditions or in the wild. Here, we report on the development of a transcriptomic platform for global gene expression profiling in the Manila clam. Results A normalized cDNA library representing a mixture of adult tissues was sequenced using a ultra high-throughput sequencing technology (Roche 454). A database consisting of 32,606 unique transcripts was constructed, 9,747 (30%) of which could be annotated by similarity. An oligo-DNA microarray platform was designed and applied to profile gene expression of digestive gland and gills. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes between different tissues was performed by enrichment analysis. Expression of Natural Antisense Transcripts (NAT) analysis was also performed and bi-directional transcription appears a common phenomenon in the R. philippinarum transcriptome. A preliminary study on clam samples collected in a highly polluted area of the Venice Lagoon demonstrated the applicability of genomic tools to environmental monitoring. Conclusions The transcriptomic platform developed for the Manila clam confirmed the high level of reproducibility of current microarray technology. Next-generation sequencing provided a good representation of the clam transcriptome. Despite the known limitations in transcript annotation and sequence coverage for non model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify a large set of genes potentially involved in cellular response to environmental stress. PMID:21569398

  11. Larval and juvenile growth performance of Manila clam hybrids of two full-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Zhao, Liqiang; Liang, Jian; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine whether growth performance could be improved by hybridizing full-sib families of Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum), crosses between two full-sib families including self and reciprocal crosses were carried out. The effects of heterosis, combining ability and interaction on the growth of shell length were estimated. The results showed that the growth of hybrid larvae was intermediate between parents on days 6 and 9. Heterosis on shell length was observed, which varied at juvenile stage. The cross of ♂A × ♀B ( Hp varied between 10.41% and 68.27%) displayed larger heterosis than ♂B × ♀A ( Hp varied between 1.89% and 32.33%) did, suggesting that ♂A × ♀B was an ideal hatchery method of improving the growth performance of Manila clam. The variances of general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and interaction (I) were significant in shell length (P < 0.05), indicating that both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important contributors to the growth of larvae and juveniles. The GCA for shell length of ♂A × ♀B was higher than that of ♂B × ♀A at both larval and juvenile stages. This confirmed that the cross between ♂A and ♀B showed great growth in shell length. In summary, the growth of Manila clam seeds could be improved by hybridizing selected parents from large numbers of full-sib families.

  12. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities. PMID:27222856

  13. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities. PMID:27222856

  14. A theoretical individual-based model of Brown Ring Disease in Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Christine; Jean, Fred; Ford, Susan E.; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    An individual-based mathematical model was developed to investigate the biological and environmental interactions that influence the prevalence and intensity of Brown Ring Disease (BRD), a disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tapetis, in the Manila clam (Venerupis (= Tapes, = Ruditapes) philippinarum). V. tapetis acts as an external microparasite, adhering at the surface of the mantle edge and its secretion, the periostracal lamina, causing the symptomatic brown deposit. Brown Ring Disease is atypical in that it leaves a shell scar that provides a unique tool for diagnosis of either live or dead clams. The model was formulated using laboratory and field measurements of BRD development in Manila clams, physiological responses of the clam to the pathogen, and the physiology of V. tapetis, as well as theoretical understanding of bacterial disease progression in marine shellfish. The simulation results obtained for an individual Manila clam were expanded to cohorts and populations using a probability distribution that prescribed a range of variability for parameters in a three dimensional framework; assimilation rate, clam hemocyte activity rate (the number of bacteria ingested per hemocyte per day), and clam calcification rate (a measure of the ability to recover by covering over the symptomatic brown ring deposit), which sensitivity studies indicated to be processes important in determining BRD prevalence and intensity. This approach allows concurrent simulation of individuals with a variety of different physiological capabilities (phenotypes) and hence by implication differing genotypic composition. Different combinations of the three variables provide robust estimates for the fate of individuals with particular characteristics in a population that consists of mixtures of all possible combinations. The BRD model was implemented using environmental observations from sites in Brittany, France, where Manila clams routinely exhibit BRD signs. The simulated

  15. The Texas Head Start Metro Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom, Ed.; Flores, Alfredo R., Ed.

    The Texas Metro Network (TMN) is an informal group of Head Start Directors and Executive Directors organized for the purposes of improving the delivery of training and technical assistance and for assisting communication between large scale Head Start programs in the metropolitan areas of Texas. In pursuit of these aims, each member unit of the…

  16. Battelle Education: Metro Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This new district partnership school, slated to open in fall 2015, will serve Columbus, OH students in grades 6-13 in a competency-based, blended learning early college high school model that is focused on both college and career success. The Metro Institute of Technology is designed to solve two problems: (1) capable students may struggle in…

  17. 76 FR 60007 - TRICARE Demonstration Project for the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE Demonstration Project for the Philippines AGENCY: Department of Defense... TRICARE demonstration project for the Philippines. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested parties of... Philippines.'' The purpose of this demonstration is to validate an alternative approach to...

