These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Neuronal Glucose Transporter Isoform 3 Deficient Mice Demonstrate Features of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT) isoform 3 deficiency in null heterozygous mice led to abnormal spatial learning and working memory but normal acquisition and retrieval during contextual conditioning, abnormal cognitive flexibility with intact gross motor ability, electroencephalographic seizures, perturbed social behavior with reduced vocalization and stereotypies at low frequency. This phenotypic expression is unique as it combines the neurobehavioral with the epileptiform characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. This clinical presentation occurred despite metabolic adaptations consisting of an increase in microvascular/glial GLUT1, neuronal GLUT8 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoform 2 concentrations, with minimal to no change in brain glucose uptake but an increase in lactate uptake. Neuron-specific glucose deficiency has a negative impact on neurodevelopment interfering with functional competence. This is the first description of GLUT3 deficiency that forms a possible novel genetic mechanism for pervasive developmental disorders, such as the neuropsychiatric autism spectrum disorders, requiring further investigation in humans. PMID:19506559

Zhao, Yuanzi; Fung, Camille; Shin, Don; Shin, Bo-Chul; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Sankar, Raman; Ehninger, Dan; Silva, Alcino; Devaskar, Sherin U.

2014-01-01

2

Dendritic spine abnormalities in APP transgenic mice demonstrated by gene transfer and intravital multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of amyloid-beta (A?) into senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a hallmark neuropathological feature of the disorder, which likely contributes to alterations in neuronal structure and function. Recent work has revealed changes in neurite architecture associated with plaques and functional changes in cortical signaling in amyloid precursor protein (APP) expressing mouse models of AD. Here we developed a method using gene transfer techniques to introduce GFP into neurons allowing the investigation of neuronal processes in the vicinity of plaques. Multiphoton imaging of GFP-labeled neurons in living Tg2576 APP mice revealed disrupted neurite trajectories and reductions in dendritic spine density compared to age-matched control mice. A profound deficit in spine density (?50%) extends approximately 20 ?m from plaque edges. Importantly, a robust decrement (?25%) also occurs on dendrites not associated with plaques, suggesting widespread loss of postsynaptic apparatus. Plaques and dendrites remained stable over the course of weeks of imaging. Post-mortem analysis of axonal immunostaining and co-localization of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein staining around plaques indicate a parallel loss of pre- and postsynaptic partners. These results show considerable changes in dendrites and dendritic spines in APP transgenic mice, demonstrating a dramatic synaptotoxic effect of dense core plaques. Decreased spine density will likely contribute to altered neural system function and behavioral impairments observed in Tg2576 mice. PMID:16079410

Spires, Tara L.; Meyer-Luehmann, Melanie; Stern, Edward A.; McLean, Pamela J.; Skoch, Jesse; Nguyen, Paul T.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Hyman, Bradley T.

2007-01-01

3

Ultrastructural features of malignant syphilis and demonstration of Treponema pallidum.  

PubMed

This paper reports a case of malignant syphilis (man, 39 years old) in whom ultrastructural investigations of a typical nodule revealed an extremely low amount of bacteria with the characteristics of Treponema pallidum in poorly differentiated cells of the dermal infiltrate with plasma cells, stimulated lymphocytes, and neutrophils as predominating cell types. Most of the microorganisms bore signs of disintegration. Vascular changes and exocytosis were only demonstrable by light microscopy in a second nodule. Together with the high production rate of immunoglobulins and an excessive inflammatory reaction, these findings point to an aberrant biologic reaction pattern of those patients who develop malignant syphilis. Unfortunately, further investigations concerning a possible impairment of cellular immunity as supposed in the literature, had not been possible in the present case. PMID:6343268

Bahmer, F A; Anton-Lamprecht, L

1983-04-01

4

Dendritic spine abnormalities in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice demonstrated by gene transfer and intravital multiphoton microscopy.  

PubMed

Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) into senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a hallmark neuropathological feature of the disorder, which likely contributes to alterations in neuronal structure and function. Recent work has revealed changes in neurite architecture associated with plaques and functional changes in cortical signaling in amyloid precursor protein (APP) expressing mouse models of AD. Here we developed a method using gene transfer techniques to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP) into neurons, allowing the investigation of neuronal processes in the vicinity of plaques. Multiphoton imaging of GFP-labeled neurons in living Tg2576 APP mice revealed disrupted neurite trajectories and reductions in dendritic spine density compared with age-matched control mice. A profound deficit in spine density (approximately 50%) extends approximately 20 mum from plaque edges. Importantly, a robust decrement (approximately 25%) also occurs on dendrites not associated with plaques, suggesting widespread loss of postsynaptic apparatus. Plaques and dendrites remained stable over the course of weeks of imaging. Postmortem analysis of axonal immunostaining and colocalization of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density 95 protein staining around plaques indicate a parallel loss of presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. These results show considerable changes in dendrites and dendritic spines in APP transgenic mice, demonstrating a dramatic synaptotoxic effect of dense-cored plaques. Decreased spine density will likely contribute to altered neural system function and behavioral impairments observed in Tg2576 mice. PMID:16079410

Spires, Tara L; Meyer-Luehmann, Melanie; Stern, Edward A; McLean, Pamela J; Skoch, Jesse; Nguyen, Paul T; Bacskai, Brian J; Hyman, Bradley T

2005-08-01

5

Autism-associated gene Dlgap2 mutant mice demonstrate exacerbated aggressive behaviors and orbitofrontal cortex deficits  

PubMed Central

Background As elegant structures designed for neural communication, synapses are the building bricks of our mental functions. Recently, many studies have pointed out that synaptic protein-associated mutations may lead to dysfunctions of social cognition. Dlgap2, which encodes one of the main components of scaffold proteins in postsynaptic density (PSD), has been addressed as a candidate gene in autism spectrum disorders. To elucidate the disturbance of synaptic balance arising from Dlgap2 loss-of-function in vivo, we thus generated Dlgap2 ?/? mice to investigate their phenotypes of synaptic function and social behaviors. Methods The creation of Dlgap2 ?/? mice was facilitated by the recombineering-based method, Cre-loxP system and serial backcross. Reversal learning in a water T-maze was used to determine repetitive behaviors. The three-chamber approach task, resident–intruder test and tube task were performed to characterize the social behaviors of mutant mice. Cortical synaptosomal fraction, Golgi-Cox staining, whole-cell patch electrophysiology and transmission electron microscopy were all applied to investigate the function and structure of synapses in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of Dlgap2 ?/? mice. Results Dlgap2 ?/? mice displayed exacerbated aggressive behaviors in the resident–intruder task, and elevated social dominance in the tube test. In addition, Dlgap2 ?/? mice exhibited a clear reduction of receptors and scaffold proteins in cortical synapses. Dlgap2 ?/? mice also demonstrated lower spine density, decreased peak amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current and ultra-structural deficits of PSD in the OFC. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that Dlgap2 plays a vital role in social behaviors and proper synaptic functions of the OFC. Moreover, these results may provide valuable insights into the neuropathology of autism. PMID:25071926

2014-01-01

6

Alzheimer's disease-like pathological features in transgenic mice expressing the APP  

E-print Network

Alzheimer's disease-like pathological features in transgenic mice expressing the APP intracellular with the hypothesis. A peptides are generated when amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by presenilins, a process that also produces APP intracellular domain (AICD). We previously generated AICD- overexpressing

7

Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

2007-04-01

8

Ablation of the inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase mitigates features of Parkinson's disease in mice.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which can be modeled by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Inflammatory oxidants have emerged as key contributors to PD- and MPTP-related neurodegeneration. Here, we show that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a key oxidant-producing enzyme during inflammation, is upregulated in the ventral midbrain of human PD and MPTP mice. We also show that ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons of mutant mice deficient in MPO are more resistant to MPTP-induced cytotoxicity than their wild-type littermates. Supporting the oxidative damaging role of MPO in this PD model are the demonstrations that MPO-specific biomarkers 3-chlorotyrosine and hypochlorous acid-modified proteins increase in the brains of MPTP-injected mice. This study demonstrates that MPO participates in the MPTP neurotoxic process and suggests that inhibitors of MPO may provide a protective benefit in PD. PMID:16014720

Choi, Dong-Kug; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Perier, Celine; Tieu, Kim; Teismann, Peter; Wu, Du-Chu; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Vila, Miquel; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Heinecke, Jay W; Przedborski, Serge

2005-07-13

9

Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

2004-01-01

10

Progress Towards Completion of the MICE Demonstration of Muon Ionization Cooling  

E-print Network

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory aims to demonstrate $\\approx$ 10% ionization cooling of a muon beam by its interaction with low-Z absorber materials followed by restoration of longitudinal momentum in RF linacs. MICE Step IV, including the first LH2 or LiH absorber cell sandwiched between two particle tracking spectrometers, is the collaboration's near-term goal. Two large superconducting spectrometer solenoids and one focus coil solenoid will provide a magnetic field of $\\approx$4 T in the tracker and absorber-cell volumes. The status of these components is described, as well as progress towards Steps V and VI, including the eight RF cavities to provide the required 8 MV/m gradient in a strong magnetic field; this entails an RF drive system to deliver 2 MW, 1 ms pulses of 201 MHz frequency at 1 Hz repetition rate, the distribution network to deliver 1 MW to each cavity with correct RF phasing, diagnostics to determine the gradient and the muon transit phase...

