Sample records for mibk

  1. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ( MIBK ) ; CASRN 108 - 10 - 1 ; Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  2. Safety assessment of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone).


    Johnson, Wilbur


    MIBK (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone) is an aliphatic ketone that functions as both a denaturant and solvent in cosmetic products. Current use in cosmetic products is very limited, but MIBK is reported to be used in one nail correction pen (volume = 3 ml) at a concentration of 21%. The maximum percutaneous absorption rate in guinea pigs is 1.1 micromol/min/cm2 at 10 to 45 min. Metabolites include 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (oxidation product) and 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4-MPOL) (reduction product). Values for the serum half-life and total clearance time of MIBK in animals were 66 min and 6 h, respectively. In clinical tests, most of the absorbed MIBK had been eliminated from the body 90 min post exposure. MIBK was not toxic via the oral or dermal route of exposure in acute, short-term, or subchronic animal studies, except that nephrotoxicity was observed in rats dosed with 1 g/kg in a short-term study. MIBK was an ocular and skin irritant in animal tests. Ocular irritation was noted in 12 volunteers exposed to 200 ppm MIBK for 15 min in a clinical test. A depression of the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex was seen with intravenous infusion of MIBK (in an emulsion) at 30 microM/kg/min in female rats. The no-observed-effect level in rats exposed orally to MIBK was 50 mg/kg. Both gross and microscopic evidence of lung damage were reported in acute inhalation toxicity studies in animals. Short-term and subchronic inhalation exposures (as low as 100 ppm) produced effects in the kidney and liver that were species and sex dependent. Dermal doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg for 4 months in rats produced reduced mitotic activity in hair follicles, increased thickness of horny and granular cell layers of the epidermis, a decrease in the number of reactive centers in follicles (spleen), an increase in the number of iron-containing pigments in the area of the red pulp (spleen), and a reduction in the lipid content of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands. Neuropathological changes in the most distal portions of the tibial and ulnar nerves were observed in young adult rats which inhaled 1500 ppm MIBK for up to 5 months. No adverse effects were seen in any other neurological end point by any route of exposure in other studies using rats or other animal species. Clinical tests demonstrated a threshold for MIBK-induced irritation of the lungs at 0.03 to 0.1 mg/L after 1 min of respiration. MIBK was not mutagenic in the Ames test or in a mitotic gene-conversion assay in bacteria. Mammalian mutagenicity test results were also negative in the following assays: mouse lymphoma, unscheduled DNA synthesis, micronucleus, cell transformation, and chromosome damage. MIBK did not induce any treatment-related increases in embryotoxicity or fetal malformations in pregnant Fischer 344 rats or CD-1 mice that inhaled MIBK at concentrations of 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm. There was evidence of treatment-related maternal toxicity only at the highest concentration tested. MIBK applied to the tail of rats daily at doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg for 4 months produced changes in the testes, including a reduction in the number of spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. An ongoing carcinogenicity study of MIBK being conducted by the National Toxicology Program will be considered when the results are available. On the basis of the information that is currently available, MIBK is considered safe as used in nail polish removers and as an alcohol denaturant in cosmetic products. PMID:15162837

  3. Biofiltration for removal of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK): experimental studies and kinetic modelling.


    Raghuvanshi, Smita; Babu, B V


    The present study deals with the biofiltration of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), which is considered to be a highly toxic volatile organic compound. It is released from the paint and petrochemical industries and is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The biofiltration study was carried out on a lab scale for two months in the presence of acclimated mixed culture. The performance of the biofilter column was evaluated for different inlet loads of MIBK at air flow rates ranging from 0.18 to 0.3 m3 h(-1). The maximum removal efficiency of 93% was obtained after 60 days of biofilter operation for an inlet MIBK concentration of 0.45 g m(-3), and a microbial concentration of 2.36 x 10(8) CFU g(-1) of packing material was obtained. This led to a study of shock loadings for 20 days, by varying the inlet MIBK load and air flow rate after every five days, to observe the behaviour of the biofilter column in removing sudden loads of MIBK. The biokinetic constants r(max) and Ks were obtained using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and were found to be 1.046 g m(-3) and 0.115 g m(-3) h(-1),respectively, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.993. The obtained experimental results were validated with the Ottengraf and Van den Oever kinetic model. The critical inlet concentration, critical inlet load and biofilm thickness were also estimated using the results obtained from the model predictions. PMID:20232676

  4. [¹⁴C]pyrene bound residue evaluation using MIBK fractionation method for creosote-contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Karl C. Nieman; Ronald C. Sims; Judith L. Sims; Darwin L. Sorensen; Joan E. McLean; James A. Rice


    The fate of [¹⁴C]pyrene was evaluated in creosote-contaminated soil undergoing remediation in a prepared bed system at the Champion International Superfund site in Libby, MT. ¹⁴C-bound residue formation was evaluated using the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) humic fractionation procedure, and it increased through 294 days of incubation in biologically active microcosms for humic acid, fulvic acid, bound humic acid, and

  5. [{sup 14}C]pyrene bound residue evaluation using MIBK fractionation method for creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, J.K.C.; Sims, R.C.; Sims, J.L.; Sorensen, D.L.; McLean, J.E.; Rice, J.A.


    The fate of [{sup 14}C]pyrene was evaluated in creosote-contaminated soil undergoing remediation in a prepared bed system at the Champion International Superfund site in Libby, MT. {sup 14}C-bound residue formation was evaluated using the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) humic fractionation procedure, and it increased through 294 days of incubation in biologically active microcosms for humic acid, fulvic acid, bound humic acid, and mineral-associated organic carbon fractions. The relative affinity of the added pyrene and transformation products was highest for the humic acid fraction. Bound residue formation in PAH-contaminated soil was observed to be an important fate mechanism in the prepared bed system and may be an acceptable end point in the remediation of contaminated soil.


    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.