  18. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  19. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  20. Molecular diversity and evolution of defensins in the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Linbao; Yang, Dinglong; Yu, Qian; Li, Fei; Cong, Ming; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Zhao, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Four types of defensins were identified in Manila clam and designated as Rpdef1, Rpdef2, Rpdef3 and Rpdef4, which encoded a polypeptide of 49, 46, 45 and 42 amino acids, respectively. Sequence alignments indicated that Rpdef1 shared 46.9% identity with Rpdef2, 40.8% with Rpdef3, and 34.7% with Rpdef4. Analysis of transcript polymorphism showed that Rpdef3 accounted for about 60% frequency of Rpdefs occurrence in clams from three geographic origins (Dalian, Qingdao and Hangzhou). By quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the transcripts of Rpdefs were mainly detected in hemocytes and they responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes. Evolutionary analysis indicated that all Rpdefs were under positive selection with positively selected basic amino acid residues detected in the C-terminal regions, which perhaps have a functional relevance by modifying the charge distribution of Rpdefs. The results also showed some lineages with dN/dS > 1, suggesting positive selection pressures existed in some lineages of phylogeny tree constructed by mollusk defensins. Overall, our results suggest that Rpdefs perhaps played important roles in host defense and positive selection is the major driving force in generating high diversity of defensins in the Manila clam. PMID:26363232

  1. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles <5 mm, are an emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. Because microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region. PMID:27259879

  2. Kirkland gets license in hot Philippines area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, A.S.

    1992-08-03

    This paper reports that Kirkland As, Oslo, has received a geophysical survey and exploration contract (GSEC) in a sizzling exploration and development theater off the Philippines. The license covers about 6,000 sq miles of undisputed waters, with depths mostly less than 300 ft, and lies in the Reed Bank area off Northwest Palawan Island, where several major oil and gas strikes have been made recently. Kirkland has 1 year in which to carry out its seismic work commitment. The terms of the GSEC then give an option to drill one well in a 6 month period. Once the results have been analyzed, the company can either drill another well or enter into a service contract for the license. Kirkland has a 65% share in the license, with the remainder split between Philippine companies Philodrill Corp., Beguet Mining Corp. subsidiary Petrofields, and Seafront Resources Corp. The Philippines is one of Kirkland's main areas of activity, the Kirkland Commercial Manager Ralph Baxter.

  3. Size-related and seasonal diet of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), as determined using dual stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Yeon Jee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope ratios of lab-cultured Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and those from natural tidal flats of Seonjae Island in Korea were investigated in terms of their dietary uptake patterns in relation to body size and season. The smallest size group of wild Manila clams revealed significantly depleted δ15N based on the results of a one-way ANOVA. There was significant seasonal change in the proportional contribution of food sources, especially in winter, from benthic particulate organic matter (BPOM) to pelagic particulate organic matter (POM). Laboratory-cultured Manila clams showed growth rates of 6.02-37.75 mm/yr, and smaller-sized clams did not fully utilise the microalgal diets that were provided constantly. Instead, they derived most of their energy from detritus or dead microalgae that had settled on the bottom. Bigger clams, however, exhibited well-balanced source contributions, converting the microalgal diets into biomass. This demonstrates intra-specific differences in the growth rates and preferred diet uptakes of Manila clams, even under similar environmental conditions.

  4. Old Ideals and New Realities: The Changing Context of Adolescent Partnerships in Cebu, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gultiano, Socorro A.; Avila, Josephine L.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines has experienced rapid sociodemographic changes in recent years, with implications for adolescents. This study combines quantitative and qualitative data from Metro Cebu to assess the timing and predictors of adolescent partnerships, as well as the context in which these partnerships are occurring. The majority of adolescents (54%) had premarital sex, though this pattern varied by gender. Wealthier, urban men, and women with less education and lower reported religiosity, were more likely to have premarital sex. Engagement in risk behaviors was predictive of premarital sex for both males and females. The qualitative data contextualize the circumstances under which adolescents engage in sex and form partnerships, and illustrate how sociocultural norms contribute to gender differences in partnership patterns. Given the ‘new’ realities of young Filipinos’ lives, targeted efforts to support adolescents’ transition to adulthood are needed to avert potentially adverse lifeevents. PMID:22587636

  5. Decentralization, democratization, and health: the Philippine experiment.

    PubMed

    Langran, Irene V

    2011-01-01

    In 1991, the Philippines joined a growing list of countries that reformed health planning through decentralization. Reformers viewed decentralization as a tool that would solve multiple problems, leading to more meaningful democracy and more effective health planning. Today, nearly two decades after the passage of decentralization legislation, questions about the effectiveness of the reforms persist. Inadequate financing, inequity, and a lack of meaningful participation remain challenges, in many ways mirroring broader weaknesses of Philippine democracy. These concerns pose questions regarding the nature of contemporary decentralization, democratization, and health planning and whether these three strategies are indeed mutually enforcing. PMID:22073430

  6. Rice hull energy uses in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    As a rice producing country, the Philippines produces a tremendous amount of rice hulls which when converted to energy could displace a substantial amount of imported energy. Realizing this possibility needs a thorough evaluation of both resources and demand characteristics of particular industry where immediate applicability of technical option awaits. This document presents the Philippines' past activities in fuelizing rice hulls and future action plans where its economic relevance could be enhanced. Descriptions of four power plants are included with the author's analysis of their probable market impact and projections of future applications.

  7. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater.

  8. The southern termination of the Philippine Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Gary; Hall, Robert; Milsom, John; Masson, Doug; Parson, Lindsay; Sikumbang, Nafrizal; Dwiyanto, Bambang; Kallagher, Helen

    1990-11-01

    Recent studies of the southern end of the Philippine Trench using GLORIA sidescan sonar and single channel seismic data and geological studies on the island of Halmahera suggest that the trench is in the process of propagating south and that some of the ESE-WNW convergence is transferred via a broad NE-SW zone of dextral strike-slip across northern Halmahera into the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. NE-SW ridges and lineaments on the seafloor can be traced into major faults and structural trends on land. The bathymetric expression of the Philippine Trench is lost where it meets an oceanic plateau on the Philippine Sea Plate. This elevated and probably thickened plateau appears to have inhibited any further propagation of the trench southwards. To the north of the plateau there is a well-developed accretionary prism, but to the south deformation of sediments on the seafloor is less intense. A prominent ridge, with sediments passively banked up against it marks the southern limit of deformation associated with the Philippine Trench. To the south lies the eastern Halmahera-Waigeo Ophiolite Terrane, an area of shallow water and islands underlain by ophiolitic basement between Halmahera and the Sorong Fault Zone. There are no bathymetric or structural features to indicate any form of active link between the Philippine Trench and the Sorong Fault through or along the northern side of this ophiolite terrane. There is no earthquake evidence for any form of fault linking the Philippine Trench to either the Palau Trench or the Sorong Fault, but there are numerous earthquake epicentres reported between the southern end of the trench and the Molucca Sea. The island of Halmahera is considered to lie in a diffuse boundary zone at the margin of the Philippine Sea Plate. Continued collision of the opposing arcs in the Molucca Sea will ultimately prevent further E-W convergence between Halmahera and Sulawesi. It is predicted that either the Philippine Trench will propagate south along

