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Sample records for mhl uwe wilhelm

  1. Media Health Literacy (MHL): Development and Measurement of the Concept among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health…

  2. Johann Christoph Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German Title: Johann Christoph Sturm und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchovil, Stefan

    Johann Christian Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were two well-known scholars of their time, who showed mutual attention and esteem. The history of their relation is described, based on the mutual mentions in letters and publications.

  3. Historical Connections: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The Universal Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Wilbert; Reimer, Luetta

    1994-01-01

    Contains biographical facts, contributions, quotations, and anecdotes about mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Presents an activity in which students discover patterns in the sums of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers. Contains reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  4. Wilhelm Weinberg's early contribution to segregation analysis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-09-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy-Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg's signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel's segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861-1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=1/4. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878-1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg's article. PMID:24018765

  5. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  6. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main…

  7. Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.

    PubMed

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his

  8. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958. PMID:22372189

  9. UWE-3, in-orbit performance and lessons learned of a modular and flexible satellite bus for future pico-satellite formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, S.; Bangert, P.; Dombrovski, S.; Schilling, K.

    2015-12-01

    Formations of small satellites offer promising perspectives due to improved temporal and spatial coverage and resolution at reasonable costs. The UWE-program addresses in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies to enable formations of cooperating distributed spacecraft at pico-satellite level. In this context, the CubeSat UWE-3 addresses experiments for evaluation of real-time attitude determination and control. UWE-3 introduces also a modular and flexible pico-satellite bus as a robust and extensible base for future missions. Technical objective was a very low power consumption of the COTS-based system, nevertheless providing a robust performance of this miniature satellite by advanced microprocessor redundancy and fault detection, identification and recovery software. This contribution addresses the UWE-3 design and mission results with emphasis on the operational experiences of the attitude determination and control system.

  10. Wilhelm Ludwig and his contributions to population genetics.

    PubMed

    Antonovics, J

    1990-03-01

    This article reviews the life and work of the German biologist Wilhelm Ludwig (1901-1959), whose contributions to population genetics have been largely ignored. Ludwig's work was a rich tapestry of population biology, spanning investigations into population growth, biological asymmetries, sex ratio, and paternity analysis. He was ahead of his time in explicitly combining the theory of population ecology and population genetics. His classic paper on annidation showed the possibility of population differentiation in the face of gene flow, and his early studies demonstrated the importance of selection in evolutionary change. Much of his work spanned the period of the Second World War in Germany, and interesting questions remain about his life during this turbulent period. PMID:21232329

  11. Wilhelm Tempel and his 10.8-cm Steinheil Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Simone; Gasperini, Antonella; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco; Brenni, Paolo; Giatti, Anna

    2010-03-01

    The German astronomer Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel (1821-1889) owed most of his successes to a 10.8-cm Steinheil refractor, which he bought in 1858. A lithographer, without an academic foundation, but with a strong passion for astronomy, Tempel had sharp eyesight and a talent for drawing, and he discovered with his telescope many celestial objects, including asteroids, comets (most notably, 9 P/Tempel 1) and the Merope Nebula in the Pleiades. Tempel carried his telescope with him throughout his moves in France and Italy. The telescope is now conserved in Florence, at the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, where Tempel was astronomer from 1875 until the end of his life. Using unpublished material from the Arcetri Historical Archive, as well as documents from other archives and published material, we trace the history of the telescope and its use during and after Tempel's life, and describe its recent rediscovery and status.

  12. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and the Russian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichsanova, Vera N.

    In the first half of the 19th century the foundations of stellar astronomy were established thanks to the German astronomer, geodeticist and mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Internationally estimed and in close relationship with scientists in many countries, especially in Russia, Bessel (although not yet 30 years old) in 1814 became a foreign member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wilhelm Struve, director of the Dorpat observatory, was in close contact with him. Together they discussed problems of observational procedures and the use of instruments. In 1817 Struve bought the same Reichenbach meridian circle as Bessel used in Königsberg. Both ordered their refractors from the famous Fraunhofer workshop in Munich. %(9-inch for Dorpat). Bessel was also involved in the high precision Russian geodetic survey which started in 1816 and which succeeded in connecting the Russian and western European triangulation networks. Struve tried to measure parallaxes using the bright star Vega (α Lyrae); his results were published in 1837. Also in 1837 Bessel, using his Fraunhofer heliometer and the star 61 Cygni, found a result close to modern values, later acknowledged with the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. In 1834 Struve was named director of the new Russian observatory in Pulkovo, St. Petersburg. Struve discussed the plans with Bessel and both acquired a Repsold meridian circle. The next aim, begun in the 1840s -- after the first determination of stellar distances -- was the distribution of stars in space (in the Milky Way). For this, catalogues with not only accurate stellar positions but also brightnesses were necessary. Thanks to Bessel's thorough reformation of measuring and reduction methods, making possible high accuracy telescopic observations, Struve was able to produce important results in stellar astronomy.

  13. Wilhelm Weinberg’s Early Contribution to Segregation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Wilhelm Weinberg (1862–1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy–Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg’s signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel’s segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861–1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=14. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878–1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg’s article. PMID:24018765

  14. Wilhelm Troll (1897 - 1978): idealistic morphology, physics, and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Idealistic morphology as articulated by the botanist Wilhelm Troll, the main target of the critique voiced by the early phylogeneticists, was firmly embedded in its contemporary scientific, cultural, and political context. Troll appealed to theoretical developments in contemporary physics in support of his research program. He understood burgeoning quantum mechanics not only to threaten the unity of physics, but also the validity of the principle of causality. Troll used this insight in support of his claim of a dualism in biology, relegating the causal-analytical approach to physiology, while rejuvenating the Goethean paradigm in comparative morphology. This embedded idealistic morphology in the völkisch tradition that characterized German culture during the Weimar Republic and its aftermath. In contrast, the contemporary phylogeneticists anchored their research program in the rise of logical positivism and in Darwin's principle of natural selection. This, in turn, brought phylogenetic systematists of the late 1930s and early 1940s into the orbit of national-socialist racial theory and eugenics. In conclusion, the early debate between idealistic morphologists and phylogenetic systematists was not only ideologically tainted, but also implied a philosophical impasse that is best characterized as a conflict between the Goethean and Newtonian paradigm of natural science. PMID:22696827

  15. [Measuring the positive dimensions among health care workers: a contribution to the Italian validation of the UWES--Utrecht Work Engagement Scale].

    PubMed

    Pisanti, R; Paplomatas, A; Bertini, M

    2008-01-01

    Engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Data from a sample of health care workers (N=948) were used to test four propositions concerning dimensionality, internal consistency and construct validity. The UWES Italian version and the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were administered to the subjects (a subsample of 225 health care workers also completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory). The factorial structure has been examined through a series of Explorative Factor Analysis (AFE) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). As in the original version, we found a three factor solution. Internal consistency indexes were satisfactory. In addition, the correlations between UWES, MOHQ and MBI revealed a good construct validity. It is concluded that the Italian Version of the UWES has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior. PMID:18700486

  16. Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome: obstetric trauma or placental insult in a historical case mimicking Erb's palsy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Venu; Sebire, Neil J; Talbert, David G

    2005-01-01

    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (1859) developed a weak and noticeably short left arm during childhood, commonly attributed to nerve damage caused by the use of excessive force during his difficult breech delivery, Erb's palsy. However, Wilhelm's mother had a severe fall when about four months pregnant and the child was reported to be very thin at birth, suggesting intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Wilhelm blamed the British doctor for his deformity, and formed an enmity, which ultimately led to the 1914-1918 world war. We propose an alternative theory, considering the possibility of placental damage and consequential flow redistribution caused by the fall. In severe IUGR, the Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the brachial arteries differs, that of the right arm being lower than the left. We used a computer model of the fetoplacental unit and reduced its functional placental area until such resistance asymmetry was produced. This would occur in extreme hypoxia when flow in the aortic isthmus is reversed, bringing right ventricular blood of lower oxygen content to the left subclavian artery. The reduced PI in the right arm is a normal vasodilatory hypoxic response, but the apparently normal PI in the left arm results from decreased demand due to metabolic failure. We suggest that the nerve damage affecting the Kaiser's left arm was due to placental insufficiency during pregnancy, and not mechanical brachial plexus injury during delivery. We further suggest that such a mechanism be called Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome to distinguish it from Erb's palsy originating from obstetric trauma. PMID:15893138

  17. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  18. Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

  19. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

  20. Tribute to an Astronomer: The Work of Max Ernst on Wilhelm Tempel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2016-05-01

    In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, and paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and artistic features, this series pays homage to the astronomer by recalling his life and discoveries. Moreover, the core of the project, the book Maximiliana or the Illegal Practice of Astronomy, actually depicts the way science works, making this work of art a most original tribute to a scientist.

  1. The Nazi symbiosis: politics and human genetics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.

    PubMed

    Berez, Thomas M; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2004-12-01

    The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA), from its inception in Weimar Republic Germany to its apogee under the rule of the Third Reich, is an example of how politics and human heredity can function as mutually beneficial resources. Whether it was a result of the Nazi bureaucrats' desire to legitimize their racial policy through science, or the KWIA personnel's desire to secure more funding for their research, the symbiotic relationship that developed between human genetics and Nazi politics could help explain why many scientists in the Third Reich undertook research projects that wholly transgressed the boundaries of morally acceptable science. PMID:15571767

  2. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1909: Wilhelm Ostwald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-02-01

    This, the third of a series of thirteen articles on Nobel Laureates in chemical dynamics, features the work of Wilhelm Ostwald, who won the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on catalysis, equilibria, and reaction rates. The first two articles in this series discussed two of Ostwald's students--Jacobus van't Hoff (Nobel 1901) and Svante Arrhenius (Nobel 1903). Ostwald's own studies of catalysis were guided by the work of those two former students. Ostwald's name remains associated with the catalytic process used to manufacture nitric acid from ammonia.

  3. The timing of Late Pleistocene glaciation at Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Barrows, Timothy; Hope, Geoff; Pillans, Brad; Fifield, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The highlands of New Guinea were the most extensively glaciated area in the Asian tropical region during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for glaciation is widespread on most of the mountain peaks above ~3500 m. Glacial landforms include both valley and ice cap forms, but the timing of glaciation remains constrained to only a few local areas. This paper focuses on Mount Wilhelm, which is situated in the central southern region of Papua New Guinea at 5.78°S and is the highest peak (4510 m a.s.l.) We focus on a south easterly valley (Pindaunde Valley) emanating from the peak, where large moraines indicate the maximum ice extent of a valley glacier ~5 km long. Within this extensive moraine complex, recessional moraines document the retreat of the glacier towards the summit region. In order to determine the timing of deglaciation, we collected samples for surface exposure dating using 36Cl and 10Be from diorite boulders positioned on moraine crests. The ages indicate that maximum ice extent was attained during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that ice remained near its maximum extent until after 15 ka but persisted at higher elevations almost until the Holocene. These results are similar to those described from Mt Giluwe to the northwest of Mount Wilhelm, where an ice cap reached its maximum extent at the LGM and remained there for around 3-4,000 years. This indicates that full glacial conditions were only brief in this region of the tropics.

  4. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology V: The Metronome and Wilhelm Wundt's Search for the Components of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Christopher; Borawski, Steven; Miller, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) believed that consciousness was represented by the interconnection of psychical processes comprised of temporal elements and compounds. To explore these processes, Wundt used a metronome to measure the amount of information that passed into consciousness across time. The current project replicated some of his procedures,…

  5. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C. |

    1999-01-05

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination.

  6. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The terms ‘genotype’, ‘phenotype’ and ‘gene’ originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  7. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy. PMID:20957826

  8. PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J

  9. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  10. Wilhelm von Hboldt and James Parkinson. An appraisal of observation and creativity.

    PubMed

    Lakke, J P

    1996-10-01

    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) was an educational reformer, a statesman serving Frederick William III, King of Prussia and a philologist, who influenced the contemporary linguist Chomsky. Moreover von Humbolt was a prolific writer, he kept up a substantial correspondence with family and a circle of acquaintances. His letters also contain references to his physical fitness. In the year of James Parkinson's death, 1824, von Humboldt mentioned difficulties with writing for the first time. From his correspondence during the last 11 years of his life we can reconstruct a classic development of the shaking palsy based on clever self-observations. Von Humboldt supplemented James Parkinson's description with micrographia, and dysdiadochokinesia. In addition, he observed, that turning over in bed was impeded, that after 9 years of misery his tremor subsided, and that writing was possible using Latin print lettering instead of his usual gothic handwriting, von Humboldt died on the 8th April 1835 of pneumonia, a complication of his illness; he kept his full intellectual and artistic capacities until the end. PMID:18591044

  11. Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, C

    1997-01-01

    Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640

  12. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

  13. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, the discoverer of oxygen, and a very productive chemist.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-12-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) has an important place in the history of the discovery of respiratory gases because he was undoubtedly the first person to prepare oxygen and describe some of its properties. Despite this, his contributions have often been overshadowed by those of Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, who also played critical roles in preparing the gas and understanding its nature. Sadly, Scheele was slow to publish his discovery and therefore Priestley is rightly recognized as the first person to report the preparation of oxygen. This being said, the thinking of both Scheele and Priestley was dominated by the phlogiston theory, and it was left to Lavoisier to elucidate the true nature of oxygen. In addition to his work on oxygen, Scheele was enormously productive in other areas of chemistry. Arguably he discovered seven new elements and many other compounds. However, he kept a low profile during his life as a pharmacist, and he did not have strong links with contemporary prestigious institutions such as the Royal Society in England or the French Académie des Sciences. He was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science but only attended one meeting. Partly as a result, he remains a somewhat nebulous figure despite the critical contribution he made to the history of respiratory gases and his extensive researches in other areas of chemistry. His death at the age of 43 may have been hastened by his habit of tasting the chemicals that he worked on. PMID:25281638

  14. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  15. Neuroscience in its context. Neuroscience and psychology in the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    PubMed

    Ziche, P

    1999-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the first to establish an Institute devoted exclusively to psychological research in Germany, started his career as a (neuro)physiologist. He gradually turned into a psychologist in the 1860's and 1870's, at a time when neuroscience had to deal with the problem of giving an adequate physiological interpretation of the data accumulated by neuroanatomy. Neither the functional interpretation of brain morphology, nor the options provided by the reflex model seemed acceptable to Wundt. In his Physiological Psychology, first published in 1874, Wundt adds another aspect to this discussion by showing that psychology may help, and indeed is required, to clarify some of the most controversial problems in brain research. He thus became a key figure in neuroscience's struggle to locate itself within the various research traditions. The following theses will be argued for: 1. Wundt's turn to psychology resulted from his view that the methodological basis of physiological brain research of the time was unsatisfactory. 2. Psychology, in its attempt to solve these problems, implied a new conception of an interaction between experimental and theoretical brain research. 3. Wundt tried to demonstrate the necessity of psychological considerations for experimental brain research. These points are discussed with reference to Wundt's treatment of the localization of functions in the brain. According to Wundt, psychology can show, by analyzing the complex structure of intellect and will, that mental phenomena can be realized in the brain only in the form of complex interations of the elements of the brain. The results of the psychological considerations imply that a strict localizations cannot be correct; but they are also turned against the conception of a complete functional equivalence of the various parts of the cortext. For Wundt, a reconstruction of brain processes cannot start with neurones, but only with patterns of a functional organization of brain

  16. Wilhelm Winkler (1842-1910) - a Thuringian private astronomer and maecenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Wilfried; Dorschner, Johann; Schielicke, Reinhardt E.