    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

  9. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Larikov; Yu. N. Roshchin; S. P. Sokolova; A. N. Pereverzev


    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone\\/toluene or MEK\\/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 439 - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ...Acetone 1 Ketones. 4-Methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) Ammonia (aqueous) Miscellaneous. 2 Acetonitrile Methyl Cellosolve...strippability. Chloroform 1 Methylene chloride 1 Chlorobenzene Ammonia (aqueous) Diethyl amine Triethyl amine Acetone 1...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 439 - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ...Acetone 1 Ketones. 4-Methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) Ammonia (aqueous) Miscellaneous. 2 Acetonitrile Methyl Cellosolve...strippability. Chloroform 1 Methylene chloride 1 Chlorobenzene Ammonia (aqueous) Diethyl amine Triethyl amine Acetone 1...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 439 - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR


    ...Acetone 1 Ketones. 4-Methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) Ammonia (aqueous) Miscellaneous. 2 Acetonitrile Methyl Cellosolve...strippability. Chloroform 1 Methylene chloride 1 Chlorobenzene Ammonia (aqueous) Diethyl amine Triethyl amine Acetone 1...

  13. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  14. Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters. [5,5 dimethyl hydantoin, dihydroxy benzenes, acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.H. Jr.; King, C.J.


    A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K/sub C/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater-treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, and the liquid-liquid phase equilibria were measured with several solvents. A high-performance liquid - chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to analyze four condensate-water samples from a slagging fixed-bed gasifier. A novel sample-preparation technique, consisting of an azeotropic distillation with isopropanol, allowed identification of compounds in the HPLC eluant by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin and related compounds were identified in condensate waters for the first time, and they account for 1 to 6% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Dimethyl hydatoin has a K/sub D/ of 2.6 into tributyl phosphate (TBP) and much lower K/sub D/ values into six other solvents. It is also resistant to biological oxidation. Phenols (59 to 76% of the COD), dihydroxy benzenes (0.02 to 9.5% of the COD), and methanol, acetonitrile, and acetone (15% of the COD in one sample) were also detected. Extraction with MIBK removed about 90% of the COD. MIBK has much higher K/sub D/ values than DIPE for dihydroxy benzenes. Chemical reactions occurred during storage of condensate-water samples. The reaction products had low K/sub D/ values into MIBK. About 10% of the COD had a K/sub D/ of nearly zero into MIBK. These compounds were not extracted by MIBK over a wide range of pH. 73 references, 6 figures, 35 tables.

  15. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone

    E-print Network

    Andrew, Lloyd B.


    . It was concluded, using NIOSH criteria, that the monitors are acceptable for monitoring a STEL of acetone and MIBK but not MEK. Under NIOSH criteria the monitors are also acceptable for monitoring three STEL's of MEK and MIBK but not acetone. This research...'s exposure. The concentration of chemicals in the air to which an employee is exposed should be below the specified TWA-TLV and STELs to protect worker health. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends organic solvents...

  16. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  17. Effects of unsteady state conditions on the biooxidation of methyl ethyl and methyl isobutyl ketone in continuous flow liquid phase cultures

    E-print Network

    liquid waste streams. Both MEK and MIBK have been designated high-priority toxic chemicals [2] in spite of the two carbon substrates investigated being major environmental pollutants, their removal in waste production released in waste streams is relatively small. However, in the case of the latter products, pro

  18. Supplementary Material for "Characterization and reduction of microfabrication-induced decoherence in superconducting quantum circuits"

    E-print Network

    Martinis, John M.

    -cleaned and then dehydration-baked (3 to 4 min. on a hotplate at 115 C) and allowed to cool, after which a bilayer of 950K the bilayer is developed with various development times in a 1:3 mixture of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK

  19. Evaluation of solvent selectivity in dewaxing and deoiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Alperovich; A. N. Leonidov; S. P. Sokolova


    Previous literature on the efficiency of solvents used in removing paraffin wax by decrystallization is insufficient. A method for evaluating selectivity and mixtures of solvents is offered. General solvents MEK, acetone, MIBK are tested in various raw materials, then graphed. It is found that the ratio of the slope of the curve for the temperature of equal solubility (TES) as

  20. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Enhanced yields of furfural and other products by

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    of 5 wt% solids in 0.1 M sulfuric or hydrochloric acid at 170 uC over a range of reaction times sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. However, the yield increased significantly to about 85.3% when MIBK extraction with hydrochloric acid catalysis only increased the yield to y67.0%. Simultaneous extraction

  1. Ketone potentiation of haloalkane-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. II. Implication of monooxygenases.


    Raymond, P; Plaa, G L


    Previous results in Sprague-Dawley rats indicate that acetone (A), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK) pretreatment (3 d, po) at dosages of 6.8 and 13.6 mmol/kg potentiate CCl4 hepatotoxicity and CHCl3 nephrotoxicity, respectively. The potentiation potency profile observed was MiBK > A > MEK for liver and A > MEK > or = MiBK for kidney toxicity (Raymond & Plaa, 1995). In the present study, hepatic and renal microsomes from A-, MEK-, and MiBK-pretreated rats (6.8 or 13.6 mmol/kg) were examined for cytochrome P-450 content, substrate-specific monooxygenase activity (aminopyrine and benzphetamine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase) and in vitro covalent binding of 14CHCl3 and 14CCl4. Of the three ketones, only MiBK significantly increased P-450 content of liver and renal cortical microsomes. Similarly, 14CCl4 covalent binding under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was significantly increased by MiBK pretreatment only. 14CHCl3 covalent binding by renal cortical microsomes was significantly increased only under aerobic conditions by MiBK pretreatment. MiBK (13.6 mmol/kg) increased (threefold) aminopyrine N-demethylation in both liver and kidney, but only benzphetamine N-demethylation (two-fold, at 6.8 and 13.6 mmol/kg) in liver; A and MEK had no effect on either monooxygenase. All ketones at dosages of 6.8 and 13.6 mmol/kg increased aniline hydroxylation in liver (two-fold) and kidney (fivefold). Comparable profiles for P-450 induction, haloalkane covalent binding, and aminopyrine or benzphetamine N-demethylase activity were observed in liver and kidney microsomes. This profile was consistent with the ketone potentiation potency ranking profile observed in vivo for liver but not kidney injury. These findings affirm the importance of ketone-enhanced bioactivation for potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicity but suggest an alternative mechanism for CHCl3 nephrotoxicity. PMID:7473860

  2. Flame and flameless atomic-absorption determination of tellurium in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Hubert, A.E.


