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Sample records for mhd channels quarterly

  1. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J.; Pollina, R.J. |

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate.

  2. MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) channel development: Quarterly report for January 1987-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    During the report period several slag doping tests were performed. Four of these tests are described in this report. The results were generally encouraging. Four dopants were investigated: Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO, and CrO/sub 2/. All but the CrO/sub 2/ proved effective within some range of dopant flow rate. At flow rates above or below this range none of the dopants were desirable. The proper ranges for each of the dopants was coarsely mapped in these experiments. When the dopants were injected directly on the anode wall a power increase was observed. This indicates a possible reduction in the voltage drop due to the presence of the dopant. No power gain or loss was observed when the dopant was injected on the cathode wall. However, inter-cathode voltages were observed to spread more uniformly along the wall. High voltages decreased and low voltages increased. This result should help to reduce wear on the cathodes and their neighboring wall elements by reducing the local electrical field. Current control circuits were tested on both MK VI and MK VII type generators and components for consolidation circuits ordered. Solutions to waste disposal problems created by the implementation of new environmental regulations are being investigated. The MHD generator data from the CDIF 87-SEED-1, 87-SEED-2, and 87-SEED-3 tests have been analyzed and the results are presented in this report. The results of the SIDA model presented in this quarterly report are obtained by assuming a constant boundary layer voltage drop. Variations in the boundary layer voltage drop as a result of diagonal loading changes, iron oxide addition, or seeding rates changes were not considered. Corrections for the effects of ..delta..V/sub b1/ will be made to the results of SIDA when the voltage drop measurements become available.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1980-01-01

    A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.

  4. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Pollina, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Avco-Everett Research Lab., Everett, MA )

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate.

  5. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swallom, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation.

  6. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Pollina, R. J.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. Two phenomena that can effect the analysis of slag leakage current have been investigated and found significant. These are: (1) transverse current along the slag layer in the insulator walls of an MHD duct, and (2) electrode surface voltage drops. Both tend to reduce the value inferred for average plasma conductivity and increase the value inferred for axial leakage current. These two effects in combination are potentially capable of explaining the high leakage inferred. Corrosion on the water side of metal MHD duct wall elements has been examined in CDIF and Mark 7 generators. It appears to be controllable by adjusting the pH of the water and/or by controlling the dissolved oxygen content.

  7. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J.; Pollina, R.J.

    1990-04-27

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues: sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The detailed correlation and analysis of data obtained from nearly all of the CDIF tests performed since 1986 has shown that the apparent leakage current flowing through the slag on the channel walls depends upon channel operating parameters in an unexpected way. A comprehensive report of the results obtained to date and a first attempt at their interpretation has been prepared and a copy is attached. The second activity has concerned the examination of electrodes (platinum anodes/tungsten cathodes) by SEM and EDX techniques to determine the nature of the surface degradation. Results of these examinations are reported.

  8. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Richard J.; Pollina, Richard J.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues: sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The detailed correlation and analysis of data obtained from nearly all of the tests performed since 1986 has shown that the apparent leakage current flowing through the slag on the channel walls depends upon channel operating parameters in an unexpected way. A comprehensive report of the results obtained to date and a first attempt at their interpretation has been prepared and a copy is attached. The second activity has concerned the examination of electrodes (platinum anodes/tungsten cathodes) by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy of the surface degradation. Results of these examinations are reported.

  9. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Pollina, R. J.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The work performed to date in the analysis of channel gas side materials has served to identify and clarify the respective environments to which the various materials are subjected and identified a performance ranking of materials. For high voltage intercathode gaps, which show the most severe wear, the materials rank in the order from best to worst: W, Mo, 90WCu, 97W2Fe1Ni, 75WCu, and Cr. We have shown data which indicates that lifetime is sensitive to gap voltage. Therefore for conditions under which iron oxide addition maintains low voltage intercathode gaps 75WCu becomes an excellent cathode material.

  10. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, May 1991--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990`s, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  11. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Pollina, R. J.

    1992-08-01

    The problems connected with gas side corrosion for the design of the 1A4 (POC) channel hardware are explored and results of gas side wear rate tests in the Textron Mark VII facility are presented. It is shown that the proposed designs meet a 2000 hour lifetime criterion based upon these materials tests. Improvement in cathode lifetime is demonstrated with lower voltage intercathode gaps. The corrosion of these materials is discussed and it is shown how lifetimes are dependent upon gap voltage and average metal temperature. The importance of uniformity of slagging to the durability of the anode wall is demonstrated. The wear mechanism of the anodes in the MHD channel is analyzed. In addition to gas-side corrosion, the results of specific water corrosion tests of sidewall materials are discussed. All of the tests reported here were carried out to confirm the gas-side performance and the manufacturability of anode and sidewall designs and to address questions posed about the durability of tungsten-copper on the waterside. The results of water corrosion tests of the tungsten copper alloy sidewall material are presented to show that with proper control of waterside pH and, if necessary, dissolved oxygen, one can obtain reliable performance with no degradation of heat transfer with this material. The final choice of materials was determined primarily by the outcome of these tests and also by the question of the manufacturability of the prospective designs.

  12. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Pollina, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV )

    1992-08-01

    The problems connected with gas side corrosion for the design of the lA4 (POC) channel hardware are explored and results of gas side wear rate tests in the Textron Mark VII facility are presented. It is shown that the proposed designs meet a 2000 hour lifetime criterion based upon these materials tests. Improvement in cathode lifetime is demonstrated with lower voltage intercathode gaps. The corrosion of these materials is discussed and it is shown how lifetimes are dependent upon gap voltage and average metal temperature. The importance of uniformity of slagging to the durability of the anode wall is demonstrated. The wear mechanism of the anodes in the MHD channel is analyzed. In addition to gas-side corrosion, the results of specific water corrosion tests of sidewall materials are discussed. All of the tests reported here were carried out to confirm the gas-side performance and the manufacturability of anode and sidewall designs and to address questions posed about the durability of tungsten-copper on the waterside. the results of water corrosion tests of the tungsten copper alloy sidewall material are presented to show that with proper control of waterside pH and, if necessary, dissolved oxygen, one can obtain reliable performance with no degradation of heat transfer with this material. The final choice of materials was determined primarily by the outcome of these tests and also by the question of the manufacturability of the prospective designs.

  13. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Seventeenth quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  14. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, February 1991--April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    A summary of the work is excerpted here. Final design of an MHD channel for the ITC program POC test has been completed. The channel was designed to be capable of 1.5 MW {sub e} power output and a lifetime of 2000 hours. Emphasis was placed upon durability and reliability. Hence, specific measures were taken to design against channel damage due to electric faults. The life-limiting issues associated with electrochemical corrosion and erosion of gas-side surfaces were addressed by the use of various materials with proven wear characteristics in a coal-fired MHD channel environment. Pitting of prototypical sidewall coupons was observed in the CDIF workhorse testing. The most likely cause of the observed pitting, water leaks resulting from cooling water tube braze failures, has been remedied. New brazing procedures and isolation of the sidebar gas-side material from water contact will prevent sidebar pitting in the prototypical channel. Water-side corrosion tests reported in this quarterly report include the latest results of tungsten-copper elements at controlled pH, heat flux and voltage levels. In the combustion subsystem, efforts continued to focus on understanding and improving the current levels of slag recovery and seed utilization achieved by the combustor. Analytical support was also provided in the areas of slag rejection system operation, precombustor operation, and oil burner design modification. Channel data analysis activities continued in support of prototypical coupon testing at the CDIF. Analyses are presented on channel wall slagging behavior and sidewall voltage distributions.

  15. A MHD channel study for the ETF conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedures and computations used to identify an MHD channel for a 540 mW(I) EFT-scale plant are presented. Under the assumed constraints of maximum E(x), E(y), J(y) and Beta; results show the best plant performance is obtained for active length, L is approximately 12 M, whereas in the initial ETF studies, L is approximately 16 M. As MHD channel length is reduced from 16 M, the channel enthalpy extraction falls off, slowly. This tends to reduce the MHD power output; however, the shorter channels result in lower heat losses to the MHD channel cooling water which allows for the incorporation of more low pressure boiler feedwater heaters into the system and an increase in steam plant efficiency. The net result of these changes is a net increase in the over all MHD/steam plant efficiency. In addition to the sensitivity of various channel parameters, the trade-offs between the level of oxygen enrichment and the electrical stress on the channel are also discussed.

  16. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1990-- January 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  17. Supersonic flow in an expanding MHD channel of diagonal type

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, A.P.; Medin, S.A.

    1983-03-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional numerical analysis of the supersonic flow of a nonviscous, non-heat-conducting gas in an expanding (with respect to the insulation walls) MHD channel of diagonal type is performed. The induced magnetic fields are neglected. The influence of the conditions of channel loading and the commutation angle of the short-circuited, ideally sectioned electrodes on the flow structure, the distribution of the electrodynamic parameters, and the integral characteristics of the generator is considered. The results of quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional calculations are compared.

  18. Subsonic flow in the channel of a diagonal MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, N.P.; Medin, S.A.

    1981-05-01

    A numerical study has been made of the local and integral characteristics of the planar subsonic flow in the channel of an MHD generator with diagonal electrode connection. It is shown that the inhomogeneity in the parameter distribution is dependent on the electrical loading, and the largest deviations from homogeneous flow occur on open circuit and short circuit. A comparison is made with a channel of Faraday type as regards the main integral characteristics. The data from two-dimensional analysis are compared with those from a one-dimensional flow model.

  19. Off-design performance analysis of MHD generator channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. R.; Williams, T. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code for performing parametric design point calculations, and evaluating the off-design performance of MHD generators has been developed. The program is capable of analyzing Faraday, Hall, and DCW channels, including the effect of electrical shorting in the gas boundary layers and coal slag layers. Direct integration of the electrode voltage drops is included. The program can be run in either the design or off-design mode. Details of the computer code, together with results of a study of the design and off-design performance of the proposed ETF MHD generator are presented. Design point variations of pre-heat and stoichiometry were analyzed. The off-design study included variations in mass flow rate and oxygen enrichment.

  20. Modeling of nonstationary phenomena in the MHD-channel-inverter-substation system

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, Y.P.; Zatelepin, V.N.; Kuznetsova, T.N.; Medin, S.A.; Pishchikov, V.I.

    1986-07-01

    A method for constructing a mathematical model of nonstationary phenomena in a system consisting of an MHD channel and an inverter substation, operating on a powerful ac grid, is examined. The variants of the realization of the model on a computer are discussed. Results of the solution of model problems with a diagonal MHD channel are presented. It is found that there is a significant coupling between the MHD channel and the inverter substation in transient processes.

  1. High-magnetic-field MHD-generator program. Quarterly report, January 1, 1981-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    Progress in an experimental and theoretical program designed to investigate MHD channel phenomena which are important at high magnetic fields is reported. The areas of research include nonuniformity effects, boundary layers, Hall field breakdown, the effects of electrode configuration and current concentrations, and studies of steady-state combustion disk and linear channels in an existing 6 Tesla magnet of small dimensions. In the study of the effects of nonuniformities, experiments have been performed to test a multi-channel, fiber optics diagnostic system that yields time-resolved temperature profiles in an MHD channel. For the study of magneto-acoustic fluctuation phenomena, a one-dimensional model has been developed to describe the performance of a non-ideal MHD generator with a generalized electrical configuration. The installation of the hardware for the data acquisition and reduction of the laser Doppler velocimeter data, to be used in the study of turbulence suppression in a magnetic field, has been nearly completed. A two-dimensional MHD computer code has been developed which predicts the dependence on electrode and insulator dimensions of the onset of interelectrode Hall field breakdown. Calculations have been performed of the effects of nonuniformities on the flow and electrical behavior of baseload-sized disk generators.

  2. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1990--October 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number_sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  3. Kelvin-Helmholtz Unstable Magnetotail Flow Channels: Deceleration and Radiation of MHD Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkakin, H.; Mann, I. R.; Rankin, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of magnetotail flow channels associated with burstybulk flows (BBFs) is investigated. MHD oscillations of the channel in both kink and sausage modes areinvestigated for KHI, and both the primary and secondary KHIs are found that drive MHD waves. Theseinstabilities are likely to be important for flow channel braking where the KHI removes energy from the flow.At flow speeds above the peak growth rate, the MHD modes excited by KHI develop from surface modesinto propagating modes leading to the radiation of MHD waves from the flow channel. The coupling ofBBF-driven shear flow instabilities to MHD waves presented here represents a new paradigm to explain BBFexcitation of tail flapping. Our model can also explain, for the first time, the generation mechanism for theobservations of waves propagating toward both flanks and emitted from BBF channels in the magnetotail.

  4. Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetotail flow channels: Deceleration and radiation of MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkakin, H.; Mann, I. R.; Rankin, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of magnetotail flow channels associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs) is investigated. MHD oscillations of the channel in both kink and sausage modes are investigated for KHI, and both the primary and secondary KHIs are found that drive MHD waves. These instabilities are likely to be important for flow channel braking where the KHI removes energy from the flow. At flow speeds above the peak growth rate, the MHD modes excited by KHI develop from surface modes into propagating modes leading to the radiation of MHD waves from the flow channel. The coupling of BBF-driven shear flow instabilities to MHD waves presented here represents a new paradigm to explain BBF excitation of tail flapping. Our model can also explain, for the first time, the generation mechanism for the observations of waves propagating toward both flanks and emitted from BBF channels in the magnetotail.

  5. MHD electrode development. Quarterly report, April-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, J W; Dietrick, D L; Frantti, E W

    1980-08-01

    Emphasis within this program is now being directed towards the engineering development of cold metallic electrodes, and in particular the identification and evaluation of alternatives to platinum for use as anodes. A literature search, concentrating on hot corrosion resistant alloys, has been undertaken and results are presented. In addition, results of platinum-copper diffusion studies and a preliminary evaluation of sputter coated specimens of TiB/sub 2/ clad copper are reported. Laboratory anode arc erosion studies have continued. A number of modifications incorporated in the test setup are described. This modified test arrangement has been used to obtain comparative data on a number of potential anode metal alloys. Further work is required to refine the test, particularly to provide a reliable method of applying corrodent to the specimens under test. No significant laboratory electrochemical corrosion tests were completed during this reporting period. Facility test operations were suspended upon completion of WESTF Test 49 during the prior quarter to permit basic facility modifications in support of the addition of a 3 Tesla magnet. The status of design, procurement and modification activities is presented.

  6. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project. Eighth quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Johnson, T. R.

    1980-08-01

    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The work is being done in close cooperation with the Heat Recovery-Seed Recovery facilities, which will be 20-MW prototypes of the MHD steam bottoming system. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project is directed toward experimental investigations of critical issues, such as (1) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; (2) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed-slag separation; (3) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; (4) formation, growth, and deposition of the seed-slag particles; (5) character of the combustion gas effluents; and (6) the corrosion and erosion of ceramic and metallic materials of construction. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system. Activities are reported.

  7. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project. Ninth quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, Michael; Johnson, Terry R.

    1980-05-01

    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project at Argonne is directed toward experimental investigations of critical problem areas, such as (1) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; (2) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed-slag separation; (3) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; (4) formation, growth, and deposition of seed-slag particles; and (5) character of the combustion gas effluents. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system, identification of ceramic and metallic materials for service in the MHD-steam plant, and evaluation of seed regeneration processes. Progress is described.

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Eighteenth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  9. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J.; Pollina, R.J. |

    1992-08-01

    The problems connected with gas side corrosion for the design of the lA4 (POC) channel hardware are explored and results of gas side wear rate tests in the Textron Mark VII facility are presented. It is shown that the proposed designs meet a 2000 hour lifetime criterion based upon these materials tests. Improvement in cathode lifetime is demonstrated with lower voltage intercathode gaps. The corrosion of these materials is discussed and it is shown how lifetimes are dependent upon gap voltage and average metal temperature. The importance of uniformity of slagging to the durability of the anode wall is demonstrated. The wear mechanism of the anodes in the MHD channel is analyzed. In addition to gas-side corrosion, the results of specific water corrosion tests of sidewall materials are discussed. All of the tests reported here were carried out to confirm the gas-side performance and the manufacturability of anode and sidewall designs and to address questions posed about the durability of tungsten-copper on the waterside. the results of water corrosion tests of the tungsten copper alloy sidewall material are presented to show that with proper control of waterside pH and, if necessary, dissolved oxygen, one can obtain reliable performance with no degradation of heat transfer with this material. The final choice of materials was determined primarily by the outcome of these tests and also by the question of the manufacturability of the prospective designs.

  10. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly/annual technical progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dicks, J. B.; Chapman, J. N.; Crawford, L. W.

