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Sample records for mice bearing orthotopic

  1. Welfare Assessment following Heterotopic or Orthotopic Inoculation of Bladder Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amy; Burson, Hannah; Söling, Ariane; Roughan, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether mice used as cancer models experience pain. Despite this possibility, the usual practice is to withhold analgesics as these are generally viewed as confounding. However, pain also alters cancer progression, so preventing it might not only be beneficial to welfare but also to study validity. Establishing the extent to which different cancer models result in pain is an important first step towards their refinement. We used conditioned place preference (CPP) testing and body-weight and behaviour analyses to evaluate the assumption that heterotopically implanted tumours result in less pain and fewer welfare concerns than those implanted orthotopically. C57Bl/6 mice received MB49Luc luciferase expressing bladder cancer cells or saline implanted subcutaneously or into the bladder. These tumour-bearing or control groups underwent 2 daily 45 minute conditioning trials to saline or morphine (2mg/kg) and then a 15 minute drug-free preference test on day 3 of a 3 day cycle, continuing until the study ended. Tumours were imaged and behaviour data obtained following preference tests. Development of preference for the morphine-paired chamber (morphine-seeking) was determined over time. Heterotopic tumour development had no effect on morphine-seeking, and although the restraint used for heterotopic inoculation caused greater initial weight losses than anaesthesia, these mice steadily gained weight and behaved comparatively normally throughout the study. Orthotopic tumour inoculation caused no initial weight losses, but over the final 7 days these mice became less active and lost more body weight than cancer-free controls. This indicated orthotopic implantation probably caused a more negative impact on welfare or conceivably pain; but only according to the current test methods. Pain could not be confirmed because morphine-seeking in the tumour-bearing groups was similar to that seen in controls. Imaging was not found to be an effective method of

  2. Welfare Assessment following Heterotopic or Orthotopic Inoculation of Bladder Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amy; Burson, Hannah; Söling, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether mice used as cancer models experience pain. Despite this possibility, the usual practice is to withhold analgesics as these are generally viewed as confounding. However, pain also alters cancer progression, so preventing it might not only be beneficial to welfare but also to study validity. Establishing the extent to which different cancer models result in pain is an important first step towards their refinement. We used conditioned place preference (CPP) testing and body-weight and behaviour analyses to evaluate the assumption that heterotopically implanted tumours result in less pain and fewer welfare concerns than those implanted orthotopically. C57Bl/6 mice received MB49Luc luciferase expressing bladder cancer cells or saline implanted subcutaneously or into the bladder. These tumour-bearing or control groups underwent 2 daily 45 minute conditioning trials to saline or morphine (2mg/kg) and then a 15 minute drug-free preference test on day 3 of a 3 day cycle, continuing until the study ended. Tumours were imaged and behaviour data obtained following preference tests. Development of preference for the morphine-paired chamber (morphine-seeking) was determined over time. Heterotopic tumour development had no effect on morphine-seeking, and although the restraint used for heterotopic inoculation caused greater initial weight losses than anaesthesia, these mice steadily gained weight and behaved comparatively normally throughout the study. Orthotopic tumour inoculation caused no initial weight losses, but over the final 7 days these mice became less active and lost more body weight than cancer-free controls. This indicated orthotopic implantation probably caused a more negative impact on welfare or conceivably pain; but only according to the current test methods. Pain could not be confirmed because morphine-seeking in the tumour-bearing groups was similar to that seen in controls. Imaging was not found to be an effective method of

  3. Intraductal Delivery of Adenoviruses Targets Pancreatic Tumors in Transgenic Ela-myc Mice and Orthotopic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p<0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors. PMID:23328228

  4. Aerosol Azacytidine Inhibits Orthotopic Lung Cancers in Mice through Its DNA Demethylation and Gene Reactivation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuan; Liang, Yuanxin; Sellers, Rani S.; Perez-Soler, Roman; Zou, Yiyu

    2014-01-01

    We devised an aerosol based demethylation therapy to achieve therapeutic efficacy in premalignant or in situ lesions of lung cancer, without systemic toxicity. Optimum regimens of aerosolized azacytidine (Aza) were designed and used in orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft models. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of aerosol Aza were compared with intravenously administered Aza. We observed that 80% of the droplets of the aerosol Aza measured ∼0.1–5 microns, which resulted in deposition in the lower bronchial airways. An animal model that phenocopies field carcinogeneisis in humans was developed by intratracheal inoculation of the human lung cancer cells in mice, thus resulting in their distribution throughout the entire airway space. Aerosolized Aza significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing endo-bronchial lung tumors. The aerosol treatment did not cause any detectable lung toxicity or systemic toxicity. A pre-pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated that lung deposition of aerosolized Aza was significantly higher than the intravenous route. Lung tumors were resected after aerosol treatment and the methylation levels of 24 promoters of tumor-suppresser genes related to lung cancer were analyzed. Aerosol Aza significantly reduced the methylation level in 9 of these promoters and reexpressed several genes tested. In conclusion, aerosol Aza at non-cytotoxic doses appears to be effective and results in DNA demethylation and tumor suppressor gene re-expression. The therapeutic index of aerosol Aza is >100-fold higher than that of intravenous Aza. These results provide a preclinical rationale for a phase I clinical trial of aerosol Aza to be initiated at our Institution. PMID:25347303

  5. Endoscopy-guided orthotopic implantation of colorectal cancer cells results in metastatic colorectal cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettenworth, Dominik; Mücke, Marcus M; Schwegmann, Katrin; Faust, Andreas; Poremba, Christopher; Schäfers, Michael; Domagk, Dirk; Lenz, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    Advanced stage colorectal cancer (CRC) is still associated with limited prognosis. For preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches, murine models with orthotopic tumor growth and distant metastases are required. However, these models usually require surgical procedures possibly influencing tumor immunogenicity and development. The aim of this study was to establish a minimal-invasive endoscopy-based murine orthotopic model of metastatic CRC. During colonoscopy of CD-1 nude and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice, implantation of Caco-2 and HT-29 CRC cells was performed subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopic into the colonic submucosa. White light endoscopy (WLE) and fluorescence endoscopy (FE) were applied for tumor detection in vivo. Ex vivo, resected tumors were examined by fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI), histology, gelatin zymography and immunohistochemistry. In CD-1 nude mice, marked tumor growth was observed within 14 days after subcutaneous implantation while submucosal implantation failed to induce CRC after 17 weeks. In contrast, in NOD/SCID mice submucosal injection of HT-29 cells resulted in pronounced tumor growth 12 days post injectionem. Subsequently, rapid tumor expansion occurred, occupying the entire colonic circumference. Importantly, post mortem histological analyses confirmed liver metastases in 28.6 % and peritoneal metastases in 14.3 % of all mice. FRI and gelatin zymography did not detect a significantly increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression in s.c. implanted tumors while MMP-tracer uptake was significantly enhanced in orthotopic implanted tumors. Neither s.c. nor orthotopic Caco-2 cell implantation resulted in tumor development. We successfully established an endoscopy-based model of metastatic CRC in immunodeficient mice. PMID:27146063

  6. Protective effect of a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, on CLP-induced sepsis in mice transplanted orthotopically with colon tumor.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, on the resistance of tumor-bearing mice against sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). (a) In BALB/c mice that had received intracecal transplantation of colon 26 (C26) tumor, CLP with a 21-gauge needle significantly shortened the survival time, compared with that of non-tumor-bearing mice. Oral administration of PSK to such mice resulted in a significant prolongation of the survival time and increase of the survival rates. The effects were dependent on the timing of PSK administration and the dose. (b) CLP significantly increased the IL-10 level in serum, the IL-10 gene expression by spleen cells, the number of IL-10-producing CD4-positive T cells, and the productivity of IL-10 by spleen of tumor-bearing mice compared with that of non-tumor-bearing mice. PSK administration to such mice suppressed the increase. Further, PSK prevented the reduction of gene expression of IFN-gamma and the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4-positive T cells and IFN-gamma productivity by spleen cells of tumor-bearing CLP-treated mice. (c) Treatment with anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody before CLP significantly reduced the effects of PSK. These findings suggest that the protective effect of PSK on the CLP-induced sepsis in mice transplanted orthotopically with C26 tumor is possibly mediated by suppression of IL-10 and promotion of IFN-gamma. PMID:16369184

  7. Comparison of Survival and Osteogenic Ability of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Orthotopic and Ectopic Sites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Manassero, Mathieu; Paquet, Joseph; Deschepper, Mickael; Viateau, Véronique; Retortillo, Jose; Bensidhoum, Morad; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Petite, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    Tissue constructs containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are appealing strategies for repairing large segmental bone defects, but they do not allow consistent bone healing and early cell death was identified as a cause of failure. However, little is known about cell survival in the clinical microenvironment encountered during bone healing process. Osteoconductive coral scaffold with or without luciferase-labeled human MSCs were implanted either in a critical segmental femoral bone defect stabilized by plate or subcutaneously in 44 mice. Cell survival was evaluated by serial bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and osteogenic capabilities by histology and microcomputed tomography. Comparisons between groups were performed with two-way analysis of variance test. Twenty mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after surgery for short-term evaluation and 24 mice at 10 weeks for long-term evaluation. BLI provided evidence of fast and continuous cell death: 85% decrease of the BLI signal over the first 2 weeks in both locations; in fact, less than 2% of the initial cell number was present in all constructs analyzed 4 weeks postimplantation and less than 1% of the initial cell number by 8 weeks postimplantation. By 2 weeks postimplantation, the amount of newly formed bone was self-limited and was similar to ectopic and orthotopic groups. By 10 weeks postimplantation, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the presence of MSCs in orthotopic site and the amount of newly formed bone in cell-containing constructs implanted in orthotopic locations was significantly higher than that observed in the ectopic group. Our results indicated that hMSCs promote bone formation despite early and massive cell death when loaded on coral scaffolds. Interestingly, bone formation was higher in orthotopic than ectopic site despite the same survival pattern. Ectopic implantation of cell-containing constructs is suitable to evaluate cell survival, but assessment of bone formation ability requires

  8. Establishment of an Orthotopic Xenograft Mice Model of Retinoblastoma Suitable for Preclinical Testing.

    PubMed

    Cassoux, Nathalie; Thuleau, Aurélie; Assayag, Franck; Aerts, Isabelle; Decaudin, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer that occurs during childhood. The goal of current and future therapeutic strategies is to conserve the eye and visual function without using external beam radiotherapy, which is known to increase the risk of secondary cancers in genetically predisposed patients. Multimodality therapy (usually intravenous but also intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy) has recently improved the eye salvage rate in retinoblastoma and has led to a decreased need for external beam radiotherapy. However, the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma remains a real challenge, especially in cases of vitreous and subretinal seeding. There is a need for alternative and less toxic therapies as well as for better ways to administer the drugs. Animal models are an integral part of preclinical research in the field of oncology. This paper describes the different xenograft rodent models published in the literature so far. We will also describe a new orthotopic xenografted retinoblastoma model in immunodeficient mice, which is suitable for preclinical assays. The xenograft model was established from tumor tissue obtained directly from surgical samples and closely mimics human retinoblastoma. PMID:27171982

  9. Establishment of an Orthotopic Xenograft Mice Model of Retinoblastoma Suitable for Preclinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Cassoux, Nathalie; Thuleau, Aurélie; Assayag, Franck; Aerts, Isabelle; Decaudin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer that occurs during childhood. The goal of current and future therapeutic strategies is to conserve the eye and visual function without using external beam radiotherapy, which is known to increase the risk of secondary cancers in genetically predisposed patients. Multimodality therapy (usually intravenous but also intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy) has recently improved the eye salvage rate in retinoblastoma and has led to a decreased need for external beam radiotherapy. However, the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma remains a real challenge, especially in cases of vitreous and subretinal seeding. There is a need for alternative and less toxic therapies as well as for better ways to administer the drugs. Animal models are an integral part of preclinical research in the field of oncology. This paper describes the different xenograft rodent models published in the literature so far. We will also describe a new orthotopic xenografted retinoblastoma model in immunodeficient mice, which is suitable for preclinical assays. The xenograft model was established from tumor tissue obtained directly from surgical samples and closely mimics human retinoblastoma. PMID:27171982

  10. Role of interleukin-17A in early graft rejection after orthotopic lung transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Rui; Wang, Li-Feng; Xia, Si-Si; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Xu, Jiang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying lung allograft rejection remain poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of interleukin (IL)-17A in lung transplant rejection in a mouse model, because previous studies in clinical and rodent models have implicated IL-17A in both acute and chronic rejection. Methods To generate an orthotopic lung transplantation model, lungs from C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 mice (isograft and allograft models, respectively). The effects of anti-IL-17A treatment in allograft recipients were investigated. The histological features and rejection status of isografts and allografts were assessed at 3, 7, and 28 days after transplantation, and differences in graft infiltrating cells and mRNA expression of relevant cytokines were quantified at 3 and 7 days after transplantation. Results As expected, isografts showed no obvious signs of rejection, whereas allografts exhibited minimal-to-mild rejection (grade A1–A2) by day 3 and moderate-to-severe rejection (grade A3–A4) by day 7, without evidence of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). However, by 28 days, evidence of OB was observed in 67% (2/3) of allografts and severe rejection (grade A4) was observed in all. IL-17 mRNA expression in allografts was increased with rejection, and interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-6 mRNA expression levels followed a similar pattern. In contrast, IL-22 expression in allografts was only slightly increased. Antibody (Ab) neutralization of IL-17A diminished the signs of acute rejection at 7 days after transplantation in allografts, and this early protection was accompanied by a decrease in cellular stress according to histological evaluation, suggesting the involvement of IL-17A in the development of early post-transplantation lesions. Conclusions Our data indicate that IL-17A is important in the pathophysiology of allograft rejection, and neutralization of IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy to preventing lung

  11. High Resolution Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Imaging of Orthotopic Lung Cancer in Mice: New Perspectives for Onco-Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sobilo, Julien; Le Mée, Marilyne; Rétif, Stéphanie; Natkunarajah, Sharuja; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Le Pape, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have developed a relevant preclinical model associated with a specific imaging protocol dedicated to onco-pharmacology studies in mice. Materials and Methods We optimized both the animal model and an ultrasound imaging procedure to follow up longitudinally the lung tumor growth in mice. Moreover we proposed to measure by photoacoustic imaging the intratumoral hypoxia, which is a crucial parameter responsible for resistance to therapies. Finally, we compared ultrasound data to x-ray micro computed tomography and volumetric measurements to validate the relevance of this approach on the NCI-H460 human orthotopic lung tumor. Results This study demonstrates the ability of ultrasound imaging to detect and monitor the in vivo orthotopic lung tumor growth by high resolution ultrasound imaging. This approach enabled us to characterize key biological parameters such as oxygenation, perfusion status and vascularization of tumors. Conclusion Such an experimental approach has never been reported previously and it would provide a nonradiative tool for assessment of anticancer therapeutic efficacy in mice. Considering the absence of ultrasound propagation through the lung parenchyma, this strategy requires the implantation of tumors strictly located in the superficial posterior part of the lung. PMID:27070548

  12. Imaging the microenvironment of pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) growing in transgenic nude mice expressing GFP, RFP, or CFP.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-09-28

    We have developed a multi-color, imageable, orthotopic mouse model for individual patients with pancreatic cancer. The tumors are labeled by first passaging them orthotopically through transgenic nude mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP), or cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). Passage of the tumors in these colored transgenic mice labels the stromal cells of the tumor. The cancer cells in the PDOX are labeled in situ with GFP by telomerase-dependent adenovirus OBP-401. The models are termed imageable patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (iPDOX). The tumors acquired brightly-fluorescent stromal cells from the transgenic host mice, which were stably associated with the tumors through multiple passages. The colored fluorescent protein-expressing stromal cells included cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). This model enables powerful color-coded imaging of the interaction of cancer and stromal cells during tumor progression and treatment. PMID:26742463

  13. CF750-A33scFv-Fc-Based Optical Imaging of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Xenografts of GPA33-Positive Colorectal Cancer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Danfeng; Fan, Qing; Cai, Huawei; Yang, Hao; Wan, Lin; Li, Lin; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-based imaging agents are attractive as adjuvant diagnostic tools for solid tumors. GPA33 is highly expressed in most human colorectal cancers and has been verified as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Here, we built an A33scFv-Fc antibody against GPA33 by fusing A33scFv to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 antibodies. The A33scFv-Fc specifically binds GPA33-positive colorectal cancer cells and tumor tissues. After the intravenous injection of mice bearing subcutaneous GPA33-positive LS174T tumor grafts with near-infrared fluorescence probe CF750-labeled A33scFv-Fc (CF750-A33scFv-Fc), high contrast images of the tumor grafts could be kinetically documented within 24 h using an optical imaging system. However, GPA33-negative SMMC7721 tumor grafts could not be visualized by injecting the same amount of CF750-A33scFv-Fc. Moreover, in subcutaneous LS174T tumor-bearing mice, tissue scanning revealed that the CF750-A33scFv-Fc accumulated in the tumor grafts, other than the kidney and liver. In mice with orthotopic tumor transplantations, excrescent LS174T tumor tissues in the colon were successfully removed under guidance by CF750-A33scFv-Fc-based optical imaging. These results indicate that CF750-A33scFv-Fc can target GPA33, suggesting the potential of CF750-A33scFv-Fc as an imaging agent for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PMID:26090413

  14. In vivo imaging of human malignant mesothelioma grown orthotopically in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  15. In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  16. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  17. Chronic Rejection Pathology after Orthotopic Lung Transplantation in Mice: The Development of a Murine BOS Model and Its Drawbacks

    PubMed Central

    De Vleeschauwer, Stéphanie; Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Wauters, Shana; Willems, Stijn; Rinaldi, Manuela; Vaneylen, Annemie; Verleden, Stijn; Willems-Widyastuti, Anna; Bracke, Ken; Brusselle, Guy; Verbeken, Erik; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Verleden, Geert; Vanaudenaerde, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Almost all animal models for chronic rejection (CR) after lung transplantation (LTx) fail to resemble the human situation. It was our attempt to develop a representative model of CR in mice. Orthotopic LTx was performed in allografts receiving daily immunosuppression with steroids and cyclosporine. Controls included isografts and mice only undergoing thoracotomy (SHAM). Allografts were sacrificed 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 weeks after LTx. Pulmonary function was measured repeatedly in the 12w allografts, isografts and SHAM mice. Histologically, all allografts demonstrated acute rejection (AR) around the blood vessels and airways two weeks after LTx. This decreased to 50–75% up to 10 weeks and was absent after 12 weeks. Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) lesions were observed in 25–50% of the mice from 4–12 weeks. Isografts and lungs of SHAM mice were normal after 12 weeks. Pulmonary function measurements showed a decline in FEV0.1, TLC and compliance in the allografts postoperatively (2 weeks) with a slow recovery over time. After this initial decline, lung function of allografts increased more than in isografts and SHAM mice indicating that pulmonary function measurement is not a good tool to diagnose CR in a mouse. We conclude that a true model for CR, with clear OB lesions in about one third of the animals, but without a decline in lung function, is possible. This model is an important step forward in the development of an ideal model for CR which will open new perspectives in unraveling CR pathogenesis and exploring new treatment options. PMID:22238655

  18. Routes of delivery for CpG and anti-CD137 for the treatment of orthotopic kidney tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Jennifer A; Potdevin Hunnam, Titaina C U; Pegram, Hollie J; Hicks, Rodney J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    We have found previously that the tumor cell lines, Renca (a renal cancer) and MC38 (a colon tumor) which had been injected subcutaneously in mice, could be successfully treated with a combination therapy of an oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG1826) (injected intratumorally) and anti-CD137 antibody (injected intraperitoneally). Thus the combination treatment was expected to initiate a "danger" signal via TLR9 on immune cells, and the anti-CD137 was expected to further activate T cells. In the present study, we found that several other tumor types injected subcutaneously could also be successfully treated with this combination therapy. In addition, we wished to determine if the treatment could work as effectively in an orthotopic metastatic model, which is more physiologically relevant to cancer in humans. Renca was selected as we were familiar with injecting this orthotopically into the outer cortex of the kidney in mice, and it spontaneously metastasizes to lung and abdominal sites. We tested various routes of delivery of CpG combined with intraperitoneal delivery of anti-CD137. Orthotopic tumors were injected with CpG intratumorally, using ultrasound-guided delivery on multiple occasions, combined with anti-CD137 intraperitoneally. A reduction in primary tumor size was observed following intratumoral injection of CpG compared to other treatments. We found that there was a statistically significant increase in survival of mice with orthotopic Renca tumor following intratumoral injection of CpG. However, we determined that the most effective route of delivery of CpG was intravenous, which led to further significantly enhanced survival of mice when combined with anti-CD137 intraperitoneally, likely due to inhibition of metastatic disease. Our data supports future development of this combination therapy for cancer. PMID:24788789

  19. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J; Lee, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Wen; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome (188Re-liposome) was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma. Materials and methods The reporter cell line, F98luc was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of 188Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered 188Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the 188Re-liposome-treated rats. Results By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98luc) showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R2=0.99) in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of 188Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the 188Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). As a result, the lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with 188Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group. Conclusion The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting 188Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the

  20. Effectiveness of Combined Modality Radiotherapy of Orthotopic Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Nu/Nu Mice Using Cetuximab, Tirapazamine and MnSOD-Plasmid Liposome Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    EPPERLY, MICHAEL W.; LAI, STEPHEN Y.; KANAI, ANTHONY J.; MASON, NEAL; LOPRESI, BRIAN; DIXON, TRACEY; FRANICOLA, DARCY; NIU, YUNYUN; WILSON, WILLIAM R.; GREENBERGER, JOEL S.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxic regions limit the radiocontrollability of head and neck carcinomas. Whether or not combinations of plasmid/liposome mediated overexpression of normal tissue protective manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), cetuximab (C225), and the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) enhanced radiotherapeutic effects was tested in a CAL-33 orthotopic mouse cheek tumor model. The tumor volume continued to increase in the control (untreated) mice, with a ninefold increase by 10 days when the tumors exceeded 2 cm3. The mice receiving 14 Gy only showed reduced tumor growth to 3.1±0.1 fold at day 10. The mice receiving MnSOD-PL, C225, TPZ plus 14 Gy had the best outcome with 0.7±0.1 fold increase in tumor volume by 10 days (p=0.015) compared to irradiation only. The addition of MnSOD-PL, TPZ, and C225 to irradiation optimized the therapeutic ratio for the local control of hypoxic region-containing CAL-33 orthotopic tumors. PMID:20133969

  1. Effectiveness of combined modality radiotherapy of orthotopic human squamous cell carcinomas in Nu/Nu mice using cetuximab, tirapazamine and MnSOD-plasmid liposome gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Lai, Stephen Y; Kanai, Anthony J; Mason, Neal; Lopresi, Brian; Dixon, Tracey; Franicola, Darcy; Niu, Yunyun; Wilson, William R; Greenberger, Joel S

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxic regions limit the radiocontrollability of head and neck carcinomas. Whether or not combinations of plasmid/liposome mediated overexpression of normal tissue protective manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), cetuximab (C225), and the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) enhanced radiotherapeutic effects was tested in a CAL-33 orthotopic mouse cheek tumor model. The tumor volume continued to increase in the control (untreated) mice, with a ninefold increase by 10 days when the tumors exceeded 2 cm(3). The mice receiving 14 Gy only showed reduced tumor growth to 3.1+/-0.1 fold at day 10. The mice receiving MnSOD-PL, C225, TPZ plus 14 Gy had the best outcome with 0.7+/-0.1 fold increase in tumor volume by 10 days (p=0.015) compared to irradiation only. The addition of MnSOD-PL, TPZ, and C225 to irradiation optimized the therapeutic ratio for the local control of hypoxic region-containing CAL-33 orthotopic tumors. PMID:20133969

  2. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingtao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ye, Liping; Yang, Wentao; Huang, Haibin; Meng, Fei; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation. PMID:25963256

  3. Metabolomic profiling of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wettersten, Hiromi I; Ganti, Sheila; Weiss, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the newcomers among the "omics" techniques, perhaps also constituting the most relevant for the study of pathophysiological conditions. Metabolomics may indeed yield not only disease-specific biomarkers but also profound insights into the etiology and progression of a variety of human disorders. Various metabolomic approaches are currently available to study oncogenesis and tumor progression in vivo, in murine tumor models. Many of these models rely on the xenograft of human cancer cells into immunocompromised mice. Understanding how the metabolism of these cells evolves in vivo is critical to evaluate the actual pertinence of xenograft models to human pathology. Here, we discuss various tumor xenograft models and methods for their metabolomic profiling to provide a short guide to investigators interested in this field of research. PMID:24924138

  4. Comparative plasma proteome analysis of lymphoma-bearing SJL mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vadiraja B; Choi, Man Ho; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    In SJL mice, growth of RcsX lymphoma cells induces an inflammatory response by stimulating V(beta)16+ T cells. During inflammation, various serum protein levels can increase (e.g., acute phase reactants) or decrease (e.g., albumin), and most of these altered proteins are thus potential biomarkers. Although blood plasma is a valuable and promising sample for biomarker discovery for diseases or for novel drug targets, its proteome is complex. To address this, we have focused on a comprehensive comparison of the plasma proteomes from normal and RcsX-tumor-bearing SJL mice using the 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS method after removing albumin and immunoglobulins. This analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 1079 nonredundant mouse plasma proteins; more than 480 in normal and 790 in RcsX-tumor-bearing SJL mouse plasma. Of these, only 191 proteins were found in common. The molecular weights ranged from 2 to 876 kDa, covering the pI values between 4.22 and 12.09, and included proteins with predicted transmembrane domains. By comparing the plasma proteomic profile of normal and RcsX-tumor-bearing SJL mice, we found significant changes in the levels of many proteins in RcsX-tumor-bearing mouse plasma. Most of the up-regulated proteins were identified as acute-phase proteins (APPs). Also, several unique proteins i.e., haptoglobin, proteosome subunits, fetuin-B, 14-3-3 zeta, MAGE-B4 antigen, etc, were found only in the tumor-bearing mouse plasma; either secreted, shed by membrane vesicles, or externalized due to cell death. These results affirm the effectiveness of this approach for protein identification from small samples, and for comparative proteomics in potential animal models of human disorders. PMID:16212437

  5. Treatment with HIF-1α Antagonist PX-478 Inhibits Progression and Spread of Orthotopic Human Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Jörg J.; Erez, Baruch; Korshunova, Maria V.; Williams, Ryan R.; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Osamu; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Lippman, Scott M.; Powis, Garth; O’Reilly, Michael S.; Herbst, Roy S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction PX-478 is a potent small-molecule inhibitor of HIF-1α. In preclinical studies, it had antitumor activity against various solid tumors in subcutaneous xenografts but had no measurable activity against a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft. To determine the effectiveness of PX-478 against lung tumors, we investigated HIF-1α expression in several lung cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, and treated orthotopic mouse models of human lung cancer with PX-478. Methods Cells from two human lung adenocarcinoma cell models (PC14-PE6 and NCI-H441) or two human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) models (NCI-H187 and NCI-N417) were injected into the left lungs of nude mice and were randomized 16 to 18 days after injection with daily oral treatment with PX-478 or vehicle for 5 days. Results In the PC14-PE6 NSCLC model, treatment with 20 mg/kg PX-478 significantly reduced the median primary lung tumor volume by 87% (p = 0.005) compared with the vehicle-treated group. PX-478 treatment also markedly reduced mediastinal metastasis and prolonged survival. Similar results were obtained in a second NSCLC model. In SCLC models, PX-478 was even more effective. In the NCI-H187 model, the median primary lung tumor volume was reduced by 99% (p = 0.0001). The median survival duration was increased by 132%. In the NCI-N417 model, the median primary lung tumor volume was reduced by 97% (p = 0.008). Conclusions We demonstrated that the PX-478, HIF-1α inhibitor, had significant antitumor activity against two orthotopic models of lung adenocarcinomas and two models of SCLC. These results suggest the inclusion of lung cancer patients in phase I clinical trials of PX-478. PMID:20512076

  6. Soy phytochemicals prevent orthotopic growth and metastasis of bladder cancer in mice by alterations of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajita V; Franke, Adrian A; Blackburn, George L; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2006-02-01

    A role of dietary bioactive components in bladder cancer prevention is biologically plausible because most substances or metabolites are excreted through the urinary tract and are consequently in direct contact with the mucosa of the bladder. We first determined antigrowth activity of genistein against poorly differentiated 253J B-V human bladder cancer cells in vitro. Genistein inhibited the cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner via G(2)-M arrest, down-regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and induction of apoptosis. We also evaluated both genistin, which is a natural form of genistein, and the isoflavone-rich soy phytochemical concentrate (SPC) on the growth and metastasis of 253J B-V tumors in an orthotopic tumor model. Mice treated with genistin and SPC had reduced final tumor weights by 56% (P < 0.05) and 52% (P < 0.05), respectively, associated with induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, SPC treatment, but not genistin treatment, significantly inhibited lung metastases by 95% (P < 0.01) associated with significant down-regulation of NF-kappaB expression in tumor tissues and reduction of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels, suggesting that SPC may contain other bioactive ingredients that have antimetastatic activity. The results from our studies suggest that further clinical investigation should be warranted to apply soy phytochemicals, such as SPC, as a potent prevention regimen for bladder cancer progression. This orthotopic human bladder tumor model also provides a clinically relevant experimental tool for assessing potential preventive activity of other dietary components against bladder tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:16452247

  7. Near infrared optical visualization of epidermal growth factor receptors levels in COLO205 colorectal cell line, orthotopic tumor in mice and human biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Gadi; Lecht, Shimon; Oron-Herman, Mor; Momic, Tatjana; Nissan, Aviram; Lazarovici, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR). The near infrared (NIR) bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for EGF receptor bio-imaging of the NCI-60 recommended panel of tumor cell lines including 6-9 colorectal cell lines, since it avoids radioactive probes and is appropriate for use in the clinical setting using NIR technologies in a real-time manner. PMID:23857061

  8. Chlorpromazine distribution in hamsters and mice bearing transplantable melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Greenberg, D.; Watts, K.P.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Hannon, S.J.; Brill, A.B.; Fand, I.; McNally, W.P.

    1982-02-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) distribution was measured in tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma and in BALB/c mice bearing Harding-Passey melanoma. Distribution was evaluated as a function of time (0.5 to 14 days) and as a function of single and multiple doses (up to five) of from 5 to 50 mg CPZ per kg body weight. Routes of administration (i.p., i.v., p.o.) were compared. The physiological behavior of CPZ is of interest as it is used extensively as a tranquilizing drug (Thorazine). Further, since CPZ binds to the pigment melanin, the possibility exists of using CPZ to transport diagnostic or therapeutic agents to melanoma. It was found that, at 2 days postinjection, tumor/tissue concentration ratios exceeded 10 for metabolizing organs, such as liver, and 100 for background tissues, such as blood and muscle. Absolute concentrations of CPZ in tumor exceeding 100 ..mu..g CPZ per g tumor were obtained with both single and multiple doses. This selective high concentration in tumor would make CPZ an ideal vehicle for the transport of boron to tumor for use in neutron capture therapy via the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction.

  9. Metastatic inefficiency in mice bearing B16 melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, L.; Mayhew, E.; Rapp, D. G.; Holmes, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    When injected i.v. into mice, the F10 subline of B16 melanoma cells produced significantly more lung tumours over a 3-week period than cells of the F101.r-6 subline. However, in animals bearing intramuscular tumours produced by these sublines, the high pulmonary-colonization potential of the F10 cells was not realized, and no significant differences in natural pulmonary metastasis formation were observed in animals with untreated primary cancers, even when they progressed to the moribund state. Massage of i.m. tumours derived from the two sublines produced no change in metastasis and no changes in the numbers of cancer cells in the blood detectable by bioassay. In contrast, massage increased metastasis from tumours derived from an invasive BL6 subline and B16 wild-type cells and, in the case of the wild-type, the numbers of circulating cancer cells. In vitro experiments show that blood cells from non-tumour-bearing animals are toxic to both sublines; but less to F10 than to F101.r-6. In addition, after i.v. injection of radiolabelled cells, more of the F10 subline were retained in the lungs of recipients than the F101.r-6. In spite of these apparent metastatic advantages of the F10 subline following intravasation, the incidence of natural metastases from i.m. F10 and F101.r-6 tumours was similar, suggesting that substantially fewer F10 than F101.r-6 cells gained access to the circulation. Thus, the higher colonization potential of the F10 cells was not matched by its intravasation potential, since metastatic efficiency is determined by the least efficient step in the metastatic process. PMID:7059464

  10. Pharmacokinetic Profile and Acute Toxicological Properties of a Novel Radiosensitizer Cytosine-Phosphate-Guanosine Oligodeoxynucleotide 107 in Mice Following Intravenous and Orthotopic Administration.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yanyan; Li, Xiaoli; Yin, Zhiwei; Yan, Zifei; Liu, Dan; Peng, Wei; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The synthetic cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide 107 (CpG ODN107) is a novel radiosensitizer for glioma treatment. However, the information related to its pharmacokinetics and toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, the plasma pharmacokinetics, distribution, elimination, and acute toxicity of CpG ODN107 in mice were investigated in the present experiments. The results from the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay showed that the plasma elimination half-life (t1/2β) of CpG ODN107 in BALB/c mice varied slightly with the dose, and it was 0.65, 0.49, and 0.50 h at the intravenous doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. CpG ODN107 rapidly and widely distributed in organs/tissues, except the brain and testes. The highest concentrations were found in the liver (28.6% of the administered dose after 0.5 h) and the kidneys (5.7% of the administered dose after 1 h). CpG ODN107 (0.3, 3, and 30 μg/mL) could highly bind to human and mouse plasma proteins in vitro. CpG ODN107 in the forms of prototype was excreted in urine (1.79%) and feces (0.91%), and its shortened metabolites were excreted in urine (2.1%) and feces (2.2%) within the first 24 h. The mice in vivo optical image showed CpG ODN107 labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 fluorochrome (AF680) accumulated in the brain after orthotopic injection, eliminated very slowly, and excreted in urine compared with poly T labeled with AF680. The median lethal dose (LD50) of CpG ODN107 was 75.7 mg/kg for mice; this dose only could produce apparent spleen and liver damage, in line with the distribution features of CpG ODN. In conclusion, our present pharmacokinetic and toxicity investigation will provide helpful information to further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research of CpG ODN107 and other oligodeoxynucleotide drugs in the future. PMID:26213852

  11. Curcumin reduces trabecular and cortical bone in naive and Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin on bone microstructural changes in female C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of Lewis lung carcinoma. Morphometric analysis showed that in tumor-bearing mice curcumin at 2% and 4% dietary levels (w/w) significa...

  12. Orthotopic bone transplantation in mice. III. Methods of reducing the immune response and their effect on healing

    SciTech Connect

    Kliman, M.; Halloran, P.F.; Lee, E.; Esses, S.; Fortner, P.; Langer, F.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of reducing the immune response to allogeneic bone grafts, either by pretreating the graft or by immunosuppressing the recipient, were compared. Tibial grafts from B10.D2 mice, either untreated or pretreated in various ways, were transplanted into B10 recipients. The antibody response was followed and the extent of bone healing at 4 months was assessed. Pretreatment of the graft by X-irradiation, freezing, or by incubation in alloantisera (either anti-H-2 or anti-Ia) reduced or abolished the immunogenicity of the graft. Immunosuppression of the recipient with methotrexate or antilymphocyte serum (ALS) also greatly depressed the antibody response. But when healing was assessed, none of these treatments except ALS improved the delayed healing of the bone allografts. The reason for this failure was probably that X-irradiation, freezing, alloantiserum pretreatment, and methotrexate all interfered with bone healing directly, whereas ALS did not. We conclude that many methods will reduce the immune response to allogeneic bone, but that only ALS will improve the healing of the allogeneic bone. Furthermore, as a corollary to the observation that pretreatment with anti-Ia serum markedly reduced the immunogenicity of bone allografts, we conclude that much of the immunogenicity of bone allografts is attributable to a population of Ia-positive cells.

  13. Establishment of a dual-color fluorescence tracing orthotopic transplantation model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Xiaoping; Wu, Hao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Mingao; Wang, Roushu; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Luyao; Meng, Qiao; Song, Ranran; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Huang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Different experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been used to investigate the biological mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and its progression. However, previous studies have highlighted the difficulty of distinguishing between the tumor cells and stroma in experimental models of HCC. Therefore the aim of the present study was to establish a red‑green dual‑color fluorescence tracing orthotopic transplantation model of HCC, and investigate its practical values. Stable high red fluorescent protein (RFP)‑expressing HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Hepa1‑6 mice hepatoma cells were injected into the right liver lobe of green fluorescent protein‑expressing nude mice. The growth and metastasis of the tumors were visualized using a whole‑body in vivo fluorescence imaging system in real time. HCC tissues were extracted from tumor‑bearing mice, and cut into 5‑µm serial frozen slices. The organizational structure of the transplanted tumors was observed under a microscope. A dual‑color fluorescence tracing orthotopic transplantation tumor model of HCC was successfully established with a success rate of 100%. The growth and metastasis of the tumors were visualized at each stage of development in the tumor‑bearing mice. Tumor cells with red fluorescence and host cells with green fluorescence were identified to merge in the reconstruction region of tumor tissue. The invasion, migration, and cell fusion between tumor and host cells was observed clearly. The dual‑color fluorescence tracing orthotopic transplantation model of HCC was determined to be a stable and reliable method for tracking tumor progression. Mutual interactions between hepatoma cells and host tissues may be observed directly using this model, further elucidating the development of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26647736

  14. Antitumor Efficacy and Mechanism in Hepatoma H22-Bearing Mice of Brucea javanica Oil

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Rong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Huang, Qiong-Ying; Cai, Xue-Rong; Wu, Shao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Brucea javanica is a traditional herbal medicine in China, and its antitumor activities are of research interest. Brucea javanica oil, extracted with ether and refined with 10% ethyl alcohol from Brucea javanica seed, was used to treat hepatoma H22-bearing mice in this study. The antitumor effect and probable mechanisms of the extracted Brucea javanica oil were studied in H22-bearing mice by WBC count, GOT, GPT levels, and western blotting. The H22 tumor inhibition ratio of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/kg bw Brucea javanica oil were 15.64%, 23.87%, and 38.27%. Brucea javanica oil could inhibit the involution of thymus induced by H22 tumor-bearing, but it could not inhibit the augmentation of spleen and liver. Brucea javanica oil could decrease the levels of WBC count and GOT and GPT in H22-bearing mice. The protein levels of GAPDH, Akt, TGF-β1, and α-SMA in tumor tissues decreased after being treated with Brucea javanica oil. Disturbing energy metabolism and neoplastic hyperplasia controlled by Akt and immunoregulation activity were its probable antitumor mechanisms in hepatoma H22-bearing mice. PMID:26508976

  15. Inhibitions of several antineoplastic drugs on serum sialic Acid levels in mice bearing tumors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Da-Yong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Ting-Ren; Wu, Hong-Ying; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the content of sialic acids in blood was increased in tumor growth and certain tumor types. Higher sialic acid content was observed in ascites than that present in blood. The influence of antineoplastic agents (vincristine, thiotepa, adriamycin, probimane, cisplatin, oxalysine, cortisone, nitrogen mustard, lycobetaine, Ara-C, harringtonine, and cyclophosphamide) on the content of sialic acids in mice blood bearing solid tumors of either S180 or Lewis lung carcinoma was observed. Different inhibitions of antineoplastic drugs on both tumor growth and serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors were found. Among these antineoplastic drugs, probimane, cisplatin, nitrogen mustard, and lycobetaine were able to decrease the serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors. Since these four antineoplastic drugs are all DNA chelating agents, it was proposed that the inhibition of tumor sialic acids by these drugs might be through the DNA template via two ways. Since we have found no effect of antineoplastic drugs on serum sialic acid levels in normal mice, this suggests that the inhibition of antineoplastic drugs on sialic acids is by tumor involvement. PMID:23641340

  16. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Isoflavones Prevents Muscle Wasting in Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirasaka, Katsuya; Saito, Shinobu; Yamaguchi, Saki; Miyazaki, Riho; Wang, Yao; Haruna, Marie; Taniyama, Shigeto; Higashitani, Atsushi; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu

    2016-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the progression of muscle wasting caused by ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis. We have previously demonstrated that isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, prevent TNF-α-induced muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary flavonoids on the wasting of muscle. Mice were divided into the following four groups: vehicle-injected (control) mice fed the normal diet (CN); tumor-bearing mice fed the normal diet (TN); control mice fed the isoflavone diet (CI); and tumor-bearing mice fed the isoflavone diet (TI). There were no significant differences in the intake of food or body weight gain among these four groups. The wet weight and myofiber size of gastrocnemius muscle in TN significantly decreased, compared with those in CN. Interestingly, the wet weight and myofiber size of gastrocnemius muscle in TI were nearly the same as those in CN and CI, although isoflavone supplementation did not affect the increased tumor mass or concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in the blood. Moreover, increased expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase genes encoding MAFbx/Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in the skeletal muscle of TN was significantly inhibited by the supplementation of isoflavones. In parallel with the expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, dietary isoflavones significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK in tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest that dietary isoflavones improve muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice via the ERK signaling pathway mediated-suppression of ubiquitin ligases in muscle cells. PMID:27465724

  18. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

  19. Osthole promotes anti-tumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lurong; Jiang, Guorong; Yao, Fei; Liang, Guoqiang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yan; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, has been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effect of osthole on anti-tumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice has not yet been reported. In the present study, osthole treatment did not affect the weight and the coefficient of thymus and spleen in tumor-bearing mice with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, osthole administration significantly elevated the proportion and number of the splenic CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells in tumor tissues, and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-α in the serum of HCC tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that osthole could promote the activation of the tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells, and elevate the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells. Osthole treatment also significantly decreased the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the spleen. Taken together, osthole could enhance the T cell mediated anti-tumor immune responses in the tumor-bearing mice with HCC. PMID:25975579

  20. Antitumor Effect of Zhihuang Fuzheng Soft Capsules on Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanyan; Pan, Xin; Jin, Yahong; Gao, Yingjie; Cui, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese medicines (CMs) have been shown to have some advantages in preventing and controlling tumors. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ZFSC by establishing a mouse model of HT-1080, A-549, and HCT-8 tumors. The result showed that tumor volumes of HT-1080 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group, and the high dose ZFSC showed the best antitumor effect. Tumor volumes of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group and showed a good dose-response relationship. There was no significant effect on human colon cancer, although inhibition trends disappeared in the bar chart. In order to verify the immunomodulatory effect of ZFSC, ELISA was used to analyze serums IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN in spleens. The results showed that ZFSC could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. ZFSC reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α content in the serum of HT-1080 tumor-bearing mice and inhibit PD1 and PDL1 and suggested that the antitumor mechanism of ZFSC on human fibrosarcoma could be attributed to inhibition of the PDL1/PD1 pathway. PMID:27493673

  1. Orthotopic Injection of Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Nicole M; Rhim, Andrew D; Stanger, Ben Z

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease with a 5-yr survival rate of only 5%. The location of the pancreas in the abdomen, where it is obscured by other organs, makes it a difficult tissue to study and manipulate. This protocol describes in detail how to orthotopically inject cancer cells into the pancreas in mice. This technique is particularly useful when the cells must be manipulated in ways that cannot be modeled genetically. PMID:26729902

  2. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

  3. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP(+) cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP(+) cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1(+) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP(+)/EYFP(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  4. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP+ cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP+ cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1+ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP+/EYFP+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  5. Bifidobacteria Expressing Tumstatin Protein for Antitumor Therapy in Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, C; Xun, A Y; Wei, X X; Yao, J; Wang, J Y; Shi, R Y; Yang, G H; Li, Y X; Xu, Z L; Lai, M G; Zhang, R; Wang, L-S; Zeng, W S

    2016-06-01

    Tumstatin (Tum) is a powerful angiostatin that inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of tumorous vascular endothelial cells. A nonpathogenic and anaerobic bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum (BL), selectively localizes to and proliferates in the hypoxia location within solid tumor. The aims of this study were to develop a novel delivery system for Tum using engineered Bifidobacterium and to investigate the inhibitory effect of Tum on tumor in mice. A vector that enabled the expression of Tum under the control of the pBBADs promoter of BL was constructed and transformed into BL NCC2705 by electroporation. The mouse colon carcinoma cells CT26 (1 × 10(7)/mL) were subcutaneously inserted in the left armpit of BALB/c mice. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with Tum-transformed BL, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformed BL was used as a negative control. The microvessel density (MVD) in the transplanted tumor was determined, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling was used to detect apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in transplanted tumor. The in vitro expression of Tum was examined in BL after l-arabinose induction. Bifidobacterium longum with pBBAD-Tum (BL-Tum) showed significant antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice. The weight, volume, growth, and MVD, as well as the percentage of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells of transplanted tumors in the tumor-bearing mice treated with Tum-transformed BL were all significantly lower than those in the GFP negative control group. Intragastric administration, injection in tumor and vena caudalis injection of Tum-transformed BL exerted marked antitumor effects in tumor-bearing mice. This is the first demonstration of the utilization of Tum-transformed BL as a specific gene delivery system for treating tumor. PMID:25969440

  6. Hypothalamo-neurohypophysial complex in leukemia L 1210-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jasiński, A; Skraba, A

    1975-02-01

    Mice of the DBA strain were inoculated with 4.5 x 10(6) L1210 ascites cells and the time response of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial complex was studied. The amount of neurosecretory material was determined in the neuroendocrine cells of supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, throughout the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract and in the neural lobe of the hypophysis. Three methods of response evaluation were employed: the amoount of neurosecretory material was estimated according to an arbitrary scale, by cytophotometry while for the hypothalamic cell-nuclei the karyometric method was used. The existence of a functional interrelation between the presence of leukemic cells and the activity of the hormonogenic sites in the hypothalamus is suggested. A clear response to the tumor inoculation was established both in the amount of stainable substance and in the nuclear volume of the secretory neurones. It is suggested that an accelerated synthesis and release of neurosecretory material in tumor recipient mice reduces renal excretion in order to compensate a dehydration caused by the production of ascitic fluid. PMID:1227831

  7. Isolation and (111)In-Oxine Labeling of Murine NK Cells for Assessment of Cell Trafficking in Orthotopic Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Gaurav; Nayak, Tapan; Gerdes, Christian; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto; de Vries, Erik F J

    2016-04-01

    A noninvasive in vivo imaging method for NK cell trafficking is essential to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of NK cell mediated immune response to the novel cancer treatment strategies, and to discover the homing sites and physiological distribution of NK cells. Although human NK cells can be labeled for in vivo imaging, little is known about the murine NK cell labeling and its application in animal models. This study describes the isolation and ex vivo radiolabeling of murine NK cells for the evaluation of cell trafficking in an orthotopic model of human lung cancer in mice. Scid-Tg(FCGR3A)Blt transgenic SCID mice were used to isolate NK cells from mouse splenocytes using the CD49b (DX5) MicroBeads positive selection method. The purity and viability of the isolated NK cells were confirmed by FACS analysis. Different labeling buffers and incubation times were evaluated to optimize (111)In-oxine labeling conditions. Functionality of the radiolabeled NK cell was assessed by (51)Cr-release assay. We evaluated physiological distribution of (111)In-oxine labeled murine NK cells in normal SCID mice and biodistribution in irradiated and nonirradiated SCID mice with orthotopic A549 human lung tumor lesions. Imaging findings were confirmed by histology. Results showed that incubation with 0.011 MBq of (111)In-oxine per million murine NK cells in PBS (pH 7.4) for 20 min is the best condition that provides optimum labeling efficiency without affecting cell viability and functionality. Physiological distribution in normal SCID mice demonstrated NK cells homing mainly in the spleen, while (111)In released from NK cells was excreted via kidneys into urine. Biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher lung uptake in orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mice than control mice. In irradiated mice, lung tumor uptake of radiolabeled murine NK cells decreased between 24 h and 72 h postinjection (p.i.), which was accompanied by tumor regression, while in nonirradiated mice

  8. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Polymersomes Composed of Poly(Butadiene-Ethylene Oxide); Healthy versus Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Abou, D; Ramos, N; Mendes, E; Franken, L E; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2016-02-01

    Vesicles composed of block copolymers (i.e., polymersomes) are one of the most versatile nano-carriers for medical purposes due to their tuneable physicochemical properties and the possibility to encapsulate simultaneously hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, allowing, for instance, the combination of therapy and imaging. In cancer treatment, these vesicles need to remain long enough in the blood stream to be sufficiently taken up by tumors. Here, we have investigated the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of polymersomes, composed of poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) having dimensions around 80 nm. The polymersomes have been radiolabeled with ¹¹¹In via the so-called active loading method achieving a loading efficiency of 92.9 ± 0.9% with radionuclide retention in mouse serum of more than 95% at 24 h. The optimized ¹¹¹In containing polymersomes have been intravenously administered in healthy and tumor bearing mice for pharmacokinetic determination using microSPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). In healthy mice these polymersomes have been found to exhibit relatively long blood circulation (> 6 h), low liver uptake (6 ± 1.5%ID/g, 48 h p.i.) and elevated spleen uptake (188 ± 30%ID/g). The blood circulation in tumor bearing mice is dramatically reduced (< 1.5 h) most likely due to elevated splenic filtration, clearly indicating the importance of in vivo studies in diseased mice. Finally, the polymersomes have been injected subcutaneously in tumor bearing mice revealing retention of 77% in the mice, primarily accumulated at the site of injection, up to 48 hours after administration. PMID:27305765

  10. CCR4 is critically involved in effective antitumor immunity in mice bearing intradermal B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Koyama, Atsushi; Imamura, Reira; Kawai, Shiori; Nishiwaki, Keiji; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Yoshie, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    CCR4 is a major chemokine receptor expressed by Treg cells and Th17 cells. While Treg cells are known to suppress antitumor immunity, Th17 cells have recently been shown to enhance the induction of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here, CCR4-deficient mice displayed enhanced tumor growth upon intradermal inoculation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In CCR4-deficient mice, while IFN-γ+CD8+ effector T cells were decreased in tumor sites, IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells were decreased in regional lymph nodes. In wild-type mice, CD4+IL-17A+ cells, which were identified as CCR4+CD44+ memory Th17, were found to be clustered around dendritic cells expressing MDC/CCL22, a ligand for CCR4, in regional lymph nodes. Compound 22, a CCR4 antagonist, also enhanced tumor growth and decreased Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes in tumor-bearing mice treated with Dacarbazine. In contrast, CCR6 deficiency did not affect the tumor growth and the numbers of Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes. These findings indicate that CCR4 is critically involved in regional lymph node DC-Th17 cell interactions that are necessary for Th17 cell-mediated induction of antitumor CD8+ effector T cells in mice bearing B16 melanoma. PMID:27132989

  11. Inhibitory efficacy of the quantified prunellae spica extract on H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2013-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistence of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. In this report, we assessed the antitumor activity of a prunellae spica aqueous extract (PSE) in vitro and in vivo. PSE was quantified by HPLC and UV. MTT assay showed that PSE did not effectively inhibit the growth of H22 cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity was assessed by using the mice bearing H22 tumor. In vivo studies showed the higher antitumor efficacy of PSE without significant side effect assessed by the reduced tumor weight, and the extended survival time of the mice bearing H22 solid and ascites tumor. Collectively, PSE is a promising Chinese medicinal herb for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Ro 03-8799 in mice bearing melanosarcoma: comparison with tumors without melanin

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, F.; Canal, P.; Soula, G.