    The sample is digested with a solution of hydrobromic acid and bromine and the excess of bromine is expelled. After dilution of the solution to approximately 3 M in hydrobromic acid, ascorbic acid is added to reduce iron(III) before extraction of tellurium into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). An oxidizing air-acetylene flame is used to determine tellurium in the 0.1-20 ppm range. For samples containing 4-200 ppb of tellurium, a carbon-rod atomizer is used after the MIBK extract has been washed with 0.5 M hydrobromic acid to remove the residual iron. The flame procedure is useful for rapid preliminary monitoring, and the flameless procedure can determine tellurium at very low concentrations. ?? 1978.

  3. SML resist processing for high-aspect-ratio and high-sensitivity electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central


    A detailed process characterization of SML electron beam resist for high-aspect-ratio nanopatterning at high sensitivity is presented. SML contrast curves were generated for methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), MIBK/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:3), IPA/water (7:3), n-amyl acetate, xylene, and xylene/methanol (3:1) developers. Using IPA/water developer, the sensitivity of SML was improved considerably and found to be comparable to benchmark polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist without affecting the aspect ratio performance. Employing 30-keV exposures and ultrasonic IPA/water development, an aspect ratio of 9:1 in 50-nm half-pitch dense grating patterns was achieved representing a greater than two times improvement over PMMA. Through demonstration of 25-nm lift-off features, the pattern transfer performance of SML is also addressed. PMID:23531370

  4. Removal of iron interferences by solvent extraction for geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.


    Iron is a common interferent in the determination of many elements in geochemical samples. Two approaches for its removal have been taken. The first involves removal of iron by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from hydrochloric acid medium, leaving the analytes in the aqueous phase. The second consists of reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) by ascorbic acid to minimize its extraction into MIBK, so that the analytes may be isolated by extraction. Elements of interest can then be determined using the aqueous solution or the organic extract, as appropriate. Operating factors such as the concentration of hydrochloric acid, amounts of iron present, number of extractions, the presence or absence of a salting-out agent, and the optimum ratio of ascorbic acid to iron have been determined. These factors have general applications in geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1985.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of ketones in the gas phase over TiO 2 thin films: a kinetic study on the influence of water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M Coronado; Michael E Zorn; Isabel Tejedor-Tejedor; Marc A Anderson


    Photocatalytic oxidation of two ketones having different hydrophilicity, acetone and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), over TiO2 thin films supported on glass rings was studied under different relative humidity (RH) conditions. Adsorption isotherms of both ketones in the dark under different concentrations of water vapor were also measured and modeled considering a two-site Langmuir model. As expected, an increase in RH

  6. An on-line analysis of 7 odorous volatile organic compounds in the ambient air surrounding a large industrial complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehsanul Kabir; Ki-Hyun Kim


    The concentrations of seven odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including styrene (S), toluene (T), xylene (X), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and butyl acetate (BuAc) were measured continuously at hourly intervals from an on-line odor monitoring station in Ansan city, Korea (August 2005 to December 2007). Their concentration data (ppb) exhibited a narrow range

  7. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure.


    Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Kissling, Grace E; Suarez, Fernando; Roycroft, Joseph H; Chhabra, Rajendra S; Bucher, John R


    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol. Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to MIBK at concentrations of 0, 450, 900, or 1800ppm by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days per week for 2 years. Survival was decreased in male rats at 1800ppm. Body weight gains were decreased in male rats at 900 and 1800ppm and in female mice at 1800ppm. The primary targets of MIBK toxicity and carcinogenicity were the kidney in rats and the liver in mice. In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was increased at 1800ppm and the severity was increased in all exposed groups. There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium. These increases may have resulted from the increased severity of CPN, either through alpha2micro-globulin-dependent or -independent mechanisms. An increase in mononuclear cell leukemia at 1800ppm was an uncertain finding. Adrenal medulla hyperplasia was increased at 1800ppm, and there was a positive trend for increases in benign or malignant pheochromocytomas (combined). In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to alpha2micro-globulin. There were renal mesenchymal tumors, which have not been observed in historical control animals, in two female rats at 1800ppm. The relationship of these tumors to exposure to MIBK was uncertain. Hepatocellular adenomas, and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were increased in male and female mice exposed to 1800ppm. There were also treatment-related increases in multiple adenomas in both sexes. PMID:18178301

  8. Development Characteristics of PMMA in alternative alcohol:water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.


    The most widely used resist in electron beam lithography is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The standard developers used are solution mixtures of isopropanol (IPA) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in a ratio of 3:1 and mixtures of IPA and water (H2O) in a ratio of 7:3. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) classification entry for IPA includes: Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (Category 3). MIBK is much more hazardous than IPA. The only GHS classification entry for Ethanol is: Flammable liquids (Category 2), i.e. more environmentally safe. Using Ethanol/H2O as a developer will therefore enable lower hazardous waste disposal costs to cleanrooms. We find Ethanol/H2O at 85% volume (2:1 molar) exhibits excellent lithography results as good as with IPA/H2O, and better contrast and sensitivity than IPA/H2O and MIBK/IPA developers. Lithographic data shows trends similar to published cosolvency data, but differ too much to be explained by it. In addition, unusual development at 50% volume concentrations for both IPA and Ethanol in H2O show dramatic pothole formation instead of uniform thickness loss found in standard contrast curve exposures. We believe local pockets of concentrated alcohol water molar mixtures are responsible for such behavior. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Severe cutaneous reaction to CS gas.