,

2013-01-01

11

Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features  

PubMed Central

Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOAdeficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:22850464

Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

2012-01-01

12

Senescence induced by RECQL4 dysfunction contributes to Rothmund-Thomson syndrome features in mice.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence refers to irreversible growth arrest of primary eukaryotic cells, a process thought to contribute to aging-related degeneration and disease. Deficiency of RecQ helicase RECQL4 leads to Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), and we have investigated whether senescence is involved using cellular approaches and a mouse model. We first systematically investigated whether depletion of RECQL4 and the other four human RecQ helicases, BLM, WRN, RECQL1 and RECQL5, impacts the proliferative potential of human primary fibroblasts. BLM-, WRN- and RECQL4-depleted cells display increased staining of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), higher expression of p16(INK4a) or/and p21(WAF1) and accumulated persistent DNA damage foci. These features were less frequent in RECQL1- and RECQL5-depleted cells. We have mapped the region in RECQL4 that prevents cellular senescence to its N-terminal region and helicase domain. We further investigated senescence features in an RTS mouse model, Recql4-deficient mice (Recql4(HD)). Tail fibroblasts from Recql4(HD) showed increased SA-?-gal staining and increased DNA damage foci. We also identified sparser tail hair and fewer blood cells in Recql4(HD) mice accompanied with increased senescence in tail hair follicles and in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, dysfunction of RECQL4 increases DNA damage and triggers premature senescence in both human and mouse cells, which may contribute to symptoms in RTS patients. PMID:24832598

Lu, H; Fang, E F; Sykora, P; Kulikowicz, T; Zhang, Y; Becker, K G; Croteau, D L; Bohr, V A

2014-01-01

13

Cfh Genotype Interacts With Dietary Glycemic Index to Modulate Age-Related Macular Degeneration-Like Features in Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major risk factors for AMD. We explored the effects of GI on development of early AMD-like features and changes to central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in Cfh-null mice. Methods. Aged 11-week-old wild type (WT) C57Bl/6J or Cfh-null mice were group pair-fed high or low GI diets for 33 weeks. At 10 months of age, mice were evaluated for early AMD-like features in the neural retina and RPE by light and electron microscopy. Brains were analyzed for Iba1 macrophage/microglia immunostaining, an indicator of inflammation. Results. The 10-month-old WT mice showed no retinal abnormalities on either diet. The Cfh-null mice, however, showed distinct early AMD-like features in the RPE when fed a low GI diet, including vacuolation, disruption of basal infoldings, and increased basal laminar deposits. The Cfh-null mice also showed thinning of the RPE, hypopigmentation, and increased numbers of Iba1-expressing macrophages in the brain, irrespective of diet. Conclusions. The presence of early AMD-like features by 10 months of age in Cfh-null mice fed a low GI diet is surprising, given the apparent protection from the development of such features in aged WT mice or humans consuming lower GI diets. Our findings highlight the need to consider gene–diet interactions when developing animal models and therapeutic approaches to treat AMD. PMID:24370827

Rowan, Sheldon; Weikel, Karen; Chang, Min-Lee; Nagel, Barbara A.; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Amanda; Grant, Maria B.; Fliesler, Steven J.; Smith, Donald; Taylor, Allen

2014-01-01

14

The Community Features and Factors Influencing Surface Runoff of Restoration Vegetation in Xinfeng National Demonstration Zone, SE China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xinfeng, is the typical region of the vegetation restoration of serious soil and water loss zone and a typical national demonstration zone for biological measures to control soil erosion in Jiangxi Province, SE China, in which the relationship between surface runoff and environmental factors, soil features and community features of restoration vegetation were analyzed using Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and

Dai-hua Qi; Zhi-yong Xia; Lin Huang

2010-01-01

15

Ultrastructural features of spongiform encephalopathy transmitted to mice from three species of bovidae.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural neuropathology of mice experimentally inoculated with brain tissue of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi; subfamily Bovinae), or kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros; subfamily Bovinae) affected with spongiform encephalopathy was compared with that of mice inoculated with brain tissue from cows (Bos taurus; subfamily Bovinae) with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). As fresh brain tissue was not available for nyala or kudu, formalin-fixed tissues were used for transmission from these species. The effect of formalin fixation was compared with that of fresh brain in mice inoculated with fixed and unfixed brain tissue from cows with BSE. The nature and distribution of the pathological changes were similar irrespective of the source of inoculum or whether the inoculum was from fresh or previously fixed tissue. Vacuolation caused by loss of organelles and swelling was present in dendrites and axon terminals. Vacuoles were also seen as double-membrane-bound and single-membrane-bound structures within myelinated fibres, axon terminals and dendrites. Vacuoles are considered to have more than one morphogenesis but the structure of vacuoles in this study was nevertheless similar to previous descriptions of spongiform change in naturally occurring and experimental scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and kuru. Other features of the ultrastructural pathology of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including dystrophic neurites and scrapie-associated particles or tubulovesicular bodies were also found in this study. Neuronal autophagy was a conspicuous finding. It is suggested that excess prion protein (PrP) accumulation, or accumulation of the scrapie-associated protease-resistant isoform of PrP, may lead to localised sequestration and phagocytosis of neuronal cytoplasm and ultimately to neuronal loss. PMID:1462768

Jeffrey, M; Scott, J R; Williams, A; Fraser, H

1992-01-01

16

Abstract--The Multiple Mice project demonstrated the financial [1] and learning [2] benefits of enabling students in  

E-print Network

1 Abstract-- The Multiple Mice project demonstrated the financial [1] and learning [2] benefits, a CAL application would have videos or animations that introduce the student to the concept of fractions by administering a self-assessment test that allows the student to gauge their level of comprehension

Rajamani, Sriram K.

17

DJ-1 deficient mice demonstrate similar vulnerability to pathogenic Ala53Thr human ?-syn toxicity  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. A pathological hallmark of PD is the presence of intraneuronal inclusions composed of fibrillized ?-synuclein (?-syn) in affected brain regions. Mutations in the gene, PARK7, which encodes DJ-1, can cause autosomal recessive early-onset PD. Although DJ-1 has been shown to be involved in diverse biological processes, several in vitro studies suggest that it can inhibit the formation and protect against the effects of ?-syn aggregation. We previously established and characterized transgenic mice expressing pathogenic Ala53Thr human ?-syn (M83 mice) that develop extensive ?-syn pathologies in the neuroaxis resulting in severe motor impairments and eventual fatality. In the current study, we have crossbred M83 mice on a DJ-1 null background (M83-DJnull mice) in efforts to determine the effects of the lack of DJ-1 in these mice. Animals were assessed and compared for survival rate, distribution of ?-syn inclusions, biochemical properties of ?-syn protein, demise and function of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and extent of gliosis in the neuroaxis. M83 and M83-DJnull mice displayed a similar onset of disease and pathological changes, and none of the analyses to assess for changes in pathogenesis revealed any significant differences between M83 and M83-DJnull mice. These findings suggest that DJ-1 may not function to directly modulate ?-syn nor does DJ-1 appear to play a role in protecting against the deleterious effects of expressing pathogenic Ala53Thr ?-syn in vivo. It is possible that ?-syn and DJ-1 mutations may lead to PD via independent mechanisms. PMID:20089532

Ramsey, Chenere P.; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Giasson, Benoit I.

2010-01-01

18

An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

Jacqueline Brehe (Carroll College Biology); Amy L. Way (Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania Clearfield Campus)

2008-03-04

19

Nonallele-specific Silencing of Mutant and Wild-type Huntingtin Demonstrates Therapeutic Efficacy in Huntington's Disease Mice  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutant huntingtin (htt) protein, and there are currently no effective treatments. Recently, we and others demonstrated that silencing mutant htt via RNA interference (RNAi) provides therapeutic benefit in HD mice. We have since found that silencing wild-type htt in adult mouse striatum is tolerated for at least 4 months. However, given the role of htt in various cellular processes, it remains unknown whether nonallele-specific silencing of both wild-type and mutant htt is a viable therapeutic strategy for HD. Here, we tested whether cosilencing wild-type and mutant htt provides therapeutic benefit and is tolerable in HD mice. After treatment, HD mice showed significant reductions in wild-type and mutant htt, and demonstrated improved motor coordination and survival. We performed transcriptional profiling to evaluate the effects of reducing wild-type htt in adult mouse striatum. We identified gene expression changes that are concordant with previously described roles for htt in various cellular processes. Also, several abnormally expressed transcripts associated with early-stage HD were differentially expressed in our studies, but intriguingly, those involved in neuronal function changed in opposing directions. Together, these encouraging and surprising findings support further testing of nonallele-specific RNAi therapeutics for HD. PMID:19240687

Boudreau, Ryan L; McBride, Jodi L; Martins, Ines; Shen, Shihao; Xing, Yi; Carter, Barrie J; Davidson, Beverly L