    1980-02-01

    In this Fourth Quarterly/Annual Report submitted under DOE contracts EX-76-C-01-1760 and DE-AC02-79ET10815, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, and development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Work on the CFFF progressed with only minor problems. Total construction activity for all site work presently awarded is nearly 98% complete. Water analysis shows that Woods Reservoir baseline conditions are within EPA or Tennessee drinking water standards. For the primary combustor, the vitiation heater and primary combustor fabrication drawings were completed and the nozzle design was completed. The drum module for the radiant slagging furnace was awarded. On the MHD Power Generator, development continued in several areas of advanced analysis including development of time-dependent models for use with the one-dimensional code. For seed regeneration, the tentative determination is that the Tomlinson Tampella is the most economically viable method. With regard to capped electrode erosion, investigations have shown that the major degradation of the cladding still present is at the leading edge of the capped anode. To alleviate this, plans are to hot work the noble metal in the bending operation. In resolving another problem, a system employing the modified line-reversal method has been assembled and successfully tested to measure absolute plasma temperatures.

  11. Influence of increased static pressure in MHD-channel of hypervelocity wind tunnel on its characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Rudakova, A.P.; Rukavets, V.P.; Shcherbakov, G.I.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main weaknesses of available MHD gas acceleration wind tunnels which restricts their application for simulating vehicle re-entry flights and reproducing scramjet combustion chamber conditions is a relatively low static pressure in the channel (P{approximately}0.1 to 0.2 Atm). The possibility of increasing this pressure and the influence of the increased pressure on the MHD-accelerator characteristics are the subject of the present paper. It is shown that the main challenge is the necessity of increasing the total Lorentz force proportionally to the channel gas density at electrode current density not resulting in heat and electrical breakdown and the development of the side walls and interelectrode insulators designed for higher heat fluxes, q {approximately} 5 to 10 kw/cm{sup 2}. Some possible wall design versions are suggested. The influence of increased pressure is investigated using the Faraday - type MED channel at static pressures in the MHD channel from 0.2 to 1.0 Atm and total accelerating current I = 300 to 1,100 Amps when B=2.5T. Forty five electrodes are used in the MHD channel at maximum current density of 50 A/cm{sup 2}. The channel flow is calculated by applying the model of a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the increased pressure on electrodynamic (accelerator electrode voltages and currents, Hall voltage and current) and gasdynamic (distributions of static pressure, temperature, velocity, Mach numbers, etc., along the channel length) characteristics is evaluated. Some recommendations on the development of MHD channels for hypersonic wind tunnels designed for high pressure are suggested.

  12. Fluctuation diagnosis of discharge contraction in an MHD channel

    SciTech Connect

    Bystryi, A.I.; Ganefel'd, R.V.; Red'kin, V.B.; Shcherban', N.G.

    1985-11-01

    A method is described for identifying the form of discharge on the electrodes of an MGD generator from analysis of static characteristics of current fluctuations. Results are presented from experimental studies of the contraction of a Faraday current on a K-1 MHD generator. The effect of the temperature of the surface of the electrodes, the magnetic field, and turbulence on current contraction is analyzed.

  13. Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. MHD integrated topping cycle project: Fifth quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses prototypical combustor and channel design studies, design support engineering for the prototypical hardware, and 50 MW/sub t/ power train testing data analysis. A new TRW design concept was developed for cooling the prototypical combustor which utilizes modular cooling panels. The new design offers improved maintainability and scalability over the originally proposed design. Avco performed design analyses to define aspect ratios for the prototypical channel. The operating conditions for the channel are being determined in conjunction with TRW. Fabrication of the prototypical current controls continued. Avco continued development testing in the Mark VII facility to provide design data for the prototypical 1A4 channel. Testing focused on evaluating methods for obtaining transverse conductivity measurements and on the effects of cathode slag shorting on generator performance. Westinghouse completed detailed designs for the breadboard power consolidation circuitry for the Mark VII generator. Fabrication and performance verification testing of these circuits is well underway. The data acquisition and monitor system for the bread-board consolidation circuits was also designed. The 50 MW/sub t/ workhorse power train was tested under conditions of 100% slag carryover. Results showed only a slight decrease in power output from the nominal 50% carryover baseline. Analyses indicate that performance is much more sensitive to slag carryover in the zero to 30% range. 4 refs., 78 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Numerical Simulation of MHD Effect in Liquid Metal Blankets with Flow Channel Insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Pan, H. C.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic effect in liquid metal blankets with flow channel insert and pressure equalization slot for fusion liquid metal blanket is studied by numerical simulation based on two dimensional fully developed flow model. The code is verified by comparing analytical solution and numerical solution of Hunt Case II. The velocity field and MHD pressure drop varying with electric conductivity of the FCI is analyzed. The result shows that the average velocity in central area of the cross section decreases with the increase of the electric conductivity of FCI. While the average velocity in gap zone is reverse. Comparing with MHD duct flow without FCI, MHD pressure drop is reduced significantly when the FCI material is electrically insulating.

  16. Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Supersonic flow of an anisotropically conducting gas in a planar MHD diagonal-type channel

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, A.P.; Medin, S.A.

    1982-03-01

    Supersonic planar flows of a nonviscous nonthermally conducting gas in diagonal-type MHD generator channels (Re/sub m/<<1) are numerically analyzed. The distribution of electrical and gasdynamical parameters are determined and the two-dimensional effects in the ends of the channel and in the constant magnetic field zone are analyzed. The effect of a loading regime (current in an external circuit), the commutation angle for short-circuited ideally sectioned electrodes, and Hall's parameter on the integral characteristics of the generator is examined. The results of two-dimensional and one-dimensional calculations are compared.

  18. Localized reconnection in the magnetotail driven by lobe flow channels: Global MHD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Recent ionospheric measurements suggest polar cap flow channels often trigger nightside auroral brightening. However, measurements were limited to the ionosphere, and it was not understood if such flow channels can exist in the lobe and can trigger magnetotail reconnection in a localized cross-tail extent. We examined if localized flow channels can form self-consistently in a global MHD regime, and if so, how such flow channels originate and relate to localized magnetotail reconnection. We show that lobe convection became nonuniform with azimuthally narrow flow channels (enhanced dawn-dusk electric fields) of ~3 RE cross-tail width. The flow channels propagated from the dayside toward the plasma sheet as an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) discontinuity swept tailward. The plasma sheet around the lobe flow channels became thinner with a similar cross-tail extent and then localized reconnection occurred. These results suggest that localized flow channels can propagate tailward across the lobe and drive localized magnetotail reconnection, that the cross-tail width of reconnection and resulting plasma sheet flow channels and dipolarization fronts are related to the width of inflow from the lobe, and that IMF discontinuities drive lobe flow channels.

  19. MHD mixed convection flow through a diverging channel with heated circular obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. S.; Shaha, J.; Khan, M. A. H.; Nasrin, R.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical study of steady MHD mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow through a diverging channel with heated circular obstacle is carried out in this paper. The circular obstacle placed at the centre of the channel is hot with temperature Th. The top and bottom walls are non-adiabatic. The basic nonlinear governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These equations have been solved numerically for different values of the governing parameters, namely Reynolds number (Re), Hartmann number (Ha), Richardson number (Ri) and Prandtl number (Pr) using finite element method. The streamlines, isotherms, average Nusselt number and average temperature of the fluid for various relevant dimensionless parameters are displayed graphically. The study revealed that the flow and thermal fields in the diverging channel depend significantly on the heated body. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field acts to increase the rate of heat transfer within the channel.

  20. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Part II. Diagnostics and instrumentation MHD channel combutor. Progres report. [Flow calculations for combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M.H.; Lederman, S.; Sforza, P.; Matalon, M.

    1980-01-01

    This is Part II of the Technical Progress Report on Tasks II-IV of the subject contract. It deals sequentially with Diagnostics and Instrumentation, the MHD Channel and the Combustor. During this period, a significant effort has gone into establishing a schematic design of a laser diagnostic system which can be applied to the flow-train of the MHD system, and to acquiring, assembling and shaking down a laboratory set-up upon which a prototype can be based. With further reference to the MHD Channel, a model analysis has been initiated of the two-dimensional MHD boundary layer between two electrodes in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers with negligible effect of the flow on the applied magnetic field. An objective of this model study is the assessment of variations in initial conditions on the boundary layer behavior. Finally, the problem of combustion modeling has been studied on an initial basis. The open reports on this subject depict a high degree of empiricism, centering attention on global behavior mainly. A quasi-one-dimensional model code has been set-up to check some of the existing estimates. Also a code for equilibrium combustion has been activated.

  1. MHD flows in the channels of plasma accelerators with a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Brushlinskii, K. V.; Zhdanova, N. S.

    2008-12-15

    Plasma flows caused by the interaction of the discharge current with the azimuthal magnetic self-field in coaxial channels (nozzles) of plasma accelerators are strongly affected by the longitudinal field produced by external conductors. A two-dimensional MHD model of flows in channels in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field is proposed. Depending on the ratio between the characteristic values of the longitudinal and azimuthal field components, one of three types of flow is established in the channel: super-Alfven, sub-Alfven, or combined. The properties of different types of flows are analyzed. The acceleration process in sub-Alfven flows differs qualitatively from that in regimes without a longitudinal field in transitions between the kinetic, thermal, and magnetic energy components.

  2. MHD flows in the channels of plasma accelerators with a longitudinal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brushlinskii, K. V.; Zhdanova, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma flows caused by the interaction of the discharge current with the azimuthal magnetic self-field in coaxial channels (nozzles) of plasma accelerators are strongly affected by the longitudinal field produced by external conductors. A two-dimensional MHD model of flows in channels in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field is proposed. Depending on the ratio between the characteristic values of the longitudinal and azimuthal field components, one of three types of flow is established in the channel: super-Alfvén, sub-Alfvén, or combined. The properties of different types of flows are analyzed. The acceleration process in sub-Alfvén flows differs qualitatively from that in regimes without a longitudinal field in transitions between the kinetic, thermal, and magnetic energy components.

  3. MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Brosnan, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF) are described. On Task 1, the first phase of the downstream quench system was completed. On Task 2, all three combustor sections were completed, hydrotested, ASME code stamped, and delivered to UTSI. The nozzle was also delivered. Fabrication of support stands and cooling water manifolds for the combustor and vitiation heater were completed, heat transfer and thermal stress analysis, along with design development, were conducted on the generator and radiant furnace and secondary combustor installation progressed as planned. Under Task 3 an Elemental Analyzer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer/Graphite Furnace were received and installed, sites were prepared for two air monitoring stations, phytoplankton analysis began, and foliage and soil sampling was conducted using all study plots. Some 288 soil samples were combined to make 72 samples which were analyzed. Also, approval was granted to dispose of MHD flyash and slag at the Franklin County landfill. Task 4 effort consisted of completing all component test plans, and establishing the capability of displaying experimental data in graphical format. Under Task 7, a preliminary testing program for critical monitoring of the local current and voltage non-uniformities in the generator electrodes was outlined, electrode metal wear characteristics were documented, boron nitride/refrasil composite interelectrode sealing was improved, and several refractories for downstream MHD applications were evaluated with promising results.

  4. Liquid metal MHD and heat transfer in a tokamak blanket slotted coolant channel

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Black, D.B.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I.; Shapiro, A.M.; Evtushenko, I.A.

    1993-12-31

    A liquid metal MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic)/heat transfer test was conducted at the ALEX (Argonne Liquid Metal Experiment) facility of ANL (Argonne National Laboratory), jointly between ANL and NIIEFA (Efremov Institute). The test section was a rectangular slotted channel geometry (meaning the channel has a high aspect ratio, in this case 10:1, and the long side is parallel to the applied magnetic field). Isothermal and heat transfer data were collected. A heat flux of {approximately}9 W/cm{sup 2} was applied to the top horizontal surface (the long side) of the test section. Hartmann Numbers to 1050 (2 Tesla), interaction parameters to 9 {times} 10{sup 3}, Peclet numbers of 10--200, based on the half-width of the small dimension (7mm), and velocities of 1--75 cm/sec. were achieved. The working fluid was NaK (sodium potassium eutectic). All four interior walls were bare, 300-series stainless steel, conducting walls.

  5. Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel.

    PubMed

    Gul, Aaiza; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work. PMID:26550837

  6. Liquid metal MHD and heat transfer in a tokamak blanket slotted coolant channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. B.; Hua, T. Q.; Black, D. B.; Kirillov, I. R.; Sidorenkov, S. I.; Shapiro, A. M.; Evtushenko, I. A.

    A liquid metal MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic)/heat transfer test was conducted at the ALEX (Argonne Liquid Metal Experiment) facility of ANL (Argonne National Laboratory), jointly between ANL and NIIEFA (Efremov Institute). The test section was a rectangular slotted channel geometry (meaning the channel has a high aspect ratio, in this case 10:1, and the long side is parallel to the applied magnetic field). Isothermal and heat transfer data were collected. A heat flux of approximately 9 W/sq cm was applied to the top horizontal surface (the long side) of the test section. Hartmann Numbers to 1050 (2 Tesla), interaction parameters to 9 x 10(exp 3), Peclet numbers of 10-200, based on the half-width of the small dimension (7 mm), and velocities of 1-75 cm/sec. were achieved. The working fluid was NaK (sodium potassium eutectic). All four interior walls were bare, 300-series stainless steel, conducting walls.

  7. Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Aaiza; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work. PMID:26550837

  8. Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I

    SciTech Connect

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.

  9. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 16th quarterly technical progress report, December 16, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Dvore, D.; Freedman, A.; Stanton, A.; Stewart, G.

    1981-05-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort is reported. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing and corrosion phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  10. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  11. End region and current consolidation effects upon the performance of an MHD channel for the ETF conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that operating conditions which yielded a peak thermodynamic efficiency (41%) for an EFT-size MHD/steam power plant were previously (Wang et al., 1981; Staiger, 1981) identified by considering only the active region (the primary portion for power production) of an MHD channel. These previous efforts are extended here to include an investigation of the effects of the channel end regions on overall power generation. Considering these effects, the peak plant thermodynamic efficiency is found to be slightly lowered (40.7%); the channel operating point for peak efficiency is shifted to the supersonic mode (Mach number of approximately 1.1) rather than the previous subsonic operation (Mach number of approximately 0.9). Also discussed is the sensitivity of the channel performance to the B-field, diffuser recovery coefficient, channel load parameter, Mach number, and combustor pressure.

  12. Key contributions in MHD power generation. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1979-November 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, J F

    1980-03-01

    Separate entries were made in the data base for the four tasks which include: (1) investigation of electrical behavior in the vicinity of electrode and insulating walls; (2) studies of critical performance issues in the development of combustion disk generators; (3) development and testing of electrode modules, including studies of insulator properties; and (4) determination of coal combustion kinetics and ash behavior relevant to two-stage MHD combustors, and investigation of the mixing and flow aerodynamics of a high swirl geometry second stage. (WHK)

  13. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Baucum, W. E.

    1980-07-31

    Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF), formerly the Research and Development Laboratory, are reported. CFFF Bid Package construction is now virtually complete. The remaining construction effort is being conducted by UTSI. On the quench system, another Task 1 effort, the cyclone was erected on schedule. On Tasks 2 through 6, vitiation heater and nozzle fabrication were completed, an investigation of a fish kill (in no way attributable to CFFF operations) in Woods Reservoir was conducted, major preparation for ambient air quality monitoring was made, a broadband data acquisition system for enabling broadband data to be correlated with all general performance data was selected, a Coriolis effect coal flow meter was installed at the CFFF. On Task 7, an analytical model of the coal flow combustor configuration was prepared, MHD generator testing which, in part, involved continued materials evaluation and the heat transfer characteristics of capped and uncapped electrodes was conducted, agglomerator utilization was studied, and development of a laser velocimeter system was nearly completed.

  14. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  15. Characteristics of a MHD generator operating away from its nominal conditions: The R1 channel in the U-25 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Batenin, V.M.; Bityurin, V.A.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Satanovskii, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    The characteristics of the R1 frame MHD channel are considered. The analysis is based on combining the data obtained with the u-25 plant with simulation data. The results describe the MHD characteristic over a wide range of working conditions and for various degrees of electrode-wall degradation. To obtain additional information on the local parameters, use has been made of the differential voltage-current characteristics, which have been used in analyzing the effects of various factors on the calculated electrodynamic parameters.

  16. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Twentieth quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1992--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Manufacturing, assembly, and checkout of combustion subsystem hardware was completed, and the hardware delivered to CDIF along with the water electrical isolators. A successful nozzle proof test was concluded; purpose was to evaluate adequacy of the nozzle structure and sealing of sidewall-to-electrode wall joints, water tubes, and stud and wire penetrations at operating pressure. Design modifications to spare channel inlet frame were made to enable iron oxide injection. Results of tests in the CDIF 1A1 channel which compared effect of different cathode wall iron oxide injection locations indicated that injection through the side port may be more effective, particularly if one of the two ports become clogged. Design confirmation testing of a pneumatically driven ram to clear a plugged iron oxide injector tip was performed. Manufacture of spare and replacement parts for 1A4 channel and diffuser was begun. Construction of the cathode power cabinets and associated control system was completed. Hot-fire checkout series was completed for the combustion subsystem; 16.8 thermal hours were accumulated during 7 tests. This test series demonstrated adequacy of overall cooling of combustion subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of heat losses and slagging characteristics. Several major facility activities at the CDIF were accomplished including installation and testing of new iron oxide pumps, initial on-line checkout of coal feed system modifications, modification of seed system including replacement of silo rotary feeder, installation of new filter receiver on the silo, and conversion of fly ash bin to dust collector, removal of all of the electrical wiring (used for 1A1 channel) between the channel and HVR in order to install 1A4 wiring, and installation of the 1A4 channel.