    Varma, S; Holt, P J


    Tear gas is used throughout the World for control of riots and civil disobedience. CS gas as used by the UK police force is issued as a 'spray' and is 5% CS in methylisobutylketone (MIBK), a potent irritant. Assaults on police officers in forces issued with CS spray have fallen significantly over the past 3 years, whilst having risen in areas without it. Thus, CS gas appears to be an effective deterrent. However, significant cutaneous reactions can occur as a result of exposure. We report a severe contact dermatitis to CS gas to highlight the clinical features. The nature of CS gas and potential cutaneous adverse reactions are discussed. PMID:11422166

  10. Continuous exposure of animals to methylisobutylketone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernot, E. H.; Macewen, J. D.; Harris, E. S.


    Continuous exposure of dogs, monkeys, mice, and rats to MIBK for two weeks and all animals except mice for 90 days resulted in measurable adverse effects only in the case of rats. Rat kidney weights and kidney to body weight ratios were significantly elevated after exposure to 410 mg/cu m for two weeks, and kidney and liver organ weights and organ to body weight ratios were elevated after exposure to 820 mg/cu m for two weeks and to 410 mg/cu m for 90 days.

  11. Evaluation of solvent selectivity in dewaxing and deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Al'perovich, N.V.; Leonidov, A.N.; Sokolova, S.P.


    Previous literature on the efficiency of solvents used in removing paraffin wax by decrystallization is insufficient. A method for evaluating selectivity and mixtures of solvents is offered. General solvents MEK, acetone, MIBK are tested in various raw materials, then graphed. It is found that the ratio of the slope of the curve for the temperature of equal solubility (TES) as a function of the content of the solvent (that is, the solubility curve) to the slope of the corresponding denormalization curve is constant. This ratio gives a formula, and is therefore a criterion for selectivity. The greater the ratio, the higher the selectivity. The ratio is also generalized to solvents of any composition.

  12. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.


    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  13. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.


    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  14. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.


    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  15. Simultaneous determination of trace heavy metals in waters by atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Saran, R. (Dept. of Atomic Energy, Shillong (India)); Basu Baul, T.S.; Srinivas, P.; Khathing, D.T. (North-Eastern Hill Univ., Shillong (India))


    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous extraction of heavy metals using a new reagent 5-(2{prime}-carbomethoxyphenyl) azo-8-quinolinol (R) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and their subsequent determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method has been applied to the determination of Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co, and Mo in drinking and bore well waters. The extraction has been carried out with an aqueous to organic phase ratio to achieve around 30 fold preconcentration of metals. Extraction parameters and the influence of diverse ions have been studied. The detection limits (36) for Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Mo are 0.07, 0.23, 0.15, 0.09, 0.22, 0.17, 0.38, {mu}g/1, respectively. Higher preconcentration factors can be achieved by using a higher aqueous to organic phase ratio and lower concentration of metals can be determined.

  16. Extraction and flameless AAS determination of germanium in lignite fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Papadoyannis, I.N.; Matis, K.A.; Zoumboulis, A.I.


    The use of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 methyl isobutyl ketone solution in extraction and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) determination of germanium in lignite fly ashes have been studied. Germanium is usually determined in lignites after the carbonaceous part of the sample has been burnt by a dry or wet ashing method. However, methods are described for direct determination of germanium. In the present paper a wet ashing method is reported for the determination of germanium in lignite fly ashes by flameless AAS after extraction into dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) solution. Solvent extraction is a known hydrometallurgical method that could be applied in germanium recovery. 16 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  17. Evaluation of performance impairment by spacecraft contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, I.; Hartman, R. J., Jr.; Mendez, V. M.


    The environmental contaminants (isolated as off-gases in Skylab and Apollo missions) were evaluated. Specifically, six contaminants were evaluated for their effects on the behavior of juvenile baboons. The concentrations of contaminants were determined through preliminary range-finding studies with laboratory rats. The contaminants evaluated were acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), trichloroethylene (TCE), heptane and Freon 21. When the studies of the individual gases were completed, the baboons were also exposed to a mixture of MEK and TCE. The data obtained revealed alterations in the behavior of baboons exposed to relatively low levels of the contaminants. These findings were presented at the First International Symposium on Voluntary Inhalation of Industrial Solvents in Mexico City, June 21-24, 1976. A preprint of the proceedings is included.

  18. A Bio-Catalytic Approach to Aliphatic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P.; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun


    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid Bio-Catalytic conversion approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals. PMID:22416247

  19. Cold-development tool and technique for the ultimate resolution of ZEP520A to fabricate an EB master mold for nano-imprint lithography for 1Tbit/inch2 BPM development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Iyama, Hiromasa; Kagatsume, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi


    Cold-development is well-known for resolution enhancement on ZEP520A. Dipping a wafer in a developer solvent chilled by a freezer, such a typical method had been employed. But, it is obvious that the dip-development method has several inferiorities such as developer temperature instability, temperature inconsistency between developer and a wafer, water-condensation on drying. We then built a single wafer spin-develop tool, and established a process sequence, to solve those difficulties. And, we tried to see their effect down to -10degC over various developers. In specific, we tried to make hole patterns in hexagonal closest packing in 40nm, 35nm, 30nm, 25nm pitch, and examined holes pattern quality and resolution limit by varying setting temperature from room temperature to -10degC in the cold-development, as well as varying developer chemistry from the standard developer ZED N-50 (n-amyl acetate, 100%) to MiBK and IPA mixture which was a rinsing solvent mixture originally. We also examined the other developer (poor solvent mixture) we designed, N-50 and fluorocarbon (FC) mixture, MiBK and FC mixture, and IPA+FC mixture. This paper describes cold-development tool and technique, and its results down to minus (-) 10degC, for ZEP520A resolution enhancement to obtain 1Xnm bits (holes) in 25nm pitch to fabricate an EB master mold for Nano-Imprinting Lithography for 1Tbit/in2 bit patterned media (BPM) in HDD development and production.