    1989-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of Ro 03-8799 has been studied in melanic and non-melanic tumor bearing mice after iv administration of 150 mg/kg. The peak concentration in B16 melanosarcoma tumor reached 152 micrograms/g, that is 7.6-fold higher than the plasma concentration at the same time. This concentration is 3-times greater than that obtained in the tumor of mice bearing non-melanic sarcoma (DB16) or Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL). The exposure of B16 tumor (AUC) is respectively 15-times and 11-times higher than the 3LL and the DB16 ones. These experimental data confirm that this 2-nitro-imidazol compound has an important affinity for melanin and suggest that it might be used as a radiosensitizer for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  13. In vitro immunostimulatory properties of Abrus lectins derived peptides in tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Sujit K; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Maiti, Tapas K

    2009-08-01

    In vitro immunostimulatory effect of Abrus lectins derived peptide fractions (AGP and ABP) was investigated in DL bearing mice. Both AGP and ABP were found to activate splenocytes and induced production of cytokines like IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha indicating a Th1 type of immune response. Analysis of in vitro treated splenocytes by flow cytometry revealed an increase in percentage of T and B cell with high expression of activation markers (CD25(+) and CD71(+)). At the same time, expression of co-stimulatory markers was significantly high compared to tumor control. The tumor associated macrophages were able to stimulate NO production, IL-1 secretion, increased phagocytosis and decreased expression of mannose receptor. It was also observed that NK cell was activated by AGP and ABP. These results suggest that both AGP and ABP act as immunostimulants in vitro in DL bearing mice. PMID:19303750

  14. Administration of polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng prolonged the survival of H22 tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaiyu; Gu, Longlong; Zhong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yajuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Annie R; Sobol, Robert W; Chen, Tong; Li, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides from various sources are being considered potential sources for the treatment of liver cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of polysaccharide isolated from Panax notoginseng (PPN) on the proliferation of H22 liver cancer cells and the survival of the tumor-bearing mice transplanted with H22 cells. Materials and methods Polysaccharide from PPN was added to the culture medium of mouse hepatoma H22 cells at different doses. Cell proliferation was assayed with a standard MTT assay. Survival rates of tumor-bearing mice were recorded. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were assayed by flow cytometry. Serum interleukin-2 levels in peripheral blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Polysaccharide from PPN inhibited the growth of H22 cells and significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The increase in activated CD4+ T-cells and the elevation of serum interleukin-2 may contribute to the antitumor activity of PPN. Conclusion PPN has potential antitumor activity for the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27354815

  15. Evaluation of Dynamic Weight Bearing for Measuring Nonevoked Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen, Mari A.; Dernetz, Valerie H.; Yang, Gee Su; Griffith, Kathleen A.; Dorsey, Susan G.; Renn, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal models in pain research have suggested that inclusion of both evoked and nonevoked behavioral measures are needed to better reflect the human pain experience. Individuals with chronic pain are known to experience spontaneous pain, in addition to pain, following exposure to an external stimulus. Recently, the Dynamic Weight Bearing (DWB) apparatus was developed to assess for nonevoked hyperalgesia by capturing weight bearing and surface distribution in the paws of mice following acute inflammation. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the DWB test as a measure of nonevoked hyperalgesia. Method The experimental group received an intraplantar injection to the left hind paw of the inflammatory agent—Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)—while the vehicle control group received a saline injection, and the naïve control group had no treatment. Caliper and plethysmometer were used to verify inflammation, and the hot-plate test was used as a measure for stimulus evoked hyperalgesia. Data were collected at baseline, three hours, one, three, and seven days after injection. Results Mice injected with CFA showed a statistically significant higher mean paw thickness and volume displacement compared to vehicle and naïve control groups. In the hot-plate testing, CFA-treated mice showed lower response temperature at seven days compared to other groups. On the DWB test, CFA-treated mice showed a reduction in the ipsilateral paw load and surface area compared to the contralateral paw load at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Discussion Mice with inflammation demonstrated alterations in weight bearing, as well as increased thermal hyperalgesia in comparison to controls groups. These findings support the use of the DWB test as a tool for measuring nonevoked inflammatory hyperalgesia in a mouse model. PMID:25738619

  16. Antitumour effect of Diospyros cordifolia bark on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Pramanik, Goutam; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. (Ebenaceae), commonly known as Indian ebony, is used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In this study, the methanol extract of D. cordifolia bark (MEDC) was evaluated for its antitumour effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumour (EAC) cells in mice, MEDC was administered intraperitoneally at 25 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ bodyweight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumour volume, viable and non-viable tumour cell counts, and rest were kept alive for the assessment of median survival time and increase in life span. Haematological profiles were also determined. MEDC exhibited a marked decrease in tumour growth parameters and increased the survival rate of EAC-bearing animals. MEDC normalised the haematological parameters as compared with the EAC control mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that D. cordifolia bark possessed remarkable antitumour efficacy. PMID:21985607

  17. A Novel Orthotopic Mouse Model of Human Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nucera, Carmelo; Nehs, Matthew A.; Mekel, Michal; Zhang, Xuefeng; Hodin, Richard; Lawler, Jack; Nose, Vânia

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthotopic mouse models of human cancer represent an important in vivo tool for drug testing and validation. Most of the human thyroid carcinoma cell lines used in orthotopic or subcutaneous models are likely of melanoma and colon cancer. Here, we report and characterize a novel orthotopic model of human thyroid carcinoma using a unique thyroid cancer cell line. Methods We used the cell line 8505c, originated from a thyroid tumor histologically characterized by anaplastic carcinoma cell features. We injected 8505c cells engineered using a green fluorescent protein–positive lentiviral vector orthotopically into the thyroid of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results Orthotopic implantation with the 8505c cells produced thyroid tumors after 5 weeks, showing large neck masses, with histopathologic features of a high-grade neoplasm (anaplasia, necrosis, high mitotic and proliferative indexes, p53 positivity, extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node and distant metastases) and immunoprofile of follicular thyroid cell origin with positivity for thyroid transcription factor-1 and PAX8, and for cytokeratins. Conclusions Here we describe a novel orthotopic thyroid carcinoma model using 8505c cells. This model can prove to be a reliable and useful tool to investigate in vivo biological mechanisms determining thyroid cancer aggressiveness, and to test novel therapeutics for the treatment of refractory or advanced thyroid cancers. PMID:19772429

  18. Addition of Propolis to Irinotecan Therapy Prolongs Survival in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Blažević, Ana Sofia; Mihaljević, Josipa; Oršolić, Nada; Knežević, Anica Horvat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated possible synergistic action of anticancer drug Irinotecan (IRI) combined with ethanolic (EEP) and water-soluble (WSDP) derivate of propolis on Swiss albino mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). For survival analysis mice were administered WSDP and EEP (100 mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days, beginning on 3rd day after EAT cell (1×106) injection. IRI was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg on days 1, 13, and 19. We simultaneously studied peripheral white blood cell count, cell types washed from the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages from peritoneal cavity, and the level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes, kidney, and liver cells using the alkaline comet assay. Three out of 9 mice per group survived the entire duration of the experiment (90 days) in groups treated with IRI combined with WSDP and EEP. All test components increased survival of mice by 7.53% to 231.54%. Combined treatment with IRI and/or WSDP and EEP significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice. All treated animals had significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity in comparison to nontreated EAT-injected mice. We observed significantly higher value of DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with IRI and combination of IRI and/or WSDP and EEP as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice, while the same treatment decreased DNA damage in kidney. Our results showed that addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of IRI and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice, which definitely deserve further studies to clarify the possible mechanisms of antitumor actions of combined herb–drug treatments. PMID:24383762

  19. Toxicity Profiles In Vivo in Mice and Antitumour Activity in Tumour-Bearing Mice of Di- and Triorganotin Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Willem, R.; Dalil, H.; de Vos, D.; Kuiper, C. M.; Peters, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo toxicity profiles in mice and the antitumour activity in tumour bearing mice were screened for four di-n-butyltin and five triorganotin carboxylates, di-n-butyltin diterebate (5), bis(phenylacetate) (6), bis(deoxycholate) (7), bis(lithocholate) (8), tri-n-butyltin terebate (9), cinnamate (10), and triphenyltin terebate (11). At their maximum tolerated dosis (MTD), no antitumour effect (T/C ~1) was observed for the compounds 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11. The compounds 6 (T/C = 0.51) and 8 (T/C = 0.42) showed clear antitumour activity after single dose administration and might therefore be of interest for further antitumour activity studies. PMID:18475827

  20. Antioxidant supplementation accelerates cachexia development by promoting tumor growth in C26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Assi, Mohamad; Derbré, Frédéric; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Rébillard, Amélie

    2016-02-01

    More than 50% of patients with advanced stages of colon cancer suffer from progressive loss of skeletal muscle, called cachexia, resulting in reduced quality of life and shortened survival. It is becoming evident that reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate pathways controlling skeletal muscle atrophy. Herein we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant supplementation could prevent skeletal muscle atrophy in a model of cachectic Colon 26 (C26) tumor-bearing mice. Seven-week-old BALB/c mice were subcutaneously inoculated with colon 26 (C26) cancer cells or PBS. Then C26-mice were daily gavaged during 22 days either with PBS (vehicle) or an antioxidant cocktail whose composition is close to that of commercial dietary antioxidant supplements (rich in catechins, quercetin and vitamin C). We found that antioxidants enhanced weight loss and caused premature death of mice. Antioxidants supplementation failed to prevent (i) the increase in plasma TNF-α levels and systemic oxidative damage, (ii) skeletal muscle atrophy and (iii) activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (MuRF-1, MAFbx and polyubiquitinated proteins). Accordingly, immunohistological staining for Ki-67 and the expression of cell cycle inhibitors demonstrated that tumor of supplemented mice developed faster with a concomitant decrease in oxidative damage. Previous studies have shown that the use of catechins and quercetin separately can improve the musculoskeletal function in cachectic animals. However, our results indicate that the combination of these antioxidants reduced survival and enhanced cachexia in C26-mice. PMID:26708754

  1. An Orthotopic Mouse Model of Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Amy V; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality of breast cancer patients. The mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis, including breast cancer metastasis, is largely unknown and is a focus in cancer research. Various breast cancer spontaneous metastasis mouse models have been established. Here, we report a simplified procedure to establish orthotopic transplanted breast cancer primary tumor and resultant spontaneous metastasis that mimic human breast cancer metastasis. Combined with the bioluminescence live tumor imaging, this mouse model allows tumor growth and progression kinetics to be monitored and quantified. In this model, a low dose (1 x 10(4) cells) of 4T1-Luc breast cancer cells was injected into BALB/c mouse mammary fat pad using a tuberculin syringe. Mice were injected with luciferin and imaged at various time points using a bioluminescent imaging system. When the primary tumors grew to the size limit as in the IACUC-approved protocol (approximately 30 days), mice were anesthetized under constant flow of 2% isoflurane and oxygen. The tumor area was sterilized with 70% ethanol. The mouse skin around the tumor was excised to expose the tumor which was removed with a pair of sterile scissors. Removal of the primary tumor extends the survival of the 4T-1 tumor-bearing mice for one month. The mice were then repeatedly imaged for metastatic tumor spreading to distant organs. Therapeutic agents can be administered to suppress tumor metastasis at this point. This model is simple and yet sensitive in quantifying breast cancer cell growth in the primary site and progression kinetics to distant organs, and thus is an excellent model for studying breast cancer growth and progression, and for testing anti-metastasis therapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents in vivo. PMID:27584043

  2. Modulation of primary antibody response by protein A in tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S I; Singh, K P; Raisuddin, S; Jafri, A; Saxena, A K; Choudhary, S; Ray, P K

    1995-11-01

    Protein A (PA) is a cell wall glycoprotein of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, which possess a number of immunomodulatory and antitumor properties. We have previously shown that PA suppresses the anti-sheep erythrocyte primary antibody response in normal mice. The present investigation evaluates the effect of protein A on the anti-sheep erythrocyte primary antibody response in tumor-bearing mice. The primary antibody response in tumor-bearing mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was suppressed by the intraperitoneal administration of PA in a dose-dependent fashion. The plaque forming cell (PFC) assay was used to assess this response. Maximum suppression of the PFC response was observed at 12 micrograms PA/animal (p < 0.001) and could be observed at doses as low as 1 microgram PA/animal (p < 0.01). The amount of suppression was proportional to the number of PA doses administered. In addition this effect was critically dependent on the timing of PA administration. PA showed no significant effect on PFC when injected after immunization, but it produced pronounced suppression when injected prior to the immunization with SRBC. Maximum suppression of the PFC response was observed when PA was administered one day before the antigen challenge. PA also reduced splenic localization of 51Cr labeled SRBC to 42% (p < 0.01). The altered localization of antigen in spleen may be responsible for reduced PFC response in tumor-bearing mice. Depletion of B-lymphocyte is reported to exhibit tumor inhibition. Therefore, we propose that the suppression of the primary antibody response by PA helps in tumor regression by reducing the soluble immunosuppressive immune complexes. PMID:8537611

  3. Targeted Non-invasive Imaging of EGFR-expressing Orthotopic Pancreatic Cancer using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Shanice V.; Huang, Justin S.; Yin, Wenyuan; Albeituni, Sabrin; Rush, Jamie; Khanal, Anil; Yan, Jun; Ceresa, Brian P.; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McNally, Lacey R.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of orthotopic xenograft tumors is difficult due to poor spatial resolution and reduced image fidelity with traditional optical imaging modalities. In particular, light scattering and attenuation in tissue at depths beyond subcutaneous implantation hinder adequate visualization. We evaluate the use of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to detect upregulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in orthotopic pancreatic xenografts using a near-infrared (NIR) EGF-conjugated CF-750 fluorescent probe. MSOT is based on the photoacoustic effect and thus not limited by photon scattering, resulting in high-resolution tomographic images. Pancreatic tumor-bearing mice with luciferase-transduced S2VP10L tumors were intravenously injected with EGF-750 probe prior to MSOT imaging. We characterized probe specificity and bioactivity via immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometric analysis. In vitro data along with optical bioluminescence/fluorescence imaging were used to validate acquired MSOT in vivo images of probe biodistribution. Indocyanine green dye was used as a non-specific control to define specificity of EGF-probe accumulation. Maximum accumulation occurred at six hours post-injection, demonstrating specific intra-tumoral probe uptake and minimal liver and kidney off-target accumulation. Optical bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging confirmed tumor-specific probe accumulation consistent with MSOT images. These studies demonstrate the utility of MSOT to obtain volumetric images of ligand probe biodistribution in vivo to detect orthotopic pancreatic tumor lesions through active targeting of EGF receptor. PMID:25217521

  4. [Pulsed electric fields inhibit tumor growth but induce myocardial injury of melanoma-bearing mice].

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengying; Wu, Sha; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the tumor inhibiting effect of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) on melanoma-bearing mice, and understand its influence on myocardial cells and cardial electrical activity. Methods The melanoma models of the BALB/c mice were established by subcutaneously injecting B16 melanoma cells. These mice were randomly divided into four groups. The treated groups received pulsed electric stimulation at pulse width of 1, 3, 5 ms, with field strength of 100 V/cm and frequency of 10 Hz for 10 minutes daily in 15 consecutive days. ECG of mice was recorded. Tumor volume was measured with vernier caliper. Morphological changes of tumors were observed by HE staining. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA was tested by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of PCNA protein was detected by immunofluorescence histochemistry. The ultrastructural changes of the cardiac tissues were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The serum levels of cardial troponin T (cTnT) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) were detected by ELISA. Results Compared with the control group, tumor volumes in all treated groups were reduced 7 days after PEFs treatment; more melanin granules in tumor cells were found in the treated groups; the expressions of PCNA mRNA and protein were down-regulated in all treated groups, and there were greater changes in the groups receiving the bigger pulse width. Myocardial injury was found in 3 ms group and 5 ms group, and the expressions of cTnT and CK-MB were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion PEFs can inhibit tumor growth in melanoma-bearing mice. Increase of pulse width will aggravate myocardial injury. PMID:27363271

  5. Radioprotection by Macerated Extract of Nigella sativa in Normal Tissues of Fibrosarcoma Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Velho-Pereira, Reelma; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretreatment with macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg/kg), using alkaline comet assay, and also estimating biochemical and blood parameters such as levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation in organs such as spleen, liver, brain and intestine haemoglobin and total leucocyte count, respectively. The results showed that the macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected the liver, spleen, brain and intestines both in normal as well as tumour bearing mice. This study concludes that macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds has protective effects against radiation-induced damage and biochemical alterations which could be attributed to the ability to scavenge free radicals and its antioxidant properties. Hence macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds, could be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress in normal tissues and improving the quality of life of cancer patients by mitigating unwanted side effects of radiation in normal tissues. PMID:23716868

  6. UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics analysis on mice bearing neoplasm (H22) for hispidulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqiang; Li, Xiang; Miao, Yunjie; Shan, Chenxiao; Yuan, Fei; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Qiwen; Chen, Jianwei; Chen, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Although some physiological and pathological function parameters of hepatitis and liver cancer have been investigated in relation to hispidulin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), the changes of small metabolites in biofluids have been reported rarely. Recent research has shown that metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides a good understanding of hispidulin effects on mice vaccinated intraperitoneally with H22 tumor cells. Twenty-five potential biomarkers, up- or down-regulated (P<0.05 or 0.01), were identified, and 17 metabolic pathways were constructed. These potential biomarkers underpin the metabolic pathways, which are disturbed in the mice bearing neoplasm (H22). These pathways include pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism; steroid hormone biosynthesis; pyrimidine metabolism; and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Furthermore, 4-phosphopantothenoylcysteine, glycine, niacinamide, cortisol, uracil and 5-thymidylic acid are potential biomarkers that may explain the link between hispidulin and the metabolism of mice bearing neoplasm (H22). Most of the potential biomarkers related to the function of TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle). The rise of potential biomarkers in the drug groups promoted the up-regulation of TCA cycle compared with the model group. PMID:27077962

  7. Generation of Immunodeficient Mice Bearing Human Immune Systems by the Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hasgur, Suheyla; Aryee, Ken Edwin; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice are being used as recipients of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for in vivo analyses of human immune system development and function. The development of several stocks of immunodeficient Prkdc (scid) (scid), or recombination activating 1 or 2 gene (Rag1 or Rag2) knockout mice bearing a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the IL2 receptor gamma chain (IL2rγ), has greatly facilitated the engraftment of human HSC and enhanced the development of functional human immune systems. These "humanized" mice are being used to study human hematopoiesis, human-specific immune therapies, human-specific pathogens, and human immune system homeostasis and function. The establishment of these model systems is technically challenging, and levels of human immune system development reported in the literature are variable between laboratories. The use of standard protocols for optimal engraftment of HSC and for monitoring the development of the human immune systems would enable more direct comparisons between humanized mice generated in different laboratories. Here we describe a standard protocol for the engraftment of human HSC into 21-day-old NOD-scid IL2rγ (NSG) mice using an intravenous injection approach. The multiparameter flow cytometry used to monitor human immune system development and the kinetics of development are described. PMID:27150084

  8. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, L.; Lipari, M.; Lombardi, D.; Zicari, A.; Dotta, A.; Pontieri, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl groups, is without effect on the stability of the enzyme in vivo. Macrophages of tumour bearing mice release into the culture medium a more heat resistant enzyme than macrophages from control mice. In both cases the heat resistance of the secreted enzyme is higher when fetal calf serum is present in the culture medium. Bovine serum does not modify the thermal stability of beta-D-galactosidase in this system. Incubation of lysosomal fractions of various organs with the synthetic beta-D-galactosidase substrate, p-nitrophenyl-galactopyranoside, also strongly increases the heat resistance of the enzyme. The results suggest that one factor influencing the heat resistance of this enzyme may be complex formation between the enzyme and its substrates, an example of substrate protection of the enzyme. This may not be the only factor involved in enzyme stabilization in vivo. PMID:3099822

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption. PMID:17891396

  10. Lowering photosensitizer doses and increasing fluences induce apoptosis in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Haedicke, Katja; Graefe, Susanna; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine an optimal dose of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for inducing apoptotic tumor cells in vivo. In this context, mice bearing human tongue-squamous epithelium carcinomas were treated with various photosensitizer concentrations and fluences. Tumor apoptosis was imaged after 2 days via a self-designed DY-734-annexin V probe using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging. Apoptosis was verified ex vivo via TUNEL staining. Apoptotic tumor cells were detected in vivo at a dose of 40 µg photosensitizer and a fluency of 100 J/cm2. This is the lowest photosensitizer dose reported so far. PMID:27446695

  11. Inorganic Nanovehicle Targets Tumor in an Orthotopic Breast Cancer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Goeun; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Oh, Yeonji; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The clinical efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), can be limited by its very short plasma half-life, the drug resistance, and the high dosage required for cancer cell suppression. In this study, a new drug delivery system is proposed to overcome such limitations. To realize such a system, MTX was intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), inorganic drug delivery vehicle, through a co-precipitation route to produce a MTX-LDH nanohybrid with an average particle size of approximately 130 nm. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing orthotopic human breast tumors revealed that the tumor-to-liver ratio of MTX in the MTX-LDH-treated-group was 6-fold higher than that of MTX-treated-one after drug treatment for 2 hr. Moreover, MTX-LDH exhibited superior targeting effect resulting in high antitumor efficacy inducing a 74.3% reduction in tumor volume compared to MTX alone, and as a consequence, significant survival benefits. Annexin-V and propidium iodine dual staining and TUNEL analysis showed that MTX-LDH induced a greater degree of apoptosis than free MTX. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a new MTX-LDH nanohybrid exhibits a superior efficacy profile and improved distribution compared to MTX alone and has the potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy via inhibition of tumor proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

  12. Inorganic Nanovehicle Targets Tumor in an Orthotopic Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Goeun; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Oh, Yeonji; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), can be limited by its very short plasma half-life, the drug resistance, and the high dosage required for cancer cell suppression. In this study, a new drug delivery system is proposed to overcome such limitations. To realize such a system, MTX was intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), inorganic drug delivery vehicle, through a co-precipitation route to produce a MTX-LDH nanohybrid with an average particle size of approximately 130 nm. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing orthotopic human breast tumors revealed that the tumor-to-liver ratio of MTX in the MTX-LDH-treated-group was 6-fold higher than that of MTX-treated-one after drug treatment for 2 hr. Moreover, MTX-LDH exhibited superior targeting effect resulting in high antitumor efficacy inducing a 74.3% reduction in tumor volume compared to MTX alone, and as a consequence, significant survival benefits. Annexin-V and propidium iodine dual staining and TUNEL analysis showed that MTX-LDH induced a greater degree of apoptosis than free MTX. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a new MTX-LDH nanohybrid exhibits a superior efficacy profile and improved distribution compared to MTX alone and has the potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy via inhibition of tumor proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:24651154

  13. Inorganic nanovehicle targets tumor in an orthotopic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Goeun; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Oh, Yeonji; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), can be limited by its very short plasma half-life, the drug resistance, and the high dosage required for cancer cell suppression. In this study, a new drug delivery system is proposed to overcome such limitations. To realize such a system, MTX was intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), inorganic drug delivery vehicle, through a co-precipitation route to produce a MTX-LDH nanohybrid with an average particle size of approximately 130 nm. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing orthotopic human breast tumors revealed that the tumor-to-liver ratio of MTX in the MTX-LDH-treated-group was 6-fold higher than that of MTX-treated-one after drug treatment for 2 hr. Moreover, MTX-LDH exhibited superior targeting effect resulting in high antitumor efficacy inducing a 74.3% reduction in tumor volume compared to MTX alone, and as a consequence, significant survival benefits. Annexin-V and propidium iodine dual staining and TUNEL analysis showed that MTX-LDH induced a greater degree of apoptosis than free MTX. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a new MTX-LDH nanohybrid exhibits a superior efficacy profile and improved distribution compared to MTX alone and has the potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy via inhibition of tumor proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:24651154

  14. Tetrandrine Suppresses Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis in 4T1 Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-Li; He, Tong-Chuan; He, Kai; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis remains the most deadly aspect of cancer and still evades direct treatment. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatment regimens to suppress tumor cells that have escaped surgical removal or that may have already disseminated. We have found that tetrandrine (TET) exhibits anticolon cancer activity. Here, we investigate the inhibition effect of TET to breast cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and its molecular basis underlying TET's anticancer activity. We compare TET with chemotherapy drug doxorubicin in 4T1 tumor bearing BALB/c mice model and find that TET exhibits an anticancer metastatic and antiangiogenic activities better than those of doxorubicin. The lung metastatic sites were decreased by TET, which is confirmed by bioluminescence imaging in vivo. On the other hand, laser doppler perfusion imaging (LDI) was used for measuring the blood flow of tumor in 4T1-tumor bearing mice. As a result, the local blood perfusion of tumor was markedly decreased by TET after 3 weeks. Mechanistically, TET treatment leads to a decrease in p-ERK level and an increase in NF-κB levels in HUVECs. TET also regulated metastatic and angiogenic related proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, integrin β5, endothelial cell specific molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vivo. PMID:23762115

  15. Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

  16. Metabolic shifts induced by human H460 cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linsheng; Wang, Yaqiong; Zheng, Tian; Cao, Bei; Li, Mengjie; Shi, Jian; Aa, Nan; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2016-03-01

    Tumor markers are most popularly used in diagnosis of various cancers clinically. However, the confounding factors of individual background diversities, such as genetics, food preferences, living styles, physical exercises, etc., greatly challenge the identification of tumor markers. Study of the metabolic impact of inoculated tumors on model animals can facilitate the identification of metabolomic markers relevant to tumor insult. In this study, serum metabolites from nude mice (n = 14) inoculated with human H460 cells (human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma) were profiled using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mice with inoculated tumors showed an obviously different metabolic pattern from the control; identification of the discriminatory metabolites suggested the metabolic perturbation of free fatty acids, amino acids, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover. The significantly decreased TCA intermediates, free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and fluctuating amino acids (t-test, p < 0.05) in serum of tumor-bearing mice characterized the metabolic impact of local inoculated H460 tumor cells on the whole system. This indicates that they are candidate metabolomic markers for translational study of lung cancer, clinically. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26147780

  17. The therapeutic efficacy of I131-PSCA-mAb in orthotopic mouse models of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is upregulated in prostate cancer tissues. Here we aimed to study the therapeutic efficacy of a monoclonal antibody of PSCA-labeled I131 (I131-PSCA-mAb) in orthotopic mouse models of prostate cancer. Methods The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion abilities of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAb were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, flow cytometry and transwell culture, respectively. The human prostate cancer models were established by orthotopic implantation of PC-3 and LNCaP cells in nude mice. I131-PSCA-mAb distribution and tumor cell apoptosis in the tumor-bearing nude mice were measured. Results The inhibitory and apoptosis rates of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAb reached a maximum of 84%, 80% and 50%, 46%, respectively, which were obviously higher than in the cells treated with I131-IgG or PSCA-mAb. The invaded number of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAbe was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) compared with the control group. The ratios of I131-PSCA-mAb in tumor to intramuscular I131-PSCA-mAb (T/NT) in tumor-bearing nude mice were increased with time and reached the highest level after 8 h. T/NT stayed above 3.0 after 12 h, and the tumor could still be developed after 24 h. The number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissue of nude mice treated with I131-PSCA-mAb was larger than that in the control group. Conclusion I131-PSCA-mAb has the potential to become a new targeted therapy drug for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:24330823

  18. Orthotopic glioblastoma stem-like cell xenograft model in mice to evaluate intra-arterial delivery of bevacizumab: from bedside to bench.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hofstetter, Christoph P; Santillan, Alejandro; Shin, Benjamin J; Foley, Conor P; Ballon, Douglas J; Pierre Gobin, Y; Boockvar, John A

    2012-11-01

    Bevacizumab (BV), a humanized monocolonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a standard intravenous (IV) treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), that has been introduced recently as an intra-arterial (IA) treatment modality in humans. Since preclinical models have not been reported, we sought to develop a tumor stem cell (TSC) xenograft model to investigate IA BV delivery in vivo. Firefly luciferase transduced patient TSC were injected into the cortex of 35 nude mice. Tumor growth was monitored weekly using bioluminescence imaging. Mice were treated with either intraperitoneal (IP) or IA BV, with or without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), or with IP saline injection (controls). Tumor tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques. Tumor formation occurred in 31 of 35 (89%) mice with a significant signal increase over time (p=0.018). Post mortem histology revealed an infiltrative growth of TSC xenografts in a similar pattern compared to the primary human GBM. Tumor tissue analyzed at 24 hours after treatment revealed that IA BV treatment with BBBD led to a significantly higher intratumoral BV concentration compared to IA BV alone, IP BV or controls (p<0.05). Thus, we have developed a TSC-based xenograft mouse model that allows us to study IA chemotherapy. However, further studies are needed to analyze the treatment effects after IA BV to assess tumor progression and overall animal survival. PMID:22985932

  19. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor. PMID:9893164

  20. 1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

  1. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

  2. Alteration of gallium-67 distribution in tumor-bearing mice following treatment with methotrexate: concise communiction

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, H.M.; Witcofski, R.L.; Watson, N.E.; Heise, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of methotrexate (MTX) treatment upon Ga-67 distribution was investigated. Tumor bearing mice were injected with Ga-67 citrate at varying time intervals following MTX treatment administered either as a single dose or in multiple doses. Altered Ga-67 distribution was observed following MTX therapy, the general pattern showing decreased levels in blood and increased uptake in bone. MTX therapy decreased Ga-67 uptake in liver, tumor, and muscle. The effects of MTX are related to the dose and time interval between the administrations of MTX and Ga-67. The serum of MTX-treated mice had lower unsaturated iron-binding capacities and higher levels of unbound Ga-67. Serum iron and iron binding in rats determined 20 hr after MTX therapy showed significantly higher levels of serum iron and lower levels of Ga-67 in blood, and the percent transferrin saturation was approximately 95%. These observations suggest that MTX inhibition of erythropoiesis elevates serum iron levels and decreases the availability of gallium-binding sites in serum, resulting in altered Ga-67 tissue distribution.

  3. Alteration of gallium-67 distribution in tumor-bearing mice following treatment with methotrexate: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, H.M.; Witcofski, R.L.; Watson, N.E. Jr.; Heise, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of methotrexate (MTX) treatment upon 67Ga distribution was investigated. Tumor bearing mice were injected with 67Ga citrate at varying time intervals following MTX treatment administered either as a single dose or in multiple doses. Altered 67Ga distribution was observed following MTX therapy, the general pattern showing decreased levels in blood and increased uptake in bone. MTX therapy decreased 67Ga uptake in liver, tumor, and muscle. The effects of MTX are related to the dose and time interval between the administrations of MTX and 67Ga. The serum of MTX-treated mice had lower unsaturated iron-binding capacities and higher levels of unbound 67Ga. Serum iron and iron binding in rats determined 20 hr after MTX therapy showed significantly higher levels of serum iron and lower levels of 67Ga in blood, and the percent transferrin saturation was approximately 95%. These observations suggest that MTX inhibition of erythropoiesis elevates serum iron levels and decreases the availability of gallium-binding sites in serum, resulting in altered 67Ga tissue distribution.

  4. Biodistribution of TAT-LHRH conjugated chitosan/DNA nanoparticles in the mice bearing hepatoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanxia; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qi; Duan, Mingli; Dong, Xia; Zhu, Dunwan; Zhu, Yingjun; Leng, Xigang

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most prevalent malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. More effective cures for HCC patients are urgently needed, of which gene therapy is among those with the most potential. We previously developed a novel gene carrier by conjugating low molecular weight chitosan with TAT (transactivator of transcription) peptide and LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) analog, with the resultant TAT-LHRH-chitosan conjugate (TLC) demonstrating high selectivity for hepatoma cells in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether TLC can deliver the genes to the target organs and tissues in vivo, which is one of the critical features determining their medical application potential. The current study further investigated the in vivo distribution of TLC/DNA nanoparticles (TLCDNPs) in the nude mice with subcutaneous hepatoma xenografts. It was found that TLCDNPs delayed the renal clearance of DNA and prolonged its circulation time as compared with CS/DNA complexes (CDNPs) and naked DNA, but failed to demonstrate enhanced accumulation of DNA in the hepatoma xenografts. The mechanisms regarding the failure of TLCDNPs' tumor targeting in the mice bearing subcutaneous hepatoma xenografts remain unclear and need to be further addressed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2394-2400, 2016. PMID:27153405

  5. Food intake, tumor growth, and weight loss in EP2 receptor subtype knockout mice bearing PGE2-producing tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Wang, Wenhua; Nilsberth, Camilla; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Smedh, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that prostaglandin (PG) E2 is involved in anorexia/cachexia development in MCG 101 tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we investigate the role of PGE receptor subtype EP2 in the development of anorexia after MCG 101 implantation in wild-type (EP2+/+) or EP2-receptor knockout (EP2−/−) mice. Our results showed that host absence of EP2 receptors attenuated tumor growth and development of anorexia in tumor-bearing EP2 knockout mice compared to tumor-bearing wild-type animals. Microarray profiling of the hypothalamus revealed a relative twofold change in expression of around 35 genes including mRNA transcripts coding for Phospholipase A2 and Prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) in EP2 receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. Prostaglandin D2 synthase levels were increased significantly in EP2 receptor knockouts, suggesting that improved food intake may depend on altered balance of prostaglandin production in hypothalamus since PGE2 and PGD2 display opposing effects in feeding control. PMID:26197930

  6. Intratracheally Administered 5-Azacytidine Is Effective Against Orthotopic Human Lung Cancer Xenograft Models and Devoid of Important Systemic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Sameer; Saxena, Ashish; Qiu, Xuan; Perez-Soler, Roman; Zou, Yiyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to explore the therapeutic potential of regional administration (via the airways) of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) for the treatment of early lung cancer. Patients and Methods We administered 5-Aza solution directly into the trachea in imprinting control region (ICR) mice (to study its toxicity) and in nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer xenografts (to assess its antitumor activity). Results In vitro, 5-Aza inhibited the growth of human lung cancer cell lines H226, H358, and H460 in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations to inhibit cell growth by 50% (IC50) were about 0.6-4.9 μg/mL. 5-Azacytidine reversed hypermethylation in the promoter of tumor suppressor gene RASSF1a in the H226 cells at a 6000-fold lower concentration than its IC50. In animal studies, intratracheal (I.T.) administration of 90 mg/kg 5-Aza (the maximum tolerated dose of 5-Aza intravenous injection [I.V.]) resulted in moderate pulmonary toxicity and 5-fold reduced myelosuppression compared with the same dose of I.V. 5-Aza. Using an optimized multiple dose schedule, I.T. 5-Aza was about 3-fold more effective than I.V. 5-Aza in prolonging the survival of mice bearing orthotopic H460 and H358 xenografts, and did not cause any detectable toxicity. Conclusion 5-Azacytidine can reverse the hypermethylation in the human lung cancer cell lines at a nontoxic dose. Regional administration to the airways enhances the therapeutic index of 5-Aza by 75-fold. The potential of regional administration of 5-Aza (including by aerosolization) for the treatment of advanced bronchial premalignancy deserves further investigation. PMID:21062731

  7. Hand-Held High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging System for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Patient and Cell-Line Pancreatic Tumors Growing Orthotopically in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Sato, Sho; Murakami, Takashi; Uehara, Fuminari; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the advantages for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared to a large chamber fluorescing imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope. Methods Mouse models of human pancreatic cancer for FGS included (1) MiaPaCa-2-expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), (2) BxPC3 labeled with anti-CEA antibody conjugated with Alexa 488, (3) patient-derived orhotopic xenograft (PDOX)™ labeled with anti-CA19-9 antibody conjugated with Alexa 488. Results Each device could clearly detect the primary MiaPaCa-2-GFP. tumor and any residual tumor after FGS. In the BxPC3 model labeled with Alexa 488-conjugated anti-CEA, each device could detect the primary tumor, but the MVX10 could not clearly detect the residual tumor remaining after FGS while the other devices could. In the PDOX™ model labeled with Alexa 488 conjugated with anti CA19-9, only the portable hand-held device could distinguish the residual tumor from the background, and complete resection of the residual tumor was achieved under fluorescence navigation. Conclusions The results described in the present report suggest the hand-held mobile imaging system can be able to be applied to the clinic for FGS due to its convenient size and high sensitivity and help make FGS widely-used. PMID:24373959

  8. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  9. Resistance exercise training attenuates wasting of the extensor digitorum longus muscle in mice bearing the colon-26 adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    al-Majid, S; McCarthy, D O

    2001-01-01

    Progressive wasting of skeletal muscle is a significant side effect of malignancy. Perturbations in protein metabolism contribute to this state of wasting. Resistance exercise increases protein synthesis and mass of healthy muscles and counteracts muscle wasting associated with several catabolic conditions. It is not known whether resistance exercise training can counteract cancer-induced muscle wasting. This study examined the effect of resistance exercise training on muscle mass and protein content in 9 mice bearing the colon-26 adenocarcinoma. The dorsiflexor (extensor digitorum longus [EDL] and tibialis anterior) and plantar flexor (soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius) muscles of 1 leg of the tumor-bearing and the control mice were stimulated to contract eccentrically and concentrically, respectively, using an electrical stimulation protocol consisting of 10 sets of 6 repetitions per session. The muscles were stimulated on alternate days for a total of 8 sessions. The weight and protein content of the stimulated EDL muscle in the tumor-bearing mice were significantly higher (62% and 25%, respectively) than those of the nonstimulated EDL. Training did not have significant effects on the weight or protein content of the other muscles of the tumor-bearing mice, nor did it have significant effects on the muscles of the controls. These findings demonstrated that resistance training attenuated cancer-induced muscle wasting and protein depletion in the EDL muscle. The lack of an effect of the same training protocol on the EDL muscle in the control mice suggests that the amount and intensity of exercise training that is adequate to attenuate muscle wasting may not be adequate to induce hypertrophy of healthy muscles. PMID:11547537

  10. Citrus unshiu peel extract alleviates cancer-induced weight loss in mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical feature of cancer-induced cachexia, caused by pro-cachectic factors secreted by host cells and tumor cells. Therefore, blockade of these factors has considered a reasonable target for pharmacological and nutritional interventions to prevent skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia. Citrus unshiu peel (CUP) has been used for treating the common cold, dyspepsia, and bronchial discomfort and reported to have pharmacological activities against inflammation, allergy, diabetes, and viral infection. In the present study, we observed that daily oral administration of water extract of CUP (WCUP) to male BALB/c mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma remarkably reduced the losses in final body weight, carcass weight, gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal adipose tissue, and hemoglobin (Hb), compared with saline treatment. The levels of serum IL-6 and muscle-specific E3 ligases elevated by tumor burden were also considerably reduced by WCUP administration. In an in vitro experiment, WCUP efficiently suppressed the production of pro-cachectic cytokines in immune cells as well as cancer cells. In addition, WCUP treatment attenuated C2C12 skeletal muscle cell atrophy caused by cancer cells. These findings collectively suggest that WCUP is beneficial as a nutritional supplement for the management of cancer patients with severe weight loss. PMID:27064118

  11. Citrus unshiu peel extract alleviates cancer-induced weight loss in mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical feature of cancer-induced cachexia, caused by pro-cachectic factors secreted by host cells and tumor cells. Therefore, blockade of these factors has considered a reasonable target for pharmacological and nutritional interventions to prevent skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia. Citrus unshiu peel (CUP) has been used for treating the common cold, dyspepsia, and bronchial discomfort and reported to have pharmacological activities against inflammation, allergy, diabetes, and viral infection. In the present study, we observed that daily oral administration of water extract of CUP (WCUP) to male BALB/c mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma remarkably reduced the losses in final body weight, carcass weight, gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal adipose tissue, and hemoglobin (Hb), compared with saline treatment. The levels of serum IL-6 and muscle-specific E3 ligases elevated by tumor burden were also considerably reduced by WCUP administration. In an in vitro experiment, WCUP efficiently suppressed the production of pro-cachectic cytokines in immune cells as well as cancer cells. In addition, WCUP treatment attenuated C2C12 skeletal muscle cell atrophy caused by cancer cells. These findings collectively suggest that WCUP is beneficial as a nutritional supplement for the management of cancer patients with severe weight loss. PMID:27064118

  12. Effects of Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide on the immune regulation and tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Qiu, Limin; Li, Yiquan; Li, Lu; Wang, Xingyun; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Wang, Haotian

    2016-02-10

    One water-soluble polysaccharide (Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide, MTP), with an average molecular weight of 4.9 × 10(4) Da, was isolated from the dried rattan of M. tenacissima. MTP contained 93.8% carbohydrates, 5.6% proteins and 21.3% uronic acid, and were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid at a molar ratio of 9.1, 17.7, 30.2, 22.4 and 20.6. The experiments on the animals showed that MTP could increase the serum hemolysin, promote the formation of antibody-forming cells and improve the phagocytosis of mononuclear macrophage in normal mice. Meanwhile, MTP could also inhibit the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice dose-dependently, and increase the spleen index, thymus index and serum albumin level in the mice. In addition, MTP could elevate the serum level of TNF-α and IL-2, increase the activity of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in the liver tissue, and reduce the content of VEGF and MDA. These results suggest that MTP can regulate the immune function in mice and suppress the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice, and its antitumor activity may be related to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26686104

  13. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents. PMID:26083570

  14. Targeting Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P.; Curry, William T.; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Chi, Andrew S.; Louis, David N.; Martuza, Robert L.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiological and histological hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently >50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness, and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents. PMID:26083570

  15. Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

  16. Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

  17. Effect of interleukin-2 treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    HU, RUNLEI; MA, SHENGLIN; KE, XIANFU; JIANG, HONG; WEI, DONGSHAN; WANG, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice. Magnetic fluids were prepared in vitro and directly injected into the tumors in the mice, which were subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The temperature in the tumor reached 43°C and was maintained by controlling the strength of magnetic field for 30 min. Twenty-four hours later, IL-2 was injected directly into the tumors. Mice were divided into four groups: Group I (control), II (MFH), III (IL-2) and IV (IL-2+MFH). The tumor grew gradually in groups II and IV (both P<0.05) compared to the control group. Histological analysis showed that the tumor cells underwent apoptosis and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that heat-shock protein 70 and cluster of differentiation (CD) 8-positive and CD4-positive T cells were strongly expressed following hypothermia. Therefore, the present study provided evidence that IL-2 treatment combined with MFH improves the therapeutic effect on lung cancer-bearing mice. PMID:26870335

  18. Anti-tumor effect and influence of Gekko gecko Linnaeus on the immune system of sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Han, Shiyu; Zhang, Yuanlong; Zheng, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Gekko gecko Linnaeus (GgL) is an extract used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of GgL and its effect on the immune system of mice. Sarcoma 180-bearing mice were used as the animal model, and cisplatin was applied as the positive control drug. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group was treated with a different drug or drug concentration. The effects of GgL were evaluated based on its anti-tumor activity and prolongation of the lifespan, the lymphocyte transformation rate and pathological changes observed in the tumors. The results suggest that GgL has anti-tumor activities and up-regulates the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides original data related to the anti-tumor and immune up-regulating function of GgL. PMID:21475868

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Peter J.; Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Schuster, Seth A.; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Brockman, John D.; Nigg, David W.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2′-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h—with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)—following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 1012 neutrons per cm2 (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study. PMID:23536304

  20. Multimodal Imaging of Orthotopic Mouse Model of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haldorsen, Ingfrid S.; Brekke, Njål; Kopperud, Reidun; Visser, Nicole C.; Rygh, Cecilie B.; Pavlin, Tina; Salvesen, Helga B.; McCormack, Emmet; Krakstad, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Background Orthotopic endometrial cancer models provide a unique tool for studies of tumour growth and metastatic spread. Novel preclinical imaging methods also have the potential to quantify functional tumour characteristics in vivo, with potential relevance for monitoring response to therapy. Methods After orthotopic injection with luc-expressing endometrial cancer cells, eleven mice developed disease detected by weekly bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In parallel the same mice underwent positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employing 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose (18F-FDG) or 18F- fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and contrast reagent, respectively. The mice were sacrificed when moribund, and post-mortem examination included macroscopic and microscopic examination for validation of growth of primary uterine tumours and metastases. PET-CT was also performed on a patient derived model (PDX) generated from a patient with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial cancer. Results Increased BLI signal during tumour growth was accompanied by increasing metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and increasing MTV x mean standard uptake value of the tumour (SUVmean) in 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET-CT, and MRI conspicuously depicted the uterine tumour. At necropsy 82% (9/11) of the mice developed metastases detected by the applied imaging methods. 18F-FDG PET proved to be a good imaging method for detection of patient derived tumour tissue. Conclusions We demonstrate that all imaging modalities enable monitoring of tumour growth and metastatic spread in an orthotopic mouse model of endometrial carcinoma. Both PET tracers, 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT, appear to be equally feasible for detecting tumour development and represent, together with MRI, promising imaging tools for monitoring of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cancer models. PMID:26252891

  1. Boswellic acid disables signal transduction of IL-6-STAT-3 in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Enas Mahmoud; Thabet, Noura Magdy; Azab, Khaled Shaaban

    2016-08-01

    Boswellic acid (BA) is known for its ability to trigger apoptosis as well as to inhibit angiogenesis in tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the effect of BA on the IL-6-STAT-3 signalling pathway in irradiated mice bearing solid tumors of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). For this, we administered BA (25 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection) to mice with EAC, and then exposed them to 4 Gy of gamma radiation. Data analyses of the results revealed a specific impact from BA on IL-6R mRNA and survivin mRNA in EACs and irradiated EAC-bearing mice. Also, significant improvements were observed in the protein expression of JAK-1, P-JAK-1, STAT-3, P-STAT-3, and caspase-3, as well as VEGF and IL-6 levels. We propose that BA interfered with IL-6-STAT-3 signal transduction, thereby preventing the activation of caspase-3 and subsequently triggering the process of apoptosis. However, the alternative angiogenesis pathway, which includes the over-expression of VEGF and which depends on IL-6-STAT-3 signalling, was inhibited by the action of BA. Thus, we recommend that therapeutic strategies for cancer should include treatment with BA. PMID:27458759

  2. Simvastatin increases the antineoplastic actions of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoemulsions in melanoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Guido, Maria C; Contente, Thaís C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipid nanoemulsions (LDEs) that bind to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors used as carriers of paclitaxel (PTX) can decrease toxicity and increase PTX antitumoral action. The administration of simvastatin (Simva), which lowers LDL-cholesterol, was tested as an adjuvant to commercial PTX and to PTX associated with LDE (LDE-PTX). Materials and methods B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice were treated with saline solution or LDE (controls), Simva, PTX, PTX and Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva: PTX dose 17.5 μmol/kg (three intraperitoneal injections, 3 alternate days): Simva 50 mg/kg/day by gavage, 9 consecutive days. Results Compared with saline controls, 95% tumor-growth inhibition was achieved by LDE-PTX and Simva, 61% by LDE-PTX, 44% by PTX and Simva, and 43% by PTX. Simva alone had no effect. Metastasis developed in only 37% of the LDE-PTX and Simva, 60% in LDE-PTX, and 90% in PTX and Simva groups. Survival rates were higher in LDE-PTX and Simva and in LDE-PTX groups. The LDE-PTX and Simva group presented tumors with reduced cellular density and increased collagen fibers I and III. Tumors from all groups showed reduction in immunohistochemical expression of ICAM, MCP-1, and MMP-9; LDE-PTX and Simva presented the lowest MMP-9 expression. Expression of p21 was increased in the Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva groups. In the Simva and LDE-PTX and Simva groups, expression of cyclin D1, a proliferation and survival promoter of tumor cells, was decreased. Therapy with LDE-PTX and Simva showed negligible toxicity compared with PTX and Simva, which resulted in weight loss and myelosuppression. Conclusion Simva increased the antitumor activity of PTX carried in LDE but not of PTX commercial presentation, possibly because statins increase the expression of LDL receptors that internalize LDE-PTX. PMID:27022257

  3. Photodynamic activity of BAM-SiPc, an unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine, in tumour-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S C H; Lo, P-C; Ng, D K P; Liu, W-K; Fung, K-P; Fong, W-P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Ever since the discovery of photodynamic therapy, there has been a continuous search for more potent photosensitizers. Towards that end, we have synthesized a number of novel phthalocyanine derivatives. The unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine BAM-SiPc is one of the most potent compounds. In in vitro cell culture, it exhibits high phototoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. Experimental approach In the present investigation, the in vivo effect of BAM-SiPc was studied in the tumour-bearing nude mice model. The biodistribution of BAM-SiPc was followed to evaluate its tumour selectivity and rate of clearance. The tumour volume in the hepatocarcinoma HepG2- and the colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29-bearing nude mice was measured after photodynamic therapy. The level of intrinsic toxicity induced was also investigated. Finally, the metabolism of BAM-SiPc in the ‘normal' WRL68 liver cells and the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was compared. Key results The results not only showed significant tumour regression of HepG2 and growth inhibition of HT29 in the tumour-bearing nude mice, but also no apparent hepatic or cardiac injury with the protocol used. Histological analyses showed that apoptosis was induced in the solid tumour. BAM-SiPc could be metabolized by WRL68 liver cells but not by the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Unfortunately, BAM-SiPc did not show any specific targeting towards the tumour tissue. Conclusions and implications The efficiency of BAM-SiPc in inhibiting tumour growth makes it a good candidate for further evaluation. Enhancement of its uptake in tumour tissue by conjugation with biomolecules is currently under investigation. PMID:18332853

  4. Infections Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arnow, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The epidemiology of infections associated with orthotopic liver transplantation is summarized herein, and approaches to prophylaxis are outlined. Infection is a major complication following orthotopic liver transplantation, and more than half of transplant recipients develop at least one infection. The risk of infection is highest in the first month after transplantation, and the most common pathogens are bacteria and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Bacterial infections usually occur in the first month, arise in the abdomen, and are caused by aerobes. The peak incidence of CMV infection is late in the first month and early in the second month after transplantationn. CMV syndromes include fever and neutropenia, hepatitis, pneumonitis, gut ulceration, and disseminated infection. Other significant problems are Candida intraabdominal infection, Herpes simplex mucocutaneous infection or hepatitis, adenovirus hepatitis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Prophylaxis of infection in liver transplant recipients has not been well-studied. Several different regimens of parenteral, oral absorbable, and/or oral non-absorbable antibiotics active against bacteria and yeast have been used at various centers, but no randomized controlled trials have been conducted. Selective bowel decontamination appears to be a promising approach to the prevention of bacterial and Candida infections, while oral acyclovir may be a relatively convenient and effective agent for CMV prophylaxis. PMID:1650245

  5. Melanoma-targeted delivery system (part 2): Synthesis, radioiodination and biological evaluation in B16F0 bearing mice.

    PubMed

    El Aissi, Radhia; Miladi, Imen; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Chavignon, Olivier; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Moreau, Emmanuel

    2016-09-14

    Here we report the synthesis and radiolabelling with iodine-125 of a melanoma-selective prodrug (17a*) and its parent drug IUdR. The in vivo and ex vivo biodistributions of [(125)I](17a*) and [(125)I]IUdR were evaluated in a model of melanoma B16F0-bearing mice. The pharmacokinetic profile of [(125)I](17a*) suggests rapid release of the active drug [(125)I]IUdR after i.v. administration of [(125)I](17a*). Preliminary metabolism studies in dedicated compartments (i.e. blood, urine and tumour) yielded results consistent with this hypothesis. PMID:27214141

  6. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (P<0.001) in proximal tibia metaphysis total vBMD (-9.6%). These reductions of tibia metaphyseal vBMD in G/6 mice were mitigated in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB groups (P<0.05). After 21 days of G/6, we saw an absolute increase in tibia mid-diaphysis vBMD and in distal metaphysis femur vBMD in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB mice (P<0.05). Substantial increases in endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) at mid-diaphysis tibia in G/6+CLB demonstrate that

  7. Effectivity of pazopanib treatment in orthotopic models of human testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is still a clinical challenge, and one associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this work was to test pazopanib, an anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor, and its combination with lapatinib (an anti-ErbB inhibitor) in mouse orthotopic models of human testicular GCTs. Methods We used two different models of human testicular GCTs orthotopically grown in nude mice; a CDDP-sensitive choriocarcinoma (TGT38) and a new orthotopic model generated from a metastatic GCT refractory to first-line CDDP chemotherapy (TGT44). Nude mice implanted with these orthotopic tumors were treated with the inhibitors and the effect on tumoral growth and angiogenesis was evaluated. Results TGT44 refractory tumor had an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original metastasis, with characteristics of yolk sac tumor. TGT44 did not respond when treated with cisplatin. In contrast, pazopanib had an anti-angiogenic effect and anti-tumor efficacy in this model. Pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in TGT38, an orthotopic model of choriocarcinoma had an additive effect blocking tumor growth. Conclusions We present pazopanib as a possible agent for the alternative treatment of CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-refractory GCT patients, alone or in combination with anti-ErbB therapies. PMID:23937707

  8. Antitumor Effect of Folate-Targeted Liposomal Doxorubicin in KB Tumor-Bearing Mice after Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, Kareen; Huang, Zhaohua; Jerger, Katherine; Macaraeg, Nichole; Szoka, Francis C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of folate-targeted liposomal doxorubicin (FTL-Dox) has been well characterized in folate receptor (FR) over-expressing tumors in vitro, particularly in KB human carcinoma cells. However, there are few studies evaluating the in vivo efficacy of FTL-Dox in KB murine xenograft models. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of FTL-Dox injected intravenously in mice bearing KB tumors. Folate ligands comprising of folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (FA-PEG-DSPE) were synthesized with different MW PEG. To design an optimum FTL-Dox formulation for therapeutic studies, we prepared various FTLs and characterized their in vitro targeting and in vivo tissue biodistribution. Mice were administered a single intravenous injection of free Dox, non-targeted PEGylated liposomal Dox (PL-Dox), or FTL-Dox. FTLs and PLs accumulated similarly in tumor tissue, despite FTLs’ faster clearance from circulation. Mice treated with FTL-Dox 20 mg/kg had a slightly greater tumor growth inhibition and almost a 50% increase in life span than mice receiving PL-Dox 20 mg/kg (P = 0.0121; log-rank test). We conclude that FTLs administered systemically have the potential to enhance the delivery of anticancer drugs in vivo; however, their removal by FR expressing normal tissues may have to be blocked if the benefits of tumor targeting are to be realized. PMID:20353291

  9. Dietary rice component, Oryzanol, inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scope: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Methods and results: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, '-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet fo...

  10. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. K.; Martin, F. J.; Jay, G.; Vogel, J.; Papahadjopoulos, D.; Friend, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing KS lesions, and tissues were processed 24 hours later for both electron microscopy and for light microscopy with silver enhancement. Liposomes and silver marker were detected predominantly in the dermis surrounding the early and mature KS lesions, which were characterized by a proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and abnormal blood vessels close to the epidermis. The silver-enhanced gold marker often surrounded vascular channels and scattered erythrocytes. As determined by electron microscopy, some spindle cells and macrophages had ingested intact liposomes. Transendothelial transport of liposomes was observed both through open channels between endothelial cells and also through endothelial cells lining intact vessels. Both extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes through irregular endothelium were much higher in KS lesions than in the adjacent normal skin. The high accumulation of sterically stabilized liposomes in KS lesions and their intracellular uptake by some spindle cells enhances their potential as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents against this neoplasm. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8317543

  11. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  12. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    PubMed

    Huang, S K; Martin, F J; Jay, G; Vogel, J; Papahadjopoulos, D; Friend, D S

    1993-07-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing KS lesions, and tissues were processed 24 hours later for both electron microscopy and for light microscopy with silver enhancement. Liposomes and silver marker were detected predominantly in the dermis surrounding the early and mature KS lesions, which were characterized by a proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and abnormal blood vessels close to the epidermis. The silver-enhanced gold marker often surrounded vascular channels and scattered erythrocytes. As determined by electron microscopy, some spindle cells and macrophages had ingested intact liposomes. Transendothelial transport of liposomes was observed both through open channels between endothelial cells and also through endothelial cells lining intact vessels. Both extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes through irregular endothelium were much higher in KS lesions than in the adjacent normal skin. The high accumulation of sterically stabilized liposomes in KS lesions and their intracellular uptake by some spindle cells enhances their potential as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents against this neoplasm. PMID:8317543

  13. Regression of Established Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Induced by Chemo-immunotherapy in an Orthotopic Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Diego M.; Li, Guangfu; Schell, Todd D.; Liu, Dai; Zhang, Samuel Shao-Min; Lou, Xi; Berg, Arthur; Kimchi, Eric T.; Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S.; Yang, Qing; Shereef, Serene; Garcia, Luis S.; Kester, Mark; Isom, Harriet C.; Rountree, C. Bart; Staveley-O’Carroll, Kevin F.

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of mortality and frequent incidence of recurrence associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) reveal the need for new therapeutic approaches. In this report, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel chemo-immunotherapeutic strategy to control HCC and investigated the underlying mechanism that increased the antitumor immune response. We developed a novel orthotopic mouse model of HCC through seeding of tumorigenic hepatocytes from SV40 T antigen (Tag) transgenic MTD2 mice into the livers of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. These MTD2-derived hepatocytes form Tag expressing HCC tumors specifically within the liver. This approach provides a platform to test therapeutic strategies and antigen specific immune-directed therapy in an immunocompetent murine model. Using this model, we tested the efficacy of a combination of oral sunitinib, a small molecule multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, and adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to eliminate HCC. Sunitinib treatment alone promoted a transient reduction in tumor size. Sunitinib treatment combined with adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells led to elimination of established tumors without recurrence. In vitro studies revealed that HCC growth was inhibited through suppression of STAT3 signaling. In addition, sunitinib treatment of tumor-bearing mice was associated with suppression of STAT3 and a block in T cell tolerance. Conclusion These findings indicate that sunitinib inhibits HCC tumor growth directly through the STAT3 pathway and prevents tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell tolerance, thus defining a synergistic chemo-immunotherapeutic approach for HCC. PMID:21898502

  14. Experimental treatment of breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice by artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Amir; Faezizadeh, Zohreh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Ali Reza; Saravani, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The combination of artemisinin and transferrin exhibits versatile anticancer activities. In previous, we successfully prepared artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes and evaluated their anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines in vitro. In this study, we investigate the in vivo anti-breast cancer activity of artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposome against breast transplanted tumors in BALB/c mice model. Materials and Methods: Artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for some physiochemical properties. Pieces of tumor tissue from the breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the syngeneic female BALB/c mice. In the presence of the external magnet that placed at the breast tumor site, the tissue distribution and tumor-suppressing effects of prepared nanoliposomes on tumor growth was evaluated. Results: The prepared nanoliposomes have fine spherical shape, rough surface, nano-sized diameter and magnetic properties. At 2 h after treatment, the intravenous administration of artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes followed using the magnetic field approximately produced 10- and 5.5-fold higher levels of artemisinin and transferrin in the tumors, respectively, compared with free artemisinin and transferrin. Moreover, in the presence of an external magnetic field, the prepared nanoliposomes could significantly induce apoptosis in the mice breast cancer cells as well as could reduce tumor volume in tumorized mice at 15 days after treatment. Conclusion: The data suggested that the artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes would be a good choice for the breast tumor-targeted therapy, due to its high targeting efficiency. PMID:26109756

  15. Transformation of the tumour microenvironment by a CD40 agonist antibody correlates with improved responses to PD-L1 blockade in a mouse orthotopic pancreatic tumour model

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Stefanie; Sulikowski, Michal G.; Martin, Philip; Brown, Lee; Lewis, Arthur; Davies, Gareth; Morrow, Michelle; Wilkinson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of recently developed chemotherapy regimens, survival times for pancreatic cancer patients remain poor. These patients also respond poorly to immune checkpoint blockade therapies (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-1), which suggests the presence of additional immunosuppressive mechanisms in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment (TME). CD40 agonist antibodies (αCD40) promote antigen presenting cell (APC) maturation and enhance macrophage tumouricidal activity, and may therefore alter the pancreatic TME to increase sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we test whether αCD40 transforms the TME in a mouse syngeneic orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer, to increase sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade. We found that whilst mice bearing orthotopic Pan02 tumours responded poorly to PD-L1 blockade, αCD40 improved overall survival. αCD40 transformed the TME, upregulating Th1 chemokines, increasing cytotoxic T cell infiltration and promoting formation of an immune cell-rich capsule separating the tumour from the normal pancreas. Furthermore, αCD40 drove systemic APC maturation, memory T cell expansion, and upregulated tumour and systemic PD-L1 expression. Combining αCD40 with PD-L1 blockade enhanced anti-tumour immunity and improved overall survival versus either monotherapy. These data provide further support for the potential of combining αCD40 with immune checkpoint blockade to promote anti-tumour immunity in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26918344

  16. Age-associated impairment of antitumor immunity in carcinoma-bearing mice and restoration by oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Matsui, Yasunori; Wachi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru

    2016-08-01

    Because cancer is associated with aging, immunological features in the aged should be considered in anticancer immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated antitumor immunity in aged mice using a CT26 colon carcinoma model. The tumor growth of CT26 was accelerated in aged mice compared with that in young mice, but this difference was not observed in nude mice. The serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in aged mice than those in young mice, irrespective of the CT26-bearing state. The in vitro induction of CT26-specific CTLs from aged mice that were vaccinated with doxorubicin (DTX)-treated CT26 cells was impaired. In vivo neutralization of IL-6, but not TNF-α, showed a tendency to restore the in vitro induction of CT26-specific CTLs from vaccinated aged mice. Analyses on tumor-infiltrating immune cells as early as day 5 after CT26 inoculation revealed that monocytic and granulocytic MDSCs preferentially infiltrated into tumor sites in aged mice compared with young mice. Alternatively, oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia (L.E.M.) extract, which has the potential to suppress inflammation in tumor-bearing hosts, decreased the serum levels of IL-6 in aged mice. When administration of L.E.M. extract was started 1 week earlier, CT26 growth was retarded in aged mice and the in vivo priming of tumor-specific CTLs was improved in CT26-vaccinated aged mice. These results indicate early infiltration of MDSCs is related to impaired immunity of aged hosts and that oral administration of L.E.M. extract can mitigate the impairment. PMID:27312060

  17. Whole-Retina Reduced Electrophysiological Activity in Mice Bearing Retina-Specific Deletion of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Jake; Martyn, Amanda C.; Li, Anson K. C.; Dolinar, Eric A.; McDonald, Ian S.; Coupland, Stuart G.; Prado, Vania F.; Prado, Marco A.; Hill, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite rigorous characterization of the role of acetylcholine in retinal development, long-term effects of its absence as a neurotransmitter are unknown. One of the unanswered questions is how acetylcholine contributes to the functional capacity of mature retinal circuits. The current study investigates the effects of disrupting cholinergic signalling in mice, through deletion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the developing retina, pigmented epithelium, optic nerve and optic stalk, on electrophysiology and structure of the mature retina. Methods & Results A combination of electroretinography, optical coherence tomography imaging and histological evaluation assessed retinal integrity in mice bearing retina- targeted (embryonic day 12.5) deletion of VAChT (VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox) and littermate controls at 5 and 12 months of age. VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice did not show any gross changes in nuclear layer cellularity or synaptic layer thickness. However, VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice showed reduced electrophysiological response of the retina to light stimulus under scotopic conditions at 5 and 12 months of age, including reduced a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potential (OP) amplitudes and decreased OP peak power and total energy. Reduced a-wave amplitude was proportional to the reduction in b-wave amplitude and not associated with altered a-wave 10%-90% rise time or inner and outer segment thicknesses. Significance This study used a novel genetic model in the first examination of function and structure of the mature mouse retina with disruption of cholinergic signalling. Reduced amplitude across the electroretinogram wave form does not suggest dysfunction in specific retinal cell types and could reflect underlying changes in the retinal and/or extraretinal microenvironment. Our findings suggest that release of acetylcholine by VAChT is essential for the normal electrophysiological response of the mature mouse retina. PMID:26226617

  18. Reduced white fat mass in adult mice bearing a truncated Patched 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zili; Zhang, Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Liu, Lan-Hsin; Zhou, Huaxin; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling emerges as a potential pathway contributing to fat formation during postnatal development. In this report, we found that Patched 1 (Ptc1), a negative regulator of Hh signaling, was expressed in the epididymal fat pad of adult mice. Reduced total white fat mass and epididymal adipocyte cell size were observed in naturally occurring spontaneous mesenchymal dysplasia (mes) adult mice (Ptc1mes/mes), which carry a deletion of Ptc1 at the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic region. Increased expression of truncated Ptc1, Ptc2 and Gli1, the indicators of ectopic activation of Hh signaling, was observed in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. In contrast, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, adipocyte P2 and adipsin were reduced in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. Taken together, our results indicate that deletion of carboxyl-terminal tail of Ptc1 can lead to the reduction of white fat mass during postnatal development. PMID:18274621

  19. Potent anti-tumor effects of EGFR-targeted hybrid peptide on mice bearing liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Gaowa, Arong; Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon carcinoma. The cytotoxic activity of the hybrid peptide against luciferase-expressing human colon cancer (HCT-116-luc) cells was determined by the WST-8 assay. The experimental mouse model of liver metastases was generated by splenic injection of HCT-116-luc cells. The hybrid peptide was intravenously injected into mice the day after cell implantation at a dose of 5 mg/kg and this was repeated on alternate days for a total of 7 doses. Saline-treated mice were used as controls. Tumor growth and therapeutic responses were monitored by an IVIS imaging system. It was shown that the hybrid peptide exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HCT-116-luc cells and the liver metastases were significantly reduced after intravenous injections of hybrid peptide compared with controls. Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that hybrid peptide-treated mice had significantly longer survival than controls. In addition, bright-field and ex vivo imaging of liver tissue revealed that mice treated with the hybrid peptide had significantly fewer tumors compared with controls. These results demonstrated that the EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide is a potential treatment option for patients with colorectal cancer metastases in the liver. PMID:26467564

  20. Impact of surfactant treatment of paclitaxel nanocrystals on biodistribution and tumor accumulation in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Thompson, David H; Park, Kinam; Li, Tonglei

    2016-09-10

    We have previously tested paclitaxel nanocrystals (PTX-NCs) in tumor murine models and learned that the nanocrystal formulation could achieve similar and superior anticancer efficacy to the conventional Taxol® formulation, but with significantly reduced side-effects. The nanocrystals were not coated with any surfactants and a majority of the injected dose was taken up by the liver (>40%), while a minimal amount was present in the blood circulation and quickly eliminated. The aim of this work was to treat the surface of PTX-NCs with PEG-based polymers and examine the impact by surface coating on biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor retention. Testing in tumor-bearing mice showed that PTX-NCs treated with Pluronic® F68 (PEG-PPG-PEG block polymer) significantly enhanced blood circulation of the drug and accumulation in tumor tissue. The absolute amount reaching the tumor, however, was still minimal relative to the dose. PMID:27417039

  1. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer. PMID:27163210

  2. Skeletal muscle atrophy is attenuated in tumor-bearing mice under chemotherapy by treatment with fish oil and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsia, Simon; Su, I-Li; Chan, Yi-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy can cause cachexia, which is manifested by weight loss, inflammation and muscle atrophy. However, the mechanisms of tumor and chemotherapy on skeletal muscle proteolysis, remained unclear. In this report, we demonstrated that tumor-induced myostatin in turn induced TNF-α, thus activating calcium-dependent and proteasomal protein degradation. Chemotherapy activated myostatin-mediated proteolysis and muscle atrophy by elevating IL-6. In tumor-bearing mice under chemotherapy, supplementation with fish oil and selenium prevented a rise in IL-6, TNF-α and myostatin and muscle atrophy. The findings presented here allow us to better understand the molecular basis of cancer cachexia and potentiate nutrition supplementation in future cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25797259

  3. Pharmacokinetics of chimeric L6 conjugated to indium-111- and yttrium-90-DOTA-peptide in tumor-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.; Zhong, G.R.; Salako, Q.