  9. Feasibility and Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Tupasi, Thelma E; Gupta, Rajesh; Quelapio, Ma Imelda D; Orillaza, Ruth B; Mira, Nona Rachel; Mangubat, Nellie V; Belen, Virgil; Arnisto, Nida; Macalintal, Lualhati; Arabit, Michael; Lagahid, Jaime Y; Espinal, Marcos; Floyd, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an important global health problem, and a control strategy known as DOTS-Plus has existed since 1999. However, evidence regarding the feasibility, effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of DOTS-Plus is still limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the feasibility, effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of a DOTS-Plus pilot project established at Makati Medical Center in Manila, the Philippines, in 1999. Patients with MDR-TB are treated with regimens, including first- and second-line drugs, tailored to their drug susceptibility pattern (i.e., individualised treatment). We considered the cohort enrolled between April 1999 and March 2002. During this three-year period, 118 patients were enrolled in the project; 117 were considered in the analysis. Seventy-one patients (61%) were cured, 12 (10%) failed treatment, 18 (15%) died, and 16 (14%) defaulted. The average cost per patient treated was US$3,355 from the perspective of the health system, of which US$1,557 was for drugs, and US$837 from the perspective of patients. The mean cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) gained by the DOTS-Plus project was US$242 (range US$85 to US$426). Conclusions Treatment of patients with MDR-TB using the DOTS-Plus strategy and individualised drug regimens can be feasible, comparatively effective, and cost-effective in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:16968123

  10. Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Chua, Queena N.

    2000-01-01

    Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…

  11. Renewing Elementary Science in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Dolores F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the elementary science curriculum reform movement in the Philippines. Whereas past textbooks were adaptations of U.S. texts, the second generation textbooks are more in keeping with Philippino needs. Structure of discipline is now stressed less than society's needs. Population, conservation, health and sanitation, green revolution, and…

  12. People of Philippines: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in the Philippines in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the…

  13. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: IYA 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divinagracia, P. P.

    2009-03-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is a global effort initiated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day and nighttime sky and, thereby, engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. The vision of the IYA celebration is for everyone to realize the impact of astronomy and other fundamental sciences on our daily lives, and understand how scientific knowledge can contribute to a more equitable and peaceful society. Various global projects were initiated to help achieve the goals of the IYA 2009. An opening ceremony was held last January 15 to 16, 2009 at the UNESCO Headquarters at Paris, France to mark the beginning of the IYA celebrations. Attendance for the said ceremony was by invitation only. In the Philippines, Dr. Cynthia Celebre, Chief of the Space Sciences and Astronomy Section of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, and the Single Point of Contact in the Philippines for the IYA, and I, as the student representative of the Philippines, were invited to attend the opening ceremony. We also participated in a symposium with the theme "The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture" which was also held at the UNESCO Headquarters at Paris, France last January 19 to 23 this year.

  14. Geothermal developments in the Philippines, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, D.F.X.

    1980-09-01

    The Philippines installed a 3MW geothermal in 1977, 55 MW in 1978, and 165 MW in 1979 and proposes to install 223 MW during 1980 to bring it's total installed geothermal generating capacity to 446 MW. An additional 223 MW geothermal has been proven and a goal of 1261 MW has been set for 1989 from eight geothermal fields.

  15. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN THE PHILIPPINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE PHILIPPINES HAVE A POPULATION OF 32 MILLION OF WHICH 60 PERCENT ARE ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. RECENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HAS INVOLVED INCREASING STABILITY TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR GROWTH. THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IS BASED ON A 6-YEAR ELEMENTARY AND A 4-YEAR SECONDARY SCHOOL COURSE. SECONDARY EDUCATION IS PROVIDED AT EITHER A GENERAL SCHOOL OR A…

  16. Ethnicity and Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    The population of the Republic of the Philippines is largely composed of common racial stock except for a small minority of ethnic Chinese. Ethnic differences are largely on the basis of language and religion. Over 90 percent of the people are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics, approximately 5 percent are Muslims, and the remainder adhere to the…

  17. Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Paola Katrina G.; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Maria Nemia; Tayag, Enrique; Columna-Vingno, Alah Baby; Malbas, Fedelino F.; Bolo, Gilbert C.; Sejvar, James J.; Eagles, Debbie; Playford, Geoffrey; Dueger, Erica; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kuroda, Makoto; Marsh, Glenn A.; McCullough, Sam

    2015-01-01

    During 2014, henipavirus infection caused severe illness among humans and horses in southern Philippines; fatality rates among humans were high. Horse-to-human and human-to-human transmission occurred. The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. Ongoing surveillance is needed for rapid diagnosis, risk factor investigation, control measure implementation, and further virus characterization. PMID:25626011

  18. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Hiligaynon Lessons. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motus, Cecile L.