    Wilhelm Winkler was born in 1842 in Eisenberg, Thuringia, as the son of a lawyer. After attending the trading high school in Gera, Winkler worked as a merchant in Eisenberg, following in the footsteps of his grandfather. In 1875 he gave up this trade and devoted his time entirely to astronomy. Advised by Carl Bruhns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, he established an observatory on his estate in Gohlis near Leipzig. From 1878 Winkler regularly observed sunspots; other fields of his observational interests were comets, occultations of stars by the Moon, and Jupiter's satellites. In 1887 he went to Jena, where he contacted Ernst Abbe, who was the head of the Jena observatory, too. For some years, Winkler's instruments were used in the new observatory erected by Abbe, which replaced the old Ducal Observatory of the Goethe era. Winkler donated the precision pendulum clock and some other instruments to this observatory. He also offered his observational assistance whenever it was wanted. In 1893 Winkler built up his own observatory in Jena and published annual reports on his work in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. His observational results mainly appeared in the journal Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1902 he was awarded an honorary doctor's degree by the Philosophical Faculty of Jena University. However, at that time his physical constitution began gradually to fade. He lost his left eye due to a sarcoma, and finally he died at the age of 68. In his will, he left 100 000 Mark in form of securities to Jena University (Winkler Foundation). The University Observatory got his 4.5 m dome, the transport of which from his residence to the final site was also paid for by him, several instruments, and a lot of books. In 1936 Winkler's dome was closed by the University. The observatory was transferred from the University to the Zeiss works in exchange for the observatory in the Jena Forst. Zeiss sponsored the reconstruction of the old dome

  17. Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João

    2006-08-01

    In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

  18. "A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

  19. Wilhelm Reich's self-censorship after his arrest as an enemy alien: the chilling effect of an illegal imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    After discussing Wilhelm Reich's place in psychoanalysis, the article explores his arrest as an 'enemy alien' in December 1941. Reich's emotional responses to his imprisonment (which was illegal and which lasted nearly a month) are explored. A number of scholars have suggested that many European radical psychoanalysts refrained from sharing their former political ideas once they emigrated to the United States. Following a brief discussion of this pattern of 'silencing,' it is argued that Reich's withholding certain documents from publication was due to a self-imposed censorship, motivated in part by the fear of further governmental interference with his life and work. This fear, however, did not extend to his discussion of his newly developed theory of orgone energy. PMID:24628260

  20. A variation on forced migration: Wilhelm Peters (Prussia via Britain to Turkey) and Muzafer Sherif (Turkey to the United States).

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    In 1933 the Turkish Republic formally offered university positions to 30 German-speaking academics who were dismissed with the coming to power of the National Socialist Government. That initial number went up to 56 with the inclusion of the technical assistants. By 1948 the estimated total had increased to 199. Given renewable five-year contracts with salaries substantially higher than their Turkish counterparts, the foreign émigrés were to implement the westernization program of higher education. The ten year-old secular Turkish Republic's extensive social reforms had encompassed the adoption of the Latin alphabet, and equal rights for women, removing gender bias in hiring. Such a high concentration of émigré academics in one institution, "the highest anywhere in the world," provides a unique opportunity to study a subject which has been neglected. In this article two cases in psychology will be examined: Wilhelm Peters (1880-1963), who came, via Britain, to Istanbul in 1936 from the University of Jena in Germany, and Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988) who went to the United States from Ankara University in 1945. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to identify the features that are specific to the German experience, and those that are shared and underlie translocation in science within the multifaceted complexity of the process of forced migration. PMID:27388256

  1. Treating epiphora in adults with the Wilhelm plastic nasolacrimal stent: mid-term results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Juan J; Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; García-García, Lorenzo

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25–88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed. PMID:20390276

  2. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

  3. Treating Epiphora in Adults With the Wilhelm Plastic Nasolacrimal Stent: Mid-Term Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ciampi, Juan J. Lanciego, Carlos; Navarro, Sofia; Cuena, Rafael; Velasco, Javier; Perea, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lorenzo

    2011-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, in a prospective, single-center study, the effectiveness of the Wilhelm-type stent used in interventional radiology for the management of epiphora. Patients (n = 104; mean age 64 [range 25-88]; 33 male and 71 female) with severe epiphora had the stents inserted (135 stents in 115 eyes) to treat obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The etiology of the obstruction was idiopathic in 83 cases, chronic dacryocystitis in 31, cases and postsurgical status in 1 case. The overall technical success rate of stent placement was near 94%. Resolution of epiphora was complete in 105 cases and partial in 3 cases. During a mean 13-month follow-up (range 1 week to 28 months), the median duration of primary patency was 11 months, and the percentage of patency at 6 months was 60.8%, at 1 year was 39.6%, and at 2 years was 25%. Stents malfunctioned in 54 cases, and all were easily withdrawn except in 1 case. Of these 27 cases, patency recovered spontaneously in 9 and by way of a second stent in 18. Secondary patency was 50%. Factors presdisposing to lower primary patency are inflammatory etiology and location of the obstruction. The benefit of stent deployment is clear with respect to the resolution of epiphora in candidate patients for percutaneous treatment. Technical and/or design improvements would be welcomed.

  4. The many lives of experiments: Wilhelm Johannsen, selection, hybridization, and the complex relations of genes and characters.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In addition to his experiments on selection in pure lines, Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927) performed less well-known hybridisation experiments with beans. This article describes these experiments and discusses Johannsen's motivations and interpretations, in the context of developments in early genetics. I will show that Johannsen first presented the hybridisation experiments as an additional control for his selection experiments. The latter were dedicated to investigating heredity with respect to debates concerning the significance of natural selection of continuous variation for evolution. In the course of the establishment of a Mendelian research program after 1900, the study of heredity gained increasing independence from questions of evolution, and focused more on the modes and mechanisms of heredity. Further to their role as control experiments, Johannsen also saw his hybridisation experiments as contributing to the Mendelian program, by extending the scope of the principles of Mendelian inheritance to quantitative characters. Towards the end of the first decade of genetics, Johannsen revisited his experiments to illustrate the many-many relationship between genes and characters, at a time when that relationship appeared increasingly complex, and the unit-character concept, accordingly, became inadequate. For the philosophy of science, the example shows that experiments can have multiple roles in a research programme, and can be interpreted in the light of questions other than those that motivated the experiments in the first place. PMID:26699626

  5. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23977953

  6. On the bifurcation of blood vessels--Wilhelm Roux's doctoral thesis (Jena 1878)--a seminal work for biophysical modelling in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Kurz, H; Sandau, K; Christ, B

    1997-02-01

    Wilhelm Roux's doctoral thesis described the relationship between the angle and diameter of bifurcating blood vessels. We have re-read this work in the light of biophysics and developmental biology and found two remarkable aspects hidden among a multitude of observations, rules and exceptions to these rules. First, the author identified the major determinants involved in vascular development; genetics, cybernetics, and mechanics; moreover, he knew that he could not deal with the genetic and regulatory aspects, and could hardly treat the mechanical part adequately. Second, he was deeply convinced that the laws of physics determine the design of organisms, and that a necessity for optimality was inherent in development. We combined the analysis of diameter relationships with the requirement for optimality in a stochastic biophysical model, and concluded that a constant wall-stress condition could define a minimum wall-tissue optimum during arterial development. Hence, almost 120 years after Wilhelm Roux's pioneering work, our model indicates one possible way in which physical laws have determined the evolution of regulatory and structural properties in vessel wall development. PMID:9059737

  7. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism. PMID:12430055

  8. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  9. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  10. Wien, Wilhelm (1864-1928)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Gaffken, East Prussia (now Poland), Nobel prizewinner (1911), became professor of physics at Munich and discovered Wien's law, for the distribution of light in the spectrum of a black-body. Discovered the proton in an early mass-spectrometer experiment (confirmed by Rutherford)....

  11. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945. PMID:16887759

  12. ["... that progress in anatomy is most likely to occur when its problems include the study of growth and function, as well as of structure". about the anatomy and physiology of Ernst Heinrich Weber (794-1878 and Wilhelm His (1831-1904) his successor in the department of anatomy at the University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    The Leipzig anatomist and physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber had introduced physiological thinking in anatomy and exact methods of mathematical physics to the study of the functioning of the body making him the founder of a physically orientated physiology. But he would not have been that excellent physiologist without being a nonetheless distinguished anatomist since he solved his physiological problems usually following function in close relation to structure. Together with his brother Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891), who later was to become a famous physicist, in their theory of waves he laid the basis for an exact analysis of the movements of fluids in elastic tubes und was the first to apply the basic laws of hydrodynamics to the circulation of the blood. In collaboration with his youngest brother Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1806-1871), who worked as a prosector at his institute and together with Wilhelm Weber had studied the mechanics of the walking apparatus, he demonstrated the inhibiting effect of the vagus nerve on the action of the heart. Ernst Heinrich Weber's approach to consider an organ as a whole not neglecting the study of its function set him apart from most of his contemporaries and has characterized the work of the Leipzig anatomists and physiologists since his time. Among those was Wilhelm His from Basle who succeeded him in the chair of anatomy in 1872. On the basis of a systematic analysis of human embryos by means of serial sections and plastic reconstruction His completely reformed the field of embryology and was the first to present a comprehensive treatise on human embryology. The making of modern human embryology was, above all, his achievement. He did not confine himself to mere description but wanted to gain deeper insight into the causal events by developmental-mechanical conceptions. With his detection of the neuroblasts and that they give rise to an axon and later to dendrites His provided the developmental foundations for the

  13. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  14. Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784-1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, geodesist, mathematician, born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany. At the age of 26, became director of Frederick William III of Prussia's new Konigsberg Observatory, where he remained for the rest of his life. Published (1838) the first recognizedly accurate stellar parallax (of 61 Cygni), the earliest accurate method for measuring stellar distances (10 light years for 61 Cygni) (but see...

  15. Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm (1758-1840)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Doctor, astronomer, born in Arbergen, Germany, enthusiast for astronomy. He discovered several comets. In 1800 he joined the team of 24 `celestial police', organized by FRANZ VON ZACH, who were to patrol a share of the zodiac looking for the planet missing (according to BODE's law) between Mars and Jupiter. On New Year's Day 1801 PIAZZI discovered Ceres, and, in March 1802, Olbers discovered Pall...

  16. Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1799-1875)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Memel, East Prussia. Director of the Bonn Observatory, where he organized a survey of the position of all 324 198 stars of the northern hemisphere above the ninth magnitude, published as the star charts and catalogs of the Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). His assistant, Eduard Schönfeld (1828-91), made the extension (BDE) into the southern sky. It is staggering to think about this ...

  17. Schickard [Schickhardt], Wilhelm (1592-1635)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Herrenberg, Württemberg, Germany, became professor of astronomy in Tübingen. He corresponded with KEPLER, was one of the first to teach Kepler's discoveries, and, on the basis of his experience in making maps and other devices, proposed to Kepler the development of an analog computer to calculate planetary positions. He invented the first calculating machine, a `hand planetarium' (like an...

  18. [The work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele].

    PubMed

    Cassebaum, H

    1986-12-01

    On the occasion of C. W. Scheele's 200th anniversary of death corrections and complements to some of his important investigations and theories including discussions of priorities, are given to elucidate his works and to avoid misunderstanding (element term; tartaric, oxalic and benzoic acid; pyrolusit; earths/spar/Bologneese luminous stone/barite; Scheele/Bergman/Lavoisier; fire theory/discovery of oxygen; graphite/Wolfram; Scheele/Wenzel). PMID:3554272

  19. Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

    2006-11-01

    Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two groups of phenomena: voluminous, mostly basaltic “elevation craters” versus isolated, mostly trachytic and relatively small cones of “true volcanoes”. In spite of the isolation of the Caucasus region he had cultivated continuously contacts with leading geologists in Europe and was honoured by many institutions. He left Russia in 1876 for Vienna planning to write there the final monograph volumes about his investigations but he died before he could complete them.

  20. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - the astronomer as a poet; (German Title: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - der Astronom als Poet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Dietmar

    This contribution illuminates a hitherto unknown side of the famous astronomer Bessel: his delight in occasionally writing poetry. These poems were thought to be of private use only, in particular as rhymed answers to his intimate correspondent Heinrich Christian Schumacher.

  1. Comment on Underwater Explosion (UWE) Analysis of the ROKS Cheonan Incident by S.G. Kim and Y. Kitterman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Sup

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of the seismic and infrasound data recorded at the time of the Cheonan incident led Kim and Gitterman (this journal, published on line August 2012) to conclude that a non-contact underwater explosion had sunk the ship. They also concluded that one of the mines deployed by the South Korean Navy many years ago in the area and then abandoned sank the ship. Their mine theory that is based on the explosive charge weights they calculated by means of two methods using the bubble period determined by their analysis, however, appears to be invalid. Although the incident had occurred in a shallow sea with a depth of less than 50m, the authors used the methods that are applicable only to free-field underwater explosions. The consideration of the influence on the bubble period of the nearby sea surface and bottom and the nearby ship's hull would double the calculated weights. In addition, the authors ignored several evidences that support the torpedo theory. One of them is aluminum-containing white powder found in large quantities at certain substrates in the retrieved Cheonan. However, the conclusion of the official investigation group that the torpedo was made in North Korea is based on a circumstantial evidence and is yet to be proven with other more direct evidences.

  2. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  3. [Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the discovery of X-rays].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    1996-01-01

    W.C. Röntgen reported the discovery of X-rays in December 1895 after seven weeks of assiduous work during which he had studied the properties of this new type of radiation able to go through screens of notable thickness. He named them X-rays to underline the fact that their nature was unknown. The news of this discovery immediately aroused an immense interest in the public and also initiated intense research in several directions. Physicians and physicists began as early as January 1896 to use X-rays on patients to investigate the skeleton and subsequently the lung and other organs. This was the birth or radiology. Rapidly they observed skin erythema, which led to the idea of using X-rays against a variety of lesions. In June 1896 the first patient was treated by radiotherapy. J.J. Thomson (Cambridge, U.K.) showed that X-rays were able to ionize gaz and the study of this phenomenon led to the discovery of electrons in 1897. In order to understand the emission of X-rays, H. Becquerel (Paris) investigated the role of the phosphorescence of the glass of the tube and while doing so discovered radioactivity in March 1896. X-rays and radioactivity were at the origin of the scientific revolution at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Research on radioactive materials demonstrated the existence of atoms which had been till then only a convenient hypothesis for explaining chemical reactions, but whose reality was considered as dubious by most physicists. Moreover, interaction of particles emitted by radionuclides and atoms enabled first the study of the structure of the atom and subsequently its nucleus. Matter, elements which were thought to be immutable were found to be transmutable, and eventually to disintegrate. The origin of the energy transferred to the radiation which was emitted appeared as a mystery and in order to explain it the physicist had to accept that matter could convert energy. In 1903 Einstein established the equivalence between matter and energy. Matter, energy, electricity, light which were formerly considered as continuous quantities were found to be discrete: there are particles of matter (elementary particles), energy (quanta, Planck 1905), electricity (electron), light (photons). Radioactive decay, particle interactions imposed a probabilistic physics which progressively replaced classic deterministic physics. Radioactivity can be used as a clock to measure time in the universe. Datations were made for fossils, art masterpieces and also for the earth, the solar system and universe. X-rays diffraction proved to be a powerful tool for studying crystals and molecules, in particular protein, and in 1953 enabled to demonstrate the DNA double helix. Hence X-rays and radioactivity originated a revolution in physics and science and in the vision of nature. The imperceptible and yet so powerful rays demonstrated the deficiencies of our senses. Mathematical entities and instrumentation must complement our sensations. The huge increment in our knowledge is accompanied by a divorce between the scientist and the layman who now often has great difficulties understanding new concepts not only in physics but also in biology. PMID:8696882

  4. [The medical arrangements of the Westphalian Wilhelms-University in Münster (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, F W

    1977-12-01

    The buildings of the clinics and institutions of the medical faculty in Münster which were planned in 1914 and completed in 1925 were enlarged considerably with numerous new buildings in the 1950's because of increasing specialisation in medicine. The university eye clinic built in 1925 was enlarged in 1970 by the addition of a bed wing and in 1975 by the new construction of the out patients department. In 1969 the foundation stone for the new central clinic with the four bed towers was laid. The eye clinic will not move into the new central clinic, because the old part of the present eye clinic was also completely renovated, besides the construction of both the additions. This description is complemented by conclusive data on the number and bed-use of the single clinics and on the cost of the new wing and the number of students. PMID:342807

  5. Wilhelm August Gottlieb Manniske, MD (1769-1835): microscope use during removal of buried corneal body in 1792.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, J Fraser

    2013-02-01

    In 1792, a priest in Germany consulted a young doctor about a buried corneal foreign body hidden in a small, hard mass that partly covered the pupil. During removal of the foreign body, the doctor inspected the corneal incision with a microscope to confirm the suspected presence of the foreign body. This may be the first use of a microscope in eye surgery. PMID:23411892

  6. Deep mantle mineralogy and novel materials synthesis using multianvil high-pressure technology (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuo, Irifune

    2016-04-01

    Phase relations in mantle and slab materials have been studied using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (KMA) under pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle transition region and the uppermost lower mantle of the Earth. The associated density and sound velocity changes of these materials have also been determined using the KMA technology combined with synchrotron in situ X-ray and ultrasonic interferometry measurements. The results show that the mantle transition region is made of a pyrolitic composition, while the presence of a harzburgite-rich layer is suggested in the lower parts of this region. Use of sintered diamond anvils for KMA has allowed expansion of these measurements toward deeper region of the lower mantle. Our preliminary results of such measurements indicate that at least upper part of the lower mantle is made of the pyrolitic composition contrary to a recent study based on Brillouin scattering measurements in diamond anvil cell, which concluded a more Si-rich lower mantle. On the other hand, we have been applying KMA technology to synthesis of novel functional materials utilizing its capability of producing very high static pressures and homogeneous temperatures in relatively large sample volumes. These include ultrahard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) directly converted from graphite, which is now being used for applications to abrasive and cutting tools as well as for some scientific applications such as anvils for some high-pressure devices. Another example of such a novel material is hard and tough nano-polycrystalline stishovite (NPS), which is also potentially important for some industrial applications. Moreover, we recently succeeded in making highly transparent nano-polycrystalline garnet (NPG), which is ideal for the measurements of sound velocities by various methods, such as Brillouin scattering and GHz ultrasonic interferometry. Thus, the KMA technology opens the door to the synthesis of transparent nano-polycrystalline ceramics, in addition to its use for the studies in deep Earth mineralogy.

