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Sample records for mezcal bacanora sotol

  1. Treatment of mezcal vinasses: a review.

    PubMed

    Robles-González, Vania; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2012-02-20

    Mexican distilleries produce near eight million liters of mezcal per year, and generate about 90 million liters of mezcal vinasses (MV). This acidic liquid waste is very aggressive to the environment because of its high content of toxic and recalcitrant organic matter. As a result, treatment is necessary before discharge to water bodies. It is interesting, yet disturbing; verify that there is a significant gap on the treatment of MV. However, there is an abundant body of research on treatment of other recalcitrant toxic effluents that bear some similarity to MV, for example, wine vinasse, vinasses from the sugar industry, olive oil, and industrial pulp and paper wastewaters. The objective of this review is to critically organize the treatment alternatives of MV, assess their relative advantages and disadvantages, and finally detect the trends for future research and development. Experience with treatment of this set of residuals, indicates the following trends: (i) anaerobic digestion, complemented by oxidative chemical treatments (e.g. ozonation) are usually placed as pretreatments, (ii) aerobic treatment alone and combined with ozone which have been directed to remove phenolic compounds and color have been successfully applied, (iii) physico-chemical treatments such as Fenton, electro-oxidation, oxidants and so on., which are now mostly at lab scale stage, have demonstrated a significant removal of recalcitrant organic compounds, (iv) fungal pretreatment with chemical treatment followed by oxidative (O(3)) or anaerobic digestion, this combination seems to give attractive results, (v) vinasses can be co-composted with solid organic wastes, particularly with those from agricultural activities and agro-industies; in addition to soil amenders with fertilizing value to improve soil quality in typical arid lands where agave is cultivated, it seems to be a low cost technology very well suited for rural regions in underdeveloped countries where more sophisticated

  2. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately. PMID:25561061

  3. Genome Sequence of Torulaspora delbrueckii NRRL Y-50541, Isolated from Mezcal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Angulo, Jorge; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii presents metabolic features interesting for biotechnological applications (in the dairy and wine industries). Recently, the T. delbrueckii CBS 1146 genome, which has been maintained under laboratory conditions since 1970, was published. Thus, a genome of a new mezcal yeast was sequenced and characterized and showed genetic differences and a higher genome assembly quality, offering a better reference genome. PMID:26205871

  4. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis. PMID:18558710

  5. Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2009-03-11

    Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material. PMID:19216532

  6. Kinetic study of the thermal hydrolysis of Agave salmiana for mezcal production.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Soto, M J; Jimenez-Islas, H; Navarrete-Bolanos, J L; Rico-Martinez, R; Miranda-Lopez, R; Botello-Alvarez, J E

    2011-07-13

    The kinetics of the thermal hydrolysis of the fructans of Agave salmiana were determined during the cooking step of mezcal production in a pilot autoclave. Thermal hydrolysis was achieved at different temperatures and cooking times, ranging from 96 to 116 °C and from 20 to 80 h. A simple kinetic model of the depolymerization of fructans to monomers and other reducing sugars and of the degradation of reducing sugars to furans [principally 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, HMF] was developed. From this model, the rate constants of the reactions were calculated, as well as the pre-exponential factors and activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. The model was found to fit the experimental data well. The tradeoff between a maximum fructan hydrolysis and a critical furan concentration in allowing for the best ethanol yield during fermentation was investigated. The results indicated that the thermal hydrolysis of agave was optimal, from the point of view of ethanol yield in the ensuing fermentation, in the temperature range of 106-116 °C and the cooking range time of 6-14 h. The optimal conditions corresponded to a fructan hydrolysis of 80%, producing syrups with furan and reducing sugar concentrations of 1 ± 0.1 and 110 ± 10 g/L, respectively. PMID:21604807

  7. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry. PMID:21067917

  8. Genetic Dissection of Grain Size and Grain Number Trade-Offs in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F.; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  9. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  10. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  11. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed. PMID:19747148

