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Sample records for mev neutron scattering

  1. Elastic Neutron Scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, A.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Esterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Phansuke, P.; Jonsson, O.; Renberg, P.-U.; Prokofiev, A.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Blideanu, V.

    2005-05-24

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20 - 180-MeV neutron beam line of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from 12C, 16O, 56Fe, 89Y, and 208Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10-70 deg. interval. The results from 12C and 208Pb have recently been published,6 while the data from 16O, 56Fe, and 89Y are under analysis. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions, based on phenomenology or microscopic theory. Applications for these measurements are nuclear-waste incineration, single-event upsets in electronics, and fast-neutron therapy.

  2. Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, R. C.; Crowe, B.; Crowell, A. S.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B. A.; Friesen, F. Q. L.; Han, Z.; Howell, C. R.; Markoff, D.; Ticehurst, D.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction provides a rich environment for testing theoretical models of the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction. Current theoretical predictions based on rigorous ab-initio calculations agree well with most experimental data for this system, but there remain a few notable discrepancies. The cross section for nn quasifree (QFS) scattering is one such anomaly. Two recent experiments reported cross sections for this particular nd breakup configuration that exceed theoretical calculations by almost 20% at incident neutron energies of 26 and 25 MeV [1, 2]. The theoretical values can be brought into agreement with these results by increasing the strength of the 1S0 nn potential matrix element by roughly 10%. However, this modification of the nn effective range parameter and/or the 1S0 scattering length causes substantial charge-symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon force and suggests the possibility of a weakly bound di-neutron state [3]. We are conducting new measurements of the cross section for nn QFS in nd breakup. The measurements are performed at incident neutron beam energies below 20 MeV. The neutron beam is produced via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction. The target is a deuterated plastic cylinder. Our measurements utilize time-of-flight techniques with a pulsed neutron beam and detection of the two emitted neutrons in coincidence. A description of our initial measurements at 10 MeV for a single scattering angle will be presented along with preliminary results. Also, plans for measurements at other energies with broad angular coverage will be discussed.

  3. Elastic neutron scattering at 96 MeV from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, J.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Mermod, P.; Pomp, S.; Tippawan, U.; Nilsson, L.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Dangtip, S.; Phansuke, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Le Brun, C.

    2003-12-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL, has recently been installed at the 20-180 MeV neutron beam line of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10 deg. -70 deg. interval. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions based on phenomenology or microscopic nuclear theory.

  4. Scattering of 14.1 Mev Neutrons in Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiran, Husin Bin

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The time of flight spectrometer based on the associated particle time of flight technique has been constructed in the present work to measure the elastic and non-elastic differential cross-sections of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from D-T fusion reactor blanket materials, Al, Cu and Mo. The 14.1 MeV neutrons were produced from T(d,n)He^4 reaction by accelerating the deuteron beam up to 140 keV using S.A.M.E.S. type J electrostatic accelerator. The time origin of the neutron was determined by detecting the associated alpha-particles using Ne102A thin plastic scintillator which provide 100% detection efficiency. A plastic scintillator NE102A mounted on a fast focused photomultiplier tube Philip 56 AVP was used in the neutron channel which provide 2.2 +/- 0.2 ns time resolution at FWHM. The angular distributions of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from the thin Al, Cu and Mo samples were measured in the angular range between 0^circ to 90^circ. The data are presented for elastic scattering and non-elastic neutrons scattering in the energy ranges (5-14) MeV in 3 MeV intervals. The differential inelastic cross-sections in Al to the sum of 0.84 and 1.04 MeV states are also presented. The differential elastic scattering cross-sections are compared to the results from ENDF-BIV and other published data. Legendre polynomial fits were produced and the integrated elastic cross-sections obtained from the fits were compared with the data of ENDF -BIV and others. The results of the differential elastic scattering cross-sections are compared to the prediction of earlier global optical models using optical model programme SCAT-2. The differential cross-sections of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from thick sample of Al and Cu were measured at various thicknesses over the angular range between 0 ^circ to 90^ circ. No similar measurements have been found to compare with the present work. The variation of measured cross-sections with

  5. Coupled-channel analysis of neutron scattering from /sup 12/C between 9 and 15 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1986-07-01

    A deformed and energy dependent phenomenological optical model potential and coupled-channel formalism for deformed nuclei have been used in the analysis of elastic and inelastic (Q = 4.439 MeV) scattering, and analyzing power for neutrons scattered from /sup 12/C in the energy range of 9 to 15 MeV. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Neutron transition densities for 48Ca from proton scattering at 200 and 318 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, A. E.; Kelly, J. J.; Flanders, B. S.; Khandaker, M. A.; Seifert, H.; Boberg, P.; Hyman, S. D.; Karen, P. H.; Norum, B. E.; Welch, P.; Chen, Q.; Bacher, A. D.; Berg, G. P.; Stephenson, E. J.; Nanda, S.; Saha, A.; Scott, A.

    1994-04-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for scattering of 200 and 318 MeV protons have been measured for states of 48Ca up to 7 MeV of excitation. The data cover c.m. momentum transfers from approximately 0.4 to 3.0 fm-1. Neutron transition densities were extracted for the 2+1,3-1,3-2,4+2, and 5-1 states using density-dependent empirical effective interactions previously calibrated upon elastic and inelastic scattering data for 16O and 40Ca. The corresponding proton transition densities were obtained from electron scattering data and held fixed during the analysis. Fits performed to the data for either energy provide excellent predictions for the other. Neutron densities fitted to data for either energy independently agree very well with each other and with the densities fitted to both data sets simultaneously. These densities are also consistent with earlier data for 500 MeV protons. The energy-independence of the extracted transition densities demonstrates that residual errors in the reaction model are compatible with the error bands estimated by the fitting procedure. Several additional tests of the model dependence of the results were performed also. The proton and neutron transition densities are compared with calculations based upon the extended random phase approximation, which includes 2p2h correlations. These calculations are most successful for densities dominated by 1p1h configurations, whereas densities requiring substantial 2p2h contributions tend to be underestimated.

  7. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of /sup 6/Li in the few MeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of /sup 6/Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx.< 10 keV. Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at approx.> 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;..cap alpha..)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file.

  8. Neutron scattering differential cross sections for 23Na from 1.5 to 4.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B. M.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; Liu, S. H.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L. C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies between 1.5 and 4.5 MeV. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n ,n‧ γ) reaction to include excited levels not resolved in the neutron detection measurements. The time-of-flight (TOF) technique was employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ-ray measurements and for energy determination in neutron detection measurements. Previous reaction model evaluations relied primarily on neutron total cross sections and four (n, n0) and (n, n1) angular distributions in the 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels and measurements at lower incident neutron energies provide additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining collective direct-coupling and compound absorption components were performed.

  9. The Angular Distribution of Neutrons Scattered from Deuterium below 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nankov, N.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Rao, R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Yakorev, D.; Wagner, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Canton, L.; Nolte, R.; Röttger, S.; Beyer, J.; Svenne, J.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements were carried out at the nELBE neutron time-of-flight facility at a 6 m flight path. Energies below 2 MeV were studied using a setup consisting of eight 6Li-glass detectors placed at nominal angles of 15∘ and 165∘ with respect to the incident neutron beam. A deuterated polyethylene sample with 99.999% enrichment in deuterium was used. These angles were chosen since an earlier study showed that the ratio of the differential cross section at these angles is the most sensitive to differences in evaluated files and model calculations. Accurate 165∘/15∘ angle ratios were obtained. Above 1 MeV these are somewhat larger than given by ENDF/B-VII. Simultaneously the early day experiments using a proportional counter to infer angular distributions from deuterium recoil pulse height distributions are being studied through a new experiment with such a device at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). At 500 keV this experiment favors ENDF/B-VII over JENDL-4.0, while at lower energies agreement with the data is similar.

  10. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. D.; Guenther, P. T.; Smith, A. B.

    1990-12-01

    Ratios of the cross sections for the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range ~ 20°-160° for the target pairs 51V/Cr, 59Co/ 58Ni, Cu/Zn, 89Y/ 93Nb, 89Y/Zr, 93Nb/Zr, In/Cd and 209Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of ~2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. The ratios are generally consistent with a model based upon a real Woods-Saxon potential whose geometry is essentially constant between pairs, and whose strength has an ( N- Z)/ A (symmetry) component with a magnitude of ~ 16 MeV. For pairs with A > 100, a constant-geometry derivative Woods-Saxon imaginary potential, with a symmetry strength of ~15 MeV, explains the ratios. However, for the lighter nuclei, the difffuseness of the imaginary potential varies rapidly near the N = 28 and N = 50 shell closures, and for the 59Co- 58Ni and Cu-Zn pairs, the imaginary symmetry-potential strength is about twice the 15 MeV global value. A method for approximating the spin-spin potential is given, and it is shown that this interaction makes a negligible contribution to the calculated ratios. However, channel coupling can lead to large reorientation effects which can substantially change the calculated ratios. Differences in the spin-orbit interaction between neighboring pairs can significantly affect the calculated ratios.

  11. Angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Grozdanov, D. N.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Ruskov, I. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Skoy, V. R.; Barmakov, Yu. N.; Bogolyubov, E. P.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    The work is devoted to measuring the angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei. A portable ING-27 neutron generator (designed and fabricated at VNIIA, Moscow) with a built-in 64-pixel silicon α-detector was used as a source of tagged neutrons. The γ-rays of characteristic nuclear radiation from 12C were detected with a spectrometric system that consisted of 22 γ-detectors based on NaI(Tl) crystals arranged around the carbon target. The measured angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays is analyzed and compared with the results of other published experimental works.

  12. Test of charge symmetry in neutron-proton elastic scattering at 477 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abegg, R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Birchall, J.; Cairns, E.W.; Coombes, H.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Gubler, H.P.; Healy, D.C.; Lapointe, C.; Lee, W.P.; McDonald, W.J.; Miller, C.A.; Moss, G.A.; Plattner, G.R.; Poffenberger, P.R.; Ramsay, W.D.; Roy, G.; Soukup, J.; Svenne, J.P.; Tkachuk, R.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Wait, G.D.; Zhang, Y.P.

    1986-06-16

    An experiment resulting in the first measurement of the isospin-mixing, charge-symmetry violating component of the n-italic-p-italic interaction has been performed. The experiment determined the difference in the angles of the zero crossing of the neutron and proton analyzing powers A-italic/sub n-italic/ and A-italic/sub p-italic/ at 477 MeV. In terms of the laboratory scattering angle of the neutron, the measured difference t-italich-italice-italict-italica-italic/sub 0//sub n-italic/(A/sub n/)= -t-italich-italice-italict-italica-italic/sub 0//sub n-italic/(A/sub p/) = +0.13X(de +- 0.06 X(de( +- 0.03X(de) where the second error is a worst case estimate of systematic error. The resulting difference in the analyzing powers at the zero-crossing angle A-italic/sub n-italic/-A/sub p/ = +0.0037 +- 0.0017( +- 0 .0008).

  13. Measurement of the Wolfenstein parameters for proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    Using liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets respectively, forward angle (ten degrees to sixty degrees in the center of Mass) free proton-proton and quasielastic proton-proton and proton-neutron triple scattering data at 500 MeV have been obtained using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data are in reasonable agreement with recent predictions from phase shift analyses, indicating that the proton-nucleon scattering amplitudes are fairly well determined at 500 MeV. 32 references.

  14. Investigation of Three-Body Force Effects in Neutron-Deuteron Scattering at 95 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Mermod, P.; Blomgren, J.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Oesterlund, M.; Pomp, S.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Tippawan, U.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Maeda, Y.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.

    2005-05-24

    We have measured the neutron-deuteron (nd) elastic-scattering differential cross section at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, using both the Medley and the SCANDAL setups at TSL in Uppsala. The full angular distribution was covered by detecting recoil deuterons from thin CD2 targets, and the result was normalized to the neutron-proton (np) cross section. Recent theories predict that three-nucleon (3N) force effects, if present, would affect the cross section in the minimum region by about 30%. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and are well described if 3N forces are included.

  15. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Lawson, R.D.; Guenther, P.T.

    1989-10-01

    Ratios of the cross sections for elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range {approx}20{degree} {minus} 160{degree} for the target pairs {sup 51}V/Cr, {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni, Cu/Zn, {sup 89}Y/{sup 93}Nb, {sup 89}Y/Zr, {sup 93}Nb/Zr, In/Cd and {sup 209}Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of {approx}2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. Approximately half the measured ratios are reasonably explained by a simple spherical optical model, including size and isospin contributions. In all cases, the geometry of the real optical--model potential is essentially the same for neighboring nuclei, and the real--potential strengths are consistent with the Lane model. In contrast, it is found that the imaginary potential may be quite different for adjacent nuclei, and the nature of this difference is examined. It is shown that the spin--spin interaction has a negligible effect on the calculation of the elastic--scattering ratios, but that channel coupling, leading to a large reorientation of the target ground state, can be a consideration, particularly in the {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni case. In the A {approx} 50--60 region the calculated ratios are sensitive to spin--orbit effects, but the exact nature of this interaction must await more definitive polarization measurements. The measured and calculated results suggest that the concept of a conventional global'' or even regional'' optical potential provides no more than a qualitative representation of the physical reality for a number of cases. 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Re-evaluation of neutron-{sup 4}He elastic scattering data near 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Drosg, M.; Avalos Ortiz, R.; Hoop, B.

    2011-06-15

    Measured differential elastic-scattering cross sections of 17.72-, 20.97-, and 23.72-MeV neutrons from liquid helium-4 were re-evaluated and were corrected for sample-size and multiple-scattering effects by means of a Monte Carlo technique implemented in a more recent code (mcnpx). Results indicate that earlier corrections via the code maggie-2 overestimated the size of multiple-scattering effects by an order of magnitude. The corrected differential cross sections and Legendre coefficients obtained by least-squares fits are given.

  17. Evidence of three-body force effects in neutron-deuteron scattering at 95 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Mermod, P.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Oesterlund, M.; Pomp, S.; Tippawan, U.; Bergenwall, B.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Maeda, Y.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.

    2005-12-15

    Recently, we have reported a measurement of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section at 95 MeV. In the present work, the previous results are confirmed with an independent measurement performed with another setup. The new data cover the full angular distribution by combining neutron detection and deuteron detection, and have an unprecedented precision in the region of the cross-section minimum, where three-nucleon forces are expected to be significant. The effect already identified in the previous measurement is clearly seen in the present data, which agree well with theoretical descriptions including three-nucleon forces.

  18. The gamma rays associated with the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in large samples of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shalabi, B.; Cox, A. J.

    1983-02-01

    Iron is likely to be a common construction material in the first generation of fusion reactors and a knowledge of the effect of multiple scattering processes in large samples of this material is important for reactor design. In the present work, the angular distributions of gamma rays produced after the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in increasing thicknesses of iron samples have been measured. The measurements were performed using an associated particle time of flight system to gate the gamma-ray signals and reduce the background to an acceptable level. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced by the T(d, n) 4He reaction with the deuterons being accelerated in a 150 KV SAMES type J accelerator at Aston and in the 3 MeV dynamitron at the Joint Radiation Centre, Birmingham. The incident neutron flux was monitored by counting the alpha particles associated with the neutrons passing through the sample. The gamma rays were detected by a NaI(Tl) scintillator mounted on a 56 AVP photo-multiplier tube. The samples of iron varied in thickness from 2 to 10.5 cm. In each case, the differential cross sections for gamma ray production at angles varying between 20° and 90° to the incident neutron beam were measured. The results were fitted to an even order Legendre polynomial. The increase in effective cross section σ due to multiple scattering effects as the sample thickness increased was found to obey the law σ = σ0 exp αx in the region considered for each sample where x is the sample thickness in mean free paths and α has an average value of 0.17 ± 1 (mean free paths) -1. The results have been analysed on a semi-empirical model based on the assumption of continuous slowing down.

  19. The prediction of Neutron Elastic Scattering from Tritium for E(n) = 6-14 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J D; Dietrich, F S; Luu, T; McNabb, D P; Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S

    2010-06-14

    In a recent report Navratil et al. evaluated the angle-integrated cross section and the angular distribution for 14-MeV n+T elastic scattering by inferring these cross sections from accurately measured p+3He angular distributions. This evaluation used a combination of two theoretical treatments, based on the no-core shell model and resonating-group method (NCSM/RGM) and on the R-matrix formalism, to connect the two charge-symmetric reactions n+T and p+{sup 3}He. In this report we extend this treatment to cover the neutron incident energy range 6-14 MeV. To do this, we evaluate angle-dependent correction factors for the NCSM/RGM calculations so that they agree with the p+{sup 3}He data near 6 MeV, and using the results found earlier near 14 MeV we interpolate these correction factors to obtain correction factors throughout the 6-14 MeV energy range. The agreement between the corrected NCSM/RGM and R-Matrix values for the integral elastic cross sections is excellent ({+-}1%), and these are in very good agreement with total cross section experiments. This result can be attributed to the nearly constant correction factors at forward angles, and to the evidently satisfactory physics content of the two calculations. The difference in angular shape, obtained by comparing values of the scattering probability distribution P({mu}) vs. {mu}(the cosine of the c.m. scattering angle), is about {+-}4% and appears to be related to differences in the two theoretical calculations. Averaging the calculations yields P({mu}) values with errors of {+-}2 1/2 % or less. These averaged values, along with the corresponding quantities for the differential cross sections, will form the basis of a new evaluation of n+T elastic scattering. Computer files of the results discussed in this report will be supplied upon request.

  20. Forward-angle neutron-proton scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Elmgren, K.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.

    2005-02-01

    The differential np scattering cross section has been measured at 96 MeV in the angular range {theta}{sub c.m.}=20 deg. -76 deg. Together with an earlier data set at the same energy, covering the angles {theta}{sub c.m.}=74 deg. -180 deg., a new data set has been formed in the angular range {theta}{sub c.m.}=20 deg. - 180 deg. This extended data set has been normalized to the experimental total np cross section, resulting in a renormalization of the earlier data of 0.7%, which is well within the reported normalization uncertainty for that experiment. A novel normalization technique has been investigated. The results on forward np scattering are in reasonable agreement with theory models and partial wave analyses and have been compared with data from the literature.

  1. Measurements of the differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in natural chromium, iron, nickel, and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, E.G. . Dept. of Radiology); Tsirliganis, N.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics); Knoll, G.F. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences)

    1999-07-01

    The time-of-flight technique was used with the ring scattering geometry in a laboratory with low neutron-scattering background to measure the angular distributions of the cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in natural chromium, iron, nickel, and niobium. Specifically for inelastic scattering, the measurements included the 1.43- and 4.56-MeV levels of [sup 52]Cr; the 0.85-, (2.94 to 3.12)-, and (4.46 to 4.51)-MeV level groups of [sup 56]Fe; the 1.33-MeV level of [sup 60]Ni combined with the 1.45-MeV level of [sup 58]Ni; and the 4.48-MeV level of [sup 58]Ni. Pulses of neutrons with time width of 0.9 to 1.1 ns were produced via the D-T reaction in a 150-keV linear accelerator, with average intensities of 9 [times] 10[sup 8] n/s. The scattering angles ranged from [approximately]16 to [approximately]160 deg, with a typical step of [approximately]10 deg. The overall uncertainty for the elastic scattering cross section was in the range of 7 to 10% for all materials, except around the minima of the angular distribution for niobium. The uncertainties for the inelastic scattering cross sections were estimated to be between 8 and 24%. The measured angular distributions were compared with the evaluations in the ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3, CENDL-2, BROND-2, and JEF-2 nuclear data libraries. For elastic scattering, there are no significant discrepancies in general, neither among the evaluations nor between the present data and the evaluations. For the inelastic scattering there are substantial discrepancies both in shape and magnitude among the evaluations (when available) as well as between the present data and the evaluations.

  2. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Rebecca M.; Burgett, E. A.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  3. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  4. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  5. Neutron scattering and absorption properties

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Table in this report presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities, which characterize the properties for scattering and absorption of neutrons. The neutron cross section is given for room temperature neutrons, 20.43{degree}C, corresponds to a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts (eV) or a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. The neutron resonance integral is defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV, or 0.1 MeV. A list of the major references used is given below. The literature cutoff data is October 1993. Uncertainties are given in parentheses. Parentheses with two or more numbers indicate values to the excited states(s) and to the ground state of the product nucleus.

  6. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science

  7. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  8. Thermal neutron scattering in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qasir, Iyad Ibrahim

    Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, are graphite moderated and gas cooled thermal spectrum reactors. The characteristics of the low energy (E < 1 eV) neutron spectrum in these reactors will be dictated by the process of neutron slowing-down and thermalization in the graphite moderator. The ability to accurately predict this process in these reactors can have significant neutronic and safety implications. In reactor design calculations, thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries are needed for the prediction of the thermal neutron environment in the core. Currently used libraries (ENDF/B-VII) are a product of the 1960s and remain based on many physical approximations. In addition, these libraries show noticeable discrepancies with experimental data. In this work, investigation of thermal neutron scattering in graphite as a function of temperature was performed. The fundamental input for the calculation of thermal neutron scattering cross sections, i.e., the phonon frequency distribution and/or the dispersion relations, was generated using a modern approach that is based on quantum mechanical electronic structure (ab initio) simulations combined with a lattice dynamics direct method supercell approach. The calculations were performed using the VASP and PHONON codes. The VASP calculations used the local density approximation, and the projector augmented-wave pseudopotential. A supercell of 144 atoms was used; and the integration over the Brillouin zone was confined to a 3x3x4 k-mesh generated by the Monkhorst-Pack scheme. A plane-wave basis set with an energy cutoff of 500 eV was applied. The corresponding dispersion relations, heat capacity, and phonon frequency distribution show excellent agreement with experimental data. Despite the use of the above techniques to produce more accurate input data, the examination of the results indicated persistence of the inconsistencies between calculations and measurements at neutron energies

  9. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  10. Calculates Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-11-10

    Version 00 THRUSH computes the thermal neutron scattering kernel by the phonon expansion method for both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. The calculation of the coherent part is suitable only for calculating the scattering kernel for heavy water.

  11. Little Boy neutron spectrum below 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.E.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The leakage neutron spectrum from the Little Boy replica has been measured from 12 keV to 3 MeV using a high-resolution /sup 3/He ionization chamber, and from 1 keV to 3 MeV using proton-recoil proportional counters. The /sup 3/He-spectrometer measurements were made at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m from the active center and at angles of 0/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 90/sup 0/ with respect to the axis of the assembly. Proton-recoil measurments were made at 90/sup 0/ to the assembly axis at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m, with a shielded measurement made at 2.0 m to estimate background due to scattering. The /sup 3/He spectrometer was calibrated at Los Alamos using monoenergetic /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be neutrons to generate a family of response functions. The proton-recoil counters were calibrated at Argonne by studying the capture of thermal neutrons by nitrogen in the counters, by observation of the 24-keV neutron resonance in iron, and by relating to the known hydrogen content of the counters. The neutron spectrum from Little Boy was found to be highly structured, with peaks corresponding to minima in the iron total neutron cross section. In particular, influence of the 24-keV iron window was evident in both sets of spectra. The measurements provide information for dosimetry calculations and also a valuable intercomparison of neutron spectrometry using the two different detector types. Spectra measured with both detectors are in essential agreement. 8 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Neutron-induced 2.2 MeV background in gamma ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E. M.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma ray production is an important source of background in Compton scatter gamma ray telescopes where organic scintillator material is used. Most important is deuteron formation when atmospheric albedo and locally produced neutrons are thermalized and subsequently absorbed in the hydrogenous material. The resulting 2.2 MeV gamma ray line radiation essentially represents a continuous isotropic source within the scintillator itself. Interestingly, using a scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the neutron-induced 4.4 MeV carbon line favors the np reaction. The full problem of neutron-induced background in Compton scatter telescopes has been previously discussed. Results are presented of observations with the University of California balloon-borne Compton scatter telescope where the 2.2 MeV induced line emission is prominently seen.