  7. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  8. Reply to "Comment on 'Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change' by Rolf Müller and Jens-Uwe Grooß"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.-B.

    2014-04-01

    In their Comment, Müller and Grooß continuously use problematic "observed data" and misleading arguments to make a case against our CRE mechanism of the ozone hole and CFC-warming mechanism of global climate change. They make the groundless assertion that the CRE theory cannot be considered as an independent process for ozone loss in the polar stratosphere. Their claim that the impact of the CRE mechanism on polar chlorine activation and ozone loss in the stratosphere would be limited does not agree with the observed data over the past decades. They also make many contradictory and fact-distorting arguments that "There is no polar ozone loss in darkness, there is no apparent 11-year periodicity in polar total ozone measurements, the age of air in the polar lower stratosphere is much older than 1-2 years, and the reported detection of a pronounced recovery (by about 20-25%) in Antarctic total ozone measurements by the year 2010 is in error." These assertions ignore and contradict a great deal of robust observed data from both laboratory and field measurements reported in the literature including their own publications. Their new argument for the photodissociation of CFCs on PSCs also contradicts their previous extraordinary efforts including the use of fabricated "ACE-FTS satellite data" to argue for no physical/chemical loss of CFCs in the winter lower polar stratosphere. Finally, they do not provide any scientific evidence to support their criticism for the no physical basis of the CFC-warming theory and its conclusions. In summary, their misleading arguments and false "data" do not change the convincing conclusion reached by robust observations in my recent paper that both the CRE mechanism and the CFC-warming mechanism not only provide new fundamental understandings of the O3 hole and global climate change but have superior predictive capabilities, compared with the conventional models.

  9. Do Web-based Mental Health Literacy Interventions Improve the Mental Health Literacy of Adult Consumers? Results From a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) have been identified as an important contributor to the mental health treatment gap. Interventions to improve MHL have used traditional media (eg, community talks, print media) and new platforms (eg, the Internet). Evaluations of interventions using conventional media show improvements in MHL improve community recognition of mental illness as well as knowledge, attitude, and intended behaviors toward people having mental illness. However, the potential of new media, such as the Internet, to enhance MHL has yet to be systematically evaluated. Objective Study aims were twofold: (1) To systematically appraise the efficacy of Web-based interventions in improving MHL. (2) To establish if increases in MHL translated into improvement in individual health seeking and health outcomes as well as reductions in stigma toward people with mental illness. Methods We conducted a systematic search and appraisal of all original research published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated Web-based interventions to improve MHL. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to report findings. Results Fourteen studies were included: 10 randomized controlled trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. Seven studies were conducted in Australia. A variety of Web-based interventions were identified ranging from linear, static websites to highly interactive interventions such as social media games. Some Web-based interventions were specifically designed for people living with mental illness whereas others were applicable to the general population. Interventions were more likely to be successful if they included “active ingredients” such as a structured program, were tailored to specific populations, delivered evidenced-based content, and promoted interactivity and experiential learning. Conclusions Web-based interventions targeting MHL are more likely to be successful if they include

  10. The Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS): A new scale-based measure of mental health literacy.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Matt; Casey, Leanne

    2015-09-30

    Although Mental Health Literacy (MHL) has been a topic of substantial interest, measurement of this concept using a scale-based measure has been limited, including a lack of psychometric and methodologically robust scale-based measures of MHL. This study developed a new scale-based measure of MHL, the Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS), which assesses all attributes of MHL. Construction of the MHLS was done over three key stages, including measure development, pilot testing and assessment of psychometrics and methodological quality. The resulting measure is a 35 item, univariate scale that is easily administered and scored. Results showed significant differences in scores between mental health professionals and a community sample, as well as individuals with greater experience with mental health, and a significant positive relationship with help-seeking intentions. The MHLS also demonstrated good internal and test-retest reliability. Evaluation of the methodological quality of the MHLS indicated that it has substantial methodological advantages in comparison to existing scale-based measures of MHL. The MHLS can be used in assessing individual and population level differences in MHL and in determining the impact of programmes designed to improve MHL. PMID:26228163

  11. [From anamnesis to the art of interpretation, or: What is a "genuine" psychoanalyst? Wolfgang Warda, Ludwig Binswanger, Wilhelm Strohmayer and the origins of psychoanalysis in Thuringia].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Warda and Strohmayer from Thuringia were among the first German physicians who developed an interest in Freuds theory and therapeutic method around 1900. Their contributions reflect the influence of Otto Binswanger, professor of psychiatry in Jena, a representative of the "psychological direction" in psychiatry which in the beginning was relatively receptive to Freud. The paper discusses their rapprochement to, and detachment from, the Freudian school, including also the work of a third young physician: Ludwig Binswanger, Otto's nephew, who was active in Jena at the same time. It points to certain factors contributing to the increasing rejection Freud met in academic circles which have been underrated to date: (1) the transformation of psychoanalysis into an art of interpretation; (2) the introduction of transference. Both factors which were elaborated by Freud as essentials of his theoretical and practical approach around 1900 and published in 1904/05, undermined the claim of academic medicine to objectivity. The paper describes how psychoanalysis officially abandoned the scientific standards of contemporary medicine at the Weimar congress in 1911, at the same time as Warda and Strohmayer left the Freudian group. PMID:27281983

  12. German-American Cultural Interaction in the Jacksonian Era: Six Unpublished Letters by Francis Lieber and John Pickering to Wilhelm von Humboldt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Letters by German-American writer and political scientist Francis Lieber and American lawyer and linguist John Pickering to Wilhem von Humboldt in Berlin, published here for the first time, give insight into the cultural interaction between Germany and the United States during the Jacksonian era, and may open new perspectives for German-American…

  13. Improvement of Flow Quality in NAL Chofu Mach 10 Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, John; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Higashida, Akio; Inoue, Manabu; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Korte, John J.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of CFD analysis and remachining of the nozzle, the flow quality of the Mach 10 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL Chofu, Japan was improved. The subsequent test results validated the CFD analytical predictions by NASA and MHL.

  14. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety. PMID:23339779

  15. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  16. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Medium Molecular Weight Heparinyl Amino Acid Derivatives on Ischemic Paw Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiichi; Toda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radical-scavenging effects of heparin (HE), medium molecular weight heparinyl phenylalanine (MHF), and medium molecular weight heparinyl leucine (MHL) using ischemic paw edema in mice. We also examined the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of mice that were administered these compounds as an index of their side-effects. HE had a preventative effect and significant reduced ischemic paw edema. However, its effect was not dose-dependent and the dose-response curve was bell-shaped. The effective dose of HE also exhibited a prolonged APTT. Pretreatment using MHF and MHL were effective against ischemic paw edema without a prolonged APTT. Remarkably, the action of MHF was not only preventively, but also therapeutically active. These results suggest that MHF and MHL are superior to HE as safe radical scavengers in vivo. PMID:27381605

  18. Hypoxia imaging predicts success of hypoxia-induced cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy in a murine lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Lee, B-F; Lee, C-H; Chiu, N-T; Hsia, C-C; Shen, L-H; Shiau, A-L

    2012-04-01

    Tc-99m-HL91 is a hypoxia imaging biomarker. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of Tc-99m-HL91 imaging for hypoxia-induced cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy in a murine lung tumor model. C57BL/6 mice were implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells transduced with the hypoxia-inducible promoter-driven CD gene (LL2/CD) or luciferase gene (LL2/Luc) serving as the control. When tumor volumes reached 100 mm(3), pretreatment images were acquired after injection of Tc-99m-HL91. The mice were divided into low and high hypoxic groups based on the tumor-to-non-tumor ratio of Tc-99m-HL91. They were injected daily with 5-FC (500 mg kg(-1)) or the vehicle for 1 week. When tumor volumes reached 1000 mm(3), autoradiography and histological examinations were performed. Treatment with 5-FC delayed tumor growth and enhanced the survival of mice bearing high hypoxic LL2/CD tumors. The therapeutic effect of hypoxia-induced CD/5-FC gene therapy was more pronounced in high hypoxic tumors than in low hypoxic tumors. This study provides the first evidence that Tc-99m-HL91 can serve as an imaging biomarker for predicting the treatment responses of hypoxia-regulated CD/5-FC gene therapy in animal tumor models. Our results suggest that hypoxia imaging using Tc-99m-HL91 has the predictive value for the success of hypoxia-directed treatment regimens. PMID:22281757

  19. Assessment of mental health literacy using a multifaceted measure among a Chinese rural population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Xi-guang; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population. Setting Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China. Participants This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18–60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18–60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=−0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38–2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=−0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=−0.07, p<0.05). Conclusions MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated. PMID:26438139

  20. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  1. Teachers' Perceptions about Minimal Hearing Loss: A Role for Educational Audiologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Goldberg, Lynette R.

    2005-01-01

    A 25-item survey was administered to 45 teachers to identify what they knew about Minimal Hearing Loss (MHL) and to verify or refute five possible misperceptions reported earlier by Goldberg and McCormick Richburg (2004). Results support the importance of an educational audiologist on the service delivery team to help teachers understand the…

  2. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  3. Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: prediction and uncertainty of geostatistical risk mapping.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zia U; Panaullah, Golam M; DeGloria, Stephen D; Duxbury, John M

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the spatial correlation of soil arsenic (As) concentrations with environmental variables is needed to assess the nature and extent of the risk of As contamination from irrigation water in Bangladesh. We analyzed 263 paired groundwater and paddy soil samples covering highland (HL) and medium highland-1 (MHL-1) land types for geostatistical mapping of soil As and delineation of As contaminated areas in Tala Upazilla, Satkhira district. We also collected 74 non-rice soil samples to assess the baseline concentration of soil As for this area. The mean soil As concentrations (mg/kg) for different land types under rice and non-rice crops were: rice-MHL-1 (21.2)>rice-HL (14.1)>non-rice-MHL-1 (11.9)>non-rice-HL (7.2). Multiple regression analyses showed that irrigation water As, Fe, land elevation and years of tubewell operation are the important factors affecting the concentrations of As in HL paddy soils. Only years of tubewell operation affected As concentration in the MHL-1 paddy soils. Quantitatively similar increases in soil As above the estimated baseline-As concentration were observed for rice soils on HL and MHL-1 after 6-8 years of groundwater irrigation, implying strong retention of As added in irrigation water in both land types. Application of single geostatistical methods with secondary variables such as regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (OCK) gave little improvement in prediction of soil As over ordinary kriging (OK). Comparing single prediction methods, kriging within strata (KWS), the combination of RK for HL and OCK for MHL-1, gave more accurate soil As predictions and showed the lowest misclassification of declaring a location "contaminated" with respect to 14.8 mg As/kg, the highest value obtained for the baseline soil As concentration. Prediction of soil As buildup over time indicated that 75% or the soils cropped to rice would contain at least 30 mg/L As by the year 2020. PMID:22055452

  4. Teaching Literacy for Love and Wisdom: Being the Book and Being the Change. Language and Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.; Novak, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This powerful book lays out an inspiring new vision for the teaching of English, building on themes central to Wilhelm's influential "You Gotta BE The Book." With this new work, Wilhelm and Novak challenge business as usual in the language arts. They call for nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the aims and methods of the English…

  5. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  6. Our Compulsory Goals: Effective Teaching and Meaningful Learning through Powerful Cultural Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm asks, "But are new literacies just fun?" Then he immediately answers, "Absolutely not--if we as teachers provide the right context and conditions of their use." Offering research-based advice on incorporating technology to increase motivation and deepen learning, Wilhelm boils it down to this bottom line: it's engaged, substantive,…

  7. Considering Hermeneutics and Education: Hermes, Teachers, and Intellectualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Deron Robert

    Teacher roles in contemporary American schools should be more closely aligned to hermeneutics as the study of meaning (interpretation/understanding). A marriage between Platonic notions of interpretation and the quest for meaning with the interpretive theories of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm Dilthey, and Hans-Georg…

  8. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  9. Mesenchymal Hamartoma of the Liver in an Infant With Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A Rare Condition Mimicking Hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Abrahao-Machado, Lucas F; de Macedo, Fabiane C; Dalence, Carlos; Stambo, Glenn; Abrahao-Machado, Eduarda F; Abrahao-Machado, Elaine C F; Bahrami, Armita; Nascimento, Antonio G

    2015-07-01

    Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are known to be at an increased risk for childhood malignancies, particularly Wilms tumor and hepatoblastoma. We report a case of genetically confirmed BWS in a 5-month-old girl who presented with a 9.5-cm abdominal mass associated with elevated α-fetoprotein levels. The clinical impression was strongly suggestive of hepatoblastoma. Histologic examination of the surgically excised mass revealed mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL), a benign hepatic neoplasm. PMID:26203458

  10. Earliest modern human-like hand bone from a new >1.84-million-year-old site at Olduvai in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Almécija, Sergio; Heaton, Jason L; Baquedano, Enrique; Mabulla, Audax; Uribelarrea, David

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by specialized hand morphology that is associated with advanced manipulative skills. Thus, there is important debate in paleoanthropology about the possible cause-effect relationship of this modern human-like (MHL) hand anatomy, its associated grips and the invention and use of stone tools by early hominins. Here we describe and analyse Olduvai Hominin (OH) 86, a manual proximal phalanx from the recently discovered >1.84-million-year-old (Ma) Philip Tobias Korongo (PTK) site at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). OH 86 represents the earliest MHL hand bone in the fossil record, of a size and shape that differs not only from all australopiths, but also from the phalangeal bones of the penecontemporaneous and geographically proximate OH 7 partial hand skeleton (part of the Homo habilis holotype). The discovery of OH 86 suggests that a hominin with a more MHL postcranium co-existed with Paranthropus boisei and Homo habilis at Olduvai during Bed I times. PMID:26285128

  11. Earliest modern human-like hand bone from a new >1.84-million-year-old site at Olduvai in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Almécija, Sergio; Heaton, Jason L.; Baquedano, Enrique; Mabulla, Audax; Uribelarrea, David

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by specialized hand morphology that is associated with advanced manipulative skills. Thus, there is important debate in paleoanthropology about the possible cause–effect relationship of this modern human-like (MHL) hand anatomy, its associated grips and the invention and use of stone tools by early hominins. Here we describe and analyse Olduvai Hominin (OH) 86, a manual proximal phalanx from the recently discovered >1.84-million-year-old (Ma) Philip Tobias Korongo (PTK) site at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). OH 86 represents the earliest MHL hand bone in the fossil record, of a size and shape that differs not only from all australopiths, but also from the phalangeal bones of the penecontemporaneous and geographically proximate OH 7 partial hand skeleton (part of the Homo habilis holotype). The discovery of OH 86 suggests that a hominin with a more MHL postcranium co-existed with Paranthropus boisei and Homo habilis at Olduvai during Bed I times. PMID:26285128

  12. The Role of Electronic Reserves in Serving and Shaping New Teaching and Learning Environments in UK Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Describes the ResIDe Electronic Reserve at the University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol, an example of an electronic reserve that has been addressing many access problems and supporting different teaching/learning initiatives. Discusses new roles for the ResIDe electronic library, electronic information management, new librarian roles, and…

  13. The Measurement of Work Engagement with a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Salanova, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement--a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be…

  14. Comment on {open_quotes}Multicritical Behavior in Coupled Directed Percolation Processes{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Uwe C. T{umlt a}uber, Martin J. Howard, and Haye Hinrichsen, Phys.thinspthinspRev.thinspthinspLett.thinspthinsp{bold 80}, 2165 (1998). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. The struggle with employee engagement: Measures and construct clarification using five samples.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Zinta S; Peters, Janet M; Weston, James W

    2016-09-01

    Among scholarly researchers, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) is a popular scale for assessing employee or work engagement. However, challenges to the scale's validity have raised major concerns about the measurement and conceptualization of engagement as a construct. Across 4 field samples, we examined 2 measures of engagement, the UWES and the Job Engagement Scale (JES), in both factor structure and patterns of relationships with theoretically hypothesized antecedents and consequences. In a fifth field sample, we examined the construct-level relationships between engagement and related variables, while controlling for sources of measurement error (i.e., item-specific factor, scale-specific factor, random response, and transient). By examining 2 measures, each derived from different theoretical bases, we provide unique insight into the measurement and construct of engagement. Our results show that, although correlated, the JES and UWES are not interchangeable. The UWES, more so than the JES, assesses engagement with overlap from other job attitudes, requiring improvement in the measurement of engagement. We offer guidance as to when to use each measure. Furthermore, by isolating the construct versus measurement of engagement relative to burnout, commitment, stress, and psychological meaningfulness and availability, we determined (a) the engagement construct is not the same as the opposite of burnout, warranting a reevaluation of the opposite-of-burnout conceptualization of engagement; and (b) psychological meaningfulness and engagement are highly correlated and likely reciprocally related, necessitating a modification to the self-role-expression conceptualization of engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281184

  16. "Either Side of Delphy Bridge": A Deep Mapping Project Evoking and Engaging the Lives of Older Adults in Rural North Cornwall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane; Biggs, Iain

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on work to date by an arts practice-led research team exploring older adults' conceptions of, and connectivity with, the physical, social and cultural landscapes in which they locate themselves. The team is based at the Department of Art and Design, University of the West of England (UWE) and has conducted fieldwork,…

  17. Physicists and Physics in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Jürgen; Eckert, Michael; Wolff, Stefan

    We give a tour of Munich and some outlying sites that focuses on the lives and work of the most prominent physicists who lived in the city, Count Rumford, Joseph Fraunhofer, Georg Simon Ohm, Max Planck, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Arnold Sommerfeld, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. We close with a self-guided tour that describes how to reach these sites in Munich.