2009-01-01

20

Knock-In Reporter Mice Demonstrate that DNA Repair by Non-homologous End Joining Declines with Age  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of genome rearrangements is a characteristic of aged tissues. Since genome rearrangements result from faulty repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we hypothesized that DNA DSB repair becomes less efficient with age. The Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs a majority of DSBs in vertebrates. To examine age-associated changes in NHEJ, we have generated an R26NHEJ mouse model in which a GFP-based NHEJ reporter cassette is knocked-in to the ROSA26 locus. In this model, NHEJ repair of DSBs generated by the site-specific endonuclease, I-SceI, reconstitutes a functional GFP gene. In this system NHEJ efficiency can be compared across tissues of the same mouse and in mice of different age. Using R26NHEJ mice, we found that NHEJ efficiency was higher in the skin, lung, and kidney fibroblasts, and lower in the heart fibroblasts and brain astrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that NHEJ efficiency declined with age. In the 24-month old animals compared to the 5-month old animals, NHEJ efficiency declined 1.8 to 3.8-fold, depending on the tissue, with the strongest decline observed in the skin fibroblasts. The sequence analysis of 300 independent NHEJ repair events showed that, regardless of age, mice utilize microhomology sequences at a significantly higher frequency than expected by chance. Furthermore, the frequency of microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) events increased in the heart and lung fibroblasts of old mice, suggesting that NHEJ becomes more mutagenic with age. In summary, our study provides a versatile mouse model for the analysis of NHEJ in a wide range of tissues and demonstrates that DNA repair by NHEJ declines with age in mice, which could provide a mechanism for age-related genomic instability and increased cancer incidence with age. PMID:25033455

Vaidya, Amita; Mao, Zhiyong; Tian, Xiao; Spencer, Brianna; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

2014-01-01

21

Knock-in reporter mice demonstrate that DNA repair by non-homologous end joining declines with age.  

PubMed

Accumulation of genome rearrangements is a characteristic of aged tissues. Since genome rearrangements result from faulty repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we hypothesized that DNA DSB repair becomes less efficient with age. The Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs a majority of DSBs in vertebrates. To examine age-associated changes in NHEJ, we have generated an R26NHEJ mouse model in which a GFP-based NHEJ reporter cassette is knocked-in to the ROSA26 locus. In this model, NHEJ repair of DSBs generated by the site-specific endonuclease, I-SceI, reconstitutes a functional GFP gene. In this system NHEJ efficiency can be compared across tissues of the same mouse and in mice of different age. Using R26NHEJ mice, we found that NHEJ efficiency was higher in the skin, lung, and kidney fibroblasts, and lower in the heart fibroblasts and brain astrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that NHEJ efficiency declined with age. In the 24-month old animals compared to the 5-month old animals, NHEJ efficiency declined 1.8 to 3.8-fold, depending on the tissue, with the strongest decline observed in the skin fibroblasts. The sequence analysis of 300 independent NHEJ repair events showed that, regardless of age, mice utilize microhomology sequences at a significantly higher frequency than expected by chance. Furthermore, the frequency of microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) events increased in the heart and lung fibroblasts of old mice, suggesting that NHEJ becomes more mutagenic with age. In summary, our study provides a versatile mouse model for the analysis of NHEJ in a wide range of tissues and demonstrates that DNA repair by NHEJ declines with age in mice, which could provide a mechanism for age-related genomic instability and increased cancer incidence with age. PMID:25033455

Vaidya, Amita; Mao, Zhiyong; Tian, Xiao; Spencer, Brianna; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

2014-07-01

22

Patients with ACTN4 Mutations Demonstrate Distinctive Features of Glomerular Injury  

PubMed Central

Mutations in ACTN4, the gene encoding the actin-binding protein ?-actinin-4, are a cause of familial FSGS. We examined kidney biopsies from patients with ACTN4 mutations to characterize systematically the histopathology of kidney damage in these patients and to determine whether distinctive morphologic changes are associated with mutations in this gene. The changes observed with light microscopy were typical of FSGS and were morphologically heterogeneous, similar to other inherited podocytopathies. The ultrastructural characteristics, however, were distinctive: Most notably, the presence of cytoplasmic electron-dense aggregates in podocytes. Indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies to a conserved domain of ?-actinin-4 (present in both wild-type and mutant proteins) revealed a segmental and irregular granular staining pattern in the capillary walls of preserved glomeruli of ACTN4 mutants, whereas preserved glomeruli of patients with other podocyte diseases retained a global linear staining pattern for ?-actinin-4. These characteristics resemble features observed in mouse models of this disease and may aid in the identification of patients and families who harbor ACTN4 mutations. PMID:19357256

Henderson, Joel M.; Alexander, Mariam P.; Pollak, Martin R.

2009-01-01

23

Motor disturbances in mice with deficiency of the sodium channel gene Scn8a show features of human dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medJ mouse with twisting movements related to deficiency of the sodium channel Scn8a has been proposed as a model of kinesiogenic dystonia. This prompted us to examine the phenotype of these mice in more detail. By cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we could not detect any changes, demonstrating that the motor disturbances are not epileptic in nature, an important similarity

Melanie Hamann; Miriam H Meisler; Angelika Richter

2003-01-01

24

Treatment with CB2 Agonist JWH-133 Reduces Histological Features Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Hypercholesterolemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction, mostly due to the impairment of oxidative stress and endothelial function in the penis. The cannabinoid system might regulate peripheral mechanisms of sexual function; however, its role is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of CB2 activation on oxidative stress and fibrosis within the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic mice. Apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were fed with a western-type diet for 11 weeks and treated with JWH-133 (selective CB2 agonist) or vehicle during the last 3 weeks. CB2 receptor expression, total collagen content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within the penis were assessed. In vitro corpus cavernosum strips preparation was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. CB2 protein expression was shown in cavernosal endothelial and smooth muscle cells of wild type and hypercholesterolemic mice. Treatment with JWH-133 reduced ROS production and NADPH-oxidase expression in hypercholesterolemic mice penis. Furthermore, JWH-133 increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the corpus cavernosum and augmented NO bioavailability. The decrease in oxidative stress levels was accompanied with a reduction in corpus cavernosum collagen content. In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:24302957

Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo Araujo; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana Pereira; Faye, Younouss; Savergnini, Silvia Quintao; Lenglet, Sébastien; Mach, François; Steffens, Sabine; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Souza dos Santos, Robson Augusto; da Silva, Rafaela Fernandes

2013-01-01

25

Treatment with CB2 agonist JWH-133 reduces histological features associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice.  

PubMed

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction, mostly due to the impairment of oxidative stress and endothelial function in the penis. The cannabinoid system might regulate peripheral mechanisms of sexual function; however, its role is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of CB2 activation on oxidative stress and fibrosis within the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic mice. Apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were fed with a western-type diet for 11 weeks and treated with JWH-133 (selective CB2 agonist) or vehicle during the last 3 weeks. CB2 receptor expression, total collagen content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within the penis were assessed. In vitro corpus cavernosum strips preparation was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. CB2 protein expression was shown in cavernosal endothelial and smooth muscle cells of wild type and hypercholesterolemic mice. Treatment with JWH-133 reduced ROS production and NADPH-oxidase expression in hypercholesterolemic mice penis. Furthermore, JWH-133 increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the corpus cavernosum and augmented NO bioavailability. The decrease in oxidative stress levels was accompanied with a reduction in corpus cavernosum collagen content. In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:24302957

Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo Araujo; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana Pereira; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Faye, Younouss; Savergnini, Silvia Quintao; Lenglet, Sébastien; Mach, François; Steffens, Sabine; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; da Silva, Rafaela Fernandes

2013-01-01

26

Rabies Virus Infection of Primary Neuronal Cultures and Adult Mice: Failure To Demonstrate Evidence of Excitotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures derived from the cerebral cortices and hippocampi of 17-day-old mouse fetuses infected with the CVS strain of rabies virus showed loss of trypan blue exclusion, morphological apoptotic features, and activated caspase 3 expression, indicating apoptosis. The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate acid) antagonists ketamine (125 M) and MK-801 (60 M) were found to have no significant neuroprotective effect on CVS-infected neurons, while

Simon C. Weli; Courtney A. Scott; Christopher A. Ward; Alan C. Jackson

2006-01-01

27

Impaired GABA and glycine transmission triggers cardinal features of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in mice.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a neurological disease characterized by loss of normal REM motor inhibition and subsequent dream enactment. RBD is clinically relevant because it predicts neurodegenerative disease onset (e.g., Parkinson's disease) and is clinically problematic because it disrupts sleep and results in patient injuries and hospitalization. Even though the cause of RBD is unknown, multiple lines of evidence indicate that abnormal inhibitory transmission underlies the disorder. Here, we show that transgenic mice with deficient glycine and GABA transmission have a behavioral, motor, and sleep phenotype that recapitulates the cardinal features of RBD. Specifically, we show that mice with impaired glycine and GABA(A) receptor function exhibit REM motor behaviors, non-REM muscle twitches, sleep disruption, and EEG slowing--the defining disease features. Importantly, the RBD phenotype is rescued by drugs (e.g., clonazepam and melatonin) that are routinely used to treat human disease symptoms. Our findings are the first to identify a potential mechanism for RBD--we show that deficits in glycine- and GABA(A)-mediated inhibition trigger the full spectrum of RBD symptoms. We propose that these mice are a useful resource for investigating in vivo disease mechanisms and developing potential therapeutics for RBD. PMID:21562273