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  14. Neutron Scattering Stiudies

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J

    2007-04-18

    This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.

  15. Neutron scattering from elemental uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B. |; Chiba, S.

    1995-01-01

    Differential neutron-scattering cross sections of elemental uranium and thorium are measured from {approx} 4.5 to 10.0 MeV in steps of {approx} 0.5 MeV. Forty or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx} 17{degree} and 160{degree}. Scattered-neutron resolutions are carefully defined to encompass contributions from the first four members of the ground-state rotational band (0{sup 2} g.s., 2{sup +}, 4{sup +} and 6{sup +} states). The experimental results are interpreted in the context of coupled-channels rotational models, and comparisons made with the respective ENDF/B-VI evaluated files. These comparisons suggest some modifications of the ENDF/B-VI {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th evaluations.

  16. Direct Measurement of Neutron-Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, E.I.; Furman, W.I.; Lychagin, W.I.; Muzichka, G.V.; Nekhaev, G.V.; Safronov, Yu.V.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Strelkov, A.V.; Bowman, C.D.; Crawford, B.E.; Stephenson, S.L.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Levakov, B.G.; Litvin, V.I.; Lyzhin, A.E.; Magda, E.P.; Mitchell, G.E.

    2003-08-26

    In order to resolve long-standing discrepancies in indirect measurements of the neutron-neutron scattering length ann and contribute to solving the problem of the charge symmetry of the nuclear force, the collaboration DIANNA (Direct Investigation of ann Association) plans to measure the neutron-neutron scattering cross section {sigma}nn. The key issue of our approach is the use of the through-channel in the Russia reactor YAGUAR with a peak neutron flux of 10{sup 18} /cm2/s. The proposed experimental setup is described. Results of calculations are presented to connect {sigma}nn with the nn-collision detector count rate and the neutron flux density in the reactor channel. Measurements of the thermal neutron fields inside polyethylene converters show excellent prospects for the realization of the direct nn-experiment.

  17. Comparison of experimental and computational neutron spectroscopy at a 14 MeV neutron generator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Cousins, Tom; Desrosiers, Marc; Jones, Trevor; Buhr, Rob; Rambousky, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    At any neutron production facility, the energy spectrum at any meaningful distance from the target will be modified. For the case of a facility used to provide reference irradiations of electronics and other devices at various target-to-device distances it is important to have knowledge of these spectral modifications. In addition, it is desirable to have the ability to generate near real-time measurement capability. Advances in neutron metrology have made it possible to determine neutron energy spectra in real time to high levels of accuracy. This paper outlines a series of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations designed to quantify the scattering effects for a 14 MeV neutron generator facility, and makes appropriate recommendations for near real-time measurements of these fields.

  18. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  19. COMPTEL neutron response at 17 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Terrence J.; Ait-Ouamer, Farid; Morris, Joann; Tumer, O. Tumay; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1992-01-01

    The Compton imaging telescope (COMPTEL) instrument of the Gamma Ray Observatory was exposed to 17 MeV d,t neutrons prior to launch. These data were analyzed and compared with Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP(LANL) code. Energy and angular resolutions are compared and absolute efficiencies are calculated at 0 and 30 degrees incident angle. The COMPTEL neutron responses at 17 MeV and higher energies are needed to understand solar flare neutron data.

  20. Calculations of neutron spectra after neutron neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, B. E.; Stephenson, S. L.; Howell, C. R.; Mitchell, G. E.; Tornow, W.; Furman, W. I.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzichka, A. Yu; Nekhaev, G. V.; Strelkov, A. V.; Sharapov, E. I.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2004-09-01

    A direct neutron-neutron scattering length, ann, measurement with the goal of 3% accuracy (0.5 fm) is under preparation at the aperiodic pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A direct measurement of ann will not only help resolve conflicting results of ann by indirect means, but also in comparison to the proton-proton scattering length, app, shed light on the charge-symmetry of the nuclear force. We discuss in detail the analysis of the nn-scattering data in terms of a simple analytical expression. We also discuss calibration measurements using the time-of-flight spectra of neutrons scattered on He and Ar gases and the neutron activation technique. In particular, we calculate the neutron velocity and time-of-flight spectra after scattering neutrons on neutrons and after scattering neutrons on He and Ar atoms for the proposed experimental geometry, using a realistic neutron flux spectrum—Maxwellian plus epithermal tail. The shape of the neutron spectrum after scattering is appreciably different from the initial spectrum, due to collisions between thermal-thermal and thermal-epithermal neutrons. At the same time, the integral over the Maxwellian part of the realistic scattering spectrum differs by only about 6 per cent from that of a pure Maxwellian nn-scattering spectrum.

  1. A search for solar neutrons from 10-100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monn, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A search for solar neutrons is reported from a balloon flight launched from Palestine, Texas on Sept. 26, 1971. The sun was observed from 8:30 to 19:30 CST. The neutrons were detected with a telescope consisting of two 0.5 sq m scintillation detectors spaced 1 meter apart using a double-scattering/time-of-flight technique. Upper limits for solar neutrons in the energy intervals 10 to 30, 30 to 50, and 50 to 100 MeV are .00011, .00026 and .00059 neutron/sq cm-sec, respectively. These are combined into an overall upper limit of .00051 neutron/sq cm-sec.

  2. In-situ soil carbon analysis using inelastic neutron scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ soil carbon analysis using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is based on the emission of 4.43 MeV gamma rays from carbon nuclei excited by fast neutrons. This in-situ method has excellent potential for easily measuring soil carbon since it does not require soil core sampling and processing ...

  3. Earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preszler, A. M.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    We report the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV at 40 deg N geomagnetic latitude from a balloon at 120,000 ft, below 4.65 g/sq cm. The albedo-neutron omnidirectional energy distribution is flat to 50 MeV, then decreases with energy. The absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the source of the protons trapped in earth's inner radiation belt.

  4. A Monte Carlo comparison of PGNAA system performance using 252Cf neutrons, 2.8-MeV neutrons and 14-MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.

    2003-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare performance of a 252Cf neutron and a 14-MeV neutron-based prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Since the energy of neutron beam used in the KFUPM PGNAA system is very close to that produced by a DD neutron generator, performance comparison between a DD and a DT neutron generator-based PGNAA system is highly desired. For the sake of comparison, the calculations were carried out for the PGNAA system with geometry similar to the KFUPM PGNAA system. These calculations were required to determine improvement in performance of the KFUPM PGNAA system if its 2.8-MeV neutron source is replaced by a 252Cf neutron source or a 14-MeV neutron source. Results of the calculations revealed that the geometry of the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are not significantly different but the geometry of the 14-MeV neutron-based system is significantly different from that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. Accordingly, the prompt γ-ray yields from the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable but prompt γ-ray yields from 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are about three times smaller than that from the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. This study has shown that performance of the 252Cf neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system but the performance of the 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is poorer than that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system.

  5. Neutron scatter camera

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  6. Contraband detection via neutron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, H.J.; Charatis, G.; Brundage, J.

    1993-04-01

    Reliable detection of explosives and narcotics depends on generating signatures of compounds which characterize them. Major explosives and also alkaloid narcotics contain unique concentrations of Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), and Oxygen (O). The kinematic energy shifts of neutrons scattered through angles larger than 140{degrees} allows separate determinations of C, N, and O; ratios of N/C and O/C together give clear signatures of the presence of plastic explosives or narcotics. The ability to detect these signatures under conditions similar to those that would obtain for airport screening has been demonstrated for neutrons for energies less {le} 3 MeV. Strong N resonances and a deep window for scattering from O enhance the confidence of element quantification. Detection of contraband in large cargo containers presents a much more difficult problem. Use of higher energy neutrons is now being tested for shielding penetration, so narcotic signatures could be identified behind the shielding of cargo containers. Scattered neutron spectra, or {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} of different organic compounds will be presented.

  7. A diamond 14 MeV neutron energy spectrometer with high energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H; Ochiai, Kentaro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    A self-standing single-crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond was obtained using lift-off method. It was fabricated into a radiation detector and response function measurements for 14 MeV neutrons were taken at the fusion neutronics source. 1.5% of high energy resolution was obtained by using the (12)C(n, α)(9)Be reaction at an angle of 100° with the deuteron beam line. The intrinsic energy resolution, excluding energy spreading caused by neutron scattering, slowing in the target and circuit noises was 0.79%, which was also the best resolution of the diamond detector ever reported. PMID:26931845

  8. A diamond 14 MeV neutron energy spectrometer with high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Ochiai, Kentaro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    A self-standing single-crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond was obtained using lift-off method. It was fabricated into a radiation detector and response function measurements for 14 MeV neutrons were taken at the fusion neutronics source. 1.5% of high energy resolution was obtained by using the 12C(n, α)9Be reaction at an angle of 100° with the deuteron beam line. The intrinsic energy resolution, excluding energy spreading caused by neutron scattering, slowing in the target and circuit noises was 0.79%, which was also the best resolution of the diamond detector ever reported.

  9. Response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators to 2.5 MeV fusion neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, S.; Weller, A.; Petrizzi, L.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-12-15

    Measurements of the response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) to 2.5 MeV neutrons have been carried out at the Frascati Neutron Generator and at tokamak facilities with deuterium plasmas. The observed spectrum has been interpreted by means of a Monte Carlo model. It is found that the main contributor to the measured response is neutron inelastic scattering on {sup 79}Br, {sup 81}Br, and {sup 139}La. An extrapolation of the count rate response to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium plasmas is also presented. The results are of relevance for the design of γ-ray diagnostics of fusion burning plasmas.

  10. Response of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators to 2.5 MeV fusion neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, S.; Weller, A.; Petrizzi, L.; Gorini, G.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of the response of LaBr3(Ce) to 2.5 MeV neutrons have been carried out at the Frascati Neutron Generator and at tokamak facilities with deuterium plasmas. The observed spectrum has been interpreted by means of a Monte Carlo model. It is found that the main contributor to the measured response is neutron inelastic scattering on 79Br, 81Br, and 139La. An extrapolation of the count rate response to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium plasmas is also presented. The results are of relevance for the design of γ-ray diagnostics of fusion burning plasmas.

  11. Monte-Carlo simulation of soil carbon measurements by inelastic neutron scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring soil carbon is critical for assessing the potential impact of different land management practices on carbon sequestration. The inelastic neutron scattering (INS) of fast neutrons (with energy around 14 MeV) on carbon-12 nuclei produces gamma rays with energy of 4.43 MeV; this gamma flux ca...

  12. Fast-neutron scattering from vibrational palladium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B. |; Guenther, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental palladium are measured from {approx}0.6--4.5 MeV. These results, combined with others previously reported from this laboratory, provide a detailed knowledge of the neutron total cross sections of palladium from {approx}0.1--20 MeV. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from {approx}1.5--10 MeV in sufficient energy and angle detail to well define the energy-average behavior. Concurrently, neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from {approx}1.5--8 MeV. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to excitations of: 306 {+-} 14, 411 {+-} 47, {approx}494, 791 {+-} 20, 924 {+-} 20, 1,156 {+-} 24, 1,358 {+-} 35, 1,554 {+-} 47 and 1,706 {+-} 59 keV, with additional tentative groups at 1,938 and 2,059 keV. Particular attention is given to the inelastic excitation of the 2{sup +} yrast states of the even isotopes. This broad data base is examined in the context of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models. The resulting model parameters are consistent with systematic trends in this vibrational mass region previously noted at this laboratory, and provide a suitable vehicle for many applications.

  13. Response of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators to 14 MeV fusion neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Rebai, M.; Pillon, M.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Gorini, G.

    2015-04-01

    The response of a 3″×3″ LaBr3(Ce) scintillator to 14 MeV neutron irradiation has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator and simulated by means of a dedicated MCNP model. Several reactions are found to contribute to the measured response, with a key role played by neutron inelastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on 79Br, 81Br and 139La isotopes. An overall 43% efficiency to 14 MeV neutron detection above an experimental threshold of 0.35 MeV is calculated and confirmed by measurements. Post irradiation activation of the crystal has been also observed and is explained in terms of nuclear decays from the short lived 78Br and 80Br isotopes produced in (n,2n) reactions. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the design of γ-ray detectors in burning plasma fusion experiments of the next generation, such as ITER, where capability to perform measurements in an intense 14 MeV neutron flux is required.

  14. Analysis of a measured neutron background below 6 MeV for fast-neutron imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, K.; Becchetti, M. F.; Flaska, M.; Poitrasson-Riviere, A.; Hamel, M. C.; Polack, J. K.; Lawrence, C. C.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the neutron background is relevant for many applications that involve radiation detection, both for non-coincidence and coincidence countings. In particular, for the purpose of developing advanced neutron-detection techniques for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear safeguards, the energy-dependent, ground-level, neutron-background information is needed. There are only a few previous studies available about the neutron background below 10 MeV, which is a typical neutron energy range of interest for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear-safeguards applications. Thus, there is a potential for further investigation in this energy range. In this paper, neutron-background measurement results using organic-liquid scintillation detectors are described and discussed, with a direct application in optimization simulations of a fast-neutron imager based on liquid scintillators. The measurement was performed in summer 2011 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, and the measurement setup consisted of several EJ-309 liquid scintillators and a fast waveform digitizer. The average neutron flux below 6 MeV was measured to be approximately 4e-4 counts/cm2/s. In addition, the relationship between the neutron-background count rate and various environmental quantities, such as humidity, at Earth's ground level was investigated and the results did not reveal any straightforward dependences. The measured pulse height distribution (PHD) was unfolded to determine the energy spectrum of the background neutrons. The unfolded neutron-background spectrum was implemented to a previously-created MCNPX-PoliMi model of the neutron-scatter camera and simple-backprojection images of the background neutrons were acquired. Furthermore, a simulated PHD was obtained with the MCNPX-PoliMi code using the "Cosmic-Ray Shower Library" (CRY) source sub-routine which returns various types of radiation, including neutrons and photons at a surface, and accounts for solar cycle

  15. LOW VOLTAGE 14 Mev NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Little, R.N. Jr.; Graves, E.R.

    1959-09-29

    An apparatus yielding high-energy neutrons at the rate of 10/sup 8/ or more per second by the D,T or D,D reactions is described. The deuterium gas filling is ionized by electrons emitted from a filament, and the resulting ions are focused into a beam and accelerated against a fixed target. The apparatus is built in accordance with the relationship V/sub s/ = A--B log pd, where V/sub s/ is the sparking voltage, p the gas pressure, and d the gap length between the high voltage electrodes. Typical parameters to obtain the high neutron yields are 55 to 80 kv, 0.5 to 7.0 ma beam current, 5 to 12 microns D/sub 2/, and a gap length of 1 centimeter.

  16. Polarization transfer in n-p scattering at 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolverton, H. L.; Nath, S.; Hiebert, J. C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Woodward, And W.

    1985-05-01

    The polarization transfer parameter Dt(180°) for n-p scattering has been measured at 50 MeV for the first time. Polarized neutrons produced in the 2H(darrow,narrow) 3He reaction were scattered from the hydrogen in a polyethylene target and the polarization of the recoil protons emitted at 0° was measured in a carbon polarimeter. The result of this measurement tests the prediction of Dt from a phase shift analysis of the N-N data and that of a theoretical proposal concerning n-p charge exchange.

  17. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, L. F.; Haight, R. C.; Pohl, B. A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, Ch.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9Be, C, 181Ta, 232Th, 238U, and 239Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonably good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP.

  18. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  19. An 8-element neutron double-scatter directional detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

    2005-09-01

    We have constructed a fast-neutron double-scatter spectrometer that efficiently measures the neutron spectrum and direction of a spontaneous fission source. The device consists of two planes of organic scintillators, each having an area of 125 cm2, efficiently coupled to photomultipliers. The four scintillators in the front plane are 2 cm thick, giving almost 25% probability of detecting an incident fission-spectrum neutron at 2 MeV by proton recoil and subsequent ionization. The back plane contains four 5-cm-thick scintillators which give a 40% probability of detecting a scattered fast neutron. A recordable double-scatter event occurs when a neutron is detected in both a front plane detector and a back plane detector within an interval of 500 nanoseconds. Each double-scatter event is analyzed to determine the energy deposited in the front plane, the time of flight between detectors, and the energy deposited in the back plane. The scattering angle of each incident neutron is calculated from the ratio of the energy deposited in the first detector to the kinetic energy of the scattered neutron.

  20. Pohang Neutron Facility Based on 100 Mev Electron Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. N.; Ahmed, H.; Machrafi, R.; Son, D.; Lee, Y. S.; Skoy, V.; Kang, H. S.; Cho, M. H.; Ko, I. S.; Namkung, W.

    2003-06-01

    Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF) is a pulsed neutron facility based on the 100-MeV electron linear accelerator. It was constructed for nuclear data production in Korea, and it consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target with a water moderator and a time-of-flight path with an 11 m length. The 100-MeV electron linac uses a thermionic RF-gun, an alpha magnet, four quadrupole magnets, two SLAC-type accelerating sections, a quadrupole triplet, and a beam-analyzing magnet. It has been equipped with a new four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows the simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from 4 different samples. The neutron total cross sections of natural In and Cu have been measured in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to 100 eV by the neutron time-of-flight method.

  1. Neutron densities in 120Sn observed by polarized proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Taki, T.; Yosoi, M.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tsukahara, N.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Fujimura, H.; Yoshida, H.; Obayashi, E.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.

    2001-06-01

    Cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation parameters of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni and 120Sn have been measured at intermediate energies. By elastic scattering off N~=Z nuclei like 58Ni at intermediate energies we can study medium modification of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction inside the nucleus, because proton distributions in target nuclei are constrained by charge distributions measured by electron scattering and neutron distributions can be assumed to be the same as proton's. In order to explain our experimental data of 58Ni at large scattering angles, it was found to be necessary to use experimental densities deduced from charge densities measured by electron scattering and to modify the coupling constants and the masses of exchanged σ and ω mesons in the RIA, assuming linear dependencies of meson properties to nuclear densities. Parameters of the medium effect have been searched to reproduce the data. For N≠Z nuclei, neutron density distribution can be extracted from the elastic scattering, assuming the same medium modifications fixed by the 58Ni data and using proton distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distribution so as to reproduce 120Sn data at the proton incident energy of 300 MeV. Deduced neutron distribution has an increase at the nuclear center, which is consistent with the 3s1/2 orbit wave function as expected in 120Sn. At energies other than 300 MeV, experimental data of 120Sn have been also well reproduced by the neutron distribution obtained at 300 MeV. .

  2. Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14. 1 MeV to 18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, P.M. Jr.; Barschall, H.H.; Haight, R.C.; McDonald, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183 +- 0.015 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ and 0.210 +- 0.16 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297 +- 0.03 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3..cap alpha..) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184 +- 0.019 10/sup 8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ in agreement with the present result. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The 14 MeV Frascati neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, M.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    1994-09-01

    The 14-MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG) uses the T(d, n)α fusion reaction to produce 5.0 × 10 11 n/s. In FNG a beam of deuterons is accelerated up to 300 keV by means of a linear electrostatic tube and directed onto a tritiated-titanium target containing 37 × 10 10 Bq of tritium. This paper describes the FNG facility and its auxiliary apparatus as well as the neutron source calibration performed using the associated α-particle method.

  4. Industrial applications using 14 MeV neutrons at KFUPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Al-Haddad, M. N.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a database for the technical capability of the KFUPM 14 MeV Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility for applications to various local industries in the Kingdom. Since the 14 MeV NAA is a well-established non-destructive, rapid and sensitive technique for elemental bulk analysis, the applications of the technique are spread over wide areas such as oil, petrochemicals, metal and mining, medicine, agriculture and environment. The applications are mostly done for determination of light elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon and phosphorus, which are relatively difficult to determine by other methods. The results of the analysis are mainly used for quality and process control. The progress made in developing the KFUPM 14 MeV NAA Facility for industrial applications will be summarized. Preliminary results of the analysis of the data collected using the facility will be presented and discussed.

  5. Reaction cross sections on carbon for neutron energies from 11. 5 to 19 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Antolkovic, B. ); Dietze, G.; Klein, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on neutron-induced reaction cross sections for carbon measured in the 11.5- to 19-MeV energy range. The response of an NE-213 scintillation detector is measured in steps of at least 0.5 MeV for monoenergetic neutrons, applying suitable time-of-flight techniques, and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The total cross sections of all reactions with charged particles (except carbon recoil protons) in the exit channel are determined with respect to the n-p scattering cross section. In addition, the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction is investigated for neutron energies of 11.9, 12.9, 14.0, 14.8, 17.0, and 19.0 MeV using the nuclear emulsion technique. As it is kinematically complete, this measurement yields the total and partial cross sections for the various channels of the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction. The experimental data show deviations of up to {plus minus}25% from those recommended in ENDF/B-V, while a recent evaluation by Axton is partially confirmed. Reasonable agreement is found with most of the recent scattering experiments; thus, this data set represents a valuable constraint for further evaluations. The analysis performed, however, has shown that additional data from some partial reaction cross sections are needed.

  6. Scintillating-fiber imaging detector for 14-MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.; Lerche, R.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, G.W.; Nelson, M.B.; Mant, G.; Lehr, D.E.

    1994-07-25

    The authors have created a detector to image the neutrons emitted by imploded inertial-confinement fusion targets. The 14-MeV neutrons, which are produced by deuterium-tritium fusion events in the target, pass through an aperture to create an image on the detector. The neutron radiation is converted to blue light (430 nm) with a 20-cm-square array of plastic scintillating fibers. Each fiber is 10-cm long with a 1-mm-square cross section; approximately 35-thousand fibers make up the array. The resulting blue-light image is reduced and amplified by a sequence of fiber-optic tapers and image intensifiers, then acquired by a CCD camera. The fiber-optic readout system was tested optically for overall throughput the resolution. The authors plan to characterize the scintillator array reusing an ion-beam neutron source as well as DT-fusion neutrons emitted by inertial confinement targets. Characterization experiments will measure the light-production efficiency, spatial resolution, and neutron scattering within the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. They describe the detector and their characterization methods, present characterization results, and give examples of the neutron images.

  7. Understanding inelastically scattered neutrons from water on a time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Changwoo; Heller, William T.; Stanley, Christopher; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Doucet, Mathieu; Smith, Gregory S.