  20. Degradation characteristics of methyl ethyl ketone by Pseudomonas sp. KT-3 in liquid culture and biofilter.


    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Jaisoo; Kim, Min-Joo; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk


    With ketone pollution forming an ever-growing problem, it is important to identify a ketone-degrading microorganism and establish its effect. Here, a methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. KT-3, was isolated and its MEK degradation characteristics were examined in liquid cultures and a polyurethane-packed biofilter. In liquid cultures, strain KT-3 could degrade other ketone solvents, including diethyl ketone (DK), methyl propyl ketone (MPK), methyl isopropyl ketone (MIPK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), methyl butyl ketone (MBK) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK). The maximum specific growth rate (mumax) of the isolate was 0.136 h(-1) in MEK medium supplemented with MEK as a sole carbon source, and kinetically, the maximum removal rate (Vm) and saturation constant (Km) for MEK were 12.28 mM g(-1)DCW h(-1) (DCW: dry cell weight) and 1.64 mM, respectively. MEK biodegradation by KT-3 was suppressed by the addition of MIBK or acetone, but not by toluene. In the tested biofilter, KT-3 exhibited a>90% removal efficiency for MEK inlet concentrations of around 500 ppmv at a space velocity (SV) of 150 h(-1). The elimination capacity of MEK was more influenced by SV than by the inlet concentration. Kinetic analysis showed that the maximum MEK removal rate (Vm) was 690 g m(-3) h(-1) and the saturation constant (Km) was 490 ppmv. Collectively, these results indicate the polyurethane sequencing batch biofilter with Pseudomonas sp. KT-3 will provide an excellent performance in the removal of gaseous MEK. PMID:16169047

  1. The determination of specific forms of aluminum in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, R.B.


    A procedure for analysis and pretreatment of natural-water samples to determine very low concentrations of Al is described which distinguishes the rapidly reacting equilibrium species from the metastable or slowly reacting macro ions and colloidal suspended material. Aluminum is complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), pH is adjusted to 8.3 to minimize interferences, and the aluminum oxinate is extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) prior to analysis by atomic absorption. To determine equilibrium species only, the contact time between sample and 8-hydroxyquinoline is minimized. The Al may be extracted at the sample site with a minimum of equipment and the MIBK extract stored for several weeks prior to atomic absorption analysis. Data obtained from analyses of 39 natural groundwater samples indicate that filtration through a 0.1-??m pore size filter is not an adequate means of removing all insoluble and metastable Al species present, and extraction of Al immediately after collection is necessary if only dissolved and readily reactive species are to be determined. An average of 63% of the Al present in natural waters that had been filtered through 0.1-??m pore size filters was in the form of monomeric ions. The total Al concentration, which includes all forms that passed through a 0.1-??m pore size filter, ranged 2-70 ??g/l. The concentration of Al in the form of monomeric ions ranged from below detection to 57 ??g/l. Most of the natural water samples used in this study were collected from thermal springs and oil wells. ?? 1975.

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid resists for EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Kalyani, Vishwanath; Satyanarayana, V. S. V.; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Sharma, Satinder; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    Herein, we describe preliminary results on organic-inorganic hybrid photoresists, capable of showing line patterns up to 16 nm under e-beam exposure studies, prepared by incorporating polyoxometalates (POMs) clusters into organic photoresist materials. Various Mo and W based clusters such as (TBA)2[Mo6O19], (TBA)5(H)[P2V3W15O62] and (TBA)4[P2Mo18O61] (where TBA = tetrabutyl ammonium counter ion) have been incorporated into PMMA matrix by mixing POM solutions and standard PMMA polymer in anisole (MW ~ 95000, MicroChem) in 1:33 w/v ratio. E-beam exposure followed by development with MIBK solutions showed that these new organic-inorganic hybrid photoresists show good line patterns upto 16 nm, which were not observed in the case of control experiments done on pure PMMA polymer resist. The observed enhancement of resist properties in the case of hybrid resists could possibly be due to a combination of features imparted to the resist by the POM clusters such as increased sensitivity, etch resistance and thermal stability.

  3. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.


    An atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials. The sample is digested with HF-HCl-H2O2; the final solution for analysis is in 10 % (v/v) HCl. Copper and zinc are determined directly by aspirating the solution into an air-acetylene flame. A separate aliquot of the solution is used for determination of lead; lead is extracted into TOPO-MIBK from the acidic solution in the presence of iodide and ascorbic acid. For a 0.50-g sample, the limits of determination are 10-2000 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 5-5000 p.p.m. for Pb. As much as 40 % Fe or Ca. and 10 % Al, Mg, or Mn in the sample do not interfere. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in a wide range of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, calcareous and carbonate samples. ?? 1976.

  4. An on-line analysis of 7 odorous volatile organic compounds in the ambient air surrounding a large industrial complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun


    The concentrations of seven odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including styrene (S), toluene (T), xylene (X), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and butyl acetate (BuAc) were measured continuously at hourly intervals from an on-line odor monitoring station in Ansan city, Korea (August 2005 to December 2007). Their concentration data (ppb) exhibited a narrow range of mean values despite large variabilities: 1.33 8.81, 16.1 96.6, 3.32 11.5, 7.45 10.3, 20.4 2.38, 1.31 1.16, and 2.43 3.02, respectively. However, unlike aromatics, the distribution of other VOCs was characterized by infrequent occurrences, e.g., as large as 97.5% of i-BuAl data below detection limit. Comparison of temporal patterns indicates that aromatic VOCs are the highest in summer, while others tend to peak during fall (or summer). If the relative compositions of these VOCs were compared in terms of odor intensity, their contribution in the study area is unlikely significant as the malodor components. Evaluation of the data suggests that the distribution of the target VOCs should be affected more sensitively by local traffic activities rather than industrial processes in the surrounding area. Nonetheless, the potent roles of these volatile components should not be underestimated with respect to human health.