  17. End region and current consolidation effects upon the performance of an MHD channel for the ETF conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of MHD channel end regions on the overall power generation were considered. The peak plant thermodynamic efficiency was found to be slightly lower than for the active region (41%). The channel operating point for the peak efficiency was shifted to the supersonic mode (Mach No., M sub c approx. 1.1) rather than the previous subsonic operation (M sub c approx. 0.9). The sensitivity of the channel performance to the B-field, diffuser recovery coefficient, channel load parameter, Mach number, and combustor pressure is also discussed. In addition, methods for operating the channel in a constant-current mode are investigated. This mode is highly desirable from the standpoint of simplifying the current and voltage consolidation for the inverter system. This simplification could result in significant savings in the cost of the equipment. The initial results indicate that this simplification is possible, even under a strict Hall field constraint, with resonable plant thermodynamic efficiency (40.5%).

  18. Flow-Induced New Channels of Energy Exchange in Multi-Scale Plasma Dynamics – Revisiting Perturbative Hybrid Kinetic-MHD Theory

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Junya; Miyato, Naoaki; Matsunaga, Go

    2016-01-01

    It is found that new channels of energy exchange between macro- and microscopic dynamics exist in plasmas. They are induced by macroscopic plasma flow. This finding is based on the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, which analyses interaction between macroscopic (MHD-scale) motion and microscopic (particle-scale) dynamics. The kinetic-MHD theory is extended to include effects of macroscopic plasma flow self-consistently. The extension is realised by generalising an energy exchange term due to wave-particle resonance, denoted by δ WK. The first extension is generalisation of the particle’s Lagrangian, and the second one stems from modification to the particle distribution function due to flow. These extensions lead to a generalised expression of δ WK, which affects the MHD stability of plasmas. PMID:27160346

  19. Flow-Induced New Channels of Energy Exchange in Multi-Scale Plasma Dynamics – Revisiting Perturbative Hybrid Kinetic-MHD Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junya; Miyato, Naoaki; Matsunaga, Go

    2016-05-01

    It is found that new channels of energy exchange between macro- and microscopic dynamics exist in plasmas. They are induced by macroscopic plasma flow. This finding is based on the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, which analyses interaction between macroscopic (MHD-scale) motion and microscopic (particle-scale) dynamics. The kinetic-MHD theory is extended to include effects of macroscopic plasma flow self-consistently. The extension is realised by generalising an energy exchange term due to wave-particle resonance, denoted by δ WK. The first extension is generalisation of the particle’s Lagrangian, and the second one stems from modification to the particle distribution function due to flow. These extensions lead to a generalised expression of δ WK, which affects the MHD stability of plasmas.

  20. Flow-Induced New Channels of Energy Exchange in Multi-Scale Plasma Dynamics - Revisiting Perturbative Hybrid Kinetic-MHD Theory.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junya; Miyato, Naoaki; Matsunaga, Go

    2016-01-01

    It is found that new channels of energy exchange between macro- and microscopic dynamics exist in plasmas. They are induced by macroscopic plasma flow. This finding is based on the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, which analyses interaction between macroscopic (MHD-scale) motion and microscopic (particle-scale) dynamics. The kinetic-MHD theory is extended to include effects of macroscopic plasma flow self-consistently. The extension is realised by generalising an energy exchange term due to wave-particle resonance, denoted by δ WK. The first extension is generalisation of the particle's Lagrangian, and the second one stems from modification to the particle distribution function due to flow. These extensions lead to a generalised expression of δ WK, which affects the MHD stability of plasmas. PMID:27160346

  1. On Computations for Thermal Radiation in MHD Channel Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, T.; Awais, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Safdar, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer on the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal radiation effects are present. The governing problems are first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Influence of several embedded parameters on the velocity, concentration and temperature fields are described. PMID:24497968

  2. End region and current consolidation effects upon the performance of an MHD channel for the ETF conceptual design. [Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that operating conditions which yielded a peak thermodynamic efficiency (41%) for an EFT-size MHD/steam power plant were previously (Wang et al., 1981; Staiger, 1981) identified by considering only the active region (the primary portion for power production) of an MHD channel. These previous efforts are extended here to include an investigation of the effects of the channel end regions on overall power generation. Considering these effects, the peak plant thermodynamic efficiency is found to be slightly lowered (40.7%); the channel operating point for peak efficiency is shifted to the supersonic mode (Mach number of approximately 1.1) rather than the previous subsonic operation (Mach number of approximately 0.9). Also discussed is the sensitivity of the channel performance to the B-field, diffuser recovery coefficient, channel load parameter, Mach number, and combustor pressure.

  3. Space Power MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) System: Third quarterly technical progress report, 1 November 1987-31 January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-15

    This progress report of the Space Power MHD System project presents the accomplishments during 1 November 1987 through 31 January 1988. The scope of work covered encompasses the definition of an MHD power system conceptual design and development plan (Task 1). Progress included the following: Subcontracts were issued to the MIT Plasma Fusion Center and the Westinghouse R and D Center. The performance of the 100 MW 500 sec. power system was optimized and the design concept finalized, including mass and energy balances. Mass and cost estimates were prepared. A design review was held at DOE/PETC. This also included the review of the technical issues definition and of the R and D Plan. Following the review, a final iteration on the conceptual design was initiated. Formulation of the R and D Plan was continued. Preparation of the Task 1 R and D Report was initiated. 12 figs.

  4. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  5. Heat and mass transfer analysis of unsteady MHD nanofluid flow through a channel with moving porous walls and medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair Akbar, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Farooq Iqbal, Muhammad; Ali, Kashif

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the numerical study of heat and mass transfer analysis in a viscous unsteady MHD nanofluid flow through a channel with porous walls and medium in the presence of metallic nanoparticles. The two cases for effective thermal conductivity are discussed in the analysis through H-C model. The impacts of the governing parameters on the flow, heat and mass transfer aspects of the issue are talked about. Under the patronage of small values of permeable Reynolds number and relaxation/contraction parameter, we locate that, when wall contraction is together with suction, flow turning is encouraged close to the wall where the boundary layer is shaped. On the other hand, when the wall relaxation is coupled with injection, the flow adjacent to the porous walls decreased. The outcome of the exploration may be beneficial for applications of biotechnology. Numerical solutions for the velocity, heat and mass transfer rate at the boundary are obtained and analyzed.

  6. Gasdynamic and electrical characteristics of MHD generator according to data from physical and numerical experiments. RM channel of the U-25 device

    SciTech Connect

    Batenin, V.M.; Bityurin, V.A.; Zhelin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.P.; Medin, S.A.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Satanovskii, V.R.; Turovets, V.L.

    1983-05-01

    The integral and some local characteristics of a framed RM MHD channel are examined. The analysis is based on standard experimental information obtained on the U-25 device and data from numerical simulation. The results describe the characteristics of the channel in a wide range of operational regimes with different states of the electrode walls. The modeling data agree with experiment estimating a number of flow parameters that cannot be measured during operation.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    A summary of the work is excerpted here. Final design of an MHD channel for the ITC program POC test has been completed. The channel was designed to be capable of 1.5 MW {sub e} power output and a lifetime of 2000 hours. Emphasis was placed upon durability and reliability. Hence, specific measures were taken to design against channel damage due to electric faults. The life-limiting issues associated with electrochemical corrosion and erosion of gas-side surfaces were addressed by the use of various materials with proven wear characteristics in a coal-fired MHD channel environment. Pitting of prototypical sidewall coupons was observed in the CDIF workhorse testing. The most likely cause of the observed pitting, water leaks resulting from cooling water tube braze failures, has been remedied. New brazing procedures and isolation of the sidebar gas-side material from water contact will prevent sidebar pitting in the prototypical channel. Water-side corrosion tests reported in this quarterly report include the latest results of tungsten-copper elements at controlled pH, heat flux and voltage levels. In the combustion subsystem, efforts continued to focus on understanding and improving the current levels of slag recovery and seed utilization achieved by the combustor. Analytical support was also provided in the areas of slag rejection system operation, precombustor operation, and oil burner design modification. Channel data analysis activities continued in support of prototypical coupon testing at the CDIF. Analyses are presented on channel wall slagging behavior and sidewall voltage distributions.

  8. MHD mixed convection analysis in an open channel by obstructed Poiseuille flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbi, Khan Md.; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    This paper demonstrates magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a rectangular obstacle at the entrance region using non-Newtonian power law fluid. The obstacle is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas the inlet and top wall of the channel are maintained at a temperature lower than obstacle temperature. Poiseuille flow is implemented as the inlet velocity boundary condition. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method has been appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem has been solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 - 10) at a constant Reynolds number (Re = 100), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 - 100), power index (n = 0.6 - 1.6). The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study has been illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. It is observed that increment of Hartmann number (Ha) tends to decrease the heat transfer rate up to a critical value (Ha = 20) and then let increase the heat transfer performance. Thus maximum heat transfer rate has been recorded for higher Hartmann number and Rayleigh number in case of pseudo-plastic (n = 0.6) non-Newtonian fluid flow.

  9. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  10. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  11. Effects of Magnetic Field on the Turbulent Wake of a Cylinder in MHD Channel Flow

    SciTech Connect

    John Rhoads; Edlundd, Eric; Ji, Hantao

    2013-04-01

    Results from a free-surface MHD flow experiment are presented detailing the modi cation of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder with its axis parallel to the applied magnetic fi eld. Experiments were performed with a Reynolds number near Re ~ 104 as the interaction parameter, N = |j x B| / |ρ (υ • ∇), was increased through unity. By concurrently sampling the downstream fluid velocity at sixteen cross-stream locations in the wake, it was possible to extract an ensemble of azimuthal velocity profi les as a function of radius for vortices shed by the cylinder at varying strengths of magnetic field. Results indicate a signi cant change in vortex radius and rotation as N is increased. The lack of deviations from the vortex velocity pro file at high magnetic fi elds suggests the absence of small-scale turbulent features. By sampling the wake at three locations downstream in subsequent experiments, the decay of the vortices was examined and the effective viscosity was found to decrease as N-049±0.4. This reduction in effective viscosity is due to the modi cation of the small-scale eddies by the magnetic fi eld. The slope of the energy spectrum was observed to change from a k-1.8 power-law at low N to a k-3.5 power-law for N > 1. Together, these results suggest the flow smoothly transitioned to a quasi-two-dimensional state in the range 0 < N < 1.

  12. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Twenty-first quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Combustor spare and contingency hardware was shipped to the CDIF. Manufacture of spare and replacement hardware for the lA4 channel and diffuser continued. Fabrication of a modified/spare channel inlet frame which enables iron oxide injection. The cathode power cabinets and associated control system were successfully tested at Westinghouse and met all design requirements. The cathode system was delivered to the CDIF and installed in the current consolidation building. With the delivery of tills component, all prototypical power train components have been delivered to the CDIF. The hot-fire checkout of the channel subsystem and the design verification test series of the integrated power train were completed. A total of 29 tests were performed accumulating 120 thermal and 52 electrical hours. The test series demonstrated the adequacy of the overall cooling of the channel subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of the integrated combustor and channel performance in terms of operating conditions, power output, conductivity, heat loss, slagging behavior, and gas-side wear characteristics. During the test series localized wear in the supersonic nozzle was observed on the right sidewall. Cause of wear is being investigated. At conclusion of DVT test series, the channel was removed for inspection.

  13. Electro-osmotically driven MHD flow and heat transfer in micro-channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, G. C.; Mondal, A.; Sinha, A.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for electro-osmotic flow (EOF) of blood in a hydrophobic micro-channel with externally applied magnetic field. The lumen of micro-channels is assumed to be porous medium in addition to the consideration of permeability of the channel walls. The effects of slip velocity and thermal-slip are taken into consideration. The governing equations in the electrical double layer (EDL) together with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the body force exerted by the applied potential are furthermore considered. The flow is governed by the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid model. These equations along with the thermal energy equation are approximated by assuming that the channel height is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer consisting the stern and diffusive layers. The problem is solved analytically and the computed results have presented graphically for various values of the dimensionless parameters. The results presented here have significant impact on the therapeutic treatment in hyperthermia as well as in controlling blood flow and heat transfer in micro-channels.

  14. Effects of porosity and mixed convection on MHD two phase fluid flow in an inclined channel.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Jafar; Abbas, Zaheer; Sajid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the flow and heat transfer analysis of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel embedded in a porous medium. The channel is divided in two phases such that a third grade fluid occupies the phase I and a viscous fluid occupies the phase II. Both viscous and third grade fluids are electrically conducting. A constant magnetic field is imposed perpendicular to the channel walls. The mathematical model is developed by using Darcy's and modified Darcy's laws for viscous and third grade fluids respectively. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. The obtained results are presented graphically and influence of emerging parameters is discussed in detail. PMID:25803360

  15. Effects of Porosity and Mixed Convection on MHD Two Phase Fluid Flow in an Inclined Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Jafar; Abbas, Zaheer; Sajid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the flow and heat transfer analysis of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel embedded in a porous medium. The channel is divided in two phases such that a third grade fluid occupies the phase I and a viscous fluid occupies the phase II. Both viscous and third grade fluids are electrically conducting. A constant magnetic field is imposed perpendicular to the channel walls. The mathematical model is developed by using Darcy's and modified Darcy's laws for viscous and third grade fluids respectively. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. The obtained results are presented graphically and influence of emerging parameters is discussed in detail. PMID:25803360

  16. Operational Performance of the Two-Channel 10 Megawatt Feedback Amplifier System for MHD Control on the Columbia University HBT-EP Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Wurden, G.A.

    1997-10-06

    The operational characteristics and performance of the two channel 10 Megawatt MHD feedback control system as installed by Los Alamos National Laboratory on the Columbia University HBT-EP tokamak are described. In the present configuration, driving independent 300 {micro}H saddle coil sets, each channel can deliver 1100 Amperes and 16 kV peak to peak. Full power bandwidth is about 12 kHz, with capabilities at reduced power to 30 kHz. The present system topology is designed to suppress magnetohydrodynamic activity with m=2, n=1 symmetry. Application of either static (single phase) or rotating (twin phased) magnetic perturbations shows the ability to spin up or slow down the plasma, and also prevent (or cause) so-called ''mode-locking''. Open loop and active feedback experiments using a digital signal processor (DSP) have been performed on the HBT-EP tokamak and initial results show the ability to manipulate the plasma MHD mode frequency.

  17. Numerical simulation of MHD pulsatile flow of a biofluid in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shahzad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the interaction of an external magnetic field with the flow of a biofluid through a Darcy-Forchhmeir porous channel, due to an oscillatory pressure gradient, in the presence of wall transpiration as well as chemical reaction considerations. We have noticed that if the Reynolds number of the wall transpiration flow is increased, the average (or maximum) velocity of the main flow direction is raised. Similar effect has also been observed for the rheological parameter and the Darcy parameter, whereas an opposite trend has been noted for both the Forchheimer quadratic drag parameter and the magnetic parameter. Further, an increase in the Reynolds number results in straightening the concentration profile, thus making it an almost linear function of the dimensionless spatial variable.

  18. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  19. MHD wave generators with a screw flow-through channel for automated soldering of the printed-circuit assemblies of radioelectronic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gel'fgat, Y.M.; Simsons, Y.A.

    1985-04-01

    The basic characteristics of MHDW for soldering with a continuous wave of solder are presented. A similar presentation of characteristics describe soldering with two jets of solder. A diagram of an MHDW with a screw flow-through channel for creating a single continuous wave of solder is illustrated, and consists of a vat with the melted metal. The vat's bottom is constructed in the form of a circular cylinder placed in the hollow of a three-phase rotating-magnetic-field inductor. The main designs of MHD wave generators have proved to be very efficient for mass and large series production.

  20. Energy Transfer in Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Nanofluid Containing Different Shapes of Nanoparticles in a Channel Filled with Saturated Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaiza, Gul; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2015-12-01

    Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) ( C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water ( H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O.

  1. Energy Transfer in Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Nanofluid Containing Different Shapes of Nanoparticles in a Channel Filled with Saturated Porous Medium.