    2014-02-01

    It is generally assumed by most of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) user community that a neutron's energy is unchanged during SANS measurements. Here, the scattering from water, specifically light water, was measured on the EQ-SANS instrument, a time-of-flight (TOF) SANS instrument located at the Spallation Neutron Source of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A significant inelastic process was observed in the TOF spectra of neutrons scattered from water. Analysis of the TOF spectra from the sample showed that the scattered neutrons have energies consistent with room-temperature thermal energies (~20 meV) regardless of the incident neutron's energy. With the aid of Monte Carlo particle transport simulations, we conclude that the thermalization process within the sample results in faster neutrons that arrive at the detector earlier than expected based on the incident neutron energies. This thermalization process impacts the measured SANS intensities in a manner that will ultimately be sample- and temperature-dependent, necessitating careful processing of the raw data into the SANS cross-section.

  8. Neutron Scattering Simulations at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thienan; Jackson, Daniel; Hicks, S. F.; Rice, Ben; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    The Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport code (MCNP) has many applications ranging from radiography to reactor design. It has particle interaction capabilities, making it useful for simulating neutron collisions on surfaces of varying compositions. The neutron flux within the accelerator complex at the University of Kentucky was simulated using MCNP. With it, the complex's capabilities to contain and thermalize 7 MeV neutrons produced via 2H(d,n)3He source reaction to an acceptable level inside the neutron hall and adjoining rooms were analyzed. This will aid in confirming the safety of researchers who are working in the adjacent control room. Additionally, the neutron transport simulation was used to analyze the impact of the collimator copper shielding on various detectors located around the neutron scattering hall. The purpose of this was to attempt to explain any background neutrons that are observed at these detectors. The simulation shows that the complex performs very well with regards to neutron containment and thermalization. Also, the tracking information for the paths taken by the neutrons show that most of the neutrons' lives are spent inside the neutron hall. Finally, the neutron counts were analyzed at the positions of the neutron monitor detectors located at 90 and 45 degrees relative to the incident beam direction. This project was supported in part by the DOE NEUP Grant NU-12-KY-UK-0201-05 and the Donald A. Cowan Physics Institute at the University of Dallas.

  9. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Mechanism and Measurement of Neutron Asymmetry Using Time of Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawe, A. J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Inelastic scattering is an essential reaction for other nuclear reactions to detect the optical model and compound nucleus formation within the range of (0.4- 5.0) MeV neutron incident energy by using time of flight technique. The time of flight system (TOFS) installed on the horizontal channel reactor RRA has been used to measure the asymmetry of scattered fast neutrons, when data acquisition and system control were recorded event by event by HP — computer via CAMAC system. Eight NE 213 neutron counters were used in order to detect neutron inelastic scattering in the forward direction (4 neutron counters at 0° angle) and in the backward direction (4 neutron counters at 180° angle) to measure the asymmetry of fast neutron. Each neutron counter was 50cm in length and 8cm in diameter, viewed by two (58 — DVP) photomultiplier tubes. The contribution of direct interaction to the compound nucleus formation was deduced from the asymmetry in the neutron detection at the same direction of these eight neutron counters. A time resolution of 8.2 ns between the eight neutron counters and one of the two Ge(Li) detectors has been obtained.

  10. Parity Violation in Proton-Proton Scattering at 47 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Danelle Mary

    A measurement of parity-violation in proton-proton scattering at 47 MeV has been completed by observing the longitudinal analyzing power. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). where (sigma)('+)((sigma)('-)) is the scattering cross section for positive (negative) helicity. Polarized protons from an atomic beam ion source were accelerated by the 224-cm Texas A&M University cyclotron to an energy of 50 MeV, producing a vertically polarized beam. A superconducting solenoid magnet precessed the beam polarization into the horizontal plane after which a 47.6(DEGREES) bending magnet precessed the polarization into the longtitudinal direction (p(,z) = 0.69 (+OR-) 0.02). RF transitions reversed the polarization direction every 21 msec. Protons scattered from the high pressure ((DBLTURN)37 atm), 42-cm long H(,2) gas target were detected by four plastic scintillators located in the target chamber. Photomultiplier tubes amplified the light from the scintillators, providing a signal proportional to the scattered beam intensity. A lock-in amplifier (LIA) synchronized to the spin-flip frequency compared the scattered intensity to the total beam intensity, measured with a Faraday cup. The output of the LIA was integrated for one second and then read by an ADC. Polarimeters were used to monitor both beam intensity and polarization profiles. A series of tests were performed to determine the role of spurious asymmetries due to changes in beam position and angle, and due to beam intensity modulations correlated with the spin reversal. The result after correction for beam intensity modulation was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 2.6) x 10('-7). A more conservative result, taking into account all of the possible spurious asymmetries was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 4.2) x 10('-7).

  11. Neutron induced fission of U isotopes up to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lestone, J.P.; Gavron, A.

    1993-10-01

    We have developed a statistical model description of the neutron induced fission of U isotopes using densities of intrinsic states and spin cut off parameters obtained directly from appropriate Nilsson model single particle levels. The first chance fission cross sections are well reproduced when the rotational contributions to the nuclear level densities are taken into account. In order to fit the U(n,f) cross sections above the threshold of second chance fission, we need to: (1) assume that the triaxial level density enhancement is washed out at an excitation energy of {approximately}7 MeV above the triaxial barriers with a width of {approximately}1 MeV, implying a {gamma} deformation for the first barriers of 10{degree} < {gamma} < 20{degree}; and (2) include pre-equilibrium particle emission in the calculations. Above an incoming neutron kinetic energy of {approximately}17 MeV our statistical model U(n,f) cross sections increasingly overestimate the experimental data when so called ``good`` optical model potentials are used to calculate the compound nucleus formation cross sections. This is not surprising since at these high energies little data exists on the scattering of neutrons to help guide the choice of optical model parameters. A satisfactory reproduction of all the available U(n,f) cross sections above 17 MeV is obtained by a simple scaling of our calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections. This scaling factor falls from 1.0 at 17 MeV to 0.82 at 100 MeV.

  12. Neutron scattering cross section measurements for thulium-169 via the time-of-flight technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimeti, Afrim

    This research provides the first direct neutron scattering cross section measurements for 169Tm via the time-of-flight technique. The neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross-section angular distributions for 169Tm were measured at 590-keV and 1000-keV incident neutron energies. Differential cross-section excitation functions were also measured in 0.1-MeV steps at 125° (scattering angle) from 495-keV to 1000-keV incident neutron energy. The measured neutron scattering cross sections for the elastic group at 0.5-MeV to 1.0-MeV incident neutron energy range are in reasonable agreement with the JENDL-4.0 evaluation, which is based on nuclear reaction model calculations, and with the earlier measurements made by Ko et al. via the (n, n' gamma) technique for states above 100 keV via the (n, n' gamma) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2-MeV to 1.0-MeV range. The 5.5-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at Lowell was operated in the pulsed and bunched beam mode producing subnanosecond pulses at a 5-MHz repetition frequency to generate neutrons via the 7Li(p,n) 7Be reaction using a thin metallic elemental lithium target.

  13. np Elastic-scattering experiments with polarized neutron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, J.S.; Ditzler, W.R.; Hill, D.; Hoftiezer, J.; Johnson, K.; Shima, T.; Shimizu, H.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.; Underwood, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, at 500, 650, and 800 MeV are presented for the reaction p-vector d ..-->.. n-vector pp at 0/sup 0/. The data are useful input to the NN data base and indicate that the quasi-free charge exchange (CEX) reaction is a useful mechanism for producing neutrons with at least 40% polarization at energies as low as 500 MeV. Measurements of np elastic scattering observables C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ covering 35/sup 0/ to 172/sup 0/ are performed using a polarized neutron beam at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Preliminary results are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region

    SciTech Connect

    Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.

    1991-08-01

    During the report period we have investigated the following areas: Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements on {sup 14}N, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu; Prompt fission spectra for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu; Theoretical studies of neutron scattering; Neutron filters; New detector systems; and Upgrading of neutron target assembly, data acquisition system, and accelerator/beam-line apparatus.

  15. Upper limits to the quiet-time solar neutron flux from 10 to 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The UCR large area solid-angle double scatter neutron telescope was flown to search for solar neutrons on 3 balloon flights on September 26, 1971, May 14, 1972 and September 19, 1972. The first two flights were launched from Palestine, Texas and the third from Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The float altitude on each flight was at about 5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV were measured. No solar flares occurred during the flights. Upper limits to the quiet time solar neutron fluxes at the 95% confidence level are .00028, .00046, .00096 and .00090 neutrons/sq cm-sec in the energy intervals of 10-30, 30-50, 50-100 and 10-100 MeV, respectively.

  16. Measurement of secondary neutron emission double-differential cross sections for 9Be induced by 21.65 ± 0.07 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Changlin; Ruan, Xichao; Chen, Guochang; Nie, Yangbo; Huang, Hanxiong; Bao, Jie; Zhou, Zuying; Tang, Hongqing; Kong, Xiangzhong; Peng, Meng

    2016-05-01

    The neutron emission double-differential cross sections (DDX) of 9Be was measured at an incident neutron energy of 21.65 MeV, using the multi-detector fast neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer on HI-13 Tandem Accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The data were deduced by comparing the measured TOF spectra with the calculated ones using a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. The DDX were normalized to n-p scattering cross sections which are a neutron scattering standard. The results of the elastic scattering angular distributions (DX) and the secondary neutron emission DDX at 25 different angles from 15 deg to 145 deg were presented. Meanwhile, a theoretical model based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model for light nuclei was used to describe the double-differential cross sections of n+9Be, and the theoretical calculation results were compared with the measured cross sections.

  17. Neutron Radii from Low Energy Pion Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyles, William

    Recent electron scattering measurements and muonic atom studies have allowed precise determinations of the charge distributions of nuclei. Measurements of the neutron distributions, however, have not progressed to this degree of sophistication, largely because of the uncertainties in the hadron-nucleus interaction. Charge distribution measurements provide good tests of nuclear structure calculations, but measurements of neutron distributions will provide independent constraints on these calculations and the potentials used. In this experiment, (pi)('-) differential cross section ratios were measured on pairs of isotopes (('36)S,('32)S), (('34)S,('32)S) with 50 MeV pions and (('26)Mg,('24)Mg) with 45 MeV pions. Absolute differential cross sections were also measured for ('32)S and ('24)Mg. Magnetic spectro -meters were used to collect the data. The cross section ratios were compared to optical model calcula-tions in which the parameters of a Fermi function representing the neutron distribution of the larger isotope of each pair were varied. The rms radius difference between the two isotopes producing the best fit was found to be independent of the details of the optical potential used, as long as the potential produced a fit to the absolute cross sections. The neutron distribution of the larger isotope was also rep-resented as a Fermi function modified by a sum of spherical Bessel functions, the coefficients of which were allowed to vary. The results for the rms radius differences were consistent with the Fermi function fits, except for ('34)S-('32)S, where the results differed by a full standard deviation. The rms radius differences found for the sulfur isotopes agreed with the results of shell-model calculations by Hodgson (Str82,Hod83). The extracted rms radius difference of the magnesium isotopes was one standard deviation less than the shell-model prediction. The results for the Fermi function fits, Fourier Bessell fits and the single particle potential (SPP

  18. Neutron Emission Spectra from Inelastic Scattering on 58,60Ni with a White Neutron Source at FIGARO

    SciTech Connect

    Rochman, D.; Haight, R.C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Devlin, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Granier, T.; Grimes, S.M.; Talou, P.

    2005-05-24

    Neutron emission spectra from inelastic neutron scattering on natural nickel at the FIGARO facility have been measured by a double time-of-flight technique. The incident neutrons are produced from the spallation source of the Weapons Neutron Research facility, and their energies are determined by time of flight. The emitted neutrons and gamma rays are detected by 16 liquid scintillators and one high-resolution germanium or one barium-fluoride detector, respectively. The results for incident neutron energies from 2 to 10 MeV are compared with predictions of nuclear model calculations performed with the code EMPIRE-II. Finally, the level density parameters 'a' and ''{delta}'' are extracted.

  19. Neutron-proton spin-correlation parameter A sub z z at 68 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hammans, M.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Burzynski, S.; Campbell, J.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M.A.; Sick, I. ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B. )

    1991-05-06

    We report a first measurement of the spin-correlation parameter {ital A}{sub {ital z}{ital z}} in neutron-proton scattering at 67.5 MeV. The results, obtained in the angular range 105{degree}{le}{theta}{sub c.m.}{le}170{degree} with typical accuracies of 0.008, are highly sensitive to the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1}-{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} mixing parameter {epsilon}{sub 1}. A phase-shift analysis based on the current world data yields a value of {epsilon}{sub 1} significantly higher than predicted by modern potential models.

  20. Little Boy neutron spectrum below 1 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution /sup 3/He ionization chamber of the type development by Cuttler and Shalev was used to study the neutron spectrum from the Little Boy mockup. Measurements were made at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m and at angles of 0/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 90/sup 0/ with respect to the axis of the assembly, which was operated at power levels from 8.6 to 450 mW. Detector efficiency as a function of energy as well as parameters for correction of pulse-height distributions for proton-recoil and wall effects were determined from a set of response functions for monoenergetic neutrons measured at the Los Alamos 3.75-MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility. Pulse-shape discrimination was used to separate /sup 3/He-recoil pulses from the pulse-height distribution. The spectrum was found to be highly structured, with peaks corresponding to minima in the total neutron cross section of iron. In particular, 15% of the neutrons above the epithermal peak in energy were found to be in the 24-keV iron window. Lesser peaks out to 700 keV are also attributable to filtering action of the weapon's heavy iron casing. Data taken using experimental proton-recoil proportional counters are compared with the high-resolution spectra.

  1. American Conference on Neutron Scattering 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Dillen, J. Ardie

    2014-12-31

    Scientists from the around the world converged in Knoxville, TN to have share ideas, present technical information and contribute to the advancement of neutron scattering. Featuring over 400 oral/poster presentations, ACNS 2014 offered a strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks and poster sessions covering topics in soft condensed matter, hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications in neutron physics – confirming the great diversity of science that is enabled by neutron scattering.

  2. Neutron scattering in polymer physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D.

    2000-03-01

    By example this short review presents recent scientific advances which were achieved by the application of neutron scattering to polymer systems, thereby, keeping in mind also practical applications. We first focus on experiments on the structure and morphology of polymer systems covering conformational studies, investigations on polymer-microemulsions systems and the observation of aggregation states in living polymerization. Thereafter, we present recent results in the field of polymer dynamics. We begin with local motions which are behind the classical relaxation processes in polymer melts. Then we relate to universal dynamics, we address the Rouse model and its limits, present new results on the dynamic miscibility in blends and display the latest investigations on entanglement dynamics. Finally, we report first observations of ripplon excitations of phase boundaries in diblock copolymer melts.

  3. Energy spectrum and flux of 3- to 20-Mev neutrons and 1- to 10-Mev gamma rays in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Lockwood, J. A.; Saint Onge, R. N.; Friling, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment is described which was designed to measure the neutron and gamma ray energy spectrums and fluxes in the energy intervals 3 to 20 MeV and 1 to 10 MeV, respectively. In addition, from the 3 to 20-MeV proton recoil spectrums it is possible to infer the shape of the neutron energy spectrum from 20 to 50 MeV. The detecting system utilized a separate charged particle rejection scheme and a two-parameter display system for the output from the pulse shape discrimination which separated gamma rays from neutrons (n). Two long-duration flights were made with this detector in 1970 at Palestine, Tex. (P sub c = 4.6 Gv) and at Ft. Churchill, Canada (P sub c = 0.3 Gv).

  4. Spin observables in neutron-proton elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmidouch, A.; Arnold, J.; van den Brandt, B.; Daum, M.; Demierre, P.; Drevenak, R.; Finger, M. |; Finger, M. Jr.; Franz, J.; Goujon, N.; Hautle, P.; Janout, Z. Jr.; Hajdas, W.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Koger, R.; Konter, J.A.; Lacker, H.; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C.; Lehar, F.; Mango, S.; Mascarini, C.; Rapin, D.; Roessle, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Schmitt, H.; Sereni, P.; Slunecka, M.

    1995-07-15

    We describe here two experiments presently running at PSI using the NA2 polarized neutron beam. They are devoted to the measurement of 2- and 3-spin observables in {ital np} elastic scattering for kinetic energies from 230 to 590 MeV with a center of mass angular range from 60 to 180 degrees. The goal is to determine the five {ital NN} scattering amplitudes for isospin 0 in a model independent way. Preliminary results for {ital K}{sub {ital OSKO}} and {ital K}{sub {ital OSSO}} spin-transfers are presented.

  5. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-12-01

    Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  6. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  7. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  8. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  9. Material classification by fast neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffler, A.; Brooks, F. D.; Allie, M. S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Nchodu, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    The scattering of a beam of fast monoenergetic neutrons is used to determine elemental compositions of bulk samples (0.2-0.8 kg) of materials composed from one or more of the elements H, C, N, O, Al, S, Fe and Pb. Scattered neutrons are detected by liquid scintillators placed at forward and at backward angles. Different elements are identified by their characteristic scattering signatures derived either from a combination of time-of-flight and pulse height measurements, or from pulse height measurements alone. Scattering signatures measured for multi-element samples are analysed to determine atom fractions for H, C, N, O and other elements in the sample. Atom fractions determined from scattering signatures are insensitive to neutron interactions in material surrounding the scattering sample, provided the amount of material is not excessive. The atom fraction data are used to classify scattering material into categories including "explosives", "illicit drugs" and "other materials" for the purpose of contraband detection.

  10. Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections on ^NatFe and ^23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersting, Luke; Lueck, Collin J.; Hicks, S. F.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering angular distributions from ^NatFe and ^23Na at incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.81 MeV have been measured at the University of Kentucky 7 MV Van de Graaff laboratory using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The neutron beam was produced using the ^3H(p,n)He^3reaction. The scattered neutrons were detected at angles between 20 and 150 in 10 intervals with a hexafluorbenzene detector located approximately 3 m from the scattering samples. Neutron scattering differential cross sections were deduced. These cross sections and their uncertainties are important for understanding neutron-induced reactions in fission reactors and are important for fission reactor criticality calculations.

  11. Cross Sections and Analyzing Powers of Nitrogen -15(PROTON, NEUTRON)OXYGEN-15 at 200 Mev and 494 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciskowski, Douglas Edward

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the ^{15} N(p,n)^{15}O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of -Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76 m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than.2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm^{-1}. In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A = -.7 near q = 0.7 fm ^{-1}.

  12. Neutrons scattering studies in the actinide region

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1992-09-01

    During the report period were investigated the following areas: prompt fission neutron energy spectra measurements; neutron elastic and inelastic scattering from [sup 239]Pu; neutron scattering in [sup 181]Ta and [sup 197]Au; response of a [sup 235]U fission chamber near reaction thresholds; two-parameter data acquisition system; black'' neutron detector; investigation of neutron-induced defects in silicon dioxide; and multiple scattering corrections. Four Ph.D. dissertations and one M.S. thesis were completed during the report period. Publications consisted of three journal articles, four conference papers in proceedings, and eleven abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. There are currently four Ph.D. and one M.S. candidates working on dissertations directly associated with the project. In addition, three other Ph.D. candidates are working on dissertations involving other aspects of neutron physics in this laboratory.

  13. Neutrons scattering studies in the actinide region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegel, G. H. R.; Egan, J. J.

    1992-09-01

    During the last report period, we investigated the following areas: prompt fission neutron energy spectra measurements; neutron elastic and inelastic scattering from Pu-239; neutron scattering in Ta-181 and Au-197; response of a U-235 fission chamber near reaction thresholds; two-parameter data acquisition system; 'black' neutron detector; investigation of neutron-induced defects in silicon dioxide; and multiple scattering corrections. Four Ph.D. dissertations and one M.S. thesis were completed during the report period. Publications consisted of three journal articles, four conference papers in proceedings, and eleven abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. There are currently four Ph.D. and one M.S. candidates working on dissertations directly associated with the project. In addition, three other Ph.D. candidates are working on dissertations involving other aspects of neutron physics in this laboratory.

  14. Design of a backscatter 14-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for experiments at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Dzysiuk, N.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Skiba, M.

    2014-08-21

    Neutron energy spectrometry diagnostics play an important role in present-day experiments related to fusion energy research. Measurements and thorough analysis of the neutron emission from the fusion plasma give information on a number of basic fusion performance quantities, on the condition of the neutron source and plasma behavior. Here we discuss the backscatter Time-of-Flight (bTOF) spectrometer concept as a possible instrument for performing high resolution measurements of 14 MeV neutrons. The instrument is based on two sets of scintillators, a first scatterer exposed to a collimated neutron beam and a second detector set placed in the backward direction. The scintillators of the first set are enriched in deuterium to achieve neutron backscattering. The energy resolution and efficiency of a bTOF instrument have been determined for various geometrical configurations. A preliminary design of optimal geometry for the two scintillator sets has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations based on the MCNPX code.

  15. Neutron scattering studies of 54,56Fe with monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Combs, B. M.; Henderson, S. L.; Sidwell, L. C.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Garza, E.; Steves, J.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Prados-Estevez, F. M.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2013-10-01

    Neutron scattering data for Fe are important for the development of next generation fission reactors, since Fe is an important structural material in all proposed reactor designs, as well as in existing reactors. How neutrons interact with Fe has an important impact on fuel performance during irradiations and the overall efficiency of fission reactors. While differential scattering cross sections have been previously measured at several incident neutron energies in the fast neutron region, questions remain regarding the uncertainties for existing cross sections and for neutron inelastic scattering. Elastic and inelastic differential scattering cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory in the fast neutron energy region between 1.7 and 4 MeV. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations will be presented. This material is based on work supported by the Department of Energy under grant NEUP: NU-12-KY-UK-0201-05 and by the Cowan Physics Fund at the Univ. of Dallas.

  16. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Christopher M; Liu, C; Stone, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  17. Scattering corrections in neutron radiography using point scattered functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; de Beer, F.; Hassanein, R.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Scattered neutrons cause distortions and blurring in neutron radiography pictures taken at small distances between the investigated object and the detector. This defines one of the most significant problems in quantitative neutron radiography. The quantification of strong scattering materials such as hydrogenous materials—water, oil, plastic, etc.—with a high precision is very difficult due to the scattering effect in the radiography images. The scattering contribution in liquid test samples (H 2O, D 2O and a special type oil ISOPAR L) at different distances between the samples and the detector, the so-called Point Scattered Function (PScF), was calculated with the help of MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. Corrections of real experimental data were performed using the calculated PScF. Some of the results as well as the correction algorithm will be presented.

  18. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of sup 58 Ni and nuclear models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F. ); Chiba, S. . Tokai Research Establishment)

    1991-07-01

    The neutron total cross sections of {sup 58}Ni were measured from {approx} 1 to > 10 MeV using white-source techniques. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from {approx} 4.5 to 10 MeV at {approx} 0.5 MeV intervals with {ge} 75 differential values per distribution. Differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured, corresponding to fourteen levels with excitations up to 4.8 MeV. The measured results, combined with relevant values available in the literature, were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels model using both vibrational and rotational coupling schemes. The physical implications of the experimental results nd their interpretation are discussed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive-optical, and coupled-channels models. 61 refs.