    1995-05-01

    A bifunctional chelating agent, DOTA-Gly{sub 3}-L-(p-isothiocyanato)-phenylalanine amide (DOTA-peptide-NCS), was studied in nude mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts (HBT 3477) to determine its potential for radioimmunoconjugate therapy. Indium-111 and yttrium-90 were attached to an anti-adenocarcinoma chimeric L6 (ChL6) monoclonal antibody (MAb) after pre-chelation to the DOTA-peptide-NCS and the desired neutral radiochelates were obtained by purification. The unique characteristic of the DOTA-peptide-NCS to form neutral complexes with trivalent metals was utilized to separate the resulting {sup 111}In and {sup 90}Y radiochelates from excess chelating agent and other anionic by-products resulting from metal impurities. The purified radiochelates were then conjugated to ChL6. The paramacokinetics of {sup 111}In- and {sup 90}Y-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 were obtained for 5 days after injection in nude mice bearing HBT 3477 xenographs. The results were compared with the pharmacokinetics of {sup 125}I-ChL6 obtained in the same mouse model. The whole-body clearance of {sup 125}I-ChL6, {sup 90}Y-and {sup 111}In-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 was monoexponential with biologic half-times of 92, 104 and 160 hr, respectively. Blood clearances of the three radiopharmaceuticals were biphasic. The radiometal immunoconjugates had greater tumor uptake and slower clearances. Indium-111- and {sup 90}Y-DOTA-peptide-ChL6 can be produced at high specific activity with fewer than one chelate per MAb by using a pre-labeling method that permits radiochelate purification by charge selection. Studies in mouse xenografts indicate that tumor uptake in enhanced and a favorable therapeutic index is achieved using these agents. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Release of soluble "blocking" and "suppressor" factors from normal lymphocytes treated with RNA from spleens of tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pennline, K. J.; Evans, S. B.; Nawrocki, J. F.; Rees, J. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Vallera, D. A.; Dodd, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    RNA extracted from the spleens of tumour-bearing (TLRNA) and tumour-immune (ILRNA) mice was shown to transfer to normal lymphocytes (NL) the ability to produce factors that blocked specific tumour-cell cytotoxicity and mediated specific antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Aliquots of normal C3H mouse lymphocytes were treated with TLRNA or ILRNA and cultured in vitro in the absence of tumour antigen. Supernatants were collected at 24h intervals and tested in a microcytotoxicity assay for blocking and ADCC activities. Factors that inhibited tumour destruction by specifically sensitized lymphocytes at the level of both the tumour cells and effector cells were demonstrable in culture supernatants of NL pretreated with TLRNA (50 or 100 microgram/4 X 10(6) cells) but not ILRNA. However, treatment of NL with either RNA resulted in the production factors that mediated tumour-specific ADCC. Cytotoxicity testing and absorption studies of the tumour cell and a control cell (LM) indicated that factors mediating ADCC and blocking at the target-cell level were specific for the tumour. Suppressor activity at the effector-cell level was not absorbed by tumour cells and represents a separate and distinct mechanism of immunosuppression. These data indicate that RNA faithfully transfers "suppressive" as well as "positive" types of immune responses that have been reported previously for lymphocytes obtained directly from tumour-bearing and tumour-immune animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:313804

  5. Anticancer activity of cissampelos pareira against dalton's lymphoma ascites bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Thavamani, B. Samuel; Mathew, Molly; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cissampelos pareira (Menispermaceae) is used in folk Indian system of alternative medicine, for its analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, antilithic, and emmenagogue properties. Objective: To evaluate Cissampelos pareira (C. pareira) for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cells in Swiss mice. Materials and Methods: Cissampelos pareira was successively extracted using different solvents. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. An in vivo study was carried out in methanol extract. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of the DLA cells in mice, the methanol extract of C. pariera (MECP) was administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, six mice were sacrificed and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life-span. The antitumor effect was assessed by evaluating the packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, increase in body weight, and increase in life-span. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters and anti-oxidant properties were assessed by estimating the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation. Results: Methanol Extract of Cissampelos pariera (MECP) showed a potent cytotoxic activity, with an IC50 value of 95.5 μg/ml and a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in packed cell volume, viable cell count, and an increased lifespan (54 and 72%). The hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in MECP-treated mice. The MECP-treated group significantly (P < 0.001) decreased SOD, lipid peroxidation, and CAT to normal. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that C. pariera exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities and that it was reasonably imputable to its increasing endogenous mechanism of antioxidant property. PMID:25210304

  6. Megavoltage X-ray Dose Enhancement with Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mousavie Anijdan, Sayyed Hossein; Mahdavi, Seyyed Rabi; Shirazi, Alireza; Zarrinfard, Mohammad Ali; Hajati, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    One of the applications of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in medicine is radiation dose-enhancing effect. Although there are many simulations, in vitro and in vivo evidence that GNPs can enhance significantly the radiation dose effect of orthovoltage beams. These beams compared with megavoltage (MV) beams, have limited applications in radiotherapy. In order to evaluate GNPs radiosensitization performance with MV beams in-vivo, we used two most clinically used X-ray beams (6 and 18 MV) with the dose of 20 Gy for each mouse. Intratumoral injection of 50 nm GNPs with the concentration of 5 mg ml-1 was applied to melanoma tumor growing in the left leg of 7 to 8 mice in 4 control and treatment groups of C57BL/6 mice. Albeit, using 10 cm plexiglass jig phantom in the beam path improved the radiation - treatments, the statistical differences between groups were not significant. According to the results, it is concluded that mice can be treated with smaller tumors and higher concentrations of GNPs in MV radiation beams. PMID:24551801

  7. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bais, Manish V; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C

    2015-05-01

    Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  8. Therapeutic effect of adriamycin encapsulated in long-circulating liposomes on Meth-A-sarcoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Doi, K; Namba, Y; Okada, S

    1994-08-01

    Long-circulating liposomes modified with a uronic-acid derivative, palmityl-D-glucuronide (PGIcUA), have been developed previously for the passive targeting of liposomes to tumor tissues. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of adriamycin (ADM) encapsulated in PGIcUA liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol) and PGIcUA (molar ratio, 40/40/10) since this amount of PGIcUA was enough to endow liposomes with long-circulating activity. Long-circulating activity was also observed with palmityl-D-galacturonide (PGalUA) modified liposomes, suggesting that uronic acid plays an important role in preventing liposomes from being trapped in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). ADM was loaded in liposomes by a remote-loading method. Free or liposomal ADM was injected i.v. into BALB/c mice bearing s.c.-implanted Meth-A sarcoma. The liposomal formulation was efficient for reducing tumors, prolonging survival time and curing the animals, especially in the case of large tumors where free ADM was not. Furthermore, PGlcUA liposomes were more effective than conventional liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) instead of PGlcUA for prolonging survival time in mice. It might therefore be appropriate to use PGlcUA liposomes as the carriers of anticancer drugs. PMID:8050822

  9. Localization of sunitinib, its metabolites and its target receptors in tumour-bearing mice: a MALDI-MS imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Torok, S; Vegvari, A; Rezeli, M; Fehniger, T E; Tovari, J; Paku, S; Laszlo, V; Hegedus, B; Rozsas, A; Dome, B; Marko-Varga, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The clinical effects of anti-angiogenic agents remain controversial. Therefore, elucidating the pharmacological properties of these compounds is a pivotal issue. Experimental Approach The effects of treatment with sunitinib on tumour and normal tissues of mice bearing C-26 adenocarcinoma cells were analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS imaging (MALDI-MSI). Expression of the key targets of sunitinib – angiogenic receptors – was studied by immunofluorescent labelling. Key Results MALDI-MS assays showed that sunitinib and its fragment ions were present throughout tumour and normal tissues. Major metabolites were identified in blood and solid tissues, while minor drug metabolites were detectable only in blood. Tumour growth and intratumour VEGF receptor-2 expressions were significantly reduced in sunitinib-treated mice, while the expression of the other targeted receptors, PDGF receptor -α or -β and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, remained unaffected. Within tumour tissue, the close proximity of sunitinib metabolites to the precursor ion suggested in situ metabolism of the administered drug. There were intratumour areas where the signal intensity of sunitinib correlated with expression of VEGF receptor-2. Conclusions and Implications This is the first study that demonstrates MALDI-MSI is a versatile platform to study the intratumour localization of an unlabelled anti-angiogenic drug. The combination of MALDI-MSI and immunofluorescence analysis can provide further insights into the molecular interaction of drug compounds and their targets within tumour tissue. PMID:25363319

  10. Presence of a tumour-inhibiting factor (TIF) in sera from normal but not tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B S; Chin, D K

    1980-01-01

    Some plasmacytomas produce myeloma proteins with known antibody specificities and the secretion of these proteins by individual tumour cells can be determined using haemolytic plaque assay. After a 3 day culture of mouse plasmacytoma cells in medium containing 10% normal mouse serum, the number of plaques was reduced to less than 10% when compared to that of tumour cells incubated with either foetal calf serum or normal rabbit serum. However, tumour cells incubated with sera from mice bearing TEPC-15, McPC-603, or MOPC-315 plasmacytomas displayed control levels of plaques. The production of plaques paralleled the viability of tumour cells suggesting that the reduction of plaque formation is due to the decreased viable cell number. The tumour-inhibiting activity was recovered from the fraction of apparent molecular weight of 300,000-400,000 after a partial purification using an agarose (A 0.5 M) column. This fraction, however, did not suppress in vitro induction of antibody production. Kinetic experiments using sera obtained sequentially from individual mice receiving either TEPC-15 or MOPC-315 plasmacytomas further indicated that the tumour-inhibiting activity is severely reduced during a 2 week period after tumour inoculation. The inhibition of tumour cells did not appear to be specific since tumour cells of three plasmacytomas (TEPC-15, MOPC-167 and MOPC-315), a mastocytoma (P815) and a lymphoma (EL-4) displayed a similar susceptibility to normal serum. PMID:7002770

  11. Effect of the delivery system on the biodistribution of Ge(IV) octabutoxy-phthalocyanines in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Soncin, M; Polo, L; Reddi, E; Jori, G; Kenney, M E; Cheng, G; Rodgers, M A

    1995-02-10

    The pharmacokinetic properties of the Ge(IV)-octabutoxy-phthalocyanines (GePc) with two axially ligated triethylsiloxy (GePcEt) or trihexyl-siloxy (GePcHex) chains were studied in BALB/C mice bearing a transplanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma. The GePcs were delivered to mice after incorporation into unilamellar liposomes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or in an emulsion of Cremophor-EL. The Cremophor delivered GePcs were cleared from the blood circulation at a much slower rate than the liposome-delivered GePcs. At the same time, Cremophor induced a slower and reduced uptake of the GePcs in the liver and spleen while it greatly enhanced the uptake in the tumour as compared to liposomes. Maximum tumour uptake was observed at 24 h post-injection and was equivalent to 0.67 and 0.50 nmol/g, respectively, for the Cremophor delivered GePcHex and GePcEt. The corresponding values for the liposome-delivered drugs were approximately one fourth of that observed with Cremophor. PMID:7882292

  12. Effects of Feijining Decoction on vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression and changes of T cell subsets in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LIJIANG; PAN, YUZHEN; XING, YUQING; GAO, HONG; XIE, XIAODONG; YIN, DONGFENG

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for cancer growth and metastasis. T cells are also key members of the adaptive immunity against tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of Feijining Decoction (FJND) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and T cell subsets [cluster of differentiation 4+(CD4+) and CD8+ T lymphocyte] in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice. C57BL/6J mice were subcutaneously implanted with LLC cells. Forty carcinoma-bearing mice were randomly assigned to four groups (10 animals/group). The control group (CG) were the untreated group, the cisplatinum (DDP) group (DG) mice were treated with DDP, the FJND group (FG) were treated with FJND and the FJND + DDP group (FDG) were treated with FJND and DDP. Western blot and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the VEGF protein expression of tumor tissue and T cell subsets of the spleen. Spontaneous activity in 5 min was observed by the photoelectric counting method. DDP + FJND (FDG group) markedly inhibited tumor growth compared to the DG mice. The protein expression of VEGF was significantly downregulated in the carcinoma of FG mice compared to CG mice. VEGF protein expression was significantly reduced in FDG compared to DG mice. In the FG mice, the splenic CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ cells were significantly increased compared to the CG mice, and the splenic CD4+ cells in the FDG mice were significantly increased compared to the DG group. In conclusion, FJND can inhibit tumor growth by downregulating VEGF protein expression and improving the immune function. PMID:26137245

  13. Effects of load-bearing exercise on skeletal structure and mechanics differ between outbred populations of mice.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ian J; Judex, Stefan; Demes, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Effects of load-bearing exercise on skeletal structure and mechanical properties can vary between inbred strains of mice. Here, we examine whether such variation also exists at the population level. An experiment was performed with two outbred mouse stocks that have been reproductively isolated for >120 generations (Hsd:ICR, Crl:CD1). Growing females from each stock were either treated with a treadmill-running regimen for 1 month or served as controls. Limb forces were recorded with a force plate and cage activity monitored to verify that they were similar between stocks. After the experiment, femoral cortical and trabecular bone structure were quantified with micro-CT in the mid-diaphysis and distal metaphysis, respectively, and diaphyseal structural strength was determined with mechanical testing. Among Hsd:ICR mice, running led to significant improvements in diaphyseal bone quantity, structural geometry, and mechanical properties, as well as enhanced trabecular morphology. In contrast, among Crl:CD1 mice, the same running regimen had little effect on cortical and trabecular structure and significantly reduced diaphyseal resistance to fracture. In neither stock was body mass, muscle mass, or cage activity level different between runners and controls. Given that most environmental variables were controlled in this study, the differential effects of exercise on Hsd:ICR and Crl:CD1 bones were likely due to genetic differences between stocks. These results suggest that the benefits of loading for bone may vary between human populations (e.g., ethnic groups), in which case exercise programs and technologies designed to promote bone health with mechanical signals may be more advantageous to certain populations than others. PMID:25460574

  14. Water-soluble extract of Saxifraga stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Saxifraga stolonifera is an evergreen and herbaceous plant well known in Korea, Japan and western China, which has great potential applications in gardening and pharmacology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera extraction on lung tumors of Lewis mice. By the measurement of MS/MS, we found that there were four main bioactive components in methanol extract of S. stolonifera, including gallic acid, norbergenin, protocatechuic acid and bergenin, and the results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and bergenin in methanol extract of S. stolonifera were 5.150, 1.492, 24.559mg/g, respectively. Animal experiment showed that the mean tumor weight of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice treated with water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera was obviously smaller than model group (cis-DDP), and its inhibition rate was 49.2%. In addition, histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical assay confirmed the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera. Investigation of four haematological parameters revealed that the Lewis mice fed with S. stolonifera showed good resilience in the level of leukocyte, haemoglobin, blood platelets and red blood cell compared with the model group. In addition, RT-PCR suggested that the relative expression of pro-apoptosis gene p53, Sox and Bax was enhanced, while the relative expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2 was diminished in comparison with model group. These results suggested that water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung tumors. PMID:27575479

  15. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety. PMID:27248120

  16. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  17. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube X-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based X-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board X-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 μm measured directly from the histology (537 μm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

  18. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

  19. PET/CT Based In Vivo Evaluation of 64Cu Labelled Nanodiscs in Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Pie; Binderup, Tina; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Kjær, Andreas; Jensen, Mikael; Arleth, Lise

    2015-01-01

    64Cu radiolabelled nanodiscs based on the 11 α-helix MSP1E3D1 protein and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipids were, for the first time, followed in vivo by positron emission tomography for evaluating the biodistribution of nanodiscs. A cancer tumor bearing mouse model was used for the investigations, and it was found that the approximately 13 nm nanodiscs, due to their size, permeate deeply into cancer tissue. This makes them promising candidates for both drug delivery purposes and as advanced imaging agents. For the radiolabelling, a simple approach for 64Cu radiolabelling of proteins via a chelating agent, DOTA, was developed. The reaction was performed at sufficiently mild conditions to be compatible with labelling of the protein part of a lipid-protein particle while fully conserving the particle structure including the amphipathic protein fold. PMID:26132074

  20. PET/CT Based In Vivo Evaluation of 64Cu Labelled Nanodiscs in Tumor Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Huda, Pie; Binderup, Tina; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Kjær, Andreas; Jensen, Mikael; Arleth, Lise

    2015-01-01

    64Cu radiolabelled nanodiscs based on the 11 α-helix MSP1E3D1 protein and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipids were, for the first time, followed in vivo by positron emission tomography for evaluating the biodistribution of nanodiscs. A cancer tumor bearing mouse model was used for the investigations, and it was found that the approximately 13 nm nanodiscs, due to their size, permeate deeply into cancer tissue. This makes them promising candidates for both drug delivery purposes and as advanced imaging agents. For the radiolabelling, a simple approach for 64Cu radiolabelling of proteins via a chelating agent, DOTA, was developed. The reaction was performed at sufficiently mild conditions to be compatible with labelling of the protein part of a lipid-protein particle while fully conserving the particle structure including the amphipathic protein fold. PMID:26132074

  1. Cytotoxic chemotherapy increases sleep and sleep fragmentation in non-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption ranks among the most common complaints of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Because of the complex interactions among cancer, treatment regimens, and life-history traits, studies to establish a causal link between chemotherapy and sleep disruption are uncommon. To investigate how chemotherapy acutely influences sleep, adult female c57bl/6 mice were ovariectomized and implanted with wireless biotelemetry units. EEG/EMG biopotentials were collected over the course of 3days pre- and post-injection of 13.5mg/kg doxorubicin and 135mg/kg cyclophosphamide or the vehicle. We predicted that cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin would disrupt sleep and increase central proinflammatory cytokine expression in brain areas that govern vigilance states (i.e., hypothalamus and brainstem). The results largely support these predictions; a single chemotherapy injection increased NREM and REM sleep during subsequent active (dark) phases; this induced sleep was fragmented and of low quality. Mice displayed marked increases in low theta (5-7Hz) to high theta (7-10Hz) ratios following chemotherapy treatment, indicating elevated sleep propensity. The effect was strongest during the first dark phase following injection, but mice displayed disrupted sleep for the entire 3-day duration of post-injection sleep recording. Vigilance state timing was not influenced by treatment, suggesting that acute chemotherapy administration alters sleep homeostasis without altering sleep timing. qPCR analysis revealed that disrupted sleep was accompanied by increased IL-6 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Together, these data implicate neuroinflammation as a potential contributor to sleep disruption after chemotherapy. PMID:25449581

  2. Water influx into cerebrospinal fluid is significantly reduced in senile plaque bearing transgenic mice, supporting beta-amyloid clearance hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hironaka; Suzuki, Yuji; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis emphasize the importance of water influx into the peri-capillary (Virchow-Robin) space through aquaporin 4 (AQP-4). This water flow is believed to have the functionality equivalent to the systemic lymphatic system and plays a critical role in beta-amyloid clearance. Using a newly developed molecular imaging technique capable of tracing water molecules, in vivo, water influx into the CSF was quantitatively analyzed in senile plaque (SP) bearing transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice. The results unequivocally demonstrated that water influx into CSF is significantly impaired in SP-bearing transgenic mice, the degree of which being virtually identical to that previously observed in AQP-4 knockout mice. The study strongly indicates that disturbance in AQP-4-based water flow and, hence, impairment in beta-amyloid clearance play a significant role in SP formation. PMID:25082552

  3. A Novel Bioluminescence Orthotopic Mouse Model for Advanced Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Torossian, Artour; Li, Wenyan; Schleicher, Stephen; Niu, Kathy; Giacalone, Nicholas J.; Kim, Sung June; Chen, Heidi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Moretti, Luigi; Lu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States despite recent advances in our understanding of this challenging disease. An animal model for high-throughput screening of therapeutic agents for advanced lung cancer could help promote the development of more successful treatment interventions. To develop our orthotopic lung cancer model, luciferase-expressing A549 cancer cells were injected into the mediastinum of athymic nude mice. To determine whether the model would allow easy monitoring of response to therapeutic interventions, tumors were treated with 30 mg/kg Paclitaxel or were irradiated with 5 fractions of 2 Gy, and tumor burden was monitored using bioluminescence imaging. Evidence of radiation-induced lung injury was assessed using immunohistochemical staining for phospho-Smad2/3 and cleaved caspase-3. We found that tumor implantation recapitulated advanced human lung cancer as evidenced by tumor establishment and proliferation within the mediastinum. The tumor responded to Paclitaxel or radiation as shown by decreased tumor bioluminescence and improved overall survival. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased phospho-Smad2/3 and cleaved caspase-3 in irradiated lungs, consistent with radiation-induced lung injury. This orthotopic lung cancer model may help provide a method to assess therapeutic interventions in a preclinical setting that recapitulates locally advanced lung cancer. PMID:21663394

  4. Endoscopic Treatment of Studer's Orthotopic Neobladder Lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sousa, Diogo; Oliveira-Reis, Daniel; Cavadas, Vitor; Oliveira, Manuel; Soares, José; Fraga, Avelino

    2015-05-01

    Studer's neobladder lithiasis is a rare but important long term complication of this orthotopic bladder substitute technique. We report a case of a 45 year-old male patient, submitted to a radical cystoprostatectomy with a Studer's orthotopic neobladder 4 years before, presenting bad compliance to recommended urinary habits, increased production of mucus and high post voiding residue. CT scan and urethrocystography showed a distended pouch with 2 major sacculations with narrow communication and a stone in each sacculation. A minimally invasive endoscopic technique was successfully used in the treatment of the 2 small calculus. PMID:26793507

  5. Endoscopic Treatment of Studer's Orthotopic Neobladder Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Sousa, Diogo; Oliveira-Reis, Daniel; Cavadas, Vitor; Oliveira, Manuel; Soares, José; Fraga, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Studer's neobladder lithiasis is a rare but important long term complication of this orthotopic bladder substitute technique. We report a case of a 45 year-old male patient, submitted to a radical cystoprostatectomy with a Studer's orthotopic neobladder 4 years before, presenting bad compliance to recommended urinary habits, increased production of mucus and high post voiding residue. CT scan and urethrocystography showed a distended pouch with 2 major sacculations with narrow communication and a stone in each sacculation. A minimally invasive endoscopic technique was successfully used in the treatment of the 2 small calculus. PMID:26793507

  6. Real-time analysis of liposomal trafficking in tumor-bearing mice by use of positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Tokudome, Y; Tsukada, H; Okada, S

    1995-08-23

    Long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively in tumor tissues of tumor-bearing animals. To evaluate the in vivo behavior of such liposomes, we investigated the real-time liposomal trafficking by a non-invasive method using position emission tomography (PET). Liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and palmityl-D-glucuronide (PGlcUA) in a molar ratio of 4:4:1 were prepared in the presence of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([2-18F]FDG). [2-18F]FDG-labeled liposomes sized by extrusion through a filter with various-sized pores were administered to mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and a PET scan was performed for 120 min. Small-sized, long-circulating liposomes (100 nm in diameter) constructed with PGlcUA tended to accumulate in the tumor tissues. On the contrary, control liposomes (100 nm in diameter) containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol instead of PGlcUA accumulated in the liver. Large-sized PGlcUA-containing liposomes (> 300 nm) also accumulated in the liver, as well as in the spleen. Time-activity curves indicated that the small long-circulating liposomes (< 200 nm) transiently accumulated in the liver right after the injection but that the accumulation there decreased time-dependently. These data suggest that, although the majority of small long-circulating liposomes remain in the bloodstream, some extravasate once into the interstitial spaces in the liver re-enter the bloodstream again, and finally accumulate in the tumor tissues. This PET technique might be useful for studying real-time liposomal trafficking and for tumor imaging. PMID:7654755

  7. Transplanting normal vascular proangiogenic cells to tumor-bearing mice triggers vascular remodeling and reduced hypoxia in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sasajima, Junpei; Mizukami, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Kawamoto, Toru; Koizumi, Kazuya; Fujii, Rie; Motomura, Wataru; Sato, Kazuya; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Tanno, Satoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sasaki, Katsunori; Shimizu, Norihiko; Karasaki, Hidenori; Kono, Toru; Kawabe, Jun-ichi; Ii, Masaaki; Yoshiara, Hiroki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Ashida, Toshifumi; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Chung, Daniel C.; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and vascular networks are spatially organized to meet metabolic needs for maintaining homeostasis. In contrast, the vasculature of tumors is immature and leaky, resulting in insufficient delivery of nutrients and oxygen. Vasculogenic processes occur normally in adult tissues to repair “injured” blood vessels, leading us to hypothesize that bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) may be able to restore appropriate vessel function in tumor vasculature. Culturing BMMNC with endothelial growth medium resulted in the early outgrowth of spindle-shaped attached cells expressing CD11b/Flt1/Tie2/c-Kit/CXCR4 with pro-angiogenic activity. Intravenous administration of these cultured vascular proangiogenic cells (VPC) into nude mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+ genetically engineered mice that develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma significantly reduced areas of hypoxia without enhancing tumor growth. The resulting vasculature structurally mimicked normal vessels with intensive pericyte coverage. Increases in the vascularized area within VPC-injected xenografts were visualized with the ultrasound diagnostic system during injection of a microbubble-based contrast agent (Sonazoid), indicating a functional “normalization” of the tumor vasculature. In addition, gene expression profiles on the VPC-transplanted xenografts revealed a marked reduction in major factors involved in drug resistance and “stemness” of cancer cells. Together, our findings identify a novel alternate approach to regulate abnormal tumor vessels, offering the potential to improve delivery and efficacy of anti-cancer drugs to hypoxic tumors. PMID:20631070

  8. Transplanting normal vascular proangiogenic cells to tumor-bearing mice triggers vascular remodeling and reduces hypoxia in tumors.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Junpei; Mizukami, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Kawamoto, Toru; Koizumi, Kazuya; Fujii, Rie; Motomura, Wataru; Sato, Kazuya; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Tanno, Satoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sasaki, Katsunori; Shimizu, Norihiko; Karasaki, Hidenori; Kono, Toru; Kawabe, Jun-ichi; Ii, Masaaki; Yoshiara, Hiroki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Ashida, Toshifumi; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Chung, Daniel C; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and vascular networks are spatially organized to meet the metabolic needs for maintaining homeostasis. In contrast, the vasculature of tumors is immature and leaky, resulting in insufficient delivery of nutrients and oxygen. Vasculogenic processes occur normally in adult tissues to repair "injured" blood vessels, leading us to hypothesize that bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) may be able to restore appropriate vessel function in the tumor vasculature. Culturing BMMNCs in endothelial growth medium resulted in the early outgrowth of spindle-shaped attached cells expressing CD11b/Flt1/Tie2/c-Kit/CXCR4 with proangiogenic activity. Intravenous administration of these cultured vascular proangiogenic cells (VPC) into nude mice bearing pancreatic cancer xenografts and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);p53(lox/+) genetically engineered mice that develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma significantly reduced areas of hypoxia without enhancing tumor growth. The resulting vasculature structurally mimicked normal vessels with intensive pericyte coverage. Increases in vascularized areas within VPC-injected xenografts were visualized with an ultrasound diagnostic system during injection of a microbubble-based contrast agent (Sonazoid), indicating a functional "normalization" of the tumor vasculature. In addition, gene expression profiles in the VPC-transplanted xenografts revealed a marked reduction in major factors involved in drug resistance and "stemness" of cancer cells. Together, our findings identify a novel alternate approach to regulate abnormal tumor vessels, offering the potential to improve the delivery and efficacy of anticancer drugs to hypoxic tumors. PMID:20631070

  9. [Effects of cytokines on somatostatin in nude mice bearing human renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, G; Cao, G; Huo, J

    1997-06-01

    We studied the relationship between the production of SS and treatment with cytokines and a new method for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. 4.4 x 10(6)RCC94616 cells were injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. Five groups with TNF, IL-2, rIFN, TNF + IL-2, TNF + rIFN and controls were randomly divided according to the mean diameter of experimental tumor. After the last injection of cytokines, 0.5-0.8 ml blood, 1g tumor tissue, para-tissue and normal tissue were havested respectively. Contents of SS were tested by radioimmunoassay. In the treatment groups with cytokines, the concentration of SS was changed, siginificantly increased in the TNF + IL-2 group (P < 0.01). The effect on distribution of SS by cytokines may also be mediated by the regulation of human immunity and antitumor activity. It may be suggested that the method of TNF + IL-2 + SS is best to treat renal cell carcinoma. PMID:10374465

  10. The protein profile of acetazolamide-treated sera in mice bearing Lewis neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Ma, Bing; Yu, He-ming; Li, Xue-Jun

    2004-07-30

    The aim of the present research is to analyze the proteome of neoplasm serum before and after treated with acetazolamide (20, 40, 80 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 3 days p.o.). The Lewis lung carcinoma mice were used and carried out a comprehensive proteomic analysis by using the technologies of high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). The results showed that the acetazolamide could dramatically reduce the lung metastasis and primary tumor growth. Its most potent inhibition rate on lung metastases was reach to 77.7% at the dose of 80 mg kg(-1) d(-1). The two dimension electrophoresis and software analysis reveal 393 protein spots in control gel, 385 protein spots were detected in treated gel and matched 209 protein spots with control gel, indicating that intensive changes had occurred during the process of treatment. Two obviously different spots were cut off from gel and for the peptide mass fingerprinting. Data base searching showed the two proteins' peptide much more mach with Histone H2B fragment and Ubc-like protein CROC1 fragment. The results suggest that acetazolamide has a strong anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effect on Lewis-lung-carcinoma. The mechanism may be related to its regulation on plenty of proteins, in particular, on upregulation of H2B and CROC-1 expression of postreplicational DNA repair related protein in serum. PMID:15234186

  11. Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Assessment of a Near Infrared-Labeled PSMA-Specific Small Molecule in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, Joy L.; Cheung, Lael L.; Simpson, Melanie A.; Olive, D. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR) technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a dose dependent increase in signal upon binding. Binding specificity and internalization were visualized by microscopy. In vitro and in vivo blocking studies confirmed YC-27 specificity. In vivo, YC-27 showed good tumor delineation and tissue contrast at doses as low as 0.25 nmole. YC-27 was cleared via the kidneys but bound the proximal tubules of the renal cortex and epididymis. Since PSMA is also broadly expressed on the neovasculature of most tumors, we expect YC-27 will have clinical utility for image-guided surgery and tumor resections. PMID:24804103

  12. Preclinical studies of N3-O-toluyl-fluorouracil-loaded lipid-based nanosuspensions in H22-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Li, Min; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Lili; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Purpose N3-O-toluyl-fluorouracil (TFU) is a potential antitumor prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but its poor solubility has limited its use in clinic. This study aimed to improve the bioavailability of TFU by preparing TFU-loaded lipid-based nanosuspensions (TFU-LNS) and perform a preclinical evaluation. Methods TFU-LNS were prepared through high-pressure homogenization and were lyophilized afterwards. For in vitro test, the physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity against HegG2 cells were conducted. For in vivo evaluation, the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and antitumor efficacy were investigated in H22-bearing Kunming mice. Results TFU showed different degradability in four media; in particular, nearly all of it converted to an equimolar amount of 5-FU in blank plasma of Wistar rats. The lyophilized TFU-LNS had a mean particle size of 180.03±3.11 nm and zeta potential of −8.02±1.43 mV and showed no discernible changes after storage at 4°C for 3 months. In the in vivo antitumor study, the antitumor efficacy of TFU-LNS was consistent with that of 5-FU injection. Furthermore, TFU-LNS released a lower concentration of 5-FU in heart and kidney throughout the tissue distribution studies. Conclusion TFU-LNS exhibited convincing antitumor activity and easy scale-up opportunity, which suggests that TFU-LNS might be a promising drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:24920908

  13. A novel TLR7 agonist reverses NK cell anergy and cures RMA-S lymphoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Gabriela Maria; Jacobi, Severin Johannes; Chaloupka, Michael; Krächan, Angelina; Hamm, Svetlana; Strobl, Stefan; Baumgartner, Roland; Rothenfusser, Simon; Duewell, Peter; Endres, Stefan; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists are potent immune stimulants able to overcome cancer-associated immune suppression. Due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities, only the topically applied TLR7 agonist (imiquimod) has been approved for therapy of skin tumors. There is a need for TLR7-activating compounds with equivalent efficacy but less toxicity. SC1, a novel small molecule agonist for TLR7, is a potent type-1 interferon inducer, comparable to the reference TLR7 agonist resiquimod, yet with lower induction of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, SC1 activates NK cells in a TLR7-dependent manner. Mice bearing the NK cell-sensitive lymphoma RMA-S are cured by repeated s. c. administrations of SC1 as efficiently as by the administration of resiquimod. No relevant toxicities were observed. Mechanistically, SC1 reverses NK cell anergy and restores NK cell-mediated tumor cell killing in an IFN-α-dependent manner. TLR7 targeting by SC1-based compounds may form an attractive strategy to activate NK cell responses for cancer therapy. PMID:27622045

  14. Carvedilol protects the kidneys of tumor-bearing mice without impairing the biodistribution or the genotoxicity of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Rodrigues, Maria A; dos Santos, Neife A G; da Silva Faria, Marcia C; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Kinoshita, Angela; Baffa, Oswaldo; Antunes, Lusania M Greggi; Barbosa, Fernando; Gobe, Glenda C; dos Santos, Antonio Cardozo

    2016-02-01

    Cisplatin (Cisp) is an effective antitumor drug; however, it causes severe nephrotoxicity. Minimization of renal toxicity is essential, but the interference of nephroprotective agents, particularly antioxidants, with the antitumor activity of cisplatin is a general concern. We have recently demonstrated that the anti-hypertensive and antioxidant drug carvedilol (CV) protects against the renal damage and increases the survival of tumor-bearing mice without impairing the tumor reduction by cisplatin. So far, reports on the antioxidant mechanism of CV are controversial and there are no data on the impact of CV on the antitumor mechanisms of cisplatin. Therefore, this study addresses the effect of CV on mechanisms underlying the tumor control by cisplatin. CV did not interfere with the biodistribution or the genotoxicity of cisplatin. We also addressed the antioxidant mechanisms of CV and demonstrated that it does not neutralize free radicals, but is an efficient chelator of ferrous ions that are relevant catalyzers in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. The present data suggest that oxidative damage and genotoxicity play different roles in the toxicity of cisplatin on kidneys and tumors and therefore, some antioxidants might be safe as chemoprotectors. Altogether, our studies provide consistent evidence of the beneficial effect of CV on animals treated with cisplatin and might encourage clinical trials. PMID:26751708

  15. Antitumor activity of crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne on U14 cervical carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Qingwang; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Rui; Han, Zengsheng; Gao, Dawei

    2007-09-01

    Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries because of its diuretic and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the effect of the crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL-P) on tumor growth. SNL-P had a significant growth inhibition effect on cervical cancer (U14) of tumor-bearing mice. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly, the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 decreased dramatically in cervical cancer sections after oral administration of SNL-P for 12 days. Moreover, SNL-P treatment decreased the level of blood serum TNF-alpha. These results indicated that the tumor growth inhibition of SNL-P administration might correlate with the reduction of TNF-alpha level of blood serum, which resulted in a massive necrosis in tumor tissues and the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 gene expression, which triggered apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated that the SNL-P is a potential antitumor agent. PMID:17486683

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity and reduced toxicity by combination andrographolide and bleomycin in ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Su, Zuqing; Sun, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xie; Zhao, Xiaoning; Lai, Xiaoping; Su, Ziren; Li, Yucui; Zhan, Janis Yaxian

    2016-04-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective anti-carcinogen. With the main detrimental effects of inducing pulmonary fibrosis on patients, its clinical use is limited. Developing agents that enhance the efficacy and attenuate the side effects of cancer chemotherapy are critical. Andrographolide (Andro), an active diterpenoid labdane component extracted from Andrographis panicula, is generally prescribed for treatment of inflammatory associated diseases. The study showed that BLM combined with Andro was significantly more effective than BLM alone on inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, promoting the capase-3 and capase-8 activity to induce cancer cell apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the transcriptional regulation of P53/P21/Cyclin pathways. Moreover, BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing mice, but BLM combined with Andro dramatically alleviated the lesion in pulmonary fibrosis by activating the SOD, suppressing MDA and HYP production, in the meanwhile attenuating the IL-1β, TNF- α, IL-6 and TGF-β1 level. These mechanisms were associated with its effect on inhibition of protein expression of TGF-β, α-SMA, p-Smad2/3, enhanced expression of Smad7. Thus, it demonstrated that Andro might be a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for BLM. PMID:26874212

  17. Water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine-polymer conjugates for PDT: photodynamic activities and pharmacokinetics in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, N; Ouellet, R; La Madeleine, C; van Lier, J E

    1999-07-01

    The potential use of unsubstituted aluminium phthalocyanine (AlClPc) as a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer has not been fully exploited in spite of its higher efficiency as compared to the sulphonated derivatives. This is largely due to the strong hydrophobic character of AlClPc which renders the material difficult to formulate for in vivo administration. We prepared two water-soluble derivatives of AlClPc by axial coordination of polyethyleneglycol (PEG, MW 2000) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA, MW 13,000-23,000) to the central aluminium ion. Their photodynamic activities were evaluated in vitro against the EMT-6 mouse mammary tumour cells and in vivo against the EMT-6 and the colon carcinoma Colo-26 tumours implanted intradermally in Balb/c mice. Pharmacokinetics were studied in the EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice. After 1 h incubation, the light dose required to kill 90% of cells (LD90) was at least three times less for AlClPc (Cremophor emulsion) as compared to AlPc-PEG and AlPc-PVA, while after 24 h incubation all three preparations were highly phototoxic. All three dye preparations induced complete EMT-6 tumour regression in 75-100% of animals at a low drug dose (0.25 micromol kg(-1)) following PDT (400 J cm(-2), 650-700 nm) at 24 h pi. Complete tumour regression in the Colo-26 tumour model was obtained in 30% of mice at a dose of 2 micromol kg(-1). In the non-cured animals, AlPc-PVA induced the most significant tumour growth delay. This dye showed a prolonged plasma half-life (6.8 h) as compared to AlClPc (2.6 h) and AlPc-PEG (23 min), lower retention by liver and spleen and higher tumour-to-skin and tumour-to-muscle ratios. Our data demonstrate that addition of hydrophilic axial ligands to AlPc, while modifying in vitro and in vivo kinetics, does not reduce the PDT efficiency of the parent molecule. Moreover, in the case of the polyvinylalcohol derivative, axial coordination confers advantageous pharmacokinetics to AlPc, which makes this

  18. Water-soluble aluminium phthalocyanine–polymer conjugates for PDT: photodynamic activities and pharmacokinetics in tumour-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Brasseur, N; Ouellet, R; Madeleine, C La; Lier, J E van

    1999-01-01

    The potential use of unsubstituted aluminium phthalocyanine (AlClPc) as a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer has not been fully exploited in spite of its higher efficiency as compared to the sulphonated derivatives. This is largely due to the strong hydrophobic character of AlClPc which renders the material difficult to formulate for in vivo administration. We prepared two water-soluble derivatives of AlClPc by axial coordination of polyethyleneglycol (PEG, MW 2000) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA, MW 13 000–23 000) to the central aluminium ion. Their photodynamic activities were evaluated in vitro against the EMT-6 mouse mammary tumour cells and in vivo against the EMT-6 and the colon carcinoma Colo-26 tumours implanted intradermally in Balb/c mice. Pharmacokinetics were studied in the EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice. After 1 h incubation, the light dose required to kill 90% of cells (LD90) was at least three times less for AlClPc (Cremophor emulsion) as compared to AlPc–PEG and AlPc–PVA, while after 24 h incubation all three preparations were highly phototoxic. All three dye preparations induced complete EMT-6 tumour regression in 75–100% of animals at a low drug dose (0.25 μmol kg−1) following PDT (400 J cm−2, 650–700 nm) at 24 h pi. Complete tumour regression in the Colo-26 tumour model was obtained in 30% of mice at a dose of 2 μmol kg−1. In the non-cured animals, AlPc–PVA induced the most significant tumour growth delay. This dye showed a prolonged plasma half-life (6.8 h) as compared to AlClPc (2.6 h) and AlPc–PEG (23 min), lower retention by liver and spleen and higher tumour-to-skin and tumour-to-muscle ratios. Our data demonstrate that addition of hydrophilic axial ligands to AlPc, while modifying in vitro and in vivo kinetics, does not reduce the PDT efficiency of the parent molecule. Moreover, in the case of the polyvinylalcohol derivative, axial coordination confers advantageous pharmacokinetics to AlPc, which makes this

  19. Effect of c-ski overexpression on the development of cachexia in mice bearing the Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carbó, Neus; Costelli, Paola; Busquets, Sílvia; López-Soriano, Joaquín; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Baccino, Francesco M; Argilés, Josep M

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of the proto-oncogene c-ski in mice results in the development of a hypertrophic phenotype, characterized by increases in body and muscle weights. It has been previously shown in our laboratories that down-regulation of muscle protein breakdown associated with reduced expression of genes pertaining to different proteolytic systems likely account for this hypertrophic pattern. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of c-ski transgenic mice to catabolic stimuli such as those induced by the growth of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The tumor elicited a loss of body weight either in transgenic or in non-transgenic animals, although it was less pronounced in the former. The mass of gastrocnemius, tibialis and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were significantly reduced in non-transgenic tumor-bearing mice. Despite the anabolic setting displayed by the transgenic animals, the EDL only is completely protected against wasting. Indeed, gastrocnemius, tibialis and soleus show a reduction in weight, the latter two being significantly more depleted when compared to the non-transgenic tumor bearers. Similarly, the perigenital white adipose tissue presented a reduced mass which was more marked in the transgenic group. The quantitation of gene expression for ubiquitin, E2, C8 and calpain in the EDL showed marked differences between the transgenic and the non-transgenic groups of tumor hosts. As expected from previous results, in the latter group most of the transcripts examined increased with respect to controls as a consequence of tumor growth; by contrast, in the transgenic tumor hosts there was a significant reduction of ubiquitin, E2, C8 subunit, and calpain mRNA levels in comparison with the transgenic tumor-free animals. These results show that c-ski hyperexpression prevents tumor-induced muscle wasting in the EDL muscle, likely by impairing the state of activation of different proteolytic systems. However, the lack of effectiveness in

  20. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  1. The effects of polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yao; Zhou, Jiali; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kaiping; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The crude polysaccharide was obtained from the root of Angelica sinensis (AS) to investigate its effect on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. In our study, we showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was mainly composed of arabinose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:1:1.75, with a molecular weight of 80,900 Da and a sugar content of 88.0%. Animal experimental results revealed that three doses of ASP all had anti-tumor effects with inhibition ratios of 27.11%, 31.65% and 37.05%. With respect to iron metabolism, the mean levels of serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ferritin, transferrin (Tf), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) in H22-bearing mice were promoted, and serum iron concentration decreased significantly. After treatment with ASP, these iron-related indicators recovered in different degrees. The findings suggested that the anti-tumor activity of ASP may be affected by its regulation on iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. PMID:26757699

  2. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Immunomodulatory Effects of Flavonoids and Scutebarbatines of Scutellaria barbata D. Don in Lewis-Bearing C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Wang, Chun-Fei; Yuan, Jia-Rui; Li, Yu; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zhao, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Li; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang; Liu, Shen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB), an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and LC/MS/MS methods were conducted for the analysis of flavonoids and scutebarbatines in SB. Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice model was established and tumor volume was evaluated by high frequency color ultrasound experiment. ELISA and western blot analysis were performed for the determination of immunomodulatory factors. SB treatment at the dose of 10, 6.67, and 3.33 g crude drug/kg/d significantly inhibited tumor growth of Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice with the inhibition rates of 44.41 ± 5.44%, 33.56 ± 4.85%, and 27.57 ± 4.96%, respectively. More importantly, the spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably by SB treatment. SB could decrease IL-17, IL-10, FOXP3, TGF-β1, RORγt, and IL-6 levels whereas it could increase remarkably IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Our results demonstrated that SB could inhibit tumor growth in vivo through regulating immune function in tumor-bearing mice and suggested that the immunomodulatory function of SB had a potential therapeutic effect in lung cancer. PMID:26064167

  3. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 suppresses tumor growth in breast cancer-bearing mice by negatively regulating myeloid-derived suppressor cell functions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Lim, Hui Xuan; Song, Ju Han; Lee, Arim; Kim, Eugene; Cho, Daeho; Cohen, Edward P; Kim, Tae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are one of the most important cell types that contribute to negative regulation of immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1), a novel pleiotropic cytokine, was identified as an antitumor protein that inhibits angiogenesis and induces antitumor responses. However, the effect of AIMP1 on MDSCs in the tumor environment remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that AIMP1 significantly inhibited tumor growth in 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice and reduced MDSCs population of tumor sites and spleens of tumor-bearing mice. AIMP1 reduced expansion of MDSCs from bone marrow-derived cells in the tumor-conditioned media. AIMP1 also negatively regulated suppressive activities of MDSCs by inhibiting IL-6 and NO production, and Arg-1 expression. Furthermore, treatment of breast cancer-bearing mice with AIMP1 decreased the capacity of MDSCs to suppress T cell proliferation and Treg cell induction. Western blot and inhibition experiments showed that downregulation of MDSCs functions by AIMP1 may result from attenuated activation of STATs, Akt, and ERK. These findings indicate that AIMP1 plays an essential role in negative regulation of suppressive functions of MDSCs. Therefore, it has a significant potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. PMID:26613952

  4. Avastin® in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis and increases the survival rate of human A549 tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YING; XIA, XIZHENG; ZHOU, MINGKAI; LIU, XIAOJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Avastin® in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) on the tumor growth of A549 tumor-bearing mice and the potential anti-tumor mechanism. A total of 30 human A549 tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into the Avastin, chemotherapy and combined treatment groups for treatment with an intraperitoneal injection of Avastin (5 mg/kg) (Avastin group); an intraperitoneal injection of gemcitabine (4 mg/kg) and cisplatin (4 mg/kg) (chemotherapy group); or intraperitoneal injections of Avastin and GP (combined treatment group). The mice were observed for 30 days and the tumor growth, survival and body weight of the mice in the three groups were analyzed. The protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissues was analyzed by ELISA. The vascular density and structural changes of the tumor were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Compared with the Avastin and chemotherapy groups, the tumor growth of mice in the combined treatment group was significantly inhibited, and the survival rate of the mice was increased significantly. No difference in body weight was observed among the three groups of mice (P>0.05). The levels of VEGF in the combined treatment group tumor tissues were significantly reduced compared with those in the chemotherapy group tumor tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the vessel density of the tumor tissue in the combined treatment group was significantly reduced compared with that in the chemotherapy group (P<0.05), and the number of normal vessels in the combined treatment group tumors was significantly higher than that in the chemotherapy group tumors after 7 days of treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, Avastin can significantly decrease the level of VEGF in tumor tissue, inhibit tumor angiogenesis and promote the normalization of tumor vascular structure, which may explain the enhanced efficacy of Avastin in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:26136956

  5. Semaphorin7A promotes tumor growth and exerts a pro-angiogenic effect in macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Libreros, Stephania; Amat, Samantha; Keating, Patricia; Carrio, Roberto; Robinson, Phillip; Blieden, Clifford; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a large family of molecules involved in axonal guidance during the development of the nervous system and have been recently shown to have both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic properties. Specifically, semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) has been reported to have a chemotactic activity in neurogenesis and to be an immune modulator through α1β1integrins. SEMA7A has been shown to promote monocyte chemotaxis and induce them to produce proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explored the role of SEMA7A in a murine model of breast cancer. We show that SEMA7A is highly expressed by DA-3 murine mammary tumor cells in comparison to normal mammary cells (EpH4), and that peritoneal elicited macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice also express SEMA7A at higher levels compared to those derived from normal mice. We also show that murine macrophages treated with recombinant murine SEMA7A significantly increased their expression of proangiogenic molecule CXCL2/MIP-2. Gene silencing of SEMA7A in peritoneal elicited macrophages from DA-3 tumor-bearing mice resulted in decreased CXCL2/MIP-2 expression. Mice implanted with SEMA7A silenced tumor cells showed decreased angiogenesis in the tumors compared to the wild type tumors. Furthermore, peritoneal elicited macrophages from mice bearing SEMA7A-silenced tumors produce significantly (p < 0.01) lower levels of angiogenic proteins, such as CXCL2/MIP-2, CXCL1, and MMP-9, compared to those from control DA-3 mammary tumors. We postulate that SEMA7A in mammary carcinomas may skew monocytes into a pro-tumorigenic phenotype to support tumor growth. SEMA7A could prove to be valuable in establishing new research avenues toward unraveling important tumor-host immune interactions in breast cancer patients. PMID:24550834

  6. Synthesis, characterization of novel injectable drug carriers and the antitumor efficacy in mice bearing Sarcoma-180 tumor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-xun; Huang, Kai-xun; Tang, Rong; Xu, Hui-bi

    2005-10-20

    New unsaturated polyesters of poly(fumaric acid-glycol-dodecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-DDDA) copolymers, poly(fumaric acid-glycol-brassylic acid) P(FA-GLY-BA) copolymers, poly(fumaric acid-glycol-tetradecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-TA) copolymers and poly(fumaric acid-glycol-pentadecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-PA) copolymers were prepared by melt polycondensation of the corresponding mixed monomers: fumaric acid, glycol and one of C(12-15) dibasic acids. The copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and the surface structure of unsaturated polyesters after solidify were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular structure and composition of the unsaturated polyesters were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In vitro studies showed that some of the copolymers are degradable in phosphate buffer at 37 degrees C and have properly drug release rate as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of P(FA-GLY-DDDA) and P(FA-GLY-BA) copolymers under mice skin was also evaluated, macroscopic observation and microscopic analysis demonstrated that the copolymer is biocompatible and well tolerated in vivo. Antitumor efficacy of P(FA-GLY-DDDA) copolymers and P(FA-GLY-BA) copolymers containing 5% adriamycin hydrochloride (ADM) in mice bearing Sarcoma-180 tumor exhibited increased volume doubling time (VDT) (22+/-1.5 days and 24+/-2.5 days) compared to plain subcutaneous injection of ADM (7+/-0.9 days). The antitumor efficacy of injecting P(FA-GLY-DDDA)-ADM inside tumor twice intervened in 22 days exhibited an especially increased cytotoxic effect as revealed by increased VDT (33+/-2.5 days), and the antitumor efficacy of injecting P(FA-GLY-BA)-ADM inside tumor twice intervened in 24 days exhibited an especially increased cytotoxic effect as revealed by increased VDT (35+/-1.5 days). The studies suggested that P(FA-GLY-DDDA) copolymers and P(FA-GLY-BA) copolymers as effective and injectable carriers for antineoplastic drug like adriamycin hydrochloride

  7. Combination treatment with oncolytic Vaccinia virus and cyclophosphamide results in synergistic antitumor effects in human lung adenocarcinoma bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The capacity of the recombinant Vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 as a single agent to efficiently treat different human or canine cancers has been shown in several preclinical studies. Currently, its human safety and efficacy are investigated in phase I/II clinical trials. In this study we set out to evaluate the oncolytic activity of GLV-1h68 in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line PC14PE6-RFP in cell cultures and analyzed the antitumor potency of a combined treatment strategy consisting of GLV-1h68 and cyclophosphamide (CPA) in a mouse model of PC14PE6-RFP lung adenocarcinoma. Methods PC14PE6-RFP cells were treated in cell culture with GLV-1h68. Viral replication and cell survival were determined by plaque assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively. Subcutaneously implanted PC14PE6-RFP xenografts were treated by systemic injection of GLV-1h68, CPA or a combination of both. Tumor growth and viral biodistribution were monitored and immune-related antigen profiling of tumor lysates was performed. Results GLV-1h68 efficiently infected, replicated in and lysed human PC14PE6-RFP cells in cell cultures. PC14PE6-RFP tumors were efficiently colonized by GLV-1h68 leading to much delayed tumor growth in PC14PE6-RFP tumor-bearing nude mice. Combination treatment with GLV-1h68 and CPA significantly improved the antitumor efficacy of GLV-1h68 and led to an increased viral distribution within the tumors. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were distinctly elevated in tumors of GLV-1h68-treated mice. Factors expressed by endothelial cells or present in the blood were decreased after combination treatment. A complete loss in the hemorrhagic phenotype of the PC14PE6-RFP tumors and a decrease in the number of blood vessels after combination treatment could be observed. Conclusions CPA and GLV-1h68 have synergistic antitumor effects on PC14PE6-RFP xenografts. We strongly suppose that in the PC14PE6-RFP model the

  8. Antitumor activity and systemic effects of PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Alexandre Muehlmann, Luis; Carneiro Matos, Lívia; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Guerreiro Marques Lacava, Zulmira; Maurício Batista De-Paula, Alfredo; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; César Morais, Paulo; González-Fernández, África; Nair Báo, Sônia; Bentes Azevedo, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Selol is a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite that is effective against cancerous cells and safer for clinical applications in comparison with other inorganic forms of selenite. Recently, we have developed a formulation of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-shelled selol nanocapsules (SPN), which reduced the proliferative activity of lung adenocarcinoma cells and presented little deleterious effects on normal cells in in vitro studies. In this study, we report on the antitumor activity and systemic effects induced by this formulation in chemically induced lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. The in vivo antitumor activity of the SPN was verified by macroscopic quantification, immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses. Toxicity analyses were performed by evaluations of the kidney, liver, and spleen; analyses of hemogram and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, urea, and creatinine; and DNA fragmentation and cell cycle activity of the bone marrow cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the SPN formulation to cause hemolysis, activate the complement system, provoke an inflammatory response and change the conformation of the plasma proteins. Our results showed that the SPN reduced the area of the surface tumor nodules but not the total number of tumor nodules. The biochemical and hematological findings were suggestive of the low systemic toxicity of the SPN formulation. The surface properties of the selol nanocapsules point to characteristics that are consistent with the treatment of the tumors in vivo: low hemolytic activity, weak inflammatory reaction with no activation of the complement system, and mild or absent conformational changes of the plasma proteins. In conclusion, this report suggests that the SPN formulation investigated herein exhibits anti-tumoral effects against lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and is associated with low systemic toxicity and high biocompatibility.

