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Sample records for mev proton accelerator

  1. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of >100 MeV Protons in Large Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.

    2016-05-01

    Recently several studies have presented correlative evidence for a significant-to-dominant role for a flare-resident process in the acceleration of high-energy protons in large solar particle events. In one of these investigations, a high correlation between >100 MeV proton fluence and 35 GHz radio fluence is obtained by omitting large proton events associated with relatively weak flares; these outlying events are attributed to proton acceleration by shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We argue that the strong CMEs and associated shocks observed for proton events on the main sequence of the scatter plot are equally likely to accelerate high-energy protons. In addition, we examine ratios of 0.5 MeV electron to >100 MeV proton intensities in large SEP events, associated with both well-connected and poorly-connected solar eruptions, to show that scaled-up versions of the small flares associated with classical impulsive SEP events are not significant accelerators of >100 MeV protons.

  2. First experimental results from 2MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron productiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-01

    A 2MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction Li7(p,n)Be7 for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction C13(p,γ)N14, absorption in nitrogen.

  3. Radiation pressure acceleration of protons to 93 MeV with circularly polarized petawatt laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Hyung Taek; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V.; Jeong, Tae Moon; Kim, Chul Min; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    The radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of charged particles has been a challenging task in laser-driven proton/ion acceleration due to its stringent requirements in laser and target conditions. The realization of radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration requires irradiating ultrathin targets with an ultrahigh contrast and ultraintense laser pulses. We report the generation of 93-MeV proton beams achieved by applying 800-nm 30-fs circularly polarized laser pulses with an intensity of 6.1 × 10 20 W / cm 2 to 15-nm-thick polymer targets. The radiation pressure acceleration was confirmed from the obtained optimal target thickness, quadratic energy scaling, polarization dependence, and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We expect this clear demonstration of RPA to facilitate the realization of laser-driven proton/ion sources delivering energetic and short-pulse particle beams for novel applications.

  4. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N, absorption in nitrogen.

  5. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, A; Belchenko, Yu; Burdakov, A; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Khilchenko, A; Konstantinov, S; Krivenko, A; Kuznetsov, A; Mekler, K; Sanin, A; Shirokov, V; Sorokin, I; Sulyaev, Yu; Tiunov, M

    2008-02-01

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction (13)C(p,gamma)(14)N, absorption in nitrogen. PMID:18315262

  6. Calculations of neutron shielding data for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Jian, S H

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron sources and their attenuation in concrete were investigated in detail for protons with energies ranging from 10 to 100 MeV striking on target materials of C, N, Al, Fe, Cu and W. A two-step approach was adopted: thick-target double-differential neutron yields were first calculated from the (p, xn) cross sections recommended in the ICRU Report 63; further, transport simulations of those neutrons in concrete were performed by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The purpose of this study is to provide reasonably accurate parameters for shielding design for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators. Source terms and the corresponding attenuation lengths in concrete for several target materials are given as a function of proton energies and neutron emission angles. PMID:16604637

  7. Beam optics of the 2 MeV proton injection line at the LLUMC proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-12-01

    Simulations of the beam optics of the LLUMC proton accelerator injection line have been modeled using the computer codes Parmila [Los Alamos Nat'l Lab, Internal Report LA-UR-98-4478, Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group, Los Alamos, NM] and Trace 3D [Distributed by AccelSoft Inc, P.O. Box 2813. Del Mar, CA 92014, United States]. These simulations give reasonable agreement with the known accelerator dispersion, beam energy spread and optimal debuncher setting. The purpose of this paper is to understand the beam losses and show where improvements can be made, if required, in the future. It has previously been found [G. Coutrakon et al., J. Med. Phys. 20 (11) (1994) 1691] that most intensity losses in the synchrotron can be ascribed to the narrow energy acceptance of the synchrotron. While the present intensity of the accelerator is quite adequate for patient treatments, future plans to treat larger fields will make higher intensity more desirable. A simulation has been performed which adds a second debuncher, or energy compactor, which shows a reduction in energy spread by a factor of two yielding a factor of two increase in the available intensity. The present intensity of 2.5 × 1010 protons per pulse with 34% of the injected intensity captured in the ring can possibly be improved to 5 × 1010 protons per pulse by capturing 68% of the injected beam intensity. These results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Comparing Solar-Flare Acceleration of >-20 MeV Protons and Electrons Above Various Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction (up to tens of percent) of the energy released in solar flares goes into accelerated ions and electrons, and studies indicate that these two populations have comparable energy content. RHESSI observations have shown a striking close linear correlation between the 2.223 MeV neutron-capture gamma-ray line and electron bremsstrahlung emission >300 keV, indicating that the flare acceleration of >^20 MeV protons and >300 keV electrons is roughly proportional over >3 orders of magnitude in fluence. We show that the correlations of neutron-capture line fluence with GOES class or with bremsstrahlung emission at lower energies show deviations from proportionality, primarily for flares with lower fluences. From analyzing thirteen flares, we demonstrate that there appear to be two classes of flares with high-energy acceleration: flares that exhibit only proportional acceleration of ions and electrons down to 50 keV and flares that have an additional soft, low-energy bremsstrahlung component, suggesting two separate populations of accelerated electrons. We use RHESSI spectroscopy and imaging to investigate a number of these flares in detail.

  9. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  10. A 100 MeV Multi-Tank Drift Tube Linac for the Linear Proton Accelerator of the Energy Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Gerardo; Rossi, Carlo

    1997-05-01

    For the acceleration of protons from the exit of the RFQ at about 6 MeV up to 100 MeV, a Multi-Tank Drift Tube Linac (MTDTL) has been proposed with the goal of being technologically simple, compact, efficient and economical. Theoretical design studies and first measurements on a prototype tank are presented.

  11. Characterization of MeV proton acceleration from double pulse irradiation of foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, S.; Mo, M. Z.; Masud, R.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; McLean, H. S.; Hazi, A.; Chen, H.; Ceurvorst, L.; Norreys, P.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the experimental characterization of proton acceleration from double-pulse irradiation of um-scale foil targets. Temporally separated sub-picosecond pulses have been shown to increase the conversion efficiency of laser energy to MeV protons. Here, two 700 fs, 1 ω pulses were separated by 1 to 5 ps; total beam energy was 100 J, with 5-20% of the total energy contained within the first pulse. In contrast to the ultraclean beams used in previous experiments, prepulse energies on the order of 10 mJ were present in the current experiments which appear to have a moderating effect on the enhancement. Proton beam measurements were made with radiochromic film stacks, as well as magnetic spectrometers. The effect on electron generation was measured using Kα emission from buried Cu tracer layers, while specular light diagnostics (FROG, reflection spectralon) indicated the laser coupling efficiency into the target. The results obtained will be presented and compared to PIC simulations. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Proton beam of 2 MeV 1.6 mA on a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatov, D.; Kuznetsov, A.; Makarov, A.; Shchudlo, I.; Sorokin, I.; Taskaev, S.

    2014-12-01

    A source of epithermal neutrons based on a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant tumors was proposed and constructed. Stationary proton beam with 2 MeV energy, 1.6 mA current, 0.1% energy monochromaticity and 0.5% current stability has just been obtained.

  13. Filamentation control and collimation of laser accelerated MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, B.; Tayyab, M.; Bagchi, S.; Mandal, T.; Upadhyay, A.; Weng, S. M.; Murakami, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that the proton beam filamentation in dense plasma can be controlled in multi-layered (Al-CH-Al) sandwich targets. We observe up to three-fold reduction in the MeV proton beam divergence (~12°) from these targets as a result of decrease in filamentary structures in the proton beam profile. Strong self-generated resistive magnetic fields in targets with a high-Z transport layer are mainly responsible for this observed effect. Enhancement in the proton flux and energy is also observed from these targets. Supported by a matching 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and theoretical considerations, we suggest that these targets can be very effectively implemented to collimate proton beams useful for ion oncology applications or advanced fast igniter approach of inertial confinement fusion (ICF).

  14. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  15. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. PMID:25628454

  16. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  17. Characterization techniques for fixed-field alternating gradient accelerators and beam studies using the KURRI 150 MeV proton FFAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, S. L.; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Rogers, C.; Prior, C. R.; Volat, L.; Haj Tahar, M.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Uesugi, T.; Mori, Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe the methods and tools used to characterize a 150 MeV proton scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Many of the techniques used are unique to this class of machine and are thus of relevance to any future FFAG accelerator. For the first time we detail systematic studies undertaken to improve the beam quality of the FFAG. The control of beam quality in this manner is crucial to demonstrating high power operation of FFAG accelerators in future.

  18. Measured and simulated transport of 1.9 MeV laser-accelerated proton bunches through an integrated test beam line at 1 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Hori, T.; Bolton, P. R.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Yogo, A.; Mori, M.; Orimo, S.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Nakai, Y.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Daido, H.; Kondo, K.; Souda, H.; Tongu, H.; Noda, A.; Iseki, Y.; Nagafuchi, T.; Maeda, K.; Hanawa, K.; Yoshiyuki, T.; Shirai, T.

    2010-07-01

    A laser-driven repetition-rated 1.9 MeV proton beam line composed of permanent quadrupole magnets (PMQs), a radio frequency (rf) phase rotation cavity, and a tunable monochromator is developed to evaluate and to test the simulation of laser-accelerated proton beam transport through an integrated system for the first time. In addition, the proton spectral modulation and focusing behavior of the rf phase rotation cavity device is monitored with input from a PMQ triplet. In the 1.9 MeV region we observe very weak proton defocusing by the phase rotation cavity. The final transmitted bunch duration and transverse profile are well predicted by the PARMILA particle transport code. The transmitted proton beam duration of 6 ns corresponds to an energy spread near 5% for which the transport efficiency is simulated to be 10%. The predictive capability of PARMILA suggests that it can be useful in the design of future higher energy transport beam lines as part of an integrated laser-driven ion accelerator system.

  19. Acceleration of protons to above 6 MeV using H{sub 2}O 'snow' nanowire targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, I.; Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Gordon, D.; Sprangel, P.; Zigler, A.

    2012-07-09

    A scheme is presented for using H{sub 2}O 'snow' nanowire targets for the generation of fast protons. This novel method may relax the requirements for very high laser intensities, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based ion acceleration system.

  20. Shielding measurements for 230-Mev protons

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, J.V.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W. . Dept. of Medical Physics); Coutrakon, G. . Medical Center)

    1993-09-01

    Energetic neutrons, produced as protons interact with matter, dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton accelerators. Because of the scarcity of data describing the shielding required to protect personnel from these neutrons, absorbed dose and dose-equivalent values are measured as a function of depth in a thick concrete shield at neutron emission angles of 0, 22, 45, and 90 deg for 230-MeV protons incident upon stopping-length aluminum, iron, and lead targets. Neutron attenuation lengths vary sharply with angle but are independent of the target material. Comparing results with prior shielding calculations, the High-Energy Transport Code overestimates neutron production and attenuation lengths in the forward direction. Analytical methods compare favorably in the forward direction but overestimate the production and attenuation lengths at large angles. The results presented are useful for determining the shielding requirements for proton radiotherapy facilities and as a benchmark for future calculations.

  1. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  2. Beam acceleration through proton radio frequency quadrupole accelerator in BARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, P. V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Mathew, J. V.; Singh, S. K.; Jain, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, M.; Kumar, R.; Roychowdhury, P.; Kelwani, H.; Rama Rao, B. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Agarwal, A.; Kukreti, B. M.; Singh, P.

    2016-05-01

    A 3 MeV proton Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, for the Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) programme. The 352 MHz RFQ is built in 4 segments and in the first phase two segments of the LEHIPA RFQ were commissioned, accelerating a 50 keV, 1 mA pulsed proton beam from the ion source, to an energy of 1.24 MeV. The successful operation of the RFQ gave confidence in the physics understanding and technology development that have been achieved, and indicate that the road forward can now be traversed rather more quickly.

  3. Cascaded proton acceleration by collisionless electrostatic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T. J.; Shen, B. F. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, X. M. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Yi, L. Q.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.; Pei, Z. K.

    2015-07-15

    A new scheme for proton acceleration by cascaded collisionless electrostatic shock (CES) is proposed. By irradiating a foil target with a moderate high-intensity laser beam, a stable CES field can be induced, which is employed as the accelerating field for the booster stage of proton acceleration. The mechanism is studied through simulations and theoretical analysis, showing that a 55 MeV seed proton beam can be further accelerated to 265 MeV while keeping a good energy spread. This scheme offers a feasible approach to produce proton beams with energy of hundreds of MeV by existing available high-intensity laser facilities.

  4. Parity Violation in Proton-Proton Scattering at 47 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Danelle Mary

    A measurement of parity-violation in proton-proton scattering at 47 MeV has been completed by observing the longitudinal analyzing power. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). where (sigma)('+)((sigma)('-)) is the scattering cross section for positive (negative) helicity. Polarized protons from an atomic beam ion source were accelerated by the 224-cm Texas A&M University cyclotron to an energy of 50 MeV, producing a vertically polarized beam. A superconducting solenoid magnet precessed the beam polarization into the horizontal plane after which a 47.6(DEGREES) bending magnet precessed the polarization into the longtitudinal direction (p(,z) = 0.69 (+OR-) 0.02). RF transitions reversed the polarization direction every 21 msec. Protons scattered from the high pressure ((DBLTURN)37 atm), 42-cm long H(,2) gas target were detected by four plastic scintillators located in the target chamber. Photomultiplier tubes amplified the light from the scintillators, providing a signal proportional to the scattered beam intensity. A lock-in amplifier (LIA) synchronized to the spin-flip frequency compared the scattered intensity to the total beam intensity, measured with a Faraday cup. The output of the LIA was integrated for one second and then read by an ADC. Polarimeters were used to monitor both beam intensity and polarization profiles. A series of tests were performed to determine the role of spurious asymmetries due to changes in beam position and angle, and due to beam intensity modulations correlated with the spin reversal. The result after correction for beam intensity modulation was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 2.6) x 10('-7). A more conservative result, taking into account all of the possible spurious asymmetries was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 4.2) x 10('-7).

  5. Characterization of moderator assembly dimension for accelerator boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors using {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutrons at proton energy of 2.5 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Bengua, Gerard; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-06-15

    The characteristics of moderator assembly dimension are investigated for the usage of {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutrons by 2.5 MeV protons in boron newtron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors in the present study. The indexes checked are treatable protocol depth (TPD), which is the greatest depth of the region satisfying the dose requirements in BNCT protocol, proton current necessary to complete BNCT by 1 h irradiation, and the heat flux deposited in the Li target which should be removed. Assumed materials are D{sub 2}O for moderator, and mixture of polyethylene and LiF with 50 wt % for collimator. Dose distributions have been computed with MCNP 4B and 4C codes. Consequently, realized TPD does not show a monotonical tendency for the Li target diameter. However, the necessary proton current and heat flux in the Li target decreases as the Li target diameter increases, while this trend reverses at around 10 cm of the Li target diameter for the necessary proton current in the condition of this study. As to the moderator diameter, TPD does not exhibit an apparent dependence. On the other hand, necessary proton current and heat flux decrease as the moderator diameter increases, and this tendency saturates at around 60 cm of the moderator diameter in this study. As to the collimator, increase in inner diameter is suitable from the viewpoint of increasing TPD and decreasing necessary proton current and heat flux, while these indexes do not show apparent difference for collimator inner diameters over 14 cm for the parameters treated here. The practical viewpoint in selecting the parameters of moderator assembly dimension is to increase TPD, within the technically possible condition of accelerated proton current and heat removal from the Li target. In this process, the values for which the resultant characteristics mentioned above saturate or reverse would be important factors.

  6. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L.; Jongen, Y.

    2009-03-10

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron registered system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  7. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L.; Jongen, Y.

    2009-03-01

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron® system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  8. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  9. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Cappiello, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.; Laird, R.; Mayo, D.; Waters, L.; Zoeller, C.; Staples, P.

    1994-10-01

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the {sup 3}He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas ({sup 3}He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the {sup 3}He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment.

  10. TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sahin, L.

    2011-06-28

    Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

  11. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0{degree}, 22{degree}, 45{degree}, and 90{degree} in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm{sup 3} to 1000 cm{sup 3} were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0{degree}, 22{degree}, and 45{degree}, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90{degree}. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations.

  12. Medical Application of the SARAF-Proton/Deuteron 40 MeV Superconducting Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, Shlomi

    2007-11-26

    The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) is based on a superconducting linear accelerator currently being built at the Soreq research center (Israel). The SARAF is planned to generate a 2 mA 4 MeV proton beam during its first year of operation and up to 40 MeV proton or deuteron beam in 2012. The high intensity beam, together with the linac ability to adjust the ion energy provides opportunities for medical research, such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the production of medical radioisotopes, for instance {sup 103}Pd for prostate brachytherapy.

  13. Status of BINP proton tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Dolgushin, V.; Dranichnikov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Farrell, J. P.; Khilchenko, A.; Kobets, V.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Tiunov, M.; Savkin, V.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.

    2007-08-01

    The status of a unique 2.0 MeV, 10 mA proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation is presented. The accelerator is intended to be used in facilities generating resonant gamma rays for explosives detection and epithermal neutrons for boron neutron-capture therapy of brain tumors. A magnetically coupled DC voltage multiplier derived from an industrial ELV-type electron accelerator is used as a high voltage source for the accelerator. A dc high current negative ion source has been developed for injection into the tandem. In the tandem accelerator there is set of nested potential electrodes with openings which form a channel for accelerating the negative hydrogen ion beam and subsequently accelerating the proton beam after stripping in the gas target. The electrodes are connected to a high voltage feedthrough insulator to which required potentials are applied from the high voltage power supply by means of a resistor voltage divider. In the paper the first experimental results obtained with the vacuum insulated tandem accelerator are also given.

  14. Shock Acceleration of Solar Energetic Protons: The First 10 Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Chee K.; Reames, Donald V.

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration at a parallel coronal shock is modeled with self-consistent Alfven wave excitation and shock transmission. 18 - 50 keV seed protons at 0.1% of plasma proton density are accelerated in 10 minutes to a power-law intensity spectrum rolling over at 300 MeV by a 2500km s-1 shock traveling outward from 3.5 solar radius, for typical coronal conditions and low ambient wave intensities. Interaction of high-energy protons of large pitch-angles with Alfven waves amplified by low-energy protons of small pitch angles is key to rapid acceleration. Shock acceleration is not significantly retarded by sunward streaming protons interacting with downstream waves. There is no significant second-order Fermi acceleration.

  15. Stochastic acceleration of solar flare protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    The acceleration of solar flare protons is considered by cyclotron damping of intense Alfven wave turbulence in a magnetic trap. The energy diffusion coefficient is computed for a near-isotropic distribution of super-Alfvenic protons and a steady-state solution for the particle spectrum is found for both transit-time and diffusive losses out of the ends of the trap. The acceleration time to a characteristic energy approximately 20 Mev/nucl can be as short as 10 sec. On the basis of phenomenological arguments an omega/2 frequency dependence for the Alfven wave spectrum is inferred. The correlation time of the turbulence lies in the range .0005 less than tau/corr less than .05s.

  16. A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.

    2002-06-02

    There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.

  17. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  18. Preliminary earth berm shielding calculations for the accelerator production of tritium 1700-MeV accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Court, J.D.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Patton, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    The authors have performed calculations using the LAHET Code System (LCS) to obtain an estimation of the amount of earth berm shielding that will be required for the 1700-MeV proton accelerator proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. A source scenario of 10 nA/m beam loss along the beam line was used to calculate the dose values above a 6-m earth berm from high-energy neutrons, low-energy neutrons, and photons. LAHET, a Monte Carlo based particle transport code, was used to transport a 1700-MeV protons from the beam along a divergence path of 1{degree} from the original beam direction and impacting representative beampipe material along a 300-m beamline. LAHET was then used to track all high-energy neutron production until the neutrons either escape the berm shield, or scatter down in energy to 20 MeV, where their parameters were then written to a source file for MCNP. Photon production data was also written to a source file used by MCNP. MCNP transported all neutrons and photons from the LAHET source file until they (1) were absorbed, scattered down to an energy cutoff, or (2) escaped from the system. Doses were calculated from surface flux tallies obtained from LAHET and MCNP. These doses were then compared to earlier Moyer model calculations.

  19. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  20. Laser Acceleration of Monoenergetic Protons Trapped in Moving Double Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Shao, X.

    2008-10-15

    We present analytic theory of monoenergetic protons acceleration by short pulse laser irradiation on a thin foil with specific thickness suggested by Yan et al. in simulations. The laser ponderomotive force pushes the electrons forward, leaving ions behind until the space charge field balances the ponderomotive force at distance {delta}. For the optimal target thickness D = {delta}>c/{omega}{sub p}, the electron sheath piled up at the rear surface of width skin depth moves into vacuum, carrying with it the protons contained in the sheath. These protons are trapped by the self field of the electron sheath and are collectively accelerated as a double layer by the laser ponderomotive force. We present here the analytic expression for the energy of the accelerated protons as a function of time, laser intensity, wavelength, and plasma density. For example, proton energy can reach {approx_equal}200 MeV at a = 5, and pulse length 90 fs.