  19. Neutron Scattering Studies of Fluorite Compounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Michael Andrew

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The properties of some important compounds with the fluorite structure have been investigated using neutron scattering techniques. All of the compounds in this study have important technological applications, as well as being of intrinsic scientific interest. Inelastic neutron scattering and high temperature technology have been used to measure phonon energies in thorium dioxide at temperatures above 3000K. These phonon energies have been used to determine the elastic constants as a function of temperature. Thorium dioxide provides an interesting comparison with uranium dioxide which has been studied in order to try and establish the cause of the anomalously large enthalpy of this compound. Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to demonstrate that the dynamic ionic-disorder which occurs in ThO_2 behaves in a similar way to that observed in UO _2 at high temperature. Whilst at only 12K, splittings have been measured in the crystal field excitations of UO_2 which have a significant effect on the theoretical analysis of its thermodynamic properties. This experiment was performed using neutrons scattered with a high energy transfer. Elastic and quasielastic diffuse scattering have both been used to investigate the vacancy-stabilised cubic structure of yttria doped zirconia. Computer modelling of the measured neutron scattering intensities has played a vital role in this part of the study. By the combination of neutron scattering measurements and computational techniques a three part model has been developed for the defect structure in yttria-stabilised zirconia which can explain the ionic conductivity in this compound. Ionic disorder has been observed in the anti-fluorite compounds lithium oxide and magnesium silicide at high temperature, using diffuse quasielastic neutron scattering. The full phonon energy dispersion relation and the elastic constants at high temperature have also

  20. Scattering of slow neutrons by bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Ernst

    1982-09-01

    The T-operator for scattering of slow neutrons by a system of bound nuclei is calculated up to quadratic terms in the scattering length. Binding effects as well as effects of multiple scattering have to be included in order to avoid inconsistencies. For the discussion of binding effects one can adopt methods developed by Dietze and Nowak [1] for treating scattering by an elastically bound nucleus. In particular the case of coherent elastic scattering is discussed: we show how the corrections can be expressed in terms of correlation functions and that binding effects are most important for scattering by light nuclei.

  1. Elastic Compton Scattering from the Deuteron Near 100 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovash, Michael; Shoniyozov, Khayrullo; Compton@MAX-lab Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic Compton scattering from targets of carbon and deuterium have been measured from 86 to 113 MeV using a tagged bremsstrahlung beam at the MAX 1 electron storage ring in Lund, Sweden. Photon spectra were collected in 2009 and 2010 at scattering angles of 60, 120 and 150 degrees using three very large, high efficiency NaI spectrometers, each with a FWHM resolution of approximately 2 MeV. The deuterium target consisted of a cryogenic liquid cell of 17 cm length. Improvements made to the running conditions of previous MAX-lab data sets include the use of multi-hit time digitizers, and reduced instantaneous counting rates in both the tagging and the NaI detectors. GEANT4 simulations have been used to determine the photon detector response and efficiency, as well as the photon losses in the targets. The overall accuracy of this procedure is verified by comparing the current carbon results with previous data. The new deuterium cross sections will be presented and compared with the earlier results from this collaboration. The combined data set will be compared with recent Chiral Effective Field Theory calculations to determine the values of the neutron polarizabilities, αn and βn.

  2. Hierarchical optimization for neutron scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Feng; Archibald, Rick; Bansal, Dipanshu; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    We present a scalable optimization method for neutron scattering problems that determines confidence regions of simulation parameters in lattice dynamics models used to fit neutron scattering data for crystalline solids. The method uses physics-based hierarchical dimension reduction in both the computational simulation domain and the parameter space. We demonstrate for silicon that after a few iterations the method converges to parameters values (interatomic force-constants) computed with density functional theory simulations.

  3. Measurement of the H(n,n)H Elastic Scattering Angular Distribution at En = 15 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F.B.; Carlson, A.D.; Al-Quraishi, S.I.; Brient, C.E.; Carter, D.E.; Grimes, S.M.; Massey, T.N.; Wheeler, R.T.; Boukharouba, N.; Haight, R.C.

    2005-05-24

    We have undertaken an experiment to measure the relative differential cross section for neutron scattering from hydrogen at a neutron energy of 15 MeV, for center-of-mass scattering angles from 60 degrees to 180 degrees. A total of eleven E-{delta}E telescopes were used to detect the scattered protons at laboratory angles of 0, {+-}12, {+-}24, {+-}36, {+-}48, and {+-}60 degrees. This experiment is intended to extend the earlier work performed by this group at 10.04 MeV. To avoid possible dead-time problems and amplifier summing noise a unique approach to data acquisition was taken The data acquisition is based on eleven individual data-acquisition boards, one for each detector telescope, installed in separate personal computers, each running independently. In this way, no multiplexing of the detector signals is required, and the noise associated with the summing of the signals is eliminated. Also an additional acquisition board and personal computer are used for a neutron detector, with gamma-ray discrimination, as a neutron monitor. A detailed description of the data-acquisition system will be given, and results from preliminary experiments will be presented.

  4. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na Between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Sigillito, A. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions have been measured from 23Na for incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV at the University of Kentucky using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The cross sections obtained are important for applications in nuclear reactor development and other areas, and they are an energy region in which existing data are very sparse. Absolute cross sections were obtained by normalizing Na angular distributions to the well-known np cross sections.

  5. Precision Measurement of 56Fe(n,n γ) Cross Sections Using 14.1 MeV Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David

    2016-03-01

    Integral production cross sections for 846.8 keV and 1238.3 keV prompt gamma rays from 14.1 MeV neutrons interactions on 56Fe are reported. The experimental technique takes advantage of the 1.5 nanosecond coincidence timing resolution between the neutron production time and the gamma ray detection time to reject noise, together with the large 30% solid angle gamma ray coverage. The scattering angle coverage with respect to the neutron beam direction extends from 60 degrees to 120 degrees. The neutron flux is measured using the detected associated alpha-particle from the D-T fusion reaction produced using an associated particle neutron generator. Present cross section measurements using other techniques with limited timing resolution and solid angle coverage are in agreement at neutron energies lower than 6 MeV. At higher neutron energies reported results can disagree by more than 20%. The more accurate technique used in these measurements can distinguish between the differences in the present reported results at higher neutron energies. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  6. Spectral measurements of neutrons produced by 52 MeV protons with activation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kazuo; Saito, Takatsugu; Fujii, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    The accuracy of the neutron spectral measurement of energy up to ˜40 MeV with activation detectors was examined using high energy neutrons from thick targets bombarded by 52 MeV protons. The measured activation rates were unfolded with the modified SAND-II code and compared with the neutron spectra measured by the NE-213 scintillator. Quite good agreement in absolute values was obtained between the spectra recorded by these two different detectors. The activation detector was shown to be useful for neutron spectroscopy at energies higher than ˜ 10 MeV.

  7. (65)Cu isomeric cross sections for (n,α) reaction using approximately 14MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Durusoy, Ayşe; Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla; Akçalı, Özgür

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, activation cross-section measurements for the (65)Cu(n,α)(62m)Co (T1/2=13.86min.) reaction at six different neutron energies ranging from 13.6 and 14.9MeV are presented. The fast neutrons were produced via (3)H(d, n)(4)He reactions from an SAMES T-400 neutron generator. An activation technique was used to measure induced gamma activities. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer with a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector was used to acquire the data. The measured cross section data were corrected for gamma-ray attenuations, pulse pile-up effects, dead time, variations in neutron flux, and contributions from scattered low-energy neutrons. The measured cross sections were compared with statistical model calculations (TALYS 1.6 code), the experimental data available in the literature and the data obtained from TENDL. PMID:25728005

  8. Neutron induced pion production on C, Al, Cu, and W at neutron energies of 200--600 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    Inclusive double differential neutron induced {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} production cross sections were measured for four separate targets: C, Al, Cu and W. The neutron energy range was 200--600 MeV and the pion angular range was 25{degrees}--125{degrees}. The charge, scattering angle and energy of the pions were measured using a magnetic spectrometer. The measurements are compared with intranuclear cascade (INC) calculations and a previous experiment that measured the sum of the {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} cross sections. Our data agree with the measured data, but the INC calculations give only moderate agreement with the double differential cross sections as well as with angular distributions and total cross sections as a function of neutron energy. The ratio of {pi}{sup {minus}}:{pi}{sup +} was found to increase rapidly with decreasing neutron energy and the pion production was found to increase approximately as A{sup 2/3} for the different targets. 31 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. 14-MeV Neutron Generator Used as a Thermal Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dioszegi,I.

    2008-08-10

    One of the most important applications of the general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNPS and MCNPX) codes is neutron shielding design. We employed this method to simulate the shield of a 14-MeV neutron generator used as a thermal neutron source providing an external thermal neutron beam for testing large area neutron detectors developed for diffraction studies in biology and also useful for national security applications. Nuclear reactors have been the main sources of neutrons used for scientific applications. In the past decade, however, a large number of reactors have been shut down, and the importance of other, smaller devices capable of providing neutrons for research has increased. At Brookhaven National Laboratory a moderated Am-Be neutron source with shielding is used for neutron detector testing. This source is relatively weak, but provides a constant flux of neutrons, even when not in use. The use of a 14 MeV energized neutron generator, with an order of magnitude higher neutron flux has been considered to replace the Am-Be source, but the higher fast neutron yield requires a more careful design of moderator and shielding. In the present paper we describe a proposed shielding configuration based on Monte Carlo calculations, and provide calculated neutron flux and dose distributions. We simulated the neutron flux distribution of our existing Am-Be source surrounded by a paraffin thermalizer cylinder (radius of 17.8 cm), 0.8 mm cadmium, and borated polyethylene as biological shield. The thermal neutrons are available through a large opening through the polyethylene and cadmium. The geometrical model for the MCNPS and MCNPX2 simulations is shown in Fig. 1. We simulated the Am-Be source neutron energy distribution as a point source having an energy distribution of four discrete lines at 3.0 (37%), 5.0 (35%), 8.0 (20%) and 11.0 (8%) MeV energies. The estimated source strength based on the original specifications is 6.6 {center_dot} 10{sup 6} neutrons

  10. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g(r) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section dσ/dΩ from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component)more » using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. Furthermore, we describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.« less

  11. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttilä, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-08

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g(r) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section dσ/dΩ from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. Furthermore, we describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  12. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttilä, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g (r ) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section d/σ d Ω from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. We describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  13. Measurement of np elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters at 484, 634, and 788 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R.W.

    1989-03-01

    The spin-spin correlation parameters C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ were measured for np elastic scattering at the incident neutron kinetic energy of 634 MeV. Good agreement was obtained with previously measured data. Additionally, the first measurement of the correlation parameter C/sub SS/ was made at the three energies, 484, 634, and 788 MeV. It was found that the new values, in general, do not agree well with phase shift predictions. A study was carried out to determine which of the isospin-0 partial waves will be affected by this new data. It was found that the /sup 1/P/sub 1/ partial wave will be affected significantly at all three measurement energies. At 634 and 788 MeV, the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ phase shifts will also change. 29 refs., 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, Roger; Baker, Shenda Mary; Louca, Despo A; McGreevy, Robert L; Ekkebus, Allen E; Kszos, Lynn A; Anderson, Ian S

    2008-10-01

    In a concerted effort supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Energy, the United States is rebuilding its leadership in neutron scattering capability through a significant investment in U.S. neutron scattering user facilities and related instrumentation. These unique facilities provide opportunities in neutron scattering to a broad community of researchers from academic institutions, federal laboratories, and industry. However, neutron scattering is often considered to be a tool for 'experts only' and in order for the U.S. research community to take full advantage of these new and powerful tools, a comprehensive education and outreach program must be developed. The workshop described below is the first step in developing a national program that takes full advantage of modern education methods and leverages the existing educational capacity at universities and national facilities. During March 27-28, 2008, a workshop entitled 'Building a Network for Neutron Scattering Education' was held in Washington, D.C. The goal of the workshop was to define and design a roadmap for a comprehensive neutron scattering education program in the United States. Successful implementation of the roadmap will maximize the national intellectual capital in neutron sciences and will increase the sophistication of research questions addressed by neutron scattering at the nation's forefront facilities. (See Appendix A for the list of attendees, Appendix B for the workshop agenda, Appendix C for a list of references. Appendix D contains the results of a survey given at the workshop; Appendix E contains summaries of the contributed talks.) The workshop brought together U.S. academicians, representatives from neutron sources, scientists who have developed nontraditional educational programs, educational specialists, and managers from government agencies to create a national structure for providing ongoing neutron scattering education. A

  15. Neutron Background Characterization for a Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering experiment at SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is a theoretical well-grounded, but as-yet unverified process. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may provide an optimal platform for detection of CNNS, possibly with existing detector technology. A proto-collaboration of groups from several institutions has come together to investigate this option and propose an experiment for the first-time observation of CNNS. Currently, the largest risk to such an experiment comes from an unknown background of beam-induced high-energy neutrons that penetrate the existing SNS concrete shielding. We have deployed a neutron scatter camera at the SNS during beam operation and performed preliminary measurements of the neutron backgrounds at a promising experimental location. In order to measure neutrons as high as 100 MeV, we needed to make modifications to the neutron scatter camera and expand its capabilities beyond its standard operating range of 1-14MeV. We have identified sources of high-energy neutrons and continue to investigate other possible locations that may allow a successful CNNS experiment to go forward. The imaging capabilities of the neutron scatter camera will allow more optimal shielding designs that take into account neutron flux anisotropies at the selected experiment locations.

  16. Study of 180 Mev Proton Inelastic Scattering from SILICON-28 and SILICON-30.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan

    This thesis reports the measurement of cross section and analyzing power angular distribution of elastic and inelastic scattering of 180 MeV proton for ^ {28}Si and ^{30} Si. Measurements were carried out using the proton beam available at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The scattered protons were detected using the QDDM magnetic spectrometer. The DWIA framework, in which most inelastic proton scattering observables are analyzed, has three ingredients, (1) NN-effective interaction, (2) transition density, and (3) distorted waves. The procedure used here to obtain effective NN-interaction empirically is that first suggested by J. J. Kelly. It models effective NN-interaction guided by the nuclear matter theory(G-matrix) and employs the local density approximation(LDA). By using the transitions, for which transition densities are known, it fits the inelastic observable to determine the parameters used to model the momentum transfer(q) and density(k_{F }) dependence of the effective interaction (here reference to as empirical interaction). The distorted waves are calculated in a self-consistent manner from the model empirical interaction. The salient results are: (1) It is observed that, although the data base was increased by combining the ^{16}O observable with those of ^{28}Si, it still was not large enough to determine all the parameters without ambiguity in terms of which the effective NN-interaction was modeled. (2) The model prediction of cross section and analyzing power in terms of DWIA, using both the Paris -g and empirical interaction, with the observed are compared. It is clear that the results and the technique used to obtain effective NN-interaction shows that there is substantial potential to gain both qualitative and quantitative insight into how the interaction between two nucleons is modified within the nuclear medium. In particular, at low-q effective interaction is reduced and at high-q repulsion is enhanced compared to free interaction

  17. Nuclear sizes of /sup 40,42,44,48/Ca from elastic scattering of 104 MeV alpha particles. I. Experimental results and optical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gils, H.J.; Friedman, E.; Rebel, H.; Buschmann, J.; Zagromski, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Neumann, B.; Pesl, R.; Bechtold, G.

    1980-04-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of 104 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 40,42,44,48/Ca have been measured with high angular accuracy over a wide angular range. Optical model analysis based on a Fourier-Bessel description of the real potential reveals isotopic differences which, in particular for /sup 48/Ca, indicate a small neutron skin.

  18. Neutron scattering analysis with microscopic optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1991-09-03

    A review of microscopic optical model potentials used in the analysis of neutron scattering and analyzing power data below 100 MeV (5 {le}E{sub n}{le}100 MeV) is presented. The quality of the fits to the data over a wide massd ({sup 6}Li-{sup 239}Pu) and energy range is discussed. It is shown that reasonably good agreement with the data is obtained with only three parameters, {lambda}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub W}, and {lambda}{sub SO}, which show a smooth mass and energy dependence. These parameters are normalizing constants to the real (V), and imaginary (W) central potentials and the real spin-orbit (V{sub SO}) potential. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Neutron Scattering Applied to Materials Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Wang, Xun-Li; Fultz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques for studying materials have been applied for more than 50 years, in part led by Clifford G. Shull and Bertram N. Brockhouse, who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in physics. The award was given for their developments in studying both the structure and dynamics of materials. The application of neutron scattering to materials has received significantly greater attention in the last few years, due to the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory. The SNS will provide unprecedented access to a wide variety of instruments designed for materials research. The idea for this series of articles originated during the 2005 TMS Annual Meeting. Two symposia were devoted to neutron scattering: Neutron Scattering in Materials Research; and Neutron Diffraction Characterization of Mechanical Behavior. the goal of these articles is to introduce techniques for studying materials using neutrons, particularly to answer what are considered traditional materials problems. The first article discusses structure and phase analysis. Neutrons may be used for diffraction, similar to x-rays. However, in certain circumstances, they bring particular advantages. For example, x-rays have difficulty 'seeing' light elements, particularly when heavier elements are present, whereas neutrons may scatter effectively from elements such as hydrogen and its isotopes. The scattering strength of neutrons is sensitive to the isotopic composition. This can be used to examine the influence of a particular element. Neutrons also interact magnetically, allowing their use for studying magnetic order in materials. Because neutrons are highly penetrating, in-situ investigations under special sample environments (e.g., temperature, magnetic field, high pressure) have become routine. The second article describes applications for studying residual stress and mechanical deformation. neutrons are better able to penetrate engineering components

  20. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Glass Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchenau, U.

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO2. That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    A library of Monte Carlo subroutines has been developed for the purpose of design of neutron scattering instruments. Using small-angle scattering as an example, the philosophy and structure of the library are described and the programs are used to compare instruments at continuous wave (CW) and long-pulse spallation source (LPSS) neutron facilities. The Monte Carlo results give a count-rate gain of a factor between 2 and 4 using time-of-flight analysis. This is comparable to scaling arguments based on the ratio of wavelength bandwidth to resolution width.

  2. Elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons from 56Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Anthony Paul; McEllistrem, M. T.; Liu, S. H.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Peters, E. E.; Yates, S. W.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Harrison, T. D.; Rice, B. G.; Thompson, B. K.; Hicks, S. F.; Howard, T. J.; Jackson, D. T.; Lenzen, P. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Pecha, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattered neutrons from 56Fe have been measured at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (www.pa.uky.edu/accelerator) for incident neutron energies between 2.0 and 8.0 MeV and for the angular range 30° to 150°. Time-of-flight techniques and pulse-shape discrimination were employed for enhancing the neutron energy spectra and for reducing background. An overview of the experimental procedures and data analysis for the conversion of neutron yields to differential cross sections will be presented. These include the determination of the energy-dependent detection efficiencies, the normalization of the measured differential cross sections, and the attenuation and multiple scattering corrections. Our results will also be compared to evaluated cross section databases and reaction model calculations using the TALYS code. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Universities Program: NU-12-KY-UK-0201-05, and the Donald A. Cowan Physics Institute at the University of Dallas.

  3. Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies less than or equal to400 MeV. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    For a variety of applications, e.g., accelerator shielding design, neutrons in radiotherapy, radiation damage studies, etc., it is necessary to carry out transport calculations involving medium-energy (greater than or equal to20 MeV) neutrons. A previous paper described neutron-photon multigroup cross sections in the ANISN format for neutrons from thermal to 400 MeV. In the present paper the cross-section data presented previously have been revised to make them agree with available experimental data. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Calculated neutron-induced cross sections for /sup 53/Cr from 1 to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, K.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    Neutron-induced cross sections of /sup 53/Cr have been calculated in the energy regions from 1 to 20 MeV. The quantities obtained are the cross sections for the reactions (n,n'..gamma..), (n,2n), (n,np), (n,n..cap alpha..), (n,p..gamma..), (n,pn), (n,..cap alpha gamma..), (n,..cap alpha..n), (n,d), (n,t), (n,/sup 3/He), and (n,..gamma..), as well as the spectra of emitted neutrons, protons, alpha particles, and gamma rays. The precompound process was included above 5 MeV in addition to the compound process. For the inelastic scattering, the contribution of the direct interaction was calculated with DWBA. 36 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Designing of the 14 MeV neutron moderator for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dao-Wen; Lu, Jing-Bin; Yang, Dong; Liu, Yu-Min; Wang, Hui-Dong; Ma, Ke-Yan

    2012-09-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the ratio of the fast neutron flux to the neutron flux in the tumor (RFNT) must be less than 3%. If a D-T neutron generator is used in BNCT, the 14 MeV neutron moderator must be optimized to reduce the RFNT. Based on the neutron moderation theory and the simulation results, tungsten, lead and diamond were used to moderate the 14 MeV neutrons. Satisfying RFNT of less than 3%, the maximum neutron flux in the tumor was achieved with a three-layer moderator comprised of a 3 cm thick tungsten layer, a 14 cm thick lead layer and a 21 cm thick diamond layer.

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering from zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Nipko, J.C.; Loong, C.K.

    1997-07-14

    A lattice dynamical investigation of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) has been carried out to obtain a microscopic understanding of its thermodynamic properties, as well as to examine possible soft modes that may contribute to the phase transformation to scheelite type under high pressure. We have measured the neutron weighted phonon density of states of zircon from a polycrystalline sample. The neutron spectra reveal one-phonon excitations extending to 1130 cm{sup -1}, with phonon bands centered at 226, 298, 363, 540, 661, 726, 945, and 1081 cm{sup -1}. A quantitative analysis of the neutron results was carried out using a lattice dynamical rigid-ion model. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Neutron-induced charged-particle emission studies below 100 MeV at WNR

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Lee, T.M.; Sterbenz, S.M.

    1994-07-01

    Charged-particles produced by neutron bombardment of selected targets with Z=5 through 53 have been studied for neutron energies from 1 MeV to about 100 MeV using the spallation neutron source at WNR/LAMPF. Particle detection with energy measurement and particle identification is accomplished by two-element {Delta}E-E counters, three-element {Delta}E{sub l}-{Delta}E{sub 2}-E counters or with pulse-shape discrimination using scintillators directly in the neutron beam. The experimental techniques for these measurements are described and comparisons made among the different approaches. This presentation introduces five papers contributed to this conference.

  8. Energy-resolved neutron SEU measurements from 22 to 160 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1998-12-01

    The energy dependence of the neutron- induced single-event upset (NSEU) cross section for Static RAMs have been measured, using quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of five different energies from 22 to 160 MeV. The measured SEU cross sections were corrected for the low-energy neutron tail by an iterative folding procedure. A clear energy dependence has been found. The SEU rate has been compared both with results from testing with a neutron spallation spectrum up to 800 MeV and the measured SEU rate from In-Flight experiments at 10 km.