    PubMed

    Aaiza, Gul; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2015-12-01

    Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) (C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water (H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O. PMID:26698873

  2. Ideal MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidberg, Jeffrey P.

    2014-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The ideal MHD model; 3. General properties of ideal MHD; 5. Equilibrium: one-dimensional configurations; 6. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations; 7. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations; 8. Stability: general considerations; 9. Alternate MHD models; 10. MHD stability comparison theorems; 11. Stability: one-dimensional configurations; 12. Stability: multi-dimensional configurations; Appendix A. Heuristic derivation of the kinetic equation; Appendix B. The Braginskii transport coefficients; Appendix C. Time derivatives in moving plasmas; Appendix D. The curvature vector; Appendix E. Overlap limit of the high b and Greene-Johnson stellarator models; Appendix F. General form for q(y); Appendix G. Natural boundary conditions; Appendix H. Upper and lower bounds on dQKIN.

  3. Numerical simulation of the operation of a MHD generator in transient regimes in MHD power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.P.; Koryagina, G.M.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Morozov, G.N.; Prokop, A.S.

    1982-09-01

    Transient regimes of a MHD generator operating in combination with equipment in a MHD power station are analzyed with the help of a numerical model. The MHD generator, whose flow-through part consists of a nozzle, a channel, and a diffuser, is regulated by changing the flow rate and the load. Three types of MHD channels are studied: Faraday supersonic and subsonic, and diagonal supersonic. Their characteristics are presented and the efficiency of the MHD power station under nonrated regimes is determined. It is established that a MHD generator and the MHD power station as a whole admit quite efficient and deep regulation of the change in the flow rate of the working body.

  4. Power generator design for the billings MHD demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Kessler, R.; Schmitt, E.W.; Morrison, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The proposed design of the MHD Power generator for the Billings MHD Demonstration Project is presented. The Billings MHD Demonstration Project, proposed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology V Program, will demonstrate the significant environmental advantages and efficiency potential of MHD electric power generation. A diagonally-loaded, supersonic MHD generator channel is proposed. The generator channel has a thermal input of 250 MW, is 11 meters long and produces 28.5 MW gross power output at the nominal design operating condition. The gasdynamic, gas-side, and mechanical designs of the proposed generator are derived from the design of the 50 MW{sub t} proof-of-concept MHD generator, currently undergoing long duration testing at the CDIF test facility. The design and operation of the proposed generator will be typical of those anticipated in future commercial MHD generator channels.

  5. Oscillatory MHD Convective Flow of Second Order Fluid Through Porous Medium in a Vertical Rotating Channel in Slip-Flow Regime with Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, B. P.; Singh, K. D.; Bansal, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis of an oscillatory magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convective flow of a second order (viscoelastic), incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid through a porous medium bounded by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates is presented. The two porous plates with slip-flow condition and the no-slip condition are subjected respectively to a constant injection and suction velocity. The pressure gradient in the channel varies periodically with time. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied in the direction perpendicular to the planes of the plates. The induced magnetic field is neglected due to the assumption of a small magnetic Reynolds number. The temperature of the plate with no-slip condition is non-uniform and oscillates periodically with time and the temperature difference of the two plates is assumed high enough to induce heat radiation. The entire system rotates in unison about the axis perpendicular to the planes of the plates. Adopting complex variable notations, a closed form solution of the problem is obtained. The analytical results are evaluated numerically and then presented graphically to discuss in detail the effects of different parameters of the problem. The velocity, temperature and the skin-friction in terms of its amplitude and phase angle have been shown graphically to observe the effects of the viscoelastic parameter γ, rotation parameter Ω, suction parameter λ , Grashof number Gr, Hartmann number M, the pressure A, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter N and the frequency of oscillation ω .

  6. MHD integrated topping cycle project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois no. 6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  9. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

    1983-06-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  10. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  11. Effect of gasdynamic turbulence on the integral characteristics of conduction MHD generators

    SciTech Connect

    Vatazhin, A.B.; Levitan, Y.S.

    1986-04-01

    The authors analyze the effect of correlations on the integral characteristics of conduction MHD generators of different type. The paper studies a flow in the core of the channel of an MGD generator in the approximation of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. Two limiting situations characteristic for MHD setups are examined: a liquid-metal MHD channel and a conduction MHD generator operating on combustion products.

  12. MHD Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Fasoli, A; Testa, D; Sharapov, S; Berk, H L; Breizman, B; Gondhalekar, A; Mantsinen, M

    2004-03-23

    Experiments are conducted on the JET tokamak to assess the diagnostic potential of MHD active and passive spectroscopy, for the plasma bulk and its suprathermal components, using Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes (AEs) excited by external antennas and by energetic particles. The measurements of AE frequencies and mode numbers give information on the bulk plasma. Improved equilibrium reconstruction, in particular in terms of radial profiles of density and safety factor, is possible from the comparison between the antenna driven spectrum and that calculated theoretically. Details of the time evolution of the non-monotonic safety factor profile in advanced scenarios can be reconstructed from the frequency of ICRH-driven energetic particle modes. The plasma effective mass can be inferred from the resonant frequency of externally driven AEs in discharges with similar equilibrium profiles. The stability thresholds and the nonlinear development of the instabilities can give clues on energy and spatial distribution of the fast particle population. The presence of unstable AEs provides lower limits in the energy of ICRH generated fast ion tails. Fast ion pressure gradients and their evolution can be inferred from the stability of AEs at different plasma radial positions. Finally, the details of the AE spectrum in the nonlinear stage can be used to obtain information about the fast particle velocity space diffusion.

  13. MHD Contractors' Review Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The objectives of the Integrated Topping Cycle project are to design, construct, and deliver all prototypical hardware necessary to conduct long duration integrated MHD topping cycle proof-of-concept tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering data base on MHD power train reliability, maintainability, durability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up to the early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include the following three systems: (1) a slagging coal combustion subsystem with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with eastern (Illinois) or western (Montana Rosebud) coal; (2) a channel subsystem consisting of a segmented supersonic nozzle, channel (with current controls), and diffuser, capable of power output of 1.5 MW(sub e); and (3) a current consolidation subsystem to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  14. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  15. Power facility with a built-in multipolar MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, K.L.; Markina, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    The scheme of a power facility with a built-in multipolar MHD generator is discussed. In most papers devoted to airborne high-power MHD generators (self-contained or built into the nozzle of the propulsion unit), MHD channels are discussed that are based on a two-pole scheme. The processes of energy conversion in these MHD generators are usually accompanied by disturbances of flow in the entire channel volume, which, in many cases, is undesirable for the operation of power facilities. Depending on the number of pairs of poles, the proposed facility makes it possible to accomplish MHD conversion both in the nozzle peripheral zone and in the central part of the flow. An analysis of the methods and results of calculations of volume MHD effects for finite Hall parameters {beta} and MHD-interaction s, as well as of the output characteristics of multipolar MHD generators equipped with electrode modules of different types are given. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental data is made. A scheme involving an advanced propulsion unit fired with cryogenic fuel H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} and a built-in multipolar MHD generator is considered. The problems of using built-in multipolar MHD generators in propulsion units utilizing other fuel pairs are discussed.

  16. Study of the electrical characteristics of a MHD generator with diagonally connected load: Channel 1D in the U-25 system

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, V.A.; Buznikov, A.E.; Iserov, A.D.; Kovbsyuk, V.I.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Satanovskii, V.R.; Turovets, V.L.

    1984-05-01

    A study has been made of the electrical characteristics of a Faraday channel ID in the U-25 plant with external diagonal electrode switching. The measurements are compared with calculations from the quasi-one-dimensional hydraulic model and the two-dimensional electrodynamic one. Statistical treatment of the measurements reveals regularities in the local electrode current and potential distributions. Measurements have also been made on the voltage-current characteristics of the electrodes in the channel.

  17. High-magnetic-field MHD-generator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Eustis, R. H.; Mitchner, M.; Self, S. A.; Koester, J. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1981-07-01

    Progress in an experimental and theoretical program designed to investigate MHD channel phenomena which are important at high magnetic fields is described. The areas of research include nonuniformity effects, boundary layers, Hall field breakdown, the effects of electrode configuration and current concentrations, and studies of steady-state combustion disk and linear channels in an existing 6 Tesla magnet of small dimensions. In the study of the effects of nonuniformities, experiments were performed to test a multi-channel, fiber optics diagnostic system that yields time-resolved temperature profiles in an MHD chanel. For the study of magneto-acoustic fluctuation phenomena, a one dimensional model was developed to describe the performance of a non-ideal MHD generator with a generalized electrical configuration. A two dimensional MHD computer code was developed which predicts the dependence on electrode and insulator dimensions of the onset of interelectrode Hall field breakdown, as initiated either by breakdown in the insulator or in the plasma.

  18. MHD augmented chemical rocket propulsion for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R. J.; Chapman, J. N.; Rhodes, R. P.

    1992-07-01

    A performance analysis is carried out of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented chemical thruster (based on a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen system) for space applications such as orbit transfer. The mathematical model used in the analysis is a one-dimensional flow model using equilibrium chemistry for the combustor, choked nozzle, and MHD channel portions of the system, and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics for the high area-ratio gas dynamic nozzle portion of the system. The performance of the chemical-MHD-augmented thruster is compared with that of a pure electric thruster of the same specific impulse level.

  19. Performance of MHD insulating materials in a potassium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Park, J.H.; Rink, D.L.; Thomas, C.A.

    1991-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the compatibility of the MHD insulating materials boron nitride and silicon nitride in a potassium environment at temperatures of 1000 and 1400{degrees}F (538 and 760{degrees}C, respectively) and to measure the electrical conductivities of the specimens before and after exposure to potassium. Based on the test results, an assessment is to be made of the suitability of these materials for application as insulator materials in an MHD channel.

  20. On the Influence of Soret and Dufour Effects on MHD Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Flow over a Vertical Channel with Constant Suction and Viscous Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Uwanta, Ime Jimmy; Usman, Halima

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the combined effects of Soret and Dufour on free convective heat and mass transfer on the unsteady one-dimensional boundary layer flow over a vertical channel in the presence of viscous dissipation and constant suction. The governing partial differential equations are solved numerically using the implicit Crank-Nicolson method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number at the plate are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and are presented through tables. It has been observed that the velocity and temperature increase with the increase in the viscous dissipation parameter and Dufour number, while an increase in Soret number causes a reduction in temperature and a rise in the velocity and concentration. PMID:27419208

  1. Survey of MHD plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. J.; Seikel, G. R.; Cutting, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Open-cycle MHD is one of the major R&D efforts in the Department of Energy's program to meet the national goal of reducing U.S. dependence on oil through increased utilization of coal. MHD offers an effective way to use coal to produce electric power at low cost in a highly efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Open-cycle MHD plants are categorized by the MHD combustor oxidizer, its temperature and the method of preheat. The paper discusses MHD baseline plant design, open-cycle MHD plant in the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), early commercial MHD plants, conceptual studies of the engineering test facility, retrofit (addition of an MHD topping cycle to an existing steam plant), and other potential applications and concepts. Emphasis is placed on a survey of both completed and ongoing studies to define both commercial and pilot plant design, cost, and performance.

  2. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  3. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.

  4. MHD Generating system

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  5. Disk MHD generator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Retallick, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

  6. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  7. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Numerical Analysis of MHD Accelerator with Non-Equilibrium Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwari, M.; H. Qazi, H.; Sukarsan; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator is proposed as a next generation propulsion system. It can be used to increase the performance of a propulsion system. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of MHD accelerator using non-equilibrium air plasma as working gas. In this study, the fundamental performance of MHD accelerator such as flow performance and electrical performance is evaluated at different levels of applied magnetic field using 1-D numerical simulation. The numerical simulation is developed based on a set of differential equations with MHD approximation. To solve this set of differential equations the MacCormack scheme is used. A specified channel designed and developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Centre is used in the numerical simulation. The composition of the simulated air plasma consists of seven species, namely, N2, N, O2, O, NO, NO+, and e-. The performance of the non-equilibrium MHD accelerator is also compared with the equilibrium MHD accelerator.

  10. Reduced Extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  11. Simulating solar MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, M.

    1999-05-01

    Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse') are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of MHD generators and diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Vanka, S P; Ahluwalia, R K; Doss, E D

    1982-03-01

    The three-dimensional flow and heat transfer phenomena in MHD channels and diffusers are analyzed by solving the governing partial differential equations for flow and electrical fields. The equation set consists of the mass continuity equation, the three momentum equations, the equations for enthalpy, turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, and the Maxwell equations. This set of coupled equations is solved by the use of a finite-difference calculation procedure. The turbulence is represented by a two-equation model of turbulence in which partial differential equations are solved for the turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. Calculations have been performed for Faraday and diagonally-connected channels. Specifically, the AEDC (Faraday) and the UTSI (diagonal) channels have been analyzed, and the results are compared with experimental data. The agreement is fairly good for all the measured quantities. The effects of channel loading on the three-dimensional flow characteristics of Faraday and diagonally-connected generators have been also analyzed. A simple argument is presented to show qualitatively the role of MHD body forces in generating axial vorticity and hence secondary flows in the cross-stream. Calculations have also been made to study the flow evolution in MHD diffusers. The calculations show that the velocity overshoots and secondary flows decay along the diffusers length. Plots of velocity, skin friction and pressure recovery are presented to illustrate the flow development in MHD diffusers.

  13. Further analysis of MHD acceleration for a hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, M.J.; Schmidt, H.J.; Chapman, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    A previously completed MHD study of the use of an MHD accelerator with seeded air from a state-of-the-art arc heater, was generally hailed as showing that the system studied has some promise of meeting the most critical hypersonic testing requirements. However, some concerns existed about certain aspects of the results. This paper discusses some of these problems and presents analysis of potential solutions. Specifically the problems addressed are; reducing the amount of seed in the flow, reducing test chamber temperatures, and reducing the oxygen dissociation. Modeling techniques are used to study three design variables of the MHD accelerator. The accelerator channel inlet Mach number, the accelerator channel divergence angle, and the magnetic field strength are all studied. These variables are all optimized to meet the goals for seed, temperature, and dissociated oxygen reduction. The results of this paper are encouraging, showing that all three goals can be met. General relationships are observed as to how the design variables affect the performance of the MHD accelerator facility. This paper expands on the results presented in the UTSI report and further supports the feasibility of MHD acceleration as a means to provide hypersonic flight simulation.

  14. Output from MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2010-03-01

    Outflows emanating from the environment of stellar or galactic objects are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. Their morphology ranges from nearly spherically symmetric winds to highly collimated jets. In some cases, e.g., in jets associated with young stellar objects, the bulk outflow speeds are nonrelativistic, while in others, e.g., in jets associated with active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, it can even be highly relativistic. The main driving mechanism of collimated outflows is likely related to magnetic fields. These fields are able to tap the rotational energy of the compact object or disk, accelerate, and collimate matter ejecta. To zeroth order these outflows can be described by the highly intractable theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even in systems where the assumptions of zero resistivity (ideal MHD), steady state, axisymmetry, one fluid description, and polytropic equation of state are applicable, the problem remains difficult. In this case the problem reduces to only two equations, corresponding to the two components of the momentum equation along the flow and in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field (transfield direction). The latter equation is the most difficult to solve, but also the most important. It answers the question on the degree of the collimation, but also crucially affects the solution of the first, the acceleration efficiency and the bulk velocity of the flow. The first and second parts of this chapter refer to nonrelativistic and relativistic flows, respectively. These Parts can be read independently. In each one, the governing equations are presented and discussed, focusing on the case of flows that are magnetically dominated near the central source. The general characteristics of the solutions in relation to the acceleration and collimation mechanisms are analyzed. As specific examples of exact solutions of the full system of the MHD equations that satisfy all the analyzed general characteristics, self

  15. Commercialization of MHD power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, D.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Probert, P.B.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an approach to the commercialization of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology from the perspective of an equipment manufacturer. It discusses and recommends actions to be taken in solving technical problems and mitigating risk for the first commercial MHD power plant.

  16. Cometary MHD and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, R.; Schmidt, H. U.; Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    An MHD and chemical comet-coma model was developed, applying the computer program of Huebner (1985) for the detailed chemical evolution of a spherically expanding coma and the program of Schmidt and Wegman (1982) and Wegman (1987) for the MHD flow of plasma and magnetic field in a comet to the Giotto-mission data on the ion abundances measured by the HIS ion mass spectrometer. The physics and chemistry of the coma are modeled in great detail, including photoprocesses, gas-phase chemical kinetics, energy balance with a separate electron temperature, multifluid hydrodynamics with a transition to free molecular flow, fast-streaming atomic and molecular hydrogen, counter and cross streaming of the ionized species relative to the neutral species in the coma-solar wind interaction region with momentum exchange by elastic collisions, mass-loading through ion pick-up, and Lorentz forces of the advected magnetic field. The results, both inside and outside of the contact surface, are discussed and compared with the relevant HIS ion mass spectra.

  17. Simulating solar MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, M.

    1999-05-01

    Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse') are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies).

  18. Immersed boundary method for the MHD flows of liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Kassinos, S. C.; Votyakov, E. V.