  9. MicroSPECT/CT imaging and pharmacokinetics of 188Re-(DXR)-liposome in human colorectal adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hua; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Ya-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yu-Hsien; Lee, Wan-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lee, Te-Wei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Ting, Gann

    2010-01-01

    Nanoliposome can be designed as a drug delivery carrier to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drug administration. (188)Re-labeled nanoliposomes are useful for diagnostic imaging as well as for targeted radionuclide therapy. In this study, the in vivo nuclear imaging, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of administered nanoliposomes were investigated as drug and radionuclide carriers for targeting solid tumor via intravenous (i.v.) administration. The radiotherapeutics ((188)Re-liposome) and radiochemotherapeutics ((188)Re-DXR-liposome) were i.v. administered to nude mice bearing human HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts. (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposomes show similar biodistribution profile; both have higher tumor uptake, higher blood retention time, and lower excretion rate than (188)Re-N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylenediamine (BMEDA). In contrast to tumor uptake, the area under the curve (AUC) value of tumor for (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome was 16.5- and 11.5-fold higher than that of free (188)Re-BMEDA, respectively. Additionally, (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome had a higher tumor-to-muscle ratio at 24 h (14.4+/-2 .7 and 17.14+/-4.1, respectively) than (188)Re-BMEDA (1.6+/-0.1). The tumor targeting and distribution of (188)Re-(DXR)-liposome (representing (188)Re-DXR-liposome and (188)Re-liposome) can also be acquired by signal photon-emission computed tomography/computed tomography images as well as whole body autoradiograph. These results suggest that (188)Re-(DXR)-liposomes are potentially promising agents for passive targeting treatment of malignant disease. PMID:20150618

  10. Prolonged antigen storage endows merocytic DC with enhanced capacity to prime anti-tumor responses in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Reboulet, Rachel A.; Hennies, Cassandra M.; Garcia, Zacarias; Nierkens, Stefan; Janssen, Edith M.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-cell vaccination with irradiated autologous tumor cells is a promising approach to activate tumor-specific T cell responses without the need for tumor antigen identification. However, uptake of dying cells by DC is generally a non-inflammatory or tolerizing event in order to prevent the development of autoreactive immune responses. Here we describe the mechanisms that confer the potent T cell priming capacity of a recently identified a population of DC (merocyticDC, mcDC) that potently primes both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to cell-associated antigens upon uptake of apoptotic cells. mcDCs acquired cell-associated materials though a process of merocytosis that is defined by the uptake of small particles that are stored in non-acidic compartments for prolonged periods, sustained antigen presentation, and the induction of type I IFN. T cells primed by mcDC to cell-associated antigens exhibit increased primary expansion, enhanced effector function and increased memory formation. Using transgenic T cell transfer models and endogenous models, we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with mcDC that have been exposed to dying tumor cells results in tumor suppression and increased host survival through the activation of naïve tumor-specific CD8+ T cells as well as the revigoration of tumor-specific T cells that had been rendered non-responsive by the tumor in vivo. The potent capacity of mcDCs to prime both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-associated antigens under immunosuppressive conditions makes this DC subset an attractive target for tumor therapies as well as interventional strategies for autoimmunity and transplantation. PMID:20720209

  11. Antitumor activity and systemic effects of PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Matos, Lívia Carneiro; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Lacava, Zulmira Guerreiro Marques; De-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; Morais, Paulo César; González-Fernández, África; Báo, Sônia Nair; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2015-12-18

    Selol is a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite that is effective against cancerous cells and safer for clinical applications in comparison with other inorganic forms of selenite. Recently, we have developed a formulation of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-shelled selol nanocapsules (SPN), which reduced the proliferative activity of lung adenocarcinoma cells and presented little deleterious effects on normal cells in in vitro studies. In this study, we report on the antitumor activity and systemic effects induced by this formulation in chemically induced lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. The in vivo antitumor activity of the SPN was verified by macroscopic quantification, immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses. Toxicity analyses were performed by evaluations of the kidney, liver, and spleen; analyses of hemogram and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, urea, and creatinine; and DNA fragmentation and cell cycle activity of the bone marrow cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the SPN formulation to cause hemolysis, activate the complement system, provoke an inflammatory response and change the conformation of the plasma proteins. Our results showed that the SPN reduced the area of the surface tumor nodules but not the total number of tumor nodules. The biochemical and hematological findings were suggestive of the low systemic toxicity of the SPN formulation. The surface properties of the selol nanocapsules point to characteristics that are consistent with the treatment of the tumors in vivo: low hemolytic activity, weak inflammatory reaction with no activation of the complement system, and mild or absent conformational changes of the plasma proteins. In conclusion, this report suggests that the SPN formulation investigated herein exhibits anti-tumoral effects against lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and is associated with low systemic toxicity and high biocompatibility. PMID:26580675

  12. Internal radiotherapy and dosimetric study for 111In/ 177Lu-pegylated liposomes conjugates in tumor-bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yu, Hung-Man; Lu, Yi-Ching; Heish, Ning-Ning; Tseng, Yun-Long; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Ting, Gann; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Deng, Win-Ping

    2006-12-01

    In vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis has been performed to evaluate the potential of pegylated liposomes as carriers of radionuclides in tumor internal radiotherapy. MethodsThe DTPA/PEG-liposomes were synthesized with a medium size of 110 nm, conjugated with 111In/ 177Lu-(oxine) 3 to afford 111In/ 177Lu-liposome. The stability of 111In/ 177Lu-liposome in serum was investigated. The biodistribution, scintigraphic imaging and pharmacokinetics of 111In/ 177Lu-liposomes after intravenous(i.v.) injection into C-26 tumor-bearing BALB/cByJ mice were studied. Radiation dose was estimated by MIRD-III program. ResultsThe incorporation efficiency of 111In/ 177Lu into liposomes was 95%. After incubation at 37 °C for 72 h in serum, more than 83% of radioactivity was still retained in the intact 111In/ 177Lu-liposomes. The biodistribution of 111In-liposomes showed that the radioactivity in the blood decreased from 23.14±8.16%ID/g at 1 h to 0.02±0.00%ID/g at 72 h post-injection (p.i.), while reaching its maximum accumulation in tumors at 48 h p.i., with half-life in blood of 10.2 h. The results were supported by that of 177Lu-liposomes. Scintigraphic imaging with 111In-liposomes showed unambiguous tumor images at 48 h p.i. Dose estimation showed that the absorbed dose in tumor from 177Lu-liposomes was 5.74×10 -5 Gy/MBq. ConclusionsThis study provides an in vivo characterization and dosimetric evaluation for the use of liposome systems as carriers in targeted radionuclide therapy. The results suggest that adequate tumor targeting as well as dose delivered to tumors could be achieved by the use of radionuclide targeted liposomes.

  13. Comparative biodistributions of indium-111-labelled macrocycle chimeric B72.3 antibody conjugates in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A.; King, D. J.; Farnsworth, A. P.; Rhind, S. K.; Pedley, R. B.; Boden, J.; Boden, R.; Millican, T. A.; Millar, K.; Boyce, B.

    1994-01-01

    A novel 111In ligand (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid), termed 9N3, was covalently attached to chimeric B72.3, labelled with 111In and compared with 111In-labelled chimeric B72.3 diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) cyclic anhydride conjugate (cDTPA) and a C-linked derivative of DTPA (CT-DTPA) in athymic mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts. Significant differences in biodistribution were observed between 9N3 and cDTPA conjugates especially in the tumour uptake and blood, liver, femur and colon levels at 24, 48 and 144 h. Significantly higher tumour uptake was observed for 111In-cB72.3-9N3 compared with 111In-cB72.3-cDTPA at all time points. Radiolocalisation (RI) indices increased with time for the 9N3 conjugate but remained constant for the cDTPA conjugate. The biodistribution of 111In-labelled cB72.3-CT-DTPA was similar to that of 111In-labelled cB72.3-9N3 except for elevated kidney levels. A 12N4 macrocycle (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid) was also tested for its ability to chelate 111In and its biodistribution examined. Labelled conjugates with this macrocycle were more difficult to prepare in a stable form but gave a very similar biodistribution to the 9N3 macrocycle conjugate. Macrocycle-antibody conjugates of this type offer considerable promise for tumour imaging in patients. PMID:8018538

  14. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  15. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90

  16. Localisation of [131I]MIBG in nude mice bearing SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma xenografts: effect of specific activity.

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, G.; Friedman, H. S.; Keir, S. T.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The biodistribution of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine ([131I]MIBG) and that prepared by the standard isotopic exchange method were compared in athymic mice bearing SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma xenografts. No advantage in tumour uptake was observed for the n.c.a. preparation. BALB/c nu/nu mice exhibited lower uptake in highly innervated normal tissues (heart and adrenals) than normal BALB/c mice. In another experiment, the distribution of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG in the absence or presence (3-9 micrograms) of MIBG carrier was determined. At both 4 h and 24 h, the heart uptake was reduced by a factor of 1.5 even at a dose of 3 micrograms MIBG. Tumour uptake was not significantly altered by various amounts of unlabelled MIBG at either time point. PMID:8630274

  17. Paclitaxel-Fe3O4 nanoparticles inhibit growth of CD138− CD34− tumor stem-like cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Junsong; Xiong, Fei; Zhang, Hongyi; Zhang, Yunxia; Gu, Ning; Dou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that CD138− CD34− cells may actually be tumor stem cells responsible for initiation and relapse of multiple myeloma. However, effective drugs targeted at CD138− CD34− tumor stem cells are yet to be developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PTX-NPs) on CD138− CD34− tumor stem cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice. Methods CD138− CD34− cells were isolated from a human U266 multiple myeloma cell line using an immune magnetic bead sorting method and then subcutaneously injected into mice with nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency to develop a multiple myeloma-bearing mouse model. The mice were treated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles 2 mg/kg, paclitaxel 4.8 mg/kg, and PTX-NPs 0.64 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Tumor growth, pathological changes, serum and urinary interleukin-6 levels, and molecular expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were evaluated. Results CD138− CD34− cells were found to have tumor stem cell characteristics. All the mice developed tumors in 40 days after injection of 1 × 106 CD138− CD34− tumor stem cells. Tumor growth in mice treated with PTX-NPs was significantly inhibited compared with the controls (P < 0.005), and the groups that received nanoparticles alone (P < 0.005) or paclitaxel alone (P < 0.05). In addition, the PTX-NPs markedly inhibited interleukin-6 secretion, increased caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 expression, and induced apoptosis of tumor cells in the treated mice. Conclusion PTX-NPs proved to be a potent anticancer treatment strategy that may contribute to targeted therapy for multiple myeloma tumor stem cells in future clinical trials. PMID:23610522

  18. Real-Time GFP Intravital Imaging of the Differences in Cellular and Angiogenic Behavior of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Nude-Mouse Models of Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Toneri, Makoto; Ma, Huaiyu; Yang, Zhijian; Bouvet, Michael; Goto, Yusuke; Seki, Naohiko; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    There are two major types of mouse xenograft models of cancer: subcutaneous implantation and orthotopic implantation. Subcutaneous transplant models are widely used with both cancer cell lines and human-tumor specimens. Recently, subcutaneous models of patient tumors, termed patient-derived xenographs (PDX) have become highly popular and have acquired such names as "Avatar" and "Xenopatients." However, such s.c. models rarely metastasize and are therefore not patient-like. In contrast, orthotopic models have the capability to metastasize. If intact fragments of tumor tissue are implanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI), the metastatic potential can match that of the donor patient. The present study images in real time, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, the very different tumor behavior at the orthotopic and subcutaneous sites of human prostate cancer PC-3 in athymic nude mice. By day-2 after tumor implantation, the orthotopic tumor is already highly vascularized and the cancer cells have begun to migrate out of the tumor. In contrast, the subcutaneous tumor only begins to be vascularized by day-3 and cells do not migrate from the tumor. Angiogenesis is much more extensive in the orthotopic tumor throughout the 2-week observation period. The orthotopic PC-3-GFP tumor progresses very rapidly and distinct metastasis have appeared in lymph nodes by day-3 which rapidly appear in many areas of the abdominal cavity including portal lymph nodes by day-7. At day-14, no invasion or metastasis was observed with the s.c. tumor even when the animal was extensively explored. These results explain why orthotopic tumors mimimc clinical metastatic tumors in nude mice and why subcutaneous tumors do not. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012365

  19. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-12-14

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([(64)Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy. PMID:26376843

  20. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model

    PubMed Central

    d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  1. Highly effective antiangiogenesis via magnetic mesoporous silica-based siRNA vehicle targeting the VEGF gene for orthotopic ovarian cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijie; Wang, Xinran; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Ding Sheng-zi; Wang, Yunfei; Gu, Hongchen; Di, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antiangiogenesis strategies have demonstrated significant antitumor efficacy in ovarian cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) has come to be regarded as a promising technology for treatment of disease, especially cancer. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-small interfering RNA (siRNA) was encapsulated into a magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticle (M-MSN)-based, polyethylenimine (PEI)-capped, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted, fusogenic peptide (KALA)-functionalized siRNA delivery system, termed M-MSN_VEGF siRNA@PEI-PEG-KALA, which showed significant effectiveness with regard to VEGF gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. The prepared siRNA delivery system readily exhibited cellular internalization and ease of endosomal escape, resulting in excellent RNAi efficacy without associated cytotoxicity in SKOV3 cells. In in vivo experiments, notable retardation of tumor growth was observed in orthotopic ovarian tumor-bearing mice, which was attributed to significant inhibition of angiogenesis by systemic administration of this nanocarrier. No obvious toxic drug responses were detected in major organs. Further, the magnetic core of M-MSN_VEGF siRNA@PEI-PEG-KALA proved capable of probing the site and size of the ovarian cancer in mice on magnetic resonance imaging. Collectively, the results demonstrate that an M-MSN-based delivery system has potential to serve as a carrier of siRNA therapeutics in ovarian cancer. PMID:25848273

  2. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Antonosante, Andrea; d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-12-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  3. Nitric oxide production in SJL mice bearing the RcsX lymphoma: a model for in vivo toxicological evaluation of NO.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, A; Tamir, S; Tannenbaum, S R; Wogan, G N

    1996-01-01

    SJL mice spontaneously develop pre-B-cell lymphoma that we hypothesized might stimulate macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO.). Transplantation of an aggressive lymphoma (RcsX) was used to induce tumor formation. Urinary nitrate excretion was measured as an index of NO. production and was found to increase 50-fold by 13 days after tumor injection. NO. production was prevented by the addition of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) in various tissues was estimated by Western blot analysis and localized by immunohistochemistry. The synthase was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver of treated but not control mice. To assess whether the iNOS-staining cells were macrophages, spleen sections from ResX-bearing animals were costained with anti-iNOS antibody and the anti-macrophage antibody moma-2. Expression of iNOS was found to be limited to a subset of the macrophage population. The concentration of gamma-interferon, a cytokine known to induce NO. production by macrophages, in the serum of tumor-bearing mice, was measured and found to be elevated 25-fold above untreated mice. The ability of ResX-activated macrophages to inhibit splenocyte growth in primary culture was estimated and macrophage-derived NO. was found to inhibit cell division 10-fold. Our findings demonstrate that ResX cells stimulate NO. production by macrophages in the spleen and lymph nodes of SJL mice, and we believe this experimental model will prove useful for study of the toxicological effects of NO. under physiological conditions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8876164

  4. Compartment model predicts VEGF secretion and investigates the effects of VEGF trap in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Finley, Stacey D; Dhar, Manjima; Popel, Aleksander S

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is important in tumor growth and metastasis. A key regulator of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which has been targeted in numerous anti-angiogenic therapies aimed at inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Systems biology approaches, including computational modeling, are useful for understanding this complex biological process and can aid in the development of novel and effective therapeutics that target the VEGF family of proteins and receptors. We have developed a computational model of VEGF transport and kinetics in the tumor-bearing mouse, which includes three-compartments: normal tissue, blood, and tumor. The model simulates human tumor xenografts and includes human (VEGF121 and VEGF165) and mouse (VEGF120 and VEGF164) isoforms. The model incorporates molecular interactions between these VEGF isoforms and receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), as well as co-receptors (NRP1 and NRP2). We also include important soluble factors: soluble VEGFR1 (sFlt-1) and α-2-macroglobulin. The model accounts for transport via macromolecular transendothelial permeability, lymphatic flow, and plasma clearance. We have fit the model to available in vivo experimental data on the plasma concentration of free VEGF Trap and VEGF Trap bound to mouse and human VEGF in order to estimate the rates at which parenchymal cells (myocytes and tumor cells) and endothelial cells secrete VEGF. Interestingly, the predicted tumor VEGF secretion rates are significantly lower (0.007-0.023 molecules/cell/s, depending on the tumor microenvironment) than most reported in vitro measurements (0.03-2.65 molecules/cell/s). The optimized model is used to investigate the interstitial and plasma VEGF concentrations and the effect of the VEGF-neutralizing agent, VEGF Trap (aflibercept). This work complements experimental studies performed in mice and provides a framework with which to examine the effects of anti

  5. Compartment Model Predicts VEGF Secretion and Investigates the Effects of VEGF Trap in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Stacey D.; Dhar, Manjima; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is important in tumor growth and metastasis. A key regulator of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which has been targeted in numerous anti-angiogenic therapies aimed at inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Systems biology approaches, including computational modeling, are useful for understanding this complex biological process and can aid in the development of novel and effective therapeutics that target the VEGF family of proteins and receptors. We have developed a computational model of VEGF transport and kinetics in the tumor-bearing mouse, which includes three-compartments: normal tissue, blood, and tumor. The model simulates human tumor xenografts and includes human (VEGF121 and VEGF165) and mouse (VEGF120 and VEGF164) isoforms. The model incorporates molecular interactions between these VEGF isoforms and receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), as well as co-receptors (NRP1 and NRP2). We also include important soluble factors: soluble VEGFR1 (sFlt-1) and α-2-macroglobulin. The model accounts for transport via macromolecular transendothelial permeability, lymphatic flow, and plasma clearance. We have fit the model to available in vivo experimental data on the plasma concentration of free VEGF Trap and VEGF Trap bound to mouse and human VEGF in order to estimate the rates at which parenchymal cells (myocytes and tumor cells) and endothelial cells secrete VEGF. Interestingly, the predicted tumor VEGF secretion rates are significantly lower (0.007–0.023 molecules/cell/s, depending on the tumor microenvironment) than most reported in vitro measurements (0.03–2.65 molecules/cell/s). The optimized model is used to investigate the interstitial and plasma VEGF concentrations and the effect of the VEGF-neutralizing agent, VEGF Trap (aflibercept). This work complements experimental studies performed in mice and provides a framework with which to examine the effects of anti

  6. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion–evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0−t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L*h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L*h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU. PMID:27042001

  7. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0-t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L(*)h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L(*)h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU. PMID:27042001

  8. Intraoral Mitochondrial-Targeted GS-Nitroxide, JP4-039, Radioprotects Normal Tissue in Tumor-Bearing Radiosensitive Fancd2(-/-) (C57BL/6) Mice.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ashwin; Berhane, Hebist; Rhieu, Byung Han; Kalash, Ronny; Xu, Karen; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael W; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Dixon, Tracy; Shields, Donna; Wang, Hong; Wipf, Peter; Parmar, Kalindi; Guinan, Eva; Kagan, Valerian; Tyurin, Vladimir; Ferris, Robert L; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Song; Greenberger, Joel S

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated normal tissue specific radioprotection of the oral cavity in radiosensitive Fanconi Anemia (FA) Fancd2(-/-) mice with orally established tumors using mitochondrial-targeted GS-nitroxide (JP4-039). Adult (10-12 weeks old) Fancd2(+/+), Fancd2(+/-) and Fancd2(-/-) mice (C57BL/6 background) and subgroups with orally established TC-1 epithelial cell tumors received a single fraction of 28 Gy or four daily fractions of 8 Gy to the head and neck. Subgroups received JP4-039 in F15 emulsion (F15/JP4-039; 0.4 mg/mouse), 4-amino-Tempo in F15 emulsion (F15/4-amino-Tempo; 0.2 mg/mouse) or F15 emulsion alone prior to each irradiation. Oral mucosa of Fancd2(-/-) mice showed baseline elevated RNA transcripts for Sod2, p53, p21 and Rad51 (all P < 0.0012) and suppressed levels of Nfkb and Tgfb, (all P < 0.0020) compared with Fancd2(+/+) mice. The oral mucosa in tumor-bearing mice of all genotypes showed decreased levels of p53 and elevated Tgfb and Gadd45a (P ≤ 0.0001 for all three genotypes). Intraoral F15/JP4-039, but not F15/4-amino-Tempo, modulated radiation-induced normal tissue transcript elevation, ameliorated mucosal ulceration and reduced the depletion of antioxidant stores in oral cavity tissue of all genotypes, but did not radioprotect tumors. Mitochondrial targeting makes F15/JP4-039 an effective normal tissue radioprotector for Fancd2(-/-) mice, as well as wild-type mice. PMID:26789701

  9. Antioxidants selenomethionine and D-pantethine decrease the negative side effects of doxorubicin in NL/Ly lymphoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Panchuk, Rostyslav R.; Skorokhyd, Nadia R.; Kozak, Yuliya S.; Lehka, Liliya V.; Chumak, Vira V.; Omelyanchik, Sofya N.; Gurinovich, Valery A.; Moiseenok, Andrey G.; Stoika, Rostyslav S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential tissue-protective effects of antioxidants selenomethionine and D-pantethine applied together with doxorubicin (Dx) on NK/Ly lymphoma-bearing mice. The impact of this chemotherapy scheme on animal survival, blood cell profile, hepatotoxicity, glutathione level, and activity of glutathione-converting enzymes in the liver was compared with the action of Dx applied alone. Methods The hematological profile of animals was studied by the analysis of blood smears under light microscopy. Hepatotoxicity of studied drugs was evaluated measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, De Ritis ratio, and coenzyme A fractions by McDougal assay. Glutathione level in animal tissues was measured with Ellman reagent, and the activity of glutathione reductase, transferase, and peroxidase was measured using standard biochemical assays. Results D-pantethine (500 mg/kg) and, to a lower extent, selenomethionine (600 µg/kg) partially reduced the negative side effects (leukocytopenia and erythropenia) of Dx (5 mg/kg) in NK/Ly lymphoma bearing animals on the 14th day of their treatment. This increased animal survival time from 47-48 to 60+ days and improved the quality of their life. This ability of D-pantethine and selenomethionine was realized via hepatoprotective and immunomodulating activities. D-pantethine also restored the levels of acid-soluble and free CoA in the liver of tumor-bearing animals, while selenomethionine caused the recovery of glutathione peroxidase levels in the liver, which was significantly diminished under Dx treatment. Both compounds decreased glutathione level in the liver, which was considerably induced by Dx. Conclusions Antioxidants selenomethionine and D-pantethine partially reversed the negative side effects of Dx in NK/Ly lymphoma-bearing mice and significantly increased the therapeutic efficiency of this drug in tumor treatment. PMID:27106359

  10. Effects of 7.5cGy heavy ion irradiation on tumor growth in tumor-bearing male and female mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, T.; Dang, B.; Xie, Y.; Hu, X.; Li, W.

    Purpose The data on heavy ions causing tumor is few In the study the effects of low dose with heavy ion radiation in tumor-bearing mice were investigated Methods and Materials Six hours before the implantation of S180 sarcoma cells the BALB c mice groups were irradiated in whole body with 7 5cGy by the 12 C 6 beam 73 74MeV u at the HIRFL Lanzhou China From the fifth day the sizes of tumor were measured 16 days after irradiation spleen thymus and tumor were sampled immediately upon sacrifice and were weighed Results The S180 sarcoma sizes of the 7 5cGy irradiation group grew bigger than those of the sham-irradiation and the sizes of male grew bigger than those of female The spleen index of tumor-bearing mice is bigger than the normal control group in male and female mice while thymus index of female 7 5cGy irradiation group is bigger than other groups Conclusions This study indicates LDR low dose radiation of heavy ions can cause different biological effect to the different strain and gender animals and LDR of heavy ion may be still hazard to some people whose immunity are low especially If the carbon treatment volume includes normal tissues they are also risky for the appearance of both enhanced acute and late radiation effects The mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated This question is of importance because this late reaction could be one of the parameters limiting the long-term space missions and object-oriented biological hadrontherapy

  11. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei Shen; Lamb, Benjamin W.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS). We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise. PMID:26697063

  12. Surgical techniques of orthotopic rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, H U; Palmes, D

    1998-01-01

    Liver transplantation in rats is frequently used as a transplantation model. Although liver transplantation in larger laboratory animals such as dogs and pigs is technically easier, the rat has become the most important subject for experimental liver transplantation because of the availability of genetically defined animals. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed that permit the investigator to carry out studies with high clinical relevance. In this article the principal models of orthotopic rat liver transplantation and their technical modifications of vessel anastomoses, rearterialization, and bile duct reconstruction techniques are reviewed. More than 20 transplantation models are described in detail and demonstrated with clear illustrations. Finally, the advantages and uses of all the surgical procedures (e.g., suture and cuff anastomoses, bile duct anastomoses, and rearterialization techniques), specific problems, and survival criteria are discussed and the experiences of investigators who applied these techniques are analyzed. In conclusion, an overview and critical evaluation of all surgical techniques of orthotopic rat liver transplantation are given, together with instructions for learning these techniques. PMID:9700616

  13. A Type II Arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus for G-CSF Production in Macrophages and Leukopenia Improvement in CT26-Bearing Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus is an herb well known in Asian countries. The polysaccharide isolated from A. formosanus consists of type II arabinogalactan (AGAF), with branched 3,6-Gal as the major moiety. In this study, AGAF was examined for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and related protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The signaling pathway of G-CSF production involves AGAF and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors and pattern-recognition receptor antibodies. AGAF was evaluated to ease the leukopenia in CT26-colon-cancer-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The results of this study showed that AGAF was a stimulant for Toll-like receptor 2 and Dectin-1 and that it induced G-CSF production, through p38 and ERK MAPK, and NF- κ B pathways. In vivo examination showed that the oral administration of AGAF mitigated the side effects of leukopenia caused by 5-FU in colon-cancer-bearing mice. In conclusion, the botanic type II AGAF in this study was a potent G-CSF inducer in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24191166

  14. A Type II Arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus for G-CSF Production in Macrophages and Leukopenia Improvement in CT26-Bearing Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus is an herb well known in Asian countries. The polysaccharide isolated from A. formosanus consists of type II arabinogalactan (AGAF), with branched 3,6-Gal as the major moiety. In this study, AGAF was examined for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and related protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The signaling pathway of G-CSF production involves AGAF and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors and pattern-recognition receptor antibodies. AGAF was evaluated to ease the leukopenia in CT26-colon-cancer-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The results of this study showed that AGAF was a stimulant for Toll-like receptor 2 and Dectin-1 and that it induced G-CSF production, through p38 and ERK MAPK, and NF-κB pathways. In vivo examination showed that the oral administration of AGAF mitigated the side effects of leukopenia caused by 5-FU in colon-cancer-bearing mice. In conclusion, the botanic type II AGAF in this study was a potent G-CSF inducer in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24191166

  15. Anti-angiogenic therapy for normalization of tumor vasculature: A potential effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction on nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with high metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    MIN, LIANG; LING, WEI; HUA, RONG; QI, HONG; CHEN, SHENXU; WANG, HAIQIAO; TANG, LUMEN; SHANGGUAN, WENJI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HCCLM3 xenografts. A total of 96 nude mice bearing HCCLM3 xenografts were randomly divided into four groups: BYHWD group (LB), Yi-qi decoction group (LY), Huo-xue decoction group (LH) and model group (LM). Each of these groups was divided into three subgroups (n=8), which were observed on days 21, 25, 38 following treatment, respectively. The tumor weights, volumes and pulmonary metastases were recorded. The expression of CD105 and the microvessel density (MVD) were assessed, and the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS-5) were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining. Compared with the LM group, no significant decrease in tumor weight or volume were observed in the herbal medicine treatment groups, the number of the metastases in the lungs decreased, whereas the expression levels of RGS-5 and HIF-1α decreased in the LB group on day 35. However, the expression levels of VEGF increased in the LB group on days 28 and 35 post-treatment. The results of the present study suggested that BYHWD may inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis by affecting the expression levels of VEGF, RGS-5 and HIF-1α, and suggested that BYHWD may contribute to the tumor microenvironment and vasculature normalization in HCC. PMID:26846752

  16. RA-XII inhibits tumour growth and metastasis in breast tumour-bearing mice via reducing cell adhesion and invasion and promoting matrix degradation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Hoi-Wing; Zhao, Si-Meng; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire invasive ability to degrade and adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) and migrate to adjacent tissues. This ultimately results metastasis. Hence, the present study investigated the in vitro effects of cyclopeptide glycoside, RA-XII on cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and matrix degradation, and its underlying mechanism in murine breast tumour cells, 4T1. The effect of RA-XII on tumour growth and metastasis in 4T1-bearing mice was also investigated. Our results showed that RA-XII inhibited tumour cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin and laminin, RA-XII also reduced the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule and integrins, and integrin binding. In addition, RA-XII significantly inhibited breast tumour cell migration via interfering cofilin signaling and chemokine receptors. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type of plasminogen activator, and the expressions of ECM-associated proteinases were attenuated significantly by RA-XII. Furthermore, RA-XII induced G1 phase arrest and inhibited the expressions of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RA-XII inhibited the expressions of molecules in PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, FAK/pSRC, MAPK and EGFR signaling. RA-XII was also shown to have anti-tumour, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in metastatic breast tumour-bearing mice. These findings strongly suggested that RA-XII is a potential anti-metastatic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26592552

  17. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W; Dyck, Jason R B; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T; Betof, Allison S; Nelson, Erik R; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C; Young, Martin E; Freedland, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6-8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 10(5)) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study. Four mice per group were serially killed on days 14, 31, and 36; the remaining 38 mice (exercise, n = 18; control, n = 20) were killed on day 53. Before death, MRI was performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. Primary tumor growth rate was comparable between groups, but expression of prometastatic genes was significantly modulated in exercising animals with a shift toward reduced metastasis. Exercise was associated with increased activity of protein kinases within the MEK/MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling cascades with subsequent increased intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF. This was associated with improved tumor vascularization. Multiplex ELISAs revealed distinct reductions in plasma concentrations of several angiogenic cytokines in the exercise group, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic and metabolic genes in the skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced stabilization of HIF-1α and subsequent upregulation of VEGF was associated with "productive" tumor vascularization with a shift toward suppressed metastasis in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer. PMID:22604887

  18. Creation of a murine orthotopic hepatoma model with intra-abdominal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jamie; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Chiu, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To create an orthotopic hepatoma model with local metastasis monitored with ultrasound could be created as a platform for testing new treatments. Background: Hepatoma accounts for 25% of liver tumors in children with poor overall survival. Intraabdominal metastasis are present in 35% of patients at time of diagnosis. We hypothesized that an orthotopic tumor model with local metastasis could be created as a platform for testing treatment modalities and could be monitored with ultrasound. Patients and methods: One million human hepatoma cells (Hep3B) were injected into the left lobe of the liver of immunocompromised mice. Tumor volume was monitored with high frequency-ultrasound until it reached 1,000mm3. At that time animals were sacrificed and examined for gross metastatic disease. Tumor sections were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Tumor formed in 8/15 mice. The tumor was detected as small as 19.59mm3 on ultrasound. Of the forming tumors, tumor size was 145±177.93mm3 at 60 days post-injection, 665±650.39mm3 at 67 days, and reached >1000mm3 by 76.6±9.9 days. At necropsy, four mice (50%) had tumor only within the liver, four (50%) had additional tumors in omentum, pelvis and peritoneum. H&E showed tumor within the normal liver parenchyma, with multiple mitotic figures, small areas of necrosis, and hemorrhage within the tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully established an orthotopic hepatoma murine model, with a local metastatic rate of 50%. Non-invasive tumor monitoring is feasible via ultrasound. PMID:27458509

  19. Development of an orthotopic model of invasive pancreatic cancer in an immunocompetent murine host

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, William W.; Winer, Daniel; Kenkel, Justin A.; Choi, Okmi; Shain, Alan H.; Pollack, Jonathan R.; French, Randy; Lowy, Andrew M.; Engleman, Edgar G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The most common preclinical models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma utilize human cells or tissues that are xenografted into immunodeficient hosts. Several immunocompetent, genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic cancer exist; however, tumor latency and disease progression in these models are highly variable. We sought to develop an immunocompetent, orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer with rapid and predictable growth kinetics. Experimental Design Cell lines with epithelial morphology were derived from liver metastases obtained from KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre mice. Tumor cells were implanted in the pancreas of immunocompetent, histocompatible B6/129 mice, and the mice were monitored for disease progression. Relevant tissues were harvested for histological, genomic and immunophenotypic analysis. Results All mice developed pancreatic tumors by 2 weeks. Invasive disease and liver metastases were noted by 6-8 weeks. Histological examination of tumors demonstrated cytokeratin-19-positive adenocarcinoma with regions of desmoplasia. Genomic analysis revealed broad chromosomal changes along with focal gains and losses. Pancreatic tumors were infiltrated with dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages and T lymphocytes. Survival was decreased in RAG-/- mice, which are deficient in T cells, suggesting that an adaptive immune response alters the course of disease in wild-type mice. Conclusions We have developed a rapid, predictable orthotopic model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in immunocompetent mice that mimics human pancreatic cancer with regard to genetic mutations, histological appearance and pattern of disease progression. This model highlights both the complexity and relevance of the immune response to invasive pancreatic cancer and may be useful for the preclinical evaluation of new therapeutic agents. PMID:20534740

  20. Angiopoietin-2 interferes with anti-VEGFR2- induced vessel normalization and survival benefit in mice bearing gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sung-Suk; Kamoun, Walid S.; Farrar, Christian T.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Niemeyer, Elisabeth; de Graaf, Annemarie M.A.; Sorensen, A. Gregory; Munn, Lance L.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Fukumura, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In brain tumors, cerebral edema is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that inhibition of VEGF signaling induces transient vascular normalization and reduces cerebral edema, resulting in a modest survival benefit in glioblastoma patients. During anti-VEGF treatment, circulating levels of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 remained high after an initial minor reduction. However, it is not known whether Ang-2 can modulate anti-VEGF treatment of GBM. Here, we used an orthotopic glioma model to test the hypothesis that Ang-2 is an additional target for improving the efficacy of current anti-VEGF therapies in glioma patients. Experimental Design To recapitulate high levels of Ang-2 in glioblastoma patients during anti-VEGF treatment, Ang-2 was ectopically expressed in U87 glioma cells. Animal survival and tumor growth were assessed to determine the effects of Ang-2 and anti-VEGFR2 treatment. We also monitored morphological and functional vascular changes using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results Ectopic expression of Ang-2 had no effect on vascular permeability, tumor growth or survival, although it resulted in higher vascular density, with dilated vessels and reduced mural cell coverage. On the other hand, when combined with anti-VEGFR2 treatment, Ang-2 destabilized vessels without affecting vessel regression and compromised the survival benefit of VEGFR2 inhibition by increasing vascular permeability. VEGFR2 inhibition normalized tumor vasculature while ectopic expression of Ang-2 diminished the beneficial effects of VEGFR2 blockade by inhibiting vessel normalization. Conclusion Cancer treatment regimens combining anti-VEGF and anti-Ang-2 agents may be an effective strategy to improve the efficacy of current anti-VEGF therapies. PMID:20501615

  1. Utilization of Murine Colonoscopy for Orthotopic Implantation of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zigmond, Ehud; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Brazowski, Eli; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal-cancer (CRC) research has greatly benefited from the availability of small animal tumor models. Spontaneous and chemically-induced CRC models are widely used yet limited in their resemblance to human disease and are often prolonged, not accurately repetitive, and associated with inflammatory side effects. In-situ murine or human tumor implantation in the gastrointestinal tract of mice is extremely challenging, and limited by inter-animal variability and procedure-related complications and mortality. As a result, in frequent studies CRC is implanted in distal sites, most commonly the subcutaneous region, an approach that is greatly limited by the absence of normal gastrointestinal tumor milieu and has substantial effects on tumor development. Aims In this study we aimed to develop a well-tolerated repetitive tool to study CRC in small animals by adapting the murine colonoscopy system to serve as a platform for colonic sub-mucosal orthotopic implantation of human and murine CRC tumor cells. Results We report the establishment of a novel small-animal CRC model that is minimally invasive, rapid, well-tolerated, highly reproducible, and confers precise control of tumor number, location and growth rate. Moreover, we show that this model uniquely allows the side-by-side induction of distinct genetically manipulated tumors, enabling the mechanistic study of tumor interaction and cross-talk within the native intestinal microenvironment. Conclusions Employment of this new approach may represent a major technical advance for the in-vivo study of CRC. PMID:22174916

  2. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

    2010-06-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  3. Imaging the distribution of an antibody-drug conjugate constituent targeting mesothelin with 89Zr and IRDye 800CW in mice bearing human pancreatic tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    ter Weele, Eva J.; van Scheltinga, Anton G.T. Terwisscha; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; Pot, Linda; Vedelaar, Silke R.; Lamberts, Laetitia E.; Williams, Simon P.; Hooge, Marjolijn N. Lub-de; de Vries, Elisabeth G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Mesothelin is a tumor differentiation antigen expressed by epithelial tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Currently, mesothelin is being targeted with an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a mesothelin-specific antibody coupled to a highly potent chemotherapeutic drug. Considering the toxicity of the ADC and reduced accessibility of pancreatic tumors, non-invasive imaging could provide necessary information. We therefore developed a zirconium-89 (89Zr) labeled anti-mesothelin antibody (89Zr-AMA) to study its biodistribution in human pancreatic tumor bearing mice. Biodistribution and dose-finding of 89Zr-AMA were studied 144 h after tracer injection in mice with subcutaneously xenografted HPAC. MicroPET imaging was performed 24, 72 and 144 h after tracer injection in mice bearing HPAC or Capan-2. Tumor uptake and organ distribution of 89Zr-AMA were compared with nonspecific 111In-IgG. Biodistribution analyses revealed a dose-dependent 89Zr-AMA tumor uptake. Tumor uptake of 89Zr-AMA was higher than 111In-IgG using the lowest tracer dose. MicroPET showed increased tumor uptake over 6 days, whereas activity in blood pool and other tissues decreased. Immunohistochemistry showed that mesothelin was expressed by the HPAC and CAPAN-2 tumors and fluorescence microscopy revealed that AMA-800CW was present in tumor cell cytoplasm. 89Zr-AMA tumor uptake is antigen-specific in mesothelin-expressing tumors. 89Zr-AMA PET provides non-invasive, real-time information about AMA distribution and tumor targeting. PMID:26536664

  4. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2010-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  5. Improved antiangiogenic and antitumour activity of the combination of the natural flavonoid fisetin and cyclophosphamide in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Touil, Yasmine S.; Seguin, Johanne; Scherman, Daniel; Chabot, Guy G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The natural flavonoid fisetin was recently identified as a lead compound that stabilizes endothelial cell microtubules. In this study we investigated the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties of fisetin in vitro and in vivo. Methods Fisetin cytotoxicity was evaluated using Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC), endothelial cells and NIH 3T3 cells. Endothelial cell (EC) migration and capillary-like structure formation were evaluated using EAhy 926 cells. In vivo tumour growth inhibition studies were performed using LLC bearing mice treated with fisetin and/or cyclophosphamide (CPA). Results The fisetin IC50 was 59 μM for LLC and 77 μM for EC cells, compared to 210 μM for normal NIH 3T3 cells (24 h). Fisetin inhibited EC migration and capillary-like structure formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations (22–44 μM). In mice, fisetin inhibited angiogenesis assessed using the Matrigel plug assay. In LLC bearing mice, fisetin produced a 67% tumour growth inhibition (223 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), similar to the 66% produced by low dose CPA (30 mg/kg, subcutaneous). When fisetin and CPA were combined, however, a marked improvement in antitumour activity was observed (92% tumour growth inhibition), with low systemic toxicity. Tumour histology showed decreased microvessel density with either fisetin or CPA alone, and a dramatic decrease after the fisetin/CPA combination. Conclusions We have shown that fisetin not only displays in vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic properties, but that it can also markedly improve the in vivo antitumour effect of CPA. We propose that this drug combination associating a non-toxic dietary flavonoid with a cytotoxic agent could advantageously be used in the treatment of solid tumours. PMID:21069336

  6. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  7. Disruptive TP53 Mutation is Associated with Aggressive Disease Characteristics in an Orthotopic Murine Model of Oral Tongue Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Daisuke; Xie, Tong-Xin; Ow, Thomas J.; Zhao, Mei; Pickering, Curtis R.; Zhou, Ge; Sandulache, Vlad C.; Wheeler, David A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Caulin, Carlos; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize tumor growth and metastatic potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines in an orthotopic murine model of oral tongue cancer, and to correlate TP53 mutation status with these findings. Experimental Design Cells from each of 48 HNSCC cell lines were orthotopically injected into the oral tongues of nude mice. Tumor volume, cervical lymph node metastasis, and mouse survival were recorded. Direct sequencing of the TP53 gene and western blot analysis for the p53 protein after induction with 5-fluorouracil was performed. Cell lines were categorized as either mutant TP53 or wild-type TP53, and lines with TP53 mutation were further categorized on the basis of type of mutation (disruptive or non-disruptive), and level of p53 protein expression. The behavior of tumors in these different groups was compared. Results The 48 HNSCC cell lines showed a wide range of behavior from highly aggressive and metastatic to no tumor formation. Mice injected with cells harboring disruptive TP53 mutations had faster tumor growth, greater incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis, and shorter survival than mice injected with cells lacking these mutations. Conclusions HNSCC cell lines display a wide spectrum of behavior in an orthotopic model of oral cancer. Cell lines with disruptive TP53 mutations are more aggressive in this system, corroborating clinical reports that have linked these mutations to poor patient outcome. PMID:21903770

  8. Prophylactic Administration of Fucoidan Represses Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs. PMID:25854641

  9. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Huang, Justin S; James, Kurtis T; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5 ± 8.2 and 23.3 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50 μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5 ± 9.3 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm with penetration also limited to 50 μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30 μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1 ± 6.2 and 15.8 ± 6.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09 ± 0.14 in the liver, 0.74 ± 0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43 ± 0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43 ± 0.07 in the liver, 0.30 ± 0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20 ± 0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in

  10. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Huang, Justin S.; James, Kurtis T.; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5±8.2 and 23.3±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5±9.3 particles/100μm2 within 10μm with penetration also limited to 50μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1±6.2 and 15.8±6.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09±0.14 in the liver, 0.74±0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43±0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43±0.07 in the liver, 0.30±0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20±0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in pancreatic tumors with the goal to improve

  11. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required. PMID:20013242

  12. Active targeting using HER-2-affibody-conjugated nanoparticles enabled sensitive and specific imaging of orthotopic HER-2 positive ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Minati; Wang, Liya; Zielinski, Rafal; Qian, Weiping; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Capala, Jacek; Lee, Gee Young; Xu, Hong; Wang, Y Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2014-02-12

    Despite advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment, ovarian cancer remains one of the most fatal cancer types. The development of targeted nanoparticle imaging probes and therapeutics offers promising approaches for early detection and effective treatment of ovarian cancer. In this study, HER-2 targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are developed by conjugating a high affinity and small size HER-2 affibody that is labeled with a unique near infrared dye (NIR-830) to the nanoparticles. Using a clinically relevant orthotopic human ovarian tumor xenograft model, it is shown that HER-2 targeted IONPs are selectively delivered into both primary and disseminated ovarian tumors, enabling non-invasive optical and MR imaging of the tumors as small as 1 mm in the peritoneal cavity. It is determined that HER-2 targeted delivery of the IONPs is essential for specific and sensitive imaging of the HER-2 positive tumor since we are unable to detect the imaging signal in the tumors following systemic delivery of non-targeted IONPs into the mice bearing HER-2 positive SKOV3 tumors. Furthermore, imaging signals and the IONPs are not detected in HER-2 low expressing OVCAR3 tumors after systemic delivery of HER-2 targeted-IONPs. Since HER-2 is expressed in a high percentage of ovarian cancers, the HER-2 targeted dual imaging modality IONPs have potential for the development of novel targeted imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles for ovarian cancer detection, targeted drug delivery, and image-guided therapy and surgery. PMID:24038985

  13. Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Sellers, Jeffery C.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; George, James F.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Early pancreatic cancer response following cetuximab and/or irinotecan therapies was measured by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) before and during therapy. Groups 1 to 4 (n = 6/group) of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts expressing luciferase were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, irinotecan, or cetuximab combined with irinotecan, respectively, twice weekly for 3 weeks. DCE-MRI was performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after therapy initiation, whereas anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 13. Bioluminescence imaging was performed on days 0 and 21. At day 21, all tumors were collected for further histologic analyses (Ki-67 and CD31 staining), whereas tumor dimensions were measured by calipers. The Ktrans values in the 0.5 mm–thick peripheral tumor region were calculated, and the changes in Ktrans during the 3 days posttherapy were compared to tumor volume changes, bioluminescent signal changes, and histologic findings. The Ktrans changes in the peripheral tumor region after 3 days of therapy were linearly correlated with 21-day decreases in tumor volume (p < .001), bioluminescent signal (p = .050), microvessel densities (p = .002), and proliferating cell densities (p = .001). This study supports the clinical use of DCE-MRI for pancreatic cancer patients for early assessment of an anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:21496446

  14. 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging Detects Therapy Efficacy of Anti-EMMPRIN Antibody and Gemcitabine in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nemil; Zhai, Guihua; Knowles, Joseph A.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Fineberg, Naomi; Zhou, Tong; Zinn, Kurt R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.; Kim, Hyunki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate by sequential 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging the therapeutic response to a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) in combination with gemcitabine in a pancreatic-tumor xenograft murine model. Procedures Four groups of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts were injected with PBS, gemcitabine (120mg/kg BW), anti-EMMPRIN antibody (0.2mg), or combination, respectively twice weekly for 2 weeks, while 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed weekly for 3 weeks. Changes in mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of 18F-FDG and volume of tumors were determined. Results The tumor SUVmean change in the group receiving combination therapy was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Tumor-volume changes of groups treated with anti-EMMPRIN monotherapy or combined therapy were significantly lower than that of the control group. Conclusions These data provide support for clinical studies of anti-EMMPRIN therapy with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:21494920

  15. Levels of Murine, but Not Human, CXCL13 Are Greatly Elevated in NOD-SCID Mice Bearing the AIDS-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Line, 2F7

    PubMed Central

    Widney, Daniel P.; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Said, Jonathan W.; Smith, Jeffrey B.; Peña, Guadalupe; Magpantay, Larry I.; Penichet, Manuel L.; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel

    2013-01-01

    Currently, few rodent models of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) exist. In these studies, a novel mouse/human xenograft model of AIDS-associated Burkitt lymphoma (AIDS-BL) was created by injecting cells of the human AIDS-BL cell line, 2F7, intraperitoneally into NOD-SCID mice. Mice developed tumors in the peritoneal cavity, with metastases to the spleen, thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Expression of the chemokine receptor, CXCR5, was greatly elevated in vivo on BL tumor cells in this model, as shown by flow cytometry. CXCL13 is the ligand for CXCR5, and serum and ascites levels of murine, but not human, CXCL13 showed a striking elevation in tumor-bearing mice, with levels as high as 200,000 pg/ml in ascites, as measured by ELISA. As shown by immunohistochemistry, murine CXCL13 was associated with macrophage-like tumor-infiltrating cells that appeared to be histiocytes. Blocking CXCR5 on 2F7 cells with neutralizing antibodies prior to injection into the mice substantially delayed tumor formation. The marked elevations in tumor cell CXCR5 expression and in murine CXCL13 levels seen in the model may potentially identify an important link between tumor-interacting histiocytes and tumor cells in AIDS-BL. These results also identify CXCL13 as a potential biomarker for this disease, which is consistent with previous studies showing that serum levels of CXCL13 were elevated in human subjects who developed AIDS-lymphoma. This mouse model may be useful for future studies on the interactions of the innate immune system and AIDS-BL tumor cells, as well as for the assessment of potential tumor biomarkers for this disease. PMID:23936541

  16. Inhibition of IL-17A in tumor microenvironment augments cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    It remains controversial whether IL-17A promotes or inhibits cancer progression. We hypothesized that IL-17A that is locally produced in the tumor microenvironment has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor immunity. We investigated the effect of inhibiting IL-17A at tumor sites on tumor growth and on local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. MC38 or B16 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into mice, and intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing siRNA against the mouse IL-17A gene (Ad-si-IL-17) significantly inhibited tumor growth in both tumor models compared with control mice. Inhibition of IL-17A at tumor sites significantly suppressed CD31, MMP9, and VEGF expression in tumor tissue. The cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in mice treated with Ad-si-IL-17 was significantly higher than in control mice; however, CD8(+) T cells from splenocytes had similar activity levels. Suppression of IL-17A at tumor sites led to a Th1-dominant environment, and moreover, eliminated myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells at tumor sites but not in splenocytes. In conclusion, blockade of IL-17A at tumor sites helped suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation at tumor sites. PMID:23372655

  17. Optimization and performance evaluation of peptide-loaded monolithic poly-epsilon-caprolactone microspheres in mice bearing melanoma B16F1.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, B D; Venkatesh, M; Udupa, N

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a bleomycin depot based on monolithic microparticulate technology to suppress tumour growth and to maintain constant plasma drug concentrations within an optimal therapeutic window over a prolonged period of time. Formulations were optimized with biodegradable poly-epsilon-carpolactone and evaluated in vitro for physicochemical characteristics, drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and evaluated in vivo in tumour bearing mice. This investigation revealed that upon subcutaneous injection, the biodegradable depot-forming poly-epsilon-carpolactone microspheres controlled drug release and suppressed tumour growth kinetics significantly compared to control. A preliminary pharmacokinetic evaluation exhibited steady plasma drug concentrations during the study period. This formulation with its reduced frequency of administration and better control of drug disposition is expected to provide an economic benefit to the user compared with products currently available for chemotherapy. PMID:11998446

  18. Study of action of cyclophosphamide and extract of mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus in vivo on mice, bearing melanoma B16-F0-GFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Yang, Meng; Jiang, Ping; Hoffman, Robert M.; Gerasimenya, Valery P.; Orlov, Alexander E.; Savitsky, Alexander P.; Popov, Vladimir O.

    2005-04-01

    In this work we studied in vivo the combined action of cyclophosphamide and the extract of mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus on mice bearing melanoma B16-F0, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). This model allows to recognize small-size tumors and metastases, unrecognizable by other methods. It was found that combined administration of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/kg) and the extract of mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus (100 mg/kg), administered for 10 days after cyclophosphamide injection, as well administration of cyclophosphamide alone, cause inhibition of tumor growth about 97%. It was shown that administration of the extract of mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus alone leads to inhibition of tumor growth of 61%. It was found that in case of combined administration of cyclophosphamide and the extract of mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus, leucopenia was less expressed than in case of administration of cyclophosphamide alone.