  5. Characterization and treatment of coal gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Senetar, J.J.


    This thesis studied the organic constituents of coal-gasification condensate water, along with alternatives for condensate water treatment. The characterization experiments were primarily limited to a water received from the Lurgi slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC); however, the analyses of one sample from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center; and one from the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) gasifier are also included. The characterization results indicated almost complete identification of the compounds contributing to the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), organic sulfur, and organic nitrogen measurements in the METC condensate water. Equilibrium distribution coefficients from water into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were determined for many of the condensate water solutes. Other extractants including benzophenone, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tributyrin, furan, and 4-methyl cyclohexanone were investigated. Adsorption experiments revealed that both activated carbon and Amberlite XAD-7 were effective for removal of catechol and 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin from water; however, only the latter was easily regenerable with solvents. Both strong-base and weak-base anion-exchange resins were investigated for thiocyanate recovery. Various physicochemical treatment methods are analyzed, as well as the effect that ordering of various unit operations has on treatment. Use of byproduct ammonia for regeneration of solvents and adsorbents warrants further research. Also, a two-stage quench design offers economic advantages over a one-stage quench.

  6. Kinetics of OH-initiated oxidation of some oxygenated organic compounds in the aqueous phase under tropospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, L.; Grubert, S.; Franois, S.; Monod, A.; Wortham, H.


    The interest for multiphase interactions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere has increased for a few years. Inside the clouds water droplets, soluble VOCs can be oxidized by free radicals thus modifying the droplet composition. This reactivity has an impact on the tropospheric oxidizing capacity as well as the aerosols' properties. In the present work, we measured aqueous phase OH-initiated oxidation rate constants of several oxygenated organic compounds relevant to the atmosphere or chosen as test compounds (ethanol, t-butanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol, 1-propanol, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, phenol, ethyl ter-butyl ether (ETBE), n-propyl acetate, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK), ethyl formate). Experiments took place in an aqueous phase photoreactor. The rate constants were determinated using the relative kinetic method. Different OH-radical sources were tested, as well as different reference compounds in order to detect any artifact. The results have shown validation of the experimental protocol on test compounds. The overall results allowed to propose a structure reactivity method in order to predict OH-oxidation rate constant of new compounds. Finally, tropospheric life times of the studied compounds were compared inside and outside a cloud.

  7. Study of Development Processes for ZEP-520 as a High-Resolution Positive and Negative Tone Electron Beam Lithography Resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Koshelev, Kirill; Fito, Taras; Zhi Zheng, David Ai; Stepanova, Maria; Dew, Steven


    ZEP brand electron beam resists are well-known for their high sensitivity and etch durability. The various performance metrics such as sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of ZEP resist depend strongly on the development process. In this work, we investigate the development of ZEP-520 resist through contrast curves, dense gratings, and surface roughness measurements using three different classes of developer systems of varying solvation strength, ZED-N50, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) : isopropyl alcohol (IPA) 1:3, and IPA : H2O 7:3, at the ambient temperature (22 C) and cold (-15 C) development conditions. In order to provide a deeper insight into the ZEP development process, we propose a novel kinetic model of dissolution for ZEP, and develop an efficient analytical method that allows determining the microscopic parameters of ZEP dissolution based on experimental contrast curves. We also observe experimentally and characterize the negative tone behavior of ZEP for dense grating patterning and compare its performance with positive tone behavior.

  8. Complex reaction networks in high temperature hydrocarbon chemistry.


    Mutlay, ?brahim; Restrepo, Albeiro


    Complex chemical reaction mechanisms of high temperature hydrocarbon decomposition are represented as networks and their underlying graph topologies are analyzed as a dynamic system. As model reactants, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, benzene, ethane, ethylene, methane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and toluene are chosen in view of their importance for the global environment, energy technologies as well as their quantum chemical properties. Accurate kinetic mechanisms are computationally simulated and converted to bipartite graphs for the incremental conversion steps of the main reactant. Topological analysis of the resulting temporal networks reveals novel features unknown to classical chemical kinetics theory. The time-dependent percolation behavior of the chemical reaction networks shows infinite order phase transition and a unique correlation between the percolation thresholds and electron distribution of the reactants. These observations are expected to yield important applications in the development of a new theoretical perspective to chemical reactions and technological processes e.g. inhibition of greenhouse gases, efficient utilization of fossil fuels, and large scale carbon nanomaterial production. PMID:25720589

  9. Metal content and physicochemical parameters used as quality criteria in virgin argan oil: influence of the extraction method.


    Marfil, Rocio; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Gimnez, Rafael; Bouzas, Paula R; Martnez, Olga; Snchez, Jose Antonio


    Metal content was determined in 26 samples of virgin argan oil from Morocco. An ETA-AAS with previous sample dilution with MIBK technique was used. In oil obtained by traditional method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 4.0 mg/kg, Cu from 160.4 to 695.7 microg/kg, Cr from 10.3 to 55.3 microg/kg, Mn from 18.1 to 70.8 microg/kg, and Pb from 28.5 to 450.0 microg/kg. In oil obtained by a half-industrialized method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 mg/kg, Cu from 158.4 to 385.0 microg/kg, Cr from 10.0 to 48.1 microg/kg, Mn from 15.0 to 68.5 microg/kg, and Pb from 32.0 to 100.0 microg/kg. Acidity value, peroxide index, K270 and K232, humidity and sludge volatile, and insoluble sludges in petroleum ether were also determined. A high variability in these quality parameters and a decrease of the quality in the oils obtained by the traditional method were observed. PMID:18662006

  10. An investigation into the short term and medium term health impacts of personal incapacitant sprays. A follow up of patients reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London)

    PubMed Central

    Euripidou, E; MacLehose, R; Fletcher, A


    Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of ill health after personal incapacitant spray (PIS) exposures reported to the National Poisons Information ServiceLondon (NPIS-L) and the Chemical Incident Response Service and to evaluate the relation between sub-categories of PIS exposure and adverse health effects. Methods: Case series study of patients reported to the NPIS-L, by attending medical personnel during the period 16 January to 31 September 1998. Data collected by questionnaire sent to these medical personnel. Results: Several "adverse" symptoms, particularly dermatitis and blisters were reported for cases exposed to police PIS. These cases were more frequent than in those people exposed to non-police PIS. Adverse effects occurring more than six hours after exposure were also observed, which is in conflict with the recorded immediate, short lived, and self limiting symptoms that PIS are designed to cause. Most patients with persisting symptoms required further treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the formulation of CS (o-chlorobenzylidine malononitrile) with MiBK (methyl iso-butyl ketone) used by the police is more harmful that has been previously assumed. If confirmed then the continued use of this formulation should be reviewed because of longer duration of adverse effects. Less concentrated formulations may reduce the severity or persistence of the adverse effects. PMID:15333526

  11. Separation and preconcentration in a batch mode of Cd(II), Cr(III, VI), Cu(II), Mn(II, VII) and Pb(II) by solid-phase extraction by using of silica modified with N-propylsalicylaldimine.