Brooks, Patricia L; Peever, John H

2011-05-11

28

Inflammation induced by infection potentiates tau pathological features in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Comorbidities that promote the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain to be uncovered and evaluated in animal models. Because elderly individuals are vulnerable to viral and bacterial infections, these microbial agents may be considered important comorbidities that could potentiate an already existing and tenuous inflammatory condition in the brain, accelerating cognitive decline, particularly if the cellular and molecular mechanisms can be defined. Researchers have recently demonstrated that triggering inflammation in the brain exacerbates tau pathological characteristics in animal models. Herein, we explore whether inflammation induced via viral infection, compared with inflammation induced via bacterial lipopolysaccharide, modulates AD-like pathological features in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that infectious agents may act as a comorbidity for AD. Our study shows that infection-induced acute or chronic inflammation significantly exacerbates tau pathological characteristics, with chronic inflammation leading to impairments in spatial memory. Tau phosphorylation was increased via a glycogen synthase kinase-3?-dependent mechanism, and there was a prominent shift of tau from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction. During chronic inflammation, we found that inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3? activity with lithium reduced tau phosphorylation and the accumulation of insoluble tau and reversed memory impairments. Taken together, infectious agents that trigger central nervous system inflammation may serve as a comorbidity for AD, leading to cognitive impairments by a mechanism that involves exacerbation of tau pathological characteristics. PMID:21531375

Sy, Michael; Kitazawa, Masashi; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Whitman, Lucia; Cheng, David; Lane, Thomas E; Laferla, Frank M

2011-06-01

29

Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features  

E-print Network

. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages...

Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

2013-05-01

30

Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur  

SciTech Connect

Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Geisler, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-05-23

31

The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ decreases features of the metabolic syndrome in ATM+/-/ApoE-/- mice.  

PubMed

A number of recent studies suggest that mitochondrial oxidative damage may be associated with atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome. However, much of the evidence linking mitochondrial oxidative damage and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) with these pathologies is circumstantial. Consequently the importance of mitochondrial ROS in the etiology of these disorders is unclear. Furthermore, the potential of decreasing mitochondrial ROS as a therapy for these indications is not known. We assessed the impact of decreasing mitochondrial oxidative damage and ROS with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in models of atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (fat-fed ApoE(-/-) mice and ATM(+/-)/ApoE(-/-) mice, which are also haploinsufficient for the protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). MitoQ administered orally for 14weeks prevented the increased adiposity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia associated with the metabolic syndrome. MitoQ also corrected hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis, induced changes in multiple metabolically relevant lipid species, and decreased DNA oxidative damage (8-oxo-G) in multiple organs. Although MitoQ did not affect overall atherosclerotic plaque area in fat-fed ATM(+/+)/ApoE(-/-) and ATM(+/-)/ApoE(-/-) mice, MitoQ reduced the macrophage content and cell proliferation within plaques and 8-oxo-G. MitoQ also significantly reduced mtDNA oxidative damage in the liver. Our data suggest that MitoQ inhibits the development of multiple features of the metabolic syndrome in these mice by affecting redox signaling pathways that depend on mitochondrial ROS such as hydrogen peroxide. These findings strengthen the growing view that elevated mitochondrial ROS contributes to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome and suggest a potential therapeutic role for mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. PMID:22210379

Mercer, John R; Yu, Emma; Figg, Nichola; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Prime, Tracy A; Griffin, Julian L; Masoodi, Mojgan; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin R

2012-03-01

32

Microarray Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Type I Interferons in Psoriasiform Pathology Development in D6-deficient Mice*  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response is normally limited by mechanisms regulating its resolution. In the absence of resolution, inflammatory pathologies can emerge, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. We have been studying the D6 chemokine scavenging receptor, which played an indispensable role in the resolution phase of inflammatory responses and does so by facilitating removal of inflammatory CC chemokines. In D6-deficient mice, otherwise innocuous cutaneous inflammatory stimuli induce a grossly exaggerated inflammatory response that bears many similarities to human psoriasis. In the present study, we have used transcriptomic approaches to define the molecular make up of this response. The data presented highlight potential roles for a number of cytokines in initiating and maintaining the psoriasis-like pathology. Most compellingly, we provide data indicating a key role for the type I interferon pathway in the emergence of this pathology. Neutralizing antibodies to type I interferons are able to ameliorate the psoriasis-like pathology, confirming a role in its development. Comparison of transcriptional data generated from this mouse model with equivalent data obtained from human psoriasis further demonstrates the strong similarities between the experimental and clinical systems. As such, the transcriptional data obtained in this preclinical model provide insights into the cytokine network active in exaggerated inflammatory responses and offer an excellent tool to evaluate the efficacy of compounds designed to therapeutically interfere with inflammatory processes. PMID:24194523

Baldwin, Helen M.; Pallas, Kenneth; King, Vicky; Jamieson, Thomas; McKimmie, Clive S.; Nibbs, Robert J. B.; Carballido, Jose M.; Jaritz, Marcus; Rot, Antal; Graham, Gerard J.

2013-01-01

33

In vivo demonstration of T lymphocyte migration and amelioration of ileitis in intestinal mucosa of SAMP1/Yit mice by the inhibition of MAdCAM-1  

PubMed Central

The aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD) remains unknown. Since SAMP1/Yit mice have been reported to develop CD-like spontaneous enteric inflammation, such mice have been studied as an animal model of CD. In this study, using this model we examined T lymphocyte migration in microvessels of intestinal mucosa in vivo and the expression of adhesion molecules by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence-labelled T lymphocytes isolated from AKR/J (control) mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient mice, and T lymphocyte migration in the postcapillary venules of Peyer's patches, submucosal microvessels, and villus capillaries of the terminal ileum was monitored using an intravital microscope. Adhesion of T lymphocytes was significantly increased in 35 week old SAMP1/Yit mice compared with that in AKR/J or 15 week old SAMP1/Yit mice. Immunohistochemical study showed increased infiltration of CD4, CD8 and ?7-integrin-positive cells and increased expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the terminal ileum of SAMP1/Yit mice. Antibodies against MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 significantly inhibited adhesion of T lymphocytes to microvessels of the terminal ileum, and anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody showed stronger suppressive effect than the anti-VCAM-1 antibody. Periodical administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody twice a week for 7 weeks significantly ameliorated ileitis of SAMP1/Yit mice, but submucosal hypertrophy was not significantly suppressed. Anti-VCAM-1 antibody treatment failed to show significant resolution of ileitis. In addition, anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody treatment also attenuated established ileitis. The results demonstrate that, although MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 play an important role in T lymphocyte–endothelial cell interactions in SAMP1/Yit mice, MAdCAM-1 may be a more appropriate target for therapeutic modulation of chronic ileitis. PMID:15762871

Matsuzaki, K; Tsuzuki, Y; Matsunaga, H; Inoue, T; Miyazaki, J; Hokari, R; Okada, Y; Kawaguchi, A; Nagao, S; Itoh, K; Matsumoto, S; Miura, S

2005-01-01

34

Of Mice, Birds, and Men: The Mouse Ultrasonic Song System Has Some Features Similar to Humans and Song-Learning Birds  

PubMed Central

Humans and song-learning birds communicate acoustically using learned vocalizations. The characteristic features of this social communication behavior include vocal control by forebrain motor areas, a direct cortical projection to brainstem vocal motor neurons, and dependence on auditory feedback to develop and maintain learned vocalizations. These features have so far not been found in closely related primate and avian species that do not learn vocalizations. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations with acoustic features similar to songs of song-learning birds. However, it is assumed that mice lack a forebrain system for vocal modification and that their ultrasonic vocalizations are innate. Here we investigated the mouse song system and discovered that it includes a motor cortex region active during singing, that projects directly to brainstem vocal motor neurons and is necessary for keeping song more stereotyped and on pitch. We also discovered that male mice depend on auditory feedback to maintain some ultrasonic song features, and that sub-strains with differences in their songs can match each other's pitch when cross-housed under competitive social conditions. We conclude that male mice have some limited vocal modification abilities with at least some neuroanatomical features thought to be unique to humans and song-learning birds. To explain our findings, we propose a continuum hypothesis of vocal learning. PMID:23071596

Arriaga, Gustavo; Zhou, Eric P.; Jarvis, Erich D.