  18. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  19. Liver transplantation for a giant mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an adult: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Cai, Jin-Zhen; Guo, Qing-Jun; Li, Jun-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Hu, Zhan-Dong; Cooper, David KC; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver (MHLs) in adults are rare and potentially premalignant lesions, which present as solid/cystic neoplasms. We report a rare case of orthotopic liver transplantation in a patient with a giant MHL. In 2013, a 34-year-old female sought medical advice after a 2-year history of progressive abdominal distention and respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed an extensive mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of her abdomen revealed multiple liver cysts, with the diameter of largest cyst being 16 cm × 14 cm. The liver hilar structures were not clearly displayed. The adjacent organs were compressed and displaced. Initial laboratory tests, including biochemical investigations and coagulation profile, were unremarkable. Tumor markers, including levels of AFP, CEA and CA19-9, were within the normal ranges. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation in November 2013, the liver being procured from a 40-year-old man after cardiac death following traumatic brain injury. Warm ischemic time was 7.5 min and cold ischemic time was 3 h. The recipient underwent classical orthotopic liver transplantation. The recipient operative procedure took 8.5 h, the anhepatic phase lasting for 1 h without the use of venovenous bypass. The immunosuppressive regimen included intraoperative induction with basiliximab and high-dose methylprednisolone, and postoperative maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. The recipient’s diseased liver weighed 21 kg (dry weight) and measured 41 cm × 32 cm × 31 cm. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an MHL. The patient did not experience any acute rejection episode or other complication. All the laboratory tests returned to normal within one month after surgery. Three months after transplantation, the immunosuppressive therapy was reduced to tacrolimus monotherapy, and the T-tube was removed after cholangiography showed no abnormalities. Twelve months

  20. Liver transplantation for a giant mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an adult: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Cai, Jin-Zhen; Guo, Qing-Jun; Li, Jun-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Hu, Zhan-Dong; Cooper, David K C; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-05-28

    Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver (MHLs) in adults are rare and potentially premalignant lesions, which present as solid/cystic neoplasms. We report a rare case of orthotopic liver transplantation in a patient with a giant MHL. In 2013, a 34-year-old female sought medical advice after a 2-year history of progressive abdominal distention and respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed an extensive mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of her abdomen revealed multiple liver cysts, with the diameter of largest cyst being 16 cm × 14 cm. The liver hilar structures were not clearly displayed. The adjacent organs were compressed and displaced. Initial laboratory tests, including biochemical investigations and coagulation profile, were unremarkable. Tumor markers, including levels of AFP, CEA and CA19-9, were within the normal ranges. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation in November 2013, the liver being procured from a 40-year-old man after cardiac death following traumatic brain injury. Warm ischemic time was 7.5 min and cold ischemic time was 3 h. The recipient underwent classical orthotopic liver transplantation. The recipient operative procedure took 8.5 h, the anhepatic phase lasting for 1 h without the use of venovenous bypass. The immunosuppressive regimen included intraoperative induction with basiliximab and high-dose methylprednisolone, and postoperative maintenance with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. The recipient's diseased liver weighed 21 kg (dry weight) and measured 41 cm × 32 cm × 31 cm. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an MHL. The patient did not experience any acute rejection episode or other complication. All the laboratory tests returned to normal within one month after surgery. Three months after transplantation, the immunosuppressive therapy was reduced to tacrolimus monotherapy, and the T-tube was removed after cholangiography showed no abnormalities. Twelve months

  1. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    Conference Chairs NameOrganization Gwyn Williams Jefferson Lab Peter ReveszCornell High Energy Synchrotron Source Uwe ArpSynchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility Programme Committee NameOrganization Alastair MacDowellAdvanced Light Source Tom ToellnerAdvanced Photon Source Amitava D RoyCenter for Advanced Microstructures and Devices Tom EllisCanadian Light Source Roberta SantarosaLaboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron Jerry (Jerome) HastingsLinac Coherent Light Source Steven HulbertNational Synchrotron Light Source Thomas A RabedeauStanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Mark BissenSynchrotron Radiation Center Gwyn WilliamsJefferson Lab Peter ReveszCornell High Energy Synchrotron Source Uwe ArpSynchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility

  2. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    PubMed

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy. PMID:15817043

  3. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  4. Ultrasensitive Impedimetric Biosensor Fabricated by a New Immobilisation Technique for Parathyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Yildiz, Kübra; Çakar, Cansu; Aydin, Tuba; Asav, Engin; Sağiroğlu, Ayten; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasensitive and rapid impedimetric biosensor with new immobilisation materials for parathyroid hormone (PTH) with the aim to determine the PTH level in serum for the diagnosis and monitoring of parathyroid diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, adenoma, and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated with an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by mercaptohexanol (6-MHL). Anti-parathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilised onto a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) by using epiclorhidrina (EPI) with ethanolamine (EA). The EPI-EA interaction represents the first use of these for the construction of biosensors in published reports. The immobilisation of the anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. After the optimisation studies of immobilisation materials such as 6-MHL, EPI, EA and glutaraldehyde, linearity, repeatability and sensitivity of biosensor were evaluated as the performance of biosensor. PTH was detected within a linear range of 0.1-0.6 pg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.1 fg/ml. The specificity of the biosensor was also investigated. Finally, the described biosensor was used to detect the PTH levels in artificial serum samples. PMID:25935225

  5. Relation between microstructural heterogeneous surface layer and nitrogen pressure during sintering in Si3N4-Ml2O3 ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Onomura, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of N2 pressure (0.1 to 50 MPa) during sintering on the thickness of the microstructurally heterogeneous layer (MHL) formed near the surface of the compact, transverse-rupture strength, were investigated for Si3N4-(10 to 20) mol % MgO-5.5 mol % Al2O3 ceramics. The sintering temperature and time were 1973 K and 3.6 ks, respectively. The N2 gas was introduced into the furnace at about 1273 K. When the compacts were sintered under a certain N2 pressure, for example, about 20 and 7 MPa for 10 and 15 mol% MgO, respectively, the evolutions of N and Si were suppressed. The thickness of the MHL became very small and at the same time the strength of the surface layer of the compact (which was normally less than that of the inside in the case of 0.1 MPa) became nearly the same value as that of the inside. At higher pressure, the strength of both surface layer and the inside decreased considerably. Some discussion was made on these results.

  6. Lacustrin magnetic parameters reveal the last 3,000 years environmental variation of the Ilan Plain, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yin-Sheng; Lee, Teh-Quei

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the paleo-environmental variation of the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan for the last 3,000 years by using lacustrine magnetic records obtained from Meihua Lake (the MHL-5A core; 24° 38.58' N, 121° 43.96' E) and Longtan Lake (the LTL-9C core; 24° 47.70' N, 121° 44.40' E). The magnetic parameters analyzed in the study include magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM (saturated isothermal remnant magnetization), ARM (anhysteretic remnant magnetization), ARM/χ, and ARM/SIRM. The most notable feature in the magnetic records of both cores is an anomaly appeared at ~1,800 years. In the MHL-5A core, the parameters representing magnetic abundance variation (χ, SIRM, and ARM) are relatively higher before ~1,800 years and become lower after the time. On the contrary, the magnetic abundance parameters are lower before ~1,800 years but become higher after the time in the LTL-9C core. Besides, for the last ~700 years, the magnetic parameters in the MHL-5A core show a clear period variation. Also in the LTL-9C core, this period variation could be observed though the period is relatively ambiguous. Moreover, the magnetic grain size parameter ARM/SIRM shows that the grain size of magnetic minerals in both cores became finer gradually for the last ~3,000 years. The reason could be preliminary deduced: The Ilan Plain is a flooding plain and the main river in the plain is a braided river, the Lanyang River. Before ~1,800 years, the channel of the Lanyang River should be in the south of the plain (closer to the Meihua Lake). More sediment was brought into the lake by the flooding of the Lanyang River. After ~1,800 years, the channel of the Lanyang River shifted northward (closer to the Longtan Lake), and therefore the input to the Longtan Lake from the flooding might increase. The period variation after ~700 years could be roughly attributed to the rainfall effect. That is, precipitation variation resulting from the influence of the monsoon system might become significant

  7. AB100. Phenotypes of primary hyperlipidemia in a Vietnamese referral center

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Nguyen, Hoan Thi; Nguyen, Dat Phu

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Primary hyperlipidemia is genetic dyslipoproteinemia. Without any intervention, cardiovascular diseases and acute pancreatitis may be occurred. Detection and appropriate management of pediatric hyperlipidemia can have a significant impact upon the disease course and can prevent complications. The article aims to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of hyperlipidemia in Vietnamese children and to evaluate outcome of treatment. Patients and methods From 2007 to 2013, 30 children were diagnosed with primary hyperlipidemia using included and excluded criteria and were treated with diet and/or lipid-lowering drug therapy. Results Among 30 cases from 28 families, 8 patients were mixed hyperlipidemia (MHL), 13 patients were hypertriglyceridemia (HT) and 9 patients were hypercholesterolemia (HC). Mean age of diagnosis was 5.5 years (1 months-16 years). The rate of male/female was 13/17. Clinical manifestations included hepatomegaly (4 cases), xanthemas in the knees and elbows (5 cases), “creamy” blood (21 cases). Twenty cases were asymptomatic. A total of 8/28 patients had family history with hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Serum cholesterol level of HC group was 9.2±4 mmol/L. Serum triglyceride level of HT group was 23.6±9.9 mmol/L. MHL group had hypercholesterolemia (12.1±4.5 mmol/L) and HT (20.3±10.5 mmol/L). After interventions, HT group had the best result with serum triglyceride level was 10.1±4.6 mmol/L, next to MHL group with serum cholesterol level was 5.8±1.8 mmol/L, and serum triglyceride level was 9.5±5.2 mmol/L; finally, serum cholesterol level of HC group was 12.4±5.5 mmol/L. Five infants with HT had the best results of treatment: serum triglyceride level decreased from 19-57.6 to 5-10 mmol/L. Two patients with HC had the worsen results (unchanged blood lipid level). Conclusions Primary hyperlipidemia had poor clinical manifestations and good results of treatment. Screening for primary

  8. Collecting Maternal Health Information From HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Face-to-Face Interviews in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane; Tollman, Stephen; Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the world’s women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission are underway, obtaining complete and accurate data from rural clinical sites to track progress presents a major challenge. Objective To describe the acceptability and feasibility of mobile phones as a tool for clinic-based face-to-face data collection with pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa. Methods As part of a larger clinic-based trial, 16 interviewers were trained to conduct mobile phone–assisted personal interviews (MPAPI). These interviewers (participant group 1) completed the same short questionnaire based on items from the Technology Acceptance Model at 3 different time points. Questions were asked before training, after training, and 3 months after deployment to clinic facilities. In addition, before the start of the primary intervention trial in which this substudy was undertaken, 12 mothers living with HIV (MLH) took part in a focus group discussion exploring the acceptability of MPAPI (participant group 2). Finally, a sample of MLH (n=512) enrolled in the primary trial were asked to assess their experience of being interviewed by MPAPI (participant group 3). Results Acceptability of the method was found to be high among the 16 interviewers in group 1. Perceived usefulness was reported to be slightly higher than perceived ease of use across the 3 time points. After 3 months of field use, interviewer perceptions of both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were found to be higher than before training. The feasibility of conducting MPAPI interviews in this setting was found to be high. Network coverage was available in all clinics and hardware, software, cost, and secure transmission to the data center presented no significant challenges over the 21-month period. For the 12 MHL participants in group 2, anxiety about the multimedia capabilities of the phone was

  9. Next Steps in the Journey: Teaching with "Urgency:" A Call for Immediate Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    With a staggering number of students dropping out of school, widespread below-grade reading proficiency, and PISA results showing a demoralizing lag internationally in math, science, and general problem solving, teachers need to exercise all the control available to them to engage students in meaningful learning. Wilhelm suggests six steps…

  10. The International Relations of the Struves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    At least 10 astronomers in 5 generations belonged to the Struve dynasty, a family having its origin in Holstein and living in Germany, Russia, the USA and other countries. The best known astronomers among them were Wilhelm (1793-1864), Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), Hermann (1854-1920), Ludwig (1858-1920), Georg (1886-1933) and Otto Ludwig Struve (1897-1963). After a short account of the family's history, its international relations will be regarded, with emphasis on the following aspects: Nationality/citizenship, places of living and work, personal relations to other astronomers including correspondence and cooperation, travels, languages of publications. Although a comparison of the different members of the family is possible only to a certain degree due to their different role and importance in astronomy, some changes which developed over 150 years can be traced: E.g., Wilhelm Struve published in German, Latin, French, Russian and English, whereas his grandsons and great-grandsons wrote their papers mainly in one language -- German or English. Wilhelm had relatively close relations with French astronomers, whereas his great-grandson Georg was the author of verbal assaults on French scientists. Georg published also heavy criticism of the International Astronomical Union, whereas his cousin Otto Luwig later became IAU's President.