    A collection of 54 lessons in Hiligaynon, one of the major languages of the Philippines, is divided into 12 units, each lesson intended for about 4 to 5 hours of classroom instruction. A brief grammar summary introduces each unit. A structural content note begins each lesson within the units, followed by microdialogues (two to four lines)…

  20. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  1. Researching English in the Philippines: Bibliographical Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S.

    2004-01-01

    The academic literature on issues related to the Philippine English language and literature is substantial. This bibliography surveys relevant work on such related fields as the sociology of language and language planning, Bilingualism, bilingual education, and languages in education, language attitudes, code-switching and code-mixing, Philippine…

  2. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  3. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. Public higher education in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozier, V. R.

    1984-06-01

    Clearly, the national government of the Philippines has decided to increase the number and comprehensiveness of its public colleges and universities. While private colleges and universities are likely to dominate higher education in the Philippines for the remainer of this century, it appears that public, tax-supported higher education will become increasingly available there. The Philippines is not a wealthy country but it is devoting a substantial portion of its national resources to public higher education. In 1983, higher education received 2.85 percent of the national budget, a figure that has been rising for years. Compared with some highly developed countries, this is not a large percentage, but for a country that has traditionally relied on private higher education, it is a major and growing investment in the public sector. While many of the better universities in the Philippines are private, many other private educational institutions are small and struggling. As their financial resources become more limited, and as less expensive, tax-supported higher education becomes increasingly available, a lot of the struggling private colleges will probably close. This process is also being hastened by actions of the government to upgrade quality, for example in the case of the many private colleges that developed after World War II. In an attempt to improve the academic quality of these marginal institutions, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports has been given extensive authority, and while its intrusion into private institutions has been modest by some measures, its requirements are affecting them all and will speed the demise of some. This is bound to lead to a stronger role for public higher education in the Philippines, a country that is striving diligently to improve the education and hence the quality of life of its people.

  5. Virus-like particles associated with mortalities of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in England.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K S; White, P; Longshaw, M

    2012-06-13

    Mortalities of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) were reported in southern England (Kent and Poole Harbour) during late spring of 2008. In response to these reported mortalities, samples were collected from 5 sites across the south coast of England. Clams were sampled for both histology and electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed unenveloped virus-like particles within the connective tissue of the gills and surrounding the tubules in the digestive gland. The virus-like particles appeared to be free within the cytoplasm or associated with endoplasmic reticulum membranes and cytoplasmic vesicles. Particles were icosahedral in shape, with a diameter of 25 to 30 nm. The location, size and morphology of the virus-like particles suggest that they belong to the Picornaviridae family. This is the first report of this virus infection in wild and farmed R. philippinarum within the UK. PMID:22691985

  6. The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Deborah

    This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro

  7. Nitrogen stable isotope ratio in the manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, reflects eutrophication levels in tidal flats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Kodama, Masashi; Fukuda, Masaaki

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication on coastal fisheries may help in the enhancement of fishery production by effective utilization of sewage effluents, as well as in the consequent reduction of eutrophication. In this study, it was revealed that the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (delta(15)N) in the soft tissues of the manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, can be used as an indicator of anthropogenic eutrophication levels in tidal flat environments by investigation of delta(15)N in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM) and soft tissues of the clam in five tidal flats in Japan with different levels of DIN concentration. In addition, it was found that the acid insoluble fraction of the shell organic matrix, conchiolin, can be used as a proxy for the soft tissues in delta(15)N analyses. This will contribute in easier storage handling and the expansion of chances for sample acquisition. PMID:19647270

  8. The impact of ballast water effluent on the Manila clam, Tapes semidecussatus.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Pamela A; O'Halloran, John

    2004-05-01

    The impact of ballast water discharge from an oil refinery in Whitegate Harbour, Co. Cork, Ireland to the Manila clam, Tapes semidecussatus, was investigated using a whole sediment bioassay. Bioassay organisms were exposed to surface sediments for a period of 21 days, including a reference and control sediment, collected from the vicinity of a ballast water discharge pipe. At the whole organism level, mortality and burrowing behaviour (assessed as time taken for organisms to burrow into the sediment) were used to determine the effects of exposure to test sediments. After 21 days, clam mortality was higher in surface sediments collected directly at the point of the ballast water discharge pipe than from all other test sediments assayed. After 10 days exposure to test sediments collected from the vicinity of the ballast water discharge pipe, the burrowing behaviour of animals was significantly different to the behaviour of animals exposed to uncontaminated sediments. PMID:15344512

  9. Assessment of immune parameters of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in different physiological conditions using flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Cellular and humoral immune parameters are often used as biomarkers to trace environmental and physiological stresses in marine bivalves. In this study, we compared various immune parameters of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) under normal conditions and under a high level of desiccation, using flow cytometry. The immune parameters analyzed included, total hemocyte count, hemocyte mortality, hemocyte DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phagocytosis activity. Total hemocyte count, hemocyte DNA damage, and hemocyte mortality were significantly elevated among clams under high desiccation stress, while phagocytosis activity and spontaneous ROS production were significantly lower compared to those parameters of the control clams ( p<0.05). These data suggest that the immune parameters analyzed in this study well reflect the physiological status of clams.

  10. 76 FR 16858 - Proposed Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only... solicits comments on the information needed to determine Philippine claimants' eligibility for pension.... Title: Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only), VA Form 21-0784. OMB...

  11. 76 FR 33027 - Agency Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (For Philippine Claims Only...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (For Philippine Claims Only.... 2900-0668.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Supplemental Income Questionnaire (For Philippine Claims... approved collection. Abstract: Claimants residing in the Philippines complete VA Form 21-0784 to...

  12. New Technologies of Training for Technical and Vocational Education. International Expert Group Meeting. (Manila, Philippines, July 3-7, 1995). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Turin (Italy). International Training Centre.