2012-01-01

35

Demonstration of antigen-specific T cells and histopathological alterations in mice experimentally inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed Central

Antigen-specific T-cell responses and histopathological changes were studied in mice experimentally inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi B31. Inbred mice with different H-2 haplotypes and/or different genetic backgrounds were inoculated with B. burgdorferi organisms and tested for antigen-specific T-cell responses in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]) and in vitro (T-cell proliferation). Comparable DTH responses were found after inoculation with either inactivated (in the presence of adjuvants) or viable microorganisms in all mouse strains, except BALB/c, irrespective of the H-2 haplotype (b, d, k, or s) tested and the sex of the animals. Moreover, in mice presensitized to B. burgdorferi, DTH responses could be induced only with antigen preparations derived from the corresponding strain but not with those obtained from either related spirochetes such as Treponema phagedenis and Leptospira interrogans or unrelated bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. T cells isolated from lymph nodes or spleens of mice previously sensitized to B. burgdorferi but not those from naïve mice could be induced for antigen-specific proliferation in vitro, as revealed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Histopathological examination of mice inoculated with viable B. burgdorferi organisms revealed significant perivascular infiltrates consisting mainly of mononuclear and a few polymorphonuclear leukocytes in different organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys) and the appearance of giant multinucleated cells within the spleen similar to those found in human skin specimens of patients suffering from cutaneous manifestations of Lyme disease. Our findings suggest that mice are a suitable animal model with which to study the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Images PMID:2462540

Schaible, U E; Kramer, M D; Justus, C W; Museteanu, C; Simon, M M

1989-01-01

36

Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes  

PubMed Central

The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2?-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h—with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)—following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 1012 neutrons per cm2 (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study. PMID:23536304

Kueffer, Peter J.; Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Schuster, Seth A.; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Brockman, John D.; Nigg, David W.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

2013-01-01

37

Lineage targeted MHC-II transgenic mice demonstrate the role of dendritic cells in bacterial driven colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis involves an inadequately controlled immune reaction to intestinal microbiota and CD4+ T cells, dependent upon MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APC), play important roles The role of professional APC (macrophages and dendritic cells (DC)) and nonprofessional APC (intestinal epithelial cells (IEC)) in microbial driven intestinal inflammation remains controversial. Methods We generated transgenic animals on a MHC-II?/? genetic background in which MHC-II is expressed on a) DC via the CD11c promoter (CD11cTg) or b) IEC via the fatty acid binding protein (liver) promoter (EpithTg). These mice were crossed with Rag2?/? mice to eliminate T and B cells (CD11cTg/Rag2?/? and EpithTg/Rag2?/?). Helicobacter bilis (Hb) infection and adoptive transfer (AT) of naïve CD4+ T cells were used to trigger IBD. Results CD11cTg/Rag2?/? mice infected with Hb+AT developed severe colitis within three weeks post AT, similar to disease in positive control Rag2?/? mice infected with Hb+AT. CD11cTg/Rag2?/? mice given AT alone or Hb alone had significantly less severe colitis. In contrast, EpithTg/Rag2?/? mice infected with Hb+AT developed mild colitis by three weeks and even after 16 weeks post adoptive transfer, had only mild lesions. Conclusions MHC-II expression restricted to DCs is sufficient to induce severe colitis in the presence of T cells and a microorganism such as Hb within three weeks of adoptive transfer. Expression of MHC-II solely on IEC in the presence of a microbial trigger and T cells was insufficient for triggering severe colitis. PMID:22619032

Maggio-Price, Lillian; Seamons, Audrey; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Zeng, Weiping; Brabb, Thea; Ware, Carol; Lei, Mingzu; Hershberg, Robert M.

2012-01-01

38

Motor Neuron Rescue in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Demonstrates That Sensory-Motor Defects Are a Consequence, Not a Cause, of Motor Neuron Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The loss of motor neurons (MNs) is a hallmark of the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA); however, it is unclear whether this phenotype autonomously originates within the MN. To address this question, we developed an inducible mouse model of severe SMA that has perinatal lethality, decreased motor function, motor unit pathology, and hyperexcitable MNs. Using an Hb9-Cre allele, we increased Smn levels autonomously within MNs and demonstrate that MN rescue significantly improves all phenotypes and pathologies commonly described in SMA mice. MN rescue also corrects hyperexcitability in SMA motor neurons and prevents sensory-motor synaptic stripping. Survival in MN-rescued SMA mice is extended by only 5 d, due in part to failed autonomic innervation of the heart. Collectively, this work demonstrates that the SMA phenotype autonomously originates in MNs and that sensory-motor synapse loss is a consequence, not a cause, of MN dysfunction. PMID:22423102

Gogliotti, Rocky G.; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Barlow, Courtenay B.; Heier, Christopher R.; Heckman, C. J.

2012-01-01

39

The development of autoimmune features in aging mice is closely associated with alterations of the peripheral CD4(+) T-cell compartment.  

PubMed

Some signs of potential autoimmunity, such as the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) become prevalent with age. In most cases, elderly people with ANAs remain healthy. Here, we investigated whether the same holds true for inbred strains of mice. Indeed, we show that most mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) strain spontaneously produced IgG ANA at 8-12 months of age, showed IgM deposition in kidneys and lymphocyte infiltrates in submandibular salivary glands. Despite all of this, the mice remained healthy. ANA production is likely CD4(+) T-cell dependent, since old (40-50 weeks of age) B6 mice deficient for MHC class II do not produce IgG ANAs. BM chimeras showed that ANA production was not determined by age-related changes in radiosensitive, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and that the CD4(+) T cells that promote ANA production were radioresistant. Thymectomy of B6 mice at 5 weeks of age led to premature alterations in T-cell homeostasis and ANA production, by 15 weeks of age, similar to that in old mice. Our findings suggest that a disturbed T-cell homeostasis may drive the onset of some autoimmune features. PMID:25044476

Nusser, Anja; Nuber, Natko; Wirz, Oliver F; Rolink, Hannie; Andersson, Jan; Rolink, Antonius

2014-10-01

40

Decreased Levels of Proapoptotic Factors and Increased Key Regulators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis Constitute New Potential Beneficial Features of Long-lived Growth Hormone Receptor Gene–Disrupted Mice  

PubMed Central

Decreased somatotrophic signaling is among the most important mechanisms associated with extended longevity. Mice homozygous for the targeted disruption of the growth hormone (GH) receptor gene (GH receptor knockout; GHRKO) are obese and dwarf, are characterized by a reduced weight and body size, undetectable levels of GH receptor, high concentration of serum GH, and greatly reduced plasma levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I, and are remarkably long lived. Recent results suggest new features of GHRKO mice that may positively affect longevity—decreased levels of proapoptotic factors and increased levels of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. The alterations in levels of the proapoptotic factors and key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were not further improved by two other potential life-extending interventions—calorie restriction and visceral fat removal. This may attribute the primary role to GH resistance in the regulation of apoptosis and mitochondrial biogenesis in GHRKO mice in terms of increased life span. PMID:23197187

2013-01-01

41

Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

1984-11-01

42

Analysis of Multiple Positive Feedback Paradigms Demonstrates a Complete Absence of LH Surges and GnRH Activation in Mice Lacking Kisspeptin Signaling1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Kisspeptin stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r. In rodents, estrogen-responsive kisspeptin neurons in the rostral hypothalamus have been postulated to mediate estrogen-induced positive feedback induction of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. However, conflicting evidence exists regarding the ability of mice lacking Kiss1r to display LH surges in response to exogenous hormones. Whether the discrepancy reflects different mouse strains used and/or utilization of different surge-induction paradigms is unknown. Here, we tested multiple hormonal paradigms in one Kiss1r knockout (KO) model to see which paradigms, if any, could generate circadian-timed LH surges. Kiss1r KO and wild-type (WT) females were ovariectomized, given sex steroids in various modes, and assessed several days later for LH levels in the morning or evening (when surges occur). Serum LH levels were very low in all morning animals, regardless of genotype or hormonal paradigm. In each paradigm, virtually all WT females displayed clear LH surges in the evening, whereas none of the KO females demonstrated LH surges. The lack of LH surges in KO mice reflects a lack of GnRH secretion rather than diminished pituitary responsiveness from a lifetime lack of GnRH exposure because KO mice responded to GnRH priming with robust LH secretion. Moreover, high cfos-GnRH coexpression was detected in WT females in the evening, whereas low cfos-GnRH coexpression was present in KO females at all time points. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that WT females consistently display LH surges under multiple hormonal paradigms, whereas Kiss1r KO mice do not, indicating that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling is mandatory for GnRH/LH surge induction. PMID:23595904

Dror, Tal; Franks, Jennifer; Kauffman, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

43

Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

1986-03-01

44

Temporal evolution of neurophysiological and behavioral features of synapsin I/II/III triple knock-out mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Deletion of one or more synapsin genes in mice results in a spontaneous epilepsy. In these animals, seizures can be evoked by opening or moving the cage. Aim of the present study was to characterize the evolution of the epileptic phenotype by neurophysiological examination and behavioral observation in synapsin triple knock-out (Syn-TKO) mice. Syn-TKO mice were studied from 20 postnatal days (PND) up to 6 months of age by video-EEG recording and behavioral observation. Background EEG spectral analysis was performed and data were compared to WT animals. Syn-TKO revealed rare spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to evoked seizures in mice from 60 to 100 PND. Spontaneous and evoked seizures presented similar duration and morphology. At times, seizures were followed by a post-ictal phase characterized by a 4 Hz rhythmic activity and immobility of the animal. Spectral analysis of background EEG evidenced a slowing of the theta-alpha peak in Syn-TKO mice compared to WT mice within the period from PND 40 to 100. These data indicate that Syn-TKO mice do not exhibit a linear progression of the epileptic phenotype, with the period corresponding to a higher susceptibility to evoked seizures characterized by background EEG slowing. This aspect might be connected to brain dysfunction often associated to epilepsy in the interictal period. PMID:22846639

Cambiaghi, Marco; Cursi, Marco; Monzani, Elena; Benfenati, Fabio; Comi, Giancarlo; Minicucci, Fabio; Valtorta, Flavia; Leocani, Letizia

2013-01-01

45

Generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) diabetes models in mice demonstrates genotype-specific action of glucokinase activators.  