  11. Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

  12. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  13. Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

  14. The Academy and the Engineering Sciences: An Unwelcome Royal Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    On 19 March 1900, at the bicentenary celebrations of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Kaiser Wilhelm II established three new fellowships in engineering sciences. This was in many aspects an unwanted gift, and one which tested the Academy's relationship between pure and applied science. In the context of contemporary struggles between traditional…

  15. A Poetic Journey: The Transfer and Transformation of German Strategies for Moral Education in Late Eighteenth-Century Dutch Poetry for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlevliet, Sanne; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular Dutch educational enlightenment authors was Hieronymus van Alphen. His three volumes of "Little Poems for Children" published in 1778 and 1782 were extremely successful, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Inspired by the German poets Christian Felix Weisse and Gottlob Wilhelm Burmann, Van Alphen brought about an…

  16. Reading Motivation: Exploring the Elementary Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of motivation in some readers, a number of researchers (Mohr, 2006; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002) and organizations (The Education Alliance, 2007) have called for the investigation of gender differences in all readers, including young children. Consequently, this study focused on younger, average…

  17. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  18. Sisyphus at Work: The Leibniz Edition, The Kaiserreich and Divided Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Despite several attempts, the prolific writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz have not yet been brought together in a single edition. Efforts have been hampered by the sheer volume and diversity of the Leibniz estate, and also by changing political circumstances. This paper traces the history of the Leibniz edition as a long-term project of the…

  19. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  20. The Age for Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Role-plays and other dramatic activities fulfill tweens' urge to try out different life roles, to explore the world beyond their own reality, and to learn new areas of competence. Wilhelm's research into reading and motivation has shown that students value learning that they can see as immediately meaningful. He argues that drama strategies bring…

  1. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during…

  2. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  3. Photothermal Therapy: Cancer Cell Internalization of Gold Nanostars Impacts Their Photothermal Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo: Toward a Plasmonic Thermal Fingerprint in Tumoral Environment (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ana; Silva, Amanda K A; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Péchoux, Christine; Desboeufs, Karine; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Because the ultimate target for photothermal therapy is the cancer cell, heating performances must be evaluated intracellularly. On page 1040 C. Wilhelm and team provide the first in vitro and in vivo photothermal measurements in cancer cells with gold nanostars. They demonstrate that once nanostars are internalized within endosomes, heat generation can change significantly. PMID:27166618

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  5. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  6. Crystallography: To Infinity and Beyond…

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles

    2014-01-01

    William Henry Bragg moved from Cambridge in Britain to South Australia to take up a professorship at the University of Adelaide in 1885. He brought with him a broad interest in many areas of physics, but when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in the 1890s, Bragg's interest was stimulated. William's Australian-born son, Lawrence (WL…

  7. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience. PMID:16639614

  8. Hard-luck Scheele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-11-01

    Carl Wilhelm Scheele had a hand in the discovery of at least six elements and contributed to the early development of chemistry in numerous other ways. Bruce Gibb looks into Scheele's story and considers why he doesn't get the credit that he deserves.

  9. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  10. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  11. Recent Progress on Certain Quartic Diophantine Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Ljunggren proved many results on quartic Diophantine equations of the form aX4-bY2 = c, with c∈{±1,-2,±4}. Noticeably absent from this set of values of c is c = 2. We describe some recent progress on this problem, and discuss some open problems which require further study.

  12. Proactivity vs Reactivity: Preparing Students for Success with CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Wilhelm has studied the Common Core State Standards and come away with a generally positive opinion. His concern is that now that the Standards are written, we let professional teachers mold them into the best possible practices for teaching their students. With specific advice for working with students--developing background knowledge, making…

  13. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

  14. Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

  15. Using Irony in Teaching the History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, B. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines historical ironies and stories with surprise endings about Rene Descartes and Wilhelm Wundt that can enliven history of psychology lectures and make certain concepts more memorable. Explains that this approach does not trivialize psychology's history but adds humor to a subject that students sometimes find dull. (CMK)

  16. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  17. Integrating Fiction and Nonfiction Reading into the Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiene, Judy; Pedersen, Erin

    2013-01-01

    One goal of high school teachers is to help students appreciate that reading does not end when they leave the classroom. When students find reading meaningful, they are more likely to see themselves as readers and choose to read long after they leave the classroom setting (Hinchman, Alvermann, Boyd, Brozo, & Vacca, 2003-2004; Wilhelm, 2001).…

  18. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  19. Notes on Joseph Fraunhofer's honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen, 1822 (German Title: Bemerkungen zur Ehrenpromotion Joseph Fraunhofers 1822 in Erlangen )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzke, Karl

    In 1822, Joseph Fraunhofer received a honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen University. Presumably, this distinction was based on suggestions by Johann Wilhelm Pfaff. Since 1822, Pfaff gave lectures with the inclusion of instruments, which he obtained directly from Fraunhofer, and presumably also included problems of spectral investigation. This contribution analyzes informations which were collected in this regard.

  20. Attitude as Predictor of Success in Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereijo, Maria Victoria Perez

    2006-01-01

    This is the second article in a series of articles published with findings on student perceptions of asynchronous web-based courses (Perez Cereijo, Young, & Wilhelm, 2001). This portion of the study examines the independent relationships between various student characteristics and student's perceived advantages and disadvantages of the…

  1. In Memoriam, Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Charles E. Graham, 2003, Retired Life Member, Tectonophysics, 1953. Robert E. Veiga, 2003, Atmospheric Sciences, 1990. Donald E. White, 2003, AGU Fellow, Volcanology, Geochemistry, Petrology, 1944.Manfred R. Strecker is a prizewinner of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Program for 2004, Germany's most valuable research prize.

  2. How Principals Cultivate Shared Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Do teacher leaders in your school mainly fill the traditional roles of department chair or grade-level representative? Or do they lead their peers in collaborative teams whose primary focus is improving student learning? Terry Wilhelm, director of the School Leadership Center for Riverside County Office of Education in California, says that…

  3. The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of "judgement". This article traces the roots of "judgement" back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature…

  4. From University to Comprehensive Higher Education: On the Widening Gap between "Lehre und Leben."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Wilhelm von Humboldt concerning the role of the university is discussed, focusing on four imperatives regulating its activities--unity of research and teaching; the empirical sciences; science and socialization; and science and universal enlightenment. The current status of the university is assessed in relation to these ideals. (MSE)

  5. The Humboldt Legacy: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the European University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybom, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the uses and distortions that have been made over the years to the ideas about the university that Wilhelm von Humboldt advocated. Points out, however, that there remains much of value in the ideas articulated by Humboldt and his brother Alexander. (SLD)

  6. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  7. "Bildung" and Intercultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "Bildung", sometimes translated as self-cultivation, is located at the core of an influential tradition of educational thought. A key question concerns the relationship between "Bildung" and interculturality. Drawing on Wilhelm von Humboldt and Hans-Georg Gadamer, and on the so-called transformative learning…

  8. Bildung und bildungstheoretische Ueberlegungen zur Grundung der Republik (Education and the Republic--Educational Theorists Reflections on the Foundation of the Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellekamps, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Draws on Wilhelm von Humboldt's typology of the active human being to debate the questions whether and how individuals can produce their social and political world. Discusses, with reference to Marie Condorcet and Immanuel Kant, procedures of the public that are necessary prerequisites for actions aimed at forming the world. (DSK)

  9. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  10. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  11. "The Lengthened Shadow of One Man": The Public Intellectual and the Founding of Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, John

    1998-01-01

    Identifies five intellectuals who made distinctive contributions to the founding of new universities in England, Germany, and the United States. Institutional and individual biographies profile: Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia); Wilhelm von Humboldt (University of Berlin); Lord Brougham (University College, University of London); A.D.…

  12. Literacy and Neuroplasticity: Transforming Our Perspectives and Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm applies two of his core beliefs--that anyone can learn the next appropriate concept or process if they are provided with a meaningful situation and proper assistance, and that literacy and the kinds of texts we call literature provide a unique and powerful way of knowing and of transforming the self--to a look at how recent research on the…

  13. Bildung as a Powerful Tool in Modern University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Mogens Noergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how powerful "Bildung" is as a tool in modern university teaching. The concept of "Bildung" was originally introduced by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (Kant 1787, 1798, 1804) and the Prussian lawyer and politician Wilhelm von Humboldt (Humboldt 1792, Bohlin 2008). From 1810 "Bildung" was a key concept in…

  14. Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany: Scholarly Approaches and Professional Practice. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Wilhelm, Ed.

    This monograph offers insight into the development of the conceptual basis, scholarly inquiry, and professional practice of adult education in West Germany from the end of World War II to the German reunification. Introductory materials are an "Introduction" (Wilhelm Mader) and "Translator's Note and Acknowledgements" (Martin Haindorff). Three…

  15. What Teachers Need to Know about Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff; Smith, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    Motivation is key to engaging students in meaningful and productive work. Identifying individual students' interests would be ideal, but in the real world, we need to create and sustain "situational interest." Smith and Wilhelm reference their own research as well as other research that is contextually very different to show how the same…

  16. A Teacher is Forever: The Legacy of Harry Kirke Wolfe (1858-1918).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This article traces the career of Harry Kirke Wolfe, Nebraska educator and one of the earliest U.S. psychologists to earn a doctorate in psychology from Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. Emphasis is placed on Wolfe's blending of psychology and pedagogy, and his qualities as a teacher. (Author/JDH)

  17. Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

  18. The "Magic" of Music: Archaic Dreams in Romantic Aesthetics and an Education in Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The main intent of this article is to describe some opportunities for an education in aesthetics by referring to similarities between intensive experiences of music in the individual life and in the history of aesthetics. Here, the author discusses Romanticism through the writings of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder. Among other things, she discusses…

  19. Determiner Syntax in Middle Low German: Evidence from the "Luebecker Ratsurteile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Elliott E.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I take a look at Middle Low German nominal phrases as evidenced in the Lubecker Ratsurteile, a collection of court proceedings published by Wilhelm Ebel in 1955, which cover the years 1421-1550. By digitizing the corpus, I was able to perform a corpus analysis on noun phrases, where I concentrated on determiner use and form,…

  20. Portrayals of Wundt and Titchener in Introductory Psychology Texts: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the content of introductory psychology books by performing a content analysis on texts from the 1970s and 1990s to determine whether the books incorporated recent historical scholarship in discussions of Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Finds that some texts still misrepresent the relation between Wundt and Titchener. (CMK)

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, Spectral Studies and Antifungal Activity of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with 2-(4- Sulphophenylazo)-1,8-Dihydroxy-3,6-Napthalene Disulphonic Acid Trisodium Salt

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Gajanan; Narang, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    Complexes of the type Na6[M(HL)2(H2O)2], where M= Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and Na3H2L= 2-(4-sulphophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy 3,6 naphthalene disulphonic acid trisodium salt, have been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical (elemental analyses, solubility, electrolytic conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement) and spectral (UV-Visible, IR, ESR, powder x-ray diffraction) techniques for their structure and studied for their antifungal activity against ten fungi. The anionic 1:2 metal:ligand complexes show octahedral geometry around M(II), a significant antifungal activity against Curvularia lunata and Alternaria triticina and a moderate activity against Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria solanae, Curvularia species, Helminthosporium oryzae, Collectotrichum capsici, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium udum. PMID:18365101

  2. Search for doubly charged higgs boson pair production in the decay to mu(+)mu(+)mu(-)mu(-) in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, T C; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Binder, M; Bischoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Del Signore, K; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisk, H E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Harder, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kouchner, A; Kouznetsov, O; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lu, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magnan, A-M; Maity, M; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M I; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Meng, X; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Renardy, J-F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sabirov, B M; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skow, D; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorín, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tuchming, B; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhou, Z; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2004-10-01

    A search for pair production of doubly charged Higgs bosons in the process pp -->H(++)H(--) -->mu(+)mu(+)mu(-)mu(-) is performed with the D0 run II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The analysis is based on a sample of inclusive dimuon data collected at an energy of sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb(-1). In the absence of a signal, 95% confidence level mass limits of M(H(+/-+/-)(L))>118.4 GeV/c(2) and M(H(+/-+/-)(R))>98.2 GeV/c(2) are set for left-handed and right-handed doubly charged Higgs bosons, respectively, assuming 100% branching into muon pairs. PMID:15524781

  3. Successful Application of a Canadian Mental Health Curriculum Resource by Usual Classroom Teachers in Significantly and Sustainably Improving Student Mental Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Morgan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the significant and substantive findings from a previous study of youth mental health literacy (MHL) could be replicated using the same methods in another population. Method: We examined the impact of a curriculum resource, the Mental Health and High School Curriculum Guide (The Guide), taught by usual classroom teachers on students’ knowledge and attitudes related to mental health and mental illness in Canadian secondary schools. Survey data were collected before, immediately after, and 2 months after implementation of The Guide by teachers in usual classroom teaching. We conducted paired-sample t tests and calculated the Cohen d value to determine outcomes and impact of the curriculum resource application. Results: One hundred fourteen students were matched for analysis of knowledge data and 112 students were matched for analysis of attitude data at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up time periods. Following classroom exposure to the curriculum resource, students’ knowledge scores increased significantly and substantively, compared with baseline (P < 0.001, d = 1.11), and this was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.91). Similar findings for attitude improvement were found (P < 0.001, d = 0.66), and this improvement was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.52). Conclusions: These findings corroborate those from a previous study conducted in a different location. Taken together these results suggest a simple but effective approach to improving MHL in young people by embedding a classroom resource, delivered by usual classroom teachers in usual school settings. PMID:26720827

  4. Impedance of nanometer thickness ferromagnetic Co40Fe40B20 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shien Uang; Chou, Tzu Yang; Lo, Chi Kuen

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline Co40Fe40B20 films, with film thickness t f = 100 nm, were deposited on glass substrates by the magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. During the film deposition period, a dc magnetic field, h = 40 Oe, was applied to introduce an easy axis for each film sample: one with h|| L and the other with h|| w, where L and w are the length and width of the film. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), ultrahigh frequency impedance (IM), dc electrical resistivity ( ρ), and magnetic hysteresis loops (MHL) of these films were studied. From the MHL and r measurements, we obtain saturation magnetization 4 πM s = 15.5 kG, anisotropy field H k = 0.031 kG, and r = 168 mW.cm. From FMR, we can determine the Kittel mode ferromagnetic resonance (FMR-K) frequency f FMRK = 1,963 MHz. In the h|| L case, IM spectra show the quasi-Kittel-mode ferromagnetic resonance (QFMR-K) at f 0 and the Walker-mode ferromagnetic resonance (FMR-W) at f n , where n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the h|| w case, IM spectra show QFMR-K at F 0 and FMR-W at F n . We find that f 0 and F 0 are shifted from f FMRK, respectively, and f n = F n . The in-plane spin-wave resonances are responsible for those relative shifts. PACS No. 76.50.+q; 84.37.+q; 75.70.-i

  5. Complexation of Lanthanides with Glutaroimide-dioxime: Binding Strength and Coordination Modes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhicheng; Gagnon, Kevin J; Teat, Simon J; Luo, Shunzhong; Rao, Linfeng

    2016-02-01

    The complexation of lanthanides (Nd(3+) and Eu(3+)) with glutaroimide-dioxime (H2L), a cyclic imide dioxime ligand that has been found to form stable complexes with actinides (UO2(2+) and NpO2(+)) and transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cu(2+), etc.), was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry. Lanthanides form three successive complexes, M(HL)(2+), M(HL)L, and M(HL)2(+) (where M stands for Nd(3+)/Eu(3+) and HL(-) stands for the singly deprotonated ligand). The enthalpies of complexation, determined by microcalorimetry, show that the formation of these complexes is exothermic. The stability constants of Ln(3+)/H2L complexes are several orders of magnitude lower than that of the corresponding Fe(3+)/H2L complexes but are comparable with that of UO2(2+)/H2L complexes. A structure of Eu(3+)/H2L complex, identified by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, shows that the ligand coordinates to Eu(3+) in a tridentate mode, via the two oxygen atoms of the oxime group and the nitrogen atom of the imide group. The relocation of protons of the oxime groups (-CH═N-OH) from the oxygen to the nitrogen atom, and the deprotonation of the imide group (-CH-NH-CH-) result in a conjugated system with delocalized electron density on the ligand (-O-N-C-N-C-N-O-) that forms strong complexes with the lanthanide ions. PMID:26765525

  6. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement in a sample of employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-12-01

    The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement. PMID:19996540

  7. Forensic seismology and boundary element method application vis-à-vis ROKS Cheonan underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Gu

    2013-12-01

    On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6-9 m from a DPRK "CHT-02D" torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral "land control" mine (LCM).

  8. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  9. Helmholtz and the psychophysiology of time.

    PubMed

    Debru, C

    2001-09-01

    After having measured the velocity of the nervous impulse in the 1850s, Helmholtz began doing research on the temporal dimensions of visual perception. Experiments dealing with the velocity of propagation in nerves (as well as with aspects of perception) were carried out occasionally for some fifteen years until their final publication in 1871. Although the temporal dimension of perception seems to have interested Helmholtz less than problems of geometry and space, his experiments on the time of perception were technically rather subtle and seminal, especially compared with experiments performed by his contemporaries, such as Sigmund Exner, William James, Rudolf Hermann Lotze, Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Volkmann, and Wilhelm Wundt. Helmholtz's conception of the temporal aspects of perception reflects the continuity that holds between psychophysiological research and the Kantian philosophical background. PMID:12068897

  10. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  11. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  12. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  13. Hufeland's interest in plant movements.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, J

    1991-01-01

    Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836) was one of the eminent physicians at the time of Goethe. When only 21 years old, he followed his father as a medical practitioner in Weimar. In 1793 he became Professor of Medicine at the University of Jena, from where he moved, in 1801, to Berlin as the physician in ordinary to king Friedrich Wilhelm III, council of state, and Professor at the leading hospital, the Charité. Hufeland pioneered in what today would be called public hygiene. Many of his lectures and publications were addressed to the educated laymen. In his most read book, the 'Makrobiotik', he emphasizes the importance of the 24-h periodicity as a basic unit of biological chronometry. In view of this, Hufeland has become a kind of 'patron saint' to modern chronobiologists. PMID:1760962

  14. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  15. Wiener Geologen im Spiegel des Geologenarchivs. Kober - Kieslinger - Ampferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, I.; Seibold, E.