  1. Klystron based high power rf system for proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Manjiri; Shrotriya, Sandip; Sharma, Sonal; Patel, Niranjan; Handu, Verander E-mail: manjiri08@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    As a part of ADS program a proton accelerator (20 MeV, 30 mA) and its high power RF systems (HPRF) are being developed in BARC. This paper explains design details of this klystron based HPRF system. (author)

  2. A statistical survey of 5-MeV proton events at transient interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    1996-11-01

    Between 1974 and 1985 the two Helios spacecraft observed 351 transient interplanetary shocks. For 5-MeV protons the particle events associated with these shocks can be divided into three groups: (1) events without intensity increase above quiet time or increased background (47%), (2) solar and interplanetary particle (SIP) events consisting of particles accelerated on or close to the Sun (solar or near-Sun component) as well as at the interplanetary shock (24%), and (3) pure interplanetary particle (PIP) events (29%) which consist of particles accelerated at the shock in interplanetary space but do not show evidence for significant or even excess particle acceleration on the Sun. This classification shows that (1) only about half of the shocks accelerate MeV protons in interplanetary space and (2) MeV protons accelerated on the Sun are neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the acceleration of MeV protons in interplanetary space. Shock parameters such as speed or shock strength alone do not give an indication for the class of the associated particle event, because in the parameter range which covers most of the shocks, all three classes are distributed rather evenly. However, the shocks strongest in these parameters tend to accelerate particles. The intensity at the time of shock-passage, which can be used as a crude measure for the local acceleration efficiency, is correlated with the local shock speed and the magnetic compression. The correlation coefficients are small but statistically significant, indicating that (1) the correlations are real and (2) the intensity is influenced by additional parameters, which are not necessarily shock inherent. As an example I will show that the local acceleration at the shock decreases roughly symmetrically with increasing distance from the nose of the shock with a median e-folding angle of 10°. Occasionally, larger e-folding angles are observed close to the nose of the shock. The question of how the shock

  3. Measurement of the Wolfenstein parameters for proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    Using liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets respectively, forward angle (ten degrees to sixty degrees in the center of Mass) free proton-proton and quasielastic proton-proton and proton-neutron triple scattering data at 500 MeV have been obtained using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data are in reasonable agreement with recent predictions from phase shift analyses, indicating that the proton-nucleon scattering amplitudes are fairly well determined at 500 MeV. 32 references.

  4. Preliminary shielding assessment for the 100 MeV proton linac (KOMAC).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Cho, Y S; Chang, J

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project is building the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex facilities from 2002 to 2012, which consists of a high-current 100 MeV proton linear accelerator and various beam-lines. This paper provides a preliminary estimate of the shielding required for the 20 mA proton linac and the beam-dump. For an accurate information on secondary neutron production from the guiding magnet and primary heat sink of the beam dump, proton-induced 63Cu and 65Cu cross section data were evaluated and applied to shielding calculations. The required thickness of the concrete was assessed by a simple line-of-sight model for the lateral shielding of the beam-line and the full shielding of the beam dump. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed using the MCNPX code to obtain the source term and attenuation coefficients for the three-dimensional lateral shielding model of the beam-line. PMID:16381787

  5. Absolute polarimeter for the proton-beam energy of 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A. N.; Atoian, G.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Pylaev, F. S.; Raparia, D.; Runtso, M. F.; Stephenson, E.

    2013-12-15

    A polarimeter is upgraded and tested in a 200-MeV polarized-proton beam at the accelerator-collider facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The polarimeter is based on the elastic polarizedproton scattering on a carbon target at an angle of 16.2°, in which case the analyzing power is close to unity and was measured to a very high degree of precision. It is shown that, in the energy range of 190–205 MeV, the absolute polarization can be measured to a precision better than ±0.5%.

  6. An RFQ accelerator system for MeV ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakimoto, Akira; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Ikuo; Nagamachi, Shinji; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Asari, Masatoshi

    1989-02-01

    A 4-vane-type Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator system for MeV ion implantation has been constructed and ion beams of boron and nitrogen have been accelerated successfully up to an energy of 1.01 and 1.22 MeV, respectively. The acceleration of phosphorus is now ongoing. The design was performed with two computer codes called SUPERFISH and PARMTEQ. The energy of the accelerated ions was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The obtained values agreed well with the designed ones. Thus we have confirmed the validity of our design and have found the possibility that the present RFQ will break through the production-use difficulty of MeV ion implantation.

  7. Radiation accompanying the absorption of 2-MeV protons in various materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatov, D. A.; Makarov, A. N.; Taskaev, S. Yu.; Shchudlo, I. M.

    2015-11-01

    For the development of boron neutron-capture therapy of malignant tumors, a source of epithermal neutrons on the basis of a tandem accelerator with a vacuum insulation and a lithium target was created and launched. With the aim of optimizing the neutron-producing target, various structure materials were irradiated with a proton beam. The results obtained bymeasuring the dose rate and radiation spectrum upon the absorption of 2-MeV protons are presented, and the choice of tantalum for an optimum material of the target substrate was explained.

  8. Acceleration of polarized proton at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y Y

    1980-01-01

    The unexpected importance of high energy spin effects and the success of the ZGS in correcting many intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances led us to attempt to accelerate polarized protons in the AGS. A collaborative effort is underway by the groups in Argonne, Michigan, Rice, Yale and Brookhaven to improve and modify the AGS to accelerate polarized protons. With the appropriate funding the first polarized proton acceleration at the AGS should be possible by 1983.

  9. Proton Polarimeter Calibration between 82 and 217 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Glister, J; Lee, B; Beck, A; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Choi, S; Dumas, J; Feuerbach, R; Gilman, R; Higinbotham, D W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Paolone, M; Piasetzky, E; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Strauch, S

    2009-07-01

    The proton analyzing power in carbon has been measured for energies of 82 to 217 MeV and proton scattering angles of 5 to 41 degrees. The measurements were carried out using polarized protons from the elastic scattering H(pol. e, pol. p) reaction and the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) in Hall A of Jefferson Lab. A new parameterization of the FPP p-C analyzing power was fit to the data, which is in good agreement with previous parameterizations and provides an extension to lower energies and larger angles. The main conclusions are that all polarimeters to date give consistent measurements of the carbon analyzing power, independently of the details of their construction and that measuring on a larger angular range significantly improves the polarimeter figure of merit at low energies.

  10. Accelerator driven system based on plutonium subcritical reactor and 660 MeV phasotron

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chultem, D.; Furman, V. I.; Maltsev, A. A.; Onischenko, L. M.; Pogodajev, G. N.; Popov, Yu. P.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.; Dudarev, S. Yu.; Gudowski, W.; Janczyszyn, J.; Polanski, A.; Taczanowski, S.

    1999-11-16

    The proposal presents a PLUTONIUM BASED ENERGY AMPLIFIER TESTING CONCEPT which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator, operating in the the JINR (Dubna, Russia). To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff between 0.94 and 0.95 and the energetic gain about 20.

  11. Accelerator Driven System Based on Plutonium Subcritical Reactor and 660 MeV Phasotron

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, V.A.; Barashenkov, V.S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Chultem, D.; Dudarev, S.Yu.; Furman, V.I.; Gudowski, W.; Janczyszyn, J.; Maltsev, A.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Pogodajev, G.N.; Polanski, A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Taczanowski, S.

    1999-12-31

    The proposal presents a PLUTONIUM BASED ENERGY AMPLIFIER TESTING CONCEPT which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator. operating in the JINR (Dubna, Russia). To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff, between 0.94 and 0.95 and an energy gain about 20.

  12. First acceleration of a proton beam in a side coupled drift tube linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronsivalle, C.; Picardi, L.; Ampollini, A.; Bazzano, G.; Marracino, F.; Nenzi, P.; Snels, C.; Surrenti, V.; Vadrucci, M.; Ambrosini, F.

    2015-07-01

    We report the first experiment aimed at the demonstration of low-energy protons acceleration by a high-efficiency S-band RF linear accelerator. The proton beam has been accelerated from 7 to 11.6 MeV by a 1 meter long SCDTL (Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac) module powered with 1.3 MW. The experiment has been done in the framework of the Italian TOP-IMPLART (Oncological Therapy with Protons-Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Linear Accelerator for Radio-Therapy) project devoted to the realization of a proton therapy centre based on a proton linear accelerator for intensity modulated cancer treatments to be installed at IRE-IFO, the largest oncological hospital in Rome. It is the first proton therapy facility employing a full linear accelerator scheme based on high-frequency technology.

  13. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  14. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  15. RF phase stability in the 100-MeV proton linac operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae

    2015-02-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac of the Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) has been operated to provide a proton beam to users. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), four 20-MeV drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks, two medium-energy beam-transmitter (MEBT) tanks, and seven 100-MeV DTL tanks. The requirements of the field stability are within ±1% in RF amplitude and ±1 degree in RF phase. The RF phase stability is influenced by a RF reference line, RF transmission lines, and a RF control system. The RF reference signal is chosen to be a 300-MHz local oscillator (LO) signal, and a rigid copper coaxial line with temperature control was installed for an RF reference distribution. A phase stability of ±0.1 degrees was measured under a temperature change of ±0.1 °C. A digital feedback control system with a field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) module was adopted for a high RF stability. The RF phase was maintained within ±0.1 degrees with a dummy cavity and was within ±0.3 degrees at RFQ operation. In the case of the 20-MeV DTL tanks, one klystron drives 4 tanks, and the input phases of 4 tanks were designed to be in phase. The input phases of 4 tanks were fixed within ±1 degree by adjusting a phase shifter in each waveguide.

  16. Compact Proton Accelerator for Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Paul, A C

    2007-06-12

    An investigation is being made into the feasibility of making a compact proton dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator for medical radiation treatment based on the high gradient insulation (HGI) technology. A small plasma device is used for the proton source. Using only electric focusing fields for transporting and focusing the beam on the patient, the compact DWA proton accelerator m system can deliver wide and independent variable ranges of beam currents, energies and spot sizes.

  17. Design study for a superconducting proton linac from 20 to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Garnett, R.; Krawczyk, F.; Billen, J.; Bultman, N.; Christensen, K.; Fox, W.; Wood, R.

    1993-07-01

    Advances in superconducting radiofrequency technology during the past 15 years have made possible the large-scale application of superconducting niobium accelerators. So far this development has been restricted to rather low-current electron and heavy-ion accelerators. In addition to the power savings, the improved capability of superconducting cavities to provide acceleration of high currents with low beam losses, which follows from the ability to use larger beam apertures without a large economic penalty from increased rf losses, could make superconducting proton linacs very attractive for high-intensity applications, where activation of the accelerator is a major concern. During the past year, at Los Alamos, the authors have been looking at a possible upgrade to the 800-MeV LAMPF proton accelerator, to provide higher intensity injection into a new storage ring for a new high-intensity pulsed neutron source. As part of this upgrade to the LAMPF accelerator, the entire linac below 100 MeV would be rebuilt to provide improved beam quality, improved reliability, and to include funneling at 20 MeV for higher beam currents. Both a room-temperature and a superconducting option are being considered for the section from 20 to 100 MeV. At present, this section is a 201.25 MHz room-temperature copper drift-tube linac (DTL). For this new upgrade scenario the frequency from 20 to 100 MeV was fixed at 805 MHz. The new duty factor is assumed to be 7.2%, and the authors show some results at two currents, 30 mA and 150 mA, that span the range of interest. Their superconducting linac concept consists of individual multicell cavities, each driven by a klystrode. Focusing would be provided by superconducting quadrupole lenses between cavities. In the remainder of the paper they describe their study to evaluate the potential of a superconducting proton linac section for this application, and address some of the many design choices.

  18. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  19. Proton Injector for CW-Mode Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Joseph D.; Swenson, Donald; Guy, Frank; Love, Cody; Starling, Joel; Willis, Carl

    2009-03-01

    Numerous applications exist for CW linear accelerators with final energies in the 0.5 to 4.0 MeV proton energy range. Typical proton current at the linac output energy is 20 mA. An important subsystem for the accelerator facility is a reliable dc mode proton injector. We present here design and laboratory results for a dc, 25-keV, 30-mA proton injector. The proton source is a 2.45-GHz microwave hydrogen ion source which operates with an 875-G axial magnetic field. Low emittance, high proton fraction (>85%), beams have been demonstrated from this source. The injector uses a novel dual-solenoid magnet for matching the injector beam into a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. Recently, a dc ion-source development program has given up to 30 mA beam current. The dual solenoid is a compact and simple design utilizing tape-wound, edge-cooled coils. The low-energy beam transport design as well as 25-keV beam matching calculations to an RFQ will also be presented.

  20. A STUDY OF POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN J-PARC.

    SciTech Connect

    LUCCIO, A.U.; BAI, M.; ROSER, T.

    2006-10-02

    We have studied the feasibility of polarized proton acceleration in rhe J-PARC accelerator facility, consisting of a 400 MeV linac, a 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (MR). We show how the polarization of the beam can be preserved using an rf dipole in the RCS and two superconductive partial helical Siberian snakes in the MR. The lattice of the MR will be modified with the addition of quadrupoles to compensate for the focusing properties of the snakes.

  1. A Study of Polarized Proton Acceleration in J-PARC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A. U.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.; Molodojentsev, A.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2007-06-13

    We have studied the feasibility of polarized proton acceleration in rhe J-PARC accelerator facility, consisting of a 400 MeV linac, a 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (MR). We show how the polarization of the beam can be preserved using an rf dipole in the RCS and two superconductve partial helical Siberian snakes in the MR. The lattice of the MR will be modified with the addition of quadrupoles to compensate for the focusing properties of the snakes.

  2. Predicting solar energetic proton events (E > 10 MeV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NúñEz, Marlon

    2011-07-01

    A high level of proton radiation exposure can be dangerous to astronauts, satellite equipment, and air passengers/crew flying along polar routes. The presented solar energetic proton (SEP) event forecaster is based on a dual-model approach for predicting the time interval within which the integral proton flux is expected to meet or surpass the Space Weather Prediction Center threshold of J (E > 10 MeV) = 10 pr cm-2 sr-1 s-1 and the intensity of the first hours of well- and poorly connected SEP events. This forecaster analyzes flare and near-Earth space environment data (soft X-ray, differential and integral proton fluxes). The purpose of the first model is to identify precursors of well-connected events by empirically estimating the magnetic connectivity from the associated CME/flare process zone to the near-Earth environment and identifying the flare temporally associated with the phenomenon. The goal of the second model is to identify precursors of poorly connected events by using a regression model that checks whether the differential proton flux behavior is similar to that in the beginning phases of previous historically poorly connected SEP events and thus deduce similar consequences. An additional module applies a higher-level analysis for inferring additional information about the situation by filtering out inconsistent preliminary forecasts and estimating the intensity of the first hours of the predicted SEP events. The high-level module periodically retrieves solar data and, in the case of well-connected events, automatically identifies the associated flare and active region. For the events of solar cycles 22 and 23 of the NOAA/SWPC SEP list, the presented dual-model system, called UMASEP, has a probability of detection of all well- and poorly connected events of 80.72% (134/166) and a false alarm rate of 33.99% (69/203), which outperforms current automatic forecasters in predicting >10 MeV SEP events. The presented forecaster has an average warning time

  3. Absolute calibration of photostimulable image plate detectors used as (0.5-20 MeV) high-energy proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Mancić, A; Fuchs, J; Antici, P; Gaillard, S A; Audebert, P

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the absolute calibration of photostimulable image plates (IPs) used as proton detectors is presented. The calibration is performed in a wide range of proton energies (0.5-20 MeV) by exposing simultaneously the IP and calibrated detectors (radiochromic films and solid state detector CR39) to a source of broadband laser-accelerated protons, which are spectrally resolved. The final result is a calibration curve that enables retrieving the proton number from the IP signal. PMID:18681694

  4. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of {open_quotes}drift tubes{close_quotes}. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising`s work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the {open_quotes}Alvarez drift tube{close_quotes} as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components.

  5. Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

    2009-07-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H - linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of the accelerator in its low-energy section, where the access area is located, and to calculate the induced radioactivity in the air and in the components of the accelerator. The latter study is particularly important for maintenance interventions and final disposal of radioactive waste. Two possible layouts for the CCDTL section of the machine were considered in order to evaluate the feasibility, from the radiological standpoint, of replacing electromagnetic quadrupoles with permanent magnet quadrupoles with a high content of cobalt.

  6. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  7. High Power Proton Accelerator Development at KAERI and its Vacuum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Ho; Park, Mi Young; Kim, Kui Young; Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP), approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002, includes a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) development and programs for its utilization and application. The main goals in the first phase of the project, spanning from 2002 to 2005, were the design of a 100 MeV proton linac and the development of a 20 MeV linac consisting of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and 3 MeV RFQ have been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled, tuned and under a beam test. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The vacuum system of the 20 MeV proton linac and its related issues, especially in operation with a high duty, are discussed in detail.

  8. Technical assessment of the Loma Linda University proton therapy accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    In April 1986, officials of Loma Linda University requested that Fermilab design and construct a 250 MeV proton synchrotron for radiotherapy, to be located at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. In June 1986 the project, having received all necessary approvals, commenced. In order to meet a desirable schedule providing for operation in early 1990, it was decided to erect such parts of the accelerator as were complete at Fermilab and conduct a precommissioning activity prior to the completion of the building at Loma Linda which will house the final radiotherapy facility. It was hoped that approximately one year would be saved by the precommissioning, and that important information would be obtained about the system so that improvements could be made during installation at Loma Linda. This report contains an analysis by Fermilab staff members of the information gained in the precommissioning activity and makes recommendations about steps to be taken to enhance the performance of the proton synchrotron at Loma Linda. In the design of the accelerator, effort was made to employ commercially available components, or to industrialize the products developed so that later versions of the accelerator could be produced industrially. The magnets could only be fabricated at Fermilab if the schedule was to be met, but efforts were made to transfer that technology to industry. Originally, it was planned to use a 1.7 MeV RFQ fabricated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory as injector, but LBL would have found it difficult to meet the project schedule. After consideration of other options, for example a 3.4 MeV tandem accelerator, a supplier (AccSys Inc.) qualified itself to provide a 2 MeV RFQ on a schedule well matched to the project schedule. This choice was made, but a separate supplier was selected to develop and provide the 425 MHz power amplifier for the RFQ.

  9. Solid hydrogen target for laser driven proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, J. P.; Garcia, S.; Chatain, D.; Margarone, D.

    2015-05-01

    The development of very high power lasers opens up new horizons in various fields, such as laser plasma acceleration in Physics and innovative approaches for proton therapy in Medicine. Laser driven proton acceleration is commonly based on the so-called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanisms: a high power laser is focused onto a solid target (thin metallic or plastic foil) and interact with matter at very high intensity, thus generating a plasma; as a consequence "hot" electrons are produced and move into the forward direction through the target. Protons are generated at the target rear side, electrons try to escape from the target and an ultra-strong quasi-electrostatic field (~1TV/m) is generated. Such a field can accelerate protons with a wide energy spectrum (1-200 MeV) in a few tens of micrometers. The proton beam characteristics depend on the laser parameters and on the target geometry and nature. This technique has been validated experimentally in several high power laser facilities by accelerating protons coming from hydrogenated contaminant (mainly water) at the rear of metallic target, however, several research groups are investigating the possibility to perform experiments by using "pure" hydrogen targets. In this context, the low temperature laboratory at CEA-Grenoble has developed a cryostat able to continuously produce a thin hydrogen ribbon (from 40 to 100 microns thick). A new extrusion concept, without any moving part has been carried out, using only the thermodynamic properties of the fluid. First results and perspectives are presented in this paper.

  10. Proton acceleration in neutron star magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.; Katz, J. I.; Diamond, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    To explain the emission of TeV and PeV gamma rays from accreting X-ray binary sources, protons must be accelerated to several times the gamma-ray energy. It is shown here that at certain times, the plasma in the accretion column of the neutron star may form a deep enough pool that the top portion becomes unstable to convective motions in spite of the strong magnetic field. The resulting turbulence produces fluctuations in the strength of the magnetic field that travel up the accretion column, taking energy out to the region of the energetic protons. The protons resonantly absorb this energy and are accelerated to high energies. Including the synchrotron radiation losses of the protons, it is shown that they can be accelerated to energies that are high enough to explain the gamma-ray observations.

  11. Application of ILC superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Aseev, V.N.; Gonin, I.V.; Rusnak, B.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2007-10-01

    Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC) will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC) cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on {pi}-mode to provide maximum accelerating gradient. Significant R&D effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its RF system which resulted excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above {approx}1.2 GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC) cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for {beta}{sub G} = 0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H{sup -} from {approx}420 MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new {beta}{sub G} = 0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9{pi}-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  12. Coronal shock acceleration and heliospheric transport of solar energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarev, Kamen Asenov

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) in the Sun's atmosphere produce highly energetic charged particles during violent bursts of activity. Protons, the most numerous and important species of these solar energetic particles (SEP), accelerate and propagate throughout the heliosphere, probing the interplanetary transport conditions. They also present a significant radiation hazard to space operations. Nevertheless, SEP acceleration in the low corona is currently not well constrained and poorly understood. In this dissertation, I examine off-limb extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave dynamics between 1.3 and 2.0 solar radii in the corona, and I show that the EUV signatures are consistent with CME-driven shocks. Therefore, such shocks may form very low in the corona. I also develop a data-driven model for estimating the maximum energy to which protons may be accelerated in coronal shocks. I apply it to an observed shock and show that it may accelerate protons up to tens of MeV during its fast coronal passage, consistent with in-situ observations. To explore further coronal SEP acceleration by CME-driven shocks, I modify a global, 3D numerical model for interplanetary SEP transport for the coronal conditions, and adapt it to incorporate results from a realistic magnetohydrodynamic coronal and CME model. Furthermore, I apply a diffusive shock acceleration model, which explicitly treats proton energization at traveling shocks, to an MHD simulation of a real CME event. I find that the source population becomes strongly accelerated. In addition, I simulate the proton transport between the Sun and Earth, and find that the modeled fluxes are consistent with particle observations near Earth. Results suggest that CME-driven shocks in the corona may be the primary source of SEPs in solar storms. In addition, conditions along coronal shock fronts vary greatly, influencing the amount of acceleration. Finally, I model the global proton transport between Earth and 5 AU during a

  13. Particle in cell simulation of laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fourkal, E; Shahine, B; Ding, M; Li, J S; Tajima, T; Ma, C M

    2002-12-01

    In this article we present the results of particle in cell (PIC) simulations of laser plasma interaction for proton acceleration for radiation therapy treatments. We show that under optimal interaction conditions protons can be accelerated up to relativistic energies of 300 MeV by a petawatt laser field. The proton acceleration is due to the dragging Coulomb force arising from charge separation induced by the ponderomotive pressure (light pressure) of high-intensity laser. The proton energy and phase space distribution functions obtained from the PIC simulations are used in the calculations of dose distributions using the GEANT Monte Carlo simulation code. Because of the broad energy and angular spectra of the protons, a compact particle selection and beam collimation system will be needed to generate small beams of polyenergetic protons for intensity modulated proton therapy. PMID:12512712

  14. Response functions of Fuji imaging plates to monoenergetic protons in the energy range 0.6-3.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aleonard, M. M.