  9. Off-specular scattering in neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.; Fitzsimmons, M.

    1995-03-01

    When neutrons are scattered at small angles from planar, laterally homogeneous, stratified media, only specular (mirror like) reflection is observed. Sample inhomogeneities, such as interfacial roughness or voids, give rise to off-specular scattering which has been observed in many experiments with neutrons and x-rays. The easiest way to describe this scattering theoretically is based on the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), which uses the neutron wavefunctions that describe reflection from a smooth surface as the basis functions for perturbation theory. From the DWBA one may obtain a number of qualitative results which are supported by experiment. Examples include the Yoneda fringes observed in reflection experiments with microscopically rough surfaces and the constant-q{sub z} fringes observed for multilayers with correlated, rough interfaces. One must, however, use the DWBA with care. When the correlation range within the reflecting interfaces is large--for example, when a surface is composed of misoriented facets--the approximation breaks down. Some authors have also reported a lack of quantitative agreement between versions of the DWBA calculations and the scattering observed with microscopically rough surfaces. A remarkable feature of neutron (or x-ray) reflectometry is the length scales that are probed within reflecting surfaces. These range from a few hundred Angstroms up to several microns, allowing neutron scattering to probe objects of a size normally visible by optical microscopy! The intent of this paper is to provide a simple description of scattering from rough surfaces that is accessible to a wide audience. Mathematical completeness is sacrificed in favor of intuitive arguments and experimental examples.

  10. First experimental results from 2MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron productiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-01

    A 2MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction Li7(p,n)Be7 for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction C13(p,γ)N14, absorption in nitrogen.

  11. Simulation experiments for gamma-ray mapping of planetary surfaces: Scattering of high-energy neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, J.; Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of certain elements in surface layers of planetary objects specify constraints on models of their origin and evolution. This information can be obtained by means of remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy, as planned for a number of future space missions, i.e., Mars, Moon, asteroids, and comets. To investigate the gamma-rays made by interactions of neutrons with matter, thin targets of different composition were placed between a neutron-source and a high-resolution germanium spectrometer. Gamma-rays in the range of 0.1 to 8 MeV were accumulated. In one set of experiments a 14-MeV neutron generator using the T(d,n) reaction as neutron-source was placed in a small room. Scattering in surrounding walls produced a spectrum of neutron energies from 14 MeV down to thermal. This complex neutron-source induced mainly neutron-capture lines and only a few scattering lines. As a result of the set-up, there was a considerable background of discrete lines from surrounding materials. A similar situation exists under planetary exploration conditions: gamma-rays are induced in the planetary surface as well as in the spacecraft. To investigate the contribution of neutrons with higher energies, an experiment for the measurement of prompt gamma radiation was set up at the end of a beam-line of an isochronous cyclotron.

  12. Neutron scattering facility for the calibration of the response to nuclear recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, J.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Gascon, J.; Huber, M.; Jagemann, T.; de Jésus, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Martineau, O.; Potzel, W.; Rüdig, A.; Schnagl, J.; Simon, E.; Stark, M.; Stern, M.; Wulandari, H.

    2002-02-01

    A possibility to search for elementary particles as dark matter candidates is to detect elastic scattering with cryogenic detectors. For the interpretation of the data one has to determine the detector response to nuclear recoils, the so-called quenching factors. They can differ for the heat-, for the scintillation- and for the ionization-signal and can be measured by scattering of neutrons. The CRESST- and the EDELWEISS-collaborations have set up a neutron scattering facility for cryogenic detectors at the tandem-accelerator of the Munich `Maier-Leibniz-Labor.' The scattering angle and the time-of-flight of the neutrons are measured by an array of liquid scintillator cells. The pulsed high energy (11 MeV) neutron beam is created by nuclear reaction of a 11B on a H2-gas target. The set-up and the results of first tests are presented. .

  13. Neutron inelastic scattering by amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Thaper, C.L.; Sinha, S.K.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments on normal, N-deuterated glycine, normal and N-deuterated alanine, L-valine, L-tyrosine and, L-phenylalanine at 100 K, are reported. Coupling of the external modes to different hydrogens is discussed.

  14. Treatment experience: locally advanced sarcomas with 15 MeV fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ornitz, R.; Herskovic, A.; Schell, M.; Fender, F.; Rogers, C.C.

    1980-06-01

    Experience with ten evaluable osseous sarcomas and ten evaluable advanced soft tissue sarcomas treated with neutrons of a mean neutron energy of 15 MeV are described. Neutron irradiation with or without conventional megavoltage radiotherapy is an effective modality in the treatment of these patients. No correlation between response rate and grade or whether fast neutrons alone or combined with megavoltage radiotherapy was noted. Those patients receiving a neutron dose of 2195 neutron plus gamma rads or greater all had a complete response.

  15. Study of the fission spectrum of less than 1 MeV neutrons using a Lithium-glass detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Suraj; Rees, Lawrence; Bart, Czirr

    2011-10-01

    The fission spectrum of neutrons with kinetic energies less than 1 MeV is of considerable practical importance for the design of nuclear reactors. However, it is not as precisely known as that for higher energy neutrons. One of the major problems scientists have previously encountered is room return neutrons. These are neutrons that reflect from the walls, ceiling or floor of the lab. Another problem is finding a way to measure accurately the neutron time of flight. This is the time neutrons take to travel from a fission event to the detector. Time of flight is used to measure the neutron energy. To avoid the room return, I am going to perform an experiment about 45 feet above the ground in the BYU Indoor Practice Facility, so that neutrons from the source will not scatter from nearby surfaces and return to the detector. To find the time of flight to a greater accuracy, I have been using a Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC). A TAC has a capacitor that charges linearly as the voltage builds up. With a 12-bit digitizer system, we can measure the time to 0.1 nanoseconds, whereas the same digitizer can only measure time in steps of 4 nanoseconds. So, we will get a more accurate measurement of time of flight with the TAC.

  16. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope {sup 36}Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast.

  18. Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for fission reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Combs, B.; Downes, L.; Girgis, J.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Schniederjan, J.; Sidwell, L.; Sigillito, A. J.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevz, F. M.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Watts, D.; Yates, S. W.

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear data important for the design and development of the next generation of light-water reactors and future fast reactors include neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections on important structural materials, such as Fe, and on coolant materials, such as Na. These reaction probabilities are needed since neutron reactions impact fuel performance during irradiations and the overall efficiency of reactors. While neutron scattering cross sections from these materials are available for certain incident neutron energies, the fast neutron region, particularly above 2 MeV, has large gaps for which no measurements exist, or the existing uncertainties are large. Measurements have been made at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory to measure neutron scattering cross sections on both Fe and Na in the region where these gaps occur and to reduce the uncertainties on scattering from the ground state and first excited state of these nuclei. Results from measurements on Fe at incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV will be presented and comparisons will be made to model calculations available from data evaluators.

  19. Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for fission reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Combs, B.; Crider, B. P.; Downes, L.; Girgis, J.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevz, F. M.; Schniederjan, J.; Sidwell, L.; Sigillito, A. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Watts, D.; Yates, S. W.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear data important for the design and development of the next generation of light-water reactors and future fast reactors include neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections on important structural materials, such as Fe, and on coolant materials, such as Na. These reaction probabilities are needed since neutron reactions impact fuel performance during irradiations and the overall efficiency of reactors. While neutron scattering cross sections from these materials are available for certain incident neutron energies, the fast neutron region, particularly above 2 MeV, has large gaps for which no measurements exist, or the existing uncertainties are large. Measurements have been made at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory to measure neutron scattering cross sections on both Fe and Na in the region where these gaps occur and to reduce the uncertainties on scattering from the ground state and first excited state of these nuclei. Results from measurements on Fe at incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV will be presented and comparisons will be made to model calculations available from data evaluators.

  20. Research and development of a dedicated collimator for 14.2 MeV fast neutrons for imaging using a D-T generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo-Napadensky, I.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Gayer, A.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Mor, I.; Chacham-Zada, R.; Cohen, M.; Tamim, N.

    2012-06-01

    One of the main problems in neutron imaging is the scattered radiation that accompanies the direct neutrons that reach the imaging detectors and affect the image quality. We have developed a dedicated collimator for 14.2 MeV fast neutrons. The collimator optimizes the amount of scattered radiation to primary neutrons that arrive at the imaging plane. We have used different materials within the collimator in order to lower the scattered radiation that arrives at the scanned object. The image quality and the signal to noise ratios that are measured show that a mixture of BORAX (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O) and water in the experimental beam collimator give the best results. We have used GEANT4 to simulate the collimator performance, the simulations predict the optimized material looking on the ratios of the scattered to primary neutrons that contribute in the detector. We present our experimental setup, report the results of the experimental and related simulation studies with neutrons beam generated by a 14.2 MeV D-T neutron generator.

  1. Studies of parity and time reversal symmetries in neutron scattering from165Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, D. G.; Gould, C. R.; Koster, J. E.; Roberson, N. R.; Seagondollar, L. W.; Soderstrum, J. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Zhu, X.

    1988-12-01

    We describe searches for parity and time reversal violations in the scattering of polarized neutrons from polarized and aligned165Ho targets. We have completed a search with 7.1 and 11.0 MeV neutrons for PoddTodd terms in the elastic scattering forward amplitude of the form s. ( I×K), where s is the neutron spin, I is the target spin and k is the neutron momentum vector. The target was a single crystal of holmium, polarized horizontally along its b axis by a 1 Tesla magnetic field. The neutrons were polarized vertically. Differences in the neutron transmission were measured for neutrons with spins parallel (antiparallel) to I×k. The P,T violating analyzing powers were found to be consistent with zero at the few 10-3 level: ρP,T(7.1 MeV)=-0.88 (±2.02) x 10-3, ρP,T(11.0 MeV)=-0.4 (±2.88) x 10-3. We have also attempted to find enhancements with MeV neutrons in P-violation due to the term s k. We are preparing an aligned target cryostat for investigations of PevenTodd terms {bd(Ik)(I×k)s} in neutron scattering. The target will be a single crystal cylinder of165Ho cooled to 100 mK in a bath of liquid helium and rotated by a shaft from a room temperature stepping motor. The cylinder will be oriented vertically and the alignment ( c) axis oriented horizontally. Warming or rotation of the sample allows one to separate effects that mimic the sought-after time reversal violating term.

  2. Neutron Scattering Experiment Automation with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierczuk, Piotr A; Riedel, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory currently holds the Guinness World Record as the world most powerful pulsed spallation neutron source. Neutrons scattered off atomic nuclei in a sample yield important information about the position, motions, and magnetic properties of atoms in materials. A neutron scattering experiment usually involves sample environment control (temperature, pressure, etc.), mechanical alignment (slits, sample and detector position), magnetic field controllers, neutron velocity selection (choppers) and neutron detectors. The SNS Data Acquisition System (DAS) consists of real-time sub-system (detector read-out with custom electronics, chopper interface), data preprocessing (soft real-time) and a cluster of control and ancillary PCs. The real-time system runs FPGA firmware and programs running on PCs (C++, LabView) typically perform one task such as motor control and communicate via TCP/IP networks. PyDas is a set of Python modules that are used to integrate various components of the SNS DAS system. It enables customized automation of neutron scattering experiments in a rapid and flexible manner. It provides wxPython GUIs for routine experiments as well as IPython command line scripting. Matplotlib and numpy are used for data presentation and simple analysis. We will present an overview of SNS Data Acquisition System and PyDas architectures and implementation along with the examples of use. We will also discuss plans for future development as well as the challenges that have to be met while maintaining PyDas for 20+ different scientific instruments.

  3. Directional neutron detectors for use with 14 MeV neutrons :fiber scintillation methods for directional neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.; Peel, Justin D.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01

    Current Joint Test Assembly (JTA) neutron monitors rely on knock-on proton type detectors that are susceptible to X-rays and low energy gamma rays. We investigated two novel plastic scintillating fiber directional neutron detector prototypes. One prototype used a fiber selected such that the fiber width was less than 2.1mm which is the range of a proton in plastic. The difference in the distribution of recoil proton energy deposited in the fiber was used to determine the incident neutron direction. The second prototype measured both the recoil proton energy and direction. The neutron direction was determined from the kinematics of single neutron-proton scatters. This report describes the development and performance of these detectors.

  4. Measurement and evaluation of neutron spectra above 0.1 MeV in the JMTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1983-08-01

    The evaluation of fast neutron spectra from the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) have been performed by using the critical facility of the JMTR and by a combination of the multi-foil activation method and the adjustment codes (SAND II and NEUPAC). In order to measure and evaluate the neutron spectra above 0.1 MeV, resonance detectors such as manganese, gold and copper have been used to determine the neutron flux level in the {1}/{E} region and threshold detectors such as silver, rhodium, indium, uranium, aluminum, magnesium and titanium have been used to determine the neutron flux level above 0.1 MeV. The foils for the measurement of the neutron reaction rate were separately irradiated. The 115In(n,n') 115mIn reaction is used for the monitoring of the average fast neutron flux in the irradiation period, and the slight difference of each irradiation condition was corrected. The guess spectra for the neutron spectrum adjustment were calculated by using the one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code ANISN with the slab model for the JMTR core. Some important points were concluded through the adjustment procedure of the neutron spectrum: the adjusted spectrum from 0.1 to 1 MeV depends on the accuracy of the neutron cross section data for the threshold detectors such as silver and rhodium, and also on the accuracy of these reaction rates. The ratios of neutron flux above 0.183 MeV to neutron flux above 1 MeV were calculated from the guess spectra and the adjusted spectra, and the ratios were in good agreement with each other.

  5. Neutron Emission Spectra from Inelastic Scattering on 58,60Ni with a White Neutron Source at FIGARO.

    SciTech Connect

    Rochman, D.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Devlin, M. J.; Ethvignot, T.; Granier, T.; Grimes, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron emission spectra from inelastic neutron scattering on natural nickel at the FIGARO facility have been measured by a double time-of-flight technique. The incident neutrons are produced from the spallation source of the Weapons Neutron Research facility, and their energies are determined by time of flight. The emitted neutrons and gamma rays are detected by 16 liquid scintillators and one high-resolution germanium or one barium-fluoride detector, respectively. The results for incident neutron energies from 2 to 10 MeV are compared with predictions of nuclear model calculations performed with the code EMPIRE-II. Finally, the level density parameters 'a' and '{Delta}E' are extracted.

  6. Neutron Scattering Cross Section Measurements for 169Tm via the (n,n') Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Alimeti, Afrim; Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J.; DeSimone, David J.; McKittrick, Thomas M.; Ji, Chuncheng; Tremblay, Steven E.; Roldan, Carlos; Chen Xudong; Kim, Don S.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron physics group at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has been involved in a program of scattering cross-section measurements for highly deformed nuclei such as 159Tb, 169Tm, 232Th, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Ko et al. have reported neutron inelastic scattering data from 169Tm for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2 MeV to 1.0 MeV range. In the present research, in which the time-of-flight method was employed, direct (n,n') measurements of neutrons scattered from 169Tm in the 0.2 to 1.0 MeV range were taken. It requires that our 5.5-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator be operated in the pulsed and bunched beam mode producing subnanosecond pulses at a 5-MHz repetition frequency. Neutrons are produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction using a thin metallic elemental lithium target.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of novel quantum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp W.

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to study the magnetic excitation spectrum of three quantum magnets: (i) the double perovskite Ba2FeReO 6; (ii) the two-dimensional square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet Sr2CuO2Cl2; and (iii) the quasi-two-dimensional frustrated two-leg ladder BiCu2PO6. We have conducted inelastic neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of the double perovskite compound Ba2FeReO6. The measurements revealed two well defined dispersing spin wave modes. No excitation gap was observable and the spectrum can be explained with a local moment model incorporating the interactions of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked degrees of freedom on the Re site. The results reveal that both significant electronic correlations and spin-orbit coupling on the Re site play a significant role in the spin dynamics of Ba2FeReO6. High resolution neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations in the parent cuprate Sr2CuO2Cl2 reveal a significant dispersion and momentum dependent damping of the zone boundary magnons. We directly compare our measurements with previous resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and find a ~25 meV discrepancy between the two techniques for the measured zone boundary energy at (1/2, 0). The deviations are greatest precisely in the region of phase space where the magnon damping is strongest. This comparison shows that the inelastic x-ray spectrum must contain significant contributions from higher energy excitations not previously considered. Our measurements demonstrate that the high energy continuum of magnetic fluctuations is a ubiquitous feature of the magnetic spectrum among insulating monolayer cuprates, and that these excitations couple to both inelastic neutron and light scattering. A comprehensive series of inelastic neutron scattering measurements was used to investigate spin excitations in the frustrated two-leg ladder compound BiCu2PO6. The measurements revealed six branches of steeply dispersing triplon

  8. Measurements of the neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV.

    PubMed

    Yashima, H; Sekimoto, S; Ninomiya, K; Kasamatsu, Y; Shima, T; Takahashi, N; Shinohara, A; Matsumura, H; Satoh, D; Iwamoto, Y; Hagiwara, M; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W; Shibata, S

    2014-10-01

    Neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV were measured by activation method. A quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam was produced using the (7)Li(p,n) reaction. The energy spectrum of these neutrons has a high-energy peak (386 MeV) and a low-energy tail. Two neutron beams, 0° and 25° from the proton beam axis, were used for sample irradiation, enabling a correction for the contribution of the low-energy neutrons. The neutron-induced activation cross sections were estimated by subtracting the reaction rates of irradiated samples for 25° irradiation from those of 0° irradiation. The measured cross sections were compared with the findings of other studies, evaluated in relation to nuclear data files and the calculated data by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System code. PMID:24368868

  9. New techniques in neutron data measurements above 30 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental facilities have enabled new techniques for measurements of neutron interactions above 30 MeV. Foremost is the development of both monoenergetic and continuous neutron sources using accelerators in the medium energy region between 100 and 800 MeV. Measurements of the reaction products have been advanced by the continuous improvement in detector systems, electronics and computers. Corresponding developments in particle transport codes and in the theory of nuclear reactions at these energies have allowed more precise design of neutron sources, experimental shielding and detector response. As a result of these improvements, many new measurements are possible and the data base in this energy range is expanding quickly.

  10. AN 8-ELEMENT FAST-NEUTRON DOUBLE-SCATTER DIRECTIONAL DETECTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    VANIER, P.E.; FORMAN, L.

    2005-07-31

    We have constructed a fast-neutron double-scatter spectrometer that efficiently measures the neutron spectrum and direction of a spontaneous fission source. The device consists of two planes of organic scintillators, each having an area of 125 cm{sup 2}, efficiently coupled to photomultipliers. The four scintillators in the front plane are 2 cm thick, giving almost 25% probability of detecting an incident fission-spectrum neutron at 2 MeV by proton recoil and subsequent ionization. The back plane contains four 5-cm-thick scintillators which give a 40% probability of detecting a scattered fast neutron. A recordable double-scatter event occurs when a neutron is detected in both a front plane detector and a back plane detector within an interval of 500 nanoseconds. Each double-scatter event is analyzed to determine the energy deposited in the front plane, the time of flight between detectors, and the energy deposited in the back plane. The scattering angle of each incident neutron is calculated from the ratio of the energy deposited in the first detector to the kinetic energy of the scattered neutron.

  11. Measurement of the Detection Efficiency of the Kloe Calorimeter for Neutrons Between 20 and 174 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, P.; Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; de Zorzi, G.; di Domenico, A.; di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2008-06-01

    The detection efficiency of a KLOE calorimeter prototype to neutrons of kinetic energy of 21, 46 and 174 MeV has been measured by exposing it to the neutron beam of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the ratio between the calorimeter and scintillator efficiency ranges from 2.5 to 3.2.

  12. Calibration procedure for a neutron monitor at energies below 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrn, A.; Blomgren, J.; Park, H.; Khurana, S.; Nolte, R.; Schmidt, D.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    2008-07-01

    A liquid scintillation detector aimed for neutron energy and fluence measurements in the energy region below 20 MeV has been calibrated using monoenergetic and white spectrum neutron fields. Careful measurements of the proton light output function and the response matrix have been performed allowing for the application of unfolding techniques using existing codes. The response matrix is used to characterize monoenergetic neutron fields produced by the T(d,n) reaction at low deuteron energies.

  13. Upper limit to the 1-20 MeV solar neutron flux.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Ifedili, S. O.; Jenkins, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The upper limit on the quiet time solar neutron flux from 1 to 20 MeV has been measured to be less than .002 neutrons at the 95% confidence level. This result is deduced from the OGO-6 neutron detector measurements of the 'day-night' effect near the equator at low altitudes for the period from June 7 to Dec. 23, 1969. The OGO-6 detector had very low (less than 4%) counting rate contributions from locally produced neutrons in the detecting system and the spacecraft and from charged-particle interactions in the neutron sensor.

  14. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2009-10-25

    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  15. Neutron scattering studies of heavy Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S. M.

    1985-08-01

    Heavy Fermions are f electron materials characterized by a large linear term in the low temperature specific heat and a large magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. This implies that there is a narrow peak in the f electron density of states at the Fermi energy. Typical examples are CeAl3, UBe13, CeCu2Si2, CeCu6, U2Zn17 and UPt3. Neutron scattering measurements can play an important role in understanding the magnetic interactions in these systems. Measurements of the form reveal details about the nature of the wave functions. Inelastic scattering studies gives information about the energy scale of the spin fluctuations and the narrow f-resonance. Such measurements on the above systems are reviewed with the goal of establishing systematics between the information obtained in neutron studies and that from bulk measurements.

  16. Determination of Neutron Spectrum by the Dosimetry Foil Method up to 37 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, P.; Burjan, V.; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R. A.; Götz, M.; Honusek, M.; Kroha, V.; Novàk, J.; Šimečková, E.

    2009-08-01

    The dosimetry activation foil technique was used for the determination of a white neutron spectrum at the U120M cyclotron facility of NPI/Řež. The neutrons were produced by 37 MeV protons slowing down in the thick heavy water target and have an energy distribution extending up to 37 MeV. To cover the whole energy range a set of 10 foils Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, Nb, In, Lu, and Au was used. The γ-rays from the decaying nuclei produced in 26 activation reactions were detected. The cross sections for these reaction were chosen from European Activation File EAF-2007 (up to 55 MeV) after intercomparison with the dosimetry cross section library IRDF-2002 which represents the cross section only up to 20 MeV and other high energy libraries. For the spectrum determination the SAND-II code was used after it had been modified to input dosimetry cross sections above 20 MeV in an arbitrary group structure. The guessed neutron spectrum which is needed to start an adjustment procedure was combined from those measured and calculated by the MCNPX code. The uncertainty of the adjusted neutron spectrum was estimated using the uncertainties of measured specific γ-activities induced in nuclides and dosimetry cross sections. It is less than 10% in the energy range below 25 MeV, the sensitivity domain of the most dosimetry reactions, but increases above this energy.

  17. Complex Protein Structures by Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glusker, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering by an atom, unlike X-ray scattering, does not depend on the atomic number of that atom. Deuterium atoms scatter neutrons to the same extent as carbon or oxygen atoms and give positive peaks in a nuclear density map, while its isotope, hydrogen, gives a negative peak. Therefore neutron diffraction provides two results that are difficult to obtain from macromolecular X-ray diffraction studies: (1) the locations of hydrogen atoms, including the more mobile ones, and (2) the extent to which a hydrogen atom can be replaced by deuterium. The method shows whether an amino acid side chain (at a given pH value) is ionized or not. For example, one can ascertain whether histidine residues are singly or doubly protonated at the pH of study. Neutron diffraction studies can also be used to determine the absolute configuration of the course of a biochemical reaction by anomalous scattering and enzymatic deuteration of the substrate. Neutron diffraction experiments, however, require large crystals and these are often impossible to obtain for many macromolecules. Examples of reports of the use of neutron diffraction to provide information on enzymatic mechanism will be presented. This includes descriptions of our work on the enzyme D-xylose isomerase for which the orientation of a metal ion-bound water molecule in the active site was found. This water, thought to be involved in the isomerization step, was shown to be water (rather than hydroxyl) at pH 8.0. This analysis also revealed that one lysine has two rather than three attached hydrogen atoms and therefore lacks a positive charge. High-resolution X-ray studies (at 0.94 å) indicate how some side chains might move during catalysis. This combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction can contribute greatly to the elucidation of enzyme mechanisms. I thank Amy Katz, Xinmin Li, H. L. Carrell, Leighton Coates, Leif Hanson, Joel Harp, Paul Langan, and Benno Schoenborn who were involved in many of the described

  18. Medical applications of neutron inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, Joseph J.; Banuk-Waitekus, Anathea; Valtuena, Silvia; Sheahan, Charles A.