    2009-02-01

    Wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hereafter) flows are of great theoretical and practical interest. Even for laminar cases, MHD simulations are associated with very high computational cost due to the resolution requirements for the Hartmann and side layers developing in the presence of solid obstacles. In the presence of turbulence, these difficulties are further compounded. Thus, MHD simulations in complex geometries are currently a challenge. The immersed boundary (IB hereafter) method is a reliable numerical tool for efficient hydrodynamic field simulations in arbitrarily geometries, but it has not yet been extended for MHD simulations. The present study forms the first attempt to apply the IB methodology for the computation of both the hydrodynamic and MHD fields. A consistent numerical methodology is presented that is appropriate for efficient 3D MHD simulations in geometrically complicated domains using cartesian flow solvers. For that purpose, a projection scheme for the electric current density is presented, based on an electric potential correction algorithm. A suitable forcing scheme for electric density currents in the vicinity of non-conducting immersed surfaces is also proposed. The proposed methodology has been first extensively tested for Hartmann layers in fully-developed and developing channel and duct flows at Hartmann numbers Ha=500-2000. In order to demonstrate the potential of the method, the three-dimensional MHD flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=200 is also presented. The effects of grid resolution and variable arrangement on the simulation accuracy and consistency were examined. When compared with existing numerical or analytic solutions, excellent agreement was found for all the cases considered. The proposed projection and forcing schemes for current densities were found capable of satisfying the charge conservation law in the presence of immersed non-conducting boundaries. Finally, we show how the proposed

  19. MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several

  20. MHD Wave in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere is one of the fastest developing fields in solar physics, and lies in the mainstream of using solar instrumentation data. This chapter first addresses the spatial frequency morphology of sources of sunspot oscillations and waves, including their localization, size, oscillation periods, and height localization with the mechanism of cutoff frequency that forms the observed emission variability. Then, it presents a review dynamic of sunspot wave processes, provides the information about the structure of wave fronts and their time variations, and investigates the oscillation frequency transformation depending on the wave energy. The chapter also addresses the initializing solar flares caused by trigger agents like magnetoacoustic waves, accelerated particle beams, and shocks. Special attention is paid to the relation between the flare reconnection periodic initialization and the dynamics of sunspot slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  1. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  2. Integration of open-cycle MHD with various chemical and metallurgical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The use of open-cycle MHD in a cogeneration mode is examined for the electrochemical and metallurgical industries. The MHD cycle has the potential for supplying electricity, steam, and high-temperature air or high-temperature combustion products to meet process requirements. The potential energy savings which may be realized through the use of open-cycle MHD in a cogeneration mode are estimated through the use of a first-order thermodynamic MHD plant model which estimates the amount of fuel required for unit of product as the performance of various plant components are changed. Inputs to the model are the process requirements for electricity, steam, and high-temperature heat. The primary method of analysis is to assume the process requirements for the various industries and to examine how the amount of fuel required varies as the MHD generator enthalpy extraction efficiency is varied. Processes using open-cycle MHD for producing aluminum and chlorine-caustic soda are examined in some detail. Processes for the production of iron or steel, and for the production of hydrogen for ammonia are also examined. The use of open-cycle MHD to produce hydrogen for the manufacture of ammonia is also examined. The use of the high-temperature waste heat in the MHD-channel exhaust for thermochemical hydrogen production in a hybrid cycle is an attractive option. The sizes of possible open-cycle MHD installations for these industries are examined and the conditions that the processes impose on the MHD system are discussed. The suitability of the disc MHD generator for these applications is then examined.

  3. MHD technology in aluminum casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, I.

    1984-08-01

    The use of MHD technology in aluminum casting is discussed. Associates of the Latvian Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics developed magnetohydrodynamic units for the Siberian plant. A MHD unit made it possible to free five persons from heavy work at the plant. Labor productivity doubled in this section. With the aid of the magnetic field, the alloy silumin is obtained in only three hours. Specialists of the Irkutsk affiliate of the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Aluminum, Magnesium and Electrode Industry are convinced that MHD technology has a bright future. However, this will necessitate the development of new MHD technology for different types of casting facilities, with their specific features taken into account.

  4. MHD properties of magnetosheath flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Crooker, N. U.; Erickson, G. M.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Maynard, N. C.; Schoendorf, J. A.; Siebert, K. D.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. W.; Wilson, G. R.

    2002-04-01

    We discuss four aspects of magnetosheath flow that require MHD for their calculation and understanding. We illustrate these aspects with computations using a numerical MHD code that simulates the global magnetosphere and its magnetosheath. The four inherently MHD aspects of magnetosheath flow that we consider are the depletion layer, the magnetospheric sash, MHD flow deflections, and the magnetosheath's slow-mode expansion into the magnetotail. We introduce new details of these aspects or illustrate known details in a new way, including the dependence of the depletion layer on interplanetary magnetic filed clock angle; agreement between the locations of the antiparallel regions of Luhmann et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 89 (1984) 1739) and the magnetospheric sash, and deflections corresponding separately to a stagnation line and magnetic reconnection.

  5. Mathematical modelling in MHD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Scheindlin, A.E.; Medin, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The technological scheme and the general parameters of the commercial scale pilot MHD power plant are described. The characteristics of the flow train components and the electrical equipment are discussed. The basic ideas of the mathematical modelling of the processes and the devices operation in MHD systems are considered. The application of different description levels in computer simulation is analyzed and the examples of typical solutions are presented.

  6. Analysis of MHD Pressure Drop in Liquid LiPb Flow in Chinese ITER DFLL-TBM with Insulating Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Hongyan

    2008-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the Chinese Dual Functional Liquid Lithium-lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) proposed for ITER is discussed in this paper. Electrical insulation between the coolant channel surfaces and the liquid metal is required to reduce the MHD pressure drop to a manageable level. Insulation can be provided by a thin insulating coating, such as Al2O3, which can also serve as a tritium barrier layer, at the channel surfaces in contact with LiPb. The coating's effectiveness for reducing the MHD pressure drop is analysed through three-dimensional numerical simulation. A MHD-based commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software FLUENT is used to simulate the LiPb flow. The effect on the MHD pressure drop due to cracks or faults in the coating layer is also considered. The insulating performance requirement for the coating material in DFLL-TBM design is proposed according to the analysis.

  7. US/USSR cooperative program in open-cycle MHD electrical power generation. Joint test report no. 4. Tests in the U-25B facility MHD generator tests No. 6 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picologlou, B. F.; Batenin, V. M.

    1981-01-01

    The MHD generator was operated at its design parameters. New plasma diagnostic devices are described and include: a traversing dual electrical probe for determining distribution of electron concentrations, a traversing probe that includes a pitot tube for measuring total and static pressure, and a light detector for measuring plasma luminescence. Data are presented on heat flux distribution along the channel, the forest data of this type obtained for an MHD facility of such size. Results are given of experimental studies of plasma characteristics, gasdynamic, thermal, and electrical MHD channel performance, and temporal and spatial nonuniformities.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-21

    We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

  9. Parametric analysis of closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, W.; Berg, R.; Murthy, R.; Patten, J.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and 3 employed on site integrated gasifiers. Reference Plant 2 used a pressurized gasifier while Reference Plant 3 used a ""state of the art' atmospheric gasifier. Thirty plant configurations were considered by using parametric variations from the Reference Plants. Parametric variations include the type of coal (Montana Rosebud or Illinois No. 6), clean up systems (hot or cold gas clean up), on or two stage atmospheric or pressurized direct fired coal combustors, and six different gasifier systems. Plant sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 MWe. Overall plant performance was calculated using two methodologies. In one task, the channel performance was assumed and the MHD topping cycle efficiencies were based on the assumed values. A second task involved rigorous calculations of channel performance (enthalpy extraction, isentropic efficiency and generator output) that verified the original (task one) assumptions. Closed cycle MHD capital costs were estimated for the task one plants; task two cost estimates were made for the channel and magnet only.

  10. MHD stability of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S. Sun, Y.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Okabayashi, M.

    1992-08-01

    This paper will give an overview of the some of the methods which are used to simulate the ideal MHD properties of tokamak plasmas. A great deal of the research in this field is necessarily numerical and the substantial progress made during the past several years has roughly paralleled the continuing availability of more advanced supercomputers. These have become essential to accurately model the complex configurations necessary for achieving MHD stable reactor grade conditions. Appropriate tokamak MHD equilibria will be described. Then the stability properties is discussed in some detail, emphasizing the difficulties of obtaining stable high {beta} discharges in plasmas in which the current is mainly ohmically driven and thus demonstrating the need for tailoring the current and pressure profiles of the plasma away from the ohmic state. The outline of this paper will roughly follow the physics development to attain the second region of stability in the PBX-M device at The Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory.

  11. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  12. Open cycle gas fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, S.A. ); Negrini, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the main objectives for the present development of gas fired MHD power generation are considered. The state of the world-wide natural gas consumption and its utilization for electricity production is analyzed. The experimental efforts in gas-fired MHD studies are briefly described. The essential features of the two major world gas-fired MHD project - the Ryazan MHDES-580 (U-500) power plant and the Italian 230 MWt retrofit are presented. New suggestions for improving the efficiency of MHD systems and the theoretical and experimental aspects of MHD development are discussed.

  13. MHD performance demonstration experiment, October 1, 1080-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, G. L.; Christenson, L. S.; Felderman, E. J.; Lowry, R. L.; Bordenet, E. J.

    1981-12-01

    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has been under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) since December 1973 to conduct a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) High Performance Demonstration Experiment (HPDE). The objective of this experimental research is to demonstrate the attainment of MHD performance on a sufficiently large scale to verify that projected commercial MHD objectives are possible. This report describes the testing of the system under power-producing conditions during the period from October 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981. Experimental results have been obtained with the channel configured in the Faraday mode. Test conditions were selected to produce low supersonic velocity along the entire channel length. Tests have been conducted at magnetic fields up to 4.1 Tesla (T) (70% of design). Up to 30.5 MW of power has been produced to date (60% of design) for an enthalpy extraction of approximately 11%. The high Hall voltage transient, observed during the previous series of tests has been reduced. The reduction is mostly probably due to the fuel and seed being introduced simultaneously. The replacement of the ATJ graphite caps on the electrode walls with pyrolytic graphite caps has resulted in significantly higher surface temperature. As a result, the voltage drop is some 60% of the cold wall voltage drop during the previous series of tests. However, the absolute value of the present voltage drop is still greater than the original design predictions. Test results indicate, however, that the overall enthalpy extraction objective can be achieved.

  14. Adding Drift Kinetics to a Global MHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Zhang, B.; Ouellette, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global MHD models have generally been successful in describing thebehavior of the magnetosphere at large and meso-scales. An exceptionis the inner magnetosphere where energy dependent particle drifts areessential in the dynamics and evolution of the ring current. Even inthe tail particle drifts are a significant perturbation on the MHDbehavior of the plasma. The most common drift addition to MHD has beeninclusion of the Hall term in Faraday's Law. There have been attemptsin the space physics context to include gradient and curvature driftswithin a single fluid MHD picture. These have not been terriblysuccessful because the use of a single, Maxwellian distribution doesnot capture the energy dependent nature of the drifts. The advent ofmulti-fluid MHD codes leads to a reconsideration of this problem. TheVlasov equation can be used to define individual ``species'' whichcover a specific energy range. Each fluid can then be treated ashaving a separate evolution. We take the approach of the RiceConvection Model (RCM) that each energy channel can be described by adistribution that is essentially isotropic in the guiding centerpicture. In the local picture, this gives rise to drifts that can bedescribed in terms of the energy dependent inertial and diamagneticdrifts. By extending the MHD equations with these drifts we can get asystem which reduces to the RCM approach in the slow-flow innermagnetosphere but is not restricted to cases where the flow speed issmall. The restriction is that the equations can be expanded in theratio of the Larmor radius to the gradient scale lengths. At scalesapproaching di, the assumption of gyrotropic (or isotropic)distributions break down. In addition to the drifts, the formalism canalso be used to include finite Larmor radius effects on the pressuretensor (gyro-viscosity). We present some initial calculations with this method.

  15. Performance optimization of an MHD generator with physical constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A technique has been described which optimizes the power out of a Faraday MHD generator operating under a prescribed set of electrical and magnetic constraints. The method does not rely on complicated numerical optimization techniques. Instead the magnetic field and the electrical loading are adjusted at each streamwise location such that the resultant generator design operates at the most limiting of the cited stress levels. The simplicity of the procedure makes it ideal for optimizing generator designs for system analysis studies of power plants. The resultant locally optimum channel designs are, however, not necessarily the global optimum designs. The results of generator performance calculations are presented for an approximately 2000 MWe size plant. The difference between the maximum power generator design and the optimal design which maximizes net MHD power are described. The sensitivity of the generator performance to the various operational parameters are also presented.

  16. Pulse detonation MHD power

    SciTech Connect

    Litchford, R.J.; Thompson, B.R.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium-hydroxide/ methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1 m long tube having an inside diameter of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p{sub 2}/p{sub 1} {approximately} 34 and D {approximately} 2400 m/s) and enabled the measurement of current density ({approximately} 2 A/cm{sup 2}) and electrical conductivity ({approximately} 6 mho/m) behind the detonation wave front. In a second set of experiments, a 30 cm long continuous electrode Faraday channel having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2.0 cm was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was placed inside a permanent magnet assembly having a nominal magnetic induction of 0.6 Tesla, and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit in order to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. In these single-shot experiments, the near-electrode potential drop was found to consume approximately 60% of the effective u x B induced potential. For B = 0.6 Tesla, the authors obtained a peak open circuit voltage of V{sub O}C = Bh {approximately} 10 volts implying an effective burned gas velocity relative to the tube of {approximately} 660 m/s which may be compared with the theoretical equilibrium value for the idealized case (1100 m/s). The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Ohms. The measured peak electrical energy density ranged from 10 to 10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3} when the effective magnetic induction was varied from 0.6 to 4.2 Tesla. These results

  17. Pulse Detonation Rocket MHD Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A pulse detonation research engine (MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) Model PDRE (Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine) G-2) has been developed for the purpose of examining integrated propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic power generation applications. The engine is based on a rectangular cross-section tube coupled to a converging-diverging nozzle, which is in turn attached to a segmented Faraday channel. As part of the shakedown testing activity, the pressure wave was interrogated along the length of the engine while running on hydrogen/oxygen propellants. Rapid transition to detonation wave propagation was insured through the use of a short Schelkin spiral near the head of the engine. The measured detonation wave velocities were in excess of 2500 m/s in agreement with the theoretical C-J velocity. The engine was first tested in a straight tube configuration without a nozzle, and the time resolved thrust was measured simultaneously with the head-end pressure. Similar measurements were made with the converging-diverging nozzle attached. The time correlation of the thrust and head-end pressure data was found to be excellent. The major purpose of the converging-diverging nozzle was to configure the engine for driving an MHD generator for the direct production of electrical power. Additional tests were therefore necessary in which seed (cesium-hydroxide dissolved in methanol) was directly injected into the engine as a spray. The exhaust plume was then interrogated with a microwave interferometer in an attempt to characterize the plasma conditions, and emission spectroscopy measurements were also acquired. Data reduction efforts indicate that the plasma exhaust is very highly ionized, although there is some uncertainty at this time as to the relative abundance of negative OH ions. The emission spectroscopy data provided some indication of the species in the exhaust as well as a measurement of temperature. A 24-electrode-pair segmented Faraday channel and 0.6 Tesla permanent

  18. MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V

    2014-01-01

    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  19. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This quarterly report briefly describes recent progress in eight projects. The projects are entitled Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Spray Casting Project; and Watervliet Arsenal Project.

  20. Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence may be represented by finite Fourier series, where the inherent periodic box serves as a surrogate for a bounded astrophysical plasma. Independent Fourier coefficients form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function containing a Hermitian covariance matrix with positive eigenvalues. The eigenvalues at lowest wave number can be very small, resulting in a large-scale coherent structure: a turbulent dynamo. This is seen in computations and a theoretical explanation in terms of 'broken ergodicity' contains Taylor s theory of force-free states. An important problem for future work is the case of real, i.e., dissipative flows. In real flows, broken ergodicity and coherent structure are still expected to occur in MHD turbulence at the largest scale, as suggested by low resolution simulations. One challenge is to incorporate coherent structure at the largest scale into the theory of turbulent fluctuations at smaller scales.

  1. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  2. Assessment of disk MHD generators for a base load powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L.; Retallick, F. D.; Lu, C. L.; Stella, M.; Teare, J. D.; Loubsky, W. J.; Louis, J. F.; Misra, B.

    1981-01-01

    Results from a study of the disk MHD generator are presented. Both open and closed cycle disk systems were investigated. Costing of the open cycle disk components (nozzle, channel, diffuser, radiant boiler, magnet and power management) was done. However, no detailed costing was done for the closed cycle systems. Preliminary plant design for the open cycle systems was also completed. Based on the system study results, an economic assessment of the open cycle systems is presented. Costs of the open cycle disk conponents are less than comparable linear generator components. Also, costs of electricity for the open cycle disk systems are competitive with comparable linear systems. Advantages of the disk design simplicity are considered. Improvements in the channel availability or a reduction in the channel lifetime requirement are possible as a result of the disk design.