    This report describes a meeting of 31 experts who deliberated on the various aspects of new technologies of training (NTT) and their applications in education and training with reference to Asia-Pacific contexts. Chapter 1 describes the rationale, objectives, inaugural session, meeting agenda, and closing session. Chapter 2 summarizes the country…

  13. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12th, Manila, Philippines, April 20-26, 1978, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers outline the remote sensing activities being carried out in a number of countries throughout the world, and present details on a variety of individual projects. Topics studied include a worldwide approach to remote sensing and mineral exploration, a land use information system based on statistical inference, acoustic radar and remote sensing in the boundary layer, procedure for land-use analysis in developing countries, an airborne geochemical system, remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications, wheat production forecasts based on Landsat data, airborne lidar aerosol measurements over the U.S. and Europe, Landsat inventory of agricultural and forest resources in Bangladesh, application of satellite imagery to flood plain mapping in Thailand, and vegetation mapping of Nigeria from radar.

  14. International Consultation on Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on the Lives of Women Workers. Summary of Proceedings (Manila, Philippines, October 5-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

    An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to consolidate an…

  15. Structural monitoring of metro infrastructure during shield tunneling construction.

    PubMed

    Ran, L; Ye, X W; Ming, G; Dong, X B

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented. PMID:25032238

  16. Structural Monitoring of Metro Infrastructure during Shield Tunneling Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ran, L.; Ye, X. W.; Ming, G.; Dong, X. B.

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented. PMID:25032238

  17. Restructuring the Philippine electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Ellis, M.

    1995-06-01

    The Philippine electricity industry has shown it can change, and change quickly. In contrast with the crises and changes imposed on it in the past, the industry now has as opportunity to forge a progressive, forward-looking strategy, This opportunity is enhanced by the force of law - the Department of Energy Act of 1992 mandates privatization of the National Power Corporation (NPC) - and by the easing of the power crisis which has significantly diminished political interference. In order to position the industry for growth and rising investment requirements and to support the growing role of the Philippine economy in international markets, that strategy must address the structural deficiencies that continue to plague the industry. By addressing structural changes that need to be made now, it can build on the impetus gained from its privatization mandate to improve accountability, increase efficiency and reduce government risk.

  18. Forestry administration and policies in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1983-11-01

    This article begins by summarizing the importance of the forestry sector in the Philippine economy It provides an overview of the multiplicity of Philippine governmental institutions involved in forestry in 1982 Then it discusses forestry laws in the country and concludes by examining fifteen critical forest policy issues: sustained yield management; area-specific logging bans; increased use of wood wastes; revision of forest charges; unprocessed log export ban; rationalization of the forest industry, acceleration of reforestation; protection of watersheds; recognition of the social dimensions of slash- and-burn agriculture; fuelwood supply; public land classification for forestry and agriculture, development of plantations for dendrothermal electricity; multiple-use management; preservation of mangrove areas, and improvements in administration and implementation.

  19. International nurse migration: lessons from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brush, Barbara L; Sochalski, Julie

    2007-02-01

    Developed countries facing nursing shortages have increasingly turned to aggressive foreign nurse recruitment, primarily from developing nations, to offset their lagging domestic nurse supplies and meet growing health care demands. Few donor nations are prepared to manage the loss of their nurse workforce to migration. The sole country with an explicit nurse export policy and the world's leading donor of nurse labor - the Philippines - is itself facing serious provider maldistribution and countrywide health disparities. Examining the historical roots of Philippines nurse migration provides lessons from which other nurse exporting countries may learn. The authors discuss factors that have predicated nurse migration and policies that have eased the way. Furthermore, the authors analyze how various stakeholders influence migratory patterns, the implications of migration for nurses and the public in their care, and the challenges that future social policy and political systems face in addressing global health issues engendered by unfettered recruitment of nurses and other health workers. PMID:17470770

  20. Expression and localization of MCsialec, a sialic acid-specific lectin in the marine bivalve Manila clam, Ruditapes philppinarum.

    PubMed

    Adhya, M; Choi, K-S; Yu, Y; Cho, M

    2010-11-01

    A novel sialic acid-specific lectin (MCsialec) was detected from an expressed sequenced tag (EST) sequence from Manila clam haemocytes infected with Perkinsus olseni. The cDNA of the lectin was cloned using gene-specific primers based on a previously determined EST and characterized. The full-length cDNA of MCsialec is 603 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 21.928 kDa. Sequence alignment and protein motif analyses showed that MCsialec shares identity with sialic acid-specific invertebrate lectins from Cepaea hortensis, Helix pomatia and Haliotis discus discus. The lectin was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 cells and purified using a Ni-NTA His-binding resin matrix for antibody production. The presence of the lectin in various tissues of Perkinsus-infected and uninfected Manila clams was analysed by both PCR and immunohistochemical localization assays. MCsialec was detected in each tissue of the clams; however, upon infection, the level of expression of the lectin increased in each tissue. Vibrio tapetis infection also induced high-level expression of MCsialec in the haemocytes. These data suggest that MCsialec plays a crucial role in the immune system of the Manila clam during pathogenic infection. PMID:21039608