PubMed

We performed genome-wide mutagenesis in C57BL/6J mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea to identify mutations causing high blood glucose early in life and to produce new animal models of diabetes. Of a total of 13 new lines confirmed by heritability testing, we identified two semi-dominant pedigrees with novel missense mutations (Gck(K140E) and Gck(P417R)) in the gene encoding glucokinase (Gck), the mammalian glucose sensor that is mutated in human maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 and the target of emerging anti-hyperglycemic agents that function as glucokinase activators (GKAs). Diabetes phenotype corresponded with genotype (mild-to-severe: Gck(+/+) < Gck(P417R/+), Gck(K140E)(/+) < Gck(P417R/P417R), Gck(P417R/K140E), and Gck(K140E/K140E)) and with the level of expression of GCK in liver. Each mutant was produced as the recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli, and analysis of k(cat) and tryptophan fluorescence (I(320/360)) during thermal shift unfolding revealed a correlation between thermostability and the severity of hyperglycemia in the whole animal. Disruption of the glucokinase regulatory protein-binding site (GCK(K140E)), but not the ATP binding cassette (GCK(P417R)), prevented inhibition of enzyme activity by glucokinase regulatory protein and corresponded with reduced responsiveness to the GKA drug. Surprisingly, extracts from liver of diabetic GCK mutants inhibited activity of the recombinant enzyme, a property that was also observed in liver extracts from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results indicate a relationship between genotype, phenotype, and GKA efficacy. The integration of forward genetic screening and biochemical profiling opens a pathway for preclinical development of mechanism-based diabetes therapies. PMID:21921030

Fenner, Deborah; Odili, Stella; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Kobayashi, Yumiko; Kohsaka, Akira; Siepka, Sandra M; Vitaterna, Martha H; Chen, Pan; Zelent, Bogumil; Grimsby, Joseph; Takahashi, Joseph S; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bass, Joseph

2011-11-11

46

The natural history of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced myositis and myocarditis in mice. Viral persistence demonstrated by in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Picornaviruses can initiate chronic inflammation that persists after the virus can no longer be cultured from inflamed tissues. In an attempt to understand this transition we have sought evidence for viral persistence by methods that detect viral genome independent of whether or not whole competent virus is present. In mice infected with a myotropic variant of encephalomyocarditis virus, EMC-221A, virus can be cultured in high yield at 1 wk and in low yield at 2 wk from skeletal muscle, heart, and brain; a small number of plaque-forming units could be cultured from brain at 4 wk. By contrast, in situ hybridization detected viral nucleic acid at least a week or two thereafter, often in single cells. In the skeletal muscle, inflammation disappeared by 3 wk, but in heart it remained for the full 12 wk of observation. In the brain, microglial nodules, sometimes with associated viral nucleic acid, were present for a long period. Application of this technique allows a more accurate assessment of the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of virus-initiated but apparently autoimmune inflammation. PMID:2846742

1988-01-01

47

Foxo3-/- mice demonstrate reduced numbers of pre-B and recirculating B cells but normal splenic B cell sub-population distribution.  

PubMed

B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking promotes proliferation and survival of mature B cells. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated down-regulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-mitogenic genes such as the Foxo family of transcription factors is an important component of this process. Previously, we demonstrated that BCR signaling decreases expression of transcripts for Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4. We now show that BCR-induced down-regulation of Foxo3 and Foxo4 mRNA expression occurs via distinct mechanisms from those established for Foxo1. While Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4 bind the same DNA sequence, the differential control of their expression upon B cell activation suggests that they may have unique functions in the B lineage. To begin to address this issue, we evaluated B cell development and function in Foxo3-/- mice. No effect of Foxo3 deficiency was observed with respect to the following parameters in the splenic B cell compartment: sub-population distribution, proliferation, in vitro differentiation and expression of the Foxo target genes cyclin G2 and B cell translocation gene 1. However, Foxo3-/- mice demonstrated increased basal levels of IgG2a, IgG3 and IgA. A significant reduction in pre-B cell numbers was also observed in Foxo3-/- bone marrow. Finally, recirculating B cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood were decreased in Foxo3-/- mice, perhaps due to lower than normal expression of receptor for sphingosine-1 phosphate, which mediates egress from lymphoid organs. Thus, Foxo3 makes a unique contribution to B cell development, B cell localization and control of Ig levels. PMID:19502585

Hinman, Rochelle M; Nichols, Whitney A; Diaz, Tracy M; Gallardo, Teresa D; Castrillon, Diego H; Satterthwaite, Anne B

2009-07-01

48

Heterozygous deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical interval in mice recapitulates most features of the human disorder.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a developmental multisystemic disorder caused by a recurrent 1.55-1.83 Mb heterozygous deletion on human chromosome band 7q11.23. Through chromosomal engineering with the cre-loxP system, we have generated mice with an almost complete deletion (CD) of the conserved syntenic region on chromosome 5G2. Heterozygous CD mice were viable, fertile and had a normal lifespan, while homozygotes were early embryonic lethal. Transcript levels of most deleted genes were reduced 50% in several tissues, consistent with gene dosage. Heterozygous mutant mice showed postnatal growth delay with reduced body weight and craniofacial abnormalities such as small mandible. The cardiovascular phenotype was only manifested with borderline hypertension, mildly increased arterial wall thickness and cardiac hypertrophy. The neurobehavioral phenotype revealed impairments in motor coordination, increased startle response to acoustic stimuli and hypersociability. Mutant mice showed a general reduction in brain weight. Cellular and histological abnormalities were present in the amygdala, cortex and hippocampus, including increased proportion of immature neurons. In summary, these mice recapitulate most crucial phenotypes of the human disorder, provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease such as the neural substrates of the behavioral manifestations, and will be valuable to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25027326

Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Sahún, Ignasi; Velot, Emilie; Dubus, Pierre; Borralleras, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana J; Valero, María C; Valverde, Olga; Sousa, Nuno; Herault, Yann; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Campuzano, Victoria

2014-12-15

49

Bispecificity for myelin and neuronal self-antigens is a common feature of CD4 T cells in C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

The recognition of multiple ligands by a single TCR is an intrinsic feature of T cell biology, with important consequences for physiological and pathological processes. Polyspecific T cells targeting distinct self-antigens have been identified in healthy individuals as well as in the context of autoimmunity. We have previously shown that the 2D2 TCR recognizes the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein epitope (MOG)35-55 as well as an epitope within the axonal protein neurofilament medium (NF-M15-35) in H-2(b) mice. In this study, we assess whether this cross-reactivity is a common feature of the MOG35-55-specific T cell response. To this end, we analyzed the CD4 T cell response of MOG35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mice for cross-reactivity with NF-M15-35. Using Ag recall responses, we established that an important proportion of MOG35-55-specific CD4 T cells also responded to NF-M15-35 in all mice tested. To study the clonality of this response, we analyzed 22 MOG35-55-specific T cell hybridomas expressing distinct TCR. Seven hybridomas were found to cross-react with NF-M15-35. Using an alanine scan of NF-M18-30 and an in silico predictive model, we dissected the molecular basis of cross-reactivity between MOG35-55 and NF-M15-35. We established that NF-M F24, R26, and V27 proved important TCR contacts. Strikingly, the identified TCR contacts are conserved within MOG38-50. Our data indicate that due to linear sequence homology, part of the MOG35-55-specific T cell repertoire of all C57BL/6 mice also recognizes NF-M15-35, with potential implications for CNS autoimmunity. PMID:25135834

Lucca, Liliana E; Desbois, Sabine; Ramadan, Abdulraouf; Ben-Nun, Avraham; Eisenstein, Miriam; Carrié, Nadège; Guéry, Jean-Charles; Sette, Alessandro; Nguyen, Phuong; Geiger, Terrence L; Mars, Lennart T; Liblau, Roland S

2014-10-01

50

The effect of BSO-induced oxidative stress on histologic feature of testis: testosterone secretion and semen parameters in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) inhibits synthesis of glutathione as the main intracellular antioxidant. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of BSO-induced oxidative stress on histological structure of testis, testosterone secretion and semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty male BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups. In control group, the mice did not receive any chemical. In the experimental group, the mice received 2 mmol/kg BSO for 35 days. In the sham group, the mice received the solvent of BSO (0.9% saline). After the treatment, the mice were sacrificed. Their testes were fixed in Buein's fixative, embedded in paraffin and prepared for histological studies. To assess semen parameters, the sperms were collected from cauda epididymis. Blood samples were used for determination of super oxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and the serum testosterone level. The data analyzed using ANOVA and Dunnett's tests and SPSS software, version11.5. P- values at 0.05 level considered significant. Results: Data showed that in experimental group in comparison to control group; the concentration of CAT, GPX, SOD,GSH and the total level of testosterone is reduced while MDA level is increased significantly. The number of sperms with progressive motility were decreased (P<0.001) but sperms with abnormal morphology were increased (P<0.001). Histological studies revealed that the values for tubal differentiation index and spermatogenic index in experimental group were reduced (P<0.001). Conclusion: It is concluded that exposure to oxidative stress induced by BSO could affect testicular structure and semen parameters.