    Abou-El-Sherbini, Khaled S; Kenawy, I M M; Hamed, Mohammad A; Issa, R M; Elmorsi, R


    The complexes formed between IE11 and Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) were identified and confirmed by IR, UV and pH-metric titration. The uptake behavior of porous silica modified with N-propylsalicylaldimine (IE11) and these metal ions were studied. Log k(d) was found to be within the range 2.19-5.16 depending on pH and time of stirring. IE11 was used in the separation and preconcentration of Cd(II), Cr(III, VI), Cu(II), Mn(II, VII) and Pb(II) from some natural water samples. Data were compared with those obtained by the solvent extraction method APDC/MIBK. The proposed methodology allows to verify an improvement in the water quality of Nile River probably attributed to high to moderate floods in the last few years. The method was found to be accurate and not subject to random error, i.e. precise. PMID:18968753

  12. Determination of dissolved aluminum in water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afifi, A.A.


    A technique has been modified for determination of a wide range of concentrations of dissolved aluminum (Al) in water and has been tested. In this technique, aluminum is complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline at pH 8.3 to minimize interferences, then extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The extract is analyzed colorimetrically at 395 nm. This technique is used to analyze two forms of monomeric Al, nonlabile (organic complexes) and labile (free, Al, Al sulfate, fluoride and hydroxide complexes). A detection limit 2 ug/L is possible with 25-ml samples and 10-ml extracts. The detection limit can be decreased by increasing the volume of the sample and (or) decreasing the volume of the methyl isobutyl ketone extract. The analytical uncertainty of this method is approximately + or - 5 percent. The standard addition technique provides a recovery test for this technique and ensures precision in samples of low Al concentrations. The average percentage recovery of the added Al plus the amount originally present was 99 percent. Data obtained from analyses of filtered standard solutions indicated that Al is adsorbed on various types of filters. However, the relationship between Al concentrations and adsorption remains linear. A test on standard solutions also indicated that Al is not adsorbed on nitric acid-washed polyethylene and polypropylene bottle wells. (USGS)

  13. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.


    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  14. Carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) method for the separation, preconcentration and speciation of chromium using an isatin derivative.


    Bulut, Volkan Numan; Ozdes, Duygu; Bekircan, Olcay; Gundogdu, Ali; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa


    A new, simple, rapid and sensitive separation, preconcentration and speciation procedure for chromium in environmental liquid and solid samples has been established. The present speciation procedure for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is based on combination of carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC) and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. In this method a newly synthesized organic coprecipitant, 5-chloro-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylimino]indolin-2-one (CFMEPI), was used without adding any carrier element for coprecipitation of chromium(III). After reduction of chromium(VI) by concentrated H(2)SO(4) and ethanol, the procedure was applied for the determination of total chromium. Chromium(VI) was calculated as the difference between the amount of total chromium and chromium(III). The optimum conditions for coprecipitation and speciation processes were investigated on several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as pH of the solution, amount of coprecipitant, sample volume, etc. No considerable interference was observed from the other investigated anions and cations, which may be found in natural water samples. The preconcentration factor was found to be 40. The detection limit for chromium(III) corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N=10) was found 0.7 microg L(-1). The present procedure was successfully applied for speciation of chromium in several liquid and solid environmental samples. In order to support the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials (CRM-TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C) were analyzed, and standard APDC-MIBK liquid-liquid extraction method was performed. The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. PMID:19100880

  15. Characterization and treatment of coal-gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Senetar, J.J.; King, C.J.


    This thesis presents work performed to identify the organic constituents in coal-gasification condensate water, along with consideration of the alternatives for condensate water treatment. The characterization experiments performed were primarily limited to a condensate water received from the Lurgi slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center; however, the analyses of one condensate water sample from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center and one sample from the Great Plains Gasification Associates gasifier are also included. The characterization results indicated almost complete identification of the compounds contributing to the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), organic sulfur, and organic nitrogen measurements in the METC condensate water. Thiocyanate was found to contribute significantly to the COD, organic nitrogen, and oganic sulfur measurements of the condensate sample. In addition, polysulfides were also found to contribute to the COD and the organic sulfur measurements. Low-molecular-weight solutes (acetonitrile, acetone, and methanol) were not found to be appreciable in the METC sample but were found to a much greater extent in the GPGA and GFETC samples. Equilibrium distribution coefficients from water into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were determined for many of the condesnate water solutes. In addition, other extractants including benzophenone, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tributyrin, furan, and 4-methyl cyclohexanone were investigated. TBP was found to yield the highest distribution coefficients for the condensate solutes. Adsorption experiments revealed that both activated carbon and Amberlite XAD-7 were effective for removal of catechol and 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin from water. Both strong-base and weak-base anion-exchange resins were investigated for thiocyanate recovery. Use of weak-base resin was found to offer potential advantages over the strong-base resin. 23 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Concentration levels of metals in vegetables grown in soils irrigated with river water in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


    Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Wondimu, Taddese


    Samples of vegetables, water and soil were collected from four vegetable farms in Addis Ababa to evaluate the extent and trend of metal accumulation in these systems and health risk concerns to consumers. Vegetable samples were digested in HNO(3) and HClO(4), soil samples in Aqua Regia and water samples were pre-concentrated with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) using the chelating agent ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). All the samples were analyzed for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Cd (0.12-1.13 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.11-0.89 mg kg(-1)) in the vegetables surpassed the maximum recommended levels. The total metal concentrations in soils were (mg kg(-1)): Cr, 9.9-22.8; Co, 28.0-47.3; Cu, 25.1-51.4, Mn, 1000-1054; Ni, 16.4-55.8; Zn, 146-149; Cd, 1.4-1.8 and Pb, 22.0-50.7. The trace metals Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni in most of the water samples collected from Goffa, Kera and Akaki farms also surpassed irrigation water guideline limits, which might be a case for high accumulation of metals in the soils. However, the soil pH (6.5-7.6) and high cation exchange capacity (CEC), 38.41-50.18, coupled with high clay content, 37-51%, of the soil seemed to limit metal uptake by the vegetables. The physical parameters, pH (7.43-7.89) and electrical conductivity (0.33-1.54 dS/m) of irrigation waters measured at 25C were found within the acceptable range. PMID:22062152