  3. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  4. MHD heat pipes for imposition of a strong current into high temperature liquid metals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, A. A.; Kolesnichenko, A. F.; Buryak, V.; Vodyanyuk, V.

    2001-06-01

    MHD high temperature heat pipe can be used as an electrode for imposition of strong currents into any liquid metals te{1, 2}. Low melting liquid metal inside heat pipe is used not only as a heat carrier but also as a conductor of strong current. The edge of an electrode that has a contact with high temperature liquid metal is made from the same metal, but solid. Position of a solid-liquid interface has to be controlled to prevent intensive freezing of a liquid metal on the electrode and, conversely, to prevent melting of the electrode. An example of application of electrodes equipped with MHD heat pipe has relation to channel induction furnaces, where the MHD heat pipes are installed instead of channels filled by molten metal. The second example of application is the MHD pump of alternating or direct currents, where the MHD heat pipes are used as electrodes for imposition of strong currents. One of these pumps was created with participation of the scientific society Net Shape Cast (Ukraine) Ltd., especially for pumping of steel, and was checked for pumping of different kinds of steel. Figs 5, Refs 3.

  5. Results of the integrated topping cycle MHD generator testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Schmitt, E.W.

    1994-12-31

    The results of the Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) MHD generator tests are presented. This generator is part of a 50 MW{sub t} prototypic powertrain which recently completed proof-of-concept (POC) testing at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. POC duration testing was carried out at conditions representative of commercial power plant operation, in order to establish component lifetimes and to verify the design performance parameters. Over 500 hours of thermal and power testing was cumulated with the generator hardware before the program funding was terminated. A summary of the MHD generator performance characteristics and hardware evaluations is provided in the paper. A summary of the generator performance throughout the POC test series is presented. Included are comparisons of: (1) plasma electrical conductivities measured early in the Design Verification Test series and during the POC series, (2) measured generator performance with analytical predictions, and (3) internal wall leakage characteristics of the generator channel with and without iron oxide addition. The performance requirement of the ITC program, i.e., the demonstration of 1.5 MW{sub e} power output, was easily achieved. The ITC generator channel, nozzle, and diffuser accumulated more than 300 hours at nominal power conditions. The prototypic hardware performed well throughout the POC test series. Some problems did arise during the tests. but they were not life-threatening to the MHD generator. Corrective measures were implemented; they will be discussed in the full paper. The physical condition of the overall generator channel at the end of POC tests is good.

  6. Pamir-3U pulsed portable MHD power system

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigarnik, V.A.; Swallom, D.W.; Gibbs, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    The results of the development of a portable, pulsed MHD power system, called the Pamir-3U, are presented. The maximum operating parameters of the Pamir-3U MHD power system are a net power output of 15 MW and a maximum duration of the electrical pulse at the load of 10 seconds. The work is being performed by the {open_quotes}IVTAN - Association{close_quotes} of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) and Textron Defense Systems (USA). Major subcontractors also participating in this effort are Nizhny Novgorod Machine Building Plant (Russia), Lubertsy Scientific and Production Association (Russia) and Aerojet Corporation (USA). Textron Defense Systems is the prime contractor with overall management and systems integration of the project. Aerojet Corporation will provide the test site and perform the acceptance test program. The Russian subcontract team is led by IVTAN, who is responsible for the overall design and integration of the Pamir-3U System and the electrical control and data acquisition. The two subcontractors working for IVTAN are responsible for the magnets, channels, and electrical equipment (Nizhny Novgorod) and the plasma generators (Lubertsy). The Pamir-3U MHD system is a portable power system that can be transported to various operational locations. The power system is self-contained and does not require extensive support equipment to generate the design power.

  7. MHD plasma acceleration in plasma thrusters: a variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Pegoraro, F.

    2010-12-14

    A Hamiltonian formulation of the MHD plasma flow equations in terms of noncanonical variables is briefly discussed for the case of stationary axisymmetric configurations. This formulation makes it possible to cast these flow equations in a variational form with mixed (closed and/or open) boundary conditions. Within this framework the modelling of the acceleration channel of an applied-field Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic (MPD) thruster for space propulsion is discussed and shown to provide general relationships between the flow features and the thruster performance.

  8. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Microbial desulfurization is the use of ''bugs'' to remove sulfur from coal. Four projects illustrate the variety of ways in which microbes can be used to desulfurize coal. In the liquefaction program area, a joint effort between PETC and Catalytic, Inc., was established for process-modeling studies of two-stage coal liquefaction experiments at Wilsonville. Researchers at PETC have developed a process model for Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction and are currently focusing on characterization of an engineering (ASPEN Public) simulator. The goal of this work is to establish realistic process performance indices for different reactor configurations and coal feedstocks based on heat and material balance calculations. In another liquefaction research effort this quarter, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., started the first bench run under its new contract for research on low-severity, two-stage liquefaction. The run is planned for 29 days and will test nine separate operating conditions. Research in the field of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) continued at the Avco Everett Research Laboratory (AERL). A significant achievement fiscal year was the first-time operation of the Avco MK VIII channel with the total power controlled and/or consolidated using nonresistive circuitry. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was delivered, installed, and tested at the DOE's MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. Shakedown tests of PETC's Continuous Life-Cycle Copper Oxide Test Facility are complete. This PETC facility will be used to conduct the first integrated process tests of the Fluidized-Bed Copper Oxide Process unit for the control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. PETC has recently initiated a project to study the fundamental properties of coal surfaces by measuring the heat of immersion of coal and its associated mineral matter using a Setaram C-80 heat flow calorimeter.

  9. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  10. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD proof-of-concept project; mine waste pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  11. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept project; mine waste technology pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  12. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  13. Ceramic component for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, Junior L.

    1981-01-01

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf.sub.x In.sub.y A.sub.z O.sub.2 where x=0.1 to 0.4, y=0.3 to 0.6, z=0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  14. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  15. NaK-nitrogen liquid metal MHD converter tests at 30 kw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerini, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of electrical power generation with an ambient temperature liquid-metal MHD separator cycle is demonstrated by tests in which a NaK-nitrogen LM-MHD converter was operated at nozzle inlet pressures ranging from 100 to 165 N/sq cm, NaK flow rates from 46 to 72 kg/sec, and nitrogen flow rates from 2.4 to 3.8 kg/sec. The generator was operated as an eight-phase linear induction generator, with two of the eight phases providing magnetic field compensation to minimized electrical end losses at the generator channel inlet and exit.

  16. Workshop on Feedback Stabilization of MHD Stabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Mauel, M.; Nevins, W.; Prager, S.

    1996-12-31

    The feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities is an area of research that is critical for improving the performance and economic attractiveness of magnetic confinement devices. A Workshop dedicated to feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities was held from December 11-13, 1996 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The resulting presentations, conclusions, and recommendations are summarized.

  17. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) Program Plan, FY 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The essential elements of the current program, which is a continuation of the program outlined in the FY 1988 MHD Program Plan, are to: develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle system through long-term (1000 hours) proof of concept (POC) testing; develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD bottoming cycle subsystem through long-term (4000 hours) POC testing; design and construct a seed regeneration system capable of independent operation, using spent seed materials from the MHD process; prepare a conceptual design for an MHD retrofit plant; and continue system studies and supporting research necessary for system testing. Results of the topping cycle POC tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), coupled with the bottoming cycle POC test results obtained at the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), and the seed regeneration POC effort will provide the critical engineering data base for the private sector's final decision on proceeding with the design, construction, and operation of an MHD retrofit. The development schedule, decision points, and resource requirements are discussed. As part of the MHD program, international activities of several nations are monitored and evaluated through contact with the international MHD scientific and technical community.

  18. MHD Turbulence through the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.

    Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in a wide range of space and time scales have been directly detected in the interplanetary medium In the solar corona the presence of MHD turbulence is naturally generated by the mechanical and magnetic energy input from the photosphere and it could be related to coronal heating as well as to energy release events like micro and nanoflares A certain amount of fluctuations from the solar corona arrives in the solar wind mainly as Alfvénic turbulence i e strongly correlated velocity and magnetic field fluctuations with a very low level of compressible density magnetic field intensity temperature fluctuations The whole system formed by the solar corona and the solar wind represents a sort of wind tunnel extremely useful to study the MHD turbulence properties The presence of magnetic turbulence in the heliosphere is identified as the source of charged particle collisionless diffusion which according the values of parameters like the energy level on magnetic fluctuations or the turbulence correlation length can display both a normal gaussian random walk and an anomalous subdiffusive or super diffusive behavior The former case is obtained in a situation of global stochasticity high level of fluctuation energy while the latter in a situation of weak chaos low level of fluctuation energy The talk will discuss turbulence generation at photospheric level its propagation and its interaction with heliospheric structures and its effects on anomalous transport processes of charged

  19. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  20. Cusp geometry in MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, George; Crooker, Nancy; Siebert, Keith; Maynard, Nelson; Weimer, Daniel; White, Willard

    2005-01-01

    The MHD simulations described here show that the latitude of the high-altitude cusp decreases as the IMF swings from North to South, that there is a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at high-altitude associated with a dawn dusk component of the IMF, and that at the same time there is also a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at low-altitude. The simulations generate a feature that represents what has been called the cleft. It appears as a tail (when the IMF has a By component) attached to the cusp, extending either toward the dawn flank or the dusk flank depending on the dawn dusk orientation of the IMF. This one-sided cleft connects the cusp to the magnetospheric sash. We compare cusp geometry predicted by MHD simulations against published observations based on Hawkeye and DMSP data. Regarding the high-altitude predictions, the comparisons are not definitive, mainly because the observations are incomplete or mutually inconsistent. Regarding the low-altitude prediction of a strong dawn dusk asymmetry, the observations are unambiguous and are in good qualitative agreement with the prediction.

  1. Theoretical investigation of operation modes of MHD generators for energy-bypass engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Li, Nan; Yu, Daren

    2014-12-01

    A MHD generator with different arrangements of electromagnetic fields will lead the generator working in three modes. A quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used for the model of the MHD generator to analyze the inner mechanism of operation modes. For the MHD generator with a uniform constant magnetic field, a specific critical electric field E cr is required to decelerate a supersonic entrance flow into a subsonic exit flow. Otherwise, the generator works in a steady mode with a larger electric field than E cr in which a steady supersonic flow is provided at the exit, or the generator works in a choked mode with a smaller electric field than E cr in which the supersonic entrance flow is choked in the channel. The detailed flow field characteristics in different operation modes are discussed, demonstrating the relationship of operation modes with electromagnetic fields.

  2. MHD generator performance comparisons between coal + ash firing. [Coal versus fuel oil with ashes added

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Enos, G.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.

    1983-08-01

    A two-stage slagging coal combustor developed by TRW Corporation, was successfully integrated with an MHD generator developed by the Avco Corporation, when the two companies cooperated in an operational demonstration of a coal fired MHD power train under the sponsorship of DOE. The experimental components, rated at a nominal 20 MW thermal input, are the engineering prototypes of 50 MW /SUB th/ hardware to be supplied by the contractors to the recently commissioned Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), a federal MHD test site in Butte, Montana. A second series of tests was conducted in which the same channel and operating parameters were employed with an oil-fired ash-injected combustor (AIC) to provide performance comparisons. The only significant performance variation uncovered in the comparison tests was attributable to a non-optimum method and location for seed injection in the coal-fired combustor. The corrective measures are deemed to be relatively straightforward.

  3. Present understanding of MHD and heat transfer phenomena for liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, I.R.; Barleon, L.; Reed, C.B.; Miyazaki, K.

    1994-07-01

    A review of experimental work on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and heat transfer (HT) characteristics of liquid metal flows in fusion relevant conditions is presented. Experimental data on MHD flow pressure drop in straight channels of round and rectangular cross-section with electroconducting walls in a transverse magnetic field show good agreement with theoretical predictions, and simple engineering formulas are confirmed. Less data are available on velocity distribution and HT characteristics, and even less data are available for channels with electroinsulating walls or artificially made self-heating electroinsulating coatings. Some experiments show an interesting phenomena of HT increase in the presence of a transverse or axial magnetic field. For channels of complex geometry -- expansions, contractions, bends, and manifolds -- few experimental data are available. Future efforts should be directed toward investigation of MHD/HT in straight channels with perfect and nonperfect electroinsulated walls, including walls with controlled imperfections, and in channels of complex geometry. International cooperation in manufacturing and operating experimental facilities with magnetic fields at, or even higher than, 5--7 T with comparatively large volumes may be of great help.

  4. Two-dimensional MHD generator model. [GEN code

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H. K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Doss, E. D.

    1980-09-01

    A steady state, two-dimensional MHD generator code, GEN, is presented. The code solves the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, using a Von Mises transformation and a local linearization of the equations. By splitting the source terms into a part proportional to the axial pressure gradient and a part independent of the gradient, the pressure distribution along the channel is easily obtained to satisfy various criteria. Thus, the code can run effectively in both design modes, where the channel geometry is determined, and analysis modes, where the geometry is previously known. The code also employs a mixing length concept for turbulent flows, Cebeci and Chang's wall roughness model, and an extension of that model to the effective thermal diffusities. Results on code validation, as well as comparisons of skin friction and Stanton number calculations with experimental results, are presented.

  5. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere-First Quarter First Year Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report details progress during the first quarter of the first year of our Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) driven droplet mixer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Lemoff, Asuncion V.; Miles, Robin R.

    2004-05-11

    A magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system mixes a first substance and a second substance. A first substrate section includes a first flow channel and a first plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the first flow channel. A second substrate section includes a second flow channel and a second plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the second flow channel. A third substrate section includes a third flow channel and a third plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the third flow channel. A magnetic section and a control section are operatively connected to the spaced electrodes. The first substrate section, the second substrate section, the third substrate section, the first plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the second plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the third plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the magnetic section, and the control section are operated to move the first substance through the first flow channel, the second substance through the second flow channel, and both the first substance and the second substance into the third flow channel where they are mixed.

  7. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    As part of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project, TRW was given the responsibility to organize, charter and co-chair, with the Department of Energy (DOE), an MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC). The Charter of the TTIRC, which was approved by the DOE in June 1988 and distributed to the committee members, is included as part of this Summary. As stated in the Charter, the purpose of this committee is to: (1) review all Proof-of-Concept (POC) projects and schedules in the national MHD program; to assess their compatibility with each other and the first commercial MHD retrofit plant; (2) establish and implement technology transfer formats for users of this technology; (3) identify interfaces, issues, and funding structures directly impacting the success of the commercial retrofit; (4) investigate and identify the manner in which, and by whom, the above should be resolved; and (5) investigate and assess other participation (foreign and domestic) in the US MHD Program. The DOE fiscal year 1989 MHD Program Plan Schedule is included at the end of this Summary. The MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee's activities to date have focused primarily on the technology transfer'' aspects of its charter. It has provided a forum for the dissemination of technical and programmatic information among workers in the field of MHD and to the potential end users, the utilities, by holding semi-annual meetings. The committee publishes this semi-annual report, which presents in Sections 2 through 11 capsule summaries of technical progress for all DOE Proof-of-Concept MHD contracts and major test facilities.

  8. Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Nobuhiro

    As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working medium is proposed. For open cycle MHD, high-efficiency coal fired MHD system with CO2 recovery has been proposed. As inverse process of MHD power generation, MHD accelerators/thrusters are expected as the next generation propulsion system. Heat flux reduction to protect re-entry vehicles is expected by an MHD process for safety return from space missions.

  9. Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2001-09-07

    Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

  10. Local structures of homogeneous Hall MHD turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.; Araki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Local structures of decaying homogeneous and isotropic Hall MHD turbulence are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. Regions of strong vorticity and strong current density in Hall MHD turbulence are compared to those of single-fluid MHD turbulence. An analysis by the use of a low-pass filter reveals that the introduction of the Hall term can modify not only small-scale structures of the current density but also structures of the vorticity field, especially at the scales smaller than the ion skin depth.

  11. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  12. 4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. 3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  18. Cosmological AMR MHD with Enzo

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzoto include magnetic fields. We use the hyperbolic solver of Li et al. (2008) for the computation of interface fluxes. We use constrained transport methods of Balsara & Spicer (1999) and Gardiner & Stone (2005) to advance the induction equation, the reconstruction technique of Balsara (2001) to extend the Adaptive Mesh Refinement of Berger & Colella (1989) already used in Enzo, though formulated in a slightly different way for ease of implementation. This combination of methods preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non cosmologjcal tests problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  19. SSX MHD plasma wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael R.; Schaffner, David A.