    2001-05-01

    The bulk of the correspondence in the Geologenarchiv comes in two major groups:a) letters relating mainly to professional matters and b) letters containing predominantly personal communication. This will be demonstrated by material relating to the three above mentioned Viennese Geologists: Leopold Kober's letter to Wilhelm Salomon-Calvi and the correspondence between Alois Kieslinger and Eugen Wegmann are mainly professional, whereas Otto Ampferer's letters to the Bavarian glaciologist Edith Ebers are a documentation of personal friendship.

  16. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmberlake, Todd

    2010-11-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.

  17. [THE HANOVERIAN SCHOLAR AND THE DOCTOR OF THE PEASANTS].

    PubMed

    Giampietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Bernardino Ramazzini met in Modena in autumn 1689, and made friends. Rereading their correspondence and finding other coeval documents, the author reconstructs a scientific relation forgotten by historians. They not only discussed on air pollution, artesian wells and barometric forecast, but - more generally - favored the foundation of social medicine on epidemiology. Hence the Leibnizian contribution to the European fortune of Third Hippocrates. PMID:26946810

  18. Study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureche, Vasile; Roman, Rodica

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents the history of the study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University, from 1945 until now. Some special epochs are analyzed and the contributions of professors of astronomy at the study of astrophysics is put in evidence. The continuity of this study and the collaboration of the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University with the ``Friedrich Wilhelms'' University of Germany, in the field of astrophysics is emphasized.

  19. Jewish gynecologists in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Udo; Ludwig, Hans

    2005-10-01

    The political changes in Germany of 1933 led to discrimination, expulsion and emigration of Jewish doctors. This article addresses the memory of gynecologists who were eminent physicians or made fundamental discoveries. Short biographies of Ludwig Fraenkel, Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek, Ludwig Adler, Robert Meyer and Paul Ferdinand Strassmann highlight their work and their links to the Gynecological Society in Berlin and to the German Society of Gynecology, the foundation of the latter being inspired by Wilhelm Alexander Freund from Strasbourg. PMID:16086229

  20. Olbers studies. With three unpublished manuscripts by Olbers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaki, S. L.

    The name of Wilhelm Olbers (1758 - 1840), a physician-astronomer from Bremen, suddenly moved into the focus of cosmological awareness in the late 1940s. The first to probe into the reason of this development was the author of these studies, by a series of essays on Olbers, most of which have so far appeared only in German, and which are presented in translation here. This volume also publishes for the first time in English three papers left by Olbers in manuscript.

  1. [Bruno Bloch and his students. 1. Bruno Block memorial lecture, 8 November 1991, Zurich].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U W

    1993-05-01

    To mark the occasion of the 75th anniversary of Bruno Bloch's appointment to the Chair of Dermatology in Zurich, a commemorative lecture was established. The speaker paid tribute to his professional achievements and to the careers of some of his followers (Wilhelm Lutz, Basel; Marion B. Sulzberger, New York; Edwin Ramel, Lausanne; Hubert Jäger, Lausanne; Werner Jadassohn, Geneva; Guido Miescher, Zurich). PMID:8320121

  2. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  3. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail. PMID:3548583

  4. A fighter for Liberty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alexei

    The paper contains a biography by Ion (Ivan) K. Inculetz (Inculet)(1884-1940), a graduated from the physical-mathematical department of the Sankt-Petersburg University (1911), a secretary of the board of "Nauchnoie Obozrenie" (ed. Wilhelm Bittner), A member of the Sovet in Petrograd in 1917, the first president of the Parliament "Sfatul Tarii" of the Democratic Republic of Moldova, a minister in few Romanian Governements, a member of the Romanian Academy.

  5. A neutron scattering study of the crystal and magnetic structure of Sr2CrOsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krockenberger, Y.; Reehuis, M.; Tovar, M.; Mogare, K.; Jansen, M.; Alff, L.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, the new osmium-based ferrimagnetic double perovskite Sr2CrOsO6 has been reported to have the highest Curie temperature (˜725 K) within this material class [Y. Krockenberger, K. Mogare, M. Reehuis, M. Tovar, M. Jansen, G. Vaitheeswaran, V. Kanchana, A. Delin, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, A. Winkler, L. Alff, preprint, 2006]. Here, we report details about the crystal and magnetic structure of Sr2CrOsO6 as obtained by neutron powder diffraction.

  6. Superconducting qubits on the way to a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Frank

    2007-03-01

    generalization of cavity quantum electrodynamics effects [8].[1] M.R. Geller, E.J. Pritchett, A.T. Sornborger, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0603224 [2] A.G. Fowler, W. Thompson, Z. Yan, A.H. Majedi, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[3] R. de Sousa, K.B. Whaley, F.K. Wilhelm, and J. von Delft, Phys. Rev. Lett 95, 247006 (2005)[5] A.K. Sporl, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, S.J. Glaser, V. Bergholm, M.J. Storcz, J. Ferber, and F.K. Wilhelm quant-ph/0504202[6] P. Rebentrost, I. Serban, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, and F.K. Wilhelm, in preparation[7] M. Mariantoni, M.J. Storcz, F.K. Wilhelm, W.D. Oliver, A. Emmert, A. Marx, R. Gross, H. Christ, and E. Solano, cond-mat/0509737[8] I. Serban, E. Solano, F.K. Wilhelm, cond-mat/0606734.

  7. Impact of repeated ivermectin treatments against onchocerciasis on the transmission of loiasis: an entomologic evaluation in central Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) have been carried out since 1999 in the Lekie division (central region of Cameroon where most cases of Loa-related post ivermectin severe adverse events were reported) as part of the joined activities of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) and Mectizan® Donation Program (MDP). As large-scale administration of ivermetine was demonstrated to be an efficient means to control loiasis transmission, it was hypothesized that CDTI would have lowered or halted the transmission of Loa loa in the Lekie division after 13 years of annual drug administration, indicating a possible reduction in the occurrence of Loa-related post-ivermectin severe adverse events. Methods A 4-month entomologic study was carried out from March to June 2012 in the Lekie division to evaluate the impact of 13 years of CDTI on the transmission of L. loa whose baseline data were recorded in 1999–2000. Results There was a significant reduction in the infection rate for Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata from 6.8 and 9% in 1999–2000 to 3 and 3.6% in 2012, respectively. The differences in the infective rate (IR) (percentage of flies harboring head L3 larvae), potential infective rate (PIR) (percentage of flies bearing L3 larvae), mean head L3 larvae load (MHL3) (average L3 per infective fly) and mean fly L3 larvae load (MFL3) (average L3 per potentially infective fly) for both C. silacea and C. dimidiata were not significantly different between the two investigation periods. The biting density (BD) was almost three-fold higher in 2012 for C. silacea but not for C. dimidiata. The transmission potential (TP) which is a function of the BD, was higher in the present study than in the baseline investigation for each species. Conclusion The infection rate remaining high, the high TP and the stability observed in the IR, PIR, MHL3 and MFL3 after 13 years of CDTI suggest that transmission of L. loa is still active. This is

  8. Waste, Economists and American Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Uwe Reinhardt pointed out that sheer bureaucratic waste, particularly in the private sector, accounted for much of the extraordinarily high cost of American health-care. Last year an expert panel of the Institute of Medicine reconfirmed his point, estimating that in 2009, administrative waste accounted for $190 billion out of a total of $765 billion in various forms of waste – 31% of overall American spending on healthcare. Reinhardt recently noted a peculiar schizophrenia among American economists, simultaneously deploring this monumental waste while celebrating the contribution of healthcare, and particularly medical research, to the American economy. The apparent paradox may arise from a confusion between the meanings of “value” in economic and everyday language, and from economists' tendency to create pseudo-aggregates of diverse and non-commensurate entities. PMID:24359713

  9. Nano-JASMINE: use of AGIS for the next astrometric satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Gouda, N.; Lammers, U.

    2011-02-01

    The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The collaboration started at 2007 prompted by Uwe Lammers' proposal. In addition to similar design and operating principles of the two missions, this is possible thanks to the encapsulation of all Gaia-specific aspects of AGIS in a Parameter Database. Nano-JASMINE will be the test bench for Gaia AGIS software. We present this idea in detail and the necessary practical steps to make AGIS work with Nano-JASMINE data. We also show the key mission parameters, goals, and status of the data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE.

  10. Further comment to "Reply to Comment on impact structures in Africa: A review (Short Note)" by Reimold and Koeberl [J. Afr. Earth Sci. 100 (2014) 757-758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Rocca, M.; González-Guillot, M.; Martínez, O.; Subías, I.; Corbella, H.; Prezzi, C.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    In a Comment on Reimold and Koeberl (2014a) to JAES, Acevedo et al. (2014) claimed an impact origin for Bajada del Diablo crater-strewn field (BdD), a remote locality in Central Patagonia. Such genesis had been denied by Reimold and Koeberl (2014a), who rejected its relationship to any impact-cratering process since, in their opinion, Acevedo et al. (2009, 2012, among other papers) had not found direct evidence of impact. Neither Professor Wolf Uwe Reimold nor Professor Christian Koeberl had visited the site nor contacted us before about the nature of our investigations. It would have been nice to exchange information with these researchers, before they so strongly criticized our work, particularly when they have used, unnecessarily, quite offensive and bellicose words, which we believe we do not truly deserve.

  11. Sexing Berlin?

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Berlin has always been a literary space of extremely diverse political and cultural projections. This essay investigates why after the unification of East and West Berlin the city has been imagined as a play zone of sexual self-fulfilment by authors such as Inka Parei, Tanja Dückers, Kathrin Röggla, Judith Hermann and Julia Franck. Have such erotic adventures replaced political vision in our post-utopian decade? What is the purpose of the laboured allegorisation of the fall of the wall in Durs Grünbein's essays or in the novels of Katja Lange-Müller and Thomas Hettche? The sexification of historical and political processes recalls similar stereotypes in the East German literature of the 1980s: the metropolis as a whore in works by Heiner Müller or Wolf Biermann, but also by younger authors of the independent literary scene in Berlin like Uwe Kolbe or Frank-Wolf Matthies. PMID:21186684

  12. Evaluation of interprofessional education: lessons learned through the development and implementation of an interprofessional seminar on team communication for undergraduate health care students in Heidelberg – a project report

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah; Mahler, Cornelia; Krug, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This project report describes the development, “piloting” and evaluation of an interprofessional seminar on team communication bringing together medical students and Interprofessional Health Care B.Sc. students at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg University, Germany. Project Description: A five-member interprofessional team collaborated together on this project. Kolb’s experiential learning concept formed the theoretical foundation for the seminar, which explored three interprofessional competency areas: team work, communication and values/ethics. Evaluation for the purposes of quality assurance and future curricula development was conducted using two quantitative measures: descriptive analysis of a standardized course evaluation tool (EvaSys) ANOVA analysis of the German translation of the University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (UWE-IP-D). Results: The key finding from the standardized course evaluation was that the interprofessional seminars were rated more positively [M=2.11 (1 most positive and 5 most negative), SD=1, n=27] than the monoprofessional seminars [M=2.55, SD=0.98, n=90]. The key finding from the UWE-IP-D survey, comparing pre and post scores of the interprofessional (IP) (n=40) and monoprofessional (MP) groups (n=34), was that significant positive changes in mean scores for both groups towards communication, teamwork and interprofessional learning occurred. Conclusions: Lessons learnt included: a) recognising the benefit of being pragmatic when introducing interprofessional education initiatives, which enabled various logistical and attitudinal barriers to be overcome; b) quantitative evaluation of learning outcomes alone could not explain positive responses or potential influences of interprofessional aspects, which highlighted the need for a mixed methods approach, including qualitative methods, to enrich judgment formation on interprofessional educational outcomes. PMID:27280133

  13. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  14. Complexation studies on inositol-phosphates: IV. Ca(II) complexes of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, L; Schlewer, G; Spiess, B

    1992-01-01

    The stability constants of the complexes formed between Ca2+ and the myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) were determined by potentiometric titration in two different media and temperature conditions (medium 1: I = 0.1 M But4NBr, 25 degrees C; medium 2: I = 0.2 M KCl, 37 degrees C). Mainly because of the presence of potassium the results obtained in these media show large differences in both the nature and the stability of the complexes. In medium 1, MH2L and M2L species are formed along with the ML and MHL species which also exist in medium 2. In addition, the stability of the latter species decreases by more than one log unit in going from medium 1 to medium 2. In an attempt to assess the biological significance of the metal binding to Ins(1,4,5)P3, the results were compared to the Ca2+-ATP complexes that form in the same media conditions. Taking into account the relative stability of the complexes of both systems, it is likely that the action or metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3 may be influenced by coordination of either alkali or alkali-earth cations. PMID:1588343

  15. Elaborated 1H NMR study for the ligitional behavior of two thiosemicarbazide derivatives towards some heavy metals (Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III)), thermal, antibacterial and antifungal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-10-01

    A new series of heavy metal complexes are prepared. Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III) are the metal ions used in complexation with two thiosemicarbazide ligands. The IR and 1H NMR spectra of the free ligands display their presence in thiole-thione forms coincide with each other. The IR spectra of the complexes support the presence of 2:2 molar ratio (M:HL) with HL 1 ligand and 1:1 beside 1:2 with HL 2. The ligand coordinates as bi molecules in some complexes and displays two tautomer forms at the same complex molecule 1H NMR spectra of Sn(II) and Sb(III) complexes were done and comes coincide with IR data. The electronic spectral analysis displays a lower shift appearance in n → π* charge transfer band in most isolated complexes. As well as, a new band is shinned in visible region with Sb(III), Bi(III) complexes and Sn(II)-HL 2. This band is pointed to its use in spectrophotometric analysis for these metal ions. The TG analysis for all isolated compounds was briefly discussed. The molecular modeling parameters support the stability of thiole form of the free ligands in comparing with their thiones by a small difference. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were studied against some organisms and reveal the priority of most investigated complexes.

  16. Pinning performance of (Nd0.33Eu0.2Gd0.47)Ba2Cu3Oy single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirsa, M.; Rames, M.; Das, P.; Koblischka, M. R.; Wolf, T.; Hartmann, U.

    2008-02-01

    We present data on the flux pinning performance of a twinned (Nd0.33Eu0.2Gd0.47)Ba2Cu3Oy single crystal with a strip-like surface structure, in the temperature range 65 K to 90 K. The critical current density Jc, the pinning force density F(=BJc), and the logarithmic dynamic relaxation rate Q were determined from the magnetic hysteresis loops (MHLs) measured by vibrating sample magnetometer up to 9 Tesla. At 65 K, the MHL featured a strong second peak with the top slightly depressed by twin plane channeling. This effect continuously decreased with increasing temperature but persisted up to 84 K. The second peak decreased faster with increasing temperature than the central one. None of the Jc(B) and F(B) dependences scaled, let alone in a narrow range of T. This fact, together with the multiple linear character of the Q(B) curve, indicated a strong effect of twin channeling on the crystal's pinning performance. No special effect due to the strip-like structure was recognized.