  19. Intraoperative blood loss in orthotopic liver transplantation: The predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Chandra Kant; Singh, Anshuman; Kajal, Kamal; Dhankhar, Mandeep; Tandon, Manish; Pandey, Vijay Kant; Karna, Sunaina Tejpal

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss and considerable transfusion requirements. Bleeding in orthotopic liver transplantation is multifactorial. Technical difficulties inherent to this complex surgical procedure and pre operative derangements of the primary and secondary coagulation system are thought to be the principal causes of perioperative hemorrhage. Intraoperative practices such as massive fluid resuscitation and resulting hypothermia and hypocalcemia secondary to citrate toxicity further aggravate the preexisting coagulopathy and worsen the perioperative bleeding. Excessive blood loss and transfusion during orthotopic liver transplant are correlated with diminished graft survival and increased septic episodes and prolonged ICU stay. With improvements in surgical skills, anesthetic technique, graft preservation, use of intraoperative cell savers and overall perioperative management, orthotopic liver transplant is now associated with decreased intra operative blood losses. The purpose of this review is to discuss the risk factors predictive of increased intra operative bleeding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant. PMID:26131330

  20. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  1. Survival of residual neutrophils and accelerated myelopoiesis limit the efficacy of antibody-mediated depletion of Ly-6G+ cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Katrin; Klein, Johanna C; Männ, Linda; Klingberg, Anika; Gunzer, Matthias; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Expansion of Ly-6G(+) myeloid cells has been reported in most murine cancer models. However, divergent findings exist regarding the role and effect of these cells on host immunity and tumor progression. Antibody-mediated depletion of Ly-6G(+) cells is a common technique to assess the in vivo relevance of these cells. Interpretation of results crucially depends on the efficacy and course of depletion. We established murine head and neck cancer models and analyzed the efficacy of antibody-mediated depletion by flow cytometry, conventional histology, and intravital imaging with a novel Ly-6G-transgenic mouse model. The first phase of depletion was characterized by effective elimination of Ly-6G(+) cells from the peripheral blood. Nevertheless, viable, resistant cells were found to reside in the tumor tissue and spleen. This peripheral depletion phase was associated with high systemic levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and KC and enhanced splenic production of Ly-6G(+) cells. Even under sustained treatment with either αGr-1 or αLy-6G antibodies, peripheral blood depletion ended after approximately 1 wk and was followed by reappearance of immature Ly-6G(+) cells with an immunoregulatory phenotype. Reappearance of these depletion-resistant immature cells was enhanced in tumor-bearing, compared with naïve, control mice. Collectively, our data suggest that depletion of Ly-6G(+) myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice is counteracted by the persistence of intratumoral cells, enhanced extramedullary granulopoiesis, and accelerated reappearance of immature cells. Hence, extensive monitoring of in vivo kinetics and tissue distribution of Ly-6G(+) cells is required in depletion studies. PMID:26819319

  2. 6-Thioguanine-loaded polymeric micelles deplete myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhance the efficacy of T cell immunotherapy in tumor-bearing mice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeanbart, Laura; Kourtis, Iraklis C.; van der Vlies, André J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-16

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that suppress effector T cell responses and can reduce the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. We previously showed that ultra-small polymer nanoparticles efficiently drain to the lymphatics after intradermal injection and target antigen-presenting cells, including Ly6chi Ly6g₋monocytic MDSCs (Mo-MDSCs), in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen. Here, we developed ultra-small polymer micelles loaded with 6-thioguanine (MC-TG), a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of myelogenous leukemia, with the aim of killing Mo-MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and thus enhancing T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. We found that 2 days post-injection inmore » tumor-bearing mice (B16-F10 melanoma or E.G7-OVA thymoma), MC-TG depleted Mo-MDSCs in the spleen, Ly6clo Ly6g+ granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in the draining LNs, and Gr1int Mo-MDSCs in the tumor. In both tumor models, MC-TG decreased the numbers of circulating Mo- and G-MDSCs, as well as of Ly6chi macrophages, for up to 7 days following a single administration. MDSC depletion was dose dependent and more effective with MC-TG than with equal doses of free TG. Finally, we tested whether this MDSC-depleting strategy might enhance cancer immunotherapies in the B16-F10 melanoma model. We found that MC-TG significantly improved the efficacy of adoptively transferred, OVA-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma cells expressing OVA. Ultimately, these findings highlight the capacity of MC-TG in depleting MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment and show promise in promoting anti-tumor immunity when used in combination with T cell immunotherapies.« less

  3. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts reflect the microenvironmental hallmarks of aggressive patient tumours.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Tadeo, Irene; Beckman, Siv; Sandén, Caroline; Jönsson, Jimmie; Erjefält, Jonas S; Berbegall, Ana P; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Øra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Gisselsson, David; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of high-risk childhood neuroblastoma is a clinical challenge which has been hampered by a lack of reliable neuroblastoma mouse models for preclinical drug testing. We have previously established invasive and metastasising patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDXs) from high-risk neuroblastomas that retained the genotypes and phenotypes of patient tumours. Given the important role of the tumour microenvironment in tumour progression, metastasis, and treatment responses, here we analysed the tumour microenvironment of five neuroblastoma PDXs in detail. The PDXs resembled their parent tumours and retained important stromal hallmarks of aggressive lesions including rich blood and lymphatic vascularisation, pericyte coverage, high numbers of cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumour-associated macrophages, and extracellular matrix components. Patient-derived tumour endothelial cells occasionally formed blood vessels in PDXs; however, tumour stroma was, overall, of murine origin. Lymphoid cells and lymphatic endothelial cells were found in athymic nude mice but not in NSG mice; thus, the choice of mouse strain dictates tumour microenvironmental components. The murine tumour microenvironment of orthotopic neuroblastoma PDXs reflects important hallmarks of aggressive and metastatic clinical neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma PDXs are clinically relevant models for preclinical drug testing. PMID:27000989

  4. Establishment of a Non-Invasive Semi-Quantitative Bioluminescent Imaging Method for Monitoring of an Orthotopic Esophageal Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Shinji; Kubota, Tetsushi; Aoyama, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Satoru; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic models of various types of tumors are widely used in anti-tumor therapeutic experiments in preclinical studies. However, there are few ways to appropriately monitor therapeutic effect in orthotopic tumor models, especially for tumors invisible from the outside. In this study we aimed to establish a non-invasive semi-quantitative bioluminescent imaging method of monitoring an orthotopic esophageal cancer mouse model. We confirmed that the TE8 esophageal cancer cell line implanted orthotopically into the abdominal esophagus of nu/nu mice (n = 5) developed not only a main tumor at the implanted site, but also local lymph node metastases and peritoneal disseminations within 6 weeks after inoculation. We established a TE8 cell line that stably expressed the firefly luciferase gene (TE8-Luc). We showed that TE8-Luc cells implanted subcutaneously into nu/nu mice (n = 5) grew over time until 5 weeks after inoculation. Tumor volume was strongly correlated with luminescent intensity emitted from the tumor, which was quantified using the IVIS imaging system. We then showed that TE8-Luc cells implanted orthotopically into the mouse abdominal esophagus (n = 8) also formed a tumor and that the luminescent intensity of such a tumor, as detected by IVIS, increased over time until 7 weeks after inoculation and was therefore likely to reflect tumor progression. We therefore propose that this orthotopic esophageal cancer model, monitored using the non-invasive semi-quantitative IVIS imaging system, will be useful for in vivo therapeutic experiments against esophageal cancer. This experimental setting is expected to contribute to the development of novel therapeutic technologies for esophageal cancer in preclinical studies. PMID:25493557

  5. Analysis of volatile organic compounds released from human lung cancer cells and from the urine of tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds A potential strategy for the diagnosis of lung cancer is to exploit the distinct metabolic signature of this disease by way of biomarkers found in different sample types. In this study, we investigated whether specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be detected in the culture medium of the lung cancer cell line A549 in addition to the urine of mice implanted with A549 cells. Results Several VOCs were found at significantly increased or decreased concentrations in the headspace of the A549 cell culture medium as compared with the culture medium of two normal lung cell lines. We also analyzed the urine of mice implanted with A549 cells and several VOCs were also found to be significantly increased or decreased relative to urine obtained from control mice. It was also revealed that seven VOCs were found at increased concentrations in both sample types. These compounds were found to be dimethyl succinate, 2-pentanone, phenol, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-hexanone, 2-butanone and acetophenone. Conclusions Both sample types produce distinct biomarker profiles, and VOCs have potential to distinguish between true- and false-positive screens for lung cancer. PMID:22364569

  6. The potential effect of patulin on mice bearing melanoma cells: an anti-tumour or carcinogenic effect?

    PubMed

    Boussabbeh, Manel; Ben Salem, Intidhar; Rjiba-Touati, Karima; Bouyahya, Chedy; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa

    2016-05-01

    Mycotoxins are bioactive compounds that are noxious to human. Their effects on oncogenesis have been satisfactorily elucidated, and some of mycotoxins have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. Nevertheless, patulin (PAT) is considered by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as 'not carcinogenic to humans'. The present study was designed to understand the effect of this mycotoxin on melanoma cells (B16F10) by measuring cell proliferation and assessing the anti-tumour effect in vivo in Balb/c mice. Our results revealed that intraperitoneally administration of PAT for 20 days significantly induces tumour regression in B16F10 cell-implanted mice. This effect was evidenced by the activation of apoptosis which is supported by the increase in p53 and Bax expressions, the downregulation of the protein levels of Bcl2, and the increase in caspase-3 activity. Moreover, systemic toxicity analysis demonstrated that there is no potential toxicity following PAT treatment unlike untreated melanoma mice which suffer from anaemia, inflammation and liver dysfunction. Remarkably, this is the first published report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of PAT in vivo models. PMID:26619846

  7. Platycodin D exerts anti-tumor efficacy in H22 tumor-bearing mice via improving immune function and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zi; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Platycodin D (PD), a major saponin derived and isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, exerts potent growth inhibition and strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-tumor efficacy of PD on H22 hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to explore the anti-hepatoma activity in vivo and the underlying mechanism of PD in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results revealed that PD could considerably suppress tumor growth with no significant side effects on immune organs and body weight. Further investigations showed that the levels of serum cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by PD administration. On the other hand, PD inhibited the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum of H22 tumor mice. Additionally, the observations from H&E and Hoechst 33258 staining results demonstrated that PD noticeably induced apoptosis in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Importantly, immunohistochemical analysis showed that PD treatment increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and VEGF expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the findings in the present investigation clearly demonstrated that the PD markedly suppressed the tumor growth of H22 transplanted tumor in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:27193733

  8. l-arginine and docetaxel synergistically enhance anti-tumor immunity by modifying the immune status of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Du, Yunting; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Yonghui; Jin, Feng

    2016-06-01

    l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been reported to enhance the function of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, in cancer models thereby countering the suppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The balance of the active immune cells is one factor that determines the progression of cancers in vivo. Docetaxel (DTX), an immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent, is now widely used in several types of malignancies including breast cancer. We hypothesized that the combination of DTX and l-Arg would elicit a more robust antitumor response than either molecule alone. To test this hypothesis we utilized BALB/c mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. DTX and l-Arg synergistically limited tumor growth in vivo and moderately increased the life span of tumor bearing mice. The anti-tumor effects were associated with the proliferation of splenic CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th1 effector cells, as well as increased serum levels of interferon gamma. More importantly, DTX+l-Arg effectively increased anti-tumor immunity within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, the combined therapy increased the number of myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, potent activators of the T cell response, and enhanced expression of the maturation markers CD86 and MHC II (required for antigen presentation). The combination therapy also reduced the proliferation of MDSCs. These data suggest that DTX+l-Arg may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients. PMID:27003114

  9. Improvement in the drug delivery and anti-tumor efficacy of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by targeting RNA aptamers in mice bearing breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Seyedeh Alia; Abnous, Khalil; Badiee, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-03-01

    Targeted delivery by ligands such as aptamers, is a promising method to increase the efficiency of PEGylated-liposomal doxorubicin (PL-Dox). In this study, we have successfully conjugated our recently developed anti-breast cancer RNA aptamer (TSA14) to the surface of PL-Dox and characterized for their size, zeta potential, Dox percent encapsulation and release properties in the presence of fetal bovine serum. In vitro experiments showed that aptamer could improve cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of PL-Dox in TUBO breast cell line. In mice bearing TUBO breast tumor, although, the doxorubicin plasma level of liposomal doxorubicin did not significantly change after modification of nanoparticles with aptamer, however, much higher tumor accumulation of Dox as compared with non-targeted liposomes proved the tumor-targeting capability of aptamers. In the same way, aptamer-PL-Dox improved anti-tumor efficiency of liposomes in TUBO breast tumor in mice compared to non-targeted liposomes. Overall, the results showed that aptamer decoration of PL-Dox could significantly improve selectivity and the therapeutic efficacy of liposomal DOX and merits further investigation. PMID:26722819

  10. Eriobotrya japonica hydrophilic extract modulates cytokines in normal tissues, in the tumor of Meth-A-fibrosarcoma bearing mice, and enhances their survival time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytokines play a key role in the immune response to developing tumors, and therefore modulating their levels and actions provides innovative strategies for enhancing the activity of antigen presenting cells and polarizing towards T helper 1 type response within tumor microenvironment. One of these approaches could be the employment of plant extracts that have cytokine immunomodulation capabilities. Previously, we have shown that the Eriobotrya japonica hydrophilic extract (EJHE) induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Methods The present study explored the in vivo immunomodulatory effect on interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) evoked by two water-extracts prepared from EJ leaves in the tissues of normal and Meth-A-fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Results Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 10 μg of EJHE and EJHE-water residue (WR), prepared from butanol extraction, increased significantly IFN-γ production in the spleen (p < 0.01) and lung (p < 0.03) tissues at 6-48 hours and suppressed significantly TGF-β1 production levels (p < 0.001) in the spleen for as long as 48 hours. The latter responses, however, were not seen in Meth-A fibrosarcoma-bearing mice. On the contrary, triple i.p. injections, 24 hours apart; of 10 μg EJHE increased significantly IFN-γ production in the spleen (p < 0.02) while only EJHE-WR increased significantly IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17 (p < 0.03 - 0.005) production within the tumor microenvironment of Meth-A fibrosarcoma. In addition, the present work revealed a significant prolongation of survival time (median survival time 72 days vs. 27 days of control, p < 0.007) of mice inoculated i.p. with Meth-A cells followed by three times/week for eight weeks of i.p. administration of EJHE-WR. The latter prolonged survival effect was not seen with EJHE. Conclusions The therapeutic value of EJHE-WR as an anticancer agent merits further investigation of

  11. The influence of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on cisplatin-evoked chemotherapeutic and side effects in tumor-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Aya; Sato, Eri; Fujii, Hajime; Sun Buxiang; Nishioka, Hiroshi . E-mail: nishioka@aminoup.co.jp; Aruoma, Okezie I. . E-mail: okezie.aruoma@touro.edu

    2007-07-15

    Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP) (a widely used platinum-containing anticancer drug) is nephrotoxic and has a low percentage of tolerance in patients during chemotherapy. The active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of Basidiomycotina marketed as a supplement for cancer patients due to its nutrients and fibre content and its ability to strengthen and optimize the capacity of the immune system. The possibility that AHCC could reduce the side effects of cisplatin was assessed in the tumor-bearing BALB/cA mice on the basis of the ability to ameliorate the cisplatin-induced body weight loss, anorexia, nephrotoxicity and hematopoietic toxicity. Although cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, supplementation with AHCC significantly enhanced cisplatin-induced antitumor effect in both the size (p < 0.05) and weight (p < 0.05). Food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice were decreased following commencement of treatment and this remained low compared with the cisplatin-untreated group (control) throughout the experiment period. Supplementation with AHCC increased the food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations, and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine were significantly increased in the cisplatin alone treated group compared to the control group. Their increased levels were mitigated by supplementation with AHCC (100 mg/kg body weight) in the cisplatin-treated group. AHCC was also able to modulate the suppression of bone marrow due to cisplatin and the improvement was statistically significant. The histopathological examination of the kidney revealed the presence of cisplatin-induced damage and this was modulated by AHCC treatment. The potential for AHCC to ameliorate the cisplatin-evoked toxicity as well as the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial economic implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with

  12. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  13. Supplementation of Magnolol Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Bladder Cancer-Bearing Mice Undergoing Chemotherapy via Suppression of FoxO3 Activation and Induction of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Chuan; Chen, Yen-Lin; Lee, Chi-Feng; Hung, Chih-Huang; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most prominent phenotypic feature of cancer cachexia, is often observed in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Magnolol (M) extracted from Magnolia officinalis exhibits several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether magnolol supplementation protects against the development of cachexia symptoms in bladder cancer-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Combined treatment of magnolol with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin (TGCM) or gemcitabine (TGM), markedly attenuates the body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy compared with conventional chemotherapy (TGC). The antiatrophic effect of magnolol may be associated with inhibition of myostatin and activin A formation, as well as FoxO3 transcriptional activity resulting from Akt activation, thereby suppressing ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1 expression, as well as proteasomal enzyme activity. Notably, magnolol-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) production and related protein synthesis may also contribute to its protective effects. The decreased food intake, and intestinal injury and dysfunction observed in the mice of TGC group were significantly improved in the TGCM and TGM groups. Moreover, the increased inflammatory responses evidenced by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine formation and NF-κB activation occurred in the atrophying muscle of TGC group were markedly inhibited in mice of combined treatment with magnolol. In summary, these findings support that magnolol is a promising chemopreventive supplement for preventing chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle atrophy associated with cancer cachexia by suppressing muscle protein degradation, and inflammatory responses, as well as increasing IGF-1-mediated protein synthesis. PMID:26600425

  14. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on patients’ societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Methods Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Results Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants’ age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Conclusions Although patients’ satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients’ economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT. PMID:27275465

  15. Orthotopic Hind Limb Transplantation in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furtmüller, Georg J; Oh, Byoungchol; Grahammer, Johanna; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Sucher, Robert; Fryer, Madeline L; Raimondi, Giorgio; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In vivo animal model systems, and in particular mouse models, have evolved into powerful and versatile scientific tools indispensable to basic and translational research in the field of transplantation medicine. A vast array of reagents is available exclusively in this setting, including mono- and polyclonal antibodies for both diagnostic and interventional applications. In addition, a vast number of genotyped, inbred, transgenic, and knock out strains allow detailed investigation of the individual contributions of humoral and cellular components to the complex interplay of an immune response and make the mouse the gold standard for immunological research. Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) delineates a novel field of transplantation using allografts to replace "like with like" in patients suffering traumatic or congenital tissue loss. This surgical methodological protocol shows the use of a non-suture cuff technique for super-microvascular anastomosis in an orthotopic mouse hind limb transplantation model. The model specifically allows for comparison between established paradigms in solid organ transplantation with a novel form of transplants consisting of various different tissue components. Uniquely, this model allows for the transplantation of a viable vascularized bone marrow compartment and niche that have the potential to exert a beneficial effect on the balance of immune acceptance and rejection. This technique provides a tool to investigate alloantigen recognition and allograft rejection and acceptance, as well as enables the pursuit of functional nerve regeneration studies to further advance this novel field of transplantation. PMID:26967527

  16. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  17. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in solid tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Siddikuzzaman; Berlin, Grace V M

    2013-02-01

    Natural or synthetic agents can modify the immune system and, in some cases, impart a therapeutic benefit. Cancer, a disease of uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, is a major cause of death. The Vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its other active derivatives are potent modulators of cell growth and differentiation, and because it has an influence on cancer, it can be used as a chemotherapeutic and -preventive agent. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ATRA, the impact of treatment on various parameters, e.g. delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), bone marrow cellularity, hematology, and levels of esterase-positive cells, was assessed in Balb/c mice. To evaluate antitumor effects of ATRA, tumor volume and host survival rate were monitored in B16F10 melanoma cell-injected mice. The results showed that administration of ATRA (0.60 mg/kg/dose, IP) caused a decrease in DTH (footpad thickness) in response to challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in SRBC-sensitized hosts. ATRA also caused increases in WBC counts and bone marrow cell numbers. In tumor-inoculated mice, ATRA caused tumor growth suppression and gave rise to a heightened survival rate. It was also found that ATRA had differential effects on serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) was reduced in serum. Based on these results, we conclude that ATRA has a potent immunomodulatory potential but also could significantly impact upon solid tumor growth and prolong host survival. PMID:22900644

  18. Evaluation of innate and adaptive immunity contributing to the antitumor effects of PD1 blockade in an orthotopic murine model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Alincourt Salazar, Marcela; Manuel, Edwin R; Tsai, Weimin; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Goldstein, Leanne; Blazar, Bruce R; Diamond, Don J

    2016-06-01

    Despite the clinical success of anti-PD1 antibody (α-PD1) therapy, the immune mechanisms contributing to the antineoplastic response remain unclear. Here, we describe novel aspects of the immune response involved in α-PD1-induced antitumor effects using an orthotopic Kras (G12D)/p53(R172H)/Pdx1-Cre (KPC) model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We found that positive therapeutic outcome involved both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Adoptive transfer of total splenocytes after short-term (3 d) but not long-term (28 d) PD1 blockade significantly extended survival of non-treated tumor-bearing recipient mice. This protective effect appeared to be mostly mediated by T cells, as adoptive transfer of purified natural killer (NK) cells and/or granulocyte receptor 1 (Gr1)(+) cells or splenocytes depleted of Gr1(+) cells and NK cells did not exhibit transferrable antitumor activity following short-term PD1 blockade. Nevertheless, splenic and tumor-derived CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and NK cells showed significant persistence of α-PD1 bound to these cells in the treated primary recipient mice. We observed that short-term inhibition of PD1 signaling modulated the profiles of multifunctional cytokines in the tumor immune-infiltrate, including downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Altogether, the data suggest that systemic blockade of PD1 results in rapid modulation of antitumor immunity that differs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) when compared to the spleen. These results demonstrate a key role for early immune-mediated events in controlling tumor progression in response to α-PD1 treatment and warrant further investigation into the mechanisms governing responses to the therapy at the innate-adaptive immune interface. PMID:27471630

  19. Eicosanoid Profiling in an Orthotopic Model of Lung Cancer Progression by Mass Spectrometry Demonstrates Selective Production of Leukotrienes by Inflammatory Cells of the Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Poczobutt, Joanna M.; Gijon, Miguel; Amin, Jay; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Walker, Deandra; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Lu, Xian; Murphy, Robert C.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid1 (AA), which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO) and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a) were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME), but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids. PMID:24244531

  20. Intrahepatic Tissue Implantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Establishing Orthotopic Transplantation Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Bingfeng; Gao, Xianjun; Zhang, Ti; Du, Zhi; Wu, Chenxuan; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used for studying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology and exploring new therapeutic interventions. Currently three main modalities of HCC mouse models have been extensively employed in pre-clinical studies including chemically induced, transgenic and transplantation models. Among them, transplantation models are preferred for evaluating in vivo drug efficacy in pre-clinical settings given the short latency, uniformity in size and close resemblance to tumors in patients. However methods used for establishing orthotopic HCC transplantation mouse models are diverse and fragmentized without a comprehensive comparison. Here, we systemically evaluate four different approaches commonly used to establish HCC mice in preclinical studies, including intravenous, intrasplenic, intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. Four parameters—the latency period, take rates, pathological features and metastatic rates—were evaluated side-by-side. 100% take rates were achieved in liver with intrahepatic, intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. In contrast, no tumor in liver was observed with intravenous injection of tumor cells. Intrahepatic tissue implantation resulted in the shortest latency with 0.5cm (longitudinal diameter) tumors found in liver two weeks after implantation, compared to 0.1cm for intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells. Approximately 0.1cm tumors were only visible at 4 weeks after intrasplenic inoculation. Uniform, focal and solitary tumors were formed with intrahepatic tissue implantation whereas multinodular, dispersed and non-uniform tumors produced with intrahepatic and intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells. Notably, metastasis became visible in liver, peritoneum and mesenterium at 3 weeks post-implantation, and lung metastasis was visible after 7 weeks. T cell infiltration was evident in tumors, resembling the situation in HCC patients. Our study

  1. Metastasis in an Orthotopic Murine Model of Melanoma is Independent of RAS/RAF Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Monahan, Kimberly B.; Torrice, Chad; Bear, James E.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is the most lethal skin tumor, in large part because of a propensity for early metastasis. Good models of this most clinically relevant feature of melanoma are lacking. Here we report the development of an in vivo model of metastasis that relies on orthotopic injection of GFP-tagged lines in immunodeficient mice, serial intravital imaging of tumor progression and quantification of distant spread by 2-photon laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Using this system, we report an assessment of the in vivo growth and metastatic properties of 11 well-characterized human melanoma cell lines. A subset of lines demonstrated rapid in vivo growth with invasion of host vasculature and distant seeding of viscera in this system. The ability to form metastasis in vivo did not correlate with 3D collagen invasion in vitro. Surprisingly, similar lines in terms of molecular genetic events differed markedly in their propensity to metastasize to distant organs such as brain and lung. In particular, two lines harboring B-RAF mutation and high levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT (pERK and pAKT) were reproducibly unable to form tumors after orthotopic injection. Likewise, two previously identified RAS/RAF wild-type “epithelial-like” lines that do not have elevated pERK, pAKT or express TWIST1 mRNA still demonstrated a pronounced ability for orthotopic growth and metastatic spread. All the metastatic cell lines in this model showed increased NEDD9 expression, but NEDD9 lentiviral overexpression did not convey a metastatic phenotype on non-metastatic cells. These data suggest that melanoma metastasis is a molecularly heterogeneous process that may not require epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition or ERK activation, although both may facilitate the process. PMID:20679910

  2. Intrahepatic Tissue Implantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Establishing Orthotopic Transplantation Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Quan; You, Abin; Guo, Zhenglong; Zuo, Bingfeng; Gao, Xianjun; Zhang, Ti; Du, Zhi; Wu, Chenxuan; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used for studying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology and exploring new therapeutic interventions. Currently three main modalities of HCC mouse models have been extensively employed in pre-clinical studies including chemically induced, transgenic and transplantation models. Among them, transplantation models are preferred for evaluating in vivo drug efficacy in pre-clinical settings given the short latency, uniformity in size and close resemblance to tumors in patients. However methods used for establishing orthotopic HCC transplantation mouse models are diverse and fragmentized without a comprehensive comparison. Here, we systemically evaluate four different approaches commonly used to establish HCC mice in preclinical studies, including intravenous, intrasplenic, intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. Four parameters--the latency period, take rates, pathological features and metastatic rates--were evaluated side-by-side. 100% take rates were achieved in liver with intrahepatic, intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. In contrast, no tumor in liver was observed with intravenous injection of tumor cells. Intrahepatic tissue implantation resulted in the shortest latency with 0.5 cm (longitudinal diameter) tumors found in liver two weeks after implantation, compared to 0.1cm for intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells. Approximately 0.1cm tumors were only visible at 4 weeks after intrasplenic inoculation. Uniform, focal and solitary tumors were formed with intrahepatic tissue implantation whereas multinodular, dispersed and non-uniform tumors produced with intrahepatic and intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells. Notably, metastasis became visible in liver, peritoneum and mesenterium at 3 weeks post-implantation, and lung metastasis was visible after 7 weeks. T cell infiltration was evident in tumors, resembling the situation in HCC patients. Our study

  3. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Manish V.; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  4. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  5. Active hexose correlated compound potentiates the antitumor effects of low-dose 5-fluorouracil through modulation of immune function in hepatoma 22 tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhiyun; Chen, Xuzheng; Lan, Lan; Zhang, Zhideng; Du, Jian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A variety of immunomodulators can improve the efficacy of low-dose chemotherapeutics. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a mushroom mycelia extract, has been shown to be a strong immunomodulator. Whether AHCC could enhance the antitumor effect of low-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) via regulation of host immunity is unknown. MATERIALS/METHODS In the current study Hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice were treated with PBS, 5-FU (10 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.p), or AHCC (360 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g) plus 5-FU, respectively, for 5 d. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and NK in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. ALT, AST, BUN, and Cr levels were measured by biochemical assay. IL-2 and TNFα in serum were measured using the RIA kit and apoptosis of tumor was detected by TUNEL staining. Bax, Bcl-2, and TS protein levels were measured by immunohistochemical staining and mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR. RESULTS Diet consumption and body weight showed that AHCC had no apparent toxicity. AHCC could reverse liver injury and myelosuppression induced by 5-FU (P < 0.05). Compared to mice treated with 5-FU, mice treated with AHCC plus 5-FU had higher thymus index, percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and NK cells (P < 0.01), and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ (P < 0.01) in peripheral blood. Radioimmunoassay showed that mice treated with AHCC plus 5-FU had the highest serum levels of IL-2 and TNFα compared with the vehicle group and 5-FU group. More importantly, the combination of AHCC and 5-FU produced a more potent antitumor effect (P < 0.05) and caused more severe apoptosis in tumor tissue (P < 0.05) compared with the 5-FU group. In addition, the combination of AHCC and 5-FU further up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) (P < 0.01), while it down-regulated the expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results support the claim that AHCC might be beneficial for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25861418

  6. Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with radiotherapy promotes tumor growth by stimulating vascularization in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Bae, Min Ji; Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Chang Geun; Jo, Wol Soon; Kim, Sung Dae; Yang, Kwangmo

    2015-07-01

    Although granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is commonly used to support recovery from radiation-induced side-effects, the precise effects of G-CSF on colon cancer under radiotherapy remain poorly understood. In the present study, to investigate the effects of tumor growth following radiotherapy and G-CSF administration in a murine xenograft model of colon cancer, female BALB/c mice were injected with cells of a colon carcinoma cell line (CT26) with irradiation and G-CSF, alone or in combination. Mice received 2 Gy of focal radiation daily for 5 days and intraperitoneal injection of G-CSF (100 µg/kg/day) after irradiation for 7 days. Changes in the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9) and CD31 were assessed in the mouse cancer induced by injection of colon cancer cells. We observed that G-CSF increased the number of circulating neutrophils, but facilitated tumor growth. However, G-CSF treatment did not affect radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell viability in CT26 cells in vitro. Increased levels of myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil marker and those of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed in tumors with G-CSF supplementation. In addition, we found that increased levels of CD31 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were correlated with the enhanced tumor growth after G-CSF treatment. Therefore, these data suggest that G-CSF may contribute to tumor growth and decrease the antitumor effect of radiotherapy, possibly by promoting vascularization in cancer lesions. PMID:25976379

  7. Efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in skin B16-F0 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Vad, Nikhil M; Kudugunti, Shashi K; Wang, Hezhen; Bhat, G Jayarama; Moridani, Majid Y

    2014-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies show that aspirin can act as a chemopreventive agent and decrease the incidences of various cancers including melanoma. In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as an antimelanoma agent in B16-F0 cells and skin B16-F0 melanoma tumor mouse model. Our findings indicate that the IC50 (48 h) for ASA in B16-F0 melanoma cells was 100 μM and that ASA caused a dose- and time-dependent GSH depletion and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in B16-F0 melanoma cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were inoculated s.c. with 1 × 10(6) B16-F0 melanoma cells. ASA (80, 100, and 150 mg/kg) was initiated on day 1 or day 7, or day 9 after cell inoculation and continued daily for 13, 7, and 5 days, respectively. Animals were weighed daily and sacrificed on day 13. The tumors were excised and weighed. The animals receiving 13 days of ASA therapy at 80, 100, and 150 mg/kg demonstrated tumor growth inhibition by 1 ± 12%, 19 ± 22%, and 50 ± 29%, respectively. Animals receiving 7 days of therapy at 80, 100, and 150 mg/kg demonstrated tumor growth inhibition by 12 ± 14%, 27 ± 14%, and 40 ± 14%, respectively. No significant tumor growth inhibition was observed with 5 days of therapy. ASA at 100 and 150 mg/kg caused significant tumor growth inhibition in C57BL/6 mice when administered for 13 and 7 days, respectively. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the recent epidemiologically based report that aspirin is associated with lower melanoma risk in humans. PMID:24492939

  8. Venous outflow obstruction and portopulmonary hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe; Covarrubias-Velasco, Marco Antonio; Rojas-Sánchez, Antonio Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 54 Final Diagnosis: Suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomosis stricture Symptoms: Ascites • fatigue • lower limb edema • hepatomegaly Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Transplantology • Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomosis stricture is an unusual vascular complication after orthotopic liver transplantation with the “piggyback” technique. Clinical manifestations are dependent upon the severity of the stenosis. Portopulmonary hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation is a complication that carries high mortality due to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disorders after orthotopic liver transplantation remains uncertain. Case Report: We report a case of acute right heart pressure overload after surgical correction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomotic stricture in a 54-year-old woman who had preexisting pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation. Twenty months posttransplantation, she developed fatigue and progressive ascites. On admission, the patient had hepatomegaly, ascites, and lower limb edema. Symptoms in the patient developed gradually over time. Conclusions: Recurrent portal hypertension by vascular complications is a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical manifestations of suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomotic stenosis are dependent upon their severity. Sildenafil is an effective drug for treatment of pulmonary arterial hyper-tension after portal hypertension by vascular complications. PMID:24046802

  9. 6-Thioguanine-loaded polymeric micelles deplete myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhance the efficacy of T cell immunotherapy in tumor-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanbart, Laura; Kourtis, Iraklis C.; van der Vlies, André J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-16

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that suppress effector T cell responses and can reduce the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. We previously showed that ultra-small polymer nanoparticles efficiently drain to the lymphatics after intradermal injection and target antigen-presenting cells, including Ly6chi Ly6gmonocytic MDSCs (Mo-MDSCs), in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen. Here, we developed ultra-small polymer micelles loaded with 6-thioguanine (MC-TG), a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of myelogenous leukemia, with the aim of killing Mo-MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and thus enhancing T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. We found that 2 days post-injection in tumor-bearing mice (B16-F10 melanoma or E.G7-OVA thymoma), MC-TG depleted Mo-MDSCs in the spleen, Ly6clo Ly6g+ granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in the draining LNs, and Gr1int Mo-MDSCs in the tumor. In both tumor models, MC-TG decreased the numbers of circulating Mo- and G-MDSCs, as well as of Ly6chi macrophages, for up to 7 days following a single administration. MDSC depletion was dose dependent and more effective with MC-TG than with equal doses of free TG. Finally, we tested whether this MDSC-depleting strategy might enhance cancer immunotherapies in the B16-F10 melanoma model. We found that MC-TG significantly improved the efficacy of adoptively transferred, OVA-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma cells expressing OVA. Ultimately, these findings highlight the capacity of MC-TG in depleting MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment and show promise in promoting anti-tumor immunity when used in combination with T cell immunotherapies.

  10. Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1–7)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

  11. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  12. Absence of CD4(+) T cell help generates corrupt CD8(+) effector T cells in sarcoma-bearing Swiss mice treated with NLGP vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sarbari; Sarkar, Madhurima; Ghosh, Tithi; Guha, Ipsita; Bhuniya, Avishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Mallick, Atanu; Bose, Anamika; Baral, Rathindranath

    2016-07-01

    One of the prime objectives of cancer immunology and immunotherapy is to study the issues related to rescue and/or maintenance of the optimum effector CD8(+) T cell functions by minimizing tumor-induced negative factors. In this regard the influence of host intrinsic CD4(+) helper T cells towards generation and maintenance of CD8(+) effector T cells appears controversial in different experimental settings. Therefore, the present study was aimed to re-analyze the influence of CD4(+) helper T cells towards effector T cells during neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP)-vaccine-mediated tumor growth restriction. CD4 depletion (mAb; Clone GK1.5) surprisingly resulted in significant increase in CD8(+) T cells in different immune organs from NLGP-treated sarcoma-bearing mice. However, such CD8 surge could not restrict the sarcoma growth in NLGP-treated CD4-depleted mice. Furthermore, CD4 depletion in early phase hinders CD8(+) T cell activation and terminal differentiation by targeting crucial transcription factor Runx3. CD4 depletion decreases accumulation of CD8α(+) dendritic cells within tumor draining lymph node, hampers antigen cross priming and CD86-CD28 interactions for optimum CD8(+) T cell functions. In order to search the mechanism of CD4(+) T cell help on NLGP-mediated CD8 effector functions, the role of CD4(+) helper T cell-derived IL-2 on optimization of CD8 functions was found using STAT5 signaling, but complete response requires physical contact of CD4(+) helper T cells with its CD8 counterpart. In conclusion, it was found that CD4(+) T cell help is not required to generate CD8(+) T cells but was found to be an integral phenomenon in maintenance of its anti-tumor functions even in NLGP-vaccine-mediated sarcoma growth restriction. PMID:27178306

  13. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  14. Pharmacokinetics of the far red absorbing octa-alpha-butyloxy-zinc phthalocyanine in Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Cathrin; Ismail, M. Samy; Nowak, Christian; Herter, Ralf; Senz, Rainier G.; Hagemann, Roland; Roeder, Beate; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1995-01-01

    The newly synthesized potential photosensitizer octa-(alpha) -butyloxy-zinc phthalocyanine (8-(alpha) -bo-ZnPc) is characterized by a high absorption coefficient at the far red wavelength 735 nm and a good singlet oxygen quantum yield. The pharmacokinetics of 8- (alpha) -bo-ZnPc were studied on the Lewis lung carcinoma in mice after i.v. administration of 7.8 micrometers ole/kg body weight solubilized in PBS with 1% Tween 80 at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 168 hour incubation intervals. The accumulated dye contents were chemically extracted from selected tissues and the concentrations were measured by absorption spectroscopy. The parenchymatous organs, liver and spleen, showed maximum 8-(alpha) -bo-ZnPc concentrations after 6 h incubation (33 nmole/g liver and 5 nmole/g spleen, respectively). An extensive uptake was detected in the lung where concentrations higher than 90 nmole/g tissue were measured in the 6, 12, 24, and 48 hour extracts. The malignant tissue did not accumulate higher 8-(alpha) -bo-ZnPc concentrations than 0.4 nmole/g tumor during the entire investigation period. The dye contents extracted from muscle, representing normal tumor surrounding tissue, and skin were even lower and never exceeded 0.11 nmole/g muscle (6 h) and 0.21 nmole/g skin (2 h), respectively.

  15. AshwaMAX and Withaferin A inhibits gliomas in cellular and murine orthotopic models.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edwin; Pohling, Christoph; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Witney, Timothy H; Kaur, Jasdeep; Xu, Lingyun; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; D'Souza, Aloma L; Murty, Surya; Schick, Sophie; Chen, Liyin; Wu, Nicholas; Khaw, Phoo; Mischel, Paul; Abbasi, Taher; Usmani, Shahabuddin; Mallick, Parag; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, malignant cancer Johnson and O'Neill (J Neurooncol 107: 359-364, 2012). An extract from the winter cherry plant (Withania somnifera ), AshwaMAX, is concentrated (4.3 %) for Withaferin A; a steroidal lactone that inhibits cancer cells Vanden Berghe et al. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23: 1985-1996, 2014). We hypothesized that AshwaMAX could treat GBM and that bioluminescence imaging (BLI) could track oral therapy in orthotopic murine models of glioblastoma. Human parietal-cortical glioblastoma cells (GBM2, GBM39) were isolated from primary tumors while U87-MG was obtained commercially. GBM2 was transduced with lentiviral vectors that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)/firefly luciferase fusion proteins. Mutational, expression and proliferative status of GBMs were studied. Intracranial xenografts of glioblastomas were grown in the right frontal regions of female, nude mice (n = 3-5 per experiment). Tumor growth was followed through BLI. Neurosphere cultures (U87-MG, GBM2 and GBM39) were inhibited by AshwaMAX at IC50 of 1.4, 0.19 and 0.22 µM equivalent respectively and by Withaferin A with IC50 of 0.31, 0.28 and 0.25 µM respectively. Oral gavage, every other day, of AshwaMAX (40 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced bioluminescence signal (n = 3 mice, p < 0.02, four parameter non-linear regression analysis) in preclinical models. After 30 days of treatment, bioluminescent signal increased suggesting onset of resistance. BLI signal for control, vehicle-treated mice increased and then plateaued. Bioluminescent imaging revealed diffuse growth of GBM2 xenografts. With AshwaMAX, GBM neurospheres collapsed at nanomolar concentrations. Oral treatment studies on murine models confirmed that AshwaMAX is effective against orthotopic GBM. AshwaMAX is thus a promising candidate for future clinical translation in patients with GBM. PMID:26650066

  16. Sympathetic innervation, norepinephrine content, and norepinephrine turnover in orthotopic and spontaneous models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, Mercedes J; Belcher, Elizabeth K; Dawes, Ryan P; Madden, Kelley S

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drives breast cancer progression in preclinical breast cancer models, but it has yet to be established if neoplastic and stromal cells residing in the tumor are directly targeted by locally released norepinephrine (NE). In murine orthotopic and spontaneous mammary tumors, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ sympathetic nerves were limited to the periphery of the tumor. No TH+ staining was detected deeper within these tumors, even in regions with a high density of blood vessels. NE concentration was much lower in tumors compared to the more densely innervated spleen, reflecting the relative paucity of tumor TH+ innervation. Tumor and spleen NE concentration decreased with increased tissue mass. In mice treated with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to selectively destroy sympathetic nerves, tumor NE concentration was reduced approximately 50%, suggesting that the majority of tumor NE is derived from local sympathetic nerves. To evaluate NE utilization, NE turnover in orthotopic 4T1 mammary tumors was compared to spleen under baseline and stress conditions. In non-stressed mice, NE turnover was equivalent between tumor and spleen. In mice exposed to a stressor, tumor NE turnover was increased compared to spleen NE turnover, and compared to non-stressed tumor NE turnover. Together, these results demonstrate that NE in mammary tumors is derived from local sympathetic nerves that synthesize and metabolize NE. However, differences between spleen and tumor NE turnover with stressor exposure suggest that sympathetic NE release is regulated differently within the tumor microenvironment compared to the spleen. Local mammary tumor sympathetic innervation, despite its limited distribution, is responsive to stressor exposure and therefore can contribute to stress-induced tumor progression. PMID:26718447

  17. Real-time Imaging of Tumor Progression in a Fluorescent Orthotopic Mouse Model of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    TRAN CAO, HOP S.; KAUSHAL, SHARMEELA; SNYDER, CYNTHIA S.; ONGKEKO, WEG M.; HOFFMAN, ROBERT M.; BOUVET, MICHAEL

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for a clinically relevant mouse model of thyroid cancer that enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug response over time. Human thyroid cancer cell lines NPA (papillary) and KAK-1 (anaplastic) were stably transfected to express either red or green fluorescent protein. Cancer cells were injected into the thyroid glands of 8-week-old athymic mice. The animals were imaged with whole-body fluorescence imaging weekly and sacrificed when premorbid. At necropsy, the primary tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for processing and analysis. Histology was performed on fixed tissue specimens for review of morphologic findings. Both anaplastic and papillary thyroid cancer cell lines led to robust development of orthotopic fluorescent tumors in nude mice. Injection of 5×105 cancer cells was sufficient for tumor development. Tumors were visualized for both cell lines via non-invasive imaging as early as 3 weeks post-implantation and were monitored over time. Time to premorbid condition varied between mice and was associated with a primary tumor growth pattern (early local compression of the esophagus vs. late metastatic disease) rather than tumor size. At necropsy, tumor fluorescence demonstrated metastases in the lungs, lymph nodes and vessels that were not visible under white light. Thus an orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer has been developed that replicates the major clinical features of thyroid cancer and enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of tumor progression. This model should permit preclinical evaluation of novel thyroid cancer therapeutics. PMID:21115887

  18. Generation of orthotopic patient-derived xenografts from gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma and its treatment with imatinib has served as the paradigm for developing targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite this success, imatinib-resistance has emerged as a major problem and therefore, the clinical efficacy of other drugs has been investigated. Unfortunately, most clinical trials have failed to identify efficacious drugs despite promising in vitro data and pathological responses in subcutaneous xenografts. We hypothesized that it was feasible to develop orthotopic patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from resected GIST that could recapitulate the genetic heterogeneity and biology of the human disease. Methods Fresh tumor tissue from three patients with pathologically confirmed GISTs was obtained immediately following tumor resection. Tumor fragments (4.2-mm3) were surgically xenografted into the liver, gastric wall, renal capsule, and pancreas of immunodeficient mice. Tumor growth was serially assessed with ultrasonography (US) every 3-4 weeks. Tumors were also evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET). Animals were sacrificed when they became moribund or their tumors reached a threshold size of 2500-mm3. Tumors were subsequently passaged, as well as immunohistochemically and histologically analyzed. Results Herein, we describe the first model for generating orthotopic GIST PDXs. We have successfully xenografted three unique KIT-mutated tumors into a total of 25 mice with an overall success rate of 84% (21/25). We serially followed tumor growth with US to describe the natural history of PDX growth. Successful PDXs resulted in 12 primary xenografts in NOD-scid gamma or NOD-scid mice while subsequent successful passages resulted in 9 tumors. At a median of 7.9 weeks (range 2.9-33.1 weeks), tumor size averaged 473±695-mm3 (median 199-mm3, range 12.6-2682.5-mm3) by US. Furthermore, tumor size on US within 14 days of death correlated with gross tumor size on necropsy. We also

  19. Antitumor and Immunostimulating Activities of Elfvingia applanata Hot Water Extract on Sarcoma 180 Tumor-bearing ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Mi; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2012-01-01

    Elfvingia applanata, a medicinal mushroom belonging to Basidiomycota, has been used in the effort to cure cancers of the esophagus and stomach, and is also known to have inhibitory effects on hepatitis B virus infection. The hot water soluble fraction (as Fr. HW) was extracted from fruiting bodies of the mushroom. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that hot water extract was not cytotoxic against cancer cell lines such as Sarcoma 180, HT-29, HepG2, and TR at concentrations of 10~2,000 µg/mL. Intraperitoneal injection with Fr. HW resulted in a life prolongation effect of 45.2% in mice previously inoculated with Sarcoma 180. Treatment of Fr. HW resulted in a 2.53-fold increase in the numbers of murine spleen cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL, compared with control. Incubation of murine spleen cells with Fr. HW at a concentration of 500 µg/mL resulted in improved immune-potwntiating activity of B lymphocytes through an 8.3-folds increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, compared with control. Fr. HW generated 12.5 µM of nitric oxide (NO) when cultured with RAW 264.7, a mouse macrophage cell line, at the concentration of 50 µg/mL, while lipopolysaccharide, a positive control, produced 15.2 µM of NO. Therefore, the results suggested that antitumor activities of Fr. HW from E. applanata might, in part, be due to host mediated immunostimulating activity. PMID:22783134

  20. Radioiodination of 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin and biological evaluation in solid tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elhalim, S.M.; Ibrahim, I.T.

    2015-01-01

    Compound 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin is a coumarin derivative that could be labeled with 125I. The process of labeling was started using 1 mg of the compound, 50 µg CAT oxidizing agent, 30 min as reaction time at pH with a yield about 95%. The 125I-coumarin derivative was stable for about 48 h. Radiochemical purity of the labeled compound was performed by electrophoresis and HPLC. The labeled compound was separated with purity about 95%. Tumor transplantation to produce a solid tumor in the right leg of albino mice was made by intramuscular injection of 2×106 EAC (Ehrlish acittes carcinoma cells). Biodistribution study of 125I-coumarin derivative revealed that the uptake in tumor bearing leg was over 5% at 1 h and 4 h post-injection. This uptake encourages the use of 123I-coumarin derivative in imaging of tumor sites. PMID:25464192

  1. Antitumor efficacy in H22 tumor bearing mice and immunoregulatory activity on RAW 264.7 macrophages of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Yin, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Yu; Ming, Yan-Lin; Liang, Shi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of a polysaccharide (TTP) from Talinum triangulare. The molecular weight of TTP-IV was 49.9 kDa. The monosaccharide composition analysis of TTP-IV revealed that it was a heteropolysaccharide consisting of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.22 : 1.00 : 1.05 : 1.51. The results of the in vivo study showed that TTP (200 mg per kg bw) significantly inhibited the growth of tumor by 49.07% in H22-bearing Kunming mice. In vitro, the growth of primary murine macrophages was promoted by TTP in a dose- and time-dependent manner significantly. Besides, RAW 264.7 cells were activated by TTP to produce NO and the toxicity of RAW 264.7 supernatant was markedly enhanced in vitro. The levels of iNOS, TLR2, TLR4 and IL-1β were obviously increased by TTP. Therefore, it is suggested that TTP can be utilized as a potent antitumor and immunoenhancing material in functional food. PMID:25044149

  2. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  3. Plasma, tumor and tissue pharmacokinetics of Docetaxel delivered via nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes in mice bearing SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin S.; Hasan, Warefta; Rawal, Sumit; Walsh, Mark D.; Enlow, Elizabeth M.; Luft, J. Christopher; Bridges, Arlene S.; Kuijer, Jennifer L.; Napier, Mary E.; Zamboni, William C.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle fabrication technique PRINT® was used to fabricate monodisperse size and shape specific poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles loaded with the chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The pharmacokinetics of two cylindrical shaped particles with diameter=80nm; height=320nm (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and d=200nm; h=200nm (PRINT-Doc-200×200) were compared to Docetaxel in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 flank xenografts. The Docetaxel plasma exposure was ~20-fold higher for both particles compared to docetaxel. Additionally, the volume of distribution (Vd) of Docetaxel in PRINT formulations was ~18-fold (PRINT-Doc-80×320) and ~33-fold (PRINT-Doc-200×200) lower than Docetaxel. The prolonged duration of Docetaxel in plasma when dosed with PRINT formulations subsequently lead to increased tumor exposure of Docetaxel from 0-168 hours (~53% higher for PRINT-Doc-80×320 and ~76% higher for PRINT-Doc-200×200 particles). PRINT-Doc-80×320 had lower exposures in the liver, spleen and lung compared with PRINT-Doc-200×200. Thus, the use of particles with smaller feature size may be preferred to decrease clearance by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. PMID:23219874

  4. Pharmacokinetics of an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody conjugated to a bifunctional transition metal carborane complex (venus flytrap cluster) in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Beatty, B G; Paxton, R J; Hawthorne, M F; Williams, L E; Rickard-Dickson, K J; Do, T; Shively, J E; Beatty, J D

    1993-08-01

    An anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, T84.66, has been conjugated to a metallocarborane complex (Venus flytrap cluster, VFC) containing 57Co. This radioimmunoconjugate, 57Co-VFC-T84.66, retained > 90% immunoreactivity, was stable in serum (7 days) and demonstrated good localization in LS174T tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetics of 57Co-VFC-T84.66 in tumor-bearing mice were compared to T84.66 Mab conjugated with either DTPA or its benzylisothiocyanate derivative (BzDTPA) labeled with 111In. Whole-body half-life for VFC-T84.66 was less (t1/2 = 62 hr) than that for either DTPA-T84.66 (t1/2 = 157 hr) or BzDTPA-T84.66 (t1/2 = 167 hr). Blood clearance was similar for all three radioimmunoconjugates (t1/2 = 22 hr). Hepatic uptake of the radiolabel was rapid and remained constant for 7 days for both DTPA radioimmunoconjugates (DTPA radioimmunoconjugate = 13.7 +/- 1.5 %ID/g; BzDTPA radioimmunoconjugate = 10.4 +/- 1.7%ID/g). For VFC, however, liver radioactivity decreased from 19.1 +/- 0.6%ID/g at 1 hr to 0.9 +/- 0.1 %ID/g 7 days postinjection, suggesting a possible role for VFC radioimmunoconjugate in the imaging and therapy of liver metastases. PMID:8326387

  5. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and the anti-tumor effect of cyclic RGD-modified doxorubicin-loaded polymers in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Yuan; Chen, Binbin; Zou, Meijuan

    2016-10-01

    In our previous study, we successfully produced and characterized a multifunctional drug delivery system with doxorubicin (RC/GO/DOX), which was based on graphene oxide (GO) and cyclic RGD-modified chitosan (RC). Its characteristics include: pH-responsiveness, active targeting of hepatocarcinoma cells, and efficient loading with controlled drug release. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and anti-tumor efficacy of RC/GO/DOX polymers in tumor-bearing nude mice. The objective of this study is to assess its targeting potential for tumors. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles demonstrated that tumor accumulation of RC/GO/DOX polymers was almost three times higher than the others, highlighting the efficacy of the active targeting strategy. Furthermore, the tumor inhibition rate of RC/GO/DOX polymers was 56.64%, 2.09 and 2.93 times higher than that of CS/GO/DOX polymers (without modification) and the DOX solution, respectively. Anti-tumor efficacy results indicated that the tumor growth was better controlled by RC/GO/DOX polymers than the others. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed remarkable changes in tumor histology. Compared with the saline group, the tumor section from the RC/GO/DOX group revealed a marked increase in the quantity of apoptotic and necrotic cells, and a reduction in the quantity of the blood vessels. Together, these studies show that this new system could be regarded as a suitable form of DOX-based treatment of the hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27244048

  6. A biodistribution study of PEGylated PCL-based nanoparticles in C57BL/6 mice bearing B16/F10 melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Colombo, C.; Frapolli, R.; Ferrari, R.; Sitia, L.; Dragoni, L.; Bello, E.; Licandro, S. A.; Falcetta, F.; Ubezio, P.; Bigini, P.; Salmona, M.; D'Incalci, M.; Morbidelli, M.; Moscatelli, D.

    2014-08-01

    One of the major drawbacks that limits the clinical application of nanoparticles is the lack of preliminary investigations related to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and biodistribution. In this work, biodegradable PEGylated polymer nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by using macromonomers based on poly(ɛ-caprolaconte) oligomers. More in detail, NPs have been produced by adopting a surfactant-free semibatch emulsion polymerization process using PEG chains as a stabilizing agent. The NPs were also labeled with rhodamine B covalently bound to the NPs to quantitatively study their biodistribution in vivo. NPs were investigated in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical systems to study their biodistribution in mice bearing B16/F10 melanoma, as well as their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The NP concentration was evaluated in different tissues at several times after intravenous injection. The disappearance of the NPs from the plasma was biphasic, with distribution and elimination half-lives of 30 min and 15 h, respectively. NPs were retained in tumors and in filter organs for a long time, were still detectable after 7 d and maintained a steady concentration in the tumor for 120 h. 48 h after injection, 70 ± 15% of the inoculated NPs were excreted in the feces. The favorable tumor uptake, fast excretion and absence of cytotoxicity foster the further development of produced NPs as drug delivery carriers.