    2015-06-01

    A new turbulent plasma source at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) facility is described. The MHD wind tunnel configuration employs a magnetized plasma gun to inject high-beta plasma into a large, well-instrumented, vacuum drift region. This provides unique laboratory conditions approaching that in the solar wind: there is no applied background magnetic field in the drift region and has no net axial magnetic flux; the plasma flow speed is on the order of the local sound speed (M ~ 1), so flow energy density is comparable to thermal energy density; and the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure is of order unity (plasma β ~ 1) so thermal energy density is also comparable to magnetic energy density. Results presented here and referenced within demonstrate the new capabilities and show how the new platform is proving useful for fundamental plasma turbulence studies.

  20. Extended MHD Simulations of Spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear extended MHD simulations of a spheromak in a cylindrical flux conserver are performed using the NIMROD code (JCP 195, 2004). An idealized series of simulations starting from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium and small non-axisymmetric perturbations are performed to model the sustained decay phase. The resulting confinement leads to steep resistivity gradients. Strong current gradients develop, driving tearing modes that dominate the evolution of the spheromak. Absent in these simulations are the remains of n=1 fluctuations created during the formation process. A second series of simulations start from vacuum fields and model the full spheromak evolution, including the formation process where the n=1 fluctuations dominate. To understand the role of pressure driven instabilities in the evolution of the spheromak, a numerical diagnostic is developed to calculate the Mercier stability criterion from the axisymmetric fields.

  1. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. MHD seed recovery and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    The TRW Econoseed MHD Seed Regeneration Process is based on the reaction of calcium formate with potassium sulfate spent seed from an MHD electric power generation plant. The process was tested at bench scale, design a proof of concept (POC) test plant, plan and cost a Phase 2 project for a POC plant evaluation and prepare a conceptual design of a 300 MW (t) commercial plant. The results of the project are as follows: (1) each of the unit operations is demonstrated, and (2) the data are incorporated into a POC plant design and project cost, as well as a 300 MW (t) commercial retrofit plant design and cost estimate. Specific results are as follows: (1) calcium formate can be produced at 100 percent yield in a total retention time of less than 5 minutes, (2) utilizing the calcium formate, spent seed can quantitatively be converted to potassium formate, potassium carbonate or mixtures of these with potassium sulfate as per the commercial design without measurable loss of potassium to insolubles at a total retention time under 20 minutes and ambient pressure, (3) the solid rejects form the process meet RCRA EP Toxicity requirements for safe disposal, and (4) filtration and evaporation data, as well as reaction data cited above, show that the Econoseed technology is ready for scale up to POC plant scale. Economics forecast studies show that the total cost per unit of potassium for seed regeneration by the Econoseed Process is in the range of $0.23 to $0.27/lb, a cost which is less than half the potassium cost of $0.63/lb for purchasing new potassium carbonate.

  3. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.

  4. MHD compressor---expander conversion system integrated with GCR inside a deployable reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Tuninetti, G. . Research Div.); Botta, E.; Criscuolo, C.; Riscossa, P. . Nuclear Div.); Giammanco, F. . Dipt. di Fisica); Rosa-Clot, M. . Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-04-20

    This work originates from the proposal MHD Compressor-Expander Conversion System Integrated with a GCR Inside a Deployable Reflector''. The proposal concerned an innovative concept of nuclear, closed-cycle MHD converter for power generation on space-based systems in the multi-megawatt range. The basic element of this converter is the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) consisting of a gas core reactor directly coupled to an MHD expansion channel. Integrated with the PCU, a deployable reflector provides reactivity control. The working fluid could be either uranium hexafluoride or a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and helium, added to enhance the heat transfer properties. The original Statement of Work, which concerned the whole conversion system, was subsequently redirected and focused on the basic mechanisms of neutronics, reactivity control, ionization and electrical conductivity in the PCU. Furthermore, the study was required to be inherently generic such that the study was required to be inherently generic such that the analysis an results can be applied to various nuclear reactor and/or MHD channel designs''.

  5. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  6. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. [Threshold unstable MHD activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed.

  7. High magnetic field MHD generator program. Final report, July 1, 1976-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Eustis, R. H.; Kruger, C. H.; Mitchner, M.; Self, S. A.; Koester, J. K.; Nakamura, T.

    1980-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental program was undertaken to investigate MHD channel phenomena which are important at high magnetic fields. The areas studied were inhomogeneity effects, boundary layers, Hall field breakdown and electrode configuration and current concentrations. In addition, a program was undertaken to study steady-state combustion disk and linear channels in an existing 6 Tesla magnet of small dimensions. The structure of the inhomogeneities in the Stanford M-2 was characterized and compared with theoretical results from a linearized perturbation analysis. General agreement was obtained and the analysis was used to compute stability regions for large size generators. The Faraday electrical connection was found to be more stable than the Hall or diagonal wall connections. Boundary layer profile measurements were compared with theoretical calculations with good agreement. Extrapolation of the calculations to pilot scale MHD channels indicates that Hartmann effects are important in the analysis of the sidewall, and Joule heating is important in calculating heat transfer and voltage drops for the electrode wall. Hall field breakdown was shown to occur both in the plasma and through the interelectrode insulator with the insulator breakdown threshold voltage lower than the plasma value. The threshold voltage was shown to depend on the interelectrode gap but was relatively independent of plasma conditions. Experiments were performed at 5.5 Tesla with both disk and linear MHD channels.

  8. Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Terradas, Jaume; Verth, Gary; Soler, Roberto

    Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes Presenting author: M. Goossens Co-authors: R. Soler, J. Terradas, T. Van Doorsselaere, G. Verth The standard interpretation of the transverse MHD waves observed in the solar atmosphere is that they are non-axisymmetric kink m=1) waves on magnetic flux tubes. This interpretation is based on the fact that axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fluting waves do not displace the axis of the loop and the loop as a whole while kink waves indeed do so. A uniform transverse motion produces a Doppler displacement that is constant across the magnetic flux tube. A recent development is the observation of Doppler displacements that vary across the loop. The aim of the present contribution is to show that spatial variations of the Doppler displacements across the loop can be caused by kink waves. The motion associated with a kink wave is purely transverse only when the flux tube is uniform and sufficiently thin. Only in that case do the radial and azimuthal components of displacement have the same amplitude and is the azimuthal component a quarter of a period ahead of the radial component. This results in a unidirectional or transverse displacement. When the flux tube is non-uniform and has a non-zero radius the conditions for the generation of a purely transverse motion are not any longer met. In that case the motion in a kink wave is the sum of a transverse motion and a non-axisymmetric rotational motion that depends on the azimuthal angle. It can produce complicated variations of the Doppler displacement across the loop. I shall discuss the various cases of possible Doppler displacenents that can occur depending on the relative sizes of the amplitudes of the radial and azimuthal components of the displacement in the kink wave and on the orientation of the line of sight.

  9. MHD technology transfer, integration, and review committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-05-01

    As part of Task 8 of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project, TRW was given the responsibility to organize, charter and co-chair, with the Department of Energy (DOE), an MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC). The TTIRC consists of an Executive Committee (EC) which acts as the governing body, and a General Committee (GC), also referred to as the main or full committee, consisting of representatives from the various POC contractors, participating universities and national laboratories, utilities, equipment suppliers, and other potential MHD users or investors. The purpose of the TTIRC is to: (1) review all Proof-of-Concept (POC) projects and schedules in the national MHD program; to assess their compatibility with each other and the first commercial MHD retrofit plant; (2) establish and implement technology transfer formats for users of this technology; (3) identify interfaces, issues, and funding structures directly impacting the success of the commercial retrofit; (4) investigate and identify the manner in which, and by whom, the above should be resolved; and (5) investigate and assess other participation (foreign and domestic) in the U.S. MHD Program. There are seven sections: introduction; Executive Committee and General Committee activity; Committee activities related to technology transfer; ongoing POC integration activities being performed under the auspices of the Executive Committee; recommendations passed on to the DOE by the Executive Committee; Planned activities for the next six months.

  10. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  11. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student Teaching" (Jerome T.…

  12. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1989. Articles in number 1 deal with professional development, and include: "Sharing Expertise within a Department" (Martha R. Dolly); "Empowerment Develops a Computer Writing Center" (Norman L. Frey); "Videotapes…

  13. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirinsky, Driek, Ed.; Strickland, James, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1988. Articles in number 1 include: "Relearning Leadership" (Tom Jones); "The English Coalition Conference" (Robert Denham); "The Reluctant Writer and Word Processing" (James Strickland); "Teacher Aides: An…

  14. An extremum-seeking MHD generator channel flow control system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil`ev, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in the development and study of new electric energy generation methods, based on direct conversion of heat energy, raises the problem of more effective use of their power characteristics. A self-optimizing control system for an object with a unimodal quality function has been developed. The system consists of the object, a divider, a band-pass filter, an averaging filter, a multiplier, a final control element, an adder, and a search signal generator.

  15. MHD integrated topping cycle project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Combustor spare and contingency hardware was shipped to the CDIF. Manufacture of spare and replacement hardware for the lA4 channel and diffuser continued. Fabrication of a modified/spare channel inlet frame which enables iron oxide injection. The cathode power cabinets and associated control system were successfully tested at Westinghouse and met all design requirements. The cathode system was delivered to the CDIF and installed in the current consolidation building. With the delivery of tills component, all prototypical power train components have been delivered to the CDIF. The hot-fire checkout of the channel subsystem and the design verification test series of the integrated power train were completed. A total of 29 tests were performed accumulating 120 thermal and 52 electrical hours. The test series demonstrated the adequacy of the overall cooling of the channel subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of the integrated combustor and channel performance in terms of operating conditions, power output, conductivity, heat loss, slagging behavior, and gas-side wear characteristics. During the test series localized wear in the supersonic nozzle was observed on the right sidewall. Cause of wear is being investigated. At conclusion of DVT test series, the channel was removed for inspection.

  16. OpenMHD: Godunov-type code for ideal/resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2016-04-01

    OpenMHD is a Godunov-type finite-volume code for ideal/resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is written in Fortran 90 and is parallelized by using MPI-2 and OpenMP. The code was originally developed for studying magnetic reconnection problems and has been made publicly available in the hope that others may find it useful.

  17. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-07-15

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, {omega}) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  18. Toroidal Theory of MHD Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    2004-03-15

    We continue with the adventures of the Alfven wave and its two magnetosonic companions as they travel in the curved space of magnetic surfaces and field lines (Sec. 2), find themselves trapped in singularities of an unprecedented richness (Sec. 3), decide to get themselves better maps of the landscape to do the required twisting while some of their youthful energy is leaking away (Sec. 4), cause trouble at the edge of a powerful empire (Sec. 5), and finally see the light in a distant future (Sec. 6). Needed on the trip are the evolution equations of both ideal and resistive MHD 'derived' in reference [1], the solutions to the toroidal equilibrium equations discussed in reference [2], the general background on spectral theory of inhomogeneous plasmas presented in reference [3], which is extended in the two directions of toroidal geometry and resistivity in this lecture [4]. This leads to such intricate dynamics that numerical techniques are virtually the only way to proceed. This aspect is further elaborated in reference [5] on numerical techniques.

  19. Basic Bell-MHD turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2014-06-20

    Nonresonant current instability was identified by Bell as an important mechanism for magnetic field amplification in supernova remnants. In this paper we focus on studying the nonlinear stage of this instability using the incompressible MHD formulation. We demonstrate that the evolution of magnetic turbulence driven by the Bell instability resembles turbulence driven on large scales. More importantly, we demonstrate that the energy-containing scale for magnetic fields is proportional to the square root of the magnetic energy density. Given the observational constraints of the possible field amplification, this new relation allows us to directly estimate the maximum energy of particles scattered by such fields, and this estimate is normally below the average particle energy. This implies that, without taking into account the feedback to cosmic rays (CRs), the typical scales of Bell fields, in either the linear or nonlinear regime, will be too small to affect high-energy particle acceleration. We mention several scenarios of back reaction to CRs that could be important.

  20. 4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto Quarter R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L.N.; Rosa, R.J.

    2004-03-30

    Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant 'Mercury' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a 'tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off and landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic 'mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond 'idle' power, or virtually 'disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely 'green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.

  2. Hypersonic MHD Propulsion System Integration for the Mercury Lightcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Rosa, R. J.

    2004-03-01

    Introduced herein are the design, systems integration, and performance analysis of an exotic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator engine for a single-occupant ``Mercury'' lightcraft. This ultra-energetic, laser-boosted vehicle is designed to ride a `tractor beam' into space, transmitted from a future orbital network of satellite solar power stations. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine employs a rotary pulsed detonation thruster mode for lift-off & landing, and an MHD slipstream accelerator mode at hypersonic speeds. The latter engine transforms the transatmospheric acceleration path into a virtual electromagnetic `mass-driver' channel; the hypersonic momentum exchange process (with the atmosphere) enables engine specific impulses in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds, and propellant mass fractions as low as 10%. The single-stage-to-orbit, highly reusable lightcraft can accelerate at 3 Gs into low Earth orbit with its throttle just barely beyond `idle' power, or virtually `disappear' at 30 G's and beyond. The objective of this advanced lightcraft design is to lay the technological foundations for a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) air and space transportation for human life in the mid-21st Century - a system that will be completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves.

  3. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Manufacture, assembly, and checkout of combustion subsystem hardware was completed and the hardware was delivered to CDIF along with the water electrical isolators. A successful nozzle proof test was concluded; its purpose was to evaluate adequacy of the nozzle structure and sealing of sidewall-to-electrode wall joints, water tubes, and stud and wire penetrations at operating pressure. Design modifications to spare channel inlet frame were made to enable iron oxide injection. Results of tests in the CDIF 1A1 channel which compared effect of different cathode wall iron oxide injection locations indicated that injection through the side port may be more effective, particularly if one of the two ports becomes clogged. Design confirmation testing of a pneumatically driven ram to clear a plugged iron oxide injector tip was performed. Manufacture of spare and replacement parts for 1A4 channel and diffuser was begun. Construction of the cathode power cabinets and associated control system was completed. Hot-fire checkout series was completed for the combustion subsystem; 16.8 thermal hours were accumulated during seven tests. This test series demonstrated adequacy of overall cooling of combustion subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of heat losses and slagging characteristics. Several major facility activities at the CDIF were accomplished including installation and testing of new iron oxide pumps, initial on-line checkout of coal feed system modifications, modification of seed system including replacement of silo rotary feeder, installation of new filter receiver on the silo, conversion of fly ash bin to dust collector, removal of all of the electrical wiring (used for 1A1 channel) between the channel and HVR in order to install 1A4 wiring, and installation of the 1A4 channel.

  4. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  5. Experiments on H2-O2 MHD power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-06-01

    MHD power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid have been carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments are conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator.

  6. Status of the integrated topping cycle and MHD generator testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Dunton, A.W.; Schmitt, E.W.; Morrison, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The status of the Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) MHD generator testing is presented. This generator is part of a 50 MW{sub t} prototypic powertrain that is currently undergoing proof-of-concept (POC) testing at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. Test objectives are to establish component lifetimes at prototypic operating conditions and to verify the design performance parameters. The ITC generator has completed Design Verification Testing and is now well into the POC duration test. To date (May 1, 1993), over 360 hours of the planned 1000 hours of testing has been completed. Generator testing is being performed at conditions representative of commercial power plant operating conditions. Prototypic generator channel hardware is performing very well. Based on test results obtained thus far, the prognosis is excellent for meeting all of the POC test objectives.

  7. Prototypic MHD anode designs and confirmation test results

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Petty, S.W.; Schmitt, E.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper reviews the design and the design rationale for the anode electrodes of the Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) MHD power generator. This power generator is currently undergoing proof-of-concept (POC) duration testing at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The major anode lifetime-limiting mechanisms, as well as the design features adopted to overcome these mechanisms, are described in detail in the full paper. Anode fabrication procedures are reviewed. Also described is the nondestructive ultrasonic inspection technique used to evaluate the braze joints of all production electrode pieces. Finally, the test results from the coal-fired confirmation tests of the prototypic anode design are reported. These tests were carried out in the workhorse generator channel at the CDIF between 1991 and 1992. Several alternative anode designs also have projected lifetimes exceeding the ITC 2000-hour lifetime requirement.

  8. MHD micropumping of power-law fluids: A numerical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Saied

    2013-02-01

    The performance of MHD micropumps is studied numerically assuming that the viscosity of the fluid is shear-dependent. Using power-law model to represent the fluid of interest, the effect of power-law exponent, N, is investigated on the volumetric flow rate in a rectangular channel. Assuming that the flow is laminar, incompressible, two-dimensional, but (approximately) unidirectional, finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the governing equations. It is found that shear-thinning fluids provide a larger flow rate as compared to Newtonian fluids provided that the Hartmann number is above a critical value. There exists also an optimum Hartmann number (which is larger than the critical Hartmann number) at which the flow rate is maximum. The power-law exponent, N, strongly affects the optimum geometry depending on the Hartmann number being smaller or larger than the critical Hartmann number.

  9. Gas Core Reactor-MHD Power System with Cascading Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Blair M.; Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis W.