    1999-10-01

    A sealed, D-T, pulsed neutron generator is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon and oxygen by neutron inelastic scattering. The generator is operated at 10 KHz, at a neutron output of about 2 X 107 n/s/4(pi) . Gamma ray spectra are collected with two B4Ge3O12 crystal detectors. The measurements are used to measure fat and lean content and distribution in the body, with minimal radiation exposure (0.08 mSv). When combined with other measurements (such as total body potassium), this whole body scanning device provides us with the `quality of lean mass', a measurable outcome of treatments designed to improve nutritional status and function. The method is used in studies of human nutrition and for assessing the efficacy of new anti-obesity and anti-cachexia pharmaceuticals.

  19. Phase Shift Analyses of pp Elastic Scattering between 500 and 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, J.; Yoshino, H.; Matsuda, M.

    1995-03-01

    The single-energy phase-shift analyses of pp elastic scattering have been made by using double-spin and triple-spin correlation parameters measured at SIN in the incident energy region TL = 447-580 MeV, and at LAMPF at TL = 735 MeV. The scattering amplitudes have been almost uniquely determined at TL = 500, 530, 560, 580 and 735 MeV. The Argand diagrams of 1D2-, 3P2- and 3F3-wave amplitudes show counter clockwise behavior. The obtained I = 1 amplitudes in the present analysis will contribute to the determination of the I = 0 amplitudes of np scattering in the same energy region.

  20. Neutron scattering in the ribosome structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.

    1997-02-01

    Thermal neutron scattering has become a powerful instrument for studying the ribosome and its components. The application of neutron scattering allowed to establish some principal features of the ribosome structure: non-homogeneous distribution of the RNA and protein within ribosomal particles, the RNA role as a framework in the arrangement and maintenance of the structure of ribosomal particles, and the globular character of ribosomal proteins. The use of selective deuteration of separate ribosomal proteins in combination with the triangulation method revealed mutual spatial arrangement (the 3D-map) of all the ribosomal proteins within the small particle and in the most part of the large ribosomal particle. An essential impact has been made in the structural studies of ribosomes with the development of novel experimental approaches: triple isotopic substitution and spin contrast variation. These approaches with direct interpretation of spherical harmonics provide new possibilities for constructing models of ribosomal particles, opening principally new perspectives for joint use of X-ray synchrotron diffraction in crystals and small-angle neutron scattering in solution.

  1. Neutron scattering studies of the heavy Fermion superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A. I.

    Recent neutron scattering measurements of the heavy Fermion superconductors are described. Those materials offer an exciting opportunity for neutron scattering since the f-electrons, which couple directly to magnetic scattering measurements, seem to be the same electrons which form the superconducting state below T sub c. In addition, studies of the magnetic fluctuations in these, and other heavy Fermion systems, by inelastic magnetic neutron scattering can provide information about the nature of the low temperature Fermi liquid character of these novel compounds.

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jon M Lawrence

    2011-02-15

    The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected

  3. Tailoring the Neutron Spectrum from a 14-MeV Neutron Generator to Approximate a Spontaneous-Fission Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. D.; Chichester, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many applications of neutrons for non-invasive measurements began with isotopic sources such as AmBe or Cf-252. Political factors have rendered AmBe undesirable in the United States and other countries, and the supply of Cf-252 is limited and significantly increasing in price every few years. Compact and low-power deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generators can often provide sufficient flux, but the 14-MeV neutron spectrum is much more energetic (harder) than an isotopic neutron source. A series of MCNP simulations was run to examine the extent to which the 14-MeV DT neutron spectrum could be softened through the use of high-Z and low-Z materials. Some potential concepts of operation require a portable neutron generator system, so the additional weight of extra materials is also a trade-off parameter. Using a reference distance of 30 cm from the source, the average neutron energy can be lowered to be less than that of either AmBe or Cf-252, while obtaining an increase in flux at the reference distance compared to a bare neutron generator. This paper discusses the types and amounts of materials used, the resulting neutron spectra, neutron flux levels, and associated photon production.

  4. Tailoring the Neutron Spectrum from a 14-MeV Neutron Generator to Approximate a Spontaneous-Fission Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    James Simpson; David Chichester

    2011-06-01

    Many applications of neutrons for non-invasive measurements began with isotopic sources such as AmBe or Cf-252. Political factors have rendered AmBe undesirable in the United States and other countries, and the supply of Cf-252 is limited and significantly increasing in price every few years. Compact and low-power deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generators can often provide sufficient flux, but the 14-MeV neutron spectrum is much more energetic (harder) than an isotopic neutron source. A series of MCNP simulations were run to examine the extent to which the 14-MeV DT neutron spectrum could be softened through the use of high-Z and low-Z materials. Some potential concepts of operation require a portable neutron generator system, so the additional weight of extra materials is also a trade-off parameter. Using a reference distance of 30 cm from the source, the average neutron energy can be lowered to be less than that of either AmBe or Cf-252, while obtaining an increase in flux at the reference distance compared to a bare neutron generator. This paper discusses the types and amounts of materials used, the resulting neutron spectra, neutron flux levels, and associated photon production.

  5. Tailoring the Neutron Spectrum from a 14-MeV Neutron Generator to Approximate a Spontaneous-Fission Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J. D.; Chichester, D. L.

    2011-12-13

    Many applications of neutrons for non-invasive measurements began with isotopic sources such as AmBe or Cf-252. Political factors have rendered AmBe undesirable in the United States and other countries, and the supply of Cf-252 is limited and significantly increasing in price every few years. Compact and low-power deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generators can often provide sufficient flux, but the 14-MeV neutron spectrum is much more energetic (harder) than an isotopic neutron source. A series of MCNP simulations was run to examine the extent to which the 14-MeV DT neutron spectrum could be softened through the use of high-Z and low-Z materials. Some potential concepts of operation require a portable neutron generator system, so the additional weight of extra materials is also a trade-off parameter. Using a reference distance of 30 cm from the source, the average neutron energy can be lowered to be less than that of either AmBe or Cf-252, while obtaining an increase in flux at the reference distance compared to a bare neutron generator. This paper discusses the types and amounts of materials used, the resulting neutron spectra, neutron flux levels, and associated photon production.

  6. Slow-Neutron Scattering by Rotators. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkin, Howard C.

    1960-01-01

    The methods developed in a previous paper for extending the neutron scattering formalism of Zemach and Glauber to any type of molecular rotator have been employed to derive generalized forms generalized forms of the differential cross sections for rotator scattering. A mass-ratio expansion for the treatment of the high-energy limit is illustrated on the classical cross section and then employed in the treatment of the more general quantum-mechanical expression for the differential cross section. The results apply to an arbitrarily asymmetric rotator. The very low energy approximation is carried out for the symmetric rotator, and the procedure is compared with the explicit summing of the partial cross sections for individual rotational transitions. The inelastic correction to the static approximation for interference scattering is calculated to an accuracy of first order in the mass ratios for the case of the symmetric rotator.

  7. Performances of a method for reconstructing the energy of neutrons detected by a double scattering spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Calvo, D.; Gianotti, P.; Iazzi, F.; Lamberti, C.; Minetti, B. ); Balocco, E. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on a neutron spectrometer based on the double scattering technique which has been designed and built at the Laboratorio Tecnologico of INFN - Turin (Italy) for Cold Fusion experiments. The operating principle for the reconstruction of the energy can be applied to various fields (neutron emission from sources, fission and fusion) and is described together with the performed tests: a resolution of less than 560 KeV FWHM has been obtained for neutrons of 2.45 MeV, in a typical running configuration.

  8. Neutron scattering from the Kondo Insulator SmB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Collin

    A review of neutron scattering work probing the Kondo insulator SmB6 is presented with special emphasis on assessing the topology of the underlying strongly renormalized band structure. A 14 meV excition dominates the spectrum and is evidence of strong electron correlations [1]. Though the data generally supports the proposal that SmB6 is a topological Kondo insulator, specific heat and high-resolution neutron scattering data show a continuum of states well below the bulk transport gap, which enrich the problem and may connect to the recent surprising de Haas van Alpen results. ``Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB6,'' W. T. Fuhrman, J. Leiner, P. Nikolic, G. E. Granroth, M. B. Stone, M. D. Lumsden, L. DeBeer-Schmitt, P. A. Alekseev, J.-M. Mignot, S. M. Koohpayeh, P. Cottingham, W. Adam Phelan, L. Schoop, T. M. McQueen, and C. Broholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 036401 (2015). Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  9. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 15N ions by 9Be at 84 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudchik, A. T.; Chercas, K. A.; Kemper, K. W.; Rusek, K.; Rudchik, A. A.; Herashchenko, O. V.; Koshchy, E. I.; Pirnak, Val. M.; Piasecki, E.; Trzcińska, A.; Sakuta, S. B.; Siudak, R.; Strojek, I.; Stolarz, A.; Ilyin, A. P.; Ponkratenko, O. A.; Stepanenko, Yu. M.; Shyrma, Yu. O.; Szczurek, A.; Uleshchenko, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Angular distributions of the 9Be + 15N elastic and inelastic scattering were measured at Elab(15N) = 84 MeV (Ec.m. = 31.5 MeV) for the 0-6.76 MeV states of 9Be and 0-6.32 MeV states of 15N. The data were analyzed within the optical model and coupled-reaction-channels method. The elastic and inelastic scattering, spin reorientations of 9Be in ground and excited states and 15N in excited states as well as the most important one- and two-step transfer reactions were included in the channels-coupling scheme. The parameters of the 9Be + 15N optical potential of Woods-Saxon form as well as deformation parameters of these nuclei were deduced. The analysis showed that the 9Be + 15N pure potential elastic scattering dominates at the forward angles whereas the ground state spin reorientation of 9Be gives a major contribution to the elastic scattering cross sections at the large angles. Contributions from particle transfers are found to be negligible for the present scattering system.

  10. Measurement and evaluation of selected 14-MeV neutron cross sections for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Cox, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental neutron-activation cross-section data in the vicinity of 14 MeV are evaluated for several reactions of fusion-related interest using a least-squares method. New experimental measurements are performed at 14.7 MeV for all of these considered reactions and for some commonly-used standard reactions as well. Comparison is made between measured and evaluated results.

  11. Gamma-ray-spectroscopy following high-flux 14-MeV neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1981-10-12

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-I), a high-intensity source of 14-MeV neutrons at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has been used for applications in activation analysis, inertial-confinement-fusion diagnostic development, and fission decay-heat studies. The fast-neutron flux from the RTNS-I is at least 50 times the maximum fluxes available from typical neutron generators, making these applications possible. Facilities and procedures necessary for gamma-ray spectroscopy of samples irradiated at the RTNS-I were developed.

  12. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter at normal density from analyzing nucleon-nucleus scattering data within an isospin dependent optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Wen-Jun; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Newton, William G.

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in asymmetric nucleonic matter of isospin asymmetry δ and normal density is found to be mn-p* ≡ (mn* - mp*) / m = (0.41 ± 0.15) δ from analyzing globally 1088 sets of reaction and angular differential cross sections of proton elastic scattering on 130 targets with beam energies from 0.783 MeV to 200 MeV, and 1161 sets of data of neutron elastic scattering on 104 targets with beam energies from 0.05 MeV to 200 MeV within an isospin dependent non-relativistic optical potential model. It sets a useful reference for testing model predictions on the momentum dependence of the nucleon isovector potential necessary for understanding novel structures and reactions of rare isotopes.

  13. Differential Cross Sections for Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering on 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L.; Sigillito, A.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies above 1.5 MeV with the 7-MV University of Kentucky Accelerator using the 3H(p,n) reaction as the neutron source. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n,n'γ) reaction. The time-of-flight technique is employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ- ray measurements and for determining the energy of the scattered neutrons. Cross section determinations support fuel cycle and structural materials research and development. Previous reaction model evaluations [1] relied primarily on total cross sections and four (n,n0) and (n,n1) angular distributions in the En = 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels at lower neutron energies provides additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining direct collective and statistical properties were performed.

  14. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N, absorption in nitrogen.

  15. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, A; Belchenko, Yu; Burdakov, A; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Khilchenko, A; Konstantinov, S; Krivenko, A; Kuznetsov, A; Mekler, K; Sanin, A; Shirokov, V; Sorokin, I; Sulyaev, Yu; Tiunov, M

    2008-02-01

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction (13)C(p,gamma)(14)N, absorption in nitrogen. PMID:18315262

  16. Analysis of elastic {alpha}-nucleus scattering data at 240 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, M. A.; Madani, J. H.; Hakmi, A. M.

    2007-06-15

    Working within the framework of the Coulomb modified Glauber model we fit the elastic differential scattering cross section of 240 MeV {alpha} particle on {sup 58}Ni using the effective N-{alpha} amplitude with one adjustable parameter. It is found that once the effective amplitude is calibrated on {sup 58}Ni by varying the adjustable parameter, it very nicely reproduces the available elastic {alpha} scattering data on other nuclei at the same energy.

  17. Scattering of {sup 8}He on {sup 208}Pb at 22 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marquinez-Duran, G.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Martel, I.; Berjillos, R.; Duenas, J. A.; Parkar, V. V.; Acosta, L.; Rusek, K.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cruz, C.; Cubero, M.; Pesudo, V.; Tengblad, O.; Chbihi, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Moro, A. M.; Fernandez-Martinez, B.; Labrador, J. A.; and others

    2013-06-10

    The skin nucleus {sup 8}He is investigated by measuring the angular distribution of the elasticly scattered {sup 8}He and the {sup 6,4}He fragments produced in the collision with a {sup 208}Pb target at 22 MeV, just above the Coulomb barrier. The experiment was carried out at SPIRAL/GANIL in 2010. Here we present preliminary results for the elastic scattering.

  18. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-12-31

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  19. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  20. Phase sensitive small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brok, Erik; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Krycka, Kathryn

    It is a well-known problem that information about the scattered wave is lost in scattering experiments because the measured quantity is the modulus squared of the complex wave function. This ''phase problem'' leads to ambiguity in determining the physical properties of the scattering sample. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a useful technique for determining the structure of biomolecules, in particular proteins that cannot be crystallized and studied with x-ray crystallography. However, because the biomolecules are usually suspended in a liquid the observed scattering is an average of all possible orientations, making it difficult to obtain three dimensional structural information. In a proposed method polarized SANS and magnetic nanoparticle references attached to the sample molecules is used to obtain phase sensitive structural information and simultaneously circumvent the problem of orientational averaging (Majkrzak et al. J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 2014) If realized and perfected the technique is very promising for unambiguous determination of the three dimensional structure of biomolecules. We demonstrate the principles of our method and show the first experimental data obtained on a simple test system consisting of core shell magnetic nanoparticles.

  1. Calculations of neutron shielding data for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Jian, S H

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron sources and their attenuation in concrete were investigated in detail for protons with energies ranging from 10 to 100 MeV striking on target materials of C, N, Al, Fe, Cu and W. A two-step approach was adopted: thick-target double-differential neutron yields were first calculated from the (p, xn) cross sections recommended in the ICRU Report 63; further, transport simulations of those neutrons in concrete were performed by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The purpose of this study is to provide reasonably accurate parameters for shielding design for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators. Source terms and the corresponding attenuation lengths in concrete for several target materials are given as a function of proton energies and neutron emission angles. PMID:16604637

  2. Neutron Scattering Studies of Fluorite Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Jonathan Peter

    1992-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The nature and mobility of defects in ionic materials with the fluorite structure have been studied using neutron scattering techniques. These systems model the behaviour of the fission fuel UO_2 at elevated temperature. A powder sample of beta -PbF_2 has been investigated using neutron diffraction, which gives the time-averaged occupation of sites in the unit cell. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter, the concentration of Frenkel defects, and the thermal parameters of both fluorine and lead ions, have been determined at temperatures from ambient to well above the transition to the fast-ion phase. The defect structure of the anion-excess fluorite (Sr,Y)Cl_{2.03} has been studied using the coherent diffuse scattering from single -crystal samples. Excess chlorine ions are found to aggregate into cuboctahedral clusters whose ionic coordinates agree with those calculated from a simple hard sphere model. At elevated temperature the scattering exhibits quasielastic energy broadening, indicating the dynamic nature of the disorder. It is possible to account for the high temperature scattering in terms of 'snapshot' models of the diffusing anions and their associated relaxation fields, and to estimate the anion self diffusion coefficient from coherent scattering alone. Consistent and complementary information on the diffusion of chlorine ions in (Sr,Y)Cl_ {2.03} has been obtained from the quasielastic energy broadening of the single-crystal incoherent scattering measured at elevated temperature. Comparison with previous results from SrCl_2 shows that chlorine diffusion is faster in (Sr,Y)Cl_{2.03 }, and that the diffusional process in the anion-excess fluorite resembles that found when the level of thermally generated disorder is high in the pure compound. The coherent scatterer UO_{2 + delta} (delta = 0.13,0.14) transforms from a mixture of oxides at ambient temperature to a

  3. Neutron scattering instrumentation for biology at spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1994-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that since biological entities are large, they must be studied with cold neutrons, a domain in which reactor sources of neutrons are often supposed to be pre-eminent. In fact, the current generation of pulsed spallation neutron sources, such as LANSCE at Los Alamos and ISIS in the United Kingdom, has demonstrated a capability for small angle scattering (SANS) - a typical cold- neutron application - that was not anticipated five years ago. Although no one has yet built a Laue diffractometer at a pulsed spallation source, calculations show that such an instrument would provide an exceptional capability for protein crystallography at one of the existing high-power spoliation sources. Even more exciting is the prospect of installing such spectrometers either at a next-generation, short-pulse spallation source or at a long-pulse spallation source. A recent Los Alamos study has shown that a one-megawatt, short-pulse source, which is an order of magnitude more powerful than LANSCE, could be built with today`s technology. In Europe, a preconceptual design study for a five-megawatt source is under way. Although such short-pulse sources are likely to be the wave of the future, they may not be necessary for some applications - such as Laue diffraction - which can be performed very well at a long-pulse spoliation source. Recently, it has been argued by Mezei that a facility that combines a short-pulse spallation source similar to LANSCE, with a one-megawatt, long-pulse spallation source would provide a cost-effective solution to the global shortage of neutrons for research. The basis for this assertion as well as the performance of some existing neutron spectrometers at short-pulse sources will be examined in this presentation.

  4. Dynamics of Ammonia Borane Using Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Craig; Jacques, Teresa; Hess, Nancy J.; Daemen, Luke L.; Mamontov, Eugene; Linehan, John C.; Stowe, Ashley C.; Autrey, Thomas

    2006-11-15

    We have used both the backscattering (HFBS) and time-of-flight (DCS) neutron spectrometers to investigate the proton dynamics in ammonia borane, a compound of intense interest as a model for 'chemical hydrogen storage' materials. Results indicate that the deposition of ammonia borane on a mesoporous silicate results in longer proton residence times and lower energy barriers for proton motion compared to bulk ammonia borane. The reduced activation energy for proton motions may partly explain the improved thermolysis and lowering the activation barrier for the loss of the first equivalent of H2. In addition, the phonon density of states for neat ammonia borane compares well with other spectroscopic results, with the intense peak at 22 meV assigned to the librational NH3 and BH3 modes, whereas ammonia borane on MCM-41 displays a broad, featureless spectrum indicating a poorly crystalline material.

  5. Ultra high resolution neutron scattering: Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo and Larmor Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Andrew; Keller, Thomas; Keimer, Bernhard

    2012-02-01

    The TRISP spectrometer at the FRM II neutron source near Munich, Germany, is a unique world-leading neutron scattering instrument which employs the Neutron Resonance Spin-Echo technique (NRSE). Linewidths of dispersive excitations with energy transfers up to 50 meV can be measured with an energy resolution in the μeV range without the restrictive flux limitations that normally apply to high resolution neutron triple-axis spectrometers. Pioneering studies on the electron-phonon interaction in elemental superconductorsootnotetextP. Aynajian et al., Science 319 1509 (2008) and the lifetimes of magnetic excitations in archetypal magnetic systems will be reviewed.ootnotetextS. Bayrakci et al., Science 312 1928 (2006) The instrument can also be used as a Larmor diffractometer, enabling d-spacings to be measured with a resolution of δdd ˜10-6, i.e. more than one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional diffraction techniques.ootnotetextC. Pfleiderer et al., Science 316 1871 (2007) Ongoing and future NRSE and Larmor diffraction projects will be outlined, especially in regard to prospective studies which will take full advantage of the new low temperature and high pressure sample environment capabilities now available at TRISP.

  6. Measurement of the free neutron-proton analyzing power and spin transfer parameters in the charge exchange region at 790 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ransome, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The free neutron-proton analyzing power and the spin transfer parameters (K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/) were measured at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility at 790 MeV between 165/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ center of mass. A 40% polarized neutron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target was used. The recoil protons were momentum analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer to isolate elastic scatters. A large solid angle carbon polarimeter was used to measure the proton polarization. The measurements are the first at this energy and are in basic agreement with pre-existing phase shift solutions. The proton-carbon analyzing power was measured between 500 and 750 MeV. An empirical fit to the proton-carbon analyzing power between 100 and 750 MeV was done.

  7. Absolute neutron fluence measurements between 0.5 and 3MeV and their intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. W.; Guung, T. C.; Pei, C. C.; Yang, T. N.; Hwang, W. S.; Thomas, D. J.

    1999-02-01

    Primary standards of monoenergetic neutron fluences for 0.565, 1.5 and 2.5MeV neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction have been developed for the calibration of neutron dosimeters and spectrometers. The fluences for 0.565MeV neutrons were measured using both H2 and CH4 proton recoil proportional counters with the measured spectra fitted to the modified SPEC-4 Monte Carlo simulations for the subtraction of gamma and recoil carbons. The fluences for 1.5 and 2.5MeV neutrons were determined with vacuum-type proton recoil telescopes. Various uncertainties for each detector are analyzed and its overall uncertainty is 3.1% for gas counter and less than 3% for the telescope. These neutron fluence standards have been intercompared with those of the National Physical Laboratory of the United Kingdom by the use of two transfer instruments: a long counter and a 3He detector. The comparison results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouz, M.; Guillon, B.; Real, J.-S.; Voutier, E.