    2013-01-15

    We have measured the responses of Fuji MS, SR, and TR imaging plates (IPs) to protons with energies ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 MeV. Monoenergetic protons were produced with the 3.5 MV AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires de Faisceaux d'Ions en Region Aquitaine) accelerator at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG). The IPs were irradiated with protons backscattered off a tantalum target. We present the photo-stimulated luminescence response of the IPs together with the fading measurements for these IPs. A method is applied to allow correction of fading effects for variable proton irradiation duration. Using the IP fading corrections, a model of the IP response function to protons was developed. The model enables extrapolation of the IP response to protons up to proton energies of 10 MeV. Our work is finally compared to previous works conducted on Fuji TR IP response to protons.

  15. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  16. Simultaneous observation of angularly separated laser-driven proton beams accelerated via two different mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Bedacht, S.; Bagnoud, V.; Deppert, O.; Geschwind, S.; Jaeger, R.; Ortner, A.; Tebartz, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Roth, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present experimental data showing an angular separation of laser accelerated proton beams. Using flat plastic targets with thicknesses ranging from 200 nm to 1200 nm, a laser intensity of 6 ×1020 W cm-2 incident with an angle of 10°, we observe accelerated protons in target normal direction with cutoff energies around 30 MeV independent from the target thickness. For the best match of laser and target conditions, an additional proton signature is detected along the laser axis with a maximum energy of 65 MeV. These different beams can be attributed to two acceleration mechanisms acting simultaneously, i.e., target normal sheath acceleration and acceleration based on relativistic transparency, e.g., laser breakout afterburner, respectively.

  17. Acceleration of ampere class H(-) ion beam by MeV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Inoue, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K

    2008-02-01

    The H(-) ion accelerator R&D to realize the international thermonuclear experimental reactor neutral beam is ongoing at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The required performance for the prototype MeV accelerator developed at JAEA is 1 MeV, 500 mA (current density of 200 A/m(2)) H(-) ion beam at the beamlet divergence angle of less than 7 mrad. Up to 2005, 836 keV, 146 A/m(2) H(-) ion beam was successfully accelerated as the highest record of the current density at MeV class energy beams. In the present work, high current negative ion beam acceleration test was performed by increasing the beam extraction apertures from 3 x 3 (9 apertures) to 3 x 5 (15 apertures). By fixing the air leak at the source chamber due to backstream ions as well as the improvement of voltage holding capability by a new fiber reinforced plastic insulator ring, the performance of the MeV accelerator was improved. So far, H(-) ion beam of 320 mA was successfully accelerated up to 796 keV with the beam divergence angle of 5.5 mrad. The accelerated drain current including the electron reaches close to the power supply limit for the MeV test facility. The heat flux by the backstream ion during the above beam acceleration was estimated to be 360 W/cm(2). The Cs leakage to the accelerator during the test campaign (Cs total input of 5.0 g) was 0.26 mg (7.0 microg/cm(2)). This is considered to be the allowable level from the viewpoint of voltage holding. PMID:18315236

  18. Proton Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-01

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  19. PROTON ACCELERATION AT OBLIQUE SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-20

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  20. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  1. High power solid state rf amplifier for proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2008-01-15

    A 1.5 kW solid state rf amplifier at 352 MHz has been developed and tested at RRCAT. This rf source for cw operation will be used as a part of rf system of 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. A rf power of 1.5 kW has been achieved by combining output power from eight 220 W rf amplifier modules. Amplifier modules, eight-way power combiner and divider, and directional coupler were designed indigenously for this development. High efficiency, ease of fabrication, and low cost are the main features of this design.

  2. Microstructured snow targets for high energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Baspaly, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Abricht, F.; Branzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Steinke, S.; Andreev, A.; Schnuerer, M.; Sandner, W.; Gordon, D.; Sprangle, P.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Zigler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Compact size sources of high energy protons (50-200MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications 1-8. One promising approach is the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) scheme 9,10, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser 11. In general, laser intensity exceeding 1018 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Another approach is the Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) scheme which is a more efficient acceleration scheme but requires an extremely clean pulse with contrast ratio of above 10-10. Increasing the energy of the accelerated protons using modest energy laser sources is a very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions 12,13 but no significant enhancement of the accelerated proton energy was measured. Here we report on the generation of up to 20MeV by a modest (5TW) laser system interacting with a microstructured snow target deposited on a Sapphire substrate. This scheme relax also the requirement of high contrast ratio between the pulse and the pre-pulse, where the latter produces the highly structured plasma essential for the interaction process. The plasma near the tip of the snow target is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and enhanced charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. PIC simulations of this targets reproduce the experimentally measured energy scaling and predict the generation of 150 MeV protons from laser power of 100TW laser system18.

  3. Resistively enhanced proton acceleration via high-intensity laser interactions with cold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The acceleration of MeV protons by high-intensity laser interaction with foil targets is studied using a recently developed plasma simulation technique. Based on a hierarchical N-body tree algorithm, this method provides a natural means of treating three-dimensional, collisional transport effects hitherto neglected in conventional explicit particle-in-cell simulations. For targets with finite resistivity, hot electron transport is strongly inhibited, even at temperatures in the MeV range. This leads to suppression of ion acceleration from the rear of the target and an enhancement in energies and numbers of protons originating from the front.

  4. Experimental study of ion-beam self-pinched transport for MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, J.M.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1999-07-01

    A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV proton beam from a pinch-reflex ion diode on the Gamble II accelerator is used to test the concept of self-pinched ion transport. Self-pinched transport (SPT) uses the self-generated magnetic field from the ion beam to radially confine the ion beam. A proton beam is injected through a 3-cm radius aperture covered with a 2-{micro}m thick polycarbonate foil into a 10-cm radius transport region. The transport region is filled with helium at pressures of 30--250 mTorr, vacuum (10{sup {minus}4} Torr), or 1-Torr air. The beam is diagnosed with witness plates, multiple-pinhole-camera imaging onto radiochromic film, time- and space-resolved proton-scattering, and with prompt-{gamma} and nuclear-activation from LiF targets. Witness-plates and the multiple-pinhole-camera are used to determine the size, location, and uniformity of the beam at different distances from the injection aperture. A beam global divergence of 200 mrad is measured at 15 cm. At 50 cm, the beam fills the transport region. At 110 cm and 100- to 200-mTorr helium, there is evidence of beam filamentation. The measured increase in protons is consistent with the physical picture for SPT, and comparisons with IPROP simulations are in qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  5. Hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration as a basis for producing high-energy proton bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Dover, N. P.; Najmudin, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The production of high-energy protons by the ‘hole-boring’ radiation pressure acceleration (HB-RPA) mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration is examined in the case where the plasma has a density less than a0nc in 2D. Previously this was examined in 1D (Robinson 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056701) and was motivated by previous predictions of the non-linear criterion for an ultra-intense laser pulse to penetrate a dense plasma. By reducing the density well below a0nc the proton energies achieved increases considerably, thus leading to proton energies >100 MeV at laser intensities close to current capabilities. The results show that good quality proton beams with proton energies >100 MeV can be obtained via HB-RPA using targets with densities in the range 12-20nc and laser intensities in the range 5 × 1021-3 × 1022 W cm-2.

  6. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.

    2007-09-10

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.

  7. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Weidner, J W; Mashnik, S G; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-11-01

    Cross sections for (223,)(225)Ra, (225)Ac and (227)Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for (223,)(225)Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method. PMID:22940414

  8. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  9. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  10. CHALLENGES FACING HIGH POWER PROTON ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges of high power proton accelerators such as SNS, J-PARC, etc., and what we have learned from recent experiences. Beam loss mechanisms and methods to mitigate beam loss will also be discussed.

  11. 225Ac and 223Ra production via 800 MeV proton irradiation of natural thorium targets.

    PubMed

    Weidner, J W; Mashnik, S G; John, K D; Ballard, B; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Fassbender, M E; Goff, G S; Gritzo, R; Hemez, F M; Runde, W; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-11-01

    Cross sections for the formation of (225,227)Ac, (223,225)Ra, and (227)Th via the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at a nominal proton energy of 800 MeV. No earlier experimental cross section data for the production of (223,225)Ra, (227)Ac and (227)Th by this method were found in the literature. A comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows agreement within a factor of two. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra is a viable production method. PMID:22944532

  12. Stochastic acceleration of solar protons in the transrelativistic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1989-10-01

    A model for the stochastic proton acceleration in solar flares with solutions valid for all energies is presented. A comparison with measured proton spectra supplies excellent agreement for shock dominated events and deviations in the nonrelativistic range for spectra of curved shape in contradiction to the conclusions of McGuire and v. Rosenvinge 1984, who used exclusively the non- and ultrarelativistic approximation. The deviations are discussed in detail with regard to a more accurate consideration of the spatial conditions. In the case of a constant escape time we obtain a theoretical spectrum that can be used for calculating the gamma ray radiation with energies greater than 10 MeV, reproducing the data in the transrelativistic region, where the relevant cross sections of the radiation producing processes are maximal.

  13. Interlock system for machine protection of the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-02-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developed. The beam service started this year after performing the beam commissioning. If the very sensitive and essential equipment is to be protected during machine operation, a machine interlock system is required, and the interlock system has been implemented. The purpose of the interlock system is to shut off the beam when the radio-frequency (RF) and ion source are unstable or a beam loss occurs. The interlock signal of the KOMAC linac includes a variety of sources, such as the beam loss, RF and high-voltage converter modulator faults, and fast closing valves of the vacuum window at the beam lines and so on. This system consists of a hardware-based interlock system using analog circuits and a software-based interlock system using an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC). The hardware-based interlock system has been fabricated, and the requirement has been satisfied with the results being within 10 µs. The software logic interlock system using the PLC has been connected to the framework of with the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) to integrate a variety of interlock signals and to control the machine components when an interlock occurs. This paper will describe the design and the construction of the machine interlock system for the KOMAC 100-MeV linac.

  14. Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, J. E.

    1988-04-01

    The electrical and mechanical properities of particle accelerator rf cavities are described in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion is limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common practice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

  15. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  16. Long pulse H- ion beam acceleration in MeV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Mizuno, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Kojima, A; Tanaka, Y; Dairaku, M; Hanada, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    A multiaperture multigrid accelerator called "MeV accelerator" has been developed for neutral beam injection system of international thermonuclear experimental reactor. In the present work, long pulse H(-) ion beam acceleration was performed by the MeV accelerator equipped with new water-cooled grids. At present, the pulse length was extended to 5 s for the beams of 750 keV, 221 mA, and 10 s for the beams of 600 keV, 158 mA. Energy density, defined as products of beam energy (keV), current (mA), and pulse (s) divided by aperture area (m(2)), increased more than one order of magnitude higher compared with original MeV accelerator without water cooling in its grids. At higher energy and current, the grid was melted by beam deflection. Due to this grid melting, breakdowns occurred between the grids, and hence, the pulse length was limited. Beam deflection will be compensated by aperture displacement in next experiment. PMID:20192408

  17. Track nanodosimetry of 20-MeV protons at 20 nm.

    PubMed

    Conte, V; Colautti, P; De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Poggi, M; Moro, D; Lombardi, M; Tornielli, G; Grosswendt, B

    2011-02-01

    Track nanodosimetry is the theoretical and experimental research which studies the stochastic aspects of ionisation yield produced by ionising particles in nanometric target volumes, positioned at different distances from the primary particle track. The STARTRACK experimental set-up, mounted on the +50° beam line at the Tandem-Alpi particle accelerator of Legnaro National Laboratories, has been conceived to give an experimental basis to nanodosimetric calculations. STARTRACK is a detection system able to measure the ionisation cluster-size distributions in a 20 nm propane site, by counting the electrons set in motion by different ion tracks, with the resolution of one electron. The 'sensitive volume' SV can be moved at different distances from the primary particle track (different impact parameter). Distributions of 20-MeV protons have been measured and compared with Monte Carlo calculations. PMID:21127036

  18. Scaling Laws for Proton Acceleration from the Rear Surface of Laser-Irradiated Thin Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; D'Humieres, E.; Lefebvre, E.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P.; Kaluza, M.; Schreiber, J.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Meyroneinc, S.; Mora, P.; Toncian, T.; Pepin, H.

    2006-04-07

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on the topic of laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications. Ultra-bright beams of multi-MeV protons are produced by irradiating thin metallic foils with ultra-intense short laser pulses. These sources open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control, and could stimulate development of compact ion accelerators for many applications, in particular proton therapy of deep-seated tumours. Here we show that scaling laws deduced from fluid models reproduce well the acceleration of proton beams for a large range of laser and target parameters. These scaling laws show that, in our regime, there is an optimum in the laser pulse duration of {approx}200 fs-1 ps, with a needed laser energy level of 30 to 100 J, in order to achieve e.g. 200 MeV energy protons necessary for proton therapy.

  19. Obtaining a proton beam with 5-mA current in a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Kasatov, D. A.; Koshkarev, A. M.; Makarov, A. N.; Ostreinov, Yu. M.; Sorokin, I. N.; Taskaev, S. Yu.; Shchudlo, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    Suppression of parasitic electron flows and positive ions formed in the beam tract of a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation allowed a more than threefold increase (from 1.6 to 5 mA) in the current of accelerated 2-MeV protons. Details of the modification are described. Results of experimental investigation of the suppression of secondary charged particles and data on the characteristics of accelerated proton beam with increased current are presented.

  20. DESIGN CRITERIA OF A PROTON FFAG ACCELERATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO, A.G.

    2004-10-13

    There are two major issues that are to be confronted in the design of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator, namely: (1) the stability of motion over the large momentum range needed for the beam acceleration, and (2) the compactness of the trajectories over the same momentum range to limit the dimensions of the magnets. There are a numbers of rules that need to be followed to resolve these issues. In particular, the magnet arrangement in the accelerator lattice and the distribution of the bending and focusing fields are to be set properly in accordance with these rules. In this report they describe four of these rules that ought to be applied for the optimum design of a FFAG accelerator, especially in the case of proton beams.

  1. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  2. Compact accelerator concept for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, G. J.; Sampayan, S.; Chen, Y.-J.; Harris, J.; Hawkins, S.; Holmes, C.; Krogh, M.; Nelson, S.; Nunnally, W.; Paul, A.; Poole, B.; Rhodes, M.; Sanders, D.; Selenes, K.; Sullivan, J.; Wang, L.; Watson, J.

    2007-08-01

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash X-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  3. COMPACT ACCELERATOR CONCEPT FOR PROTON THERAPY

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2006-08-18

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash x-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  4. Polarization measurement of laser-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, Natascha; Engels, Ralf; Engin, Ilhan; Greven, Patrick; Holler, Astrid; Lehrach, Andreas; Maier, Rudolf; Büscher, Markus; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Toncian, Monika; Toncian, Toma; Willi, Oswald; Gibbon, Paul; Karmakar, Anupam

    2014-02-15

    We report on the successful use of a laser-driven few-MeV proton source to measure the differential cross section of a hadronic scattering reaction as well as on the measurement and simulation study of polarization observables of the laser-accelerated charged particle beams. These investigations were carried out with thin foil targets, illuminated by 100 TW laser pulses at the Arcturus laser facility; the polarization measurement is based on the spin dependence of hadronic proton scattering off nuclei in a Silicon target. We find proton beam polarizations consistent with zero magnitude which indicates that for these particular laser-target parameters the particle spins are not aligned by the strong magnetic fields inside the laser-generated plasmas.

  5. Laser-Produced and Accelerated High Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Ultra-low emittance, multi-MeV proton beams have recently been produced by the interaction of high-intensity short-pulse lasers with thin metallic foils [1]. The acceleration process proceeds in two steps. First the laser ponderomotively accelerates huge, MA currents of ˜MeV electrons which propagate through the foil and form a dense relativistic electron sheath on the non-irradiated rear surface. This sheath produces an electrostatic field >10^12 V/m that ionizes the surface atoms almost instantaneously, forming a ˜1 nm thick ion layer which, together with the electron sheath, resembles a virtual cathode. The ions are accelerated initially normal to the foil surface, followed by a diverging plasma expansion phase driven by the electron plasma pressure. By structuring the rear surface of the foil, we have succeeded to produce modulations in the transverse phase space of the ions, which resemble fiducial ``beamlets'' within the envelope of the expanding plasma. This allows one to image the initial accelerating sheath, and map the plasma expansion of the beam envelope, to fully reconstruct the transverse phase space. We find that for protons of 10 MeV, the normalized transverse rms emittance is less than 0.004 π mm.mrad [1], i.e. 100-fold better than typical RF accelerators and at substantially higher ion currents exceeding 10 kA. Recent results will be reported on stripping the electrons while maintaining the low emittance from experiments at the LULI 100 TW laser, and theoretical estimates of the lowest emittance which can be expected based on ion heating mechanisms during the initial sheath formation and ion acceleration processes, will be presented. [1] T.E. Cowan, J. Fuchs, H. Ruhl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 204801 (2004).

  6. Utilization of new 150-MeV neutron and proton evaluations in MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Frankle, S.C.; Hughes, H.G. III; Prael, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    MCNP{trademark} and LAHET{trademark} are two of the codes included in the LARAMIE (Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment) code system. Both MCNP and LAHET are three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. The capabilities of MCNP and LAHET are currently being merged into one code for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Concurrently, a significant effort is underway to improve the accuracy of the physics in the merged code. In particular, full nuclear-data evaluations (in ENDF6 format) for many materials of importance to APT are being produced for incident neutrons and protons up to an energy of 150-MeV. After processing, cross-section tables based on these new evaluations will be available for use fin the merged code. In order to utilize these new cross-section tables, significant enhancements are required for the merged code. Neutron cross-section tables for MCNP currently specify emission data for neutrons and photons only; the new evaluations also include complete neutron-induced data for protons, deuterons, tritons, and alphas. In addition, no provision in either MCNP or LAHET currently exists for the use of incident charged-particle tables other than for electrons. To accommodate the new neutron-induced data, it was first necessary to expand the format definition of an MCNP neutron cross-section table. The authors have prepared a 150-MeV neutron cross-section library in this expanded format for 15 nuclides. Modifications to MCNP have been implemented so that this expanded neutron library can be utilized.

  7. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L. Smith, M.W.

    1984-06-11

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  8. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, D. L.; Hawkins, S. A.; Poor, S. E.; Reginato, L. L.; Smith, M. W.

    1984-06-01

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, new technology was used to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The magnetic drive system are tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  9. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO 250 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as the first high energy polarized proton collider was designed t o provide polarized proton collisions a t a maximum beam energy of 250 GeV. I t has been providing collisions a t a beam energy of 100 Gel' since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during the acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with careful control of the betatron tunes and the vertical orbit distortions. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV? making it important t o examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were accelerated t o the record energy of 250 GeV in RHIC with a polarization of 46% measured a t top energy in 2006. The polarization measurement as a function of beam energy also shows some polarization loss around 136 GeV, the first strong intrinsic resonance above 100 GeV. This paper presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival t o orbit distortions.

  10. Requirements for the Loma Linda proton therapy accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, George; Ghebremedhin, Abiel

    1999-06-10

    More than eight years have passed since Loma Linda University Medical Center treated its first cancer patient with the world's first hospital based proton therapy accelerator. Using a synchrotron with extracted energies in the range of 70 to 250 MeV, nearly one hundred patients per day have been treated at the facility. Over the past five years, more than 97% of the patients received treatments on the day they were scheduled for irradiation. The activity schedules of accelerator maintenance and operations to maintain this patient load and accelerator reliability are presented in this paper. A typical 24-hour schedule of daily beam activities is presented. The specifications of what was needed in 1990 and what is needed now will also be discussed, as will an accelerator control system upgrade for achieving better intensity and energy control for more advanced dose localization. These new requirements include rapid energy and intensity changes within a patient treatment, fast beam abort systems, uniform beam spill, and energy control to better than 0.1%.