Sajjadian, Fakhrosadat; Roshangar, Leila; Hemmati, Alireza; Nori, Mohammad; Soleimani-Rad, Sara; Soleimani-Rad, Jafar

2014-01-01

51

Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Despite the eradication of smallpox, there is heightened concern that it could be reintroduced as a result of intentional release of Variola major virus through an act of bioterrorism. The live vaccine that was pivotal in the eradication of smallpox though considered a gold standard for its efficacy still retains sufficient residual virulence that can cause life-threatening sequelae especially in immune deficient individuals. Therefore, a safer smallpox vaccine that can match the efficacy of first generation vaccines is urgently needed. We previously reported that the integration of human IL-15 cytokine into the genome of Wyeth strain of vaccinia (Wyeth/IL-15), the same strain as the licensed vaccine, generates a vaccine with superior immunogenicity and efficacy in a mouse model. We now demonstrate that Wyeth/IL-15 is non-lethal to athymic nude mice when administered intravenously at a dose of 107 plaque forming units and it undergoes enhanced in vivo clearance in these immune deficient mice. Furthermore, a majority of cynomolgus monkeys vaccinated with vaccinia viruses with integrated IL-15, when challenged 3 years later with a lethal dose of monkeypox virus displayed milder clinical manifestations with complete recovery supporting the utility of Wyeth/IL-15 for contemporary populations as a safer and efficacious smallpox vaccine. PMID:20728526

Zielinski, Rafal J.; Smedley, Jeremy V.; Perera, Pin-Yu; Silvera, Peter M.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Capala, Jacek; Perera, Liyanage P.

2010-01-01

52

TrkB and TrkC agonist antibodies improve function, electrophysiologic and pathologic features in Trembler J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophic factors have been considered as potential therapeutics for peripheral neuropathies. Previously, we showed that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) promotes nerve regeneration in TremblerJ (TrJ) mice and in sural nerves from patients with Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A (CMT1A). The relatively short plasma half-life of NT-3 and other neurotrophins, however, pose a practical difficulty in their clinical application. Therapeutic agonist antibodies (AAb) targeting the neurotrophic

Zarife Sahenk; Gloria Galloway; Chris Edwards; Vinod Malik; Brian K. Kaspar; Amy Eagle; Brent Yetter; Alison Forgie; David Tsao; John C. Lin

2010-01-01

53

Cloning of monoclonal autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Demonstration of epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein in human plasma.  

PubMed Central

Many reactive products may be formed when LDL undergoes lipid peroxidation, which in turn can react with lipids, apoproteins, and proteins, generating immunogenic neoepitopes. Autoantibodies recognizing model epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein, such as malondialdehydelysine, occur in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of humans and animals. Because apo E-deficient mice develop particularly high titers of such autoantibodies, we used their spleens to clone 13 monoclonal antibodies to various epitopes of oxidized LDL ("E0 antibodies"). Binding and competitive RIAs demonstrated significant differences in fine specificity even between E0 antibodies initially selected for binding to the same screening antigen. For example, some E0 antibodies selected for binding to malondialdehyde-LDL also recognized copper oxidized LDL, acrolein-LDL, or LDL modified by arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products. Circulating IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to copper-oxidized LDL, 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL, acrolein-LDL, and LDL modified with arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products were found in apo E-deficient mice, suggesting that the respective antigens are formed in vivo. Epitopes recognized by some of the E0 monoclonal antibodies were also found on human circulating LDL. Each of the E0 monoclonal antibodies immunostained rabbit and human atherosclerotic lesions, and some of them yielded distinct staining patterns in advanced lesions. Together, this suggests that the natural monoclonal antibodies recognize different epitopes of complex structures formed during oxidation of lipoproteins, or epitopes formed independently at different lesion sites. Our data demonstrate that a profound immunological response to a large number of different epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins occurs in vivo. The availability of "natural" monoclonal autoantibodies should facilitate the identification of specific epitopes inducing this response. PMID:8698873

Palinski, W; Horkko, S; Miller, E; Steinbrecher, U P; Powell, H C; Curtiss, L K; Witztum, J L

1996-01-01

54

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

Gilbert, George L.

1982-01-01

55

Lipidomic profiling of phosphocholine-containing brain lipids in mice with sensorimotor deficits and anxiety-like features after exposure to Gulf War agents.  

PubMed

The central nervous system (CNS)-based symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) include motor dysfunction, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB), permethrin (PER), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and stress, are among the contributory factors to the pathobiology of GWI. This study characterizes disturbances in phosphocholine-containing lipids that accompany neurobehavioral and neuropathological features associated with GW agent exposure. Exposed mice received PB orally, dermal application of PER and DEET and restraint stress daily for 28 days, while controls received vehicle during this period. Neurobehavioral studies included the rotarod, open field, and Morris water maze tests. Histopathological assessments included glial fibrillary acid protein, CD45, and Nissl staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with source collision-induced dissociation in negative and positive ionization scanning modes was performed to characterize brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM). A significant increase in ether containing PC (ePC34:0, ePC36:2, and ePC36:1) or long-chain fatty acid-containing PC (38:1, 40:4, 40:2) was observed in exposed mice compared with controls. Among differentially expressed PCs, levels of those with monounsaturated fatty acids were more affected than those with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sensorimotor deficits and anxiety, together with an increase in astrocytosis, were observed in exposed mice compared with controls. These lipid changes suggest that alterations in peroxisomal pathways and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity accompany neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes after GW agent exposure and represent possible treatment targets for the CNS symptoms of GWI. PMID:22798222

Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Bishop, Alex; Reed, Jon M; Crynen, Gogce; Phillips, John; Pelot, Robert; Mullan, Myles A; Ferro, Austin; Mullan, Christopher M; Mullan, Michael J; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona C

2012-12-01

56

Hepatic Crown-Like Structure: A Unique Histological Feature in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice and Humans  

PubMed Central

Although macrophages are thought to be crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, how they are involved in disease progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is poorly understood. Here we report the unique histological structure termed “hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS)” in the mouse model of human NASH; melanocortin-4 receptor deficient mice fed a Western diet. In hCLS, CD11c-positive macrophages aggregate to surround hepatocytes with large lipid droplets, which is similar to those described in obese adipose tissue. Histological analysis revealed that hCLS is closely associated with activated fibroblasts and collagen deposition. When treatment with clodronate liposomes effectively depletes macrophages scattered in the liver, with those in hCLS intact, hepatic expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic genes is unaffected, suggesting that hCLS is an important source of inflammation and fibrosis during the progression of NASH. Notably, the number of hCLS is positively correlated with the extent of liver fibrosis. We also observed increased number of hCLS in the liver of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/NASH patients. Collectively, our data provide evidence that hCLS is involved in the development of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, thereby suggesting its pathophysiologic role in disease progression from simple steatosis to NASH. PMID:24349208

Suganami, Takayoshi; Konuma, Kuniha; Marumoto, Yoshio; Terai, Shuji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Kanai, Sayaka; Hamaguchi, Miho; Fukaishi, Takahiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Sakaida, Isao; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

57

Ultrastructural features of skeletal muscle in adult and aging Ts65Dn mice, a murine model of Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with Down syndrome (DS) suffer from muscle hypotonia and an altered motor coordination whose basic mechanisms are still largely unknown. Interestingly, they show muscle weakness like healthy aged subjects, suggesting possible similarity with sarcopenia: to test this hypothesis, the Ts65Dn mouse, a suitable animal model of DS, was employed. The fine structure of skeletal fibres of the quadriceps femoris muscle was analysed in adult (12 months) and aging (19 months) animals and their age-matched euploid controls by combining morphometry and immunocytochemistry at transmission electron microscopy. Results demonstrated structural alterations of mitochondria and myonuclei reminiscent of those observed in age-related sarcopenia, supporting the hypothesis that trisomy leads to an early aging of skeletal muscle consistent with the multi-systemic premature aging typical of DS. PMID:24596692

Cisterna, Barbara; Costanzo, Manuela; Scherini, Elda; Zancanaro, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

2013-10-01

58

Mid-aged and aged wild-type and progestin receptor knockout (PRKO) mice demonstrate rapid progesterone and 3?,5?-THP-facilitated lordosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Progesterone (P) and its 5?-reduced metabolite, 3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one (3?,5?-THP), facilitate sexual behavior of rodents via agonist-like actions at intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) and membrane GABAA\\/benzodiazepine receptor complexes (GBRs), respectively.Objective  Given that ovarian secretion of progestins declines with aging, whether or not senescent mice are responsive to progestins was of interest.Methods  Homozygous PR knockout (PRKO) or wild-type mice that were between 10–12 (mid-aged) or

C. A. Frye; K. Sumida; J. P. Lydon; B. W. O’Malley; D. W. Pfaff

2006-01-01

59

One Percent Tenofovir Applied Topically to Humanized BLT Mice and Used According to the CAPRISA 004 Experimental Design Demonstrates Partial Protection from Vaginal HIV Infection, Validating the BLT Model for Evaluation of New Microbicide Candidates?  