    2002-07-01

    considerable promise, for example, like molten salt reactors the fuel is continuously cycled, allowing high-burnup, and continuous burning of actinides, and hence greatly improved fuel utilization. The fuel inventory is two orders of magnitude lower than LWR's of comparable power output and fissile plutonium production is likewise lower than in spent LWR fuel. Besides these features this paper discusses specific GCR-MHD design challenges such as fission enhanced gas conductivity in the MHD channel, GCR safety issues and related engineering problems. (authors)

  10. MHD Oscillations in the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonovich, A. S.; Mazur, V. A.; Kozlov, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    In studies of hydromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's magnetosphere, it is often considered as a giant resonator for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. A shear flow instability on the magnetopause has long been regarded as a possible source of MHD oscillations in the Earth's magnetosphere. A most interesting phenomenon investigated for the past two decades are ultra-low-frequency oscillations with a discrete spectrum. Such oscillations are recorded usually in the midnight-morning sector of the magnetosphere at 60° to 80° latitudes. Another type of MHD oscillations typical of the magnetotail is the coupled Alfvén and slow magnetosonic waves on stretched magnetic field lines passing through the current sheet. Each of these modes can propagate along paths that almost coincide with the magnetic field lines. The recently discovered kink-like oscillations are oscillations of the current sheet itself, similar to a piece of fabric fluttering in the wind. In this regard they are called flapping modes.

  11. Realistic Modeling of SDO/AIA-discovered Coronal Fast MHD Wave Trains in Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, Leon; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution EUV observations by space telescopes have provided plenty of evidence for coronal MHD waves in active regions. In particular, SDO/AIA discovered quasi-periodic, fast-mode propagating MHD wave trains (QFPs), which can propagate at speeds of ~1000 km/s perpendicular to the magnetic field. Such waves can provide information on the energy release of their associated flares and the magnetized plasma structure of the active regions. Before we can use these waves as tools for coronal seismology, 3D MHD modeling is required for disentangling observational ambiguities and improving the diagnostic accuracy. We present new results of observationally contained models of QFPs using our recently upgraded radiative, thermally conductive, visco-resistive 3D MHD code. The waves are excited by time-depended boundary conditions constrained by the spatial (localized) and quasi-periodic temporal evolution of a C-class flare typically associated with QFPs. We investigate the excitation, propagation, and damping of the waves for a range of key model parameters, such as the background temperature, density, magnetic field structure, and the location of the flaring site within the active region. We synthesize EUV intensities in multiple AIA channels and then obtain the model parameters that best reproduce the properties of observed QFPs. We discuss the implications of our model results for the seismological application of QFPs and for understanding the dynamics of their associated flares.

  12. DC CICC retrofit magnet preliminary design, software development and analysis report. Quarterly progress report, [January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.L.; Marston, P.G.

    1992-05-28

    The January 1992 quarterly progress report discusses a two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) of the proposed retrofit MHD coil. The superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) winding pack has a smooth, semi-elliptical cross section and is supported by a similarly shaped strap which resists the electromagnetic forces tending to separate the coils on each side of the channel. The coils are designed to produce a peak on-axis field of 4.5 tesla with a nominal current density of 13.05{times}10{sup 6} A/m{sup 2}. A sketch of the magnet system and structure is shown in Fig. 1.0-1. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the highly 3-D characteristics of the proposed superconductivity magnet system, and develop an appropriate support concept. A fully paramatized 3-D finite element model of the coil and structure is developed as a means of obtaining the field and stress solutions. The flexibility of FEA and a model built using design parameters allows variations in the coil end turn bend radius, strap thickness, support details and positions to be studied. The preliminary results show the calculated stresses as a result of this iterative design process.

  13. Explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator studies

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, F.J.; Lehr, F.M.; Vigil, M.; Kaye, R.; Gaudet, J.; Shiffler, D.

    1995-08-01

    Plasma jet generators have been designed and tested which used an explosive driver and shocktube with a rectangular cross section that optimize the flow velocity and electrical conductivity. The latest in a series of designs has been tested using a reactive load to diagnose the electrical properties of the MHD generator/electromagnet combination. The results of these tests indicate that the plasma jet/MHD generator design does generate a flow velocity greater than 25 km/s and produces several gigawatts of pulsed power in a very small package size. A larger, new generator design is also presented.

  14. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX (Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2014-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Initial results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  16. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2013-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Preliminary results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  17. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2015-11-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  18. Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.

    1978-01-01

    The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.

  19. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia

    2003-10-20

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum.

  20. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  2. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  3. Design study of superconducting magnets for a combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, R. J.; Ayers, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Design trade off studies for 13 different superconducting magnet systems were carried out. Based on these results, preliminary design characteristics were prepared for several superconducting magnet systems suitable for use with a combustion driven MHD generator. Each magnet generates a field level of 8 T in a volume 1.524 m (60 in.) long with a cross section 0.254 m x 0.254 m (10 in. x 10 in.) at the inlet and 0.406 m x .406 m (16 in. x 16 in.) at the outlet. The first design involves a racetrack coil geometry intended for operation at 4.2 K; the second design uses a racetrack geometry at 2.0 K; and the third design utilizes a rectangular saddle geometry at 4.2 K. Each case was oriented differently in terms of MHD channel axis and main field direction relative to gravity in order to evaluate fabrication ease. All cases were designed such that the system could be disassembled to allow for alteration of field gradient in the MHD channel by changing the angle between coils. Preliminary design characteristics and assembly drawings were generated for each case.

  4. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. Y.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier-Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir-pipe-valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems.

  5. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  6. Performance of Scramjet Engine with MHD Energy Bypass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Susumu; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    Flow behavior and thrust performance of MHD energy bypass scramjet engine was examined numerically. MHD generator was placed at the isolator to enhance the flow compression. Kinetic energy was converted to electrical energy in the MHD generator. Extracted electrical energy was consumed at the MHD accelerator placed at the downstream of the combustor. When MHD energy bypass system was used, the flow was decelerated and compressed in the MHD generator. Effect of velocity and Mach number on wall friction was analyzed and decrease of friction force was pointed out. Also, high pressure in the combustor resulted in increase of pressure contribution to net thrust. Despite of positive effects, decelerating Lorentz force in the MHD generator was comparably large and no significant difference in net thrust performance is observed.

  7. Symmetry, Statistics and Structure in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we examine homogeneous MHD turbulence in terms of truncated Fourier series. The ideal MHD equations and the associated statistical theory of absolute equilibrium ensembles are symmetric under P, C and T. However, the presence of invariant helicities, which are pseudoscalars under P and C, dynamically breaks this symmetry. This occurs because the surface of constant energy in phase space has disjoint parts, called components: while ensemble averages are taken over all components, a dynamical phase trajectory is confined to only one component. As the Birkhoff-Khinchin theorem tells us, ideal MHD turbulence is thus non-ergodic. This non-ergodicity manifests itself in low-wave number Fourier modes that have large mean values (while absolute ensemble theory predicts mean values of zero). Therefore, we have coherent structure in ideal MHD turbulence. The level of non-ergodicity and amount of energy contained in the associated coherent structure depends on the values of the helicities, as well as on the presence, or not, of a mean magnetic field and/or overall rotation. In addition to the well known cross and magnetic helicities, we also present a new invariant, which we call the parallel helicity, since it occurs when mean field and rotation axis are aligned. The question of applicability of these results to real (i.e., dissipative) MHD turbulence is also examined. Several long-time numerical simulations on a 64(exp 3) grid are given as examples. It is seen that coherent structure begins to form before decay dominates over nonlinearity. The connection of these results with inverse spectral cascades, selective decay, and magnetic dynamos is also discussed.

  8. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  9. Impact of uniform electrode current distribution on ETF. [Engineering Test Facility MHD generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    A basic reason for the complexity and sheer volume of electrode consolidation hardware in the MHD ETF Powertrain system is the channel electrode current distribution, which is non-uniform. If the channel design is altered to provide uniform electrode current distribution, the amount of hardware required decreases considerably, but at the possible expense of degraded channel performance. This paper explains the design impacts on the ETF electrode consolidation network associated with uniform channel electrode current distribution, and presents the alternate consolidation designs which occur. They are compared to the baseline (non-uniform current) design with respect to performance, and hardware requirements. A rational basis is presented for comparing the requirements for the different designs and the savings that result from uniform current distribution. Performance and cost impacts upon the combined cycle plant are discussed.

  10. Interelectrode resistance and performance of small and large scale MHD generators

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.; Picologlou, B.F.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of reduced interelectrode resistance in MHD generators on the generator power output is investigated. The analytical model used in the investigation allows for the solution for the electric field and current density distributions in the cross plane of the generator. The power output, expressed as a fraction of the power output of a perfectly insulated generator, is found to be a function of the wall temperature, the ratio of boundary layer thickness to channel transverse dimension, and the product of interelectrode resistance and channel cross-sectional area. The interelectrode resistance is assumed to be inversely proportional to the channel transverse dimension and the variation of power output ratio with channel size is calculated. It is found that deterioration of performance of NHD generators, resulting from reduced interelectrode resistance, diminishes with generator size and is negligible for large-scale generators, provided that the interelectrode resistance remains larger than an order of one-tenth ohm.

  11. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  12. MHD and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid metal flow in rectangular ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorenkov, S.I.; Hua, T.Q.; Araseki, H.

    1994-12-31

    Liquid metal cooling systems of a self-cooled blanket in a tokamak reactor will likely include channels of rectangular cross section where liquid metal is circulated in the presence of strong magnetic fields. MHD pressure drop, velocity distribution and heat transfer characteristics are important issues in the engineering design considerations. Computer codes for the reliable solution of three-dimensional MHD flow problems are needed for fusion relevant conditions. Argonne National Laboratory and The Efremov Institute have jointly defined several benchmark problems for code validation. The problems, described in this paper, are based on two series of rectangular duct experiments conducted at ANL; one of the series is a joint ANL/Efremov experiment. The geometries consist of variation of aspect ratio and wall thickness (thus wall conductance ratio). The transverse magnetic fields are uniform and nonuniform in the axial direction.

  13. Status of power generation experiments in the NASA Lewis closed cycle MHD facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Nichols, L. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design and operation of the closed cycle MHD facility is discussed and results obtained in recent experiments are presented. The main components of the facility are a compressor, recuperative heat exchanger, heater, nozzle, MHD channel with 28 pairs of thoriated tungsten electrodes, cesium condenser, and an argon cooler. The facility has been operated at temperatures up to 2100 K with a cesium-seeded argon working fluid. At low magnetic field strengths, the open circuit voltage, Hall voltage and short circuit current obtained are 90, 69, and 47 percent of the theoretical equilibrium values, respectively. Comparison of this data with a wall and boundary layer leakage theory indicates that the generator has shorting paths in the Hall direction.

  14. A Quarter Century of TV Food Advertising Targeted at Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Margaret; Cotugna, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed current trends in television advertising targeting children, comparing results to the historical perspective of the last quarter century. Researchers evaluated 16 hours of Saturday morning children's programming on four network channels for commercial content based on Food Guide Pyramid and USDA Child Nutrition criteria. Overall,…

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation using convexly divergent channel: I. Experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-01

    We describe shock-tunnel-based experiments carried out to evaluate a magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent supersonic channel. Two-dimensional structure of the streaming MHD plasma and the temporal behaviour of electron temperature are examined. The spatial profile of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy-conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from a linearly divergent channel. For an understanding of the basic scaling of the channel geometry modification effect, a convexity parameter is proposed. With this simple and fundamental scaling parameter, the dependence of plasma-fluid properties and energy-conversion efficiency on the channel convexity is quantitatively examined. The quality of MHD plasma and the generator performance are improved at the convexity parameter of 0.35 (a slight enhancement of the channel convexity) rather than at the convexity parameter of zero (no convexity or concavity). This paper is the first part of a duology.

  16. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on several different projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Furnace Projects for waste destruction; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project for removal of radioactive materials; and Spray Casting Project.

  17. Flow development and analysis of MHD generators and seawater thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Roy, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the flow characteristics inside magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma generators and seawater thrusters are analyzed and are compared using a three-dimensional computer model that solves the governing partial differential equations for fluid flow and electrical fields. Calculations have been performed for a Faraday plasma generator and for a continuous electrode seawater thruster. The results of the calculations show that the effects caused by the interaction of the MHD forces with the fluid flow are strongly manifested in the case of the MHD generator as compared to the flow development in the MHD thruster. The existence of velocity overshoots over the sidewalls confirm previously published results for MHD generators with strong MHD interaction. For MHD thrusters, the velocity profile is found to be slightly flatter over the sidewall as compared to that over the electrode wall. As a result, distinct enhancement of the skin friction exists over the sidewalls of MHD generators in comparison to that of MHD thrusters. Plots of velocity profiles and skin friction distributions are presented to illustrate and compare the flow development in MHD generators and thrusters.

  18. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to a significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)

  19. MHD seed recovery/regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task 1 calls for the design, procurement, construction, and installation of the Seed Regeneration Proof-of-Concept Facility (SRPF) that will produce tonnage quantities of recyclable potassium formate seed at a design rate of 250 lb/hr for testing in the channel at the CDIF while collecting data that will be used to upgrade the design of a 300 MW(sub t) system. Approximately 12 tons of KCOOH (dry basis) as 70-75 wt percent solution were produced. The front end of the plant (potassium sulfate reaction and solids separation/washing units) was operated for five days in March. Most of the operations were conducted at a spent seed feed rate of 250 pounds/hour. A total of 8,500 gallons of dilute KCOOH solution was generated containing approximately 2.6 tons of potassium formate (dry basis). The average KCOOH content of this solution was 7 wt percent. The design KCOOH solution concentration for the front end of the plant is 8.5 wt percent. The evaporation unit was operated for a total of six days during March. Approximately 2.5 tons of potassium formate (dry basis) were processed through the evaporator and concentrated to greater then 7 wt percent.

  20. English Leadership Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol Jago); "Process-Based…

  1. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  2. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human Resources: Trained…

  3. Trustee Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1995 issue offers these feature articles: "Trustees Believe Focus Should Be on Major Policy Decisions," (John F. Grabowski) and "A Cost-Benefit Analysis System for Proposed Capital Projects," (Steven E.…

  4. Gifted Education Quarterly, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These four issues of "Gifted Education Quarterly" include the following articles: (1) "Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment" (Linda Kreger Silverman), which discusses some of the difficulties in obtaining accurate indications of a child's level of giftedness and the importance of using professional judgment in determining whether tests…

  5. English Leadership Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin); "Firefighter, Cook,…

  6. Trustee Quarterly, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sally, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" focus on current topics affecting community college trustees. Issue 1 focuses on the learning revolution and serves as a guide for community college trustees. It offers the following feature articles by Terry O'Banion: "Education Reform: Two Waves,""The Second Wave and the Community College,""The House that…

  7. Trustee Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1992 issue offers articles on the trustee's role in politics, community colleges as community catalysts, Lewis and Clark Community College's (Illinois) strategic planning process, staff development…

  8. Trustee Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" contained in this document focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1993 issue offers articles on the prospects for educational reform under the Clinton administration and the current Congress, strategies for obtaining needed resources from the state legislature, and the…

  9. Amplitudes of MHD Waves in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Cally, Paul; Baldner, Charles; Kleint, Lucia; Tarbell, Theodore D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Scherrer, Philip H.; Rajaguru, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The conversion of p-modes into MHD waves by strong magnetic fields occurs mainly in the sub-photospheric layers. The photospheric signatures of MHD waves are weak due to low amplitudes at the beta=1 equipartion level where mode-conversion occurs. We report on small amplitude oscillations observed in the photosphere with Hinode SOT/SP in which we analyze time series for sunspots ARs 12186 (11.10.2014) and 12434 (17.10.2015). No significant magnetic field oscillations are recovered in the umbra or penumbra in the ME inversion. However, periodicities in the inclination angle are found at the umbral/penumbral boundary with 5 minute periods. Upward propagating waves are indicated in the intensity signals correlated between HMI and AIA at different heights. We compare SP results with the oscillations observed in HMI data. Simultaneous IRIS data shows transition region brightening above the umbral core.

  10. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for the MHD Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedner, A.; Kemm, F.; Kröner, D.; Munz, C.-D.; Schnitzer, T.; Wesenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes the violation of the divergence constraint causes severe stability problems. In this paper we develop and test a new approach to the stabilization of numerical schemes. Our technique can be easily implemented in any existing code since there is no need to modify the solver for the MHD equations. It is based on a modified system in which the divergence constraint is coupled with the conservation laws by introducing a generalized Lagrange multiplier. We suggest a formulation in which the divergence errors are transported to the domain boundaries with the maximal admissible speed and are damped at the same time. This corrected system is hyperbolic and the density, momentum, magnetic induction, and total energy density are still conserved. In comparison to results obtained without correction or with the standard “divergence source terms,” our approach seems to yield more robust schemes with significantly smaller divergence errors.