  11. Requirements for the Loma Linda proton therapy accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, George; Ghebremedhin, Abiel

    1999-06-01

    More than eight years have passed since Loma Linda University Medical Center treated its first cancer patient with the world's first hospital based proton therapy accelerator. Using a synchrotron with extracted energies in the range of 70 to 250 MeV, nearly one hundred patients per day have been treated at the facility. Over the past five years, more than 97% of the patients received treatments on the day they were scheduled for irradiation. The activity schedules of accelerator maintenance and operations to maintain this patient load and accelerator reliability are presented in this paper. A typical 24-hour schedule of daily beam activities is presented. The specifications of what was needed in 1990 and what is needed now will also be discussed, as will an accelerator control system upgrade for achieving better intensity and energy control for more advanced dose localization. These new requirements include rapid energy and intensity changes within a patient treatment, fast beam abort systems, uniform beam spill, and energy control to better than 0.1%.

  12. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  13. {sup 7}Li(p,n) NUCLEAR DATA LIBRARY FOR INCIDENT PROTON ENERGIES TO 150 MEV

    SciTech Connect

    S. MASHNIK; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are considering the possibility of using the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), constructed at LANSCE for the Accelerator Production of Tritium program (APT), as a neutron source. Evaluated nuclear data are needed for the p+{sup 7}Li reaction, to predict neutron production from thin and thick lithium targets. In this report we describe evaluation methods that make use of experimental data, and nuclear model calculations, to develop an ENDF-formatted data library for incident protons with energies up to 150 MeV. The important {sup 7}Li(p,n{sub 0}) and {sup 7}Li(p,n{sub 1}) reactions are evaluated from the experimental data, with their angular distributions represented using Lengendre polynomial expansions. The decay of the remaining reaction flux is estimated from GNASH nuclear model calculations. This leads to the emission of lower-energy neutrons and other charged particles and gamma-rays from preequilibrium and compound nucleus decay processes. The evaluated ENDF-data are described in detail, and illustrated in numerous figures. We also illustrate the use of these data in a representative application by a radiation transport simulation with the code MCNPX.

  14. A performance study of the Loma Linda proton medical accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, G.; Hubbard, J.; Johanning, J.; Maudsley, G.; Slaton, T.; Morton, P. )

    1994-11-01

    More than three years have passed since Loma Linda treated the first cancer patient with the world's first proton accelerator dedicated to radiation therapy. Since that time, over 1000 patients have completed treatments and the facility currently treats more than 45 patients per day. With a typical intensity of 3[times]10[sup 10] protons per pulse and 27 pulses per minute, dose rates of 90--100 cGy/min are easily achieved on a 20-cm diameter field. In most cases, patient treatment times are 2 min, much less than the patient alignment time required before each treatment. Nevertheless, there is considerable medical interest in increasing field sizes up to 40-cm diameter while keeping dose rates high and treatment times low. In this article, beam measurements relevant to intensity studies are presented and possible accelerator modifications for upgrades are proposed. It is shown that nearly all intensity losses can be ascribed to the large momentum spread of the injected beam and occur at or near the injection energy of 2 MeV. The agreement between calculations and measurements appears quite good. In addition, optimum beam characteristics for a new injector are discussed based upon the momentum acceptance and space charge limits of the Loma Linda synchrotron.

  15. A performance study of the Loma Linda proton medical accelerator.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, G; Hubbard, J; Johanning, J; Maudsley, G; Slaton, T; Morton, P

    1994-11-01

    More than three years have passed since Loma Linda treated the first cancer patient with the world's first proton accelerator dedicated to radiation therapy. Since that time, over 1000 patients have completed treatments and the facility currently treats more than 45 patients per day. With a typical intensity of 3 x 10(10) protons per pulse and 27 pulses per minute, dose rates of 90-100 cGy/min are easily achieved on a 20-cm diameter field. In most cases, patient treatment times are 2 min, much less than the patient alignment time required before each treatment. Nevertheless, there is considerable medical interest in increasing field sizes up to 40-cm diameter while keeping dose rates high and treatment times low. In this article, beam measurements relevant to intensity studies are presented and possible accelerator modifications for upgrades are proposed. It is shown that nearly all intensity losses can be ascribed to the large momentum spread of the injected beam and occur at or near the injection energy of 2 MeV. The agreement between calculations and measurements appears quite good. In addition, optimum beam characteristics for a new injector are discussed based upon the momentum acceptance and space charge limits of the Loma Linda synchrotron. PMID:7891629

  16. Laser-accelerated proton conversion efficiency thickness scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, D. S.; Foord, M. E.; Key, M. H.; LePape, S. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Fedosejevs, R.; Friesen, H.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y. Y.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energy is measured with the 0.6 ps, 9x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility as a function of target thickness in Au foils. For targets thicker than 20 {mu}m, the conversion efficiency scales approximately as 1/L, where L is the target thickness. This is explained by the domination of hot electron collisional losses over adiabatic cooling. In thinner targets, the two effects become comparable, causing the conversion efficiency to scale weaker than 1/L; the measured conversion efficiency is constant within the scatter in the data for targets between 5 and 15 {mu}m, with a peak conversion efficiency of 4% into protons with energy greater than 3 MeV. Depletion of the hydrocarbon contaminant layer is eliminated as an explanation for this plateau by using targets coated with 200 nm of ErH{sub 3} on the rear surface. The proton acceleration is modeled with the hybrid-particle in cell code LSP, which reproduced the conversion efficiency scaling observed in the data.

  17. Observational Search for >10 MeV Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere Using the Van Allen Probes Relativistic Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Looper, M. D.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Blake, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Any detection of ultra-relativistic electrons (>10 MeV) trapped in the inner magnetosphere is potentially a sensitive indicator of a unique particle acceleration process or of a unique particle source. The 24 March 1991 shock injection of >15 MeV electrons is a classic example of the former, while the latter includes measurements in low Earth orbit of >100 MeV electrons and positrons from cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. In this paper we use new instrumentation on the Van Allen Probes to survey the inner magnetosphere for signatures of ultra-relativistic electrons. The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer, designed primarily for spectroscopy of 60 to 2000 MeV protons in the inner belt, nonetheless is capable of detecting minimum-ionizing electrons in a silicon detector stack. More critical to this survey is the instrument's Cherenkov radiator subsystem whose response to incident electrons ranges from a threshold near 10 MeV and reaches light saturation above 50 MeV. Together with the silicon detector system we are able to explore an energy range that has not been routinely studied in the context of the Earth's magnetosphere. We will report on quiet-time and storm-time signatures in regions of the inner magnetosphere that heretofore have not been explored with an orbit like that of Van Allen Probes. We will also quantitatively compare our electron energy spectra, or flux limits, with other measurements from Van Allen Probes and prior glimpses of high-energy electrons from low Earth orbit.

  18. Controlled transport and focusing of laser-accelerated protons with miniature magnetic devices.

    PubMed

    Schollmeier, M; Becker, S; Geissel, M; Flippo, K A; Blazević, A; Gaillard, S A; Gautier, D C; Grüner, F; Harres, K; Kimmel, M; Nürnberg, F; Rambo, P; Schramm, U; Schreiber, J; Schütrumpf, J; Schwarz, J; Tahir, N A; Atherton, B; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M; Roth, M

    2008-08-01

    This Letter demonstrates the transporting and focusing of laser-accelerated 14 MeV protons by permanent magnet miniature quadrupole lenses providing field gradients of up to 500 T/m. The approach is highly reproducible and predictable, leading to a focal spot of (286 x 173) microm full width at half maximum 50 cm behind the source. It decouples the relativistic laser-proton acceleration from the beam transport, paving the way to optimize both separately. The collimation and the subsequent energy selection obtained are perfectly applicable for upcoming high-energy, high-repetition rate laser systems. PMID:18764401

  19. LCS/CINDER`90 accelerator tunnel activation calculations for the APT 1700-MeV accelerator tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Court, J.D.; Snow, E.C.; Wilson, W.B.; Pitcher, E.R.

    1998-09-01

    Calculations have been done to determine the amount of activation in the linac components and tunnel air for the Accelerator Production of Tritium 1700-MeV superconducting linac. Proton transport is accomplished through the use of the LAHET Code System. Particle production and depletion from proton and high-energy neutron reactions, calculated in LAHET, as well as low-energy neutron fluxes calculated by MCNP, are passed to the radionuclide production code CINDER`90 to determine the source terms at various times after irradiation. The upper limit on total air activation based on conservative assumptions, for the entire tunnel air volume, was found to be 4.77 Ci after a nine-month irradiation. This is reduced to 0.09 Ci after a 10-hour cooling off period. The total activation for the full 1-km of beamline components was found to be less than 4 kCi, with the half-lives of the highest contributors ranging from 12 years to 2 minutes. This beamline component activation calculation was done for an irradiation time of 40 years, which is the anticipated lifetime of the superconducting linac.

  20. Radiation shielding for 250 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, M.

    1987-04-01

    This paper is targetted at personnel who have the responsibility of designing the radiation shielding against neutron fluences created when protons interact with matter. Shielding of walls and roofs are discussed, as well as neutron dose leakage through labyrinths. Experimental data on neutron flux attenuation are considered, as well as some calculations using the intranuclear cascade calculations and parameterizations.

  1. 1000 MeV Proton beam therapy facility at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute Synchrocyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrosimov, N. K.; Gavrikov, Yu A.; Ivanov, E. M.; Karlin, D. L.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Yalynych, N. N.; Riabov, G. A.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Vinogradov, V. M.

    2006-05-01

    Since 1975 proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron with fixed energy of 1000 MeV is used for the stereotaxic proton therapy of different head brain diseases. 1300 patients have been treated during this time. The advantage of high energy beam (1000 MeV) is low scattering of protons in the irradiated tissue. This factor allows to form the dose field with high edge gradients (20%/mm) that is especially important for the irradiation of the intra-cranium targets placed in immediate proximity to the life critical parts of the brain. Fixation of the 6 0mm diameter proton beam at the isodose centre with accuracy of ±1.0 mm, two-dimensional rotation technique of the irradiation provide a very high ratio of the dose in the irradiation zone to the dose at the object's surface equal to 200:1. The absorbed doses are: 120-150 Gy for normal hypophysis, 100-120 Gy for pituitary adenomas and 40-70 Gy for arterio-venous malformation at the rate of absorbed dose up to 50 Gy/min. In the paper the dynamics and the efficiency of 1000 MeV proton therapy treatment of the brain deceases are given. At present time the feasibility study is in progress with the goal to create a proton therapy on Bragg peak by means of the moderation of 1000 MeV proton beam in the absorber down to 200 MeV, energy required for radiotherapy of deep seated tumors.

  2. Compact superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron for the PSI PROSCAN proton therapy project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillo, M.; Geisler, A.; Hobl, A.; Klein, H. U.; Krischel, D.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Piel, C.; Blosser, H.; Kim, J.-W.; Marti, F.; Vincent, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Beijers, J. P. M.

    2001-12-01

    A cyclotron for proton therapy has to fulfill many requirements set by the specific operational and safety needs of a medical facility and the medical environment. These are for instance high extraction efficiency, high availability and reliability, simple and robust operation. ACCEL Instruments GmbH has refined the design concept of a medical cyclotron for the PSI PROSCAN project with the objective to use this cyclotron as the standard accelerator in complete proton therapy facilities, which ACCEL intends to market. Starting from the design in [1], we have carried out further detail clarifications, optimizations and adaptations to the needs of PSI [2]. The work was performed in a collaboration between ACCEL, NSCL and KVI in view of the requirements from the PSI PROSCAN project. An overview on the design will be given touching on subjects such as the 3D structural analysis of the coil, detailed magnetic modeling for optimization of the inner region and the spiral, optimization of the RF power, optimization of the cryogenic design based on available cryocoolers instead of a liquefaction plant and Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the heat balance produced by neutrons at 4K components.

  3. Spectral measurements of neutrons produced by 52 MeV protons with activation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kazuo; Saito, Takatsugu; Fujii, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    The accuracy of the neutron spectral measurement of energy up to ˜40 MeV with activation detectors was examined using high energy neutrons from thick targets bombarded by 52 MeV protons. The measured activation rates were unfolded with the modified SAND-II code and compared with the neutron spectra measured by the NE-213 scintillator. Quite good agreement in absolute values was obtained between the spectra recorded by these two different detectors. The activation detector was shown to be useful for neutron spectroscopy at energies higher than ˜ 10 MeV.

  4. Enhancement of proton acceleration field in laser double-layer target interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2013-07-01

    A mechanism is proposed to enhance a proton acceleration field in laser plasma interaction. A double-layer plasma with different densities is illuminated by an intense short pulse. Electrons are accelerated to a high energy in the first layer by the wakefield. The electrons accelerated by the laser wakefield induce the enhanced target normal sheath (TNSA) and breakout afterburner (BOA) accelerations through the second layer. The maximum proton energy reaches about 1 GeV, and the total charge with an energy higher than 100 MeV is about several tens of μC/μm. Both the acceleration gradient and laser energy transfer efficiency are higher than those in single-target-based TNSA or BOA. The model has been verified by 2.5D-PIC simulations.

  5. Enhancement of proton acceleration field in laser double-layer target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2013-07-15

    A mechanism is proposed to enhance a proton acceleration field in laser plasma interaction. A double-layer plasma with different densities is illuminated by an intense short pulse. Electrons are accelerated to a high energy in the first layer by the wakefield. The electrons accelerated by the laser wakefield induce the enhanced target normal sheath (TNSA) and breakout afterburner (BOA) accelerations through the second layer. The maximum proton energy reaches about 1 GeV, and the total charge with an energy higher than 100 MeV is about several tens of μC/μm. Both the acceleration gradient and laser energy transfer efficiency are higher than those in single-target-based TNSA or BOA. The model has been verified by 2.5D-PIC simulations.

  6. The Single Event Upset (SEU) response to 590 MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of high-energy protons in cosmic rays, solar flares, and trapped radiation belts around Jupiter poses a threat to the Galileo project. Results of a test of 10 device types (including 1K RAM, 4-bit microP sequencer, 4-bit slice, 9-bit data register, 4-bit shift register, octal flip-flop, and 4-bit counter) exposed to 590 MeV protons at the Swiss Institute of Nuclear Research are presented to clarify the picture of SEU response to the high-energy proton environment of Jupiter. It is concluded that the data obtained should remove the concern that nuclear reaction products generated by protons external to the device can cause significant alteration in the device SEU response. The data also show only modest increases in SEU cross section as proton energies are increased up to the upper limits of energy for both the terrestrial and Jovian trapped proton belts.

  7. Emittance measurements from the LLUMC proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Gillespie, G. H.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-12-01

    A new method of calculating beam emittances at the extraction point of a particle accelerator is presented. The technique uses the optimization programs NPSOL and MINOS developed at Stanford University in order to determine the initial values of beam size, divergence and correlation parameters (i.e. beam sigma matrix, σij) that best fit measured beam parameters. These σij elements are then used to compute the Twiss parameters α, β, and the phase space area, ε, of the beam at the extraction point. Beam size measurements in X and Y throughout the transport line were input to the optimizer along with the magnetic elements of bends, quads, and drifts. The σij parameters were optimized at the accelerator's extraction point by finding the best agreement between these measured beam sizes and those predicted by TRANSPORT. This expands upon a previous study in which a "trial and error" technique was used instead of the optimizer software, and which yielded similar results. The Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab™) program used for this paper integrates particle beam optics and other codes into a single intuitive graphically-based computing environment. This new software provides a seamless interface between the NPSOL and MINOS optimizer and TRANSPORT calculations. The results of these emittance searches are presented here for the eight clinical energies between 70 and 250 MeV currently being used at LLUMC.

  8. Particle selection and beam collimation system for laser-accelerated proton beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fourkal, Eugene; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2005-03-01

    In a laser-accelerated proton therapy system, the initial protons have broad energy and angular distributions, which are not suitable for direct therapeutic applications. A compact particle selection and collimation device is needed to deliver small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra. In this work, we characterize a superconducting magnet system that produces a desired magnetic field configuration to spread the protons with different energies and emitting angles for particle selection. Four magnets are set side by side along the beam axis; each is made of NbTi wires which carry a current density of approximately 10(5) A/cm2 at 4.2 K, and produces a magnetic field of approximately 4.4 T in the corresponding region. Collimation is applied to both the entrance and the exit of the particle selection system to generate a desired proton pencil beam. In the middle of the magnet system, where the magnetic field is close to zero, a particle selection collimator allows only the protons with desired energies to pass through for therapy. Simulations of proton transport in the presence of the magnetic field show that the selected protons have successfully refocused on the beam axis after passing through the magnetic field with the optimal magnet system. The energy spread for any given characteristic proton energy has been obtained. It is shown that the energy spread is a function of the magnetic field strength and collimator size and reaches the full width at half maximum of 25 MeV for 230 MeV protons. Dose distributions have also been calculated with the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code to study the dosimetric properties of the laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy applications. PMID:15839352

  9. 200 MeV Proton Radiography Studies with a Hand Phantom Using a Prototype Proton CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Plautz, Tia; Bashkirov, V.; Feng, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.P.; Leary, C.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Schubert, K.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, B.; Steinberg, D.; Witt, M.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton CT scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. PMID:24710156

  10. 200 MeV proton radiography studies with a hand phantom using a prototype proton CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Plautz, Tia; Bashkirov, V; Feng, V; Hurley, F; Johnson, R P; Leary, C; Macafee, S; Plumb, A; Rykalin, V; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Schubert, K; Schulte, R; Schultze, B; Steinberg, D; Witt, M; Zatserklyaniy, A

    2014-04-01

    Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton computed tomography (CT) scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. PMID:24710156

  11. INJECTOR PARTICLE SIMULATION AND BEAM TRANSPORT IN A COMPACT LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Blackfield, D T; Chen, Y J; Harris, J; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B

    2007-06-18

    A compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), with field gradient up to 100 MW/m is being developed to accelerate proton bunches for use in cancer therapy treatment. The injector must create a proton pulse up to several hundred picoseconds, which is then shaped and accelerated with energies up to 250 MeV. The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code LSP is used to model several aspects of this design. First, we use LSP to obtain the voltage waveform in the A-K gap that will produce a proton bunch with the requisite charge. We then model pulse compression and shaping in the section between the A-K gap and the DWA. We finally use LSP to model the beam transport through the DWA.

  12. Proton acceleration with high intensity lasers interacting on micro-cone targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Cowan, Tom; Gaillard, Sandrine; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Rassuchine, Jennifer; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2006-10-01

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications [1,2]. Proton beams accelerated from solid planar targets have exceptional properties that open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control. Experiments conducted at LANL and LULI have shown that high intensity lasers interacting on micro-cone targets can produce proton beams more collimated and more energetic than with planar targets. These micro-cone targets are composed of a curved cone attached to a micro-table. 2D PIC simulations were performed to understand the experiments and separate the effect of the cone from the effect of the micro-table. These new targets could help increase the laser-accelerated protons maximum energy to the 100 MeV range. [1] J. Fuchs et al., Nature Physics 2, 48 (2006). [2] T.Toncian et al., Science Vol. 312, 21 April 2006, p.410-413.

  13. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-05-15

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10{sup -11} achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions/light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 {mu}m (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150-500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100-220 MeV energies.

  14. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10−11 achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W∕cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions∕light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 μm (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150–500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100–220 MeV energies. PMID:18561651

  15. Hydrogen release from 800 MeV proton-irradiated tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, B. M.; Venhaus, T. J.; Causey, R. A.; Garner, F. A.; Maloy, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources, such as those proposed for the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. Tungsten used in proposed fusion reactors will also be exposed to neutrons, and the generated protium will be accompanied by deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and after heat-induced rises in temperature are of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten has been measured using a dedicated mass-spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from ˜300 to ˜1500 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show quite reasonable agreement using a trap energy of 1.4 eV and a trap density of ˜7%. There is a small additional release fraction occurring at ˜550 K, which is believed to be associated with low-energy trapping at or near the surface, and, therefore, was not included in the bulk TMAP model.

  16. Design study of the ESS-Bilbao 50 MeV proton beam line for radiobiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Parajon, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Abad, E.

    2015-02-01

    The ESS-Bilbao proton accelerator facility has been designed fulfilling the European Spallation Source (ESS) specifications to serve as the Spanish contribution to the ESS construction. Furthermore, several applications of the ESS-Bilbao proton beam are being considered in order to contribute to the knowledge in the field of radiobiology, materials and aerospace components. Understanding of the interaction of radiation with biological systems is of vital importance as it affects important applications such as cancer treatment with ion beam therapy among others. ESS-Bilbao plans to house a facility exclusively dedicated to radiobiological experiments with protons up to 50 MeV. Beam line design, optimisation and initial calculations of flux densities and absorbed doses were undertaken using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. A proton beam with a flux density of about 106 protons/cm2 s reaches the water sample with a flat lateral distribution of the dose. The absorbed dose at the pristine Bragg peak calculated with FLUKA is 2.4 ± 0.1 Gy in 1 min of irradiation time. This value agrees with the clinically meaningful dose rates, i.e. around 2 Gy/min, used in hadrontherapy. Optimisation and validation studies in the ESS-Bilbao line for radiobiological experiments are detailed in this article.

  17. Proton irradiation of conventional and lithium solar cells - 11-37 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Carter, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Conventional n/p and lithium solar cells were irradiated with 11- to 37-MeV protons. The energy dependence of the solar cell degradation, calculated from electrical parameters and lifetime measurements, is shown to be very slight. Damage coefficients for the n/p cells are calculated. Annealing characteristics of both the lithium cells and the n/p cells are presented.

  18. Light response of YAP:Ce and LaBr3:Ce scintillators to 4-30 MeV protons for applications to Telescope Proton Recoil neutron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Cremona, A.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Ericsson, G.; Fazzi, A.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E.; Gorini, G.