  17. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies of Trivalent f -element Complexation with Ethylenediamine- N,N '-di(acetylglycine)- N,N '-diacetic Acid

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heathman, Colt R.; Grimes, Travis S.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2016-03-21

    In this study, the coordination behavior and thermodynamic features of complexation of trivalent lanthanides and americium by ethylenediamine-N,N'-di(acetylglycine)-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDAG-DA) (bisamide-substituted-EDTA) were investigated by potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. Acid dissociation constants (Ka) and complexation constants (β) of lanthanides (except Pm) were determined by potentiometric analysis. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine stability constants for the binding of trivalent americium and neodymium by EDDAG-DA under similar conditions. The potentiometry revealed 5 discernible protonation constants and 3 distinct metal–ligand complexes (identified as ML–, MHL, and MH2L+). Time-resolved fluorescence studies of Eu-(EDDAG-DA) solutions (at varying pH) identified a constant inner-sphere hydration number ofmore » 3, suggesting that glycine functionalities contained in the amide pendant arms are not involved in metal complexation and are protonated under more acidic conditions. The thermodynamic studies identified that f-element coordination by EDDAG-DA is similar to that observed for ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). However, coordination via two amidic oxygens of EDDAG-DA lowers its trivalent f-element complex stability by roughly 3 orders of magnitude relative to EDTA.« less

  18. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Pérezprina, Juan Cristóbal; León-Galván, Miguel Ángel; Konigsberg, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”). The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others. PMID:23213348

  19. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299. PMID:27018529

  20. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies of Trivalent f-element Complexation with Ethylenediamine-N,N'-di(acetylglycine)-N,N'-diacetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Heathman, Colt R; Grimes, Travis S; Zalupski, Peter R

    2016-03-21

    The coordination behavior and thermodynamic features of complexation of trivalent lanthanides and americium by ethylenediamine-N,N'-di(acetylglycine)-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDAG-DA) (bisamide-substituted-EDTA) were investigated by potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. Acid dissociation constants (K(a)) and complexation constants (β) of lanthanides (except Pm) were determined by potentiometric analysis. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine stability constants for the binding of trivalent americium and neodymium by EDDAG-DA under similar conditions. The potentiometry revealed 5 discernible protonation constants and 3 distinct metal-ligand complexes (identified as ML(-), MHL, and MH2L(+)). Time-resolved fluorescence studies of Eu-(EDDAG-DA) solutions (at varying pH) identified a constant inner-sphere hydration number of 3, suggesting that glycine functionalities contained in the amide pendant arms are not involved in metal complexation and are protonated under more acidic conditions. The thermodynamic studies identified that f-element coordination by EDDAG-DA is similar to that observed for ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). However, coordination via two amidic oxygens of EDDAG-DA lowers its trivalent f-element complex stability by roughly 3 orders of magnitude relative to EDTA. PMID:26930023

  1. [An internist for psychiatry: Carl August Wunderlich (1815 - 1877)].

    PubMed

    Tölle, R

    2012-10-01

    In 19th century Germany C. A. Wunderlich (1815 - 1877) was one of the most important specialists of internal medicine. In addition he was receptive and alive to psychiatry. He translated an important book and held a lecture on psychiatry. He helped his friend Wilhelm Griesinger in the foundation of zhis career and later published his works. Wunderlich brought forward the principal of "clinical method" in medicine in general and particularly in psychiatry. Wunderlich rendered outstanding services to the development of psychiatry in the 19th century. PMID:22890439

  2. Geologic Map of Part of the Western Hellas Planitia, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Wilhelms, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Rock units were deposited on Mars by meteorite impact, volcanism, wind, flowing water, standing water, and ice, acting separately or in concert. Hellas Planitia, the deepest tract on Mars, is a broad depression lying within the high-rimmed, approximately 2,300-km-wide Hellas impact basin. The basin and the planitia are centered about 250 km east of the southeast corner of the map area. Like other stratigraphy-based planetary mapping (Wilhelms, 1990), we suggest the most likely origins for age relations and morphologies visible in the map area.

  3. The photographers of the Venus transit of 1874 (German Title: Die Photographen des Venusdurchgangs von 1874)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Apart from the photo-pioneer Hermann Krone from Dresden, little is known about the photographers who took part in the German expeditions for the observation of the Venus transit of 1874. We give a short overview of the photographic methods and instruments employed at that time, present biographic details about O. Eschke, G. Fritsch, C. Kardaetz. F. Stolze, Th. Studer and G. Wolfram, give some details on the expeditions and their final destinations, and show a few rare photographic documents. We also give a transcription of the letters of G. Fritsch written to Wilhelm Foerster in the course of the Persian expedition.

  4. Reform in the garden.

    PubMed

    Wise, M Norton; Wise, Elaine M

    2002-12-01

    English gardens powered by steam engines offer an intriguing view of how technological and scientific progress was naturalized in the landscape of 19th-century Prussia, and in Prussian culture, during the early years of industrial modernization. One such garden is Peacock Island, in the Havel River near Potsdam. A product of the reform era that preceded and followed the Napoleonic Wars, it expressed the goal of Friedrich Wilhelm III and his government to enter into the British system of factory production and world trade. Modern science, as represented especially by Alexander von Humboldt, played a prominent role. PMID:12535923

  5. [The I.G. Farben laboratory at the Günzburg mental hospital. Epilepsy research during the NS-regime and the postwar period].

    PubMed

    Söhner, Felicitas; Winckelmann, Hans-Joachim; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities of the I.G. Farben laboratory at the former "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" Günzburg. This laboratory was established to test the newly developed epilepsy drug "Citrullamon" and its derivatives. Specifically, the type and manner of the various experiments were examined to determine whether the suspicions of unethical human experimentation could be identified. The commercial and medical activities between I.G. Farben and the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt, including the specific roles of the senior physician Wilhelm Leinisch and the I.G. Farben chemist Arno Grosse, are reviewed. PMID:26536788

  6. Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.

    1973-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A. PMID:4795527

  7. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    PubMed

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated. PMID:8455869

  8. Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, J. Randolph

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

  9. ["I would like to so much--but then also; but, but--!!!"--torment of a private lecturer at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bettin, H; Friedrich, C

    2000-01-01

    The biography of Carl Friedrich August Theodor Kastner (1797-after 1841), the brother of the famous chemist and teacher of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857), is an interesting example of the difficult situation of outside lecturers at the universities in the first half of the 19th century; a big group of scientists, which are absolutely underrepresented in the source material and in the historiography too. This paper tries to show the facts and the backgrounds for the problems in the career of outside lecturers. PMID:11305171

  10. [The Malady of Emperor Frederick III. and Virchow's diagnostic role].

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Crownprince Frederick Wilhelm of Prussia was once the hope of the liberal movement in Germany. He embodied and lived a humanistic ideal based on the spirit of the enlightenment. Starting in January 1887 the passionate pipe smoker suffered on an unusual long hoarseness. A polyp of the vocal cord was diagnosed. Although this diagnosis seemed harmless, an odyssee was launched that made history. Rudolf Virchow-the foremost pathologist of that time-was involved in the following histological diagnosis. His role and that of the sprouting histopathology will be presented in this essay. PMID:25925224

  11. Vienna University Observatory and Bruno Thüring (German Title: Die Wiener Universitätssternwarte und Bruno Thüring )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, Franz; Posch, Thomas; Lackner, Karin

    We investigate Bruno Thüring's political attitude during the time of National Socialism, based on material from the Vienna Observatory archive, and on statements by his contemporaries. The contribution focuses on the filling of astronomy positions in Vienna, and also on the expulsion of Kasimir Graff. A central role is played by Wilhelm Führer, Obersturmführer der Waffen-SS (Senior Storm Leader of the Armed Protection Squad) and chief civil servant in the Reich science ministry. The transcription of an original letter of 1939 by Führer, addressed to Thüring, is given.

  12. Bach and His.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Wyn

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail. PMID:24405850

  13. LSWAVE 2000: Lasers and short-wavelength applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, W.

    2001-07-01

    LSWAVE 2000 was organized as a Satellite Workshop to the Seventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI 2000. It was held on Saturday, August 26, 2000, at the Technische Universität Berlin, and was jointly organized by the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Technical University Berlin (TUB). The organizing committee consisted of Wilhelm Raith (chairman), Wolfgang Sandner, Ingolf Hertel, Manfred Wick, Bernd Winter, Tatjana Gießel, Holger Stiel, Ingo Will, Ursula Bayr (secretary) and Silvia Szlapka (secretary). Continuing information on the Workshop and its proceedings may be found under http://www.mbi-berlin.de/lswave2000/.

  14. On an early proposal for a unified system of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present SI system, the units of length and time are related by defining the speed of light as exactly 299,792,458 m/s. In 1857, Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch proposed a system of units in which the units of length and time were also related by defining a speed, although not the speed of light. The system was extended to include a unit of mass. The Weber-Kohlrausch system was impractical and was apparently never adopted. Nevertheless, it remains of historical interest as an early attempt at a systematic treatment of physical units.

  15. Wundt, Vygotsky and Bandura: a cultural-historical science of consciousness in three acts.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michel; Robinson, David K; Yasnitsky, Anton

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at three historical efforts to coordinate the scientific study of biological and cultural aspects of human consciousness into a single comprehensive theory of human development that includes the evolution of the human body, cultural evolution and personal development: specifically, the research programs of Wilhelm Wundt, Lev Vygotsky and Albert Bandura. The lack of historical relations between these similar efforts is striking, and suggests that the effort to promote cultural and personal sources of consciousness arises as a natural foil to an overemphasis on the biological basis of consciousness, sometimes associated with biological determinism. PMID:21033206

  16. Recent notes on Tycho Brahe's library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    Wilhelm Norlind lists 216 books presumed to have been in Tycho's library, but the actual count must have been much higher. The largest block of surviving books are in the Clementinum in Prague, just over 50 volumes but nearly 100 titles. Tycho tried to acquire books in many ways, and particularly by buying the library of Paul Wittich after the death of this one-time visitor to Hven. This talk will also describe two annotated volumes from Tycho's library that have recently come onto the antiquarian market: Apianus' Astronomicum Caesareum (Ingolstadt, 1540) and Cornelius Gemma's De naturae divinis characterismis (Antwerp, 1575).

  17. A Special Sort of Forgetting: Negation in Freud and Augustine.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The development from a positive, dualistic theory of memory and forgetting to a concept of memory that includes forgetting as a variety of remembering is traced in two thinkers. Freud's concept of repression is discussed as a complex negation of both remembering and forgetting, and the development of this construct is shown in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess. A close reading of Augustine of Hippo's Confessions shows a similar concept of a special sort of forgetting, in which what is forgotten is remembered nonetheless. Finally, the limits of the comparison are discussed, and a reading of Freud's "Negation" reveals ways in which the unconscious is fundamentally unlike Augustine's interiority. PMID:27009296

  18. On first looking into auriculo-ventricular asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2010-05-01

    Walter Gaskell's demonstration in 1882 that it was possible to block the passage of contraction from auricle to ventricle in the frog heart by means of a clamp spurred Joseph Erlanger (1906) to prevent, by similar means, impulse conduction through the bundle of (Wilhelm) His jun. (1893) in the mammalian heart. With a miniaturized polygraph to record the jugular and arterial pulsation, James Mackenzie (1902) displayed various grades of heart block in the human heart. His results were confirmed by Thomas Lewis using Willem Einthoven's (1903) ECG in 1911. But without instrumental help, Robert Spittal (1804-1852) recounted a case of reversible auriculo-ventricular block in 1830. PMID:20180919

  19. Exploring the brain, looking for thoughts: on Asimov's second Fantastic Voyage.

    PubMed

    Cassou-Noguès, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate various concerns which appear in Isaac Asimov's Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain. I will disregard his first voyage inside a human body in Fantastic Voyage I, which the author disavows as not being his own work. In contrast, the second voyage is intricate, suggesting problems drawn from a variety of sources. In a nutshell, Asimov's explorers enter the body of a comatose man in order to read his thoughts. The story can be related both to philosophical thought-experiments, such as those of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and of Herbert Feigl, as well as to personal anxieties peculiar to Asimov. PMID:21936209

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Granada, Miguel A; Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st 1584, and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors. PMID:25942771

  1. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him. PMID:26104166

  2. Understanding and Explanation in France: From Maine de Biran's Méthode Psychologique to Durkheim's Les Formes Élémentaires de la vie Religieuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaus, Warren

    My task here is to compare the ways in which the relations between the human and the natural sciences were conceived in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France and Germany. Historical generalization may be a mug's game. But if I had to generalize, I would say that the French distinguished the human or cultural sciences from the natural sciences only in terms of their subject matters, while the Germans were more likely to try to distinguish them in terms of their goals, methods, foundations, and normative content as well. Although we may be able to find many philosophical positions among the French that resemble certain aspects of the thought of Wilhelm Dilthey, Wilhelm Windelband, or Heinrich Rickert, no one in France held exactly the same combination of philosophical views concerning the human sciences as that held by any of these German thinkers. In particular, no one in France tried to distinguish the human from the natural sciences in terms of understanding versus explanation in the way that Dilthey did. Thus, although there were other disputes in France in regard to the human sciences, such as that between Émile Durkheim and Gabriel Tarde over the role of psychology in sociological explanation, or that between sociologists and philosophers over the methods of ethics, there was no controversy analogous to the conflict among Dilthey, Windelband, and Rickert over the best way to distinguish the human from the natural sciences.

  3. A Diversity of Divisions: Tracing the History of the Demarcation between the Sciences and the Humanities.

    PubMed

    Bouterse, Jeroen; Karstens, Bart

    2015-06-01

    Throughout history, divides between the sciences and the humanities have been drawn in many different ways. This essay shows that the notion of a divide became more urgent and pronounced in the second half of the nineteenth century. While this shift has several causes, the essay focuses on the rise of the social sciences, which is interpreted as posing a profound challenge to the established disciplines of the study of humankind. This is demonstrated by zooming in on linguistics, one of the key traditional disciplines of the humanities. Through the assumption of a correspondence between mental and linguistic categories, psychology became of central importance in the various conceptions of linguistics that emerged in the nineteenth century. Both linguistics and psychology were very much engaged in a process of discipline formation, and opinions about the proper directions of the fields varied considerably. Debates on these issues catalyzed the construction of more radical divisions between the sciences and the humanities. Both Wilhelm Dilthey's dichotomy between understanding and explanation and Wilhelm Windelband's dichotomy between nomothetic and idiographic sciences respond to these debates. While their constructions are often lumped together, the essay shows that they actually meant very different things and have to be treated accordingly. PMID:26353439

  4. The place of the 17th century in Jung's encounter with China.

    PubMed

    Cambray, Joe

    2005-04-01

    After recounting several dreams and related alchemical interests of Jung's tied to the 17(th) century, a contextualizing look at select scientific and philosophical developments of that century is presented. Several precursors of the contemporary debates on the mind/body relation are noted, with special reference to the work of Antonio Damasio. This in turn leads to a reconsideration of the work of the 17(th) century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Jung read as a major precursor to his formulation of synchronicity (via Leibniz's concept of 'pre-established harmony'). Leibniz was the first philosopher to articulate the mind/body relationship in terms of supervenience, sharing an accord with those contemporary philosophers and scientists who see the mind as being an emergent property of the body-brain. Similarly, these ideas are also consistent with a reformulation of synchronicity in terms of emergence. Tracing Leibniz's interest in China reveals another set of links to Jung and to emergentism. Jung's use of Taoist concepts in developing the synchronicity principle is well known. According to scholars, Leibniz was the first major Western intellect to study the I-Ching, through the assistance of a Jesuit missionary in Beijing, Fr. Joachim Bouvet. Some details of the Leibniz-Bouvet correspondence are discussed here. Despite Helmut Wilhelm's presenting aspects of this correspondence at an Eranos conference, Jung does not appear to have integrated it into his writing on synchronicity--a possible reason for this omission is suggested. PMID:15817042

  5. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    For the meeting of the AAS/SPD in Albuquerque, NM, I organized a Topical Session of the AAS on Structure and Dynamics of Chromospheres. The grant support was used to bring to the US two of the speakers from abroad. I had invited them for presentations at the Session: Dr. Klaus Wilhelm, the former PI of the SUMER instrument on SOHO, from the Max-Planck Institut in Lindau, Germany, and Dr. Sirajul Hasan, from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore, India. Both speakers preceded their trip to the AAS meeting with a stay at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, where they interacted with members of the Solar and Stellar Physics division. The highlights of the visits were the talks at the AAS/SPD meeting, in which six invited speakers told the audience of astronomers about current problems in solar physics and their relation to stellar problems. An important result of the visits is a paper by Dr. Wilhelm and me on 'Observations of the upper solar chromosphere with SUMER on SOHO', which has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics for publication.