  7. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine nanosuspension against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NS relative to effcacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 +/- 3.7 nm and 6.99 +/- 0.17 mV, respectively. Ber-NS exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 8.1 and 4.7 μg/ml (18.3 and 6.5 μg/ml of Ber solution). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 63.7% (41.4 % of Ber solution) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  8. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26840261

  9. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26840261

  10. The anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR monoclonal antibody 1D09C3 activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway and exerts a potent antitumor activity in lymphoma-bearing nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Turco, Maria Caterina; Cleris, Loredana; Lavazza, Cristiana; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Magni, Michele; Ammirante, Massimo; Leone, Arturo; Nagy, Zoltan; Gioffrè, Walter R; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Alessandro M

    2006-02-01

    The fully human anti-HLA-DR antibody 1D09C3 has been shown to delay lymphoma cell growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The present study was aimed at (a) investigating the mechanism(s) of 1D09C3-induced cell death and (b) further exploring the therapeutic efficacy of 1D09C3 in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice. The chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line JVM-2 and the mantle cell lymphoma cell line GRANTA-519 were used. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were measured by flow cytometry following cell incubation with dihydroethidium and TMRE, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to detect c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). NOD/SCID mice were used to investigate the activity of 1D09C3 in early- or advanced-stage tumor xenografts. In vitro, 1D09C3-induced cell death involves a cascade of events, including ROS increase, JNK activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and AIF release from mitochondria. Inhibition of JNK activity significantly reduced 1D09C3-induced apoptosis, indicating that 1D09C3 activity involves activation of the kinase. In vivo, 1D09C3 induces long-term disease-free survival in a significant proportion of tumor-bearing mice treated at an early stage of disease. Treatment of mice bearing advanced-stage lymphoma results in a highly significant prolongation of survival. These data show that 1D09C3 (a) exerts a potent antitumor effect by activating ROS-dependent, JNK-driven cell death, (b) cures the great majority of mice treated at an early-stage of disease, and (c) significantly prolongs survival of mice with advanced-stage disease. PMID:16452241

  11. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours

    PubMed Central

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Öra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. What's new? Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease have a poor outcome. Here, the authors established neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice

  12. Orthotopic xenografts of human melanoma and colonic and ovarian carcinoma in sheep to evaluate radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, J. H.; Rose, A. H.; Glancy, R. J.; Penhale, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Extrapolation to humans from experimental radioimmunotherapy in nude mouse xenograft models is confounded by large relative tumour size and small volume of distribution in mice allowing tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies unattainable in patients. Our large animal model of human tumours in cyclosporin-immunosuppressed sheep demonstrated tumour uptake of targeted radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies comparable with uptakes reported in clinical trials. Sheep immunosuppression with daily intravenous cyclosporin augmented by oral ketoconazole maintained trough blood levels of cyclosporin within the range 1000-1500 ng ml(-1). Human tumour cells were transplanted orthotopically by inoculation of 10(7) cells: SKMEL melanoma subcutaneously; LS174T and HT29 colon carcinoma into bowel, peritoneum and liver; and JAM ovarian carcinoma into ovary and peritoneum. Tumour xenografts grew at all sites within 3 weeks of inoculation, preserving characteristic morphology without evidence of necrosis or host rejection. Lymphatic metastasis was demonstrated in regional nodes draining xenografts of melanoma and ovarian carcinoma. Colonic LS1 74T xenografts produced mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The anti-CEA IgG1 monoclonal antibody A5B7 was radiolabelled with iodine-131 and administered intravenously to sheep. Peak uptake at 5 days in orthotopic human tumour transplants in gut was 0.027% DI g(-1) (percentage of injected dose per gram) and 0.034% DI g(-1) in hepatic metastases with tumour to blood ratios of 2-2.5. Non-specific tumour uptake in melanoma was 0.003% DI g(-1). Uptake of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in human tumours in our large animal model is comparable with that observed in patients and may be more realistic than nude mice xenografts for prediction of clinical efficacy of radioimmunotherapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9716032

  13. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, ameliorates interleukin 2-induced capillary leakage and reduces tumour growth in adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Orucevic, A.; Lala, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    We tested whether NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, can prevent interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced capillary leakage in tumour-bearing mice without compromising the therapeutic benefits of IL-2. C3H/HeJ female mice transplanted s.c. with 2.5 x 10(5) C3-L5 mammary carcinoma cells were treated with: nothing, IL-2 (ten injections of 15,000 Cetus units i.p. every 8 h), L-NAME (0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water), IL-2 + L-NAME (0.1 or 0.5 or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water). Therapies were given in one round (IL-2, days 10-13; L-NAME, days 9-13) or in two rounds (IL-2, days 10-13 and 20-23; L-NAME, days 9-13 and days 19-23) after tumour transplantation. Capillary leakage was measured from the water contents of the pleural cavities, lungs, spleen and kidneys. Effects of the therapies on the primary tumour size and the number of spontaneous lung metastases were also recorded. NO production was measured as the nitrite + nitrate levels in the serum and in the pleural effusion. After the first round of therapies, addition of L-NAME significantly reduced IL-2-induced pulmonary oedema and water retention in the spleen in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the IL-2-induced rise in NO levels in the serum and pleural fluid, but did not affect IL-2-induced pleural effusion or water retention in the kidney. At later stages of tumour growth (day 23), tumours themselves induced significant fluid retention in the lungs and the kidney, which was not aggravated further with the second round of IL-2 therapy. At this time, L-NAME therapy alone ameliorated tumour-induced pulmonary oedema. During both rounds of therapy different doses of L-NAME alone caused a reduction of primary tumour growth as well as spontaneous lung metastases, which improved further with the addition of IL-2. The combination therapy was at least as effective as IL-2 therapy. In summary, L-NAME had anti-tumour effects in vivo, reduced the severity of IL-2

  14. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  15. Comparison of cell uptake, biodistribution and tumor retention of folate-coated and PEG-coated gadolinium nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Oyewumi, Moses O; Yokel, Robert A; Jay, Michael; Coakley, Tricia; Mumper, Russell J

    2004-03-24

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the cell uptake, biodistribution and tumor retention of folate-coated and PEG-coated gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles. Gd is a potential agent for neutron capture therapy (NCT) of tumors. Gd nanoparticles were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion templates. To obtain folate-coated nanoparticles, a folate ligand [folic acid chemically linked to distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) via a PEG spacer MW 3350] was included in nanoparticle preparations. Similarly, control nanoparticles were coated with DSPE-PEG-MW 3350 (PEG-coated). Nanoparticles were characterized based on size, size distribution, morphology, biocompatibility and tumor cell uptake. In vivo studies were carried out in KB (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) tumor-bearing athymic mice. Biodistribution and tumor retention studies were carried out at pre-determined time intervals after injection of nanoparticles (10 mg/kg). Gd nanoparticles did not aggregate platelets or activate neutrophils. The retention of nanoparticles in the blood 8, 16 and 24 h post-injection was 60%, 13% and 11% of the injected dose (ID), respectively. A maximum Gd tumor localization of 33+/-7 microg Gd/g was achieved. Both folate-coated and PEG-coated nanoparticles had comparable tumor accumulation. However, the cell uptake and tumor retention of folate-coated nanoparticles was significantly enhanced over PEG-coated nanoparticles. Thus, the benefits of folate ligand coating were to facilitate tumor cell internalization and retention of Gd-nanoparticles in the tumor tissue. The engineered nanoparticles may have potential in tumor-targeted delivery of Gd thereby enhancing the therapeutic success of NCT. PMID:15023471

  16. Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibits angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma via blocking ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Li, Jingmin; Zhu, Jinhui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Shaoshui; Bai, Xianyong

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid derived and isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses anti-tumor activity. However, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been investigated. The proliferation and metastasis of HCC are dependent on angiogenesis, which also strongly links with several signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to explore the effect of HSYA on vasculogenesis and to determine its molecular mechanism by investigating the expression of ERK/MAPK (p-c-Raf, c-Raf, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2) and NF-κB (p65, IκB and p-IκB) signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that HSYA could considerably suppress tumor growth by inhibiting secretion of angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor A, basic fibroblast growth factor) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1. At the moleculcould block ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then restrain the activation of NF-κB and its nuclear translocation by down-regulating the expression of p65 in the nucleus, up-regulating p65 level in the cytoplasm, inhibiting IκB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic degradation of IκB-α. Finally, we demonstrate that HSYA could suppress mRNA expression levels of cell proliferation-related genes (cyclinD1, c-myc, c-Fos) compared with negative control group. And best of all, HSYA could improve spleen/thymus indexes, which was evaluated as the marker of protective effect on the immune system. Our findings support HSYA as a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:25720342

  17. Evaluation of (188)Re-labeled NGR-VEGI protein for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Shao, Yahui; Yang, Weidong; Li, Guiyu; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Mingru; Zuo, Changjing; Chen, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an anti-angiogenic protein, which includes three isoforms: VEGI-174, VEGI-192, and VEGI-251. The NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine)-containing peptides can specifically bind to CD13 (Aminopeptidase N) receptor which is overexpressed in angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. In this study, a novel NGR-VEGI fusion protein was prepared and labeled with (188)Re for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging results revealed that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI exhibits good tumor-to-background contrast in CD13-positive HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The CD13 specificity of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI was further verified by significant reduction of tumor uptake in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with co-injection of the non-radiolabeled NGR-VEGI protein. The biodistribution results demonstrated good tumor-to-muscle ratio (4.98 ± 0.25) of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI at 24 h, which is consistent with the results from SPECT imaging. For radiotherapy, 18.5 MBq of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI showed excellent tumor inhibition effect in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with no observable toxicity, which was confirmed by the tumor size change and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of major mouse organs. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI has the potential as a theranostic agent for CD13-targeted tumor imaging and therapy. PMID:26768609

  18. Enhancement of fibroblast activation protein α-based vaccines and adenovirus boost immunity by cyclophosphamide through inhibiting IL-10 expression in 4T1 tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu; Geng, Fei; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Ping; Lu, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2016-08-31

    Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of more than 90% of malignant epithelia carcinomas. CAFs are the main type of cells in the tumor microenvironment which offer nutrition and protection to the tumor and regulate immunosuppression. To eliminate CAFs, a vaccine targeting FAPα may be used with a heterologous prime-boost strategy to enhance the FAPα-specific cellular immunity. Here, a FAP vaccine using a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vector was constructed as well as a DNA vaccine reported in our previous work. Although the DNA prime-rAd boost strategy enhanced FAPα-specific immune responses, improvement of anti-tumor immunity effects was not observed. Examination of immunosuppressive factors revealed that high expression of the IL-10 cytokine was considered the main cause of the failure of the prime-boost strategy. However, heterologous vaccination in combination with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), which was reported to reduce IL-10 production and promote a shift from immunosuppression to immunopotentiation, resulted in enhanced effects in terms of numbers of effector T cells and tumor growth inhibition rates, compared to the CY alone or DNA alone group. Tumor growth was inhibited markedly when the prime-boost strategy was combined with CY in both the prophylactic and therapeutic settings and the survival time of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was also prolonged significantly. With the reduction of IL-10, enhancement of the anti-tumor effect by the prime-boost strategy was observed. These results suggest that FAPα-targeted rAd boosting in combination with CY is an attractive approach to overcoming immunosuppression in cancer vaccines. PMID:27498213

  19. The novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 modulates angiogenesis and inflammatory micromilieu in a murine orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bazhin, Alexandr V; Yang, Yuhui; D'Haese, Jan G; Werner, Jens; Philippov, Pavel P; Karakhanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding in the last few years about reactive oxygen species (ROS) has changed from being harmful substances to crucial intra- and extracellular messengers as well as important regulators controlling a wide spectrum of signaling pathways, including those in cancer immunology. Therefore, these multiple essential roles of ROS and especially of mitochondria-derived ROS in malignant transformation and cancer progression make them a promising target for anticancer therapy. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. A link between ROS, antioxidants and the PDAC development and progression has been recently established. Therefore, usage of specific highly efficient antioxidants could bring an option for treatment and/or prevention of PDAC. 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) is a new antioxidant with the highest mitochondrion membrane penetrating ability and potent antioxidant capability. In this work, we investigated an impact of SkQ1 on tumor angiogenesis, immune micromilieu, and oncological parameters in the orthotopic Panc02 murine model of PDAC. We showed that in this model SkQ1 treatment leads to the elevation of pro-angiogenic factors and to building of mainly an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. On the cellular level we showed an increase in a percentage of memory T cells and a decrease in frequency on natural killer T (NKT) cells. At the same time, SkQ1 was ineffective in the improvement of oncological parameters of PDAC-bearing mice. New studies are needed to clarify the absence of therapeutic and/or prophylactic benefits of the antioxidant. PMID:26914404

  20. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  1. The HDACi Panobinostat Shows Growth Inhibition Both In Vitro and in a Bioluminescent Orthotopic Surgical Xenograft Model of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helland, Øystein; Popa, Mihaela; Bischof, Katharina; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; McCormack, Emmet; Bjørge, Line

    2016-01-01

    Background In most epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC), epigenetic changes are evident, and overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) represents an important manifestation. In this study, we wanted to evaluate the effects of the novel HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat, both alone and in combination with carboplatin, on ovarian cancer cell lines and in a murine bioluminescent orthotopic surgical xenograft model for EOC. Methods The effects of panobinostat, both alone and in combination with carboplatin, on proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, were evaluated using colony and WST-1 assays, Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, mechanisms were characterised by western blotting and phosphoflow analysis. Immuno-deficient mice were engrafted orthotopically with SKOV-3luc+ cells and serial bioluminescence imaging monitored the effects of treatment with panobinostat and/or carboplatin and/or surgery. Survival parameters were also measured. Results Panobinostat treatment reduced cell growth and diminished cell viability, as shown by the induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. We observed increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3, downregulation of cdc2 protein kinase, acetylation of H2B and higher pH2AX expression. The combined administration of carboplatin and panobinostat synergistically increased the anti-tumour effects compared to panobinostat or carboplatin treatment alone. In our novel ovarian cancer model, the mice showed significantly higher rates of survival when treated with panobinostat, carboplatin or a combination of both, compared to the controls. Panobinostat was as efficient as carboplatin regarding prolongation of survival. No significant additional effect on survival was observed when surgery was combined with carboplatin/panobinostat treatment. Conclusions Panobinostat demonstrates effective in vitro growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. The efficacy of panobinostat and carboplatin was

  2. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  3. Correlation of distribution of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines with their photodynamic effect in tumour and skin of mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Moan, J.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical extraction assay and fluorescence microscopy incorporating a light-sensitive thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to study the kinetics of uptake, retention and localisation of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS2) and tetrasulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS4) at different time intervals after an i.p. injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight (b.w.) in tumour and surrounding normal skin and muscle of female C3D2/F1 mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma. Moreover, the photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin using sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines (A1PcS1, A1PcS2, A1pcS4) and Photofrin was compared with respect to dye, dye dose and time interval between dye administration and light exposure. The maximal concentrations of A1PcS2 in the tumour tissue were reached 2-24 h after injection of the dye, while the amounts of A1PcS4 peaked 1-2 h after the dye administration. A1PcS2 was simultaneously localised in the interstitium and in the neoplastic cells of the tumour, whereas A1PcS4 appeared to localise only in the stroma of the tumour. The photodynamic efficiency (light was applied 24 h after dye injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.w.) of the tumours was found to decrease in the following order: A1PcS2 > A1PcS4 > Photofrin > A1PcS1. Furthermore, photodynamic efficacy was strongly dependent upon dye doses and time intervals between dye administration and light exposure: the higher the dose, the higher the photodynamic efficiency. The most efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the tumour was reached (day 20 tumour-free) when light exposure took place 2 h after injection of A1PcS2 (10 mg kg-1). A dual intratumoral localisation pattern of the dye, as found for A1PcS2, seems desirable to obtain a high photodynamic efficiency. The kinetic patterns of uptake, retention and localisation of A1PcS2 and A1PcS4 are roughly correlated with their photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin. Images

  4. BDNF signaling contributes to oral cancer pain in a preclinical orthotopic rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Chodroff, Leah; Bendele, Michelle; Valenzuela, Vanessa; Henry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with oral cancer report intense pain that is only partially managed by current analgesics. Thus, there is a strong need to study mechanisms as well as develop novel analgesics for oral cancer pain. Current study employed an orthotopic tongue cancer model with molecular and non-reflexive behavioral assays to determine possible mechanisms of oral cancer pain. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells line, HSC2, was injected into the tongue of male athymic mice and tumor growth was observed by day 6. Immunohistological analyses revealed a well-differentiated tumor with a localized immune response and pronounced sensory and sympathetic innervation and vascularization. The tumor expressed TMPRSS2, a protein previously reported with oral squamous cell carcinoma. ATF3 expression in trigeminal ganglia was not altered by tumor growth. Molecular characterization of the model demonstrated altered expression of several pain-related genes, out of which up-regulation of BDNF was most striking. Moreover, BDNF protein expression in trigeminal ganglia neurons was increased and inhibition of BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase B antagonist, ANA-12, reversed pain-like behaviors induced by the oral tumor. Oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth was also associated with a reduction in feeding, mechanical hypersensitivity in the face, as well as spontaneous pain behaviors as measured by the conditioned place preference test, all of which were reversed by analgesics. Interestingly, injection of HSC2 into the hindpaw did not reproduce this spectrum of pain behaviors; nor did injection of a colonic cancer cell line into the tongue. Taken together, this orthotopic oral cancer pain model reproduces the spectrum of pain reported by oral cancer patients, including higher order cognitive changes, and demonstrates that BDNF signaling constitutes a novel mechanism by which oral squamous cell carcinoma induces pain. Identification of the key role of tyrosine kinase B

  5. SERPINI1 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in an orthotopic implantation model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasufumi; Miura, Koh; Yamane, Junko; Shima, Hiroshi; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Munenori; Tanaka, Naoki; Satoh, Kennichi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    An increasingly accepted concept is that the progression of colorectal cancer is accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In our study, in order to characterize the properties of EMT in 16 colorectal cancer cell lines, the cells were first orthotopically implanted into nude mice, and the tumors in vivo, as well as cells cultured in vitro, were immunostained for EMT markers. The immunostaining revealed that seven of the cells had an epithelial phenotype with a high expression of E-cadherin, whereas other cells showed opposite patterns, such as a high expression of vimentin (CX-1, COLO205, CloneA, HCT116, and SW48). Among the cells expressing vimentin, some expressed vimentin in the orthotopic tumors but not in the cultured cells (SW480, SW620, and COLO320). We evaluated these findings in combination with microarray analyses, and selected five genes: CHST11, SERPINI1, AGR2, FBP1, and FOXA1. Next, we downregulated the expression of SERPINI1 with siRNA in the cells, the results of which showed reverse-EMT changes at the protein level and in the cellular morphology. Along with immunohistochemical analyses, we confirmed the effect of the intracellular and secreted SERPINI1 protein of SW620 cells, which supported the importance of SERPINI1 in EMT. The development of therapeutic strategies targeting EMT is ongoing, including methods targeting the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway as well as the Wnt pathway. SERPINI1 is an important regulator of EMT. Our findings help to elucidate the signaling pathways of EMT, hopefully clarifying therapeutic pathways as well. PMID:26892864

  6. Circulating tumor cells exhibit stem cell characteristics in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schölch, Sebastian; García, Sebastián A; Iwata, Naoki; Niemietz, Thomas; Betzler, Alexander M; Nanduri, Lahiri K; Bork, Ulrich; Kahlert, Christoph; Thepkaysone, May-Linn; Swiersy, Anka; Büchler, Markus W; Reissfelder, Christoph; Weitz, Jürgen; Rahbari, Nuh N

    2016-05-10

    The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is closely linked to the occurrence of distant metastases, which putatively develop from circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed into circulation by the tumor. As far more CTCs are shed than eventually metastases develop, only a small subfraction of CTCs harbor full tumorigenic potential. The aim of this study was to further characterize CRC-derived CTCs to eventually identify the clinically relevant subfraction of CTCs.We established an orthotopic mouse model of CRC which reliably develops metastases and CTCs. We were able to culture the resulting CTCs in vitro, and demonstrated their tumor-forming capacity when re-injected into mice. The CTCs were then subjected to qPCR expression profiling, revealing downregulation of epithelial and proliferation markers. Genes associated with cell-cell adhesion (claudin-7, CD166) were significantly downregulated, indicating a more metastatic phenotype of CTCs compared to bulk tumor cells derived from hepatic metastases. The stem cell markers DLG7 and BMI1 were significantly upregulated in CTC, indicating a stem cell-like phenotype and increased capacity of tumor formation and self-renewal. In concert with their in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, these findings indicate stem cell properties of mouse-derived CTCs.In conclusion, we developed an orthotopic mouse model of CRC recapitulating the process of CRC dissemination. CTCs derived from this model exhibit stem-cell like characteristics and are able to form colonies in vitro and tumors in vivo. Our results provide new insight into the biology of CRC-derived CTCs and may provide new therapeutic targets in the metastatic cascade of CRC. PMID:27029058

  7. Nanoparticle-assisted photothermal ablation of brain tumor in an orthotopic canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Jon A.; Shetty, Anil M.; Price, Roger E.; Stafford, R. Jason; Wang, James C.; Uthamanthil, Rajesh K.; Pham, Kevin; McNichols, Roger J.; Coleman, Chris L.; Payne, J. Donald

    2009-02-01

    We report on a pilot study demonstrating a proof of concept for the passive delivery of nanoshells to an orthotopic tumor where they induce a local, confined therapeutic response distinct from that of normal brain resulting in the photo-thermal ablation of canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (cTVT) in a canine brain model. cTVT fragments grown in SCID mice were successfully inoculated in the parietal lobe of immuno-suppressed, mixed-breed hound dogs. A single dose of near-infrared absorbing, 150 nm nanoshells was infused intravenously and allowed time to passively accumulate in the intracranial tumors which served as a proxy for an orthotopic brain metastasis. The nanoshells accumulated within the intracranial cTVT suggesting that its neo-vasculature represented an interruption of the normal blood-brain barrier. Tumors were thermally ablated by percutaneous, optical fiber-delivered, near-infrared radiation using a 3.5 W average, 3-minute laser dose at 808 nm that selectively elevated the temperature of tumor tissue to 65.8+/-4.1ºC. Identical laser doses applied to normal white and gray matter on the contralateral side of the brain yielded sub-lethal temperatures of 48.6+/-1.1ºC. The laser dose was designed to minimize thermal damage to normal brain tissue in the absence of nanoshells and compensate for variability in the accumulation of nanoshells in tumor. Post-mortem histopathology of treated brain sections demonstrated the effectiveness and selectivity of the nanoshell-assisted thermal ablation.

  8. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with doxorubicin eradicate soft tissue sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takashi; DeLong, Jonathan; Eilber, Fritz C.; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Singh, Arun; Russell, Tara; Deng, Samantha; Reynoso, Jose; Quan, Cuong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Chawla, Sant; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    A patient with high grade undifferentiated pleomorphic soft-tissue sarcoma from a striated muscle was grown orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle of mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. Twenty PDOX mice were divided into 4 groups: G1, control without treatment; G2, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium)A1-R administered by intratumoral (i.t.) injection once a week for 4 weeks; G3, doxorubicin (DOX) administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection once a week for 4 weeks; G4, S. typhimurium A1-R (i.t.) administered once a week for 2 weeks followed by i.p. doxorubicin once a week for 2 weeks. On day 25 from the initiation of treatment, tumor volume in G2, G3, and G4 was significantly lower than G1. Mice found without gross tumor included one mouse (20%) in G2; one mouse (20%) in G3; and 3 mice (60%) in G4. Body weight loss did not significantly differ between the 3 treated groups or from the untreated control. Histological examination revealed eradication of tumor only in G4 where mice were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R followed by DOX. Our present study indicates future clinical potential of combining S. typhimurium A1-R with chemotherapy such as DOX for soft tissue sarcoma patients. PMID:26859573

  9. Deoxyelephantopin, a novel multifunctional agent, suppresses mammary tumour growth and lung metastasis and doubles survival time in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Lo, Chiu-Ping; Chiu, Chih-Yang; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Elephantopus scaber L. (Asteraceae) is a traditional herbal medicine with anti-cancer effects. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a major sesquiterpene lactone constituent of E. scaber, deoxyelephantopin (DET), against mammary adenocarcinoma and the underlying molecular mechanism. Experimental approach: A variety of cellular assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, as well as both orthotopic and metastatic TS/A tumour models in BALB/c mice, were used. Test mice were pretreated and post-treated with DET or paclitaxel and mammary tumour growth evaluated. Key results: DET (≤2 µg·mL−1) significantly inhibited colony formation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion of TS/A cells and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in TS/A cells. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated p21Waf1/Cip1 expression and caspase activation cascades were up-regulated by DET, effects suppressed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Moreover, tumour necrosis factor α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 enzyme activity and expression and nuclear factor-kappa B activation were abolished by DET. Pretreatment with DET was more effective than paclitaxel, for profound suppression of orthotopic tumour growth (99% vs. 68% reduction in tumour size) and lung metastasis of TS/A cells (82% vs. 63% reduction in metastatic pulmonary foci) and prolonged median survival time (56 vs. 37 days, P < 0.01) in mice. The levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in metastatic lung tissues of TS/A-bearing mice were attenuated by DET. Conclusions and implications: Our data provide evidence for the suppression of mammary adenocarcinoma by DET with several mechanisms and suggest that DET has potential as a chemopreventive agent for breast cancer. PMID:20105176

  10. Grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  11. The immunomodulatory, antitumor and antimetastatic responses of melanoma-bearing normal and alcoholic mice to sunitinib and ALT-803: a combinatorial treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Kari A; Little, Alexander A; McBride, Alisha A; Garcia, Savanna R; Brar, Kiranjot K; Zhu, Zhaohui; Platt, Amity; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G; Zhang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    ALT-803, a novel IL-15/IL-15 receptor alpha complex, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, were examined for their single and combined effects on the growth of subcutaneous B16BL6 melanoma and on lymph node and lung metastasis. The study was conducted in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice drinking water (Water mice) and in mice that chronically consumed alcohol (Alcohol mice), which are deficient in CD8(+) T cells. Sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and was more effective in Alcohol mice. ALT-803 did not alter tumor growth or survival in Water or Alcohol mice. Combined ALT-803 and sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and increased survival, and these effects were greater than sunitinib alone in Water mice. ALT-803 and alcohol independently suppressed lymph node and lung metastasis, whereas sunitinib alone or in combination with ALT-803 increased lymph node and lung metastasis in Water and Alcohol mice. Initially, ALT-803 increased IFN-γ-producing CD8(+)CD44(hi) memory T cells and CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector memory T cells and sunitinib decreased immunosuppressive MDSC and T regulatory cells (Treg). However, the impact of these treatments diminished with time. Subcutaneous tumors from Water mice showed increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells, CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells, NK cells, and MDSC cells and decreased Treg cells after ALT-803 treatment. PMID:27481107

  12. TCGA data and patient-derived orthotopic xenografts highlight pancreatic cancer-associated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gore, Jesse; Craven, Kelly E; Wilson, Julie L; Cote, Gregory A; Cheng, Monica; Nguyen, Hai V; Cramer, Harvey M; Sherman, Stuart; Korc, Murray

    2015-04-10

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) overexpress pro-angiogenic factors but are not viewed as vascular. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate that a subset of PDACs exhibits a strong pro-angiogenic signature that includes 37 genes, such as HDAC9, that are overexpressed in PDAC arising in KRC mice, which express mutated Kras and lack RB. Moreover, patient-derived orthotopic xenografts can exhibit tumor angiogenesis, whereas conditioned media (CM) from KRC-derived pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) enhance endothelial cell (EC) growth and migration, and activate canonical TGF-β signaling and STAT3. Inhibition of the type I TGF-β receptor with SB505124 does not alter endothelial activation in vitro, but decreases pro-angiogenic gene expression and suppresses angiogenesis in vivo. Conversely, STAT3 silencing or JAK1-2 inhibition with ruxolitinib blocks CM-enhanced EC proliferation. STAT3 disruption also suppresses endothelial HDAC9 and blocks CM-induced HDAC9 expression, whereas HDAC9 re-expression restores CM-enhanced endothelial proliferation. Moreover, ruxolitinib blocks mitogenic EC/PCC cross-talk, and suppresses endothelial p-STAT3 and HDAC9, and PDAC progression and angiogenesis in vivo, while markedly prolonging survival of KRC mice. Thus, targeting JAK1-2 with ruxolitinib blocks a final pathway that is common to multiple pro-angiogenic factors, suppresses EC-mediated PCC proliferation, and may be useful in PDACs with a strong pro-angiogenic signature. PMID:25762644

  13. TCGA data and patient-derived orthotopic xenografts highlight pancreatic cancer-associated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Jesse; Craven, Kelly E.; Wilson, Julie L.; Cote, Gregory A.; Cheng, Monica; Nguyen, Hai V.; Cramer, Harvey M.; Sherman, Stuart; Korc, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) overexpress pro-angiogenic factors but are not viewed as vascular. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate that a subset of PDACs exhibits a strong pro-angiogenic signature that includes 37 genes, such as HDAC9, that are overexpressed in PDAC arising in KRC mice, which express mutated Kras and lack RB. Moreover, patient-derived orthotopic xenografts can exhibit tumor angiogenesis, whereas conditioned media (CM) from KRC-derived pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) enhance endothelial cell (EC) growth and migration, and activate canonical TGF-β signaling and STAT3. Inhibition of the type I TGF-β receptor with SB505124 does not alter endothelial activation in vitro, but decreases pro-angiogenic gene expression and suppresses angiogenesis in vivo. Conversely, STAT3 silencing or JAK1–2 inhibition with ruxolitinib blocks CM-enhanced EC proliferation. STAT3 disruption also suppresses endothelial HDAC9 and blocks CM-induced HDAC9 expression, whereas HDAC9 re-expression restores CM-enhanced endothelial proliferation. Moreover, ruxolitinib blocks mitogenic EC/PCC cross-talk, and suppresses endothelial p-STAT3 and HDAC9, and PDAC progression and angiogenesis in vivo, while markedly prolonging survival of KRC mice. Thus, targeting JAK1–2 with ruxolitinib blocks a final pathway that is common to multiple pro-angiogenic factors, suppresses EC-mediated PCC proliferation, and may be useful in PDACs with a strong pro-angiogenic signature. PMID:25762644

  14. An orthotopic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma with underlying liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Reiberger, Thomas; Chen, Yunching; Ramjiawan, Rakesh R; Hato, Tai; Fan, Christopher; Samuel, Rekha; Roberge, Sylvie; Huang, Peigen; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Zhu, Andrew X; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

    2015-08-01

    Subcutaneous xenografts have been used for decades to study hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These models do not reproduce the specific pathophysiological features of HCCs, which occur in cirrhotic livers that show pronounced necroinflammation, abnormal angiogenesis and extensive fibrosis. As these features are crucial for studying the role of the pathologic host microenvironment in tumor initiation, progression and treatment response, alternative HCC models are desirable. Here we describe a syngeneic orthotopic HCC model in immunocompetent mice with liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) that recapitulates key features of human HCC. Induction of substantial hepatic fibrosis requires 12 weeks of CCl4 administration. Intrahepatic implantation of mouse HCC cell lines requires 30 min per mouse. Tumor growth varies by tumor cell line and mouse strain used. Alternatively, tumors can be induced in a genetically engineered mouse model. In this setting, CCl4 is administered for 12 weeks after tail-vein injection of Cre-expressing adenovirus (adeno-Cre) in Stk4(-/-)Stk3(F/-) (also known as Mst1(-/-)Mst2(F/-); F indicates a floxed allele) mice, and it results in the development of HCC tumors (hepatocarcinogenesis) concomitantly with liver cirrhosis. PMID:26203823

  15. An orthotopic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma with underlying liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Reiberger, Thomas; Chen, Yunching; Ramjiawan, Rakesh R; Hato, Tai; Fan, Christopher; Samuel, Rekha; Roberge, Sylvie; Huang, Peigen; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Zhu, Andrew X; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous xenografts have been used for decades to study hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These models do not reproduce the specific pathophysiological features of HCCs, which occur in cirrhotic livers that show pronounced necroinflammation, abnormal angiogenesis and extensive fibrosis. As these features are crucial for studying the role of the pathologic host microenvironment in tumor initiation, progression and treatment response, alternative HCC models are desirable. Here we describe a syngeneic orthotopic HCC model in immunocompetent mice with liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) that recapitulates key features of human HCC. Induction of substantial hepatic fibrosis requires 12 weeks of CCl4 administration. Intrahepatic implantation of mouse HCC cell lines requires 30 min per mouse. Tumor growth varies by tumor cell line and mouse strain used. Alternatively, tumors can be induced in a genetically engineered mouse model. In this setting, CCl4 is administered for 12 weeks after tail-vein injection of Cre-expressing adenovirus (adeno-Cre) in Stk4−/−Stk3F/− (also known as Mst1−/−Mst2F/−; F indicates a floxed allele) mice, and it results in the development of HCC tumors (hepatocarcinogenesis) concomitantly with liver cirrhosis. PMID:26203823

  16. Macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in combination with temozolomide leads to glioblastoma regression and long-term survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Mark Seungwook; Choi, Hyun Jin; He, Junqin; Wu, Qiuyu; Aldape, Kenneth; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Alfred Yung, W. K.; Conrad, Charles A.; Langley, Robert R.; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the study was to determine whether astrocytes and brain endothelial cells protect glioma cells from temozolomide (TMZ) through an endothelin-dependent signaling mechanism and to examine the therapeutic efficacy of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist, macitentan, in orthotopic models of human glioblastoma. Experimental Design We evaluated several endothelin receptor antagonists for their ability to inhibit astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-induced protection of glioma cells from TMZ in chemoprotection assays. We compared survival in nude mice bearing orthotopically implanted LN-229 glioblastomas or TMZ-resistant (LN-229Res and D54Res) glioblastomas that were treated with macitentan, TMZ, or both. Tumor burden was monitored weekly with bioluminescence imaging. The effect of therapy on cell division, apoptosis, tumor-associated vasculature, and pathways associated with cell survival was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Only dual endothelin receptor antagonism abolished astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-mediated protection of glioma cells from TMZ. In five independent survival studies, including TMZ-resistant glioblastomas, 46 of 48 (96%) mice treated with macitentan plus TMZ had no evidence of disease (P<0.0001), whereas all mice in other groups died. In another analysis, macitentan plus TMZ therapy was stopped in 16 mice after other groups had died. Only 3 of 16 mice eventually developed recurrent disease, 2 of which responded to additional cycles of macitentan plus TMZ. Macitentan downregulated proteins associated with cell division and survival in glioma cells and associated endothelial cells, which enhanced their sensitivity to TMZ. Conclusions Macitentan plus TMZ are well tolerated, produce durable responses, and warrant clinical evaluation in glioblastoma patients. PMID:26106074

  17. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; DeMaster

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  18. Metallofullerene-based Nanoplatform for Brain Tumor Brachytherapy and Longitudinal Imaging in a Murine Orthotopic Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Michael D.; Wilson, John D.; Fuller, Christine E.; Zhang, Jianyuan; Dorn, Harry C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate in an orthotopic xenograft brain tumor model that a functionalized metallofullerene (f-Gd3N@C80) can enable longitudinal tumor imaging and, when radiolabeled with lutetium 177 (177Lu) and tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80), provide an anchor to deliver effective brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: All experiments involving the use of mice were carried out in accordance with protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Human glioblastoma U87MG cells were implanted by using stereotactic procedures into the brains of 37 female athymic nude-Foxn1nu mice and allowed to develop into a tumor for 8 days. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in five mice. Biodistribution studies were performed in 12 mice at four time points over 7 days to evaluate gadolinium content. Survival studies involved 20 mice that received infusion of a nanoplatform by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) 8 days after tumor implantation. Mice in survival studies were divided into two groups: one comprised untreated mice that received f-Gd3N@C80 alone and the other comprised mice treated with brachytherapy that received 1.11 MBq of 177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80. Survival data were evaluated by using Kaplan-Meier statistical methods. Results: MR imaging showed extended tumor retention (25.6% ± 1.2 of the infused dose at 52 days, confirmed with biodistribution studies) of the f-Gd3N@C80 nanoplatform, which enabled longitudinal imaging. Successful coupling of 177Lu to the f-Gd3N@C80 surface was achieved by using a bifunctional macrocyclic chelator. The extended tumor retention allowed for effective brachytherapy, as indicated by extended survival time (>2.5 times that of the untreated group) and histologic signs of radiation-induced tumor damage. Conclusion: The authors have developed a multimodal nanoplatform and have demonstrated longitudinal tumor imaging, prolonged intratumoral probe

  19. Anticancer polymeric nanomedicine bearing synergistic drug combination is superior to a mixture of individually-conjugated drugs.

    PubMed

    Markovsky, Ela; Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2014-08-10

    Paclitaxel and doxorubicin are potent anticancer drugs used in the clinic as mono-therapies or in combination with other modalities to treat various neoplasms. However, both drugs suffer from side effects and poor pharmacokinetics. These two drugs have dissimilar physico-chemical properties, pharmacokinetics and distinct mechanisms of action, toxicity and drug resistance. In order to target both drugs selectively to the tumor site, we conjugated them at a synergistic ratio to a biocompatible and biodegradable polyglutamic acid (PGA) backbone. Drugs conjugation to a nano-sized polymer enabled preferred tumor accumulation by passive targeting, making use of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The rational design presented here resulted in co-delivery of combination of the drugs and their simultaneous release at the tumor site. PGA-paclitaxel-doxorubicin nano-sized conjugate exhibited superior anti-tumor efficacy and safety compared to the combination of the free drugs or a mixture of the drugs conjugated to separate polymer chains, at equivalent concentrations. This novel polymer-based multi-drug nano-sized conjugate allowed for true combination therapy since it delivered both drugs to the same target site at the ratio required for synergism. Using mice bearing orthotopic mammary adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate here the advantage of a combined polymer therapeutic bearing two synergistic drugs on the same polymer backbone, compared to each drug bound separately to the backbone. PMID:24862318

  20. Outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, F; Mistry, P; Sabin, C; Lee, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Many patients with haemophilia have developed cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma due to transfusion acquired chronic viral hepatitis. 
Aims—To assess the long term outcome of all haemophilic patients reported to have undergone orthotopic liver transplantation. 
Methods—Transplant centres of patients identified by medical database search were contacted and survival data assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. 
Results—Twenty six haemophilic men (median age 46 years, range 5-63 years) underwent orthotopic liver transplantation in 16centres between 1982 and 1996. Indications for transplantation were hepatitis C cirrhosis (69%), hepatitis B with or without C cirrhosis (15%), viral hepatitis related hepatocellular carcinoma (12%), and biliary atresia (4%). Six patients (23%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Postoperatively, the median time to normal clotting factor levels was 24 hours (range 0-48 hours) and exogenous clotting factors were stopped at a median of 24 hours (range 0-480 hours). Four patients (15%) had bleeding complications. The one and three year survival of HIV positive recipients (67% and 23%) was significantly poorer (p=0.0003) than that of HIV negative recipients (90% and 83%). Coagulopathy was cured in all patients surviving more than 12 days post-transplant. Six of the 20 patients (30%) with hepatitis C cirrhosis pretransplant had evidence of disease recurrence at a mean of nine months post-transplant. 
Conclusions—Hepatitis C cirrhosis is the most common indication for orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with haemophilia. Transplantation results in long term cure of haemophilia but may be complicated by the effects of HIV infection or recurrent viral hepatitis. 

 Keywords: liver transplantation; haemophilia; hepatitis C; cirrhosis; HIV PMID:9659174

  1. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  2. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  3. Intravesical administration of exogenous microRNA-145 as a therapy for mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Teruo; Taniguchi, Kohei; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Iwatsuki, Ayako; Takai, Tomoaki; Komura, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Tanda, Naoki; Kouno, Junko; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Akao, Yukihiro; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-08-28

    We previously reported that the level of microRNA (miR)-145 is attenuated in human bladder cancer cells. In this current study, we investigated whether intravesical administration of miR-145 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling bladder cancer by using an orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft model. Following transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145, the effects of the ectopic expression of miR-145 were examined by performing MTT, Western blotting analysis, Hoechst33342 staining, and wound healing assay in vitro. Also, a mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer model was established by inoculating 253J B-V cells into the bladder wall of mice. The anti-cancer effects of intravesical injections of miR-145 into these mice were then assessed. Transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145 induced apoptosis and suppression of cell migration in vitro. Western blotting showed that the levels of c-Myc, socs7, FSCN1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and catenin δ-1 were decreased and that the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways were increased in compensatory fashion. In vivo, mice treated with miR-145 showed 76% inhibition of tumor growth, with a significant prolongation of animal survival (p = 0.0183 vs. control). Western blotting showed that both apoptosis and cell motility-related genes were significantly decreased as seen in vitro. Furthermore, PI3k/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which were activated in a compensatory manner in vitro, were decreased in vivo. Intravesical administration of exogenous miR-145 was thus concluded to be a valid therapy for bladder cancer in this human bladder cancer xenograft model. PMID:26036261

  4. Emodin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model by blocking activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Ong, Tina H; Li, Feng; Perumal, Ekambaram; Chen, Luxi; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kapoor, Shweta; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kumar, Alan Prem; Hui, Kam M; Sethi, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Aberrant activation of STAT3 is frequently encountered and promotes proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we have investigated whether emodin mediates its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in HCC. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of emodin on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and apoptosis was investigated using various HCC cell lines. Additionally, we also used a predictive tumour technology to analyse the effects of emodin. The in vivo effects of emodin were assessed in an orthotopic mouse model of HCC. KEY RESULTS Emodin suppressed STAT3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cells, mediated by the modulation of activation of upstream kinases c-Src, JAK1 and JAK2. Vanadate treatment reversed emodin-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase and emodin induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, silencing of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of emodin to inhibit STAT3 activation. Finally, when administered i.p., emodin inhibited the growth of human HCC orthotopic tumours in male athymic nu/nu mice and STAT3 activation in tumour tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Emodin mediated its effects predominantly through inhibition of the STAT3 signalling cascade and thus has a particular potential for the treatment of cancers expressing constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:23848338

  5. Zyflamend Suppresses Growth and Sensitizes Human Pancreatic Tumors to Gemcitabine in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Through Modulation of Multiple Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Sung, Bokyung; Ravindran, Jayaraj; Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Deorukhkar, Amit; Dey, Sanjit; Koca, Cemile; Tong, Zhimin; Gelovani, Juri G.; Guha, Sushovan; Krishnan, Sunil; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Agents that can potentiate the efficacy of standard chemotherapy against pancreatic cancer are of great interest. Because of their low cost and safety, patients commonly use a variety of dietary supplements, although evidence of their efficacy is often lacking. One such commonly used food supplement, Zyflamend, is a polyherbal preparation with potent anti-inflammatory activities, and preclinical efficacy against prostate and oral cancer. Whether Zyflamend has any efficacy against human pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with gemcitibine, a commonly used agent, was examined in cell cultures and in an orthotopic mouse model. In vitro, Zyflamend inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines regardless of p53 status and also enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This finding correlated with inhibition of NF-κB activation by Zyflamend and suppression of cyclin D1, c-myc, COX-2, Bcl-2, IAP, survivin, VEGF, ICAM-1, and CXCR4. In nude mice, oral administration of Zyflamend alone significantly inhibited the growth of orthotopically transplanted human pancreatic tumors, and when combined with gemcitabine, further enhanced the antitumor effects. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of tumor tissue showed that the suppression of pancreatic cancer growth correlated with inhibition of proliferation index marker (Ki-67), COX-2, MMP-9, NF-κB, and VEGF. Overall, these results suggest that the concentrated multiherb product Zyflamend alone can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic tumors and, in addition, can sensitize pancreatic cancers to gemcitabine through the suppression of multiple targets linked to tumorigenesis. PMID:21935918

  6. Orthotopic human melanoma xenograft model systems for studies of tumour angiogenesis, pathophysiology, treatment sensitivity and metastatic pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, E. K.

    1994-01-01

    Adequate tumour models are a prerequisite in experimental cancer research. The purpose of the present work was to establish and assess the validity of four new orthotopic human melanoma xenograft model systems (A-07, D-12, R-18, U-25). Permanent cell lines were established in monolayer culture from subcutaneous metastases of four different melanoma patients by using an in vivo-in vitro procedure, and cells from these lines were inoculated intradermally in Balb/c nu/nu mice to form tumours. Individual xenografted tumours of the same line differed substantially in growth and pathophysiological parameters, probably as a consequence of differences between inoculation sites in host factors which influence tumour angiogenesis. Nevertheless, xenografted tumours of different lines showed distinctly different biological characteristics. Several biological characteristics of the donor patients' tumours were retained in the xenografted tumours, including angiogenic potential; growth, histopathological and pathophysiological parameters; and sensitivity to radiation, heat and dacarbazine treatment. Moreover, the organ-specific metastatic pattern of the xenografted tumours reflected the pattern of distant metastases in the donor patients. The organs of preference for distant metastases were lungs (A-07, D-12), lymph nodes (R-18) and brain (U-25). R-18 lymph node metastases and U-25 brain metastases developed in the absence of lung involvement. The four orthotopic human melanoma xenograft model systems show great promise for future studies of tumour angiogenesis, pathophysiology, treatment sensitivity and metastatic pattern. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7947084

  7. Improved in vivo antitumor effect of a daunorubicin - GnRH-III bioconjugate modified by apoptosis inducing agent butyric acid on colorectal carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kapuvári, Bence; Hegedüs, Rózsa; Schulcz, Ákos; Manea, Marilena; Tóvári, József; Gacs, Alexandra; Vincze, Borbála; Mező, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Compared to classical chemotherapy, peptide-based drug targeting is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer, which can provide increased selectivity and decreased side effects to anticancer drugs. Among various homing devices, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) peptide represents a suitable targeting moiety, in particular in the treatment of hormone independent tumors that highly express GnRH receptors (e.g. colon carcinoma). We have previously shown that GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Ac),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] bioconjugate, in which daunorubicin was attached via oxime linkage to the (8)Lys of a GnRH-III derivative, exerted significant in vivo antitumor effect on subcutaneously developed HT-29 colon tumor. In contrast, results of the study reported here indicated that this compound was not active on an orthotopically developed tumor. However, if Lys in position 4 was acylated with butyric acid instead of acetic acid, the resulting bioconjugate GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Bu),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] had significant tumor growth inhibitory effect. Furthermore, it prevented tumor neovascularization, without detectable side effects. Nevertheless, the development of metastases could not be inhibited by the bioconjugate; therefore, its application in combination with a metastasis preventive agent might be necessary in order to achieve complete tumor remission. In spite of this result, the treatment with GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Bu),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] bioconjugate proved to have significant benefits over the administration of free daunorubicin, which was used at the maximum tolerated dose. PMID:27146514

  8. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  9. A deimmunized bispecific ligand directed toxin that shows an impressive anti-pancreatic cancer effect in a systemic nude mouse orthotopic model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seunguk; Todhunter, Deborah A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Toma, Shoko; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to test a bispecific ligand directed toxin (BLT), with reduced immunogenicity for enhanced efficacy in targeting orthotopic pancreatic cancer in vivo. Method A new BLT was created in which both human EGF and IL-4 cytokines were cloned onto the same single chain molecule with deimmunized pseudomonas exotoxin (dEGF4KDEL). Key amino acids dictating B cell generation of neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies were mutated. Bioassays were used to determine whether mutation reduced potency, and ELISA studies were performed to determine whether anti-toxin antibodies were reduced. A genetically altered luciferase MIA PaCa-2 xenograft model was used to image in real time and determine affects on systemic malignant human cancer. BLTs targeting B cells were used as specificity controls. Results dEGF4KDEL was significantly effective following systemic injection against established orthotopic MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer and selectively prevented metastasis. Mutagenesis significantly reduced anti-toxin levels in vivo with no apparent activity loss in vitro. The drug was effective against three human pancreatic cancer lines in vitro, MIA PaCa-2, SW1990, and S2VP10. Conclusions Despite the metastatic nature of the MIA PaCa-2 orthotopic tumor xenografted in nude mice, high percentages of tumors responded to extended dEGFKDEL treatment resulting in significant anti-cancer effects and disease-free survivors. PMID:22258068

  10. Leukocyte populations and IL-6 in the tumor microenvironment of an orthotopic colorectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah; Senior, Paul V; Prakash, Monica; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem worldwide. It is often diagnosed late due to its asymptomatic nature. As with all cancers, an immune reaction is involved; however, in CRC, it is unknown if this immune response is favorable or unfavorable for disease progression. In this study, the immune response in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches was investigated during development of CRC in an orthotopic mouse model. CRC was induced by injecting CT26 cells into the cecum wall of BALB/c mice. Flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte populations involved in tumor immunity in MLNs and Peyer's patches. Cryostat sections for immunohistochemistry were prepared from the caecum and colon from CRC-induced and sham-operated animals. Cytokines produced by mouse CT26 cell line were measuredin vitroandin vivo Significant increases in the number of CD8(+)/TCR(+)and CD49b(+)/TCR(-)(natural killer) cells were found in MLNs and Peyer's patches in the CRC group. In addition, γδT cells were present in the lamina propria of the colon tissues from sham-operated mice, but absent in the colon tissues from mice with CRC. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumorous tissues showed eosinophil, CD69(+)T cell, and CD11b(+)cell infiltration. Bothin vitroandin vivoCT26 tumor cells were interleukin (IL)-6 positive. In addition, tumor-infiltrating CD45(+)cells were also IL-6 positive. In summary, the kinetics of the immune response to CRC and the key effector lymphocytes that are implicated in tumor immunity are demonstrated. Furthermore, IL-6 is a key cytokine present within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26893144

  11. Optical Imaging of Disseminated Leukemia Models in Mice with Near-Infrared Probe Conjugated to a Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Pesnel, Sabrina; Pillon, Arnaud; Créancier, Laurent; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Le Pape, Alain; Recher, Christian; Demur, Cécile; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Kruczynski, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The assessment of anticancer agents to treat leukemia needs to have animal models closer to the human pathology such as implantation in immunodeficient mice of leukemic cells from patient samples. A sensitive and early detection of tumor cells in these orthotopic models is a prerequisite for monitoring engraftment of leukemic cells and their dissemination in mice. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent antibody based strategy to detect leukemic foci in mice bearing patient-derived leukemic cells using fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) to determine when to start treatments with novel antitumor agents. Methods Two mAbs against the CD44 human myeloid marker or the CD45 human leukocyte marker were labeled with Alexa Fluor 750 and administered to leukemia-bearing mice after having verified the immunoreactivity in vitro. Bioluminescent leukemic cells (HL60-Luc) were used to compare the colocalization of the fluorescent mAb with these cells. The impact of the labeled antibodies on disease progression was further determined. Finally, the fluorescent hCD45 mAb was tested in mice engrafted with human leukemic cells. Results The probe labeling did not modify the immunoreactivity of the mAbs. There was a satisfactory correlation between bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and FRI and low doses of mAb were sufficient to detect leukemic foci. However, anti-hCD44 mAb had a strong impact on the tumor proliferation contrary to anti-hCD45 mAb. The use of anti-hCD45 mAb allowed the detection of leukemic patient cells engrafted onto NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions A mAb labeled with a near infrared fluorochrome is useful to detect leukemic foci in disseminated models provided that its potential impact on tumor proliferation has been thoroughly documented. PMID:22303450

  12. Treatment Experience of Severe Abdominal Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y-G; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C; Tian, B-Z

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extensive bleeding of surgical wound leading to massive haematocele and infection around the liver, and one case had postoperative lower oesophageal fistula leakage causing massive hydrops and infection under the left diaphragm. After definite diagnosis, 12 cases underwent surgery within three days, with no death. Among the four cases that underwent surgery three days after diagnosis, one case died of multiple-organ failure five days after abdominal cavity exploration, which was performed 21 days after liver transplantation. Severe abdominal infections after liver transplantation were the most common causes of death in perioperative liver transplantation. Comprehensive treatment with efficacious antibiotics, multiple-organ support, controlled surgical removal of the lesion, and adequate drainage establishment was the key to the entire treatment. PMID:26426173

  13. Multimodality imaging in an orthotopic mammary window chamber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Rachel; Leung, Hui Min; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-02-01

    Window chamber models have been utilized for many years to investigate cancer development and the tumor microenvironment. Orthotopic mammary window chamber model have been developed for detailed study of breast cancer. Orthotopic window chamber models, due to the native environment, support more realistic growth and tumor behavior than ectopic models. The work by other groups thus far utilizing mammary window chamber models has focused solely on optical imaging techniques, limited to probing the first millimeter or less of tissue. These techniques do not take full advantage of the unrestricted, three-dimensional tumor growth the model supports. We have developed a custom plastic structure compatible with multimodality imaging. We present in this work the implementation of our custom window chamber in a mouse model and the successful imaging of the window chamber cancer model with MRI, nuclear imaging, and optical techniques. MRI provides a full three-dimensional view of the tumor growth and allows for additional, potentially clinically translatable, approaches to be utilized in investigating the cancer microenvironment. Nuclear imaging is accomplished using the Beta Imager, which is a novel approach to nuclear imaging of window chambers. The Beta Imager detects photons after the interaction of a single positron with a scintillator, instead of the coincidence detection of annihilation gamma ray pairs. We utilized the radioisotope glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2- (18F)fluoro-D-glucose or FDG, with the Beta Imager to obtain information on the glycolytic metabolism of the tumor and surrounding region.

  14. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient’s renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient’s lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network “Eurotransplant”. The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  15. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-12-24

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient's renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient's lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network "Eurotransplant". The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  16. Development and characterization of a human orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Shelat, Anang; Bradley, Cori; Chen, Xiang; Federico, Sara; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Qu, Chunxu; Finkelstein, David; Sablauer, Andras; Dyer, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the developing sympathoadrenal lineage. The tumors are known to develop from the adrenal gland or paraspinal ganglia and have molecular and cellular features of sympathetic neurons such as dense core vesicles and catecholamine production. Here we present the detailed molecular, cellular, genetic and epigenetic characterization of an orthotopic xenograft derived from a high-risk stage 4 neuroblastoma patient. Overall, the xenografted tumor retained the high risk features of the primary tumor and showed aggressive growth and metastasis in the mouse. Also, the genome was preserved with no additional copy number variations, structural variations or aneuploidy. There were 13 missense mutations identified in the xenograft that were not present in the patient’s primary tumor and there were no new nonsense mutations. None of the missense mutations acquired in the xenograft were in known cancer genes. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using the orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft to test standard of care chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapeutics. Finally, we optimized a new approach to produce primary cultures of the neuroblastoma xenografts for high-throughput drug screening which can be used to test new combinations of therapeutic agents for neuroblastoma. PMID:25863122

  17. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80-90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  18. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E. Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W.; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80–90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  19. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  20. Fluorescent-Antibody Targeting of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Visualizes Metastatic Human Colon Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Youp; Murakami, Takashi; Lee, Jin Young; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody targeting of metastatic cancer has been demonstrated by our laboratory to enable tumor visualization and effective fluorescence-guided surgery. The goal of the present study was to determine whether insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies, conjugated with bright fluorophores, could enable visualization of metastatic colon cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models. IGF-1R antibody (clone 24–31) was conjugated with 550 nm, 650 nm or PEGylated 650 nm fluorophores. Subcutaneous, orthotopic, and liver metastasis models of colon cancer in nude mice were targeted with the fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies. Western blotting confirmed the expression of IGF-1R in HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines, both expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Labeling with fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibody demonstrated fluorescent foci on the membrane of colon cancer cells. Subcutaneously- and orthotopically-transplanted HT-29-GFP and HCT 116-GFP tumors brightly fluoresced at the longer wavelengths after intravenous administration of fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies. Orthotopically-transplanted HCT 116-GFP tumors were brightly labeled by fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies such that they could be imaged non-invasively at the longer wavelengths. In an experimental liver metastasis model, IGF-1R antibodies conjugated with PEGylated 650 nm fluorophores selectively highlighted the liver metastases, which could then be non-invasively imaged. The IGF-1R fluorescent-antibody labeled liver metastases were very bright compared to the normal liver and the fluorescent-antibody label co-located with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression of the colon cancer cells. The present study thus demonstrates that fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibodies selectively visualize metastatic colon cancer and have clinical potential for improved diagnosis and fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26731105

  1. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  2. Significant systemic therapeutic effects of high-LET immunoradiation by 212Pb-trastuzumab against prostatic tumors of androgen-independent human prostate cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zongqing; Chen, Pingping; Schneider, Nathan; Glover, Samuel; Cui, Lingling; Torgue, Julien; Rixe, Olivier; Spitz, Henry B; Dong, Zhongyun

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine therapeutic effects and systemic toxicity of 212Pb-trastuzumab in an orthotopic model of human prostate cancer cells in nude mice. TCMC-Trastuzumab was radiolabeled with 212Pb. The 212Pb-trastuzumab generated from the procedure was intact and had high binding affinity with a dissociation constant (of 3.9±0.99 nM. PC-3MM2 cells, which expressed a lower level of HER2 both in culture and in tumors, were used in therapy studies. A single intravenous injection of 212Pb-trastuzumab reduced tumor growth by 60-80%, reduced aortic lymph node metastasis, and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with 212Pb-trastuzumab did not cause significant changes in body weight, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hematological profiles, and histological morphology of several major organs of tumor-bearing mice. These findings suggest that a systemic delivery of 212Pb-trastuzumab could be an effective modality for management of advanced human prostate cancer. PMID:22322558

  3. Generation of Noninvasive, Quantifiable, Orthotopic Animal Models for NF2-Associated Schwannoma and Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Burns, Sarah S; Chang, Long-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas and meningiomas are nervous system tumors that can occur sporadically or in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Mutations of the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene are frequently observed in these tumors. Schwannomas and meningiomas cause significant morbidities, and an FDA-approved medical therapy is currently not available. The development of preclinical animal models that accurately capture the clinical characteristics of these tumors will facilitate the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of these tumors, ultimately leading to more productive clinical trials. Here, we describe the generation of luciferase-expressing NF2-deficient schwannoma and meningioma cells and the use of these cells to establish orthotopic tumor models in immunodeficient mice. The growth of these tumors and their response to treatment can be measured effectively by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and confirmed by small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These and other animal models, such as genetically-engineered models, should substantially advance the investigation of promising therapies for schwannomas and meningiomas. PMID:27259921

  4. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination. PMID:20635385

  5. An improved syngeneic orthotopic murine model of human breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Omar M; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ramachandran, Suburamaniam; Dumur, Catherine; Schaum, Julia; Yamada, Akimitsu; Terracina, Krista P; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer drug development costs nearly $610 million and 37 months in preclinical mouse model trials with minimal success rates. Despite these inefficiencies, there are still no consensus breast cancer preclinical models. Murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1-luc2 cells were implanted subcutaneous (SQ) or orthotopically percutaneous (OP) injection in the area of the nipple, or surgically into the chest 2nd mammary fat pad under direct vision (ODV) in Balb/c immunocompetent mice. Tumor progression was followed by in vivo bioluminescence and direct measurements, pathology and survival determined, and tumor gene expression analyzed by genome-wide microarrays. ODV produced less variable-sized tumors and was a reliable method of implantation. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad rather than into the abdominal 4th mammary pad, the most common implantation site, better mimicked human breast cancer progression pattern, which correlated with bioluminescent tumor burden and survival. Compared to SQ, ODV produced tumors that differentially expressed genes whose interaction networks are of importance in cancer research. qPCR validation of 10 specific target genes of interest in ongoing clinical trials demonstrated significant differences in expression. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad provides the most reliable model that mimics human breast cancer compared from subcutaneous implantation that produces tumors with different genome expression profiles of clinical significance. Increased understanding of the limitations of the different preclinical models in use will help guide new investigations and may improve the efficiency of breast cancer drug development . PMID:25200444

  6. Real Time Metastatic Route Tracking of Orthotopic PC-3-GFP Human Prostate Cancer Using Intravital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiaoen; Hoffman, Robert M; Seki, Naohiko

    2016-04-01

    The cellular basis of metastasis is poorly understood. An important step to understanding this process is to be able to visualize the routes by which cancer cells migrate from the primary tumor to various distant sites to eventually form metastasis. Our laboratory previously developed single-cell in vivo imaging using fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells. In the present study, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and orthotopic tumor transplantation, we have imaged in live mice various highly diverse routes by which PC-3 cells metastasize superiorly and inferiorly to distant sites, including in the portal area, stomach area, and urogenital system. Imaging began at day 9, at which time distant metastasis had already occurred, and increased at each imaging point at days 10, 13, 14, and 16. Metastatic cells were observed migrating superiorly and inferiorly from the primary tumor as well as in lymphatic channels and trafficking in various organ systems demonstrating that PC-3 has multiple metastatic routes similar to hormone-independent advanced-stage prostate cancer in the clinic. PMID:26515240

  7. Uptake of verteporfin by orthotopic xenograft pancreas models with different levels of aggression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Hoopes, P. Jack; Rizvi, Imran; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, usually treated with chemoradiation therapy. Interstitial photodynamic therapy is a potentially effective adjuvant treatment that is under development. In the current study, two orthotopic pancreatic cancer models (AsPC-1 and Panc-1), have been characterized with respect to growth rates, morphology and liposomal drug (Verteporfin) uptake and distribution in SCID mice. Fluorescence of Verteporfin was measured in liver and tumor in vivo using a PDT fluorescence dosimeter with measurements taken before and up to one hour after tail vein injection. Fluorescence reached a plateau by about 15 minutes and did not decrease over the first hour. At time points from 15 minutes to 24 hrs, the internal organs (kidney, spleen, pancreas, tumor, muscle, lung, liver, and skin were excised and scanned on a Typhoon imager. The ratio of fluorescence in tumor versus normal tissues was analyzed with image processing, calculated at each time point and compared to in vivo results. Tissue distribution of Verteporfin in relation to functional vasculature marked by DiOc7 was carried out on frozen sections. Final analysis will result in determination of the ideal time point to administer light to achieve maximum tumor destruction while preserving normal tissue.