    2016-06-01

    The light response of two thin inorganic scintillators based on YAP:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals has been measured with protons in the 4-8 MeV energy range at the Uppsala tandem accelerator and in the 8-26 MeV energy range at the Legnaro tandem accelerator. The crystals have been calibrated in situ with 137Cs and 60Co γ-ray sources. The relative light yields of protons with respect to gammas have been measured and are here reported to be (96±2)% and (80±2)% for YAP:Ce and LaBr3:Ce, respectively. The results open up to the development of a Telescope Proton Recoil spectrometer based on either of the two crystals as alternative to a silicon based spectrometer for applications to high neutron fluxes.

  19. Dose distribution outside the target volume for 170-MeV proton beam.

    PubMed

    Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Puchalska, M; Vondráček, V; Molokanov, A G; Sihver, L; Davídková, M

    2014-10-01

    Dose delivered outside the proton field during radiotherapy can potentially lead to secondary cancer development. Measurements with a 170-MeV proton beam were performed with passive detectors (track etched detectors and thermoluminescence dosemeters) in three different depths along the Bragg curve. The measurement showed an uneven decrease of the dose outside of the beam field with local enhancements. The major contribution to the delivered dose is due to high-energy protons with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 10 keV µm(-1). However, both measurement and preliminary Monte Carlo calculation also confirmed the presence of particles with higher LET. PMID:24759915

  20. Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2013-10-15

    We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

  1. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; et al

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather thanmore » the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.« less

  2. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, S.; Azaryan, T.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chiladze, D.; Engels, R.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Macharashvili, G.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Seyfarth, H.; Shmakova, V.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.

    2015-05-01

    The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy Epp, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ≈1/2Td = 363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both Epp and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  3. A new proton fluence model for E greater than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, Joan; Armstrong, T. P.; Dao-Gibner, L.; Silverman, S.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers describe a new engineering model for the fluence of protons with energies greater than 10 MeV. The data set used is a combination of observations made primarily from the Earth's surface between 1956 and 1963 and observations made from spacecraft in the vicinity of Earth between 1963 and 1985. With this data set we find that the distinction between ordinary proton events and anomalously large proton events made in earlier work disappears. The greater than 10 MeV fluences at 1 AU calculated with the new model are about twice those expected on the basis of models now in use. In contrast to earlier models, results do not depend critically on the fluence from any one event.

  4. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  5. A beam intensity monitor for the Loma Linda cancer therapy proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, G.; Miller, D. ); Kross, B.J.; Anderson, D.F. ); DeLuca, P. Jr.; Siebers, J. )

    1991-07-01

    A beam intensity monitor was tested in a 230-MeV proton beam at the Loma Linda Proton Therapy Accelerator during its commissioning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The intensity monitor was designed to regulate the beam intensity extracted from the proton synchrotron. The proton beam is tunable between 70 and 250 MeV with an adjustable intensity between 10{sup 10} and 10{sup 11} protons per spill. A beam spill is typically 1 s long with a 2-s repetition period. The intensity monitor must be radiation hard, expose minimum mass to the beam, and measure intensity to 1% in 1-ms time intervals. To this end, a 5-cm-thick xenon gas scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) was tested to measure its response to the proton beam. The gas cell was operated at 1.2 atm of pressure and has 12.7-{mu}m-thick titanium entrance and exit foils. The total mass exposed to the beam is 0.14 g/cm{sup 2} and is dominated by the titanium windows. This mass corresponds to a range attenuation equal to 1.4 mm of water. The energy lost to the xenon gas is about 70 keV per proton. Each passing proton will produce approximately 2000 photons. With a detection efficiency on the order of 0.05% for this UV light, one would anticipate over 10{sup 10} photoelectrons per second. In a 1-ms time bin there will be approximately 10{sup 7} photoelectrons. This yields a resolution limited by systematics. For unregulated 0.4-s proton spills, we observe a response bandwidth in excess of 10{sup 4} Hz. While signal-to-noise and linearity were not easily measured, we estimate as few as 10{sup 3} protons can be observed suggesting a dynamic range in excess of 10{sup 5} is available.

  6. A beam intensity monitor for the Loma Linda cancer therapy proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, G; Miller, D; Kross, B J; Anderson, D F; DeLuca, P; Siebers, J

    1991-01-01

    A beam intensity monitor was tested in a 230-MeV proton beam at the Loma Linda Proton Therapy Accelerator during its commissioning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The intensity monitor was designed to regulate the beam intensity extracted from the proton synchrotron. The proton beam is tunable between 70 and 250 MeV with an adjustable intensity between 10(10) and 10(11) protons per spill. A beam spill is typically 1 s long with a 2-s repetition period. The intensity monitor must be radiation hard, expose minimum mass to the beam, and measure intensity to 1% in 1-ms time intervals. To this end, a 5-cm-thick xenon gas scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) was tested to measure its response to the proton beam. The gas cell was operated at 1.2 atm of pressure and has 12.7-microns-thick titanium entrance and exit foils. The total mass exposed to the beam is 0.14 g/cm2 and is dominated by the titanium windows. This mass corresponds to a range attenuation equal to 1.4 mm of water. The energy lost to the xenon gas is about 70 keV per proton. Each passing proton will produce approximately 2000 photons. With a detection efficiency on the order of 0.05% for this UV light, one would anticipate over 10(10) photoelectrons per second. In a 1-ms time bin there will be approximately 10(7) photoelectrons. This yields a resolution limited by systematics. For unregulated 0.4-s proton spills, we observe a response bandwidth in excess of 10(4) Hz. While signal-to-noise and linearity were not easily measured, we estimate as few as 10(3) protons can be observed suggesting a dynamic range in excess of 10(5) is available. PMID:1656180

  7. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route: An example of technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates have received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Acceleration of protons in plasma produced from a thin plastic or aluminum target by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Ryc, L.; Torrisi, L.; Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Kaczmarczyk, B.; Makowski, J.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-05-01

    The acceleration of protons in plasma produced from thin mylar (3.5 μ m) and aluminum (2 μm) targets by a 45-fs laser pulses with the energy of 400 mJ and the intensity of up to 1019 W/cm2 was investigated. Characteristics of forward-accelerated protons were measured by the time-of-flight method. In the measurements, special attention was paid to the dependence of proton beam parameters on the laser focus position (FP) in relation to the target surface which resulted in the intensity change within a factor of ~ 10. It was observed that in the case of using the Mylar target, the dependence of both the maximum (Epmax) and the mean (langleEprangle) proton energy on |Δx| is clearly non-symmetric with regard to the point where FP = 0 (the focal plane on the target surface) and highest proton energies are achieved when the focal plane is situated in front of the target. In particular, for the target with the thickness of 3.5 μ m Epmax reached 2.2 MeV for FP = +50 μm while for FP = 0 and FP = ‑100 μm the maximum proton energies reached only 1.6 MeV and 1.3 MeV, respectively. For the aluminum target of 2 μm thickness Ep changed only within ~ 40% and the highest proton energies reached 2.4 MeV.

  9. Laser beam-profile impression and target thickness impact on laser-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, M.; Harres, K.; Nuernberg, F.; Roth, M.; Blazevic, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Fernandez, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Schreiber, J.

    2008-05-15

    Experimental results on the influence of the laser focal spot shape onto the beam profile of laser-accelerated protons from gold foils are reported. The targets' microgrooved rear side, together with a stack of radiochromic films, allowed us to deduce the energy-dependent proton source-shape and size, respectively. The experiments show, that shape and size of the proton source depend only weakly on target thickness as well as shape of the laser focus, although they strongly influence the proton's intensity distribution. It was shown that the laser creates an electron beam that closely follows the laser beam topology, which is maintained during the propagation through the target. Protons are then accelerated from the rear side with an electron created electric field of a similar shape. Simulations with the Sheath-Accelerated Beam Ray-tracing for IoN Analysis code SABRINA, which calculates the proton distribution in the detector for a given laser-beam profile, show that the electron distribution during the transport through a thick target (50 {mu}m Au) is only modified due to multiple small angle scattering. Thin targets (10 {mu}m) show large source sizes of over 100 {mu}m diameter for 5 MeV protons, which cannot be explained by multiple scattering only and are most likely the result of refluxing electrons.

  10. Laser beam-profile impression and target thickness impact on laser-accelerated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollmeier, M.; Harres, K.; Nürnberg, F.; Blažević, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Fernández, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Geißel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Schreiber, J.; Roth, M.

    2008-05-01

    Experimental results on the influence of the laser focal spot shape onto the beam profile of laser-accelerated protons from gold foils are reported. The targets' microgrooved rear side, together with a stack of radiochromic films, allowed us to deduce the energy-dependent proton source-shape and size, respectively. The experiments show, that shape and size of the proton source depend only weakly on target thickness as well as shape of the laser focus, although they strongly influence the proton's intensity distribution. It was shown that the laser creates an electron beam that closely follows the laser beam topology, which is maintained during the propagation through the target. Protons are then accelerated from the rear side with an electron created electric field of a similar shape. Simulations with the Sheath-Accelerated Beam Ray-tracing for IoN Analysis code SABRINA, which calculates the proton distribution in the detector for a given laser-beam profile, show that the electron distribution during the transport through a thick target (50μm Au) is only modified due to multiple small angle scattering. Thin targets (10μm) show large source sizes of over 100μm diameter for 5MeV protons, which cannot be explained by multiple scattering only and are most likely the result of refluxing electrons.

  11. Laser Acceleration of Protons Using Multi-Ion Plasma Gaseous Targets and Its Medical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Liu, Tung-Chang; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Hill, Wendell; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2014-10-01

    We present an acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO2 laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm, the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the foil compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with peak power 70 TW and pulse duration of 150 wave periods. We compared the effects of modifying the thickness and density of the gaseous targets and showed that the compression of the gaseous target affects significantly in the quasi-monoenergetic property of the proton beams. To assess the feasibility of laser-proton cancer therapy with such a proton accelerator, simulations are carried out to model the interaction of protons with water and determine the depth and lateral dose distribution for particle beams produced from PIC simulation. Comparison between the dosage maps of the proton beams produced with different foil densities and thicknesses is also presented. This work was supported by US DoE Grant DE-SC0008391.

  12. Particle Simulations of a Linear Dielectric Wall Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Blackfield, D T; Nelson, S D

    2007-06-12

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact induction accelerator structure that incorporates the accelerating mechanism, pulse forming structure, and switch structure into an integrated module. The DWA consists of stacked stripline Blumlein assemblies, which can provide accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/meter. Blumleins are switched sequentially according to a prescribed acceleration schedule to maintain synchronism with the proton bunch as it accelerates. A finite difference time domain code (FDTD) is used to determine the applied acceleration field to the proton bunch. Particle simulations are used to model the injector as well as the accelerator stack to determine the proton bunch energy distribution, both longitudinal and transverse dynamic focusing, and emittance growth associated with various DWA configurations.

  13. Requirements of a proton beam accelerator for an accelerator-driven reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Zhao, Y.; Tsoupas, N.; An, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1997-12-31

    When the authors first proposed an accelerator-driven reactor, the concept was opposed by physicists who had earlier used the accelerator for their physics experiments. This opposition arose because they had nuisance experiences in that the accelerator was not reliable, and very often disrupted their work as the accelerator shut down due to electric tripping. This paper discusses the requirements for the proton beam accelerator. It addresses how to solve the tripping problem and how to shape the proton beam.

  14. Neutron transition densities for 48Ca from proton scattering at 200 and 318 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, A. E.; Kelly, J. J.; Flanders, B. S.; Khandaker, M. A.; Seifert, H.; Boberg, P.; Hyman, S. D.; Karen, P. H.; Norum, B. E.; Welch, P.; Chen, Q.; Bacher, A. D.; Berg, G. P.; Stephenson, E. J.; Nanda, S.; Saha, A.; Scott, A.

    1994-04-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for scattering of 200 and 318 MeV protons have been measured for states of 48Ca up to 7 MeV of excitation. The data cover c.m. momentum transfers from approximately 0.4 to 3.0 fm-1. Neutron transition densities were extracted for the 2+1,3-1,3-2,4+2, and 5-1 states using density-dependent empirical effective interactions previously calibrated upon elastic and inelastic scattering data for 16O and 40Ca. The corresponding proton transition densities were obtained from electron scattering data and held fixed during the analysis. Fits performed to the data for either energy provide excellent predictions for the other. Neutron densities fitted to data for either energy independently agree very well with each other and with the densities fitted to both data sets simultaneously. These densities are also consistent with earlier data for 500 MeV protons. The energy-independence of the extracted transition densities demonstrates that residual errors in the reaction model are compatible with the error bands estimated by the fitting procedure. Several additional tests of the model dependence of the results were performed also. The proton and neutron transition densities are compared with calculations based upon the extended random phase approximation, which includes 2p2h correlations. These calculations are most successful for densities dominated by 1p1h configurations, whereas densities requiring substantial 2p2h contributions tend to be underestimated.

  15. Experimental evidence of the superfocusing effect for axially channeled MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motapothula, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2016-08-01

    Sub-Ångström focusing of megaelectronvolt (MeV) ions within axial channels was predicted over 10 years ago, but evidence proved elusive. We present experimental angular distributions of axially channeled MeV protons in a 55-nm-thick (001) silicon membrane through which multiple scattering is negligible. Fine angular structure is in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on three interaction potentials, providing indirect evidence of the existence of the superfocusing effect with flux enhancement of around 800 within a focused beam width of ˜20 pm .

  16. Effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the mechanical properties of polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David J. T.; Hopewell, Jefferson L.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the elongation to break, fracture energy and Young's Modulus have been investigated for films of Kapton and Ultem over the dose range 0-75 MGy at ambient temperature. The results have been compared with those reported by other workers for irradiation by 60Co gamma rays and 2 MeV electron beams under similar conditions, and little difference was found between the damage to the mechanical properties of the films induced by these three beam types.

  17. Transport mechanism of MeV protons in tapered glass capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Jun; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Jaiyen, Sarawut; Polee, Chalermpong; Chankow, Nares

    2011-08-15

    To investigate the transport mechanism of MeV protons in tapered glass capillaries, spatially resolved energy spectra were measured for proton microbeams focused by 20-{mu}m-outlet capillaries having various taper angles. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were also performed to support the experiments and trace each particle in the capillary in more detail. The dependence of the proton energy distribution on the outgoing angle proved that the capillary-focused proton beam consists of two different components, protons traveling straight through the capillary without colliding with the capillary wall and protons scattered by the capillary inner wall. Moreover, the focusing effect of the tapered glass capillary was found to be mainly due to the scattered beam component. The MC simulations well reproduced the experimental results and showed that beam focusing ratios of 1.6-2.4 are possible with capillaries having a convex inner wall. The flight distance of the scattered proton in the capillary glass body was found to play an important role in determining transport efficiency of the protons through the capillary.

  18. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  19. Proton acceleration in the interaction of high power laser and cryogenic hydrogen targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rohini; Fiuza, Frederico; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    High intensity laser driven ion acceleration has attracted great interest due to many prospective applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion, cancer therapy, particle accelerators. Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations are performed to model and design experiments at MEC for high power laser interaction with cryogenic hydrogen targets of tunable density and thickness. Preliminary 1D and 2D simulations, using fully relativistic particle-in-cell code PICLS, show a unique regime of proton acceleration, e.g. ~ 300 MeV peak energy protons are observed in the 1D run for interaction of ~1020 W/cm2, 110 fs intense laser with 6nc dense (nc = 1021 cm-3) and 2 micron thin target. The target is relativistically under-dense for the laser and we observe that a strong (multi-terawatt) shock electric field is produced and protons are reflected to high velocities by this field. Further, the shock field and the laser field keep propagating through the hydrogen target and meets up with target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) electric field produced at the target rear edge and vacuum interface and this superposition amplifies the TNSA fields resulting in higher proton energy. In addition, the electrons present at the rear edge of the target continue to gain energy via strong interaction with laser that crosses the target and these accelerated electrons maintains higher electric sheath fields which further provides acceleration to protons. We will also present detailed investigation with 2D PICLS simulations to gain a better insight of such physical processes to characterize multidimensional effects and establish analytical scaling between laser and target conditions for the optimization of proton acceleration.

  20. High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement from hydrogen containing ultrathin targets

    SciTech Connect

    Dollar, F.; Reed, S. A.; Matsuoka, T.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; McGuffey, C.; Rousseau, P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Litzenberg, D. W.

    2013-09-30

    Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 × 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup −15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1μm) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%–100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.

  1. Experimental stand for studying the impact of laser-accelerated protons on biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdonov, K. F.; Eremeev, A. A.; Ignatova, N. I.; Osmanov, R. R.; Sladkov, A. D.; Soloviev, A. A.; Starodubtsev, M. V.; Ginzburg, V. N.; Kuz'min, A. A.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Revet, G.; Sergeev, A. M.; Fuchs, J.; Khazanov, E. A.; Chen, S.; Shaykin, A. A.; Shaikin, I. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    An original experimental stand is presented, aimed at studying the impact of high-energy protons, produced by the laser-plasma interaction at a petawatt power level, on biological objects. In the course of pilot experiments with the energy of laser-accelerated protons up to 25 MeV, the possibility is demonstrated of transferring doses up to 10 Gy to the object of study in a single shot with the magnetic separation of protons from parasitic X-ray radiation and fast electrons. The technique of irradiating the cell culture HeLa Kyoto and measuring the fraction of survived cells is developed. The ways of optimising the parameters of proton beams and the suitable methods of their separation with respect to energy and transporting to the studied living objects are discussed. The construction of the stand is intended for the improvement of laser technologies for hadron therapy of malignant neoplasms.

  2. The radiation dosimetry of a quartz viewer irradiated with a 4.5 MeV proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyasathian, Kalong

    The present dissertation describes a procedure to measure the radiation dose received by an accelerator operator who uses a quartz viewer to locate an ion beam. This procedure consists of the following steps: (i) A solid-state gamma radiation detector was calibrated to determine its efficiency and its energy scale. (ii) The calibrated detector was used to measure the gamma energy spectrum obtained when bombarding the viewer with the ion beam. This measurement was normalized, that is, beam current and measurement duration were determined. (iii) Individual gamma energy lines were extracted from the gamma spectrum and the respective energies and emission rates were obtained. Energies were checked with known transitions in silicon and oxygen, to ensure correct identification. (iv) The Compton gamma energy spectrum generated by the primary gamma rays was determined using a Compton code. (v) Finally the charged-ion bremsstrahlung spectrum was obtained using the formalism of Alder et. al. In this dissertation several prospective contributors to the radiation dose have been checked and were found to be insignificant. They were: the radiation dose due to x-rays generated by Compton electrons and the radiation dose generated by electrons produced by collisions with the incident ions. With a proton energy of 4.5 MeV the eye dose equivalent was determined at 0 and 90 degrees to the proton beam. At 0 degree with a proton fluence rate of 8.9 x 1011 protons/s the dose was 8.7 x 10-3 rem/hr. At 90 degrees with a proton fluence rate of 1.1 x 1012 protons/s the dose was 8.1 x 10-3 rem/hr.

  3. Isotopic production cross sections in proton-nucleus collisions at 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Machner, H.; Aschman, D.G.; Steyn, D.; Baruth-Ram, K.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Cowley, A.A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Nangu, B.M.; Spoelstra, B.; Pilcher, J.V.; Smit, F.D.

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate-mass fragments from the interaction of {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, and {sup 197}Au with 200-MeV protons were measured in an angular range from 20 deg. to 120 deg. in the laboratory system. The fragments, ranging from isotopes of helium up to isotopes of carbon, were isotopically resolved. Double-differential cross sections, energy-differential cross sections, and total cross sections were extracted.

  4. Effects of 22 MeV protons on single junction and silicon controlled rectifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, M. E., III

    1972-01-01

    The effects of 22-MeV protons on various types of silicon single junction and silicon controlled rectifiers were investigated. The results show that low-leakage devices and silicon controlled rectifiers are the most susceptable to radiation damage. There are also differences noted between single junction rectifiers of the same type made by different manufacturers, which emphasizes the need for better selection of devices used in spacecraft.

  5. Proton beam studies with a 1.25 MeV, cw radio frequency quadrupole linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, G.O.; Hardek, T.W.; Hansborough, L.D.

    1998-12-31

    A high-current, cw linear accelerator has been proposed as a spallation neutron source driver for tritium production. Key features of this accelerator are high current (100 mA), low emittance-growth beam propagation, cw operation, high efficiency, and minimal maintenance downtime. A 268 MHz, cw radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) LINAC section and klystrode based rf system were obtained from the Chalk River Laboratories and were previously installed at LANL to support systems development and advanced studies in support of cw, proton accelerators. A variation of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) proton injector, modified to operate at 50 keV, was mated to the RFQ and was operated to support advance developments for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. High current, proton beam studies were completed which focused on the details of injector-RFQ integration, development of beam diagnostics, development of operations procedures, and personnel and equipment safety systems integration. This development led to acceleration of up to 100 mA proton beam.