  1. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea. PMID:25299201

  2. Post Eruption Hazards at Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Our project focused on the investigation of the post-eruption hazards at Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines) using remote sensing data, and field observations of the 1991 eruption deposits. Through the use of multiple satellite images, field work, and the 1996/2000 PacRim data sets, we conducted studies of the co- and post-eruption hazards of the volcano due to erosion and re-deposition of the extensive pyroclastic flow deposits. A major part of this project was the assembly and analysis of a database of over 50 high resolution (1 - 50 m/pixel) images that will facilitate this study. We collected Ikonos, SPOT, SIR-C/X-SAR, Landsat, ERS, RADARSAT, and ASTER images of the area around Mt. Pinatubo. An example of the changes that could be seen in these data is shown. Our investigation focused on a retrospective analysis of the erosion, redeposition, and re-vegetation of the 1991 pyroclastic flow deposits of Mt. Pinatubo. The primary geologic goal of our work was the analysis of the spatial distribution and volume change of the sources and sinks of materials associated with mudflow ('lahar') events. This included the measurement of river valley gradients and cross-sections using TOPSAR digital elevation data, as we are participating in the PacRim 2000 deployment to the Philippines specifically so that we can collect a second set of TOPSAR data that can then be used to create a topographic difference image of the volcano. The main results from this multi-sensor study have been published as Torres et al.. A discussion of the methodology that we used to assemble an appropriate database was included in Mouginis-Mark and Domergue-Schmidt. As part of an educational outreach effort, we also helped the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) in the Philippines to use NASA data to study Mt. Pinatubo and other Filipino volcanoes.

  3. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  4. Challenges of Space Education in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sese, Rogel Mari

    The Philippines has recently started in developing and promoting space science education through the Philippine Space Science Education Program (PSSEP) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). However, as a developing country, there are numerous challenges in promoting space education to students and teachers. In this paper, we assessed the recent activities done by the PSSEP and demonstrate their effectiveness. In addition, we will expound on the social, political and logistical challenges of promoting space education in an archipelago such as the Philippines. We will also present the preliminary feedback and assessment of the Space Science Program (SSP), a pilot program which teaches space science as a separate subject in the basic educational system from kindergarten to high school. We will also discuss the various teaching strategies we utilized in the SSP that can be adopted depending on the needs and capabilities of the host school. Finally, we discuss the challenges of instituting a formal astronomy and space science course and the issues that needs to be addressed for an effective and sustainable program.

  5. Enhanced metro MSTP and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangcheng; Qiao, Yang

    2005-02-01

    With the large-scale application of metro MSTP in recent two years, a lot of problems have emerged inevitably. Some more advanced technologies or mechanisms are needed to deal with the application problems of current version MSTP. RPR and MPLS become new focus of enhanced MSTP"s features and the combination of them will boost maturity and further development of enhanced metro MSTP. The MSTP embedded with RPR and MPLS not only find a solution for perfect transport of TDM service, but also improve the support ability for data traffic and bandwidth utilization. With the help of enhanced MSTP, it"s easy for network carriers to provide a reliable, cost-effective, flexible and competitive transport infrastructure delivering various advanced services. RPR firstly solves the conflict between the transport efficiency and QoS of packet service via some mechanisms such as dual counter-rotating ringlet, statistical multiplexing, bandwidth sharing, topology discovery, fairness control etc. Secondly, RPR guarantees the QoS of subscriber by strict service classification and priority. Thirdly, RPR can provide the carrier-class protection within 50ms. On the other hand, MPLS can solve the lack of VLAN ID by LSP labeling and in addition it offers VPN service for different customers then enhances the SLA. Most of all, MPLS provide cross-networking ability, end-to-end service configuration and QoS guarantee, traffic engineering and network optimization. Enhanced MSTP will be applied in convergence or access layer of metro network first. It could have the function of RPR and MPLS at the same time, the reconciliation sub-layer should adopts GFP or LAPS encapsulation, the mapping granularity can be based on VC-12/VC3/VC4-Xc/v and the LCAS should be supported when the transmission channels are configured by virtual concatenation. Enhanced MSTP can be used to build either a single ring network or multi-ring network for improving the ability and quality of Ethernet transportation and

  6. Advancements in metro optical network architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschis, Loukas

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses the innovation in network architectures, and optical transport, that enables metropolitan networks to cost-effectively scale to hundreds Gb/s of capacity, and to hundreds km of reach, and to also meet the diverse service needs of enterprise and residential applications. A converged metro network, where Ethernet/IP services, and traditional TDM traffic operate over an intelligent WDM transport layer is increasingly becoming the most attractive architecture addressing the primary need of network operators for significantly improved capital and operational network cost. At the same time, this converged network has to leverage advanced technology, and introduce intelligence in order to significantly improve the deployment and manageability of WDM transport. The most important system advancements and the associated technology innovations that enhance the cost-effectiveness of metropolitan optical networks are being reviewed.

  7. Characterization of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of Agricultural Lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 90 to 289 tons per day with a mean of 142 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 51,900 tons. Of this 51,900 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley. The variation of 87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the 87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the 87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale

  8. The Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic character of lavas from Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat volcanoes, southwestern Luzon, Philippines: Implications for arc magma petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, Samuel B.; Flower, Martin F. J.; Miklius, Asta

    1994-07-01

    Following the amalgamation of a collage of pre-Neogene terranes largely by strike-slip and convergence mechanisms to form the Philippine islands, volcanic chains, related to oppositely dipping subduction zones, developed along the eastern and western margins of the archipelago. There is ample field evidence that this volcanic activity, predominantly calc-alkaline in chemical character, had commenced by the Oligocene. Volcanoes resulting from subduction along the Manila-Negros trench in the west (e.g. Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat) form a high-angle linear array, trending away from the MORE field on Pb-isotopic covariation diagrams; have the highest Sr- and lowest Nd-isotopic compositions, of the two chains (but nevertheless plotting above bulk earth on the 87Sr/ 86Sr versus 143Nd/ 144Nd covariation diagram); and exhibit Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr values that are lower and higher, respectively, than the estimated values for bulk earth. While the Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr characteristics are common to both chains, volcanoes associated with the Philippine-East Luzon trench have Pb-isotopic compositions that fall in the Indian Ocean MORB field and that require time-integrated evolution in a high Th/U environment. They also have higher Nd- and lower Sr-isotopic ratios. The source materials of Philippine volcanoes, therefore, have undergone varied recent enrichments in LILE, as indicated by the decoupling of isotopic and elemental ratios. These enrichments, particularly for the western volcanoes, cannot be entirely due to small degrees of partial melting in the mantle wedge, considering that they were accompanied by elevations in radiogenic Pb. Elevated Pb ratios are best explained by the introduction of subducted, continentally derived sediments. The sedimentary component in the western volcanoes is probably the South China Sea sediments derived largely from Eurasia. That this component is not available in the Philippine-East Luzon trench is reflected by the fact that the eastern volcanoes