  8. Characterization of V beta-bearing cells in athymic (nu/nu) mice suggests an extrathymic pathway for T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, B

    1990-04-01

    In the present article, the expression of the T cell receptor (TcR) beta chain and other T cell molecules was evaluated in surface immunoglobulin-negative spleen cell populations of young and old BALB/c and C57BL/6 nude mice, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained show that in young nude mice, most Thy-1high cells do not express other T cell markers. These mice have, however, a sizable population of Thy-1low cells with the same phenotype of alpha/beta+, CD4-CD8- thymocytes or MRL/lpr peripheral T cells, expressing predominantly genes of the V beta 8 family. The evolution of alpha/beta+ cells in aging nudes is strongly suggestive of an extrathymic pathway of differentiation of these cells since (a) the acquisition of high density TcR and CD3, as well as Thy-1 or CD4CD8 antigens at the cell surface of nude V beta+ T cells is not simultaneous; (b) alpha/beta+ cells in nude mice co-express other T cell markers at random and, even in old mice, they never completely resemble to the predominant high Thy-1+ CD3+ TcR alpha/beta+, CD4+CD8+ cells of euthymic controls; and (c) BALB/c nude T cells express V beta 11 genes, that are deleted in euthymic BALB/c mice. This latter finding may also indicate differences in the mechanisms of selection of T cells specificities in the thymus vs. the peripheral pools. PMID:1971795

  9. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; p<0.01), which demonstrated that Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient and reliable technique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat

  10. The protective effects of paeonol against epirubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in 4T1-tumor bearing mice via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Xue, Xia; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Wen; Cao, Hongmei; Wang, Rongmei; Sun, Deqing; Guo, Ruichen

    2016-01-25

    Epirubicin is widely used for the treatment of various breast cancers; however, it has serious adverse side effects, such as hepatotoxicity, which require dose-adjustment or therapy substitution. Paeonol, an active component from Moutan Cortex, has a variety of biological activities, including preventing or reducing various toxicities induced by antineoplastics. Protection by paeonol against hepatotoxicity induced by epirubicin and the underlying mechanism of action were investigated in this study. Cytosolic enzymes in the serum and oxidative stress indices in the liver were determined. The protective effects were determined using the MTT assay in vitro or by evaluating the expression of apoptotic factors and crucial proteins in the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway using western blot analysis. It is concluded that paeonol alleviates epirubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in 4T1-tumor bearing mice by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. PMID:26646421

  11. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Kong, Man-Shan; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Yung-Chang; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2012-06-01

    Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, P<0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (P<0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (P<0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21992995

  12. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant. PMID:20564499

  13. System for testing bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, John C.

    1993-07-01

    Disclosed here is a system for testing bearings wherein a pair of spaced bearings provides support for a shaft on which is mounted a bearing to be tested, this bearing being mounted in a bearing holder spaced from and in alignment with the pair of bearings. The bearing holder is provided with an annular collar positioned in an opening in the bearing holder for holding the bearing to be tested. A screw threaded through the bearing holder into engagement with the annular collar can be turned to force the collar radially out of alignment with the pair of bearings to apply a radial load to the bearing.

  14. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  15. Establishment and Validation of an Orthotopic Metastatic Mouse Model of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Ashwani; Agarwal, Ekta; Leiphrakpam, Premila; Brattain, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastases are largely responsible for cancer deaths in solid tumors due to the lack of effective therapies against disseminated disease, and there is an urgent need to fill this gap. This study demonstrates an orthotopic colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model system to develop spontaneous metastasis in vivo and compare its reproducibility against human CRC. IGF1R-dependent GEO human CRC cells were used to study metastatic colonization using orthotopic transplantation procedures and demonstrated robust liver metastasis. Cell proliferation assays were performed both in the orthotopic primary colon and liver metastatic tumors, and human CRC patient's specimen and similar patterns in H&E and Ki67 staining were observed between the orthotopically generated primary and liver metastatic tumors and human CRC specimens. Microarray analysis was performed to generate gene signatures, compared with deposited human CRC gene expression data sets, analyzed by Oncomine, and revealed similarity in gene signatures with increased aggressive markers expression associated with CRC in orthotopically generated liver metastasis. Thus, we have developed an orthotopic mouse model that reproduces human CRC metastasis. This model system can be effective in developing new therapeutic strategies against disseminated disease and could be implemented for identifying genes that regulate the development and/or maintenance of established metastasis.

  16. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  17. (68)Ga-labeled 3PRGD2 for dual PET and Cerenkov luminescence imaging of orthotopic human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Di; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Lijun; Liu, Xujie; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Huiyun; Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; Zhu, Zhaohui; Shi, Jiyun; Wang, Fan

    2015-06-17

    β-Emitters can produce Cerenkov radiation that is detectable by Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI), allowing the combination of PET and CLI with one radiotracer for both tumor diagnosis and visual guidance during surgery. Recently, the clinical feasibility of CLI with the established therapeutic reagent Na(131)I and the PET tracer (18)F-FDG was demonstrated. (68)Ga possesses a higher Cerenkov light output than (18)F and (131)I, which would result in higher sensitivity for CLI and improve the outcome of CLI in clinical applications. However, the research on (68)Ga-based tumor-specific tracers for CLI is limited. In this study, we examined the use of (68)Ga-radiolabeled DOTA-3PRGD2 ((68)Ga-3PRGD2) for dual PET and CLI of orthotopic U87MG human glioblastoma. For this purpose, the Cerenkov efficiencies of (68)Ga and (18)F were measured with the IVIS Spectrum system (PerkinElmer, USA). The CLI signal intensity of (68)Ga was 15 times stronger than that of (18)F. PET and CLI of (68)Ga-3PRGD2 were performed in U87MG human glioblastoma xenografts. Both PET and CLI revealed a remarkable accumulation of (68)Ga-3PRGD2 in the U87MG human glioblastoma xenografts at 1 h p.i. with an extremely low background in the brain when compared with (18)F-FDG. Furthermore, (68)Ga-3PRGD2 was used for dual PET and CLI of orthotopic human glioblastoma. The orthotopic human glioblastoma was clearly visualized by both imaging modalities. In addition, the biodistribution of (68)Ga-3PRGD2 was assessed in normal mice to estimate the radiation dosimetry. The whole-body effective dose is 20.1 ± 3.3 μSv/MBq, which is equal to 3.7 mSv per whole-body PET scan with a 5 mCi injection dose. Thus, (68)Ga-3PRGD2 involves less radiation exposure in patients when compared with (18)F-FDG (7.0 mSv). The use of (68)Ga-3PRGD2 in dual PET and CLI shows great promise for tumor diagnosis and image-guided surgery. PMID:25853280

  18. Targeting, bio distributive and tumor growth inhibiting characterization of anti-HER2 affibody coupling to liposomal doxorubicin using BALB/c mice bearing TUBO tumors.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Javad; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Teymouri, Manouchehr; Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Gheybi, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-05-30

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancer tumors. In the current investigation, we exploited such a feature and utilized an anti-HER2 affibody (ZHER2:477) in combination with a pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for concurrent passive and active targeting of HER2 overexpressing TUBO tumor, using BALB/c mice. It was determined that the affibody coupled liposomes (affisomes) was capable of increasing doxorubicin (Dox) delivery to HER2+ cells (SK-BR-3 and TUBO cells), while transferring drug similarly as low as naïve PLD to HER2- MDA-MB-231 cells. This also resulted in selectively enhance cytotoxicity. The veracity of targeting was further assessed utilizing DiD lipophilic tracer model liposomes via competition assay. An approximated 10 ligand/liposome integration caused Dox delivery at 50% of maximal delivery capacity (Kd). Such integration did not alter Dox release in vitro, while it affected the serum clearance profile. Affibody integration to PLD increased drug concentration in tumor and led to significantly further augmentation of drug in liver and spleen compared to those of PLD. Overall, such differences led to prolonging the mice life spans as compared to PLD. PMID:27039149

  19. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion.

    PubMed

    Protti, N; Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Stella, S; Geninatti, S; Alberti, D; Aime, S; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a new (10)B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% (10)B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5×10(12) cm(-2). PMID:21459587

  20. Connexin 43-dependent tumor-suppressing effect of the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor on M5076 ovarian sarcoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Noritaka; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nagaoka, Tetsuya; Saito, Teruyoshi; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Yano, Tomohiro; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Asano, Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to confirm whether the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) induces an increase in p27 accumulation without S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (skp2) degradation by means of the expression of connexin (Cx) 43 as a gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC)-dependent pathway in mice with M5076 ovarian sarcoma. M5076 ovarian sarcomas (1x105 cells/animal) were subcutaneously transplanted onto the backs of BDF1 mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg of purified BBI intraperitoneally. Relative tumor weight (p<0.01, r=0.503) was negatively correlated with the dose of BBI. In contrast, the relative density of Cx43 mRNA (p<0.01, r=0.570) and Cx43 (p<0.01, r=0.718) was positively correlated with the dose of BBI, as were p21 (p<0.01, r=0.633), p27 (p<0.01, r=0.561) and skp2 (p<0.01, r=0.733). We therefore suggest that the anti-carcinogenic effects of BBI induce negative growth control by means of an increase in p27 accumulation caused by the expression of Cx43 as a GJIC pathway. PMID:21479471

  1. Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gatesman Ammer, Amanda; Hayes, Karen E.; Martin, Karen H.; Zhang, Lingqing; Spirou, George A.; Weed, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Loco-regional invasion of head and neck cancer is linked to metastatic risk and presents a difficult challenge in designing and implementing patient management strategies. Orthotopic mouse models of oral cancer have been developed to facilitate the study of factors that impact invasion and serve as model system for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutics. In these systems, visualization of disseminated tumor cells within oral cavity tissues has typically been conducted by either conventional histology or with in vivo bioluminescent methods. A primary drawback of these techniques is the inherent inability to accurately visualize and quantify early tumor cell invasion arising from the primary site in three dimensions. Here we describe a protocol that combines an established model for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCOT) with two-photon imaging to allow multi-vectorial visualization of lingual tumor spread. The OSC-19 head and neck tumor cell line was stably engineered to express the F-actin binding peptide LifeAct fused to the mCherry fluorescent protein (LifeAct-mCherry). Fox1nu/nu mice injected with these cells reliably form tumors that allow the tongue to be visualized by ex-vivo application of two-photon microscopy. This technique allows for the orthotopic visualization of the tumor mass and locally invading cells in excised tongues without disruption of the regional tumor microenvironment. In addition, this system allows for the quantification of tumor cell invasion by calculating distances that invaded cells move from the primary tumor site. Overall this procedure provides an enhanced model system for analyzing factors that contribute to SCOT invasion and therapeutic treatments tailored to prevent local invasion and distant metastatic spread. This method also has the potential to be ultimately combined with other imaging modalities in an in vivo setting. PMID:21808230

  2. MR Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with a Peptide Targeted Contrast Agent in a Mouse Orthotopic Prostate Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mingqian; Burden-Gulley, Susan M.; Li, Wen; Wu, Xueming; Lindner, Daniel; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.; Gulani, Vikas; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the effectiveness of a peptide targeted nanoglobular Gd-DOTA complexes for MR molecular imaging of prostate cancer in a mouse orthotopic PC-3 prostate cancer model. Methods A CLT1 (CGLIIQKNEC) peptide targeted generation 2 nanoglobular Gd-DOTA monoamide conjugate [CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA)] was used for imaging fibrin-fibronectin complexes in prostate tumor using a non-specific peptide KAREC modified conjugate, KAREC-G2-(Gd-DOTA) as a control. Cy5 conjugates of CLT1 and KAREC were synthesized for binding studies. Orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors were established in the prostate of athymic male nude mice. MRI study was performed on a Bruker 7T animal scanner. Results CLT1 peptide showed specific binding in the prostate tumor with no binding in normal tissues. The control peptide had little binding in both normal and tumor tissues. CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA) resulted in stronger contrast enhancement in the tumor tissue than the KAREC-G2-(Gd-DOTA). CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA) generated approximately 100% increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the tumor as compared to precontrast CNR at 1 minute post-injection, while the control agent KAREC-G2-(Gd-DOTA) only resulted in 8% CNR increase. Conclusion CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA) is a promising molecular MRI contrast agent for fibrin-fibronectin complexes in the tumor stroma. It has a potential for the diagnosis and assessing prognosis of malignant tumors with MRI. PMID:22139536

  3. A systems immunology approach to the host-tumor interaction: large-scale patterns of natural autoantibodies distinguish healthy and tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Merbl, Yifat; Itzchak, Royi; Vider-Shalit, Tal; Louzoun, Yoram; Quintana, Francisco J; Vadai, Ezra; Eisenbach, Lea; Cohen, Irun R

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, immunology has considered a meaningful antibody response to be marked by large amounts of high-affinity antibodies reactive with the specific inciting antigen; the detection of small amounts of low-affinity antibodies binding to seemingly unrelated antigens has been considered to be beneath the threshold of immunological meaning. A systems-biology approach to immunology, however, suggests that large-scale patterns in the antibody repertoire might also reflect the functional state of the immune system. To investigate such global patterns of antibodies, we have used an antigen-microarray device combined with informatic analysis. Here we asked whether antibody-repertoire patterns might reflect the state of an implanted tumor. We studied the serum antibodies of inbred C57BL/6 mice before and after implantation of syngeneic 3LL tumor cells of either metastatic or non-metastatic clones. We analyzed patterns of IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to over 300 self-antigens arrayed on slides using support vector machines and genetic algorithm techniques. We now report that antibody patterns, but not single antibodies, were informative: 1) mice, even before tumor implantation, manifest both individual and common patterns of low-titer natural autoantibodies; 2) the patterns of these autoantibodies respond to the growth of the tumor cells, and can distinguish between metastatic and non-metastatic tumor clones; and 3) curative tumor resection induces dynamic changes in these low-titer autoantibody patterns. The informative patterns included autoantibodies binding to self-molecules not known to be tumor-associated antigens (including insulin, DNA, myosin, fibrinogen) as well as to known tumor-associated antigens (including p53, cytokeratin, carbonic anhydrases, tyrosinase). Thus, low-titer autoantibodies that are not the direct products of tumor-specific immunization can still generate an immune biomarker of the body-tumor interaction. System-wide profiling of

  4. Regeneration and orthotopic transplantation of a bioartificial lung.

    PubMed

    Ott, Harald C; Clippinger, Ben; Conrad, Claudius; Schuetz, Christian; Pomerantseva, Irina; Ikonomou, Laertis; Kotton, Darrell; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    About 2,000 patients now await a donor lung in the United States. Worldwide, 50 million individuals are living with end-stage lung disease. Creation of a bioartificial lung requires engineering of viable lung architecture enabling ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange. We decellularized lungs by detergent perfusion and yielded scaffolds with acellular vasculature, airways and alveoli. To regenerate gas exchange tissue, we seeded scaffolds with epithelial and endothelial cells. To establish function, we perfused and ventilated cell-seeded constructs in a bioreactor simulating the physiologic environment of developing lung. By day 5, constructs could be perfused with blood and ventilated using physiologic pressures, and they generated gas exchange comparable to that of isolated native lungs. To show in vivo function, we transplanted regenerated lungs into orthotopic position. After transplantation, constructs were perfused by the recipient's circulation and ventilated by means of the recipient's airway and respiratory muscles, and they provided gas exchange in vivo for up to 6 h after extubation. PMID:20628374

  5. A New Rat Model for Orthotopic Abdominal Wall Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lao, William W.; Wang, Yen-Ling; Ramirez, Alejandro E.; Cheng, Hui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation. Methods: Full-thickness hemiabdominal wall flap was procured from Brown Norway (BN) rats and transplanted to an orthotopic defect on Lewis rats. Three groups were studied: group 1: Lewis to Lewis syngeneic; group 2: BN to Lewis control; and group 3: BN to Lewis with postoperative cyclosporine. Vascular imaging and cross vessel section were performed along with full-thickness abdominal wall. Immune cell profiling with flow cytometry at different time points was studied in all groups. Results: Syngeneic group had no rejection. Control group consistently showed rejection around postoperative day 6. With cyclosporine treatment, however, transplant and recipient tissue integration was observed. Flow cytometry revealed that innate immunity is responsible for the initial inflammatory events following abdominal wall engraftment. Adaptive immunity cells, specifically interferon-γ-producing T helper (Th) 1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, dramatically and positively correlate with rejection progression of abdominal wall transplants. Conclusions: Technical, histological, and immunological aspects of a new rat model are described. These results give clues to what occurs in human abdominal wall transplantation. In addition, Th1, a proinflammatory cell, was found to be a potential biomarker for allograft rejection. PMID:25289329

  6. Hepatitis C Recurrence after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Bobby; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is the leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation and recurrence is nearly universal. Chronic HCV infection is frequently established through evasion of the innate immune system. Priming of adaptive immune responses modulate the severity and rate of fibrosis progression. Those with demonstrable viremia entering the transplant period uniformly suffer recurrence post-transplant. Progression to cirrhosis is accelerated post-transplant secondary to systemic immunosuppression. In addition, a number of factors, including donor, host, and viral characteristics, influence severity and rate of fibrosis progression. Interferon-based therapy, the previous standard of care, in those with advanced cirrhosis or post-transplant has been limited by a number of issues. These include a relative lack of efficacy and poor tolerability with higher incidence of infection and anemia. Recently, approval of direct acting antivirals have ushered in a new era in HCV therapeutics and have applicability in these special populations. Their use immediately prior to or post-transplant is expected to improve both morbidity and mortality. PMID:26355427

  7. An Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Model for Gene Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kasman, Laura; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urogenital tract and novel therapeutic approaches that can reduce recurrence and progression are needed. The tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumor development and therapy response. It is therefore often desirable to grow tumor cells in the organ from which they originated. This protocol describes an orthotopic model of bladder cancer, in which MB49 murine bladder carcinoma cells are instilled into the bladder via catheterization. Successful tumor cell implantation in this model requires disruption of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer, which can be accomplished by physical or chemical means. In our protocol the bladder is treated with trypsin prior to cell instillation. Catheterization of the bladder can also be used to deliver therapeutics once the tumors are established. This protocol describes the delivery of an adenoviral construct that expresses a luciferase reporter gene. While our protocol has been optimized for short-term studies and focuses on gene delivery, the methodology of mouse bladder catheterization has broad applications. PMID:24326612

  8. Regeneration and Experimental Orthotopic Transplantation of a Bioengineered Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeremy J; Guyette, Jacques; Gilpin, Sarah; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Vacanti, Joseph P; Ott, Harald C

    2013-01-01

    Over 100,000 individuals in the United States currently await kidney transplantation, while 400,000 individuals live with end-stage kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. The creation of a transplantable graft to permanently replace kidney function would address donor organ shortage and the morbidity associated with immunosuppression. Such a bioengineered graft must have the kidney’s architecture and function, and permit perfusion, filtration, secretion, absorption, and drainage of urine. We decellularized rat, porcine, and human kidneys by detergent perfusion, yielding acellular scaffolds with vascular, cortical and medullary architecture, collecting system and ureters. To regenerate functional tissue, we seeded rat kidney scaffolds with epithelial and endothelial cells, then perfused these cell-seeded constructs in a whole organ bioreactor. The resulting grafts produced rudimentary urine in vitro when perfused via their intrinsic vascular bed. When transplanted in orthotopic position in rat, the grafts were perfused by the recipient’s circulation, and produced urine via the ureteral conduit in vivo. PMID:23584091

  9. A protective effect after clearance of orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma by nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru; Sain, Nova M; Harlow, K Tyler; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Shires, Peter K; Heller, Richard; Beebe, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for treating liver cancer using radiation, chemotherapy combinations and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting specific mutations have provided longer survival times, yet multiple treatments are often needed and recurrences with new malignant phenotypes are not uncommon. New and innovative treatments are undoubtedly needed to successfully treat liver cancer. Over the last decade, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have shown promise in pre-clinical studies; however, these have been limited to treatment of skin cancers or xenographs in mice. In the present report, an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model is established in rats using N1-S1 HCC cells. Data demonstrate a response rate of 80-90% when 1000 pulses are delivered with 100ns durations, electric field strengths of 50kV/cm and repetition rates of 1Hz. N1-S1 tumours treated with nsPEFs expressed significant number of cells with active caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptosis mechanism(s) as well as caspase-independent mechanisms. Most remarkably, rats with successfully ablated tumours failed to re-grow tumours when challenged with a second injection of N1-S1 cells when implanted in the same or different liver lobe that harboured the original tumour. Given this protective effect, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of granzyme B expressing cells within days of treatment suggest the possibility of an anti-tumour adaptive immune response. In conclusion, NsPEFs not only eliminate N1-S1 HCC tumours, but also may induce an immuno-protective effect that defends animals against recurrences of the same cancer. PMID:25081978

  10. Histologic differences between orthotopic xenograft pancreas models affect Verteporfin uptake measured by fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Isabelle, Martin; Hoopes, P. J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the second generation photosensitizer, verteporfin (VP), is a developing therapy for pancreatic cancer. The optimal timing of light delivery related to VP uptake and distribution in pancreatic tumors will be important information to obtain to improve treatment for this intractable disease. In this work we examined uptake and distribution of VP in two orthotopic pancreatic tumors with different histological structure. ASPC-1 (fast-growing) and Panc-1 (slower growing) tumors were implanted in SCID mice and studied when tumors were approximately 100mm3. In a pilot study, these tumors had been shown to differ in uptake of VP using lightinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in vivo and fluorescence imaging ex vivo and that work is extended here. In vivo fluorescence mean readings of tumor and liver increased rapidly up to 15 minutes after photosensitizer injection for both tumor types, and then continued to increase up to 60 minutes post injection to a higher level in ASPC-1 than in Panc-1. There was variability among animals with the same tumor type, in both liver and tumor uptake and no selectivity of tumor over liver. In this work we further examined VP uptake at multiple time points in relation to microvascular density and perfusion, using DiOC7 (to mark blood vessels) and VP fluorescence in the same tissue slices. Analysis of DiOC7 fluorescence indicates that AsPC-1 and Panc-1 have different vascular densities but AsPC-1 vasculature is more perfusive. Analysis of colocalized DiOC7 and VP fluorescence showed ASPC-1 with higher accumulation of VP 3 hrs after injection and more VP at a distance from blood vessels compared to Panc-1. This work shows the need for techniques to analyze photosensitizer distribution in order to optimize photodynamic therapy as an effective treatment for pancreatic tumors.

  11. Fluorescence-guided surgery, but not bright-light surgery, prevents local recurrence in a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Zhang, Yong; Murakami, Takashi; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with gemcitabine (GEM) in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) on a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. A PDOX model was established from a CEA-positive tumor from a patient who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice were randomized to 4 groups: bright light surgery (BLS) only; BLS + NAC; FGS only; and FGS + NAC. An anti-CEA antibody conjugated to DyLight 650 was administered intravenously via tail vein of mice with a pancreatic cancer PDOX 24 hours before surgery. The PDOX was clearly labeled with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CEA antibody. Only one out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS only group and zero out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS + NAC which was significantly lower than BLS only or BLS +NAC mice, where local disease recurred in 6 out of 8 mice in each treatment group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.007, respectively). NAC did not significantly reduce recurrence rates when combined with either FGS or BLS. These results indicate that FGS can significantly reduce local recurrence compared to BLS in pancreatic cancer resistant to NAC. PMID:25800176

  12. 2′-(2-bromohexadecanoyl)-paclitaxel conjugate nanoparticles for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lei; Schorzman, Allison N; Ma, Ping; Madden, Andrew J; Zamboni, William C; Benhabbour, Soumya Rahima; Mumper, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    A nanoparticle (NP) formulation with 2′-(2-bromohexadecanoyl)-paclitaxel (Br-16-PX) conjugate was developed in these studies for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The lipophilic paclitaxel conjugate Br-C16-PX was synthesized and incorporated into lipid NPs where the 16-carbon chain enhanced drug entrapment in the drug delivery system and improved in vivo pharmacokinetics. The electron-withdrawing bromine group was used to facilitate the conversion of Br-C16-PX to paclitaxel at the tumor site. The developed system was evaluated in luciferase-expressing A549 cells in vitro and in an orthotopic NSCLC mouse model. The results demonstrated that the Br-C16-PX NPs had a higher maximum tolerated dose (75 mg/kg) than Taxol® (19 mg/kg) and provided significantly longer median survival (88 days versus 70 days, P<0.05) in the orthotopic NSCLC model. An improved pharmacokinetic profile was observed for the Br-C16-PX NPs at 75 mg/kg compared to Taxol at 19 mg/kg. The area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC)0–96 h of Br-C16-PX from the NPs was 91.7-fold and 49.6-fold greater than Taxol in plasma and tumor-bearing lungs, respectively, which provided sustained drug exposure and higher antitumor efficacy in the NP-treated group. PMID:25114529

  13. Preparation of intravenous injection nanoformulation of VESylated gemcitabine by co-assembly with TPGS and its anti-tumor activity in pancreatic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanyun; Meng, Haijing; Du, Fang; Lu, Wei; Liu, Shiyuan; Huang, Jin; Yu, Jiahui

    2015-11-30

    Our recent publication showed that VES-dFdC nanocapsules in pure water could be obtained via the self-assembling of VES-dFdC prodrug synthesized by coupling gemcitabine (dFdC) with vitamin E succinate (VES). To prepare the intravenous injection nanoformulation, we present here a novel strategy to improve the stability and drug concentration of VES-dFdC nanoformulation in PBS or isotonic solution. Particularly, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), usually used as drug solubilizer and coincidentally contains the same VES moiety as VES-dFdC prodrug and PEG chain, is selected to co-assemble with VES-dFdC prodrug. The zeta potentials of all the TPGS/VES-dFdC co-assemblies were close to 0 mV, and their particle size measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) decreased from 113 to 36 nm with increasing TPGS/VES-dFdC molar ratios from 0.15 to 1.5. Stable colloidal suspensions were obtained without aggregates in PBS at 4 °C in one month or isotonic solution at 37 °C in one week, and the weight concentration of VES-dFdC prodrug increased from 7 to 17 mg/mL when the molar ratios of TPGS/VES-dFdC ranged from 0.5/1 to 1.5/1. The concentration of VES-dFdC prodrug was high enough to be used as intravenous injection nanoformulation in nude mice. Interestingly, along with the increase of TPGS/VES-dFdC molar ratios from 0.3/1 to 1.5/1, the morphology of TPGS/VES-dFdC co-assemblies changed from loose nanocapsule to compact micelle revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Finally, the co-assembly of TPGS/VES-dFdC (TPGS/VES-dFdC: 1/1) was selected as intravenous injection nanoformulation to evaluate the antitumor activity. Compared with native dFdC, TPGS/VES-dFdC nanoformulation with 0.2mmol/kg of dosage showed similar low toxicity in vivo, but 4.7 times high of tumor inhibition rate in nude mice with pre-established BxPC-3 tumors. PMID:26410754

  14. A Rapid and Sensitive HPLC Method for Quantitation of Paclitaxel in Biological Samples using Liquid-Liquid Extraction and UV Detection: Application to Pharmacokinetics and Tissues Distribution Study of Paclitaxel Loaded Targeted Polymeric Micelles in Tumor Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber; Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Rostami, Mahboubeh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of paclitaxel (PTX) in plasma, various organs and tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice. Tissue specimens of liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, heart and tumor were separately homogenized in normal saline. Plasma or tissue homogenate (250 µl) containing PTX and internal standard (diazepam) were extracted by diethyl ether (6 ml). The separation was achieved on a µ-Bondapak C18 HPLC column using sodium acetate buffer solution (0.01 M)/acetonitrile (58/42 v/v) at pH 5 ± 0.1 and flow rate of 1.9 mL/min. The effluent was monitored at 227 nm and column temperature was adjusted at 58ºC. The internal standard and PTX were eluted at 4.2 and 5.2 min, respectively and no interfering peaks were observed. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-10 µg/ml of PTX in plasma and 0.3-20 µg/ml PTX in tissue homogenates with acceptable precision and accuracy (<15%). The mean recoveries of the drug after plasma extraction was 87.4% ± 3.6 while those of tissue homogenates ranged from 62.1± 4.5 to 75.5± 3.2 depending on the type of tissues studied. PTX was stable in samples with no evidence of degradation during 3 freeze-thaw cycles and 3 months storage at -70 °C. The developed HPLC method was applied to quantify PTX in the mouse plasma and tissues after intravenous administration of 10 mg equivalent PTX/Kg dose of PTX-loaded tocopherol succinate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol-folate (TS-CS-PEG-FA) micelles formulation or Anzatax® (Cremophor® EL- based formulation of PTX) to female Balb/c mice. PMID:26670364

  15. An iTEP-salinomycin nanoparticle that specifically and effectively inhibits metastases of 4T1 orthotopic breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Xia, Guiquan; Dong, Shuyun; Jiang, Zhaong-Xing; Chen, Mingnan

    2016-07-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) inhibitors are a new category of investigational drugs to treat metastasis. Salinomycin (Sali) is one of most studied CSC inhibitors and has reached clinical tests. Several drug carriers have been developed to improve efficacy of Sali. However, Sali has not been shown to inhibit metastasis from orthotopic tumors, the gold standard for metastasis. To fill this gap, we developed an immune-tolerant, elastin-like polypeptide (iTEP)-based nanoparticle (iTEP-Sali-ABA NP) that released 4-(aminomethyl)benzaldehyde-modified Sali (Sali-ABA) under acidic conditions. We found that the NP increased the area under the curve (AUC) of Sali-ABA by 30-fold and the tumor accumulation by 3.4-fold. Furthermore, no metastasis was detected in any of the mice given the NP. However, all the mice died of primary tumor burdens. To overcome primary tumor growth and improve the overall survival, we applied a combination therapy consisting of the iTEP-Sali-ABA NP and iTEP NP-delivered paclitaxel. This therapy effectively retarded primary tumor growth, and most importantly, improved the overall survival. In conclusion, delivery of Sali-ABA by the NP, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, was more effective than free Sali-ABA in decreasing metastasis and increasing survival. This iTEP-Sali-ABA NP represents a novel and clinically promising therapy to combat metastasis. PMID:27060212

  16. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation in tumor bearing mice of new (18)F-labeled arylsulfone matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tracers for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Casalini, Francesca; Fugazza, Lorenza; Esposito, Giovanna; Cabella, Claudia; Brioschi, Chiara; Cordaro, Alessia; D'Angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Filannino, Azzurra M; Gringeri, Concetta V; Longo, Dario L; Muzio, Valeria; Nuti, Elisa; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Figlia, Gianluca; Quattrini, Angelo; Tei, Lorenzo; Digilio, Giuseppe; Rossello, Armando; Maiocchi, Alessandro

    2013-03-28

    New fluorinated, arylsulfone-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors containing carboxylate as the zinc binding group were synthesized as radiotracers for positron emission tomography. Inhibitors were characterized by Ki for MMP-2 in the nanomolar range and by a fair selectivity for MMP-2/9/12/13 over MMP-1/3/14. Two of these compounds were obtained in the (18)F-radiolabeled form, with radiochemical purity and yield suitable for preliminary studies in mice xenografted with a human U-87 MG glioblastoma. Target density in xenografts was assessed by Western blot, yielding Bmax/Kd = 14. The biodistribution of the tracer was dominated by liver uptake and hepatobiliary clearance. Tumor uptake of (18)F-labeled MMP inhibitors was about 30% that of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Accumulation of radioactivity within the tumor periphery colocalized with MMP-2 activity (evaluated by in situ zimography). However, specific tumor uptake accounted for only 18% of total uptake. The aspecific uptake was ascribed to the high binding affinity between the radiotracer and serum albumin. PMID:23458498

  17. Apigenin inhibits COX-2, PGE2, and EP1 and also initiates terminal differentiation in the epidermis of tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Alex J; Soliman, Eman; Jenkins, Audrey; Van Dross, Rukiyah T

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the United States. NMSC overexpresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). COX-2 synthesizes prostaglandins such as PGE2 which promote proliferation and tumorigenesis by engaging G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E receptors (EP). Apigenin is a bioflavonoid that blocks mouse skin tumorigenesis induced by the chemical carcinogens, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, the effect of apigenin on the COX-2 pathway has not been examined in the DMBA/TPA skin tumor model. In the present study, apigenin decreased tumor multiplicity and incidence in DMBA/TPA-treated SKH-1 mice. Analysis of the non-tumor epidermis revealed that apigenin reduced COX-2, PGE2, EP1, and EP2 synthesis and also increased terminal differentiation. In contrast, apigenin did not inhibit the COX-2 pathway or promote terminal differentiation in the tumors. Since fewer tumors developed in apigenin-treated animals which contained reduced epidermal COX-2 levels, our data suggest that apigenin may avert skin tumor development by blocking COX-2. PMID:26802941

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of intravesical docetaxel loaded hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerols in an orthotopic model of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Mugabe, Clement; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; So, Alan I; Gleave, Martin E; Heller, Markus; Zeisser-Labouèbe, Magali; Heller, Lindsay; Chafeeva, Irina; Brooks, Donald E; Burt, Helen M

    2011-04-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerability, to establish a dosing regimen, and to evaluate the efficacy of intravesical docetaxel (DTX) formulations in a mouse model of bladder cancer. DTX in commercial formulation (Taxotere, DTX in Tween 80) or loaded in hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) was evaluated. The synthesis and characterization of HPGs with hydrophobic cores and derivatized with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) in the shell and further functionalized with amine groups (HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG and HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2)) is described. Intravesical DTX in either commercial or HPGs formulations (up to 1.0 mg/mL) was instilled in mice with orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts and was well tolerated with no apparent signs of local or systemic toxicities. Furthermore, a single dose of intravesical DTX (0.5 mg/mL) loaded in HPGs was significantly more effective in reducing the tumor growth in an orthotopic model of bladder cancer than the commercial formulation of Taxotere. In addition, DTX-loaded HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) was found to be more effective at lower instillation dose than DTX (0.2 mg/mL)-loaded HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG. Overall, our data show promising antitumor efficacy and safety in a recently validated orthotopic model of bladder cancer. Further research is warranted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in early phase clinical trials in patients refractory to standard intravesical therapy. PMID:21355626

  19. Development of a Preclinical Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Ewing Sarcoma and Other Human Malignant Bone Disease Using Advanced In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batey, Michael A.; Almeida, Gilberto S.; Wilson, Ian; Dildey, Petra; Sharma, Abhishek; Blair, Helen; Hide, I. Geoff; Heidenreich, Olaf; Vormoor, Josef; Maxwell, Ross J.; Bacon, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2−/−/γc−/− mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000–5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised “malignant” bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which

  20. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  1. Cryogenic turbopump bearing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    1989-01-01

    Materials used for modern cryogenic turbopump bearings must withstand extreme conditions of loads and speeds under marginal lubrication. Naturally, these extreme conditions tend to limit the bearing life. It is possible to significantly improve the life of these bearings, however, by improving the fatigue and wear resistance of bearing alloys, and improving the strength, liquid oxygen compatibility and lubricating ability of the bearing cage materials. Improved cooling will also help to keep the bearing temperatures low and hence prolong the bearing life.

  2. Sequential and simultaneous revascularization in adult orthotopic piggyback liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Polak, Wojciech G; Miyamoto, Shungo; Nemes, Balazs A; Peeters, Paul M J G; de Jong, Koert P; Porte, Robert J; Slooff, Maarten J H

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether there is a difference in outcome after sequential or simultaneous revascularization during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in terms of patient and graft survival, mortality, morbidity, and liver function. The study population consisted of 102 adult patients with primary full-size piggyback OLT transplanted between January 1998 and December 2001. In 71 patients (70%) the grafts were sequentially reperfused after completion of the portal vein anastomosis and subsequent arterial reconstruction was performed (sequential reperfusion [SeqR] group). In 31 patients (30%) the graft was reperfused simultaneously via the portal vein and hepatic artery (simultaneous reperfusion [SimR] group). Patient and graft survival at 1, 3, and 6 months and at 1 year did not differ between the SeqR group and the SimR group. The red blood cell (RBC) requirements were significantly higher in the SimR group (5.5 units; range 0-20) in comparison to the SeqR group (2 units; range 0-19) (P = 0.02). Apart from a higher number of biliary anastomotic complications and abdominal bleeding complications in the SimR group in comparison to the SeqR group (13% vs. 2% and 19% vs. 6%, respectively; P = 0.06), morbidity was not different between the groups. No differences between the groups were observed regarding the incidence of primary nonfunction (PNF), intensive care unit stay, and acute rejection. This was also true for the severity of rejections. Postoperative recuperation of liver function was not different between the groups. In conclusion, no advantage of either of the 2 reperfusion protocols could be observed in this analysis, especially with respect to the incidence of ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL). PMID:16035059

  3. Pilot study of a specific dietary supplement in tumor-bearing mice and in stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, A S; Yeh, H C; Wang, L H; Huang, Y P; Maeda, H; Pivazyan, A; Hsu, C; Lewis, E R; Bruckner, H W; Fasy, T M

    2001-01-01

    Previously, a specific dietary supplement, selected vegetables (SV), was found to be associated with prolonged survival of stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, several anticancer components in SV were measured; the anticancer activity of SV was assessed using a lung tumor model, line 1 in BALB/c mice. SV was also used in conjunction with conventional therapies by stage IIIB and IV NSCLC patients whose survival and clinical responses were evaluated. A daily portion (283 g) of SV was found to contain 63 mg of inositol hexaphosphate, 4.4 mg of daidzein, 2.6 mg of genistein, and 16 mg of coumestrol. Mouse food containing 5% SV (wt/wt) was associated with a 53-74% inhibition of tumor growth rate. Fourteen of the 18 patients who ingested SV daily for 2-46 months were included in the analyses; none showed evidence of toxicity. The first lead case remained tumor free for > 133 months; the second case showed complete regression of multiple brain lesions after using SV and radiotherapy. The median survival time of the remaining 12 patients was 33.5 months, and one-year survival was > 70%. The median survival time of the 16 "intent-to-treat" patients (including ineligible patients) was 20 months, and one-year survival was 55%. The Karnofsky performance status of eligible patients was 55 +/- 13 at entry but improved to 92 +/- 9 after use of SV for five months or longer (p < 0.01). Five patients had stable lesions for 30, 30, 20, 12, and 2 months; two of them, whose primary tumor was resected, used SV alone and demonstrated an objective response of their metastatic tumors. In addition to the two lead cases, eight patients had no new metastases after using SV. Three patients had complete regression of brain metastases after using radiotherapy and SV. In this study, daily ingestion of SV was associated with objective responses, prolonged survival, and attenuation of the normal pattern of progression of stage IIIB and IV NSCLC. A large

  4. Current status of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation for acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Rela, Mohamed; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas

    2016-09-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) is a technique of liver transplantation (LT) where a partial liver graft is implanted in an orthotopic position after leaving behind a part of the native liver. APOLT was previously considered technically challenging with results inferior to orthotopic liver transplantation. Results of this procedure have continued to improve with improving surgical techniques and a better understanding of the natural history of acute liver failure (ALF) and liver regeneration. The procedure is being increasingly accepted as a valid treatment option for ALF-especially in children. This article reviews the historical background to this operation, advances in the technique, and its current place in the management of ALF. Liver Transplantation 22 1265-1274 2016 AASLD. PMID:27357489

  5. Evaluation of the Antitumor Efficacy of RNAi-Mediated Inhibition of CDC20 and Heparanase in an Orthotopic Liver Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meizhou; Zhang, Yangde; Liao, Yunjun; Chen, Yixing; Pan, Yifeng; Tian, Hu; Zhan, Yongqiang; Liu, Dongjing

    2015-08-01

    Over 90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This study investigated the antitumor efficacy of the inhibition of cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20) and heparanase (HPSE) expression in Hepa1-6 mouse hepatoma cells. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by cytometry. The invasion assay was performed using the Transwell chamber. The orthotopic liver tumor model was established by inoculating the livers of immunocompetent Kunming mice with Hepa1-6 cells. The MTT assay showed that 50 and 100 nM CDC20 siRNA-1 and HPSE siRNA-2 significantly reduced Hepa1-6 cell viability with the combination of CDC20 and HPSE siRNA being the most effective. Silencing of CDC20 or both CDC20 and HPSE expression significantly induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in Hepa1-6 HCC cells. Silencing HPSE expression significantly inhibited the invasion ability of Hepa1-6 cells with the combination of CDC20 and HPSE silencing being more effective than HPSE alone. Silencing CDC20 and HPSE expression significantly inhibited HCC tumor growth in the orthotopic liver tumor model, but the combination was most effective. Silencing CDC20 and HPSE expression activated cell apoptosis and autophagy. In conclusion, targeting inhibition of both CDC20 and HPSE expression is an ideal strategy for HCC therapy. PMID:26132704

  6. 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-An; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Xing-Yu; Xian, Shu-Lin; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT. PMID:26708213

  7. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-AN; ZHANG, XIAO-DONG; GUO, XING-YU; XIAN, SHU-LIN; LU, YUN-FEI

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT. PMID:26708213

  8. A“Proteoglycan Targeting Strategy” for the Scintigraphic Imaging and Monitoring of the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma Orthotopic Model

    PubMed Central

    Peyrode, Caroline; Gouin, François; Vidal, Aurélien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Besse, Sophie; Dauplat, Marie-Mélanie; Askienazy, Serge; Heymann, Dominique; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Redini, Françoise; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Our lab developed 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer as targeting proteoglycans (PGs) for the scintigraphic imaging of joint. This paper reports preclinical results of 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging of an orthotopic model of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (SRC). 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging of SRC-bearing and sham-operated animals was performed and quantified at regular intervals after surgery and compared to bone scintigraphy and tumoural volume. Tumours were characterized by histology and PG assay. SRC exhibited a significant 99mTc-NTP 15-5 uptake at very early stage after implant (with tumour/muscle ratio of 1.61 ± 0.14), whereas no measurable tumour was evidenced. As tumour grew, mean tumour/muscle ratio was increased by 2.4, between the early and late stage of pathology. Bone scintigraphy failed to image chondrosarcoma, even at the later stage of study. 99mTc-NTP 15-5 imaging provided a suitable set of quantitative criteria for the in vivo characterization of chondrosarcoma behaviour in bone environment, useful for achieving a greater understanding of the pathology. PMID:21331335

  9. Diagnosis of rare association of orthotopic multicystic dysplasia with crossed fused renal ectopia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Linnan; Koshy, June; Spevak, Melissa R; Benson, Jane E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic multicystic dysplastic kidney with crossed fused ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly. This congenital anomaly may give an appearance of a solitary kidney morphology during the initial imaging evaluation. A solitary kidney should be carefully evaluated for the presence of duplication, horseshoe configuration, or crossed renal ectopy. Vesicoureteral reflux is a common finding associated with a multicystic dysplastic kidney. We present an infant with an orthotopic multicystic dysplastic kidney and an inferiorly placed crossed fused ectopic kidney. The presence of a complex congenital anomaly may warrant further evaluation with cross-sectional imaging to depict the anatomy and structure. PMID:24839577

  10. Diagnosis of Rare Association of Orthotopic Multicystic Dysplasia with Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Linnan; Koshy, June; Spevak, Melissa R.; Benson, Jane E.; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic multicystic dysplastic kidney with crossed fused ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly. This congenital anomaly may give an appearance of a solitary kidney morphology during the initial imaging evaluation. A solitary kidney should be carefully evaluated for the presence of duplication, horseshoe configuration, or crossed renal ectopy. Vesicoureteral reflux is a common finding associated with a multicystic dysplastic kidney. We present an infant with an orthotopic multicystic dysplastic kidney and an inferiorly placed crossed fused ectopic kidney. The presence of a complex congenital anomaly may warrant further evaluation with cross-sectional imaging to depict the anatomy and structure. PMID:24839577

  11. Severe obstruction of the left main coronary artery by mycotic aortic psuedoaneurysm following orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kamineni, Raghunandan; Lui, Charles Y; Copeland, Jack G

    2004-04-01

    Mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare complication following orthotopic heart transplantation. This article describes a case of mycotic pseudoaneurysm caused by Candida albicans that developed shortly after orthotopic heart transplantation. The pseudoaneurysm compressed the left main coronary artery, which led to the development of congestive heart failure symptoms mimicking sub-acute transplant rejection. The heart failure signs and symptoms resolved completely with resection of the aneurysm. This case reiterates that early diagnosis and complete resection of the aneurysm is associated with good prognosis. PMID:15063413

  12. A case report of a completely vanished liver graft after auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Teomete, U; Dandin, O; Tekin, A; Sabuncuoglu, M Z; Chapman, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation is an alternative technique for the treatment of patients with fulminant hepatic failure and metabolic liver disease. It provides temporary support of liver function until sufficient regeneration of the native liver. Pediatric patients have a long life expectancy and are best candidates to benefit from the interruption of antirejection treatment. Description of case A 4-year-old boy underwent auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure using a cadaveric left lateral segment of liver. One year after auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation, the patient’s native liver was determined to be completely normal and he was doing well. The patient was then gradually weaned from the immunosuppression over the course of one year. The graft was undetectable on follow-up computerized tomography performed before complete cessation of immunosuppression, leading to the diagnosis of “vanishing graft syndrome”. Conclusion Graft atrophy commonly occurs after auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation due to cessation of antirejection therapy. But to our knowledge, complete graft disappearance is a rare occurrence reported in the English literature. Timing for withdrawal of the immunosuppression is an important decision to be made in this technique. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 274-277.

  13. Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Overactive Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder: Feasibility and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BTXA) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) has been well documented. The use of BTXA injection in orthotopic neobladders is yet to be studied. We present 4 cases of patients injected with intravesical BTXA for overactive orthotopic ileal neobladder. We recorded patient demographics, presenting and follow-up symptoms, urodynamic profiles, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scores. The 4 patients reported varying degrees of subjective improvements in the symptoms, including urgency, urge incontinence, and pad usage. Mean follow-up duration was 8.3 months (range, 5–14 months). Average PGI-I score was 3 (“a little better”) (range, 2–4). To our knowledge, the current study is the first case series examining BTXA injection for orthotopic neobladder overactivity. BTXA injection yielded varying degrees of objective and subjective improvements, without significant complications. Intravesical BTXA injection is feasible and may be considered as a potential treatment alternative for OAB in orthotopic neobladders, although further study is warranted. PMID:27032562

  14. Restoration of bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

    1977-01-01

    Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

  15. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  16. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  17. A Dual Tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET Imaging of an Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yilong; Ong, Lai-Chun; Ranganath, Sudhir H; Zheng, Lin; Kee, Irene; Zhan, Wenbo; Yu, Sidney; Chow, Pierce K H; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of low grade glioma has been a challenge to clinicians. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using 18F-FDG as a radio-tracer has limited utility in this area because of the high background in normal brain tissue. Other radiotracers such as 18F-Fluorocholine (18F-FCH) could provide better contrast between tumor and normal brain tissue but with high incidence of false positives. In this study, the potential application of a dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET is investigated in order to improve the sensitivity of PET imaging for low grade glioma diagnosis based on a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. BALB/c nude mice with and without orthotopic glioma xenografts from U87 MG-luc2 glioma cell line are used for the study. The animals are subjected to 18F-FCH and 18F-FDG PET imaging, and images acquired from two separate scans are superimposed for analysis. The 18F-FCH counts are subtracted from the merged images to identify the tumor. Micro-CT, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), histology and measurement of the tumor diameter are also conducted for comparison. Results show that there is a significant contrast in 18F-FCH uptake between tumor and normal brain tissue (2.65 ± 0.98), but with a high false positive rate of 28.6%. The difficulty of identifying the tumor by 18F-FDG only is also proved in this study. All the tumors can be detected based on the dual tracer technique of 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET imaging in this study, while the false-positive caused by 18F-FCH can be eliminated. Dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET imaging has the potential to improve the visualization of low grade glioma. 18F-FCH delineates tumor areas and the tumor can be identified by subtracting the 18F-FCH counts. The sensitivity was over 95%. Further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of applying this technique in clinical trials. PMID:26844770

  18. A Dual Tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET Imaging of an Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Sudhir H.; Zheng, Lin; Kee, Irene; Zhan, Wenbo; Yu, Sidney; Chow, Pierce K. H.; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of low grade glioma has been a challenge to clinicians. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using 18F-FDG as a radio-tracer has limited utility in this area because of the high background in normal brain tissue. Other radiotracers such as 18F-Fluorocholine (18F-FCH) could provide better contrast between tumor and normal brain tissue but with high incidence of false positives. In this study, the potential application of a dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET is investigated in order to improve the sensitivity of PET imaging for low grade glioma diagnosis based on a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. BALB/c nude mice with and without orthotopic glioma xenografts from U87 MG-luc2 glioma cell line are used for the study. The animals are subjected to 18F-FCH and 18F-FDG PET imaging, and images acquired from two separate scans are superimposed for analysis. The 18F-FCH counts are subtracted from the merged images to identify the tumor. Micro-CT, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), histology and measurement of the tumor diameter are also conducted for comparison. Results show that there is a significant contrast in 18F-FCH uptake between tumor and normal brain tissue (2.65 ± 0.98), but with a high false positive rate of 28.6%. The difficulty of identifying the tumor by 18F-FDG only is also proved in this study. All the tumors can be detected based on the dual tracer technique of 18F-FCH/ 18F-FDG-PET imaging in this study, while the false-positive caused by 18F-FCH can be eliminated. Dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET imaging has the potential to improve the visualization of low grade glioma. 18F-FCH delineates tumor areas and the tumor can be identified by subtracting the 18F-FCH counts. The sensitivity was over 95%. Further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of applying this technique in clinical trials. PMID:26844770

  19. Introduction to ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

  20. High efficiency magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Anand, Davinder K.; Kirk, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Research activities concerning high efficiency permanent magnet plus electromagnet (PM/EM) pancake magnetic bearings at the University of Maryland are reported. A description of the construction and working of the magnetic bearing is provided. Next, parameters needed to describe the bearing are explained. Then, methods developed for the design and testing of magnetic bearings are summarized. Finally, a new magnetic bearing which allows active torque control in the off axes directions is discussed.

  1. Inhibition of Pediatric Glioblastoma Tumor Growth by the Anti-Cancer Agent OKN-007 in Orthotopic Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Mallory, Samantha; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; Li, Xiao-Nan; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y.; Fung, Kar-Ming; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric glioblastomas (pGBM), although rare, are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, with tumors essentially refractory to existing treatments. Here, we describe the use of conventional and advanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess a novel orthotopic xenograft pGBM mouse (IC-3752GBM patient-derived culture) model, and to monitor the effects of the anti-cancer agent OKN-007 as an inhibitor of pGBM tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry support data is also presented for cell proliferation and tumor growth signaling. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.05) and increase animal survival (p<0.05) in all OKN-007-treated mice compared to untreated animals. In a responsive cohort of treated animals, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.0001), increase survival (p<0.001), and increase diffusion (p<0.01) and perfusion rates (p<0.05). OKN-007 also significantly reduced lipid tumor metabolism in responsive animals [(Lip1.3 and Lip0.9)-to-creatine ratio (p<0.05)], as well as significantly decrease tumor cell proliferation (p<0.05) and microvessel density (p<0.05). Furthermore, in relationship to the PDGFRα pathway, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease SULF2 (p<0.05) and PDGFR-α (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) (p<0.05) immunoexpression, and significantly increase decorin expression (p<0.05) in responsive mice. This study indicates that OKN-007 may be an effective anti-cancer agent for some patients with pGBMs by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, possibly via the PDGFRα pathway, and could be considered as an additional therapy for pediatric brain tumor patients. PMID:26248280

  2. Inflammatory responses in a new mouse model of prolonged hepatic cold ischemia followed by arterialized orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiu-Da; Gao, Feng; Ke, Bibo; Zhai, Yuan; Lassman, Charles R; Tsuchihashi, Sei-Ichiro; Farmer, Douglas G; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2005-10-01

    The current models of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in mice are largely limited to a warm ischemic component. To investigate the mechanism of hepatic "cold" IRI, we developed and validated a new mouse model of prolonged cold preservation followed by syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Two hundred and forty-three OLTs with or without rearterialization and preservation in University of Wisconsin solution at 4 degrees C were performed in Balb/c mice. The 14-day survivals in the nonarterialized OLT groups were 92% (11/12), 82% (9/11), and 8% (1/12) after 1-hour, 6-hour and 24-hour preservation, respectively. In contrast, hepatic artery reconstruction after 1-hour, 6-hour, and 24-hour preservation improved the outcome as evidenced by 2-week survival of 100% (12/12), 100% (10/10), and 33% (4/12), respectively, and diminished hepatocellular damage (serum alanine aminotransferase /histology). Moreover, 24-hour (but not 1-h) cold preservation of rearterialized OLTs increased hepatic CD4+ T-cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 2, interferon-gamma) production, as well as enhanced local apoptosis, and Toll-like receptor 4/caspase 3 expression. These cardinal features of hepatic IRI validate the model. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a new mouse model of IRI in which hepatic artery reconstruction was mandatory for long-term animal survival after prolonged (24-h) OLT preservation. With the availability of genetically manipulated mouse strains, this model should provide important insights into the mechanism of antigen-independent hepatic IRI and help design much needed refined therapeutic means to combat hepatic IRI in the clinics. PMID:16184555

  3. Inhibition of Pediatric Glioblastoma Tumor Growth by the Anti-Cancer Agent OKN-007 in Orthotopic Mouse Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Mallory, Samantha; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; Li, Xiao-Nan; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Fung, Kar-Ming; Towner, Rheal A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric glioblastomas (pGBM), although rare, are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, with tumors essentially refractory to existing treatments. Here, we describe the use of conventional and advanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess a novel orthotopic xenograft pGBM mouse (IC-3752GBM patient-derived culture) model, and to monitor the effects of the anti-cancer agent OKN-007 as an inhibitor of pGBM tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry support data is also presented for cell proliferation and tumor growth signaling. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.05) and increase animal survival (p<0.05) in all OKN-007-treated mice compared to untreated animals. In a responsive cohort of treated animals, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.0001), increase survival (p<0.001), and increase diffusion (p<0.01) and perfusion rates (p<0.05). OKN-007 also significantly reduced lipid tumor metabolism in responsive animals [(Lip1.3 and Lip0.9)-to-creatine ratio (p<0.05)], as well as significantly decrease tumor cell proliferation (p<0.05) and microvessel density (p<0.05). Furthermore, in relationship to the PDGFRα pathway, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease SULF2 (p<0.05) and PDGFR-α (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) (p<0.05) immunoexpression, and significantly increase decorin expression (p<0.05) in responsive mice. This study indicates that OKN-007 may be an effective anti-cancer agent for some patients with pGBMs by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, possibly via the PDGFRα pathway, and could be considered as an additional therapy for pediatric brain tumor patients. PMID:26248280

  4. Combination therapy of anti-cancer bioactive peptide with Cisplatin decreases chemotherapy dosing and toxicity to improve the quality of life in xenograft nude mice bearing human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A great challenge of cancer chemotherapy is to eliminate cancer cells and concurrently maintain the quality of life (QOL) for cancer patients. Previously, we identified a novel anti-cancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), a peptide induced in goat spleen or liver following immunization with human gastric cancer protein extract. ACBP alone exhibited anti-tumor activity without measurable side effects. Thus, we hypothesize that ACBP and combined chemotherapy could improve the efficacy of treatment and lead to a better QOL. Results In this study, ACBP was isolated and purified from immunized goat liver, and designated as ACBP-L. The anti-tumor activity was investigated in a previously untested human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell line and tumor model. ACBP-L inhibited cell proliferation in vitro in a dose and time dependent manner, titrated by MTT assay. The effect of ACBP-L on cell morphology was observed through light and scanning electron microscopy. In vivo ACBP-L alone significantly inhibited MGC-803 tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model without measurable side effects. Treatment with the full dosage of Cisplatin alone (5 mg/kg every 5 days) strongly suppressed tumor growth. However, the QOL in these mice had been significantly affected when measured by food intakes and body weight. The combinatory regiment of ACBP-L with a fewer doses of Cisplatin (5 mg/kg every 10 days) resulted in a similar anti-tumor activity with improved QOL. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was used to examine the biological activity in tumors of live animals and indicated the consistent treatment effects. The tumor tissues were harvested after treatment, and ACBP-L and Cisplatin treatment suppressed Bcl-2, and induced Bax, Caspase 3, and Caspase 8 molecules as detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The combinatory regiment induced stronger Bax and Caspase 8 protein expression. Conclusion Our current finding in this gastric cancer xenograft animal model demonstrated that ACBP-L could

  5. Macitentan (ACT-064992), a Tissue-Targeting Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy of Paclitaxel by Modulating Survival Pathways in Orthotopic Models of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Seung Wook; Brantley, Emily; Yun, Seok Joong; He, Junqin; Maya, Marva; Zhang, Fahao; Wu, Qiuyu; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2011-01-01

    Potential treatments for ovarian cancers that have become resistant to standard chemotherapies include modulators of tumor cell survival, such as endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the dual ETR antagonist, macitentan, on human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3ip1 and IGROV1, growing orthotopically in nude mice. Mice with established disease were treated with vehicle (control), paclitaxel (weekly, intraperitoneal injections), macitentan (daily oral administrations), or a combination of paclitaxel and macitentan. Treatment with paclitaxel decreased tumor weight and volume of ascites. Combination therapy with macitentan and paclitaxel reduced tumor incidence and further reduced tumor weight and volume of ascites when compared with paclitaxel alone. Macitentan alone occasionally reduced tumor weight but alone had no effect on tumor incidence or ascites. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that treatment with macitentan and macitentan plus paclitaxel inhibited the phosphorylation of ETRs and suppressed the survival pathways of tumor cells by decreasing the levels of pVEGFR2, pAkt, and pMAPK. The dose of macitentan necessary for inhibition of phosphorylation correlated with the dose required to increase antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Treatment with macitentan enhanced the cytotoxicity mediated by paclitaxel as measured by the degree of apoptosis in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that administration of macitentan in combination with paclitaxel prevents the progression of ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice in part by inhibiting survival pathways of both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. PMID:21403842

  6. Medical treatment of orthotopic glioblastoma with transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles encapsulating zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Porru, Manuela; Zappavigna, Silvia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Luce, Amalia; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Artuso, Simona; Lusa, Sara; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Leonetti, Carlo; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly aggressive adult brain tumors with poor clinical outcome. In the central nervous system (CNS) the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the most important limiting factor for both development of new drugs and drug delivery. Here, we propose a new strategy to treat glioblastoma based on transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating zoledronic acid (ZOL) (NPs-ZOL-Tf). NPs-ZOL-Tf have been assessed on the glioblastoma cell line U373MG-LUC that showed a refractoriness in vitro to temozolomide (TMZ) and fotemustine (FTM). NPs-ZOL-Tf treatment resulted in higher in vitro cytotoxic activity than free ZOL. However, the potentiation of anti-proliferative activity of NPs-ZOL-Tf was superimposable to that one induced by NPs-ZOL (not armed with Tf). On the other hand, NPs-ZOL-Tf showed a higher antitumor efficacy if compared with that one caused by NPs-ZOL in immunosuppressed mice intramuscularly bearing U373MG-LUC xenografts, inducing a significant tumor weight inhibition (TWI). The experiments performed on mice with intracranial U373MG-LUC xenografts confirmed the efficacy of NPs-ZOL-Tf. These effects were paralleled by a higher intratumour localization of fluorescently-labeled-NPs-Tf both in intramuscular and intracranial xenografts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the encapsulation of ZOL increases the antitumor efficacy of this drug in glioblastoma through the acquisition of ability to cross the BBB. PMID:25431953

  7. Mechanical spin bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spin bearing assembly including, a pair of mutually opposing complementary bearing support members having mutually spaced apart bearing support surfaces which may be, for example, bearing races and a set of spin bearings located therebetween. Each spin bearing includes a pair of end faces, a central rotational axis passing through the end faces, a waist region substantially mid-way between the end faces and having a first thickness dimension, and discrete side surface regions located between the waist region and the end faces and having a second thickness dimension different from the first thickness dimension of the waist region and wherein the side surface regions further have respective curvilinear contact surfaces adapted to provide a plurality of bearing contact points on the bearing support members.