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e-vector,e{sup '}{gamma})X cross section measured at Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub B}=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E{sub q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  9. Biophysical applications of neutron Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Albergamo, F.; Hayward, R. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    Neutron Compton scattering (NCS) can be applied to measuring nuclear momentum distributions and potential parameters in molecules of biophysical interest. We discuss the analysis of NCS spectra from peptide models, focusing on the characterisation of the amide proton dynamics in terms of the width of the H-bond potential well, its Laplacian, and the mean kinetic energy of the proton. The Sears expansion is used to quantify deviations from the high-Q limit (impulse approximation), and line-shape asymmetry parameters are evaluated in terms of Hermite polynomials. Results on NCS from selectively deuterated acetanilide are used to illustrate this approach.

  10. Deeply virtual compton scattering off the neutron.

    PubMed

    Mazouz, M; Camsonne, A; Camacho, C Muñoz; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J-M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissiere, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z-E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Réal, J-S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e,e'gamma)X cross section measured at Q2=1.9 GeV2 and xB=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E_{q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced. PMID:18233443

  11. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mazouz; A. Camsonne; C. Munoz Camacho; C. Ferdi; G. Gavalian; E. Kuchina; M. Amarian; K. A. Aniol; M. Beaumel; H. Benaoum; P. Bertin; M. Brossard; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Feuerbach; J.-M. Fieschi; S. Frullani; M. Garcon; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; P. Gueye; P.A.M. Guichon; B. Guillon; O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; R. Igarashi; X. Jiang; H.S. Jo; L.J. Kaufman; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J.J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; H.-J. Lu; D.J. Margaziotis; Z.-E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. Michaels; B. Michel; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; M. Potokar; Y. Qiang; R.D. Ransome; J.-S. Real; B. Reitz; Y. Roblin; J. Roche; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; V. Sulkosky; P.E. Ulmer; E. Voutier; K. Wang; L.B. Weinstein; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-12-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  12. Neutron elastic scatter for detection and identification of obscured objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Henry J.; Charatis, George; Wang, David; McEllistrem, Marcus R.

    1993-11-01

    Neutron Elastic Scatter (NES) may be used for non-destructively assaying materials for the presence of narcotics, explosives, or other contraband. The technology relies on the high penetrating power of neutrons to reach through varying thickness of shielding materials, and also on the large probabilities for elastic scattering of neutrons. Elastic scattering probabilities are the largest of all neutron induced events, exceeding any single non-elastic process typically by a factor of ten or more. Indeed, usually the elastic scattering probability is larger than the sum of all inelastic processes.

  13. Phonon dynamics and inelastic neutron scattering of sodium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Zbiri, M.; Rols, S.; Schober, H.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2014-05-01

    Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) exhibits an extremely complex sequence of structural phase transitions in the perovskite family and therefore provides an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of structural phase transitions. We report temperature dependence of inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon densities of states in sodium niobate. The measurements are carried out in various crystallographic phases of this material at various temperatures from 300 to 1048 K. The phonon spectra exhibit peaks centered on 19, 37, 51, 70, and 105 meV. Interestingly, the peak near 70 meV shifts significantly towards lower energy with increasing temperature, while the other peaks do not exhibit any appreciable shift. The phonon spectra at 783 K show prominent change and become more diffusive as compared to those at 303 K. In order to better analyze these features, we have performed first-principles lattice dynamics calculations based on the density functional theory. The computed phonon density of states is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on our calculation we are able to assign the characteristic Raman modes in the antiferroelectric phase, which are due to the folding of the T (ω = 95 cm-1) and Δ (ω = 129 cm-1) points of the cubic Brillouin zone, to the A1g symmetry.

  14. Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burtebayev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Kuranov, S. B.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2010-05-15

    At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.

  15. DPA damage analysis for 14-MeV neutrons on PFC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-woo; Lee, Bo-young; Ko, Seung-kook; Kim, Hee-soo; Noh, Seung-jung

    2015-06-01

    The dpa (displacement per atom) damage for 14-MeV neutron in a pfc materials was simulated using MCNPX/SPECTER code. The dpa values in the main components of the structural material SS316L, Fe, Cr and Ni, were calculated to analyze the effect of nuclear damage. According to the neutron wall load for ITER design base, a neutron flux of 3.5 × 1013 neutrons/cm2·sec was applied. The simulated dpa values were found to be as 3.0 dpa/fpy for Fe, 2.9 dpa/fpy for Cr and 3.1 dpa/fpy for Ni. For practical experiments, the simulated dpa values due to the irradiation damage of 17-MeV protons were found to be as 0.67 dpa at the peak and 0.05 at the surface for SS316L using by SRIM code at the same fluence. For the 17-MeV proton irradiation, the Bragg peak appears at a 0.64-mm depth. Also, SS316L specimens irradiated by a 17-MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1016 protons/cm2 were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Development of an encapsulated scintillating fiber detector as a 14-MeV neutron sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singkarat, S.; Boonyawan, D.; Hoyes, G. G.; Tippawan, U.; Vilaithong, T.; Garis, N. S.; Kobus, H.

    1997-02-01

    A scintillating fiber detector has been developed and tested for use as a 14-MeV neutron sensor. The detector, designated an "Encapsulated Scintillating Fiber Detector (EFD)", is composed of a parallel array of 0.5 × 0.5 × 15 mm BCF-12 plastic scintillating fibers encapsulated in clear BC-600 optical cement. The 85 fibers from a 12 × 12 mm square array, with a separation gap of 0.8-1 mm, in the center of the 40 mm diameter × 15 mm thick hardened optical cement. It can be directly coupled to an ordinary 2 in. diameter photomultiplier tube and its simple electronics. The response of the detector to gamma-rays from isotopic sources, as well as to 2.6- and 14-MeV monoenergetic neutrons from a neutron generator has been evaluated. The detector shows 3 distinct properties simultaneously, i.e. (1) good gamma-ray pulse height reduction, (2) discrimination against 14-MeV neutrons entering at angles non-parallel to the fiber axis, and (3) production of a full energy peak of 14-MeV recoil protons in the direction of the fiber axes. Investigations by Monte Carlo simulation are also included.

  17. ORELA measurements to meet fusion energy neutron cross section needs. [2 to 80 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D C

    1980-01-01

    Major neutron cross section measurements made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) that are useful to the fusion energy program are reviewed. Cross sections for production of gamma rays with energies 0.3 < E/sub ..gamma../ < 10.5 MeV were measured as a function of neutron energy over the range 0.1 < E/sub n/ < 20.0 MeV for Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ta, W, Au, Pb, and Th. Neutron emission cross sections have been measured for /sup 7/Li, Al, Ti, Cu, and Nb for 1 < E/sub n/ < 20 MeV. Some results of recent neutron total cross section measurements from 2 to 80 MeV for eleven materials (C, O, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Au, and Pb) of interest to the FMIT project are presented. Finally, future directions of the ORELA program are outlined. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Generation of high-energy (>15 MeV) neutrons using short pulse high intensity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Higginson, D. P.; McNaney, J. M.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Beg, F. N.

    2012-09-15

    A roadmap is suggested and demonstrated experimentally for the production of high-energy (>15 MeV) neutrons using short pulse lasers. Investigation with a 3D Monte Carlo model has been employed to quantify the production of energetic neutrons. Numerical simulations have been performed for three nuclear reactions, d(d,n){sup 3}He, {sup 7}Li(d,n){sup 8}Be, and {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be, driven by monoenergetic ion beams. Quantitative estimates for the driver ion beam energy and number have been made and the neutron spectra and yield in the ion propagation direction have been evaluated for various incident ion energies. In order to generate neutron fluence above a detection limit of 10{sup 6} neutrons/sr, either {approx}10{sup 10} protons with energy 20-30 MeV or comparable amount of deuterons with energy 5-10 MeV are required. Experimental verification of the concept with deuterons driven by the Titan laser (peak intensity 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration of 9 ps, wavelength 1.05 {mu}m, and energy of 360 J) is provided with the generation of neutrons with energy of up to 18 MeV from {sup 7}Li(d,n){sup 8}Be reactions. Future research will focus on optimized schemes for ion acceleration for production of high-energy neutrons, which will involve efficient target design, laser parameter optimization, and converter material.

  19. Neutron Induced Reactions with the 17 Mev Facility at the Athens Tandem Accelerator NCSR 'Demokritos'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Serris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    In the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos" monoenergetic neutron beams have been produced in the energy range∼ 15-20 MeV using anew Ti-tritiated target of 373 GBq activity, by means of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. The corresponding deuteron beam energies obtained from the accelerator, were in the 1.5-4.5MeV range.The maximum flux has been determined to be of the order of 106 n/cm2 s, implementing reference reactions. The 17.1MeV neutron beam has been used for the measurement of 197Au(n,2n) reaction cross section. Theoretical calculations have been performed via the statistical model code EMPIRE and compared to the experimental data of the present work and data from literature.

  20. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of 240242Pu up to En = 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Vidali, M.

    2014-05-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu have been measured at JRC-IRMM with incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 3 MeV. A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry. The measurements have been performed using the secondary standards 237Np and 238U as a reference. The purity of the plutonium samples was 99.89% for 240Pu and 99.97% for 242Pu. The results obtained follow the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation for 240Pu, but some discrepancies are visible around E/n = 1 MeV for 242Pu. In addition, the spontaneous fission half-life has been measured for both isotopes.

  1. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; McEllistrem, M. T.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevez, F. M.; Chakraborty, A.; Yates, S. W.; Sigillito, A.; McDonough, P. J.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions for 23Na sample were measured at the University of Kentucky using the time-of-flight (ToF) technique, between 2 and 4 MeV incident neutron energies.Normalization of yields into scattering cross sections was accomplished by comparison of Na yields to the yields obtained from hydrogen in polyethylene samples via the well-known n-p scattering cross sections.The 3H(p,n) differential cross sections are used to determine the energy-dependent efficiency of the main detector. Because the efficiency of this detector appears as a ratio in the comparison of scattered yields from different samples, the absolute values of the 3H(p,n) cross sections are not critical, but their energy dependence is. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE contract no. DE-AC07-051D14517.

  2. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES FROM THERMAL ENERGY TO 20 MeV.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN,D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; PIGNI, M.; KAWANO, T.

    2007-04-27

    We describe new method for energy-energy covariance calculation from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV. It is based on three powerful basic components: (i) Atlas of Neutron Resonances in the resonance region; (ii) the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE in the unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions, and (iii) the Bayesian code KALMAN for correlations and error propagation. Examples for cross section uncertainties and correlations on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 193}Ir illustrate this approach in the resonance and fast neutron regions.

  3. Enhanced reaction rates in NDP analysis with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R. Gregory

    2014-04-15

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) makes accessible quantitative information on a few isotopic concentration profiles ranging from the surface into the sample a few micrometers. Because the candidate analytes for NDP are few, there is little interference encountered. Furthermore, neutrons have no charge so mixed chemical states in the sample are of no direct concern. There are a few nuclides that exhibit large probabilities for neutron scattering. The effect of neutron scattering on NDP measurements has not previously been evaluated as a basis for either enhancing the reaction rates or as a source of measurement error. Hydrogen is a common element exhibiting large neutron scattering probability found in or around sample volumes being analyzed by NDP. A systematic study was conducted to determine the degree of signal change when neutron scattering occurs during analysis. The relative signal perturbation was evaluated for materials of varied neutron scattering probability, concentration, total mass, and geometry. Signal enhancements up to 50% are observed when the hydrogen density is high and in close proximity to the region of analysis with neutron beams of sub thermal energies. Greater signal enhancements for the same neutron number density are reported for thermal neutron beams. Even adhesive tape used to position the sample produces a measureable signal enhancement. Because of the shallow volume, negligible distortion of the NDP measured profile shape is encountered from neutron scattering.

  4. Neutron propagation and 2.2 MeV gamma-ray line production in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The 2.2 MeV gamma ray line intensity from the sun was calculated using a Monte Carlo method for neutron propagation in the solar atmosphere. Detailed results are provided on the total gamma ray yield per neutron and on the time profile of the 2.2 MeV line from an instantaneous and monoenergetic neutron source. The parameters which have the most significant effects on the line intensity are the energies of the neutrons, the position of the neutron source on the sun, and the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. For an isotropic neutron source which is not too close to the limb of the sun, the gamma ray yield is between about 0.02 to 0.2 photons per neutron, provided that the neutron energies are in the range 1 to 100 MeV and the ratio He-3/H is less than about .00005.

  5. Measurements of NE-213 response functions to neutrons of energies up to several tens of MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kazuo; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Sakai, Hideyuki; Numata, Shigco

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of neutron response functions of a 3 in. × 3 in. NE-213 scintillator were made for neutron energies from 10 MeV to 73 MeV using neutrons from a quasi-monoenergetic neutron source of p- 7Li and a white source from thick Be and Cu targets. Neutrons sampled into small energy bins by TOF signals were utilized in the response measurements. Response functions calculated by the Monte Carlo method were compared with the measured data, thus clearing problems in the calculation model. Based on the measured and calculated data, a new response matrix which covered from 0 to 76 MeV was constructed. The matrix was successfully applied to unfold a pulse-height spectrum of up to several tens of MeV neutrons that were transmitted through a 50 cm concrete shield.

  6. Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) dosimetry measurements at the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Leo, W.; Sahraoui, C.; Wuthrich, S.; Shaer, M.

    1986-11-01

    A series of passive dosimetry irradiation experiments were performed inside the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) with the 14-MeV neutron source at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausane (EPFL). Sets of passive dosimetry foils were utilized to measure fusion-reactor-blanket neutronic environments. The dosimeter reaction data are analyzed and compared with calculational models. These experimental results demonstrate the ability to simulate low power deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma shots by measuring the neutron field in a reactor-representative fusion blanket environment. The dosimeter results can determine the entire neutron spectrum along the full length of the LBM test rod. The set of selected dosimetry materials meets the requirements of neutronic characterization in future LBM-TFTR D-T and high power deuterium-deuterium (D-D) plasma experiments.

  7. Crystal fields in YbInNi4 determined with magnetic form factor and inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severing, A.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Willers, T.; Rotter, M.; Fisk, Z.; Bianchi, A.; Fernandez-Diaz, M. T.; Stunault, A.; Rainford, B. D.; Taylor, J.; Goremychkin, E.

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic form factor of YbInNi4 has been determined via the flipping ratios R with polarized neutron diffraction, and the scattering function S(Q,ω) was measured in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Both experiments were performed with the aim of determining the crystal-field scheme. The magnetic form factor clearly excludes the possibility of a Γ7 doublet as the ground state. The inelastic neutron data exhibit two almost equally strong peaks at 3.2 meV and 4.4 meV which points, in agreement with earlier neutron data, toward a Γ8 quartet ground state. Further possibilities such as a quasiquartet ground state are discussed.

  8. Response of a diamond detector sandwich to 14 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Caiffi, B.; Pompili, F.; Pillon, M.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Cardarelli, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present the measurement of the response of 50 μm thin diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons. Such neutrons are produced in fusion reactors and are of particular interest for ITER neutron diagnostics. Among semiconductor detectors diamond has properties most appropriate for harsh radiation and temperature conditions of a fusion reactor. However, 300-500 μm thick diamond detectors suffer significant radiation damage already at neutron fluences of the order of 1014 n/cm2. It is expected that a 50 μm thick diamond will withstand a fluence of >1016 n /cm2. We tested two 50 μm thick single crystal CVD diamonds, stacked to form a "sandwich" detector for coincidence measurements. The coincidence between two diamonds allows to suppress background and increase detection efficiency. The detector measured the conversion of 14 MeV neutrons, impinging on one diamond, into α particles which were detected in the second diamond in coincidence with nuclear recoil. For 12C(n , α)9Be reaction the total energy deposited in the detector gives access to the initial neutron energy value. The measured 14 MeV neutron detection sensitivity through this reaction by a detector of an effective area 3×3 mm2 was 5 ×10-7 counts cm2/n. This value is in good agreement with Geant4 simulations. The energy resolution of the detector was found to be 870 keV FWHM, but according to Geant4 simulations only about 160 keV FWHM were intrinsic.

  9. Elastic and Inelastic Neutron Scattering with a C7LYC Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G. L.; Brown, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Doucet, E.; Lister, C. J.; D'Olympia, N.; Devlin, M.; Mosby, S.

    2015-10-01

    A scintillator array of 16 1'' ×1'' Cs2LiYCl6 (CLYC) detectors has been commissioned for low energy nuclear science. Standard CLYC crystals detect both gamma rays and neutrons rays with excellent pulse shape discrimination, with thermal neutrons detected via the 6Li(n, α)t reaction. Our discovery of spectroscopy-grade response of CLYC for fast neutrons via the 35Cl(n,p) reaction, with a pulse height resolution of under 10 % in the < 8 MeV range, led to our present array of 7Li enriched C7LYC detectors, where the large thermal neutron response is essentially eliminated. While the intrinsic efficiency of C7LYC for fast neutron detection is low, the array can be placed near the target since a long TOF arm is no longer needed for neutron energy measurement, thus recovering efficiency through increased solid angle coverage. The array was recently deployed at Los Alamos to test its capability in measuring differential scattering cross sections as a function of energy for 56Fe and 238U. The incident energy from a white neutron source was measured via TOF, and the scattered neutron energy via the pulse height. Techniques, analysis and first results will be discussed. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance Program under Grant DE-NA00013008.

  10. μCF based 14 MeV intense neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. V.; Cavalleri, E.; Karmanov, F. I.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Latysheva, L. N.; Ponomarev, L. I.; Pshenichnov, I. A.; Slobodtchouk, V. I.; Vecchi, M.

    1999-06-01

    Results of a design study for an advanced scheme of a μCF based 14 MeV intense neutron source for test material irradiation including the liquid lithium primary target and a low temperature liquid deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixture as a secondary target are presented. According to this scheme negative pions are produced inside a 150-cm-long 0.75-cm-radius lithium target. Pions and muons resulting from the pion decay in flight are collected in the backward direction and stopped in the D-T mixture. The fusion chamber has the shape of a 10-cm-radius sphere surrounded by two 0.03-cm-thickness titanium shells. Assuming 100 fusions per muon in this scheme one can produce 14-MeV neutrons with a source strength up to 1017 n/s. A neutron flux of up to 1014 n/cm2/s can be achieved in a test volume of about 2.5 l and on the surface of about 350 cm2. The results of the thermophysical and thermomechanical analysis show that the technological limits are not exceeded. This source has the advantage of producing the original 14 MeV fusion spectrum without tails, isotropically into a 4π solid angle, contrary to the d-Li stripping neutron source.

  11. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Y.; Sarachik, M.P.; Friedman, J.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Kelley, T.M.; Nakotte, H.; Christianson, A.C.; Trouw, F.; Aubin, S.M.J.; Hendrickson, D.N.

    1998-11-09

    The authors report zero-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a 14-gram deuterated sample of Mn{sub 12}-Acetate consisting of a large number of identical spin-10 magnetic clusters. Their resolution enables them to see a series of peaks corresponding to transitions between the anisotropy levels within the spin-10 manifold. A fit to the spin Hamiltonian H = {minus}DS{sub z}{sup 2} + {mu}{sub B}B{center_dot}g{center_dot}S-BS{sub z}{sup 4} + C(S{sub +}{sup 4} + S{sub {minus}}{sup 4}) yields an anisotropy constant D = (0.54 {+-} 0.02) K and a fourth-order diagonal anisotropy coefficient B = (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}3}K. Unlike EPR measurements, their experiments do not require a magnetic field and yield parameters that do not require knowledge of the g-value.

  12. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  13. Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.

  14. Direct experimental reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Eisenegger, C.; Hausammann, R.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Leo, W.R.; Morenzoni, S.; Onel, Y.; Rapin, D.; Mango, S.

    1981-04-20

    We have made, for the first time, a direct reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV from a series of experiments performed with a polarized beam line. Fifteen observables consisting of the polarization, two-spin correlation and transfer parameters, and three-spin parameters were measured at seven angles between 66/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/ center of mass. The experimental results and reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to a phase-shift analysis.

  15. rvec p + sup 13 rvec C elastic scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, an elastic scattering experiment was performed at LAMPF using polarized protons and a polarized target nucleus ({rvec p} + {sup 13}{rvec C}). The analyzing powers (A{sub ooon}({Theta})) and (A{sub oonn}({Theta})) were measured using an incident beam energy of 500 MeV over the laboratory angular range of 10{degree}--30{degree}. Motivation for the experiment and some preliminary results and conclusions are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-water Scattering at 800 MeV

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nagle, D. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; Mischke, R. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R.

    1982-01-01

    A search has been made for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an unpolarized water target. The result is for the longitudinal asymmetry, A{sub L} = +(6.6 +- 3.2) x 10{sup -7}. Control runs with Pb, using a thickness which gave equivalent beam broadening from Coulomb multiple scattering, but a factor of ten less nuclear interactions than the water target, gave A{sub L} = -(0.5 +- 6.0) x 10{sup -7}.

  17. Partial-wave analysis of all nucleon-nucleon scattering data below 350 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Stoks, V.G.J.; Klomp, R.A.M.; Rentmeester, M.C.M.; de Swart, J.J. )

    1993-08-01

    We present a multienergy partial-wave analysis of all [ital NN] scattering data below [ital T][sub lab]=350 MeV, published in a regular physics journal between 1955 and 1992. After careful examination, our final database consists of 1787 [ital pp] and 2514 [ital np] scattering data. Our fit to these data results in [chi][sup 2]/[ital N][sub df]=1.08, with [ital N][sub df]=3945 the total number of degrees of freedom. All phase shifts and mixing parameters can be determined accurately.

  18. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudecker, D.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Kahler, A. C.; Rising, M. E.; White, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  19. Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron-deuteron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichart, Patrick; Moser, Marcus; Greubel, Christoph; Peeper, Katrin; Dollinger, Günther

    2016-03-01

    Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron-deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering (~100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron-proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel. A deuterium detection limit due to accidental coincidences of 3 at-ppm down to less than 1 at-ppm is demonstrated on deuterated polypropylen sheets as well as thick polycarbonate sheets after various stages of coincidence filtering that is possible with our granular detector.

  20. Time gating for energy selection and scatter rejection: High-energy pulsed neutron imaging at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Alicia; Schirato, Richard; McKigney, Edward; Hunter, James; Temple, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a linear accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico that accelerates a proton beam to 800 MeV, which then produces spallation neutron beams. Flight path FP15R uses a tungsten target to generate neutrons of energy ranging from several hundred keV to ~600 MeV. The beam structure has micropulses of sub-ns width and period of 1.784 ns, and macropulses of 625 μs width and frequency of either 50 Hz or 100 Hz. This corresponds to 347 micropulses per macropulse, or 1.74 x 104 micropulses per second when operating at 50 Hz. Using a very fast, cooled ICCD camera (Princeton Instruments PI-Max 4), gated images of various objects were obtained on FP15R in January 2015. Objects imaged included blocks of lead and borated polyethylene; a tungsten sphere; and a tungsten, polyethylene, and steel cylinder. Images were obtained in 36 min or less, with some in as little as 6 min. This is novel because the gate widths (some as narrow as 10 ns) were selected to reject scatter and other signal not of interest (e.g. the gamma flash that precedes the neutron pulse), which has not been demonstrated at energies above 14 MeV. This proof-of-principle experiment shows that time gating is possible above 14MeV and is useful for selecting neutron energy and reducing scatter, thus forming clearer images. Future work (simulation and experimental) is being undertaken to improve camera shielding and system design and to precisely determine optical properties of the imaging system.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron-alpha scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Nollett, K. M.; Pieper, S. C.; Wiringa, R. B.; Carlson, J.; Hale, G. M.; Physics

    2007-07-13

    We describe a new method to treat low-energy scattering problems in few-nucleon systems, and we apply it to the five-body case of neutron-alpha scattering. The method allows precise calculations of low-lying resonances and their widths. We find that a good three-nucleon interaction is crucial to obtain an accurate description of neutron-alpha scattering.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Neutron-{alpha} Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nollett, Kenneth M.; Pieper, Steven C.; Wiringa, R. B.; Carlson, J.; Hale, G. M.