  9. The Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic character of lavas from Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat volcanoes, southwestern Luzon, Philippines: Implications for arc magma petrogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukasa, S.B.; Flower, M.F.J.; Miklius, Asta

    1994-01-01

    Following the amalgamation of a collage of pre-Neogene terranes largely by strike-slip and convergence mechanisms to form the Philippine islands, volcanic chains, related to oppositely dipping subduction zones, developed along the eastern and western margins of the archipelago. There is ample field evidence that this volcanic activity, predominantly calc-alkaline in chemical character, had commenced by the Oligocene. Volcanoes resulting from subduction along the Manila-Negros trench in the west (e.g. Taal, Laguna de Bay and Arayat) form a high-angle linear array, trending away from the MORE field on Pb-isotopic covariation diagrams; have the highest Sr- and lowest Nd-isotopic compositions, of the two chains (but nevertheless plotting above bulk earth on the 87Sr/86Sr versus 143Nd/144Nd covariation diagram); and exhibit Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr values that are lower and higher, respectively, than the estimated values for bulk earth. While the Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr characteristics are common to both chains, volcanoes associated with the Philippine-East Luzon trench have Pb-isotopic compositions that fall in the Indian Ocean MORB field and that require time-integrated evolution in a high Th/U environment. They also have higher Nd- and lower Sr-isotopic ratios. The source materials of Philippine volcanoes, therefore, have undergone varied recent enrichments in LILE, as indicated by the decoupling of isotopic and elemental ratios. These enrichments, particularly for the western volcanoes, cannot be entirely due to small degrees of partial melting in the mantle wedge, considering that they were accompanied by elevations in radiogenic Pb. Elevated Pb ratios are best explained by the introduction of subducted, continentally derived sediments. The sedimentary component in the western volcanoes is probably the South China Sea sediments derived largely from Eurasia. That this component is not available in the Philippine-East Luzon trench is reflected by the fact that the eastern volcanoes

  10. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Volume 5, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otanes, Fe T., Ed.; Hale, Austin, Ed.

    A collection of seven papers developed for the 1982 Summer Institute of Linguistics of the Linguistic Society of the Philippines address aspects of the institute's research topic, the interface of the morphosyntax and discourse structure in languages of the Philippines and Sabah. They include three papers on general concerns of discourse types in…

  11. The utilization of geothermal energy in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, L. U.

    A history of the exploration of the geothermal resources as well as the construction of the geothermal power plants in the Philippines is given. The cost and the viability of such plants under Philippine conditions are presented. The necessity of a planned development around the geothermal plant - such as heat-consuming industries - is stressed.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  13. Fictionalized History in the Philippines: Five Narratives of Collective Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Will P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes five historical fictions for children in the Batang Historyador (Young Historian) series which detail five periods in Philippine history. The books discuss the issues of child labor in precolonial Philippines, child labor and the right to education regardless of gender during the Spanish colonial period, child labor during the…

  14. Editorializing in L2: The Case of Philippine English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayag, Danilo T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the discourse structure of newspaper editorials in Philippine English in terms of their macrostructure and their lexico-grammatical features. Data were taken from three leading English-language newspapers in the Philippines. Toulmin's framework is used in analyzing the macrostructure of the editorials. The study posits that the…

  15. Plurality in Unity: Challenges toward Religious Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges provided by a plural condition toward doing religious education in the Philippines. The problem of Philippine religious education hinges on the fact that the growing plural condition in the educational system remains until now "un-discussed"; or integrated in many schools. Not much is heard about proposing a…

  16. English Language Instruction in the Philippine Basic Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizconde, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The study discusses the dynamics English language instruction in the Philippine basic education curriculum. Although English enjoyed immense popularity as early as 1900s during the American entry to the country, its role in Philippine education has transformed gradually as the country undergoes political, social and economic reconstruction in the…

  17. Regulatory and Skills Requirements for Higher Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The provision of public resources to manage the expansion of the higher education system in the Philippines has been inadequate, and this has given rise to many private providers entering the HE domain. The proper regulation of higher education in the country is important if the Philippines is to respond to the challenge of producing the skills it…

  18. News Reporting in the Philippines: English in Print Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayag, Danilo T.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine how a hostage drama in Iraq involving an overseas Filipino worker was framed in English-language newspapers in the Philippines. Data came from the July 9-25, 2004 issues of five leading English-language broadsheets in the Philippines. The study found that the event was given maximum salience and prominence by the…

  19. Molecular Characterization of Chikungunya Virus, Philippines, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Ava Kristy; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Medado, Inez Andrea; Tohma, Kentaro; Dapat, Clyde; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Tandoc, Amado; Lupisan, Socorro

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the East/Central/South African genotype were detected in Mindanao. Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. PMID:27088593

  20. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  1. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  2. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  3. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  4. 38 CFR 3.40 - Philippine and Insular Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Forces. 3.40 Section 3.40 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Insular Forces. (a) Regular Philippine Scouts. Service in the Philippine Scouts (except that described in paragraph (b) of this section), the Insular Force of the Navy, Samoan Native Guard, and Samoan Native...