  6. Shock-Wave Acceleration of Protons on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberberger, D.; Froula, D. H.; Pak, A.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Fiuza, F.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental results using shock-wave acceleration (SWA) driven by a CO2 laser in a H2 gas-jet plasma have shown the possibility of producing proton beams with energy spreads <10% and with energies of up to 20 MeV using a modest peak laser power of 4 TW. Here we propose the investigation of the scaling of the SWA mechanism to higher laser powers using the 1- μm OMEGA EP Laser System at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The required tailored plasma profile is created by expanding a CH target using the thermal x-ray emission from a UV ablated material. The desired characteristics optimal for SWA are met: (a) peak plasma density is overcritical for the 1- μm main pulse and (b) the plasma profile exponentially decays over a long scale length on the rear side. Results will be shown using a 4 ω probe to experimentally characterize the plasma density profile. Scaling from simulations of the SWA mechanism shows that ion energies in the range of 100 MeV/amu are achievable with a focused a0 of 5 from the OMEGA EP Laser System. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Acceleration of interstellar pickup protons at the heliospheric termination shock: Voyager 1/2 energetic proton fluxes in the inner heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, S. V.; Malama, Y. G.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of energetic protons in the range from 30 keV up to several MeV measured at the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft downstream of the heliospheric termination shock can be explained by shock-drift acceleration theory, which includes variations of the magnetic field direction in a vicinity of the shock. The variations can be connected with the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field near the solar equatorial plane. Theoretical fluxes of accelerated protons are calculated numerically in the framework of a 3D kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the solar wind and local interstellar medium.

  8. Laser Radiation Pressure Accelerator for Quasi-Monoenergetic Proton Generation and Its Medical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. S.; Shao, X.; Liu, T. C.; Su, J. J.; He, M. Q.; Eliasson, B.; Tripathi, V. K.; Dudnikova, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Wilks, S.; Chen, C. D.; Sheng, Z. M.

    Laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of ultrathin foils of subwavelength thickness provides an efficient means of quasi-monoenergetic proton generation. With an optimal foil thickness, the ponderomotive force of the intense short-pulse laser beam pushes the electrons to the edge of the foil, while balancing the electric field due to charge separation. The electron and proton layers form a self-organized plasma double layer and are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser, the so-called light sail. However, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can limit the acceleration and broaden the energy of the proton beam. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the formation of finger-like structures due to the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability limits the acceleration and leads to a leakage of radiation through the target by self-induced transparency. We here review the physics of quasi-monoenergetic proton generation by RPA and recent advances in the studies of energy scaling of RPA, and discuss the RPA of multi-ion and gas targets. The scheme for generating quasi-monoenergetic protons with RPA has the potential of leading to table-top accelerators as sources for producing monoenergetic 50-250 MeV protons. We also discuss potential medical implications, such as particle therapy for cancer treatment, using quasi-monoenergetic proton beams generated from RPA. Compact monoenergetic ion sources also have applications in many other areas such as high-energy particle physics, space electronics radiation testing, and fast ignition in laser fusion.

  9. Workshop on acceleration of polarized protons: summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Terwilliger, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop sessions concentrated on polarized protons in circular accelerators and storage rings. Topics such as polarized electrons were discussed only when the subject was relevant to proton phenomena. Of major interest was the possible applicability of the new idea of spin matching for crossing depolarizing resonances. On the experimental side, some remarkable new data were presented by the SATURNE II Group. They have successfully crossed both intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances by the spin flip method with minimal depolarization-the first group to do so. They also obtained some results which apparently cannot be explained with our present understanding of spin phenomena. The workshop concluded that more experimental measurements are needed to understand the physics and that such studies would be very important for the future acceleration of polarized protons at KEK and the AGS. The workshop included status reports from the four laboratories which have programs of polarized particle acceleration--or approved projects to accelerate polarized protons.

  10. Status Of The Dielectric Wall Accelerator For Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen Yujiuan; Watson, James A.; Blackfield, Don T.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.; Stanley, Joel R.; Sullivan, James S.

    2011-06-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) offers the potential to produce a high gradient linear accelerator for proton therapy and other applications. The current status of the DWA for proton therapy will be reviewed. Recent progress in SiC photoconductive switch development will be presented. There are serious beam transport challenges in the DWA arising from short pulse excitation of the wall. Solutions to these transport difficulties will be discussed.

  11. Occurrence of brain tumors in rhesus monkeys exposed to 55-MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    Twenty-year observation of monkeys exposed to single doses of high energy protons simulating solar particles revealed that the most prevalent fatal cancers were brain tumors in the group of animals exposed to 55-MeV protons. Of 72 animals (50 males and 22 females) receiving 0.25 to 8.0 Gy total body surface dose, nine developed fatal tumors classified as grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. The latent period for tumor development ranged from 14 months to 20 years, with a median of 5 years. Doses associated with the tumors were 4.0 to 8.0 Gy. Eight males and one female were affected. Depth-dose determinations suggest that the high incidence of cerebral neoplasia is associated with the Bragg Peak energy distribution of the 55-MeV protons. Comparison of the tumor incidence with that in humans with brain exposures incidental to radiotherapy indicates a high biological effectiveness compared with gamma radiation. Studies are in progress to attempt to replicate the results in rodents and establish a dose-response curve for proton-induced brain tumors.

  12. Modification of radiobiological effects of 171 MeV protons by elements of physical protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation includes protons of various energies. Physical protection is effective in the case of low energy protons (50-100 MeV) and becomes insufficient for radiation with a high part of high-energy protons. In the experiment performed on outbred mice, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiobiological effect of 171 MeV protons and protons modified by elements of physical protection of the spacecraft, on a complex of indicators of the functional condition of the system hematopoiesis and the central nervous system in 24 hours after irradiation at 20 cGy dose. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a «protective curtain», and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Mass thickness of the " protective curtain" in terms of water equivalent was ̴ 6,2 g/cm2. Physical shielding along the path of 171 MeV protons increases their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, the two types of shielding together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. The effects observed in the experiment indicate the necessity to carry out comprehensive radiobiological researches (physical, biological and mathematical) in assessing the effects of physical protection, that are actual for ensuring radiation safety of crews in

  13. On the threshold of proton acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the reconnection theory of a flare and on recent observational and statistical findings, the problem of the initial acceleration of solar cosmic rays (SCR) is discussed. Simple estimates of the electric fields required to start the electron acceleration are obtained and the problem of proton ionization losses for overcoming the Coulomb barrier is considered. We take into account also the possible differences between proton and electron spectra from the very beginning of the acceleration process. Special attention is paid to the distribution functions of solar flare events in various parameters (peak fluxes and/or energy fluences in X-ray and radio wave bursts, in proton and electron emissions, etc.). It is shown that the distribution functions allow the interpretation of some scale and time flare parameters in terms of expected threshold effects. However, these functions are still insuffienet to evaluate the relative share of different emissions in the global energy budget of a flare. In this context, a more promising approach is to derive the direct ratio between the number of accelerated protons, Np, and total flare energy, Wf, within the frame of a certain acceleration model. It is argued that an absolute threshold for proton production (in Hudson's formulation) does not exist. Meanwhile, the flux and threshold energy of accelerated protons overcoming the Coulomb loss maximum, in fact, may depend heavily on the global output of flare energy.

  14. Numerical study of a linear accelerator using laser-generated proton beams as a source

    SciTech Connect

    Antici, P.; Fazi, M.; Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Lombardi, A.; Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J.

    2008-12-15

    The injection of laser-generated protons through conventional drift tube linear accelerators (linacs) has been studied numerically. For this, we used the parameters of the proton source produced by ultraintense lasers, i.e., with an intrinsic high beam quality. The numerical particle tracing code PARMELA[L. M. Young and J. H. Billen, LANL Report No. LA-UR-96-1835, 2004] is then used to inject experimentally measured laser-generated protons with energies of 7{+-}0.1 MeV and rms un-normalized emittance of 0.180 mm mrad into one drift tube linac tank that accelerated them to more than 14 MeV. The simulations exhibit un-normalized emittance growths of 8 in x direction and 22.6 in y direction, with final emittances lower than those produced using conventional sources, allowing a potential luminosity gain for the final beam. However, the simulations also exhibit a limitation in the allowed injected proton charge as, over 0.112 mA, space charge effect worsens significantly the beam emittance.

  15. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  16. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 250 MeV protons: effects of dose, dose rate and shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K.; Willingham, V.; Wu, H.; Gridley, D.; Nelson, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Although the space radiation environment consists predominantly of energetic protons, astronauts inside a spacecraft are chronically exposed to both primary particles as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary neutrons and secondary charged particles can have an LET value that is greater than the primary protons and, therefore, produce a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Using the accelerator facility at Loma Linda University, we exposed human lymphocytes in vitro to 250 MeV protons with doses ranging from 0 to 60 cGy at three different dose rates: a low dose rate of 7.5 cGy/h, an intermediate dose rate of 30 cGy/h and a high dose rate of 70 cGy/min. The effect of 15 g/cm 2 aluminum shielding on the induction of chromosome aberrations was investigated for each dose rate. After exposure, lymphocytes were incubated in growth medium containing phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and chromosome spreads were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Aberrations were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with three different colored chromosome-painting probes. The frequency of reciprocal and complex-type chromosome exchanges were compared in shielded and unshielded samples.

  17. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 250 MeV protons: effects of dose, dose rate and shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Willingham, V.; Wu, H.; Gridley, D.; Nelson, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the space radiation environment consists predominantly of energetic protons, astronauts inside a spacecraft are chronically exposed to both primary particles as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary neutrons and secondary charged particles can have an LET value that is greater than the primary protons and, therefore, produce a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Using the accelerator facility at Loma Linda University, we exposed human lymphocytes in vitro to 250 MeV protons with doses ranging from 0 to 60 cGy at three different dose rates: a low dose rate of 7.5 cGy/h, an intermediate dose rate of 30 cGy/h and a high dose rate of 70 cGy/min. The effect of 15 g/cm2 aluminum shielding on the induction of chromosome aberrations was investigated for each dose rate. After exposure, lymphocytes were incubated in growth medium containing phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and chromosome spreads were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Aberrations were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with three different colored chromosome-painting probes. The frequency of reciprocal and complex-type chromosome exchanges were compared in shielded and unshielded samples. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 250 MeV protons: effects of dose, dose rate and shielding.

    PubMed

    George, K; Willingham, V; Wu, H; Gridley, D; Nelson, G; Cucinotta, F A

    2002-01-01

    Although the space radiation environment consists predominantly of energetic protons, astronauts inside a spacecraft are chronically exposed to both primary particles as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary neutrons and secondary charged particles can have an LET value that is greater than the primary protons and, therefore, produce a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Using the accelerator facility at Loma Linda University, we exposed human lymphocytes in vitro to 250 MeV protons with doses ranging from 0 to 60 cGy at three different dose rates: a low dose rate of 7.5 cGy/h, an intermediate dose rate of 30 cGy/h and a high dose rate of 70 cGy/min. The effect of 15 g/cm2 aluminum shielding on the induction of chromosome aberrations was investigated for each dose rate. After exposure, lymphocytes were incubated in growth medium containing phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and chromosome spreads were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Aberrations were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with three different colored chromosome-painting probes. The frequency of reciprocal and complex-type chromosome exchanges were compared in shielded and unshielded samples. PMID:12539753

  19. Radiation effects induced in pin photodiodes by 40- and 85-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.; Reft, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  20. Anomalous effects in silicon solar cell irradiated by 1-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Several silicon solar cells having thicknesses of approximately 63 microns, with and without back-surface fields (BSF), were irradiated with 1-MeV protons having fluences between 10 to the 10th and 10 to the 12th sq cm. The irradiations were performed using both normal and isotropic incidence on the rear surfaces of the cells. It was observed that after irradiation with fluences greater than 10 to the 11th protons/sq cm, all BSF cells degraded at a faster rate than cells without BSF. The irradiation results are analyzed using a model in which irradiation-induced defects in the BSF region are taken into account. Tentatively, it is concluded that an increase in defect density due to the formation of aluminum and proton complexes in BSF cells is responsible for the higher-power loss in the BSF cells compared to the non-BSF cells.

  1. Results of hybrid photodiode irradiation by 200 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh A. et al.

    2001-12-03

    Hybrid Photodiodes (HPD, [1]) will be used as the photodetector for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) readout [2]. The HPDs are required to operate in a high radiation environment, where the HCAL detector will receive a total ionizing dose of about 330 rads and a fluence of 4 x 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} over a 10 year running period [3]. Effects of HPD irradiation by low energy neutrons were studied and reported previously [1]. In these studies, high energy protons are used to study possible effects of single event burnout [4], since high energy protons are more likely to induce large energy transfer within the HPD silicon. The HPDs were irradiated by 200 MeV protons at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility [IUCF, 5]. The results of the study are presented.

  2. Response of Cellulose detectors to different doses of 62 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, S. P.; Mishra, R.; Dwivedi, K. K.; Ghosh, S.; Fink, D.; Khathing, D. T.

    2003-08-01

    Optical and thermal responses of two cellulose detectors, Cellulose triacetate (Triafol-TN) and Cellulose acetate butyrate (Triafol-BN), to four different doses of 62 MeV protons were studied using spectroscopic, thermal and track-etching techniques. The spectroscopic analysis revealed that though the optical band-gap in the polymers was affected by proton irradiation, the polymers showed high resistance against any major structural modification by radiation. The thermal stability of the polymers was found to be affected by proton irradiation. The activation energy of etching was found to be almost constant for both the polymers even after irradiation. It is hoped that the findings in this work would be of significant relevance to material science and applications of polymers.

  3. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  4. Trends and applications for MeV electrostatic ion beam accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.; Stodola, S. E.

    2014-08-01

    The 1970s into the 1980s saw a major broadening of applications for electrostatic accelerators. Prior to this time, all accelerators were used primarily for nuclear structure research. In the 70s there was a significant move into production ion implantation with the necessary MeV ion beam analysis techniques such as RBS and ERD. Accelerators are still being built for these materials analysis techniques today. However, there is still a great ongoing expansion of applications for these machines. At the present time, the demand for electrostatic accelerators is near an all time high. The number of applications continues to grow. This paper will touch on some of the current applications which are as diverse as nuclear fission reactor developments and pharmacokinetics. In the field of nuclear engineering, MeV ion beams from electrostatic accelerators are being used in material damage studies and for iodine and actinide accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). In the field of pharmacokinetics, electrostatic MeV accelerators are being used to detect extremely small amounts of above background 14C. This has significantly reduced the time required to reach first in human studies. These and other applications will be discussed.

  5. The proton injector for the accelerator facility of antiproton and ion research (FAIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, C. Kester, O.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.

    2014-02-15

    The new international accelerator facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, is one of the largest research projects worldwide and will provide an antiproton production rate of 7 × 10{sup 10} cooled pbars per hour. This is equivalent to a primary proton beam current of 2 × 10{sup 16} protons per hour. For this request a high intensity proton linac (p-linac) will be built with an operating rf-frequency of 325 MHz to accelerate a 35 mA proton beam at 70 MeV, using conducting crossed-bar H-cavities. The repetition rate is 4 Hz with beam pulse length of 36 μs. The microwave ion source and low energy beam transport developed within a joint French-German collaboration GSI/CEA-SACLAY will serve as an injector of the compact proton linac. The 2.45 GHz ion source allows high brightness ion beams at an energy of 95 keV and will deliver a proton beam current of 100 mA at the entrance of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) within an acceptance of 0.3π mm mrad (norm., rms)

  6. Isochoric heating of matter by laser-accelerated high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Atzeni, S.; Benuzzi, A.; Brambrink, E.; Esposito, M.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Schreiber, J.; Schiavi, A.; Audebert, P.

    2006-06-01

    We describe an experiment on isochoric heating of matter by intense laser-accelerated protons. The experiment was performed using the LULI 100 TW facility with 15-20 J on target energy and > 1019 W.cm - 2 maximum focused intensity. Focusing the laser on a 10 micron thick Au foil, we accelerated forward a laminar proton beam with a maximum energy of 16 MeV. This proton beam irradiated and heated a secondary target positioned after a variable vacuum gap. The heating was diagnosed by 1D and 2D time-resolved measurements of the optical self-emission of the heated target rear-surface. Detailed results as a function of the Z and the thickness of the secondary target as well as analysis, including a full modelling of the target heating with a 2D hydro-code (DUED) coupled to a proton energy deposition code, were obtained. We have also studied the efficiency of heating as a function of the primary target topology, i.e. either flat, which results in a diverging proton beam, or curved, which has the ability of focusing partly the proton beam.

  7. A prototype beam delivery system for the proton medical accelerator at Loma Linda (US)

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, G.; Bauman, M.; Lesyna, D.; Miller, D.; Nusbaum, J.; Slater, J.; Johanning, J.; Miranda, J. ); DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Siebers, J. ); Ludewigt, B. )

    1991-11-01

    A variable energy proton accelerator was commissioned at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for use in cancer treatment at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. The advantages of precise dose localization by proton therapy, while sparing nearby healthy tissue, are well documented (R. R. Wilson, Radiology {bold 47}, 487 (1946); M. Wagner, Med. Phys. {bold 9}, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. {bold 10}, 831 (1983)). One of the components of the proton therapy facility is a beam delivery system capable of delivering precise dose distributions to the target volume in the patient. To this end, a prototype beam delivery system was tested during the accelerator's commissioning period. The beam delivery system consisted of a beam spreading device to produce a large, uniform field, a range modulator to generate a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP), and various beam detectors to measure intensity, beam centering, and dose distributions. The beam delivery system provided a uniform proton dose distribution in a cylindrical volume of 20-cm-diam area and 9-cm depth. The dose variations throughout the target volume were found to be less then {plus minus}5%. Modifications in the range modulator should reduce this considerably. The central axis dose rate in the region of the SOBP was found to be 0.4 cGy/spill with an incident beam intensity of 6.7{times}10{sup 9} protons/spill. With an accelerator repetition rate of 30 spills/min and expected intensity of 2.5{times}10{sup 10} protons/spills for patient treatment, this system can provide 50 cGy/min for a 20-cm-diam field and 9-cm range modulation. The distal edge of the spread out Bragg peak was observed at 27.5-cm depth with an incident proton energy of 235 MeV. The dose at the distal edge falls from 90% to 10% of peak value in 7 mm.

  8. Guiding and collimation of laser-accelerated proton beams using thin foils followed with a hollow plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, K. D.; Zhou, C. T.; Qiao, B.; He, X. T.

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that guided and collimated proton acceleration by intense lasers can be achieved using an advanced target—a thin foil followed by a hollow plasma channel. For the advanced target, the laser-accelerated hot electrons can be confined in the hollow channel at the foil rear side, which leads to the formation of transversely localized, Gaussian-distributed sheath electric field and resultantly guiding of proton acceleration. Further, due to the hot electron flow along the channel wall, a strong focusing transverse electric field is induced, taking the place of the original defocusing one driven by hot electron pressure in the case of a purely thin foil target, which results in collimation of proton beams. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that collimated proton beams with energy about 20 MeV and nearly half-reduced divergence of 26° are produced at laser intensities 1020 W/cm2 by using the advanced target.

  9. Polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    At the conclusion of polarized proton commissioning in February 1986, protons with an average polarization of 45%, momentum of 21.7 GeV/c, and intensity of 2 x 10/sup 10/ protons per pulse, were extracted to an external polarimeter at the Brookhaven AGS. In order to maintain this polarization, five intrinsic and nearly forty imperfection depolarizing resonances had to be corrected. An apparent interaction between imperfection and intrinsic resonances occurring at very nearly the same energy was observed and the correction of imperfection resonances using ''beat'' magnetic harmonics discovered in the previous AGS commissioning run was further confirmed.

  10. Neutron Induced Reactions with the 17 Mev Facility at the Athens Tandem Accelerator NCSR 'Demokritos'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Serris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    In the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos" monoenergetic neutron beams have been produced in the energy range∼ 15-20 MeV using anew Ti-tritiated target of 373 GBq activity, by means of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. The corresponding deuteron beam energies obtained from the accelerator, were in the 1.5-4.5MeV range.The maximum flux has been determined to be of the order of 106 n/cm2 s, implementing reference reactions. The 17.1MeV neutron beam has been used for the measurement of 197Au(n,2n) reaction cross section. Theoretical calculations have been performed via the statistical model code EMPIRE and compared to the experimental data of the present work and data from literature.

  11. The 500-MeV, 2 1/2% duty factor linear electron accelerator (MEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, P.J.T.; Kroes, F.B.; Kuijer, L.H.; Noomen, J.G.; Spelt, J.B.; Vogel, A.G.C.

    1983-08-01

    Although the intermediate energy electron accelerator in Amsterdam has not reached completely its design specifications, since early 1981 a fully grown scientific program has developed using beams with an energy ranging from 20 to 120 MeV in the 140 MeV substation (for radio-chemistry and low-energy electron scattering over 180/sup 0/) and from 70 to 400 MeV in the high energy stations for electron scattering and physics with pion and muon beams. A brief description of the MIT-type accelerator and its performance will be given with emphasis on typical features of the machine. Some examples will be given of recently obtained scientific data from which can be derived that the quality of the beam is in full accordance with the high performance level of the scientific equipment, involving a complex beam transport system and a pair of spectrometers for high resolution (1x10/sup -4/) work.

  12. Proton shock acceleration in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, M.; Davies, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Fahlen, J.; Ren, C.; Tsung, F.; Mori, W. B.

    2003-10-01

    The formation of strong, high Mach number (2--3), electrostatic shocks by laser pulses incident on overdense plasma slabs is observed in 1 and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, for a wide range of intensities, pulse durations, target thicknesses and densities. The shocks propagate undisturbed across the plasma, accelerating the ions (protons). For dimensionless field strength parameter a_0=16 (Iλ^2 ≈ 3 × 10^20 W cm-2 μm^2, where I is intensity and λ wavelength) the highest energy protons are accelerated by the shock. A plateau in the ion spectrum provides a direct signature for shock acceleration.