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  13. Utilization of vinasses as soil amendment: consequences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, R G; Sanchez-Lizarraga, A L; Rodriguez-Campos, J; Davila-Vazquez, G; Marino-Marmolejo, E N; Dendooven, L; Contreras-Ramos, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vinasses are a residual liquid generated after the production of beverages, such as mezcal and tequila, from agave (Agave L.), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). These effluents have specific characteristics such as an acidic pH (from 3.9 to 5.1), a high chemical oxygen demand (50,000-95,000 mg L(-1)) and biological oxygen demand content (18,900-78,300 mg L(-1)), a high total solids content (79,000 and 37,500 mg L(-1)), high total volatile solids 79,000 and 82,222 mg L(-1), and K(+) (10-345 g L(-1)) content. Vinasses are most commonly discarded onto soil. Irrigation of soil with vinasses, however, may induce physical, chemical and biochemical changes and affect crop yields. Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane, might increase from soils irrigated with vinasses. An estimation of GHG emission from soil irrigated with vinasses is given and discussed in this review. PMID:27441131

  14. Influence of thermally processed carbohydrate/amino acid mixtures on the fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tauer, Andreas; Elss, Sandra; Frischmann, Matthias; Tellez, Patricia; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2004-04-01

    The production of alcoholic beverages such as Tequila, Mezcal, whiskey, or beer includes the fermentation of a mash containing Maillard reaction products. Because excessive heating of the mash can lead to complications during the following fermentation step, the impact of Maillard products on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For this purpose, fermentation was carried out in a model system in the presence and absence of Maillard reaction products and formation of ethanol served as a marker for the progression of fermentation. We found that increasing amounts of Maillard products reduced the formation of ethanol up to 80%. This effect was dependent on the pH value during the Maillard reaction, reaction time, as well as the carbohydrate and amino acid component used for the generation of Maillard reaction products. Another important factor is the pH value during fermentation: The inhibitory effect of Maillard products was not detectable at a pH of 4 and increased with higher pH-values. These findings might be of relevance for the production of above-mentioned beverages. PMID:15053549

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Dynamics and Afterglow Radiation from Adaptive Mesh Refinement, Special Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  16. Agave salmiana Plant Communities in Central Mexico as Affected by Commercial Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal ( Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha-1) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha-1) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha-1) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  17. Soil microbial community response to drought and precipitation variability in the Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeb S; Campbell, James H; Grizzle, Heath; Acosta-Martìnez, Veronica; Zak, John C

    2009-02-01

    , and amounts of soil organic matter irrespective of season. Microbial community structure at the low elevation desert scrub and sotol grasslands sites was most strongly related to soil pH with bacterial and actinobacterial FAME levels accounting for site differences along the gradient. DGGE band counts of amplified soil bacterial DNA were found to differ significantly across sites and season with the highest band counts found in the mid-elevation grassland site. The least number of bands was observed in the high elevation oak-pine forest following the large summer-rain event that occurred after a prolonged drought. Microbial responses to changes in precipitation frequency and amount due to climate change will differ among vegetation zones along this Chihuahuan Desert watershed gradient. Soil bacterial communities at the mid-elevation grasslands site are the most vulnerable to changes in precipitation frequency and timing, while fungal community structure is most vulnerable in the low desert scrub site. The differential susceptibility of the microbial communities to changes in precipitation amounts along the elevation gradient reflects the interactive effects of the soil moisture window duration following a precipitation event and differences in soil heat loads. Amounts and types of carbon inputs may not be as important in regulating microbial structure among vegetation zones within in an arid environment as is the seasonal pattern of soil moisture and the soil heat load profile that characterizes the location. PMID:19067031

  18. Simulations of Gamma-Ray Burst Jets in a Stratified External Medium: Dynamics, Afterglow Light Curves, Jet Breaks, and Radio Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρextvpropr -k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ-1 0. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ-1 0) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θobs <= θ0) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 <= k <= 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet decelerates more