  5. Ten for the Philippines: An Elementary Teacher's Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Carol E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the National Teachers' Training Convention in the Philippines. The convention trained two thousand teachers in six days. Describes the spartan facilities that define the Philippines' educational system and various efforts to improve it, including the "Books for Barrios" project that distributes…

  6. Proteomic identification of novel proteins from the calcifying shell matrix of the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Marie, Benjamin; Trinkler, Nolwenn; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Guichard, Nathalie; Becchi, Michel; Paillard, Christine; Marin, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    The shell of the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is composed of more than 99% calcium carbonate and of a small amount of organic matrix (around 0.2%). In this study, we developed one of the first proteomic approaches applied to mollusc shell in order to characterise the matrix proteins that are believed to be essential for the formation of the biomineral. The insoluble organic matrix, purified after demineralisation of the shell powder with cold acetic acid (5%), was digested with trypsin enzyme and then separated on nano-LC prior to nanospray/quadrupole time-of-flight analysis. MS/MS spectra were searched against the above 11,000 EST sequences available on the NCBI public database for Venerupis. Using this approach, we were able to identify partial or full-length sequence transcripts that encode for shell matrix proteins. These include three novel shell proteins whose sequences do not present any homologous proteins or already described domains, two putative protease inhibitor proteins containing Kazal-type domains, and a putative Ca(2+)-binding protein containing two EF-hand domains. Biomineral formation and evolutionary implications are discussed. PMID:21221694

  7. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Marrufo-Hernández, Norma A; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme widely distributed in the plant kingdom that has been detected in most fruits and vegetables. PPO was extracted and purified from Manila mango (Mangifera indica), and its biochemical properties were studied. PPO was purified 216-fold by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography. PPO was purified to homogeneity, and the estimated PPO molecular weight (MW) by SDS-PAGE was ≈31.5 kDa. However, a MW of 65 kDa was determined by gel filtration, indicating a dimeric structure for the native PPO. The isolated PPO showed the highest affinity to pyrogallol (Km = 2.77 mM) followed by 4-methylcatechol (Km = 3.14 mM) and catechol (Km = 15.14 mM). The optimum pH for activity was 6.0. PPO was stable in the temperature range of 20-70 °C. PPO activity was completely inhibited by tropolone, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, and kojic acid at 0.1 mM. PMID:25211397

  8. Scenario-based tsunami hazard assessment for the coast of Vietnam from the Manila Trench source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong Nguyen, Phuong; Cong Bui, Que; Ha Vu, Phuong; The Pham, Truyen

    2014-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of tsunamis in the East Vietnam Sea potentially originated from a giant rupture along the Manila Trench to the Vietnamese coast. Tsunami heights and arrival times to the major forecast points along the Vietnamese coast are computed using COMCOT model. The results of the worst case scenario (Mw = 9.3) and two extreme scenarios were used to assess the tsunami hazards. The simulation results show that Vietnamese coast can be divided into three parts with different levels of tsunami hazard. The highest threat exists along the coasts of Central and North-Central Vietnam, from Quang Binh to Ba Ria - Vung Tau provinces, with maximum wave height of 18 m observed near Quang Ngai coast, and a tsunami would reach this coastline in two hours at the earliest. The northern coastal zone of Vietnam has lower tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, maximum amplitudes of tsunami waves at Hai Phong sea port and Nam Dinh city, North Vietnam, are 3.5 m and 3.7 m, respectively, while the travel times to these sites are much longer, over 8 h. The southern coastal zone of Vietnam has very low tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, the maximum amplitude at Ca Mau is 0.12 m, while the travel time is over 10 h.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiology of Manila mango.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ortiz, M A; De la Cruz-Medina, J; de Los Monteros, J J Espinosa; Oliart-Ros, R M; Rebolledo-Martinez, A; Ramírez, J A; García, H S

    2013-06-01

    Manila mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) have sensory characteristics that make them attractive for consumption as a fresh fruit. A large portion of the annual yield of this fruit is infested by the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), adversely impacting the quality of the crop. Hence, it is necessary to develop economically viable postharvest treatments to reduce the damage caused by this insect. Currently, high hydrostatic pressures are used to guarantee the safety of many processed foods. The objective of this work was to assess the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on mangoes at their physiological maturity. High hydrostatic pressures were applied to mangoes at three levels: 50, 100 and 200 megapascals applied for four different time periods (0, 5, 10 and 20 min). Physiologically mature mangoes were more resistant to changes in response to the pressure of 50 MPa. Reduction of physiological activity by application of high hydrostatic pressure opens a new avenue for the research on treatments intended to enhance preservation of whole fresh fruit. PMID:23504511

  10. Food sources of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in intertidal areas: evidence from stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Based on stable isotope analysis, we characterized the dietary regime of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum inhabiting intertidal areas along the Liaodong Peninsula, Northern China. Samples, including particulate organic matter (POM; n =30), benthic microalgae (BMI; n =30) and R. philippinarum ( n =60), were collected from six sampling sites displaying the same ecological conditions. Of the two primary food sources, POM was more depleted in δ 13C (-20.61‰ to -22.89‰) than BMI was (-13.90‰ to -16.66‰). With respect to 15N, BMI was more enriched (2.90‰ to 4.07‰) than POM was (4.13‰ to 5.12‰). The δ 13C values of R. philippinarum ranged from -18.78‰ to -19.35‰ and the δ 15N values from 7.96‰ to 8.63‰, which were intermediate between the POM and BMI values. In a two-source isotope mixing model, we estimated the relative contributions of POM and BMI to the diet of R. philippinarum to be 74.2% and 25.8%, respectively. We conclude that R. philippinarum feeds mainly on POM, and BMI is also an important supplemental food source in intertidal areas.