  13. Present Status of the TAC Proton Accelerator Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Akkus, B.; Bilgin, P. S.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2007-04-23

    Recently, conceptual design of the Turkic Accelerator Center (TAC) proposal was completed. The main goal of this proposal is a charm factory that consist of a linac-ring type electron-positron collider. In addition, synchrotron radiation from the positron ring, free electron laser from the electron linac and a GeV energy proton accelerator are proposed. The Project related with this proposal has been accepted by the Turkish State Planning Committee. It is planned that the Tecnical Design Repotr of the TAC will have been written in the next three years. In this study we consider main parameters of the TAC proton accelerator, secondary beams and their applications.

  14. 0.5 - 165 MeV proton and 102 - 312 keV electron injections during the 2006 December 13 SEP event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aran, A.; Agueda, N.; Jacobs, C.; Lario, D.; Sanahuja, B.; Poedts, S.; Marsden, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The last large solar energetic particle event of solar cycle 23 was observed on 2006 December 13. The origin of this event was associated with a X3.4 flare from AR10930 at S06W23 and a fast (> 1700 km/s) halo CME. A long-lasting type III and a metric type II radio burst were also recorded. We combine proton observations from ACE/EPAM, SOHO/ERNE and STEREO/IMPACT (24 energy channels from 0.5 to 165 MeV) to model the proton differential intensities measured during this event. We simulate both the propagation of the CME-driven shock (from 4 solar radii to 1 AU) and the transport of shock-accelerated protons along the upstream interplanetary magnetic field lines. Near-relativistic (102 - 312 keV) electron observations by ACE/EPAM during the early phase of the event are used to constrain the electron transport conditions along the field lines and deduce, via a Monte Carlo transport model, the electron injection profile close to the Sun. The best-fit electron injection profile shows one prompt component consistent with the timing and duration of both the radio type III and the hard X-ray bursts and a second delayed injection component timely associated with the type II radio burst. From the proton modelling we quantify the injection rate of shock accelerated protons and show that most of the > 50 MeV protons are injected when the shock is still close to the Sun (i.e. within 42 solar radii). We compare the inferred electron and proton injections and discuss the possible contribution of flare-related particles in the early phase of the event.

  15. Development of a 20-MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.H.; Kinkead, A.K.; Gai, W.; Power, J.G.; Konecny, R.; Jing, C.G.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; Hu, Y.; Chen, H.; Tang, C.; Lin, Y.; Bruce, R.W.; Bruce, R.L.; Fliflet, A.W.; Lewis, D.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /LET Corp., Washington /Argonne /SLAC /Tsinghua U., Beijing

    2005-06-22

    This paper describes a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by a high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW. The facility will include a 5 MeV electron inector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to {approx} 8 MV/m. SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRl, is developing a means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by ceramic brazing using an intense millimeter-wave beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year. The facility will be used for testing DLA structures using a variety of materials and configurations, and also for testing other X-band accelerator concepts. The initial goal is to produce a compact 20 MeV dielectric-loaded test accelerator.

  16. Proton-nucleus total inelastic cross sections - An empirical formula for E greater than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    An empirical formula for the total inelastic cross section of protons on nuclei with charge greater than 1 is presented. The formula is valid with a varying degree of accuracy down to proton energies of 10 MeV. At high energies (equal to or greater than 2 GeV) the formula reproduces experimental data to within reported errors (about 2%).

  17. An 800-MeV proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Adams, K.; Ables, E.

    1998-12-01

    The capability has been successfully developed at the Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) to utilize a spatially and temporally prepared 800-MeV proton beam to produce proton radiographs. A series of proton bursts are transmitted through a dynamically varying object and transported, via a unique magnetic lens system, to an image plane. The magnetic lens system permits correcting for the effects of multiple coulomb scattering which would otherwise completely blur the spatially transmitted information at the image plane. The proton radiographs are recorded on either a time integrating film plate or with a recently developed multi-frame electronic imaging camera system. The latter technique permits obtaining a time dependent series of proton radiographs with time intervals (modulo 358 ns) up to many microseconds and variable time intervals between images. One electronically shuttered, intensified, CCD camera is required per image. These cameras can detect single protons interacting with a scintillating fiber optic array in the image plane but also have a dynamic range which permits recording radiographs with better than 5% statistics for observation of detailed density variations in the object. A number of tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the proton radiography system for absolute mass determination, resolution, and dynamic range. Initial dynamic experiments characterized the temporal and spatial behavior of shock propagation in high explosives with up to six images per experiment. Based on experience with the prototype system, a number of upgrades are being implemented including the anticipated capability for enhanced mass discrimination through differential multiple coulomb scattering radiographs and more images with improved imaging techniques.

  18. Electrophilic FLUORIDE-18 from AN 11 Mev Proton Cyclotron for Radiolabeling of Presynaptic Dopaminergic PET Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, John Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The reliable production of (^{18 }F) F_2 from an 11 MeV proton cyclotron has been achieved through the implementation of two accelerator targets built to exploit the copious ^{18}O(p,n)^ {18}F cross-section. Yields of electrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 from the targets reached deciCurie levels with specific activities approaching 3 Ci/mmole with 75 minute irradiations at 10 muA. Higher specific activities are expected with longer bombardments and increased beam current. The targets, one nickel, the other with a gold -plated target chamber, have been tested for (^ {18}F) F_2 production efficiency under two bombardment protocols. An economic two-step protocol cryogenically reclaims the precious enriched ^{18}O_{2 } target material following ^ {18}F production, followed by a second (^{18}F) F_2 recovery irradiation of Kr + F_2 . Studies of target performance using this protocol under variable irradiation conditions suggest a five compartment model governing the in-target kinetics. Similarly, the (^{18}F) F_2 yields have been tested using a single irradiation protocol consisting of bombardment of ^{18}O_{2} + F _2. Theoretical descriptions of beam induced phenomena in the irradiated target are also presented. The behavior of these targets cannot be judged solely on the amount of reactive ^{18 }F which elutes from the target; successful radiochemical synthesis utilizing this ^ {18}F activity in a model reaction is the true test. Synthesis of 6- (^{18 }F) fluoro-L-DOPA (6-FD) by the fluoro-demercuration method of Luxen served this purpose, testing the eletrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 gas from the two targets and two irradiation protocols. Elution of Kr + (^{18}F) F _2 from the two-step method achieved the expected 12% radiochemical yields from (^ {18}F) F_2, while experience with ^{18}F activity eluted with oxygen from the single irradiation protocol suffered lower yields. Solutions to problems associated with 6-FD studies for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are addressed. A

  19. Characterization of the proton beam at the output of the 6.7MeV LEDA RFQ.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. K.; Colestock, P. L. ,; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Lysenko, W. P.; Rybarcyk, L. J.; Schneider, J. D.; Sheffield, R. L.; Smith, H. V.; Wangler, Thomas P.,; Crandall, K. R.; Chan, D.; Garnett, R. W.; Schulze, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    The present configuration of the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) consists of a 75-keV proton injector, a 6.7-MeV 350-MHz cw radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with associated high-power and lowlevel rf systems, a 52-magnet periodic lattice followed by a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and highpower (670-kW cw) beam stop. The rms beam emittance was measured prior to the installation of the 52-magnet lattice, based on wire-scanner measurements of the beam profile at a single location in the HEBT. New measurements with additional diagnostic hardware have been performed to determine the rms transverse beam properties of the beam at the output of the 6.7-MeV LEDA RFQ. The 52-magnet periodic lattice also includes ten beam position monitors (BPMs) evenly spaced in pairs of two. The BPMs provide a measure of the bunched beam current that exhibits nulls at different locations in the lattice. Model predictions of the locations of the nulls and the strength of the bunched beam current are made to determine what information this data can provide regarding the longitudinal beam emittance.

  20. Neutron-proton spin-correlation parameter A sub z z at 68 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hammans, M.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Burzynski, S.; Campbell, J.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M.A.; Sick, I. ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B. )

    1991-05-06

    We report a first measurement of the spin-correlation parameter {ital A}{sub {ital z}{ital z}} in neutron-proton scattering at 67.5 MeV. The results, obtained in the angular range 105{degree}{le}{theta}{sub c.m.}{le}170{degree} with typical accuracies of 0.008, are highly sensitive to the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1}-{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} mixing parameter {epsilon}{sub 1}. A phase-shift analysis based on the current world data yields a value of {epsilon}{sub 1} significantly higher than predicted by modern potential models.

  1. Nuclear excitation functions from 40 to 200 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.; Parker, Lauren A.; Jackman, Kevin R.; Bitteker, Leo J.; Ullmann, John L.; Gulley, Mark S.; Pillai, Chandra; John, Kevin D.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Nortier, Francois M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear formation cross sections are reported for 26 radionuclides, measured with 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of terbium foils. These data provide the basis for the production of medically relevant radionuclides (e.g., 152Tb, 155Tb, 155Eu, and 156Eu) and 153Gd, a potential source used in ongoing efforts to characterize stellar nucleosynthesis routes. Computational predictions from the ALICE2011, CEM03.03, Bertini, and INCL + ABLA codes are compared with newly measured data to contribute to the ongoing process of code development, and yields are calculated for selected radionuclides using measured data.

  2. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-water Scattering at 800 MeV

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nagle, D. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; Mischke, R. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R.

    1982-01-01

    A search has been made for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an unpolarized water target. The result is for the longitudinal asymmetry, A{sub L} = +(6.6 +- 3.2) x 10{sup -7}. Control runs with Pb, using a thickness which gave equivalent beam broadening from Coulomb multiple scattering, but a factor of ten less nuclear interactions than the water target, gave A{sub L} = -(0.5 +- 6.0) x 10{sup -7}.

  3. Phenomenological optical potential analysis of proton-carbon elastic scattering at 200 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Differential cross sections for 200 MeV protons elastically scattered from C-12 were analyzed utilizing a local, complex, spin-dependent optical potential with a harmonic well radial dependence. Analyses were performed using the WKB and eikonal approximations. For the latter, first-order corrections to he phase shifts were incorporated to account for the spin-orbit contribution. Large disagreement between theory and experiment was observed when the usual Thomas form for the spin-orbit potential was utilized. Substantial improvement was obtained by allowing the parameters in the central and spin-orbit potential terms to vary independently.

  4. Charged pions from the isotopes sup 58,64 Ni by 201 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Palmeri, A.; Aiello, S.; Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Pappalardo, G.S. ); Bimbot, L. ); Reide, F. ); Willis, N.; Oeschler, H.

    1989-08-01

    Charged pion production induced by 201 MeV protons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 64}Ni has been studied. The double differential cross sections have been measured over a wide angular range. Different behavior of the angular distribution is observed for low and high energy pions. The yield of positive pions shows a pronounced forward peaked component. The deduced total production yields are about the same for ({ital p},{pi}{sup +}) on both isotopes whereas that for {sup 64}Ni({ital p},{pi}{sup {minus}}) is twice as large as for {sup 58}Ni({ital p},{pi}{sup {minus}}).

  5. A small 1 MeV electron accelerator for measuring heavy metal concentrations in smokestack gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppond, A.; Redden, D. P.; Meitzler, C. R.; Swenson, D. A.

    1997-05-01

    A low-current electron beam may be used as a diagnostic tool to measure the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg) present in the flue gas particulates produced by smelters or cement kilns. A small electron accelerator is being constructed as part of a prototype emissions monitoring system. The electron beam energy has a design energy of 1 MeV, a peak current of 5 mA, and a duty factor of 0.1 percent. In this paper, we discuss the results of a set of EGS4 calculations used to model the transport properties of a 1 MeV electron beam passing through a thin vacuum window and the flue gas. Since the accelerator will be mounted in a harsh environment, we have investigated the effects of temperature variations on the linac structure and RF power source. The present status of the accelerator construction project is presented.

  6. Performance of GaAs and silicon concentrator cells under 37 MeV proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Henry B.; Swartz, Clifford K.

    1987-01-01

    Gallium arsenide concentrator cells from three sources and silicon concentrator cells from one source were exposed to 37 MeV protons at fluences up to 2.8 x 10 to the 12th protons/sq cm. Performance data were taken after several fluences, at two temperatures (25 and 80 C), and at concentration levels from 1 to about 150 x AMO. Data at one sun and 25 C were taken with an X-25 xenon lamp solar simulator. Data at concentration were taken using a pulsed solar simulator with the assumption of a linear relationship between short circuit current and irradiance. The cells are 5 x 5 mm with a 4-mm diameter illuminated area.

  7. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-07-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on gold for production of (197m,197g,195m,195g, 193m,193g,192)Hg, (196m,196g(cum),195g(cum),194,191(cum))Au, (191(cum))Pt and (192)Ir were measured up to 65MeV proton energy, some of them for the first time. The new data are in acceptably good agreement with the recently published earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 (results in TENDL-2015 on-line library) and EMPIRE 3.2 code. PMID:27156194

  8. Hybrid proton acceleration scheme using relativistic intense laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K. Yu.; Schnuerer, M.; Prasad, R.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-03-15

    Ion acceleration phenomena at relativistic intense laser interaction with thin foil targets are studied to find an efficient laser-target interaction concept at the conditions, where neither the ponderomotive pressure of the laser light nor the hot electron pressure is negligible. Particle in cell simulations and the analytical model are allowing to predict optimum laser-target parameters and suggesting a significant increase of proton energy if a hybrid proton acceleration scheme is used. In the proposed scenario, the laser polarisation is changed during the acceleration process: First with circularly polarised laser light the target is accelerated as a whole by the ponderamotive pressure, and then with linearly polarised laser light the electrons are heated which additionally increases the accelerating field. The calculations are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  9. Cross Sections and Analyzing Powers of Nitrogen -15(PROTON, NEUTRON)OXYGEN-15 at 200 Mev and 494 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciskowski, Douglas Edward

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the ^{15} N(p,n)^{15}O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of -Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76 m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than.2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm^{-1}. In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A = -.7 near q = 0.7 fm ^{-1}.

  10. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation. PMID:26272165

  11. Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Protons for Chromosome Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated chromosome exchanges induced in human cells by seven different energies of protons (5–2500 MeV) with LET values ranging from 0.2 to 8 keV/μm. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro and chromosome damage was assessed using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization chromosome painting in chemically condensed chromosomes collected during the first cell division post irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was calculated from the initial slope of the dose–response curve for chromosome exchanges with respect to low dose and low dose-rate γ-rays (denoted as RBEmax), and relative to acute doses of γ-rays (denoted as RBEγAcute). The linear dose–response term was similar for all energies of protons, suggesting that the decrease in LET with increasing proton energy was balanced by the increase in dose from the production of nuclear secondaries. Secondary particles increase slowly above energies of a few hundred megaelectronvolts. Additional studies of 50 g/cm2 aluminum shielded high-energy proton beams showed minor differences compared to the unshielded protons and lower RBE values found for shielded in comparison to unshielded beams of 2 or 2.5 GeV. All energies of protons produced a much higher percentage of complex-type chromosome exchanges when compared to acute doses of γ-rays. The implications of these results for space radiation protection and proton therapy are discussed. PMID:26539409

  12. Anomalous effects in silicon solar cell irradiated by 1-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.E. )

    1989-09-15

    Several silicon solar cells having thicknesses of approximately 63 {mu}m, with and without back-surface fields (BSF), were irradiated with 1-MeV protons having fluences between 10{sup 10} and 10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiations were performed using both normal and isotropic incidence on the rear surfaces of the cells. It was observed that after irradiation with fluences greater than 10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}, all BSF cells degraded at a faster rate than cells without BSF. The irradiation results are analyzed using a model in which irradiation-induced defects in the BSF region are taken into account. A number of other possibilities for BSF cell degradation are considered. Tentatively, it is concluded that an increase in defect density due to the formation of aluminum and proton complexes in BSF cells is responsible for the higher-power loss in the BSF cells compared to the non-BSF cells.

  13. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung -Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan -Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; W. T. Hill, III; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih -Hung

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO₂ laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such a laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.

  14. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Tung -Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan -Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; W. T. Hill, III; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih -Hung

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO₂ laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such amore » laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.« less

  15. Simulation on buildup of electron cloud in a proton circular accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai-Wei; Liu, Yu-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Electron cloud interaction with high energy positive beams are believed responsible for various undesirable effects such as vacuum degradation, collective beam instability and even beam loss in high power proton circular accelerators. An important uncertainty in predicting electron cloud instability lies in the detailed processes of the generation and accumulation of the electron cloud. The simulation on the build-up of electron cloud is necessary to further studies on beam instability caused by electron clouds. The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an intense proton accelerator facility now being built, whose accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H-linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates the 80 MeV proton beam and accelerates it to 1.6 GeV with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. During beam injection with lower energy, the emerging electron cloud may cause serious instability and beam loss on the vacuum pipe. A simulation code has been developed to simulate the build-up, distribution and density of electron cloud in CSNS/RCS. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275221, 11175193)

  16. Stochastic spatial energy deposition profiles for MeV protons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid advances being made in novel high-energy ion-beam techniques such as proton beam writing, single-ion-event effects, ion-beam-radiation therapy, ion-induced fluorescence imaging, proton/ion microscopy, and ion-induced electron imaging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the spatial energy-deposition profiles of energetic ions as they penetrate matter. In this work we present the results of comprehensive yet straightforward event-by-event Monte Carlo calculations that simulate ion/electron propagation and secondary electron ( δ ray) generation to yield spatial energy-deposition data. These calculations combine SRIM/TRIM features, EEDL97 data and volume-plasmon-localization models with a modified version of one of the newer δ ray generation models, namely, the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht. The development of the computer code DEEP (deposition of energy due to electrons and protons) offers a unique means of studying the energy-deposition/redistribution problem while still retaining the important stochastic nature inherent in these processes which cannot be achieved with analytical modeling. As an example of an application of DEEP we present results that compare the energy-deposition profiles of primary MeV protons and primary keV electrons in polymethymethacrylate. Such data are important when comparing proximity effects in the direct write lithography processes of proton-beam writing and electron-beam writing. Our calculations demonstrate that protons are able to maintain highly compact spatial energy-deposition profiles compared with electrons.

  17. Proton linear accelerators: A theoretical and historical introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lapostolle, P.M.

    1989-07-01

    From the beginning, the development of linear accelerators has followed a number of different directions. This report surveys the basic ideas and general principles of such machines, pointing out the problems that have led to the various improvements, with the hope that it may also aid further progress. After a brief historical survey, the principal aspects of accelerator theory are covered in some detail: phase stability, focusing, radio-frequency accelerating structures, the detailed calculation of particle dynamics, and space-charge effects at high intensities. These developments apply essentially to proton and ion accelerators, and only the last chapter deals with a few aspects relative to electrons. 134 refs.

  18. Shielding Benchmark Experiments Through Concrete and Iron with High-Energy Proton and Heavy Ion Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Sasaki, M.; Nunomiya, T.; Nakao, N.; Kim, E.; Kurosawa, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Iwase, H.; Uwamino, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ito, S.; Fukumura, A.; Perry, D. R.; Wright, P.

    The deep penetration of neutrons through thick shield has become a very serious problem in the shielding design of high-energy, high-intensity accelerator facility. In the design calculation, the Monte Carlo transport calculation through thick shields has large statistical errors and the basic nuclear data and model used in the existing Monte Carlo codes are not well evaluated because of very few experimental data. It is therefore strongly needed to do the deep penetration experiment as shielding benchmark for investigating the calculation accuracy. Under this circumference, we performed the following two shielding experiments through concrete and iron, one with a 800 MeV proton accelerator of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), England and the other with a high energy heavy iron accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan. Here these two shielding benchmark experiments are outlined.

  19. Plasma wakefield acceleration with a modulated proton bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, A.; Lotov, K. V.

    2011-10-15

    The plasma wakefield amplitudes which could be achieved via the modulation of a long proton bunch are investigated. We find that in the limit of long bunches compared to the plasma wavelength, the strength of the accelerating fields is directly proportional to the number of particles in the drive bunch and inversely proportional to the square of the transverse bunch size. The scaling laws were tested and verified in detailed simulations using parameters of existing proton accelerators, and large electric fields were achieved, reaching 1 GV/m for LHC bunches. Energy gains for test electrons beyond 6 TeV were found in this case.

  20. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  1. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongquan; Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e+ bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1-10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >107/s, peak brightness of 1014/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a "Fast Beam Chopper" is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1-10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  2. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-07-10

    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  3. A Monte Carlo Model for LET Spectra of 200 MeV Protons Used for Microelectronic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Culpepper, William X.

    2003-01-01

    The direct ionization Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for 200 MeV protons in silicon is much smaller than that for higher charged particles since LET increases as the square of the ion charge. However, occasionally the proton interacts with the silicon nuclei and produces a shower of fragments and a recoiling nucleus. When this happens, the LET produced is much greater than the direct ionization LET. Testing the single event effect susceptibility of components using energetic (200 MeV) protons is often the only viable option for system level testing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) avionics that have not been designed for space environments. However, the question of how a system tested with protons will perform in a heavy ion environment arises. Here the concern is not only with prediction of on-orbit upset rate, but also about possibility of on-orbit failures that were not observed during proton testing.

  4. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV.

  5. Comparison between calculation and measurement of energy deposited by 800 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1980-04-03

    The High Energy Transport Code, HETC, was obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and altered as necessary to run on a CDC 7600 using the LTSS software in use at LLNL. HETC was then used to obtain calculated estimates of energy deposited, for comparison with a series of benchmark experiments done by LLNL. These experiments used proton beams of various energies incident on well-defined composite targets in good geometry. In this report, two aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam are discussed. Both aspects involve the fact that workers at SAI had previously used their version of HETC to calculate this experiment and reported their comparison with the measured data. The first aspect addressed is that their calculated data and LLNL calculations do not agree, suggesting an error in the conversion process from the RSIC code. The second aspect is not independent of the first, but is of sufficient importance to merit separate emphasis. It is that the SAI calculations agree well with experiments at the detector plate located some distance from the shower plate, whereas the LLNL calculations show a clearcut discrepancy there in comparison with the experiment. A contract was let in January 1980 by LLNL with SAI in order to obtain full details on the two cited aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam. The ensuing discussion is based on the final report of that contracted work.