    2007-07-13

    We describe a new method to treat low-energy scattering problems in few-nucleon systems, and we apply it to the five-body case of neutron-alpha scattering. The method allows precise calculations of low-lying resonances and their widths. We find that a good three-nucleon interaction is crucial to obtain an accurate description of neutron-alpha scattering.

  3. Fast neutron (14.5 MeV) radiography: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-07-01

    Fast neutron (14.5 MeV) radiography is a type of non-destructive analysis tool that offers its own benefits and drawbacks. Because cross-sections vary with energy, a different range of materials can be examined with fast neutrons than can be studied with thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons, or x-rays. This paper details these differences through a comparative study of fast neutron radiography to the other types of radiography available. The most obvious difference among the different types of radiography is in the penetrability of the sources. Fast neutrons can probe much deeper and can therefore obtain details of the internals of thick objects. Good images have been obtained through as much as 15 cm of steel, 10 cm of water, and 15 cm of borated polyethylene. In addition, some objects were identifiable through as much as 25 cm of water or 30 cm of borated polyethylene. The most notable benefit of fast neutron radiography is in the types of materials that can be tested. Fast neutron radiography can view through materials that simply cannot be viewed by X rays, thermal neutrons, or epithermal neutrons due to the high cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients involved. Cadmium was totally transparent to the fast neutron source. Fast neutron radiography is not without drawbacks. The most pronounced drawback has been in the quality of radiograph produced. The image resolution is only about 0.8 mm for a 1.25 cm thick object, whereas, other forms of radiography have much better resolution.

  4. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of the Specific Features of the Phase Transitions in (NH4)2WO2F4

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Lev S; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxyfluoride (NH4)2WO2F4 has been studied by the inelastic neutron scattering method over a wide temperature range 10 300 K at two initial neutron energies of 15 and 60 meV. The role of tetrahedral ammonium groups in the mechanism of sequential phase transitions at T1 = 201 K and T2 = 160 K has been discussed.

  5. Fusion of time-dependent gamma production spectra from thermal neutron capture and fast neutron inelastic scattering to improve material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, T.; Elsalim, M.; Strellis, D.; Brown, D.

    2003-06-01

    Neutron-based inspection techniques are unique in their ability to provide material specific signatures, thus offering very high performance and automatic detection of explosives and other contraband. Thermal neutron capture gamma spectroscopy provides excellent sensitivities to hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and other elements, which are characteristic to most explosives, drugs and other contraband that may be smuggled into the country. Fast neutron gamma production (mostly through inelastic scattering) provides good sensitivity to carbon and oxygen. When necessary, these two types of complementary interactions can be combined to yield a more accurate material determination inside small to medium size containers. Standard pulsed 14 MeV electronic neutron generators offer an efficient way to obtain these two types of interactions. Fast (14 MeV) neutrons are produced during the pulse. After the pulse, only the decaying thermal neutron population exists, and thus pure neutron capture gamma-rays are produced. Unfortunately, during the pulse (which is normally much longer than the neutron thermalization time) the fast neutron interactions are highly "contaminated" by the interactions of thermal neutrons within the object and the nearby gamma-ray detectors. This creates high background and spectral interferences in the common medium resolution detectors, such as NaI, BGO, etc. The use of an appropriate shielding, neutron spectrum tailoring, full spectral feature analysis as well as temporal information ("die-away" time) resulted in significant performance enhancements in detection of explosives, drugs and other contraband in difficult geometries.

  6. The Neutron-Neutron ^1S0 Scattering Length via the Reaction π^-d→γ nn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, M. A.; Measday, D. F.; Stocki, T. J.; Christy, M. E.; Doyle, B. C.; Gorringe, T. P.; Jiang, C.; Kovash, M. A.; Liu, K.; Bassalleck, B.; Stasko, J.; Wolfe, D.; Korkmaz, E.; Opper, A.; Sim, K.; Fischer, H.; Ottewell, D.

    1997-10-01

    A measurement of the ^1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length, a quantity crucial to the discussion of charge symmetry breaking in the NN interaction, has been carried out at TRIUMF by studying the shape of the photon energy spectrum from the reaction π^-d→γ nn in the region near the endpoint. A 40.5 MeV pion beam was degraded and stopped in a liquid deuterium target and all three final state particles from the reaction were detected in triple coincidence. The experimental photon energy spectrum was reconstructed from the measured momenta of the two neutrons, and contains 133,000 counts in the top 450 keV region near the endpoint. The experimental resolution was taken into account using Monte Carlo techniques. The data were analyzed using a model of this reaction based on a half off-shell NN T matrix and the elementary γπ operator due to Lee and Nozawa.

  7. Utilization of new 150-MeV neutron and proton evaluations in MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Frankle, S.C.; Hughes, H.G. III; Prael, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    MCNP{trademark} and LAHET{trademark} are two of the codes included in the LARAMIE (Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment) code system. Both MCNP and LAHET are three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. The capabilities of MCNP and LAHET are currently being merged into one code for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Concurrently, a significant effort is underway to improve the accuracy of the physics in the merged code. In particular, full nuclear-data evaluations (in ENDF6 format) for many materials of importance to APT are being produced for incident neutrons and protons up to an energy of 150-MeV. After processing, cross-section tables based on these new evaluations will be available for use fin the merged code. In order to utilize these new cross-section tables, significant enhancements are required for the merged code. Neutron cross-section tables for MCNP currently specify emission data for neutrons and photons only; the new evaluations also include complete neutron-induced data for protons, deuterons, tritons, and alphas. In addition, no provision in either MCNP or LAHET currently exists for the use of incident charged-particle tables other than for electrons. To accommodate the new neutron-induced data, it was first necessary to expand the format definition of an MCNP neutron cross-section table. The authors have prepared a 150-MeV neutron cross-section library in this expanded format for 15 nuclides. Modifications to MCNP have been implemented so that this expanded neutron library can be utilized.

  8. Lithium Blanket Module dosimetry measurements at the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Leo, W.R.; Sahraoui, C.; Wuthrich, S.; Harker, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements and results of the dosimeter material reaction rates inside the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) after irradiation by the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. The measurement program has been designed to utilize sets of passive dosimeter materials in the form of foils and wires. The dosimetry materials reaction thresholds and interaction response ranges chosen for this series of measurements encompass the entire neutron spectra along the full length of the LBM fuel rods.

  9. 14 MeV neutron work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1985-07-01

    The 14 MeV neutron work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) covers two main areas of interest to this Symposium: (1) measurements and calculations of differential cross sections; and (2) integral measurements of the neutron and gamma emission spectra. In both areas a large number of materials have been studied, spanning a wide mass range (6 < A < 239), of interest to fusion and hybrid reactors. In this presentation a brief description of the experimental techniques and calculational analysis is given for each of the above areas and the measured and calculated cross sections are discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Test of 600 and 750 MeV NN matrix on elastic scattering Glauber model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissaud, I.

    1980-09-01

    The 600 and 750 MeV proton nucleus elastic scattering cross section and polarization calculations have been performed in the framework of the Glauber model to test the pp and pn scattering amplitudes deduced from a phase shift analysis by Bystricky, Lechanoine and Lehar. It is well known that up to now we do not possess a non-phenomenological NN scattering matrix at intermediate energies. However proton-nucleus scattering analyses are used to extract information about short range correlations1), Δ resonance2) or pion condensation presences)... etc. Most scattering calculations made at these energies have been done with phenomenological NN amplitudes having a gaussian q-dependence 10050_2005_Article_BF01438168_TeX2GIFE1.gif A(q) = {kσ }/{4π }(α + i) e^{ - β ^2 q^2 /2} and 10050_2005_Article_BF01438168_TeX2GIFE2.gif C(q) = {kσ }/{4π }iq(α + i) D_e - β ^2 q^2 /2 K and σ being respectively the projectile momentum and the total pN total cross section. The parameters α, β and D are badly known and are adjusted by fitting some specific reactions as p+4He elastic scattering4). Even when these amplitudes provide good fits to the data, our understanding of the dynamics of the scattering remains obscure.

  11. Design Analyses and Shielding of HFIR Cold Neutron Scattering Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Selby, D.L.; Winn, B.; Stoica, D.; Jones, A.B.; Crow, L.

    2011-07-01

    Research reactor geometries and special characteristics present unique dosimetry analysis and measurement issues. The introduction of a cold neutron moderator and the production of cold neutron beams at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor have created the need for modified methods and devices for analyzing and measuring low energy neutron fields (0.01 to 100 meV). These methods include modifications to an MCNPX version to provide modeling of neutron mirror reflection capability. This code has been used to analyze the HFIR cold neutron beams and to design new instrument equipment that will use the beams. Calculations have been compared with time-of-flight measurements performed at the start of the neutron guides and at the end of one of the guides. The results indicate that we have a good tool for analyzing the transport of these low energy beams through neutron mirror and guide systems for distance up to 60 meters from the reactor. (authors)

  12. Inelastic neutron scatter iron concentrations of the moon from orbital gamma ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A., Jr.; Bielefeld, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the relation between KREEP and thermal neutron flux depression. The Fe(n, n-prime gamma) concentrations of selected lunar regions were calculated by energy-band analysis of the 0.803-0.872 MeV band. The result of the investigation will be used to evaluate the reliability of the previously determined Fe(n, gamma) values. A 0.803-0.872 MeV band was isolated from the Apollo 15 and 16 orbital gamma ray spectra. Preliminary regression analysis of regional ground truth count rates and Fe concentrations showed this energy interval to be optimum for the 0.8467 MeV inelastic scatter (n, n-prime gamma)Fe peak.

  13. Preequilibrium neutron emission in fusion of WVHo+ SC at 25 MeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, E.; Hilscher, D.; Ingold, G.; Jahnke, U.; Orf, H.; Rossner, H.; Zank, W.P.; Schroeder, W.U.; Gemmeke, H.; Keller, K.

    1986-01-01

    Neutrons were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues from the reaction WVHo+(300 MeV) SC. The evaporation residue velocity distribution is indicative of an average transfer of 80% of the full linear momentum in this reaction. The energy spectra of the coincident neutrons exhibit evaporative and preequilibrium components associated with integral multiplicities of M/sub EV/ = (9.5 +- 0.5) and M/sub PE/ = (1.7 +- 0.3), respectively. The experimental neutron energy and angular distributions are analyzed in terms of multiple-source parametrizations, assuming two or three emitters. The results are compared to those obtained from other inclusive and exclusive associated-particle data. It is observed that the emission patterns of the preequilibrium neutrons are in accord with the predictions of a Fermi-jet model, for neutron angles forward of 35, while this model fails to reproduce the data at angles in the vicinity of 90 and beyond. Various different nucleon momentum distributions have been employed in the model comparison. The insufficiency of the Fermi-jet model to reproduce the data is attributed to the neglect of two-body collisions in this one-body theory. In contrast, the shape of the angle-integrated preequilibrium-neutron energy spectrum is well reproduced with the Harp-Miller-Berne preequilibrium model, if an initial exciton number of n0 = 15 is adopted. This value, as well as the preequilibrium neutron multiplicity, is at variance with systematics established previously.

  14. Neutron Scattering from Polymers: Five Decades of Developing Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J S

    2016-06-01

    The first three decades of my research career closely map the development of neutron scattering techniques for the study of molecular behavior. At the same time, the theoretical understanding of organization and motion of polymer molecules, especially in the bulk state, was developing rapidly and providing many predictions crying out for experimental verification. Neutron scattering is an ideal technique for providing the necessary evidence. This autobiographical essay describes the applications by my research group and other collaborators of increasingly sophisticated neutron scattering techniques to observe and understand molecular behavior in polymeric materials. It has been a stimulating and rewarding journey. PMID:27276548

  15. Neutron beam characterization measurements at the Manuel Lujan Jr. neutron scattering center

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal; Muhrer, Guenter; Daemen, Luke L; Kelsey, Charles T; Duran, Michael A; Tovesson, Fredrik K

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the neutron beam characteristics of neutron moderators at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. The absolute thermal neutron flux, energy spectra and time emission spectra were measured for the high resolution and high intensity decoupled water, partially coupled liquid hydrogen and partially coupled water moderators. The results of our experimental study will provide an insight into aging of different target-moderator-reflector-shield components as well as new experimental data for benchmarking of neutron transport codes.

  16. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P.; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd–Fe–B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters. PMID:27321149

  17. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters. PMID:27321149

  18. High resolution measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections for 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouki, C.; Archier, P.; Borcea, C.; De Saint Jean, C.; Drohé, J. C.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Nankov, N.; Negret, A.; Noguère, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Stanoiu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The neutron inelastic scattering cross-section of 23Na has been measured in response to the relevant request of the OECD-NEA High Priority Request List, which requires a target uncertainty of 4% in the energy range up to 1.35 MeV for the development of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The measurement was performed at the GELINA facility with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS), featuring eight high purity germanium detectors. The setup is installed at a 200 m flight path from the neutron source and provides high resolution measurements using the (n,n'γ)-technique. The sample was an 80 mm diameter metallic sodium disk prepared at IRMM. Transitions up to the seventh excited state were observed and the differential gamma cross-sections at 110° and 150° were measured, showing mostly isotropic gamma emission. From these the gamma production, level and inelastic cross-sections were determined for neutron energies up to 3838.9 keV. The results agree well with the existing data and the evaluated nuclear data libraries in the low energies, and provide new experimental points in the little studied region above 2 MeV. Following a detailed review of the methodology used for the gamma efficiency calibrations and flux normalization of GAINS data, an estimated total uncertainty of 2.2% was achieved for the inelastic cross-section integrals over the energy ranges 0.498-1.35 MeV and 1.35-2.23 MeV, meeting the required targets.

  19. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  20. A scintillating-fiber 14-MeV neutron detector on TFTR during DT operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G.A.; Chrien, R.E.; Barnes, C.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Roquemore, A.L.; Lavelle, M.J.; O`Gara, P.M.; Jordan, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    A compact 14-MeV neutron detector using an array of scintillating fibers has been tested on the TFTR tokamak under conditions of a high gamma background. This detector uses a fiber-matrix geometry, a magnetic field-insensitive phototube with an active HV base and pulse-height discrimination to reject low-level pulses from 2.5 MeV neutron and intense gammas. Laboratory calibrations have been performed at EG&G Las Vegas using a pulsed DT neutron generator and a 30 kCi {sup 60}Co source as background, at PPPL using DT neutron sources, and at LANL using an energetic deuterium beam and target at a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. During the first high power DT shots on TFTR in December 1993, the detector was 15.5 meters from the torus in a large collimator. For a rate of 1 {times} 10{sup 18} n/sec from the tokamak, it operated in an equivalent background of 1 {times} 10{sup 10} gammas/cm{sup 2}/sec ({approximately}4 mA current drain) at a DT count rate of 200 kHz.

  1. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Ce3Sn and Ce3In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Lawrence, J. M.; Christianson, A. D.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Bauer, E. D.; de Souza, N. R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.

    2009-03-01

    In Ce3Sn and Ce3In, the linear coefficients of specific heat γ are 260 mJ/mol Ce-K^2 and 700 mJ/mol Ce-K^2, respectively. The Wilson ratio is 7.0 for Ce3Sn and 11.5 for Ce3In. Such large values suggest the presence of ferromagnetic correlations in the ground state. Hence, this system is a potential candidate for studying the magnetic instability at a quantum critical point (QCP). As an initial measurement, we have measured the magnetic inelastic neutron scattering line shape of polycrystalline samples to determine the crystal field (CF) excitations. The low temperature spectrum of both Ce3Sn and Ce3In consist of a quasi- elastic line and two obvious inelastic lines resulting from the two excited crystal field doublets of Ce^3+ in the tetragonal symmetry. The quasi-elastic linewidth,which is related to the Kondo scale, is 3.2meV for Ce3Sn and 1.5meV for Ce3In, consistent with the linear coefficients of specific heat. For Ce3Sn the two CF excitations are at 20meV and 35meV while for Ce3In, the splitting is much larger giving the two excitations at 15meV and 47meV.

  2. Modern Techniques for Inelastic Thermal Neutron Scattering Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawari, A. I.

    2014-04-01

    A predictive approach based on ab initio quantum mechanics and/or classical molecular dynamics simulations has been formulated to calculate the scattering law, S(κ⇀,ω), and the thermal neutron scattering cross sections of materials. In principle, these atomistic methods make it possible to generate the inelastic thermal neutron scattering cross sections of any material and to accurately reflect the physical conditions of the medium (i.e, temperature, pressure, etc.). In addition, the generated cross sections are free from assumptions such as the incoherent approximation of scattering theory and, in the case of solids, crystalline perfection. As a result, new and improved thermal neutron scattering data libraries have been generated for a variety of materials. Among these are materials used for reactor moderators and reflectors such as reactor-grade graphite and beryllium (including the coherent inelastic scattering component), silicon carbide, cold neutron media such as solid methane, and neutron beam filters such as sapphire and bismuth. Consequently, it is anticipated that the above approach will play a major role in providing the nuclear science and engineering community with its needs of thermal neutron scattering data especially when considering new materials where experimental information may be scarce or nonexistent.

  3. Response function stability of single crystal diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zbořil, Miroslav Zimbal, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Detectors based on single crystal synthetic diamond show promise as neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. In this work, the stability of the response function of two diamond detectors was tested at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) accelerator using a 14 MeV neutron field and a method of time-resolved fluence monitoring. In addition, measurements at the PTB ion-microbeam were made to investigate the charge collection properties of the detectors in more detail. The {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be peak response of one of the detectors was found to be stable within 1% after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. The absolute value of the peak response of this detector was determined as 8.65(26) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}.

  4. Response function stability of single crystal diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zbořil, Miroslav; Zimbal, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Detectors based on single crystal synthetic diamond show promise as neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. In this work, the stability of the response function of two diamond detectors was tested at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) accelerator using a 14 MeV neutron field and a method of time-resolved fluence monitoring. In addition, measurements at the PTB ion-microbeam were made to investigate the charge collection properties of the detectors in more detail. The (12)C(n,α)(9)Be peak response of one of the detectors was found to be stable within 1% after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 8 × 10(9) cm(-2). The absolute value of the peak response of this detector was determined as 8.65(26) × 10(-5) cm(2). PMID:25430252

  5. Design status of an intense 14 MeV neutron source for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ze-En; Su, Tong-Ling; Cheng, Shang-Wen; Jia, Wen-Bao

    2002-09-01

    Design and development of an intense 14 MeV neutron source for cancer therapy is in progress at the Institute of Nuclear Research of Lanzhou University. The neutrons from the T(d,n) 4He reaction are produced by bombarding a rotating titanium tritide target with a 40 mA deuteron beam at 600 keV. The designed neutron yield is 8×10 12 n/s and the maximum dose rate at a 100 cm source-to-skin distance is 25 cGy/min. The HV terminal, accelerating column and HV power supply are enclosed inside a stainless steel pressure vessel containing 6 atm SF 6 gas to provide the electrical insulation.

  6. A novel approach to neutron scattering instrumentation for probing multiscale dynamics in soft and biological matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mamontov, Eugene

    2016-06-29

    We present a concept and ray-tracing simulation results of a mechanical device that will enable inelastic neutron scattering measurements where the data at energy transfers from a few eV to several hundred meV can be collected in a single, gapless spectrum. Besides covering 5 orders of magnitude on the energy (time) scale, the device provides data over 2 orders of magnitude on the scattering momentum (length) scale in a single measurement. Such capabilities are geared primarily toward soft and biological matter, where the broad dynamical features of relaxation origin largely overlap with vibration features, thus necessitating gapless spectral coverage overmore » several orders of magnitude in time and space. Furthermore, neutron scattering experiments with such a device are performed with a fixed neutron final energy, which enables measurements, with neutron energy loss in the sample, at arbitrarily low temperatures over the same broad spectral range. Lastly, this capability is also invaluable in biological and soft matter research, as the variable temperature dependence of different relaxation components allows their separation in the scattering spectra as a function of temperature.« less

  7. A novel approach to neutron scattering instrumentation for probing multiscale dynamics in soft and biological matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontov, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    We present a concept and ray-tracing simulation of a mechanical device that will enable inelastic neutron scattering measurements where the data at energy transfers from a few μeV to several hundred meV can be collected in a single, gapless spectrum. Besides covering 5 orders of magnitude on the energy (time) scale, the device provides data over 2 orders of magnitude on the scattering momentum (length) scale in a single measurement. Such capabilities are geared primarily toward soft and biological matter, where the broad dynamical features of relaxation origin largely overlap with vibration features, thus necessitating gapless spectral coverage over several orders of magnitude in time and space. Furthermore, neutron scattering experiments with such a device are performed with a fixed neutron final energy, which enables measurements, with neutron energy loss in the sample, at arbitrarily low temperatures over the same broad spectral range. This capability is also invaluable in biological and soft matter research, as the variable temperature dependence of different relaxation components allows their separation in the scattering spectra as a function of temperature.

  8. A novel approach to neutron scattering instrumentation for probing multiscale dynamics in soft and biological matter.

    PubMed

    Mamontov, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    We present a concept and ray-tracing simulation of a mechanical device that will enable inelastic neutron scattering measurements where the data at energy transfers from a few μeV to several hundred meV can be collected in a single, gapless spectrum. Besides covering 5 orders of magnitude on the energy (time) scale, the device provides data over 2 orders of magnitude on the scattering momentum (length) scale in a single measurement. Such capabilities are geared primarily toward soft and biological matter, where the broad dynamical features of relaxation origin largely overlap with vibration features, thus necessitating gapless spectral coverage over several orders of magnitude in time and space. Furthermore, neutron scattering experiments with such a device are performed with a fixed neutron final energy, which enables measurements, with neutron energy loss in the sample, at arbitrarily low temperatures over the same broad spectral range. This capability is also invaluable in biological and soft matter research, as the variable temperature dependence of different relaxation components allows their separation in the scattering spectra as a function of temperature. PMID:27355223

  9. A neutron imaging device for sample alignment in a pulsed neutron scattering instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzi, F.; Scherillo, A.; Zoppi, M.

    2009-09-15

    A neutron-imaging device for alignment purposes has been tested on the INES beamline at ISIS, the pulsed neutron source of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.). Its use, in conjunction with a set of movable jaws, turns out extremely useful for scattering application to complex samples where a precise and well-defined determination of the scattering volume is needed.

  10. Polycrystalline neutron scattering for Geant4: NXSG4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittelmann, T.; Boin, M.

    2015-04-01

    An extension to Geant4 based on the nxs library is presented. It has been implemented in order to include effects of low-energy neutron scattering in polycrystalline materials, and is made available to the scientific community.