  6. BepiColombo mission to be presented to the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    After a competitive phase started in 2001, ESA has awarded Astrium the prime contract to build BepiColombo. The contract signature ceremony will take place in presence of the Prime Minister of Baden Württemberg (Germany), Dr. Guenther Oettinger, and will mark the kick-off of the industrial development of the spacecraft. BepiColombo will be launched in 2013. It consists of two spacecraft - an orbiter for planetary investigation, led by ESA, and one for magnetospheric studies, led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The satellite duo will reach Mercury in 2019 after a six-year journey towards the inner Solar System, to make the most extensive and detailed study of Mercury ever attempted. The press event will feature a thorough presentation of the mission and its objectives, as well as the technical challenges that Astrium will have to address. Such challenges derive from the difficulty of reaching, surviving and operating in the harsh environment of a planet so close to Sun, making of BepiColombo one of the most complex long-term planetary projects undertaken by ESA so far. Media interested to attend are invited to register by the reply form attached below. Visit of Prime Minister Guenther Oettinger and BepiColombo Contract Signature Event programme 18 January 2008, h 10:30 Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany Claude-Dornier-Straße, 88090 Immenstaad Building 8, Room "Meersburg" 10:30 Check-in 11:00 Welcome and introduction, Uwe Minne, Astrium, Director of Earth Observation and Science, Head of Friedrichshafen Site 11:05 BepiColombo in the context of the ESA Science Programme, Jacques Louet, ESA Head of Science Projects Departments 11:10 BepiColombo's scientific objectives, Johannes Benkhoff, ESA, BepiColombo Project Scientist 11:20 The BepiColombo mission, Jan van Casteren, ESA, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:30 BepiColombo's technical challenges, Rainer Best, Astrium, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:40 Q&A 12:00 Buffet lunch 13:00 Arrival of Prime

  7. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Zubiaga, Fernando; Cereceda, Maria; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Trenc, Patricia; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare professionals report high levels of distress and burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to differentiate three clinical subtypes: ‘frenetic’, ‘underchallenged’ and ‘worn-out’. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion construct as a possible protective factor. Method The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of n = 440 Spanish primary healthcare professionals (214 general practitioners, 184 nurses, 42 medical residents) completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36), the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The factor structure of the BCSQ-36 was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Internal consistency (R) was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variables. The relationships between the BCSQ-36 and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman’s r and multiple linear regression models. Results The structure of the BCSQ-36 fit the data well, with adequate CFA indices for all the burnout subtypes. Reliability was adequate for all the scales and sub-scales (R≥0.75). Self-judgement was the self-compassion factor that explained the frenetic subtype (Beta = 0.36; p<0.001); isolation explained the underchallenged (Beta = 0.16; p = 0.010); and over-identification the worn-out (Beta = 0.25; p = 0.001). Other significant associations were observed between the different burnout subtypes and the dimensions of the MBI-GS, UWES and PANAS. Conclusions The typological definition of burnout through the BCSQ-36 showed good structure and appropriate internal consistence

  8. Thermodynamics of lanthanide and uranyl complexes with tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA).

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, L. R.; Nash, K. L.; Tennessee Technological Univ.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the thermochemistry of the complexation of La{sup 3+} Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA). This predisposed structural analog to oxydiacetic acid (ODA) has been previously shown both to exhibit greater sensitivity to lanthanide cation radius than complexes with the unconstrained ODA and to form anomalously weak complexes with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Our purpose is to interpret these observations in terms of the balance between enthalpy and entropy contributions to the overall complexation thermodynamics. Enthalpies have been calculated from titration calorimetry experiments both for the protonation of the free ligand and for the formation of selected 1:1 and 1:2 complexes in pH 2-3 acidic media (I = 0.1 M). The complexation entropies for the lanthanide complexes have been calculated using the previously reported stability constants for the MH{sub 2}L{sup +}, MHL, and M(H{sub 2}L){sup 2-}. The stability constants for the uranyl complexes have been determined by potentiometric titration and these values used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters. Complexation enthalpies for the 1:1 lanthanide-THFTCA complexes (MH{sub 2}L{sup +} species) are nearly identical to those of the lanthanide ODA complexes. Therefore, the size-selectivity observed in the lanthanide-THFTCA complexes arises from the complexation entropy. The comparative weakness of the uranyl complexes with THFTCA also is accounted for thermodynamically in the entropy term. Calculations based on an electrostatic model for complexation entropy and molecular mechanics modeling are used to help interpret the experimental results.

  9. An evaluation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory instruction on middle school students' concept attainment and attitudes towards computer-based instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osio, Sergio Albina

    The advent of instructional technology has become an integral part of the learning process, thought by many to be a vital component in the reform of science instruction. Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) is an instructional technology environment in which a computer is connected through its Universal Serial Box (USB) port or an interface (for older models) with sensors to control the experiment, collect data, and generate and interpret graphs. In this study, MBL tools and instructions were used to design an instructional program that integrated ideas in teaching thinking skills so that middle school students from varying levels of differentiated achievement could categorize and create concepts grounded on the Concept Attainment Model of teaching. Data were collected and analyzed based on the procedures of a one-group pretest-posttest experimental design and two research questions. The study provided a quantitative correlation of variables such as MBL to students' pretest-posttest total scores; pretest-posttest total scores to the levels of differentiated achievement and treatment groups. Likewise, a modified student-computer-attitude survey was administered to evaluate students' attitude toward the use of computer technologies. The research findings revealed a 9.1% increase in test scores in the three concepts of investigation; multiple increases in test scores in the three levels of differentiated achievement (22.2% for regular science group, 6.2% for accelerated science group students, and 1% for sheltered science group); and 11.1% mean difference between the MHL group and traditional laboratory group. Simultaneously, participants showed a positive significance of 77% feeling of comfort and confidence towards the use of computer technologies. Eventually, the great potential of MBL technology could play an important role in the reform of science education in the schools of the second largest Unified School District in the country today.

  10. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    B. STRIETELMEIR; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 {micro}M perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system.

  11. Genome Sequence of Rickettsia bellii Illuminates the Role of Amoebae in Gene Exchanges between Intracellular Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Hiroyuki; La Scola, Bernard; Audic, Stéphane; Renesto, Patricia; Blanc, Guillaume; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The recently sequenced Rickettsia felis genome revealed an unexpected plasmid carrying several genes usually associated with DNA transfer, suggesting that ancestral rickettsiae might have been endowed with a conjugation apparatus. Here we present the genome sequence of Rickettsia bellii, the earliest diverging species of known rickettsiae. The 1,552,076 base pair–long chromosome does not exhibit the colinearity observed between other rickettsia genomes, and encodes a complete set of putative conjugal DNA transfer genes most similar to homologues found in Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, an obligate symbiont of amoebae. The genome exhibits many other genes highly similar to homologues in intracellular bacteria of amoebae. We sought and observed sex pili-like cell surface appendages for R. bellii. We also found that R. bellii very efficiently multiplies in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and survives in the phagocytic amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. These results suggest that amoeba-like ancestral protozoa could have served as a genetic “melting pot” where the ancestors of rickettsiae and other bacteria promiscuously exchanged genes, eventually leading to their adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle within eukaryotic cells. PMID:16703114

  12. Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the empirical distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement by examining their relationships with well-being in a sample of 776 Japanese employees. We expected that workaholism is associated with unwell-being (i.e., high psychological distress and physical complaints, low job and family satisfaction, and low job performance), whereas work engagement is associated with well-being. Well-validated questionnaires were used to measure workaholism (DUWAS), work engagement (UWES), and well-being (BJSQ, HPQ). Structural Equation Modeling showed that, as expected, workaholism was positively associated with ill-health (i.e., psychological distress and physical complaints) and negatively associated with life satisfaction (i.e., job and family satisfaction) and job performance. In contrast, work engagement was negatively associated with ill-health and positively associated with life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts, which are negatively and positively related to various indicators of well-being, respectively. PMID:19834258

  13. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9) and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339) and the Netherlands (N = 13,406). Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement) based the test information function (TIF) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information) among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees. PMID:21054839

  14. Satellite Hyperspectral Imaging Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Stanley, Tom; Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong; Gasser, Jerry; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Stanley, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Simulations of generic pushbroom satellite hyperspetral sensors have been performed to evaluate the potential performance and validation techniques for satellite systems such as COIS (NEMO), Warfighter-1 (OrbView-4), and Hyperion (EO-1). The simulaitons start with a generation of synthetic scenes form material maps of studied terrain. Scene-reflected radiance is corrected for atmospheric effects and convolved with sensor spectral response uwing MODTRAN 4 radiance and transmission calculations. Scene images are further convolved with point spread functions derived from Optical Transfer Functions (OTF's) of the sensor system. Photon noise and detector/electronics noise are added to the simulated images, which are also finally quantized to the sensor bit resolution. Studied scenes include bridges and straight roads used for evaluation of sensor spatial resolution, as well as fields of minerals, vegetation, and manmade materials used for evaluation of sensor radiometric response and sensitivity. The scenes are simulated with various seasons and weather conditions. Signal-to-noise ratos and expected performance are estimated for typica satellite system specifications and are discussed for all the scenes.

  15. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  16. Enhanced magneto-ionic switching of interface anisotropy in Pt/Co/GdOx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Aik Jun; Mann, Max; Bauer, Uwe; Beach, Geoffrey

    Voltage control of magnetic anisotropy is of great interest for reducing the switching energy barrier in spintronic devices. It has recently been shown that electric field-driven oxygen ion migration near the interface of ferromagnet/oxide bilayers can lead to very large changes in magnetic anisotropy at elevated temperature. Here, we examine magneto-ionic switching in ultrathin Pt(3nm)/Co(0.9nm)/GdOx(tox) /Au(tAu) films with perpendicular anisotropy, in which the GdOx layer and gate structure are optimized for efficient room-temperature oxygen conduction. We study voltage-induced switching dynamics as a function of the GdOx stoichiometry and the thickness of the Au gate layer. We find that for optimally oxidized GdOx, a positive bias voltage applied to the Au electrode results in a transition from PMA to in-plane magnetization, and at zero bias, the PMA spontaneously returns. The rate of this transition depends on the thickness of the Au gate which suggests that the rate-limiting step is removal and reintroduction of oxygen by gate voltage. This toggling of PMA under positive bias does not require oxidation of the Co layer, in contrast to earlier work by Uwe et al . We demonstrate that by optimizing the electrode materials, extremely fast room-temperature switching can be achieved in these devices.

  17. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  18. How Einstein made asymmetry disappear: symmetry and relativity in 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Giora; Goldstein, Bernard R.

    2005-07-01

    Contents: I. Introduction II. Einstein's usages of the term symmetry in 1905 1. The dissertation (April 1905) Case 1: isotropy Case 2: analogy Case 3: geometrical usage 2. "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (June 1905) Case 1: indifference Case 2: two algebraic usages Case 3: physical usage Case 4: algebraic usage Case 5: rejecting asymmetry 3. The central claim: making asymmetry disappear by appealing to a physical argument 4. Conclusion III. Background. The term symmetry and its "relatives": duality, parallelism, and reciprocity 1. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) 2. Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) 3. August Föppl (1854-1924) 4. Emil Wiechert (1861-1928) 5. Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) 6. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) 7. Summary

  19. Mars water discoveries - implications for finding ancient and current life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There is some wonderful synchronicity right now for those interested in the search for water and life on Mars. Foremost is the recent announcement by NASA and the publication of a study using spectral imaging which definitively proves that there is seasonal, flowing briny water at a number of locations on Mars (see Fig. 1) (Ojha et al., 2015). This caps some 15 years of accumulating evidence that what was previously considered impossible is actually occurring on the Red Planet. "Water is essential to life as we know it," write Lujendra Ojha, Mary Beth Wilhelm, and their co-authors. "The presence of liquid water on Mars today has astrobiological, geologic, and hydrologic implications and may affect future human exploration".

  20. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen W.; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  1. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  2. Images and Meaning-Making in a World of Resemblance: The Bavarian-Saxon Kidney Stone Affair of 1580

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article de-constructs and re-constructs the dynamic of a sixteenth-century political dispute between the Catholic Bavarian Duke Wilhelm V and the Protestant Saxon Elector August I. By focusing on the visual imagery which ignited the dispute, the paper explores sixteenth-century ‘ways of seeing’ and the epistemic role realistic images played in the production of knowledge about the natural world. While the peculiar dynamic of the affair is based on a specific understanding of the evidential role of images, the paper also argues that the wider socio-cultural context, in particular certain strategies of truth-telling, provide further clues as to the dynamic and closure of the affair. PMID:26290618

  3. Gauß' Theoria motus: Entstehung, Quellen, Rezeption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, K.

    Die Entstehung von Gauß' Theoria motus steht in engem Zusammenhang mit den Ereignissen der Jahre 1801 und 1802: Giuseppe Piazzi hatte erstmals die Ceres beobachtet; diese konnte auf Grund der Berechnungen von Gauß um die Jahreswende 1801/2 sowohl von Franz Xaver von Zach als auch von Wilhelm Olbers wiederentdeckt werden. Gauß hatte seine Theoria motus auf der Basis der Keplerschen Gesetze, als Zweikörperproblem, behandelt. Er war sich aber sehr wohl darüber im klaren, daß diese Betrachtungsweise nur Bahnen liefern würde, die nur für relativ kurze Zeit mit den Beobachtungen übereinstimmen würden. Um den so errechneten Bahnen dennoch eine länger währende Gültigkeit zu ermöglichen, berücksichtigte er im letzten Kapitel seiner Theoria motus die unweigerlich auftretenden Störungen.

  4. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  5. A triboelectric closed loop band system for the generation of x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cleve, E.; Lucas, B.; Ganlieli, Z.; Wong, E. W.; Cortes, P.; Mehta, N.; Cuadra, D.; Fong, J.; Hansen, S.; Kotowski, A.; Camara, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    X-ray have been commercially produced using the same basic design since their discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, for which he was awarded the first Nobel prize in physics. This technology requires high voltage elements, ultra high vacuum tubes, and high voltage electronics. The vacuum and high voltage drive up the price of x-ray technology and in order to bring down the cost, a brand new way to produce x-rays is needed. In 2008 Carlos Camara, Juan Escobar, Jonathan R. Hird, and Seth Putterman1 discovered that by pealing scotch tape in a vacuum you could create enough x-rays to take an x-ray radiograph of a finger. This lead to the formation of Tribogenics and the development of the rod and band x-ray architecture.

  6. [The brain anatomy reflected in the first 50 volumes of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, H

    1981-01-01

    On the occasion of the edition of the 150th volume of the Anatomischer Anzeiger a survey is given on some important papers in neuroanatomy and especially brain research, published in the first 50 volumes of this journal. Such excellent workers in neuroscience as Albert Koelliker, Wilhelm His, Camillo Golgi, Carl Weigert, Aleksander Dogiel,Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Ludwig Edinger, Ferdinand Hochstetter, Fridtjof Nansen, Adolf Wallenberg, Theodor Ziehen, Stephan von Apáthy, Michael von Lenhossék, Gheorghe Marinesco, Korbinian Brodmann, Max Bielschowsky, Oskar Vogt, Grafton Elliot Smith, Giuseppe Levi, Cornelius Ariëns Kappers and many others are contributors to the Anatomischer Anzeiger during the first 32 years of its existence (1886-1918). In particular the long-lasting struggle for a general acceptance of the "neurone doctrine" (Neurohenlehre) is reflected by the Anatomischer Anzeiger before and after the turn of century. PMID:7030138

  7. [Oskar Vogt (1870-1959). Hypnotist and brain researcher, husband of Cecile Vogt (1875-1962)].

    PubMed

    V Stuckrad-Barre, S; Danek, A

    2004-10-01

    Oskar Vogt (1870-1955) and his wife Cecile (1875-1962) were neurologists and neuroanatomists with a strong interest in the cytoarchitectonics and myeloarchitectonics of the brain and in the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. In the 1920s, Vogt created a multi-disciplinary brain research institute, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fur Hirnforschung in Berlin-Buch, with divisions for e.g. neuroanatomy, neurohistology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and genetics. Oskar Vogt's scientific activities are discussed briefly with special regard to his former co-worker Brodmann. After being dismissed from office by the Nazi government in 1937, the Vogts continued their work in a privately funded institute in Neustadt, in the Black Forest. PMID:15300318

  8. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  9. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

  10. The Lettau-Schwerdtfeger Balloon Experiment: Measurement of Turbulence via Austausch Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.

    1997-11-01

    In the early 1930s, Heinz Lettau and Werner Schwerdtfeger made direct measurements of air motion in the lowest 4 km of the troposphere by using the manned free balloon as an instrumented platform. The experiment was motivated by Wilhelm Schmidt's and Ludwig Prandtl's work on Austausch (exchange) theory in the second and third decades of the twentieth century. As a prelude to investigating the Lettau-Schwerdtfeger experiment, historical developments that had bearing on the field program are reviewed. Following this review, the experiment is analyzed by 1) documenting the scientific goals, 2) discussing the strategy for data collection, 3) examining one flight in detail (the flight of 25 February 1934), and 4) summarizing results from the experiment. The paper ends with a retrospective view of Austausch theory.