  6. Accelerating slow excited state proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David J; Concepcion, Javier J; Brennaman, M Kyle; Binstead, Robert A; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-01-15

    Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L(-•))Ru(b)(III)-OH(2) with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near-diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO(4)(2-) and partial quenching by added acetate anion (OAc(-)) in buffered solutions with pH control. A Stern-Volmer analysis of quenching by OAc(-) gave a quenching rate constant of k(q) = 4.1 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1) and an estimated pK(a)* value of ~5 ± 1 for the [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L(•-))Ru(b)(III)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)]* excited state. Following proton loss and rapid excited-state decay to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH)(3+)] in a H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) buffer, back proton transfer occurs from H(2)PO(4)(-) to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] with k(PT,2) = 4.4 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1). From the intercept of a plot of k(obs) vs. [H(2)PO(4)(-)], k = 2.1 × 10(6) s(-1) for reprotonation by water providing a dramatic illustration of kinetically limiting, slow proton transfer for acids and bases with pK(a) values intermediate between pK(a)(H(3)O(+)) = -1.74 and pK(a)(H(2)O) = 15.7. PMID:23277551

  7. Proton acceleration from short pulse lasers interacting with ultrathin foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Christopher; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using 50 nm Si3N4 and DLC foils are compared to published experimental data of proton acceleration from ultra-thin foils (<1 μm) irradiated by short pulse lasers (30-50 fs), and some underlying physics issues pertinent to proton acceleration have been addressed. 2D particle-in-cell simulations show that the maximum proton energy scales as I2/3, stronger than Target Normal Sheath Acceleration for thick foils (>1 μm), which is typically between I1/3 and I1/2. Published experimental data were found to depend primarily on the laser energy and scale as E2/3. The different scaling laws for thick (>1 μm) and ultra-thin (<1 μm) foils are explained qualitatively as transitioning from Target Normal Sheath Acceleration to more advanced acceleration schemes such as Radiation-Induced Transparency and Radiation Pressure Acceleration regimes. This work was performed with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-14-1-0282.

  8. Rapid acceleration of protons upstream of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts

    PubMed Central

    Ukhorskiy, AY; Sitnov, MI; Merkin, VG; Artemyev, AV

    2013-01-01

    [1] Transport and acceleration of ions in the magnetotail largely occurs in the form of discrete impulsive events associated with a steep increase of the tail magnetic field normal to the neutral plane (Bz), which are referred to as dipolarization fronts. The goal of this paper is to investigate how protons initially located upstream of earthward moving fronts are accelerated at their encounter. According to our analytical analysis and simplified two-dimensional test-particle simulations of equatorially mirroring particles, there are two regimes of proton acceleration: trapping and quasi-trapping, which are realized depending on whether the front is preceded by a negative depletion in Bz. We then use three-dimensional test-particle simulations to investigate how these acceleration processes operate in a realistic magnetotail geometry. For this purpose we construct an analytical model of the front which is superimposed onto the ambient field of the magnetotail. According to our numerical simulations, both trapping and quasi-trapping can produce rapid acceleration of protons by more than an order of magnitude. In the case of trapping, the acceleration levels depend on the amount of time particles stay in phase with the front which is controlled by the magnetic field curvature ahead of the front and the front width. Quasi-trapping does not cause particle scattering out of the equatorial plane. Energization levels in this case are limited by the number of encounters particles have with the front before they get magnetized behind it. PMID:26167430

  9. Acceleration of Ultra-Low Emittance Proton and Ion Beams with High Intensity Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Thomas E.

    2002-11-01

    Intense beams of several MeV protons and ions, generated by the interaction of high-intensity short pulse lasers with thin foils, have been observed by many researchers in recent years.(S.P. Hatchett et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2076 (2000); T.E. Cowan et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 455, 130 (2000); R.A. Snavely et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945 (2000); S.C. Wilks et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 532 (2000); E. Clark et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 670 (2000).) In experiments performed at the 100 TW LULI laser, we have succeeded to control the ion acceleration process to produce ultra high quality proton beams, whose transverse emittance is <0.006 π mm-mrad (rms-normalized), a factor of 100 lower than is typical of conventional RF linear accelerators. Within the envelope of the entire beam, we could focus individual proton beamlets to 100 nm spatial scales. This required control of the laser-plasma interaction, of the transport of MA currents of relativistic electrons through the target substrate, and of the surface topology and source material layering on the target foil rear-surface.(M. Roth et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 061002 (2002).) By varying the source material, we also accelerated light ion beams, such as He-like fluorine, to over 5 MeV/nucleon.(M. Hegelich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 085002 (2002).) From PIC simulations we understand the highest-energy and lowest-divergence proton acceleration as a transient laser-driven virtual cathode effect occurring at the target rear-surface. We have also confirmed the acceleration of ions from the front surface (A. Maksimchuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108 (2000).), which we find exhibits an intense low-energy component, but only a tenuous high-energy component, in agreement with PIC simulations. This work was performed with corporate support of General Atomics.

  10. On the acceleration of ions by interplanetary shock waves. 3: High time resolution observations of CIR proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesses, M. E.; Vanallen, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Observations within + or - 3 hours of corotating interaction region (CIR) shock waves of proton intensities, pitch angle distribution and crude differential energy spectra of the range of 0.6 E sub p 3.4 MeV are presented. The principle result is the evidence for the persistent flow of particles away from the shock. The observations are found to be in good agreement with the hypothesis of local interplanetary shock acceleration by the shock drift and compression mechanisms. The same set of observations strongly suggest that transit time damping does not play an important role in the acceleration of protons to 1 MeV in the immediate vicinity of CIR shocks.

  11. Independent isotopic yields in 25 MeV and 50 MeV proton-induced fission of natU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, H.; Gorelov, D.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Parkkonen, J.; Peräjärvi, K.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simutkin, V.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Voss, A.; Äystö, J.

    2016-04-01

    Independent isotopic yields for elements from Zn to La in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were determined with the JYFLTRAP facility. In addition, isotopic yields for Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pd and Xe in the 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were measured. The deduced isotopic yield distributions are compared with a Rubchenya model, the GEF model with universal parameters and the semi-empirical Wahl model. Of these, the Rubchenya model gives the best overall agreement with the obtained data. Combining the isotopic yield data with mass yield data to obtain the absolute independent yields was attempted. The result depends on the mass yield distribution.

  12. Future laser-accelerated proton beams at ELI-Beamlines as potential source of positron emitters for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, E.; Italiano, A.; Margarone, D.; Pagano, B.; Baldari, S.; Korn, G.

    2016-04-01

    The development of novel compact PET radionuclide production systems is of great interest to promote the diffusion of PET diagnostics, especially in view of the continuous development of novel, fast and efficient, radiopharmaceutical methods of labeling. We studied the feasibility to produce clinically-relevant amounts of PET isotopes by means of laser-accelerated proton sources expected at the ELI-Beamlines facility where a PW, 30 fs, 10 Hz laser system will be available. The production yields of several positron emitters were calculated through the TALYS software, by taking into account three possible scenarios of broad proton spectra expected, with maximum energies ranging from about 8 MeV to 100 MeV. With the hypothesized proton fluencies, clinically-relevant amounts of radionuclides can be obtained, suitable to prepare single doses of radiopharmaceuticals exploiting modern fast and efficient labeling systems.

  13. A study of gamma-ray and neutron radiation in the interaction of a 2 MeV proton beam with various materials.

    PubMed

    Kasatov, D; Makarov, A; Shchudlo, I; Taskaev, S

    2015-12-01

    Epithermal neutron source based on a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and lithium target has been proposed, developed and operated in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The source is regarded as a prototype of a future compact device suitable for carrying out BNCT in oncology centers. In this work the measurements of gamma-ray and neutron radiation are presented for the interaction of a 2 MeV proton beam with various materials (Li, C, F, Al, V, Ti, Cu, Mo, stainless steel, and Ta). The obtained results enabled the optimization of the neutron-generating target and the high energy beam transportation path. PMID:26298434

  14. The non-orthogonal fixed beam arrangement for the second proton therapy facility at the National Accelerator Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, A. N.; Jones, D. T. L.; Conradie, J. L.; Fourie, D. T.; Botha, A. H.; Müller, A.; Smit, H. A.; O'Ryan, A.; Vernimmen, F. J. A.; Wilson, J.; Stannard, C. E.

    1999-06-01

    The medical user group at the National Accelerator Center (NAC) is currently unable to treat all eligible patients with high energy protons. Developing a second proton treatment room is desirable since the 200 MeV proton beam from the NAC separated sector cyclotron is currently under-utilized during proton therapy sessions. During the patient positioning phase in one treatment room, the beam could be used for therapy in a second room. The second proton therapy treatment room at the NAC will be equipped with two non-orthogonal beam lines, one horizontal and one at 30 degrees to the vertical. The two beams will have a common isocentre. This beam arrangement together with a versatile patient positioning system (commercial robot arm) will provide the radiation oncologist with a diversity of possible beam arrangements and offers a reasonable cost-effective alternative to an isocentric gantry.

  15. The non-orthogonal fixed beam arrangement for the second proton therapy facility at the National Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schreuder, A. N.; Jones, D. T. L.; Conradie, J. L.; Fourie, D. T.; Botha, A. H.; Mueller, A.; Smit, H. A.; O'Ryan, A.; Vernimmen, F. J. A.; Wilson, J.; Stannard, C. E.

    1999-06-10

    The medical user group at the National Accelerator Center (NAC) is currently unable to treat all eligible patients with high energy protons. Developing a second proton treatment room is desirable since the 200 MeV proton beam from the NAC separated sector cyclotron is currently under-utilized during proton therapy sessions. During the patient positioning phase in one treatment room, the beam could be used for therapy in a second room. The second proton therapy treatment room at the NAC will be equipped with two non-orthogonal beam lines, one horizontal and one at 30 degrees to the vertical. The two beams will have a common isocentre. This beam arrangement together with a versatile patient positioning system (commercial robot arm) will provide the radiation oncologist with a diversity of possible beam arrangements and offers a reasonable cost-effective alternative to an isocentric gantry.

  16. Comparison of radiobiological effective depths in 65-MeV modulated proton beams.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J. T.; Inoue, T.; Inoue, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Fukushima, S.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Koizumi, M.; Ozeki, S.; Hatanaka, K.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the achievement of uniformity of radiobiological effectiveness at different depths in the proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to 65-MeV modulated proton beams at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University. We selected four different irradiation positions: 2 mm depth, corresponding to the entrance, and 10, 18 and 23 mm depths, corresponding to different positions in the SOBP. Cell survival curves were generated with the in vitro colony formation method and fitted to the linear-quadratic model. With 137Cs gamma-rays as the reference irradiation, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for a surviving fraction (SF) level of 0.1 are 1.05, 1.10, 1.12 and 1.19 for depths of 2, 10, 18 and 23 mm respectively. A significant difference was found between the survival curves at 10 and 23 mm (P < 0.05), but not between 18 and 10 mm or between 18 and 23 mm. There was a significant dependence of RBE on depths in modulated proton beams at the 0.1 surviving fraction level (P < 0.05). Moreover, the rise of RBEs significantly depended on increasing SF level or decreased approximately in correspondence with irradiation dose (P = 0.0001). To maintain uniformity of radiobiological effectiveness for the target volume, careful attention should be paid to the influence of depth of beam and irradiation dose. PMID:9231922

  17. "Cabinet-Safe" Study of 1-8 MeV Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas P; Jones, James Litton; Yoon, Woo Yong; Harmon, Frank Gamble

    2001-05-01

    The development of "cabinet-safe" accelerator technology for ˜1–8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale "field" applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  18. ``Cabinet-safe'' study of 1-8MeV electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, D. P.; Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Harmon, F.

    2001-05-01

    The development of "cabinet-safe" accelerator technology for ≈1-8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale "field" applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  19. Acceleration of Solar Wind Ions to 1 Mev by Electromagnetic Moguls in the Foreshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Strumik, M.; Markidis, S.; Eliasson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients (divergence) of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal, basic mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Engineering study of a 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, C.G.; Fessenden, T.J.; Fulton, R.L.; Keefe, D.

    1989-03-01

    LBL's Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research group has completed the engineering study of the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE). ILSE will address nearly all accelerator physics issues of a scaled heavy ion induction linac inertial fusion pellet driver. Designed as a series of subsystem experiments, ILSE will accelerate 16 parallel carbon ion beams from a 2 MeV injector presently under development to 10 MeV at one ..mu..sec. This overview paper will present the physics and engineering requirements and describe conceptual design approaches for building ILSE. Major ILSE subsystems consist of electrostatic focusing quadrupole matching and accelerating sections, a 16 to 4 beam transverse combining section, a 4 beam magnetic focusing quadrupole accelerating section, a single beam 180 degree bend section, a drift compression section and a final focus and target chamber. These subsystems are the subject of accompanying papers. Also discussed are vacuum and alignment, diagnostics/data acquisition and controls, key conclusions and plans for further development. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 1 MeV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B.; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Bakhtsingh, R. I.; Rajan, R.; Sharma, D. K.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, V.; Patel, R.; Tiwari, R.; Benarjee, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Several modern applications of radiation processing like medical sterilization, rubber vulcanization, polymerization, cross-linking and pollution control from thermal power stations etc. require D.C. electron accelerators of energy ranging from a few hundred keVs to few MeVs and power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. To match these requirements, a 3 MeV, 30 kW DC electron linac has been developed at BARC, Mumbai and current operational experience of 1 MeV, 10 kW beam power will be described in this paper. The LINAC composed mainly of Electron Gun, Accelerating Tubes, Magnets, High Voltage source and provides 10 kW beam power at the Ti beam window stably after the scanning section. The control of the LINAC is fully automated. Here Beam Optics study is carried out to reach the preferential parameters of Accelerating as well as optical elements. Beam trials have been conducted to find out the suitable operation parameters of the system.

  2. Estimation of thermal neutron fluences in the concrete of proton accelerator facilities from 36Cl production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessho, K.; Matsumura, H.; Miura, T.; Wang, Q.; Masumoto, K.; Hagura, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Takahashi, T.; Sasa, K.; Sueki, K.; Matsuhiro, T.; Tosaki, Y.

    2007-06-01

    The thermal neutron fluence that poured into the shielding concrete of proton accelerator facilities was estimated from the in situ production of 36Cl. The thermal neutron fluences at concrete surfaces during 10-30 years of operation were in the range of 1012-1014 n/cm2. The maxima in thermal neutron fluences were observed at ≈5-15 cm in the depths analyzed for 36Cl/35Cl by AMS. These characteristics imply that thermalization of neutrons occurred inside the concrete. Compared to the several tens of MeV cyclotrons, secondary neutrons penetrate deeper into the concrete at the high-energy accelerators possessing acceleration energies of 400 MeV and 12 GeV. The attenuation length of neutrons reflects the energy spectra of secondary neutrons emitted by the nuclear reaction at the beam-loss points. Increasing the energy of secondary neutrons shifts the maximum in the thermal neutron fluences to deeper positions. The data obtained in this study will be useful for the radioactive waste management at accelerator facilities.

  3. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized.

  4. Laser acceleration of monoenergetic protons with a near-critical, optically-shaped gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Helle, Michael; Ting, Antonio; Gordon, Daniel; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Babzien, Marcus; Najmudin, Zulfikar

    2015-11-01

    Laser-based ion acceleration is studied using the intense terawatt CO2 laser pulse with a near-critical hydrogen gas target. The gas density profile is tailored by a hydrodynamic shock, which is launched by ablation of solid with a moderate-energy, nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse in the vicinity of the gas jet. A sharp density gradient is thus created near the edge of the gas column, resulting to ~ 6X local density enhancement up to several times of critical density within 100 micrometers before CO2 laser pulse arrives. With such density profile, we have observed quasi-monoenergetic proton beams with energies >1 MeV and good shot-to-shot reproducibility. In contrast, no protons were observed when the hydrodynamic shock is absent. Results from experiments and simulations will be presented. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. First measurements of laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Floquet, V.; Ceccotti, T.; Dobosz Dufrenoy, S.; Bonnaud, G.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Gremillet, L.

    2012-09-15

    We present our first results about laser-accelerated proton induced luminescence in solids. In the first part, we describe the optimization of the proton source as a function of the target thickness as well as the laser pulse duration and energy. Due to the ultra high contrast ratio of our laser beam, we succeeded in using targets ranging from the micron scale down to nanometers thickness. The two optimal thicknesses we put in evidence are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Laser pulse duration shows a small influence on proton maximum energy, whereas the latter turns out to vary almost linearly as a function of laser energy. Thanks to this optimisation work, we have been able to acquire images of the proton energy deposition in a solid scintillator.

  6. Relative biological effectiveness and microdosimetry of a mixed energy field of protons up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Eaddy, J. M.; Archambeau, J. O.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Miller, D. W.; Moyers, M. F.; Siebers, J. V.; Slater, J. M.; Dicello, J. F.

    1994-10-01

    We have studied radiation effects utilizing the new 250 MeV Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. In this paper we present the data collected for the survival of Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells, that were irradiated with a beam of mixed energy protons up to 200 MeV. The RBE for protons, when compared to 60Co gamma rays, ranged from a low of 1.2 at the high energy portion of the field to 1.3+ at the low energy portion of the field. These results are consistent with the measured lineal energy (microdosimetric) spectra.

  7. Relative biological effectiveness and microdosimetry of a mixed energy field of protons up to 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J B; Eaddy, J M; Archambeau, J O; Coutrakon, G B; Miller, D W; Moyers, M F; Siebers, J V; Slater, J M; Dicello, J F

    1994-10-01

    We have studied radiation effects utilizing the new 250 MeV Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. In this paper we present the data collected for the survival of Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells, that were irradiated with a beam of mixed energy protons up to 200 MeV. The RBE for protons, when compared to 60Co gamma rays, ranged from a low of 1.2 at the high energy portion of the field to 1.3+ at the low energy portion of the field. These results are consistent with the measured lineal energy (microdosimetric) spectra. PMID:11539961

  8. Near realtime forecasting of MeV protons on the basis of sub relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrenz, Johannes; Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Sarlanis, Christos; Malandraki, Olga; Posner, Arik

    2016-04-01

    A major impact on human and robotic space exploration activities is the sudden and prompt occurrence of solar energetic ion events. In order to provide up to an hour warning before these particles arrive at Earth, relativistic electron and below 50 MeV proton data from the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) on SOHO were used to implement the 'Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration (REleASE)'. It has been demonstrated that the analysis of relativistic electron time profiles provides a low miss and false alarm rate. High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis (HESPERIA) is a project funded within the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (PROTEC-1-2014 Call: Space Weather). Within this project the REleASE forecasting scheme was rewritten in the open access programming language PYTHON and will be made public. As a next step, we have analyzed the possibility to also use, along with relativistic electrons (v > 0.9 c) provided by SOHO, near-relativistic (v <0.8 c) electron measurements from other instruments like the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). This would prove to be particularly useful during periods that SOHO does not provide continuous near real-time data. We show that the ACE/EPAM observations can be adapted to the REleASE forecasting scheme to provide reliable SEP forecasts. A comparison of measured and forecast proton intensities by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM will be presented. In addition we investigated the false alarm rate and detection probability of solar ion events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  9. Radiograaff, a proton irradiation facility for radiobiological studies at a 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, J.; Fallavier, M.; Alphonse, G.; Bernard, C.; Battiston-Montagne, P.; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C.; Dauvergne, D.; Beuve, M.

    2014-09-01

    A horizontal beam facility for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been set up at the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon. A homogeneous irradiation field with a suitable proton flux is obtained by means of two collimators and two Au-scattering foils. A monitoring chamber contains a movable Faraday cup, a movable quartz beam viewer for controlling the intensity and the position of the initial incident beam and four scintillating fibers for beam monitoring during the irradiation of the cell samples. The beam line is ended by a thin aluminized Mylar window (12 μm thick) for the beam extraction in air. The set-up was simulated by the GATE v6.1 Monte-Carlo platform. The measurement of the proton energy distribution, the evaluation of the fluence-homogeneity over the sample and the calibration of the monitoring system were performed using a silicon PIPS detector, placed in air in the same position as the biological samples to be irradiated. The irradiation proton fluence was found to be homogeneous to within ±2% over a circular field of 20 mm diameter. As preliminary biological experiment, two Human Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Cell lines (with different radiosensitivities) were irradiated with 2.9 MeV protons. The measured survival curves are compared to those obtained after X-ray irradiation, giving a Relative Biological Efficiency between 1.3 and 1.4.

  10. Intense tera-hertz laser driven proton acceleration in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the acceleration of a proton beam driven by intense tera-hertz (THz) laser field from a near critical density hydrogen plasma. Two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell simulation results show that a relatively long wavelength and an intense THz laser can be employed for proton acceleration to high energies from near critical density plasmas. We adopt here the electromagnetic field in a long wavelength (0.33 THz) regime in contrast to the optical and/or near infrared wavelength regime, which offers distinct advantages due to their long wavelength ( λ = 350 μ m ), such as the λ 2 scaling of the electron ponderomotive energy. Simulation study delineates the evolution of THz laser field in a near critical plasma reflecting the enhancement in the electric field of laser, which can be of high relevance for staged or post ion acceleration.