  17. Sensitivity of early life stages of blueback herring to moderate acidity and aluminum in soft freshwater. [Alosa aestivalis

    SciTech Connect

    Klauda, R.J.; Palmer, R.E.; Lenkevich, M.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))


    The sensitivity of the blueback herring Alosa aestivalis to acidity and aluminum (Al) in reconstituted, soft freshwater (23-25 mg l{sup {minus}1} hardness as CaCO{sub 3}) was investigated in a continuous exposure laboratory study. Mature (20-24 h postfertilization) embryos were more tolerant than 1- to 5-day-old yolk-sac larvae. Significant mortality of embryos occurred only when pH was 5.0 and the total Al concentration was 0.42 mg l{sup {minus}1} (predicted MIBK-extracted total monomeric Al = 0.34 mg l{sup {minus}1}). Moderate acidity dramatically decreased the survival of yolk-sac larvae. Mean mortality was 99% in pH 5.0 and 89% in pH 5.7 compared to 38% in pH 6.5 and 16% in pH 7.8 without Al. The toxicity of Al to yolk-sac larvae was pH- and dose-dependent. Total Al concentration up to 0.34 mg l{sup {minus}1} (predicted total monomeric Al up to 0.21 mg l{sup {minus}1}) were not toxic at pH 6.5 and 7.8. At pH 5.0 and 5.7, Al increased the rate at which yolk-sac larvae died during a 96-h exposure (i.e., time 50% morality decreased with increasing Al). Continuous exposure to a predicted total monomeric Al level of only 0.03 mg l{sup {minus}1} at pH 5.0 killed all yolk-sac larvae in <24 hours. The mechanisms of acid and Al toxicity were apparently physiological and not associated with extensive cellular damage. Acidification events measured in Chesapeake Bay tributaries may reduce survival of blueback herring yolk-sax larvae and embryos to those events.

  18. Lead determination at ng/mL level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a tantalum coated slotted quartz tube atom trap.


    Demirta?, ?lknur; Bak?rdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz


    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) still keeps its importance despite the relatively low sensitivity; because it is a simple and economical technique for determination of metals. In recent years, atom traps have been developed to increase the sensitivity of FAAS. Although the detection limit of FAAS is only at the level of g/mL, with the use of atom traps it can reach to ng/mL. Slotted quartz tube (SQT) is one of the atom traps used to improve sensitivity. In atom trapping mode of SQT, analyte is trapped on-line in SQT for few minutes using ordinary sample aspiration, followed by the introduction of a small volume of organic solvent to effect the revolatilization and atomization of analyte species resulting in a transient signal. This system is economical, commercially available and easy to use. In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of lead with the help of SQT atom trapping flame atomization (SQT-AT-FAAS). 574 Fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained at a sample suction rate of 3.9 mL/min for 5.0 min trapping period with respect to FAAS. Organic solvent was selected as 40 L of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). To obtain a further sensitivity enhancement inner surface of SQT was coated with several transition metals. The best sensitivity enhancement, 1650 fold enhancement, was obtained by the Ta-coated SQT-AT-FAAS. In addition, chemical nature of Pb species trapped on quartz and Ta surface, and the chemical nature of Ta on quartz surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. Raman spectrometric results indicate that tantalum is coated on SQT surface in the form of Ta2O5. XPS studies revealed that the oxidation state of Pb in species trapped on both bare and Ta coated SQT surfaces is +2. For the accuracy check, the analyses of standard reference material were performed by use of SCP SCIENCE EnviroMAT Low (EU-L-2) and results for Pb were to be in good agreement with the certified value using SQT-AT-FAAS and Ta coated-SQT. PMID:25863394

  19. Gap-fill type HSQ/ZEP520A bilayer resist process-(I): HSQ-coated ZEP520A CD shrinkage for 32-nm trench patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Su; Kao, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Jinn


    The CD shrinkage by thermal reflow technique was frequently used for the formation of contact hole (C/H) of fine size. However, such technique is seldom used for line (trench)/space type patterns with complicate layout, like 6T-SRAM pattern. One of the reasons is the shape distortion of the designed layout after thermal reflow which results in the difficulty in CD control. In this study ultra-thin hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ)-coated ZEP520A trenchs are used to investigate the CD shrinkage effect and integrity of the shape after thermal reflow. 6T-SRAM transistor gate with various width/length (W/L) ratios is used as the test pattern. HSQ diluted by methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) with 1:3 and 1:14 volume ratios was coated on ZEP520A trenchs. Post-applied baking (PAB) conditions of non-HSQ coated ZEP520A are split to find the optimal CD uniformity. The effects of thickness of HSQ, dilution ratio, spin speed of HSQ on the CD and shape after thermal reflow at various temperatures for HSQ-coated ZEP520A trench patterns are also studied. Multiple thermal reflows at 160oC-180oC are applied to obtain the best shrinkage results. It is found that the non-HSQ coated ZEP520A trench with all W/L ratios shrunk at 160oC. The smallest shrunk trench of 33.6 nm top-CD with 1/50 W/L ratio is obtained for HSQ (1:14)-coated ZEP520A for two thermal reflows at 160 oC/90 sec while 35.8 nm top-CD of the same W/L ratio is obtained after one 180oC/90sec reflow. Both sizes could meet the CD requirement of 32nm node and beyond. Above all, the HSQ-coated ZEP520A keeps the shape of trench pattern after one or multiple thermal reflows.


    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher


    This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.