  8. Targeting Survivin Enhances Chemosensitivity in Retinoblastoma Cells and Orthotopic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Angela; Luna, Marian; Rucker, Natalie; Wong, Sam; Lederman, Ariel; Kim, Jonathan; Gomer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for retinoblastoma (Rb) vary depending on the size and location of the intraocular lesions and include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We examined whether agents used to treat Rb induce a pro-survival phenotype associated with increased expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins. We document that exposure to carboplatin, topotecan or radiation resulted in elevated expression of survivin in two human Rb cell lines but not in normal retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Cellular levels of survivin were attenuated in Rb cells exposed to an imidazolium-based survivin suppressant, Sepantronium bromide (YM155). Protein expression patterns of survivin in RPE cells were not altered following treatment protocols involving exposure to YM155. Including YM155 with chemotherapy or radiation increased levels of apoptosis in Rb cells but not in RPE cells. Intraocular luciferase expressing Rb tumors were generated from the Rb cell lines and used to evaluate the effects of carboplatin and YM155 on in-vivo survivin expression and tumor growth. Carboplatin induced expression of survivin while carboplatin combined with YM155 reduced survivin expression in tumor bearing eyes. The combination protocol was also most effective in reducing the rate of tumor regrowth. These results indicate that targeted inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin provides a therapeutic advantage for Rb cells and tumors treated with chemotherapy. PMID:27050416

  9. Targeting Survivin Enhances Chemosensitivity in Retinoblastoma Cells and Orthotopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Natalie; Wong, Sam; Lederman, Ariel; Kim, Jonathan; Gomer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for retinoblastoma (Rb) vary depending on the size and location of the intraocular lesions and include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We examined whether agents used to treat Rb induce a pro-survival phenotype associated with increased expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins. We document that exposure to carboplatin, topotecan or radiation resulted in elevated expression of survivin in two human Rb cell lines but not in normal retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Cellular levels of survivin were attenuated in Rb cells exposed to an imidazolium-based survivin suppressant, Sepantronium bromide (YM155). Protein expression patterns of survivin in RPE cells were not altered following treatment protocols involving exposure to YM155. Including YM155 with chemotherapy or radiation increased levels of apoptosis in Rb cells but not in RPE cells. Intraocular luciferase expressing Rb tumors were generated from the Rb cell lines and used to evaluate the effects of carboplatin and YM155 on in-vivo survivin expression and tumor growth. Carboplatin induced expression of survivin while carboplatin combined with YM155 reduced survivin expression in tumor bearing eyes. The combination protocol was also most effective in reducing the rate of tumor regrowth. These results indicate that targeted inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin provides a therapeutic advantage for Rb cells and tumors treated with chemotherapy. PMID:27050416

  10. Orthotopic mouse liver transplantation to study liver biology and allograft tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Ueki, Shinya; Ono, Yoshihiro; Kasahara, Naoya; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Angélica; Kimura, Shoko; Yoshida, Osamu; Murase, Noriko; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Geller, David A; Thomson, Angus W

    2016-07-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a powerful research tool that has led to important mechanistic insights into the regulation of hepatic injury, liver immunopathology, and transplant tolerance. However, it is a technically demanding surgical procedure. Setup of the orthotopic liver transplantation model comprises three main stages: surgery on the donor mouse; back-table preparation of the liver graft; and transplant of the liver into the recipient mouse. In this protocol, we describe our procedure in stepwise detail to allow efficient completion of both the donor and recipient operations. The protocol can result in consistently high technical success rates when performed by personnel experienced in the protocol. The technique can be completed in ∼2-3 h when performed by an individual who is well practiced in performing mouse transplantation in accordance with this protocol. We have achieved a perioperative survival rate close to 100%. PMID:27254462

  11. Multispectral optoacoustic and MRI coregistration for molecular imaging of orthotopic model of human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amalina Binte Ebrahim; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Tay, Hui Chien; Burton, Neal C; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2016-07-01

    Multi-modality imaging methods are of great importance in oncologic studies for acquiring complementary information, enhancing the efficacy in tumor detection and characterization. We hereby demonstrate a hybrid non-invasive in vivo imaging approach of utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for molecular imaging of glucose uptake in an orthotopic glioblastoma in mouse. The molecular and functional information from MSOT can be overlaid on MRI anatomy via image coregistration to provide insights into probe uptake in the brain, which is verified by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological validation. In vivo MSOT and MRI imaging of an orthotopic glioma mouse model injected with IRDye800-2DG. Image coregistration between MSOT and MRI enables multifaceted (anatomical, functional, molecular) information from MSOT to be overlaid on MRI anatomy images to derive tumor physiological parameters such as perfusion, haemoglobin and oxygenation. PMID:27091626

  12. Transarterial Administration of Oncolytic Viruses for Locoregional Therapy of Orthotopic HCC in Rats.

    PubMed

    Altomonte, Jennifer; Muñoz-Álvarez, Kim A; Shinozaki, Katsunori; Baumgartner, Christine; Kaissis, Georgios; Braren, Rickmer; Ebert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a disease with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In recent years, oncolytic virotherapies have proven themselves to be potentially powerful tools to fight malignancy. Due to the unique dual blood supply in the liver, it is possible to apply therapies locally to orthotopic liver tumors, which are predominantly fed by arterial blood flow. We have previously demonstrated that hepatic arterial delivery of oncolytic viruses results in safe and efficient transduction efficiency of multifocal HCC lesions, resulting in significant prolongation of survival in immune competent rats. This procedure closely mimics the application of transarterial embolization in patients, which is the standard palliative care provided to many HCC patients. The ability to administer tumor therapies through the hepatic artery in rats allows for a highly sophisticated preclinical model for evaluating novel viral vectors under development. Here we describe the detailed protocol for microdissection of the hepatic artery for infusion of oncolytic virus vectors to treat orthotopic HCC. PMID:27167921

  13. Generation of a syngeneic orthotopic transplant model of prostate cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Leigh; Lehet, Kristin; Ku, ShengYu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pili, Roberto

    2014-10-15

    Progression to metastatic disease is the primary cause of mortality in men with prostate cancer (PCa). Mouse models which progress with spontaneous metastasis are limited. Such models would allow for extensive studies of molecular mechanisms of metastasis, and more definite pre- clinical therapy trials. Orthotopic murine models have been described; however a limiting biology of these models is their lack of an intact immune system. Within, we describe the development of an androgen sensitive and castrate resistant tractable orthotopic murine syngeneic (immune competent) model of prostate cancer. Both models develop primary tumors which spontaneously progress to metastatic disease in lymph tissue. These models will allow for more complete mechanistic and therapeutic studies in a short time period. PMID:25485289

  14. Generation of a syngeneic orthotopic transplant model of prostate cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Leigh; Lehet, Kristin; Ku, ShengYu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pili, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Progression to metastatic disease is the primary cause of mortality in men with prostate cancer (PCa). Mouse models which progress with spontaneous metastasis are limited. Such models would allow for extensive studies of molecular mechanisms of metastasis, and more definite pre- clinical therapy trials. Orthotopic murine models have been described; however a limiting biology of these models is their lack of an intact immune system. Within, we describe the development of an androgen sensitive and castrate resistant tractable orthotopic murine syngeneic (immune competent) model of prostate cancer. Both models develop primary tumors which spontaneously progress to metastatic disease in lymph tissue. These models will allow for more complete mechanistic and therapeutic studies in a short time period. PMID:25485289

  15. Postoperative imaging findings in children with auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT).

    PubMed

    Ayyala, Rama S; Martinez, Mercedes; Lobritto, Steven J; Kato, Tomoaki; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie

    2016-07-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment technique for people who have acute hepatic failure secondary to fulminant hepatic failure and might ultimately recover normal liver function. This surgical procedure is complicated, involving the placement of a liver graft while maintaining viability of the remaining native portion of the liver. This method allows the native liver to recover hepatic function, therefore eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression, as is typically needed in post-transplant settings. Postoperative imaging in these cases can be challenging given the complex anatomy, specifically the vascular anastomosis. Therefore it is important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the anatomy as well as the variable imaging appearances of the liver. We review the imaging findings in children who have undergone auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT). PMID:26867605

  16. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  17. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  18. 1-Way Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A one-way bearing is provided having sprags and rolling bearings both disposed between an inner and an outer race. The sprags may comprise three-dimensional sprags for preventing rotation in a non-preferential direction. The roll- ing bearings may comprise thrust rollers for transmitting axial, tilt, and radial loads between the inner and outer races.

  19. Role of hepatitis C virus in chronic liver disease occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, M; Willems, M; Cornu, C; Buts, J P; Reding, R; de Ville de Goyet, J; Rahier, J; Otte, J B; Yap, S H; Sokal, E M

    1995-01-01

    Paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients may develop chronic hepatitis after surgery. To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus in this pathology a cohort of 249 paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied. Sixteen children (6.4%) were found to have chronic hepatitis C virus hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. All but one of them had serum transaminase values which were persistently raised two to eight times the upper limit of normal. Thirteen were positive for both serology and serum hepatitis C virus RNA. Serum hepatitis C virus RNA detection occurred five to 33 months before hepatitis C virus antibodies. Liver tissue hepatitis C virus RNA and hepatitis C virus core antigen were detected in five. In one patient, tissue hepatitis C virus core antigen was detected when other tests for hepatitis C were negative. Two patients had positive human cytomegalovirus serum antibodies and RNA before transplantation. Although serum hepatitis C virus RNA was not detected after transplantation, serum enzyme immunosorbent assay and tissue core antigen were still detectable in both patients. In another child, serum hepatitis C virus RNA was positive and hepatitis C virus core antigen was found on a liver biopsy specimen but antihepatitis C virus antibodies were negative as well as liver hepatitis C virus RNA. No patient developed severe liver disease or cirrhosis during a follow up of up to 72 months. It is concluded that hepatitis C virus is a significant cause of morbidity after paediatric orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis cannot rely on serological testing only. The patients remained stable on follow up, but longer prospective histological studies remain necessary to establish prognosis. PMID:7618905

  20. Immunotherapy of HPV-associated cancer: DNA/plant-derived vaccines and new orthotopic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Aldo; Curzio, Gianfranca; Mariani, Luciano; Paolini, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    Under the optimistic assumption of high-prophylactic HPV vaccine coverage, a significant reduction of cancer incidence can only be expected after decades. Thus, immune therapeutic strategies are needed for persistently infected individuals who do not benefit from the prophylactic vaccines. However, the therapeutic strategies inducing immunity to the E6 and/or E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 are more effective for curing HPV-expressing tumours in animal models than for treating human cancers. New strategies/technologies have been developed to improve these therapeutic vaccines. Our studies focussed on preparing therapeutic vaccines with low-cost technologies by DNA preparation fused to either plant-virus or plant-toxin genes, such as saporin, and by plant-produced antigens. In particular, plant-derived antigens possess an intrinsic adjuvant activity that makes these preparations especially attractive for future development. Additionally, discrepancy in vaccine effectiveness between animals and humans may be due to non-orthotopic localization of animal models. Orthotopic transplantation leads to tumours giving a more accurate representation of the parent tumour. Since HPV can cause cancer in two main localizations, anogenital and oropharynx area, we developed two orthotopic tumour mouse models in these two sites. Both models are bioluminescent in order to follow up the tumour growth by imaging and are induced by cell injection without the need to intervene surgically. These models were utilized for immunotherapies with genetic or plant-derived therapeutic vaccines. In particular, the head/neck orthotopic model appears to be very promising for studies combining chemo-radio-immune therapy that seems to be very effective in patients. PMID:26138695

  1. Simplified technique for auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation using a whole graft

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253

  2. Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model.

    PubMed

    Weir, Chris J; Hudson, Amanda L; Peters, Lyndsay; Howell, Viive M

    2015-01-01

    The enormous upsurge of interest in immune-based treatments for cancer such as vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and increased understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment in treatment response, collectively point to the need for immune-competent orthotopic models for pre-clinical testing of these new therapies. This paper demonstrates how to establish an orthotopic immune-competent rat model of pleural malignant mesothelioma. Monitoring disease progression in orthotopic models is confounded by the internal location of the tumors. To longitudinally monitor disease progression and its effect on circulating immune cells in this and other rat models of cancer, a single tube flow cytometry assay requiring only 25 µl whole blood is described. This provides accurate quantification of seven immune parameters: total lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, as well as the T-cell subsets CD4 and CD8, B-cells and Natural Killer cells. Different subsets of these parameters are useful in different circumstances and models, with the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio having the greatest utility for monitoring disease progression in the mesothelioma model. Analyzing circulating immune cell levels using this single tube method may also assist in monitoring the response to immune-based treatments and understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to success or failure of treatment. PMID:26485154

  3. MicroPET/CT Imaging of an Orthotopic Model of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme and Evaluation of Pulsed Low-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sean S.; Chunta, John L.; Robertson, John M.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Oliver Wong, Ching-Yee; Amin, Mitual; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive tumor that typically causes death due to local progression. To assess a novel low-dose radiotherapy regimen for treating GBM, we developed an orthotopic murine model of human GBM and evaluated in vivo treatment efficacy using micro-positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) tumor imaging. Methods: Orthotopic GBM xenografts were established in nude mice and treated with standard 2-Gy fractionation or 10 0.2-Gy pulses with 3-min interpulse intervals, for 7 consecutive days, for a total dose of 14 Gy. Tumor growth was quantified weekly using the Flex Triumph (GE Healthcare/Gamma Medica-Ideas, Waukesha, WI) combined PET-single-photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT imaging system and necropsy histopathology. Normal tissue damage was assessed by counting dead neural cells in tissue sections from irradiated fields. Results: Tumor engraftment efficiency for U87MG cells was 86%. Implanting 0.5 x 10{sup 6} cells produced a 50- to 70-mm{sup 3} tumor in 10 to 14 days. A significant correlation was seen between CT-derived tumor volume and histopathology-measured volume (p = 0.018). The low-dose 0.2-Gy pulsed regimen produced a significantly longer tumor growth delay than standard 2-Gy fractionation (p = 0.045). Less normal neuronal cell death was observed after the pulsed delivery method (p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo brain tumor imaging and longitudinal assessment of tumor growth and treatment response with microPET/CT. Pulsed radiation treatment was more efficacious than the standard fractionated treatment and was associated with less normal tissue damage.

  4. Bearings working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The service life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbomachinery bearings was a predominant factor in engine durability and maintenance problems. Recent data has indicated that bearing life is about one order of magnitude lower than the goal of seven and one-half hours particularly those in the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). Bearing technology, primarily cryogenic turbomachinery bearing technology, is expanded by exploring the life and performance effects of design changes; design concept changes; materials changes; manufacturing technique changes; and lubrication system changes. Each variation is assessed against the current bearing design in full scale cryogenic tests.

  5. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  6. Interstitial fluid pressure, vascularity and metastasis in ectopic, orthotopic and spontaneous tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Sarah Jane; Kalliomaki, Tuula MK; Brown, Allison; Yang, Victor X; Milosevic, Michael; Hill, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Background High tumour interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been adversely linked to poor drug uptake in patients, and to treatment response following radiotherapy in cervix cancer patients. In this study we measured IFP values in a selection of murine and xenograft models, spontaneously arising or transplanted either intramuscularly (i/m) or orthotopically and analysed their relationship to tumour vascularity and metastatic spread. Methods KHT-C murine fibrosarcoma, ME180 and SiHa human cervix carcinoma were grown either intramuscularly (i/m), sub-cutaneously (s/c) or orthotopically. Polyoma middle-T (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic spontaneous mammary tumours were studied either as spontaneous tumours or following orthotopic or i/m transplantation. IFP was measured in all tumours using the wick-in-needle method. Spontaneous metastasis formation in the lungs or lymph nodes was assessed in all models. An immunohistochemical analysis of tumour hypoxia, vascular density, lymphatic vascular density and proliferation was carried out in ME180 tumours grown both i/m and orthotopically. Blood flow was also assessed in the ME180 model using high-frequency micro-ultrasound functional imaging. Results Tumour IFP was heterogeneous in all the models irrespective of growth site: KHT-C i/m: 2–42 mmHg, s/c: 1–14 mmHg, ME180: i/m 5–68 mmHg, cervix 4–21 mmHg, SiHa: i/m 20–56 mmHg, cervix 2–26 mmHg, MMTV-PyMT: i/m: 13–45 mmHg, spontaneous 2–20 mmHg and transplanted 2–22 mmHg. Additionally, there was significant variation between individual tumours growing in the same mouse, and there was no correlation between donor and recipient tumour IFP values. Metastatic dissemination to the lungs or lymph nodes demonstrated no correlation with tumour IFP. Tumour hypoxia, proliferation, and lymphatic or blood vessel density also showed no relationship with tumour IFP. Speckle variance analysis of ultrasound images showed no differences in vascular perfusion between ME180 tumours grown

  7. Expression Profiling of Macrophages Reveals Multiple Populations with Distinct Biological Roles in an Immunocompetent Orthotopic Model of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poczobutt, Joanna M; De, Subhajyoti; Yadav, Vinod K; Nguyen, Teresa T; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Nemenoff, Raphael A

    2016-03-15

    Macrophages represent an important component of the tumor microenvironment and play a complex role in cancer progression. These cells are characterized by a high degree of plasticity, and they alter their phenotype in response to local environmental cues. Whereas the M1/M2 classification of macrophages has been widely used, the complexity of macrophage phenotypes has not been well studied, particularly in lung cancer. In this study we employed an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung adenocarcinoma in which murine lung cancer cells are directly implanted into the left lobe of syngeneic mice. Using multimarker flow cytometry, we defined and recovered several distinct populations of monocytes/macrophages from tumors at different stages of progression. We used RNA-seq transcriptional profiling to define distinct features of each population and determine how they change during tumor progression. We defined an alveolar resident macrophage population that does not change in number and expresses multiple genes related to lipid metabolism and lipid signaling. We also defined a population of tumor-associated macrophages that increase dramatically with tumor and selectively expresses a panel of chemokine genes. A third population, which resembles tumor-associated monocytes, expresses a large number of genes involved in matrix remodeling. By correlating transcriptional profiles with clinically prognostic genes, we show that specific monocyte/macrophage populations are enriched in genes that predict outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma, implicating these subpopulations as critical determinants of patient survival. Our data underscore the complexity of monocytes/macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, and they suggest that distinct populations play specific roles in tumor progression. PMID:26873985

  8. Pulsed Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy in Combination With Temozolomide in a Murine Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, David Y.; Chunta, John L.; Park, Sean S.; Huang, Jiayi; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Grills, Inga S.; Krueger, Sarah A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed low-dose radiation therapy (PLRT) combined with temozolomide (TMZ) as a novel treatment approach for radioresistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a murine model. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87MG hGBM tumors were established in Nu-Foxn1{sup nu} mice and imaged weekly using a small-animal micropositron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) system. Tumor volume was determined from contrast-enhanced microCT images and tumor metabolic activity (SUVmax) from the F18-FDG microPET scan. Tumors were irradiated 7 to 10 days after implantation with a total dose of 14 Gy in 7 consecutive days. The daily treatment was given as a single continuous 2-Gy dose (RT) or 10 pulses of 0.2 Gy using an interpulse interval of 3 minutes (PLRT). TMZ (10 mg/kg) was given daily by oral gavage 1 hour before RT. Tumor vascularity and normal brain damage were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Radiation therapy with TMZ resulted in a significant 3- to 4-week tumor growth delay compared with controls, with PLRT+TMZ the most effective. PLRT+TMZ resulted in a larger decline in SUVmax than RT+TMZ. Significant differences in survival were evident. Treatment after PLRT+TMZ was associated with increased vascularization compared with RT+TMZ. Significantly fewer degenerating neurons were seen in normal brain after PLRT+TMZ compared with RT+TMZ. Conclusions: PLRT+TMZ produced superior tumor growth delay and less normal brain damage when compared with RT+TMZ. The differential effect of PLRT on vascularization may confirm new treatment avenues for GBM.

  9. MicroRNA-16 suppresses metastasis in an orthotopic, but not autochthonous, mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Mohit; Whitley, Melody J.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Ma, Yan; Lev, Dina C.; Cardona, Diana M.; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis in a tumor-specific manner. We recently demonstrated that global downregulation of miRNAs after deleting dicer can promote development of distant metastases in a mouse model of primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS). In this study, we identified miRNAs that are differentially downregulated in metastatic STS in both human and mouse, and investigated the role of these miRNAs in metastasis. miRNA- TaqMan PCR arrays showed a global downregulation of miRNAs in metastatic human sarcomas. Similar analysis in mouse metastatic sarcomas revealed overlap for several downregulated miRNAs including miR-16, miR-103, miR-146a, miR-223, miR-342 and miR-511. Restoration of these downregulated miRNAs in mouse primary sarcoma cell lines showed that miR-16, but not other downregulated miRNAs, was able to significantly suppress both migration and invasion in vitro, without altering cell proliferation. In addition, orthotopic transplantation of a sarcoma cell line stably expressing miR-16 into the muscle of immunocompromised mice revealed that restoration of miR-16 can significantly decrease lung metastasis in vivo. However, no change in the rate of lung metastasis was observed when miR-16 was deleted in mouse primary sarcomas at sarcoma initiation. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-16 can have metastasis-suppressing properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the loss-of-function experiments in autochthonous tumors indicate that loss of miR-16 is not sufficient to promote metastasis in vivo. PMID:26044957

  10. ADAM17 mediates OSCC development in an orthotopic murine model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ADAM17 is one of the main sheddases of the cells and it is responsible for the cleavage and the release of ectodomains of important signaling molecules, such as EGFR ligands. Despite the known crosstalk between ADAM17 and EGFR, which has been considered a promising targeted therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of ADAM17 in OSCC development is not clear. Method In this study the effect of overexpressing ADAM17 in cell migration, viability, adhesion and proliferation was comprehensively appraised in vitro. In addition, the tumor size, tumor proliferative activity, tumor collagenase activity and MS-based proteomics of tumor tissues have been evaluated by injecting tumorigenic squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-9) overexpressing ADAM17 in immunodeficient mice. Results The proteomic analysis has effectively identified a total of 2,194 proteins in control and tumor tissues. Among these, 110 proteins have been down-regulated and 90 have been up-regulated in tumor tissues. Biological network analysis has uncovered that overexpression of ADAM17 regulates Erk pathway in OSCC and further indicates proteins regulated by the overexpression of ADAM17 in the respective pathway. These results are also supported by the evidences of higher viability, migration, adhesion and proliferation in SCC-9 or A431 cells in vitro along with the increase of tumor size and proliferative activity and higher tissue collagenase activity as an outcome of ADAM17 overexpression. Conclusion These findings contribute to understand the role of ADAM17 in oral cancer development and as a potential therapeutic target in oral cancer. In addition, our study also provides the basis for the development of novel and refined OSCC-targeting approaches. PMID:24495306

  11. Ranitidine modifies myeloid cell populations and inhibits breast tumor development and spread in mice.

    PubMed

    Vila-Leahey, Ava; Oldford, Sharon A; Marignani, Paola A; Wang, Jun; Haidl, Ian D; Marshall, Jean S

    2016-07-01

    Histamine receptor 2 (H2) antagonists are widely used clinically for the control of gastrointestinal symptoms, but also impact immune function. They have been reported to reduce tumor growth in established colon and lung cancer models. Histamine has also been reported to modify populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We have examined the impact of the widely used H2 antagonist ranitidine, on both myeloid cell populations and tumor development and spread, in three distinct models of breast cancer that highlight different stages of cancer progression. Oral ranitidine treatment significantly decreased the monocytic MDSC population in the spleen and bone marrow both alone and in the context of an orthotopic breast tumor model. H2 antagonists ranitidine and famotidine, but not H1 or H4 antagonists, significantly inhibited lung metastasis in the 4T1 model. In the E0771 model, ranitidine decreased primary tumor growth while omeprazole treatment had no impact on tumor development. Gemcitabine treatment prevented the tumor growth inhibition associated with ranitidine treatment. In keeping with ranitidine-induced changes in myeloid cell populations in non-tumor-bearing mice, ranitidine also delayed the onset of spontaneous tumor development, and decreased the number of tumors that developed in LKB1(-/-)/NIC mice. These results indicate that ranitidine alters monocyte populations associated with MDSC activity, and subsequently impacts breast tumor development and outcome. Ranitidine has potential as an adjuvant therapy or preventative agent in breast cancer and provides a novel and safe approach to the long-term reduction of tumor-associated immune suppression. PMID:27622015

  12. Ranitidine modifies myeloid cell populations and inhibits breast tumor development and spread in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Leahey, Ava; Oldford, Sharon A.; Marignani, Paola A.; Wang, Jun; Haidl, Ian D.; Marshall, Jean S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Histamine receptor 2 (H2) antagonists are widely used clinically for the control of gastrointestinal symptoms, but also impact immune function. They have been reported to reduce tumor growth in established colon and lung cancer models. Histamine has also been reported to modify populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We have examined the impact of the widely used H2 antagonist ranitidine, on both myeloid cell populations and tumor development and spread, in three distinct models of breast cancer that highlight different stages of cancer progression. Oral ranitidine treatment significantly decreased the monocytic MDSC population in the spleen and bone marrow both alone and in the context of an orthotopic breast tumor model. H2 antagonists ranitidine and famotidine, but not H1 or H4 antagonists, significantly inhibited lung metastasis in the 4T1 model. In the E0771 model, ranitidine decreased primary tumor growth while omeprazole treatment had no impact on tumor development. Gemcitabine treatment prevented the tumor growth inhibition associated with ranitidine treatment. In keeping with ranitidine-induced changes in myeloid cell populations in non-tumor-bearing mice, ranitidine also delayed the onset of spontaneous tumor development, and decreased the number of tumors that developed in LKB1−/−/NIC mice. These results indicate that ranitidine alters monocyte populations associated with MDSC activity, and subsequently impacts breast tumor development and outcome. Ranitidine has potential as an adjuvant therapy or preventative agent in breast cancer and provides a novel and safe approach to the long-term reduction of tumor-associated immune suppression. PMID:27622015

  13. Simultaneous Inhibition of EGFR, VEGFR and PDGFR Signaling Combined with Gemcitabine Produces Therapy of Human Pancreatic Carcinoma and Prolongs Survival in an Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Bucana, Corazon D.; Fan, Dominic; Baker, Cheryl H.; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Kuwai, Toshio; Abbruzzese, James L.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2006-01-01

    Although gemcitabine has been approved as the first-line chemotherapeutic reagent for pancreatic cancer, its response rate is low and average survival duration is still only marginal. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) modulate tumor progression, we hypothesized that inhibition of phosphorylation of all three on tumor cells, tumor-associated endothelial cells, and stroma cells would improve the treatment efficacy of gemcitabine in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model in nude mice and prolong survival. We implanted L3.6pl, a human pancreatic cancer cell, in the pancreas of nude mice. We found that tumor-associated endothelial cells in this model highly expressed phosphorylated EGFR, VEGFR, and PDGFR. Oral administration of AEE788, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR and VEGFR, decreased phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR. PDGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by STI571. Although intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gemcitabine did not inhibit tumor growth, its combination with AEE788 and STI571 produced >80% inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival in parallel with increases in number of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cell apoptosis, decreased microvascular density, decreased proliferation rate, and prolonged survival. STI571 treatment also decreased pericyte coverage on tumor-associated endothelial cells. Thus, inhibiting phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR, and PDGFR in combination with gemcitabine enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine, resulting in inhibition of experimental human pancreatic cancer growth and significant prolongation of survival. PMID:16288027

  14. Bearings: Technology and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  15. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  16. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  17. Extending bearing life

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.

    1997-08-01

    Long-term bearing operation cannot be achieved unless proper handling, storage, installation, and maintenance procedures are followed. These factors can shorten--sometimes drastically--expected bearing service life. Failures are generally related to improper lubrication or installation and induced conditions. Most major bearing manufacturers offer technical assistance in inspection, evaluation, and reporting on bearings which have failed in service. Actual percentages associated with each failure category vary, depending on the source, but generally they are 70% from lubrication and installation, 20% from induced factors, and 10% from reaching their fatigue limit or design life. The paper describes lubricant-related failures and procedures for the correct handling, storage, installation, and maintenance.

  18. Linear magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

  19. Pien Tze Huang inhibits liver metastasis by targeting TGF-β signaling in an orthotopic model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Cao, Zhiyun; Shen, Aling; Li, Qiongyu; Fu, Caixuan; Feng, Jianyu; Peng, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in almost all types of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process during the metastatic cascade. This process may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in treating various types of human malignancies, including CRC. Our published data suggest that PZH can induce apoptosis, as well as inhibit cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, thus suppressing CRC growth in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of PZH against CRC metastasis using a CRC liver metastasis mouse model to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH. MTT, migration, and Matrigel invasion assays were used to assess the effect of PZH on cell viability, migration and invasion. We then established an orthotopic liver metastasis model of colon cancer using microsurgical techniques. Mice were intragastrically administered 234 mg/kg/day dose of either PZH or saline for 14 days. The body and tumor weights of the mice were measured after they were sacrificed. Moreover, we examined the effect of PZH inhibition on liver metastasis. Finally, EMT-related proteins and the TGF-β signaling pathway were assessed using immunohistochemical staining (IHS). The present data revealed that PZH significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of CT-26 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which affirmed the inhibitory effect of PZH on CRC cell metastasis. No significant change was observed between the in vivo primary tumor growth and body weight. However, the control group had five cases of liver metastasis (5/6), whereas one case was found in the PZH group (1/6). Thus, PZH exhibited therapeutic efficacy against CRC metastasis without apparent toxicity. The inhibitory effect of PZH on EMT resulted in an increase in

  20. Detection of rejection of canine orthotopic cardiac allografts with indium-111 lymphocytes and gamma scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Rosenbloom, M.; Laschinger, J.C.; Saffitz, J.E.; Cox, J.L.; Sobel, B.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting canine heterotopic cardiac allograft rejection scintigraphically after administration of 111In lymphocytes. To determine whether the approach is capable of detecting rejection in orthotopic cardiac transplants in which labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool may reduce sensitivity, the present study was performed in which canine orthotopic cardiac transplants were evaluated in vivo. Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine A (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 2 wk after transplantation. Subsequently, therapy was tapered. Five successful allografts were evaluated scintigraphically every 3 days after administration of 100-350 microCi 111In autologous lymphocytes. Correction for labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool, but not actively sequestered in the allografts was accomplished by administering 3-6 mCi 99mTc autologous erythrocytes and employing a previously validated blood-pool activity correction technique. Cardiac infiltration of labeled lymphocytes was quantified as percent indium excess (%IE), scintigraphically detectable 111In in the transplant compared with that in blood, and results were compared with those of concomitantly performed endomyocardial biopsy. Scintigraphic %IE for hearts not undergoing rejection manifest histologically was 0.7 +/- 0.4. Percent IE for rejecting hearts was 6.8 +/- 4.0 (p less than 0.05). Scintigraphy detected each episode of rejection detected by biopsy. Scintigraphic criteria for rejection (%IE greater than 2 s.d. above normal) were not manifest in any study in which biopsies did not show rejection. Since scintigraphic results with 111In-labeled lymphocytes were concordant with biopsy results in orthotopic cardiac transplants, noninvasive detection of graft rejection in patients should be attainable with the approach developed.

  1. Mitral valve dysfunction and repair following orthotopic heart transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wigfield, C H; Lewis, A; Parry, G; Dark, J H

    2008-06-01

    Mitral valve dysfunction after orthotopic heart transplantation may cause symptoms refractory to medical therapy. In this report, we present a patient who underwent mitral annuloplasty for severe symptomatic mitral valve insufficiency 9 years after heart transplantation, and we critically appraise the literature available for mitral valve dysfunction in this setting. Mitral valve repair, when feasible, should be considered for mitral insufficiency after transplantation to improve functional status and reduce the risk of retransplantation--this is particularly prudent in view of chronic donor shortage. PMID:18589200

  2. Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant for Criggler-Najjar Syndrome: Report of 2 cases from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Dar, Faisal Saud; Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez; Hashmi, Syeda Shaheera; Zia, Haseeb; Malik, Munir Iqbal

    2016-05-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment option for certain liver disorders where liver structure is preserved. It includes Criggler Najjar syndrome (CNS), urea cycle defects and familial hypercholesterolaemia. Liver transplant as a treatment modality has only recently become available in Pakistan. Here we report two paediatric cases of CNS type 1 where auxiliary liver transplant was performed to correct jaundice and prevent inevitable brain damage. Both recipients and their respective living donors had successful surgery and are doing well. PMID:27183949

  3. Scedosporium apiosermum infection of the "Native" valve: Fungal endocarditis in an orthotopic heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Clement, Meredith E; Maziarz, Eileen K; Schroder, Jacob N; Patel, Chetan B; Perfect, John R

    2015-09-01

    Scedosporium apiospermum is an increasingly appreciated pathogen in immunosuppressed patients. We present a case of S. apiospermum endocarditis in a 70-year-old male who had undergone orthotopic heart transplant. Echocardiogram demonstrated a 1.4 cm tricuspid valve vegetation. He underwent valve replacement, complicated by fatal massive post-operative haemorrhage. Valve cultures grew S. apiospermum. To our knowledge, our case is the first reported instance of endocarditis caused by S. apiospermum in a recipient of a cardiac transplant. PMID:26288748

  4. Suppressive effects of a proton beam on tumor growth and lung metastasis through the inhibition of metastatic gene expression in 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Shik; Chun, So-Young; Jang, Tae Jung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    A proton beam is a next generation tool to treat intractable cancer. Although the therapeutic effects of a proton beam are well known, the effect on tumor metastasis is not fully described. Here, we investigated the effects of a proton beam on metastasis in highly invasive 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and their orthotopic breast cancer model. Cells were irradiated with 2, 4, 8 or 16 Gy proton beam, and changes in cell proliferation, survival, and migration were observed by MTT, colony forming and wound healing assays. 4T1 breast cancer cell-implanted BALB/c mice were established and the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups when tumor size reached 200 mm3. Breast tumors were selectively irradiated with 10, 20 or 30 Gy proton beam. Breast tumor sizes were measured twice a week, and breast tumor and lung tissues were pathologically observed. Metastasis-regulating gene expression was assessed with quantitative RT-PCR. A proton beam dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, survival and migration in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Also, growth of breast tumors in the 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model was significantly suppressed by proton beam irradiation without significant change of body weight. Furthermore, fewer tumor nodules metastasized from breast tumor into lung in mice irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam, but not with 10 and 20 Gy, than in control. We observed correspondingly lower expression levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are important factors in cancer metastasis, in breast tumor irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam. Proton beam irradiation did not affect expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Taken together, the data suggest that, although proton beam therapy is an effective tool for breast cancer treatment, a suitable dose is necessary to prevent metastasis-linked relapse and poor prognosis. PMID:27176787

  5. Efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier limit delivery and efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib (PD-0332991) in an orthotopic brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Karen E; Pokorny, Jenny; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Bakken, Katrina; Sarkaria, Jann N; Elmquist, William F

    2015-11-01

    6-Acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-([5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]amino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-7(8H)-one [palbociclib (PD-0332991)] is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and is currently undergoing clinical trials for many solid tumors. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and has limited treatment options. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 pathway is commonly dysregulated in GBM and is a promising target in treating this devastating disease. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of drugs to invasive regions of GBM, where the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein can prevent treatments from reaching the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms limiting the effectiveness of palbociclib therapy in an orthotopic xenograft model. The in vitro intracellular accumulation results demonstrated that palbociclib is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. In vivo studies in transgenic mice confirmed that efflux transport is responsible for the limited brain distribution of palbociclib. There was an ∼115-fold increase in brain exposure at steady state in the transporter deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice, and the efflux inhibitor elacridar significantly increased palbociclib brain distribution. Efficacy studies demonstrated that palbociclib is an effective therapy when GBM22 tumor cells are implanted in the flank, but ineffective in an orthotopic (intracranial) model. Moreover, doses designed to mimic brain exposure were ineffective in treating flank tumors. These results demonstrate that efflux transport in the BBB is involved in limiting the brain distribution of palbociclib and this has critical implications in determining effective dosing regimens of palbociclib therapy in the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26354993

  6. Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with anti-angiogenesis therapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) and cell line mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Murakami, Takashi; Maawy, Ali; Miwa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Mako; Yano, Shuya; Sato, Sho; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) that was VEGF-positive and an orthotopic VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2-GFP) as well as a VEGF-negative cell line (Panc-1) were tested. Nude mice with these tumors were treated with gemcitabine (GEM), bevacizumab (BEV), and S. typhimurium A1-R. BEV/GEM followed by S. typhimurium A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight compared to BEV/GEM treatment alone in the PDOX and MiaPaCa-2 models. Neither treatment was as effective in the VEGF-negative model as in the VEGF-positive models. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium A1-R following anti-angiogenic therapy is effective on pancreatic cancer including the PDOX model, suggesting its clinical potential. PMID:25402324

  7. Passive Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic bearing for limited rotation devices requires no feedback control system to sense and correct shaft position. Passive Magnetic Torsion Bearing requires no power supply and has no rubbing parts. Torsion wire restrains against axial instability. Magnetic flux geometry chosen to assure lateral stability with radial restoring force that maintains alignment.

  8. Bearing servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Rex A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tool for removing and/or replacing bearings in situ is presented. The tool is comprised of a brace having a first end adapted to engage a first end of the bearing housing, and a second end adapted to engage a second end of the bearing housing. If the two ends of the bearing housing are different in configuration, then the respective ends of the brace are configured accordingly. An elongate guide member integral with the brace has two parts, each projecting endwise from a respective end of the brace. A removable pressure plate can be mounted on either part of the guide member for longitudinal movement therealong and has first and second ends of different configurations adapted to engage the first and second ends of the bearing. A threaded-type drive is cooperative between the guide and the pressure plate to move the pressure plate longitudinally along the guide and apply a force to the bearing, either to remove the bearing from its housing, or to emplace a new bearing in the housing.

  9. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  10. Cylindrical bearing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1981-01-01

    Program CYBEAN computes behavior of rolling-element bearings including effects of bearing geometry, shaft misalinement, and temperature. Accurate assessment is possible for various outer-ring and housing configurations. CYBEAN is structured for coordinated execution of modules that perform specific analytical tasks. It is written in FORTRAN IV for use on the UNIVAC 1100/40 computer.

  11. CXCR4-targeted near-infrared imaging allows detection of orthotopic and metastatic human osteosarcoma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guofeng; Lu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijuan; Chen, Jie; Ma, Qiong; Zhang, Yinglong; Wen, Yanhua; Yang, Lianjia; Liu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ran, Henry; Qiu, Xiuchun; Ke, Shi; Zhou, Yong

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4 is expressed at primary and metastatic sites of osteosarcoma. We developed a novel CXCR4-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging agent (referred to as CXCR4-IR-783). The binding to representative osteosarcoma cells (F5M2 and F4 for high- and low- CXCR4 expression) was examined. CXCR4-IR-783 fluorescence was also examined in a mouse xenograft model of human osteosarcoma using NIR fluorescence microscopy and a Kodak in-vivo multispectral system. Pulmonary metastases in mice bearing osteosarcoma xenografts were detected by micro CT, (18)F-PET scan and NIR imaging scan. Briefly, the binding of CXCR4-IR-783 was significantly higher in F5M2 than in F4 cells. Intense NIR fluorescence signals were detected in osteosarcoma xenografts, with signal/background ratio at 4.87 in mice bearing the F5M2 cell. At 4 weeks after F5M2 cell inoculation, metastatic lesions in the lungs were detectable using CXCR4-IR-783 and micro-CT scan, but not with (18)F-FDG PET scan. In conclusion, CXCR4-IR-783 is a promising tool for detection of high CXCR4-expressing osteosarcoma, and particularly for its metastatic lesions. PMID:26472699

  12. CXCR4-targeted near-infrared imaging allows detection of orthotopic and metastatic human osteosarcoma in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guofeng; Lu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijuan; Chen, Jie; Ma, Qiong; Zhang, Yinglong; Wen, Yanhua; Yang, Lianjia; Liu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ran, Henry; Qiu, Xiuchun; Ke, Shi; Zhou, Yong

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4 is expressed at primary and metastatic sites of osteosarcoma. We developed a novel CXCR4-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging agent (referred to as CXCR4-IR-783). The binding to representative osteosarcoma cells (F5M2 and F4 for high- and low- CXCR4 expression) was examined. CXCR4-IR-783 fluorescence was also examined in a mouse xenograft model of human osteosarcoma using NIR fluorescence microscopy and a Kodak in-vivo multispectral system. Pulmonary metastases in mice bearing osteosarcoma xenografts were detected by micro CT, 18F-PET scan and NIR imaging scan. Briefly, the binding of CXCR4-IR-783 was significantly higher in F5M2 than in F4 cells. Intense NIR fluorescence signals were detected in osteosarcoma xenografts, with signal/background ratio at 4.87 in mice bearing the F5M2 cell. At 4 weeks after F5M2 cell inoculation, metastatic lesions in the lungs were detectable using CXCR4-IR-783 and micro-CT scan, but not with 18F-FDG PET scan. In conclusion, CXCR4-IR-783 is a promising tool for detection of high CXCR4-expressing osteosarcoma, and particularly for its metastatic lesions. PMID:26472699

  13. Arcturus and the Bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  14. OTV bearing deflection investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.

    1993-04-01

    The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer Investigation was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not investigated, but might yield different results.

  15. Effects of exercise training on tumor hypoxia and vascular function in the rodent preclinical orthotopic prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Danielle J; Nguyen, Linda M-D; Siemann, Dietmar W; Behnke, Bradley J

    2013-12-01

    Regular physical exercise is considered to be an integral component of cancer care strategies. However, the effect of exercise training on tumor microvascular oxygenation, hypoxia, and vascular function, all of which can affect the tumor microenvironment, remains unknown. Using an orthotopic preclinical model of prostate cancer, we tested the hypotheses that, after exercise training, in the tumor, there would be an enhanced microvascular Po2, increased number of patent vessels, and reduced hypoxia. We also investigated tumor resistance artery contractile properties. Dunning R-3327 AT-1 tumor cells (10(4)) were injected into the ventral prostate of 4-5-mo-old male Copenhagen or Nude rats, which were randomly assigned to tumor-bearing exercise trained (TB-Ex trained; n = 15; treadmill exercise for 5-7 wk) or sedentary groups (TB-Sedentary; n = 12). Phosphorescence quenching was used to measure tumor microvascular Po2, and Hoechst-33342 and EF-5 were used to measure patent vessels and tumor hypoxia, respectively. Tumor resistance artery function was assessed in vitro using the isolated microvessel technique. Compared with sedentary counterparts, tumor microvascular Po2 increased ∼100% after exercise training (TB-Sedentary, 6.0 ± 0.3 vs. TB-Ex Trained, 12.2 ± 1.0 mmHg, P < 0.05). Exercise training did not affect the number of patent vessels but did significantly reduce tumor hypoxia in the conscious, resting condition from 39 ± 12% of the tumor area in TB-Sedentary to 4 ± 1% in TB-Ex Trained. Exercise training did not affect vessel contractile function. These results demonstrate that after exercise training, there is a large increase in the driving force of O2 from the tumor microcirculation, which likely contributes to the considerable reduction in tumor hypoxia. These results suggest that exercise training can modulate the microenvironment of the tumor, such that a sustained reduction in tumor hypoxia occurs, which may lead to a less aggressive phenotype and

  16. Adenoviral targeting of malignant melanoma for fluorescence-guided surgery prevents recurrence in orthotopic nude-mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma requires precise resection in order to avoid metastatic recurrence. We report here that the telomerase-dependent, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing adenovirus OBP-401 could label malignant melanoma with GFP in situ in orthotopic mouse models. OBP-401-based fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) resulted in the complete resection of malignant melanoma in the orthotopic models, where conventional bright-light surgery (BLS) could not. High-dose administration of OBP-401 enabled FGS without residual cancer cells or recurrence, due to its dual effect of cancer-cell labeling with GFP and killing. PMID:26701857

  17. Impact of Metronomic UFT/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy and Antiangiogenic Drug Assessed in a New Preclinical Model of Locally Advanced Orthotopic Hepatocellular Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Terence C; Man, Shan; Lee, Christina R; Xu, Ping; Kerbel, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an intrinsically chemotherapy refractory malignancy. Development of effective therapeutic regimens would be facilitated by improved preclinical HCC models. Currently, most models consist of subcutaneous human tumor transplants in immunodeficient mice; however, these do not reproduce the extensive liver disease associated with HCC or metastasize. To address this deficiency, we developed an orthotopic model. Human HCC cells were transfected with the gene encoding secretable β-subunit human choriogonadotropin (β-hCG), which was used as a surrogate marker of tumor burden. The HCC cells were implanted into the left liver lobe of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, after which the efficacy of different therapies was evaluated on established, but liver-confined human Hep3B cell line HCC. Treatments included sorafenib or metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CTX), UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, or doxorubicin either alone or in various combinations, with or without an antiangiogenic agent, DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner but caused severe weight loss in SCID mice, thus necessitating use of DC101 in subsequent experiments. Although less toxicity was observed using either single or doublet metronomic chemotherapy without any added antiangiogenic agent, none, provided survival benefit. In contrast, significantly improved overall survival was observed using various combinations of metronomic chemotherapy regimens such as UFT + CTX with DC101. In conclusion, using this model of liver-confined but advanced HCC suggests that the efficacy of a targeted antiangiogenic drug or metronomic chemotherapy can be mutually enhanced by concurrent combination treatment. PMID:20234820

  18. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  19. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Seropositive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kittleson, Michelle M.; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W. David; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus—accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation. PMID:27047290

  20. An improved intrafemoral injection with minimized leakage as an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiromi; Iyer, Swathi V; Sasaki, Ken; Tawfik, Ossama W; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-10-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common type of primary bone cancer, is the second highest cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. To understand the mechanisms behind osteosarcoma progression and to discover novel therapeutic strategies for this disease, a reliable and appropriate mouse model is essential. For this purpose, osteosarcoma cells need to be injected into the bone marrow. Previously, the intratibial and intrafemoral injection methods were reported; however, the major drawback of these methods is the potential leakage of tumor cells from the injection site during or after these procedures. To overcome this, we have established an improved method to minimize leakage in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. By taking advantage of the anatomical benefits of the femur with less bowing and larger medullary cavity than those of the tibia, osteosarcoma cells are injected directly into the femoral cavity following reaming of its intramedullary space. To prevent potential leakage of tumor cells during and after the surgery, the injection site is sealed with bone wax. This method requires a minor surgery of approximately 15min under anesthesia. Our established orthotopic osteosarcoma model could serve as a valuable and reliable tool for examining progression of various types of bone tumors. PMID:26142221

  1. The long-term fate of fresh and frozen orthotopic bone allografts in genetically defined rats.

    PubMed

    Bos, G D; Goldberg, V M; Gordon, N H; Dollinger, B M; Zika, J M; Powell, A E; Heiple, K G

    1985-01-01

    Fresh and frozen orthotopic iliac crest bone grafts in rats were studied histologically for determination of the long-term effects of histocompatibility matching and the freezing process on orthotopic bone graft incorporation. Grafts exchanged between groups of inbred rats, syngeneic or differing with respect to major or minor histocompatibility loci, were studied histologically at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 150 days after bone transplantation. A numerical histologic scoring system was developed and used by three observers for evaluation of coded hematoxylin and eosin sections. All frozen graft groups had the same fate regardless of histocompatibility relations between donors and recipients, and all grafts were inferior to fresh syngeneic grafts. Both fresh allograft groups received similar scores and initially at 20 and 30 days had scores similar to those of the fresh syngeneic groups. In the later intervals, however, the fresh allografts were inferior to the fresh syngeneic grafts and similar to the frozen groups. This is consistent with an older model describing two distinct phases of osteogenesis. In the long term, frozen syngeneic and fresh and frozen allografts across major and minor histocompatibility barriers were comparable, but all were significantly inferior to fresh syngeneic bone grafts. PMID:3893828

  2. A New Cone-Shaped Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Orthotopic Position: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan; Peregrin, Jan H.; Pulda, Zdenek; Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Roesch, Josef

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate a newly designed cone-shaped aortic valve prosthesis (CAVP) for one-step transcatheter placement in an orthotopic position. The study was conducted in 15 swine using either the transcarotid (11 animals) or the transfemoral (4 animals) artery approach. A 12- or 13-Fr sheath was inserted via arterial cutdown. The CAVP was deployed under fluoroscopic control and its struts, by design, induced significant native valve insufficiency. CAVP function was evaluated by aortography and aortic pressure curve tracing. In 11 of 15 swine the CAVP was properly deployed and functioned well throughout the scheduled period of 2-3 h. In three swine the CAVPs were placed lower than intended, however, they were functional even in the left ventricular outflow tract position. One swine expired due to inadvertent low CAVP placement that caused both aortic regurgitation and immobilization of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the valve struts. We conclude that this design of CAVP is relatively easy to deploy, works well throughout a short time period (2-3 h), and, moreover, seems to be reliable even in a lower-than-orthotopic position (e.g., infra-annulary space). Longer-term studies are needed for its further evaluation.

  3. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma in an orthotopic zebrafish tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jian; Cao, Ziquan; Hosaka, Kayoko; Jensen, Lasse; Yang, Huasheng; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly invasive malignant tumor that often invades the brain and metastasizes to distal organs through the blood stream. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma can occur at the early stage of tumor development. However, an optimal preclinical model to study retinoblastoma invasiveness and metastasis in relation to drug treatment has not been developed. Here, we developed an orthotopic zebrafish model in which retinoblastoma invasion and metastasis can be monitored at a single cell level. We took the advantages of immune privilege and transparent nature of developing zebrafish embryos. Intravitreal implantation of color-coded retinoblastoma cells allowed us to kinetically monitor tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Further, interactions between retinoblastoma cells and surrounding microvasculatures were studied using a transgenic zebrafish that exhibited green fluorescent signals in blood vessels. We discovered that tumor cells invaded neighboring tissues and blood stream when primary tumors were at the microscopic sizes. These findings demonstrate that retinoblastoma metastasis occurs at the early stage and antiangiogenic drugs such as Vegf morpholino and sunitinib could potentially interfere with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Thus, this orthotopic retinoblastoma model offers a new and unique opportunity to study the early events of tumor invasion, metastasis and drug responses. PMID:26169357

  4. Magnetically-controlled bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed magnetic-lubricant ball-bearing assembly has permanently-magnetized bearing retainer fabricated of porous material. Pores of retainer are filled with ferrolubricant. Surface tension causes retainer to deliver sufficient lubricant to nonmagnetic ball bearings.

  5. Ball Bearing Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

  6. Magnetic bearing update

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1995-05-25

    Stabilization of whirl instability by floppy, viscous bearing mounts is discussed and required material properties are estimated for the new tilt-whirl mode in eddy-current stabilized magnetic bearings. A relatively low Young`s modules Y {approximately} 10{sup 5} and high viscosity {zeta} {approximately} 10{sup 7} are required (both in MKS units), suggesting the need for careful mounting design. New information on periodic bearings shows that, thus far, Earshaw`s Theorem cannot be defeated by periodicity, despite the author`s earlier claims.

  7. Ball and Roller Bearings. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual provides a subject reference for ball and roller bearings. The following topics are included: (1) bearing nomenclature, (2) bearing uses, (3) bearing capacities, (4) shop area working conditions, (5) bearing removal, (6) bearing cleaning and inspection, (7) bearing replacement, (8) bearing lubrication, (9) bearing installation, (10)…

  8. Arkansas black bear hunter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pharris, Larry D.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters in Arkansas following the 1980-84 bear seasons to determine participation, hunter success, and number of bears observed by hunters. Man-days of hunting to harvest a bear ranged from 148 to 671 and hunter success ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. With the exception of 1980, number of permits issued, man-days of bear hunting, and bears harvested appear affected by hunting permit cost. 

  9. Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica) - derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Zhong, Weixiong; Fischer, Joseph W.; Mustafa, Ala; Shi, Xudong Daniel; Meske, Louise; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit. K

    2012-01-01

    We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa) in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2X106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p=0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. PCa metastasis into the liver, lungs and lymph nodes was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p=0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p=0.60) and liver (p=0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p=0.034) and lungs (p=0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p=0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa. PL: Plumbagin, PCa: Prostate cancer. PMID

  10. Roller bearing geometry design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  11. Magnetically levitated superconducting bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, B.R.; Lynds, L. Jr.

    1993-10-26

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet mounted on a shaft that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor supported on a stator in proximity to the magnet. The superconductor is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet and supports a load on the shaft. The interaction between the superconductor and magnet also produces surface screening currents that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature. The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet is supported on the stator and the superconductor is mounted on the shaft. The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field. 6 figures.

  12. Evaluation of miR-122-regulated suicide gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Dong, Xiaoyan; Tian, Wenhong; Lu, Yue; Hu, Jianyan; Liu, Yunfan; Yuchi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Intratumoral administration of adenoviral vector encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene (Ad-TK) followed by systemic ganciclovir (GCV) is an effective approach in treating experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, hepatotoxicity due to unwanted vector spread and suicide gene expression limited the application of this therapy. miR-122 is an abundant, liver-specific microRNA whose expression is decreased in human primary HCC and HCC-derived cell lines. These different expression profiles provide an opportunity to induce tumor-specific gene expression by miR-122 regulation. Methods By inserting miR-122 target sequences (miR-122T) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TK gene, we constructed adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing miR-122-regulated TK (Ad-TK-122T) and report genes. After intratumoral administration of Ad vectors into an orthotopic miR-122-deficient HCC mouse model, we observed the miR-122-regulated transgene expression and assessed the antitumor activity and safety of Ad-TK-122T. Results Insertion of miR-122T specifically down-regulated transgene expression in vitro and selectively protected the miR-122-positive cells from killing by TK/GCV treatment. Insertion of miR-122T led to significant reduction of tansgene expression in the liver without inhibition of its expression in tumors in vivo, resulting in an 11-fold improvement of tumor-specific transgene expression. Intratumoral injection of Ad vectors mediated TK/GCV system led to a vector dosage-dependent regression of tumor. The insertion of miR-122T does not influence the antitumor effects of suicide gene therapy. Whereas mice administrated with Ad-TK showed severe lethal hepatotoxicity at the effective therapeutic dose, no liver damage was found in Ad-TK-122T group. Conclusions miR-122-regulated TK expression achieved effective anti-tumor effects and increased the safety of intratumoral delivery of adenovirus-mediated TK/GCV gene therapy for miR-122

  13. Hydrostatic bearing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, R. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing support system is provided which comprises a bearing housing having a polygonally configured outer surface which defines at least three symmetrically disposed working faces and a plurality of pressure plates, each of which is disposed relatively opposite a corresponding working face and spaced therefrom to define a gap therebetween. A hydrostatic support film is created in the gap for supporting the housing in spaced relationship to the pressure plates.

  14. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.