PubMed Central

Recent iPrEx clinical trial results provided evidence that systemic preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) can partially prevent rectal HIV transmission in humans. Similarly, we have previously demonstrated that systemic administration of the same FTC-TDF combination efficiently prevented rectal transmission in humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice. The CAPRISA 004 trial recently demonstrated that topical application of the tenofovir could partially prevent vaginal HIV-1 transmission in humans. To further validate the usefulness of the BLT mouse model for testing HIV prevention strategies, we evaluated the topical administration of tenofovir as used in CAPRISA 004 to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in BLT mice. Our results demonstrate that vaginally administered 1% tenofovir significantly reduced HIV transmission in BLT mice (P = 0.002). Together with the results obtained after systemic antiretroviral PrEP, these topical inhibitor data serve to validate the use of humanized BLT mice to evaluate both systemic and topical inhibitors of HIV transmission. Based on these observations, we tested six additional microbicide candidates for their ability to prevent vaginal HIV transmission: a C-peptide fusion inhibitor (C52L), a membrane-disrupting amphipathic peptide inhibitor (C5A), a trimeric d-peptide fusion inhibitor (PIE12-Trimer), a combination of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (FTC-TDF), a thioester zinc finger inhibitor (TC247), and a small-molecule Rac inhibitor (NSC23766). No protection was seen with the Rac inhibitor NSC23766. The thioester compound TC247 offered partial protection. Significant protection was afforded by FTC-TDF, and complete protection was offered by three different peptide inhibitors tested. Our results demonstrate that these effective topical inhibitors have excellent potential to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in humans. PMID:21593172

Denton, Paul W.; Othieno, Florence; Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Zou, Wei; Krisko, John F.; Fleming, Elisa; Zein, Sima; Powell, Daniel A.; Wahl, Angela; Kwak, Youn Tae; Welch, Brett D.; Kay, Michael S.; Payne, Deborah A.; Gallay, Philippe; Appella, Ettore; Estes, Jacob D.; Lu, Min; Garcia, J. Victor

2011-01-01

60

Constitutive Expression of Gs?(R201C) in Mice Produces a Heritable, Direct Replica of Human Fibrous Dysplasia Bone Pathology and Demonstrates Its Natural History.  

PubMed

Fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) is a crippling skeletal disease associated with postzygotic mutations (R201C, R201H) of the gene encoding the ? subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gs. By causing a characteristic structural subversion of bone and bone marrow, the disease results in deformity, hypomineralization, and fracture of the affected bones, with severe morbidity arising in childhood or adolescence. Lack of inheritance of the disease in humans is thought to reflect embryonic lethality of germline-transmitted activating Gs? mutations, which would only survive through somatic mosaicism. We have generated multiple lines of mice that express Gs?(R201C) constitutively and develop an inherited, histopathologically exact replica of human FD. Robust transgene expression in neonatal and embryonic tissues and embryonic stem (ES) cells were associated with normal development of skeletal tissues and differentiation of skeletal cells. As in humans, FD lesions in mice developed only in the postnatal life; a defined spatial and temporal pattern characterized the onset and progression of lesions across the skeleton. In individual bones, lesions developed through a sequence of three distinct histopathological stages: a primary modeling phase defined by endosteal/medullary excess bone formation and normal resorption; a secondary phase, with excess, inappropriate remodeling; and a tertiary fibrous dysplastic phase, which reproduced a full-blown replica of the human bone pathology in mice of age ?1 year. Gs? mutations are sufficient to cause FD, and are per se compatible with germline transmission and normal embryonic development in mice. Our novel murine lines constitute the first model of FD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24764158

Saggio, Isabella; Remoli, Cristina; Spica, Emanuela; Cersosimo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Bianco, Paolo; Riminucci, Mara

2014-11-01

61

Mice with a selective impairment of IFN-? signaling in macrophage lineage cells demonstrate the critical role of IFN-? activated macrophages for the control of protozoan parasitic infections in vivo1, 2  

PubMed Central

IFN-? has long been recognized as a cytokine with potent and varied effects in the immune response. While its effects on specific cell types have been well studied in vitro, its in vivo effects are less clearly understood because of its diverse actions on many different cell types. While control of multiple protozoan parasites is thought to depend critically on the direct action of IFN-? on macrophages, this premise has never been directly proven in vivo. In order to more directly examine the effects of IFN-? on cells of the macrophage lineage in vivo, we generated mice called the ‘Macrophages Insensitive to Interferon Gamma’ (MIIG) mice, which express a dominant negative mutant IFN-? receptor in CD68+ cells: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Macrophage lineage cells and mast cells from these mice are unable to respond to IFN-? while other cells are able to produce and respond to this cytokine normally. When challenged in vitro, macrophages from MIIG mice were unable produce NO or kill Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania major after priming with IFN-?. Furthermore, MIIG mice demonstrated impaired parasite control and heightened mortality after T. cruzi, L. major, and Toxoplasma gondii infection, despite an appropriate IFN-? response. In contrast, MIIG mice displayed normal control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, despite persistent insensitivity of macrophages to IFN-?. Thus, the MIIG mouse formally demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the specific importance of direct, IFN-? mediated activation of macrophages for controlling infection with multiple protozoan parasites. “This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org.” PMID:20018611

Lykens, Jennifer E.; Terrell, Catherine E.; Zoller, Erin E.; Divanovic, Senad; Trompette, Aurelien; Karp, Christopher L.; Aliberti, Julio; Flick, Matthew J.; Jordan, Michael B.

2010-01-01

62

Demonstration of skin friction measurements featuring in situ estimation of conduction loss using constant voltage anemometers and surface hot-films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The top of the 12.2m long NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's ground research vehicle (GRV) was used as a flat plate test bed for demonstrating an approach to measure skin friction. Using an array of surface hot-films operated by constant voltage anemometers (CVAs), the approach was demonstrated with in situ estimation of conduction heat loss from the hot-films to the substrate. An algebraic relationship, using the channel calibration constants a and b (determined a priori) with CVA output voltages Vs and Vw from that channel, is used for the estimation of the required quantities and lead resistance (rL) of the hot-film measured on site. Estimates of the power dissipated in the hot-film alone (Phf) (excluding the lead resistances), in situ resistance (Rw) of the hot-film due to applied overheat and flow, and the cold resistance (Ra) of the same hot-film at the ambient temperature are so obtained. Different approaches to estimate the in situ cold resistance (which is the resistance without any self-heating) of the hot-film are presented addressing the suitability of the procedure for flight applications as well. Tests were performed at several speeds of the GRV on the tarmac of a runway at the flight test center. The measured values are fitted to the classical (1/3) law equation with the computational dimensional skin friction (?) obtained using the empirical local skin friction law for the long flat plate. There was an excellent (1/3) law fit in all the hot-films, demonstrating that the measured values fit classical theory. Using this measured fit with the theoretical values, calibration coefficients (A and B) for dimensional skin friction (?) were obtained. Using these calibration coefficients, measured values were then converted to nondimensional local skin friction coefficients cf for all the hot-films at all speeds. Measured cf values agree well with the associated flat plate theory. Since the in situ measurement of heat loss to the substrate should ideally apply at all ambient temperatures, the method was tested in a wind tunnel at two ambient temperatures, where the results repeated well. Accounting for conduction loss had been the difficult issue in using hot-films, which otherwise offer many advantages. For example, skin friction from an array of hot-films can be measured simultaneously and the hot-films offer large dynamic response, high sensitivity, and simple installation. In practice, it should be possible to insert a calibrated plug in the test article and use the in situ measured substrate loss to accurately estimate the skin friction. The approach does not need any additional temperature sensor to accomplish the measurements. The system is highly amenable to automation with further work. It may be noted that the purpose of this test and article is to demonstrate an approach to skin friction measurements using hot-films operated by CVAs with in situ estimation of the heat loss to the substrate. It does not address any other aspect of the skin friction measurements.

Sarma, Garimella R.; Moes, Timothy R.

2005-05-01

63

Humanized Mice Recapitulate Key Features of HIV-1 Infection: A Novel Concept Using Long-Acting Anti-Retroviral Drugs for Treating HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Background Humanized mice generate a lymphoid system of human origin subsequent to transplantation of human CD34+ cells and thus are highly susceptible to HIV infection. Here we examined the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment (ART) when added to food pellets, and of long-acting (LA) antiretroviral compounds, either as monotherapy or in combination. These studies shall be inspiring for establishing a gold standard of ART, which is easy to administer and well supported by the mice, and for subsequent studies such as latency. Furthermore, they should disclose whether viral breakthrough and emergence of resistance occurs similar as in HIV-infected patients when ART is insufficient. Methods/Principal Findings NOD/shi-scid/?cnull (NOG) mice were used in all experimentations. We first performed pharmacokinetic studies of the drugs used, either added to food pellets (AZT, TDF, 3TC, RTV) or in a LA formulation that permitted once weekly subcutaneous administration (TMC278: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, TMC181: protease inhibitor). A combination of 3TC, TDF and TMC278-LA or 3TC, TDF, TMC278-LA and TMC181-LA suppressed the viral load to undetectable levels in 15/19 (79%) and 14/14 (100%) mice, respectively. In successfully treated mice, subsequent monotherapy with TMC278-LA resulted in viral breakthrough; in contrast, the two LA compounds together prevented viral breakthrough. Resistance mutations matched the mutations most commonly observed in HIV patients failing therapy. Importantly, viral rebound after interruption of ART, presence of HIV DNA in successfully treated mice and in vitro reactivation of early HIV transcripts point to an existing latent HIV reservoir. Conclusions/Significance This report is a unique description of multiple aspects of HIV infection in humanized mice that comprised efficacy testing of various treatment regimens, including LA compounds, resistance mutation analysis as well as viral rebound after treatment interruption. Humanized mice will be highly valuable for exploring the antiviral potency of new compounds or compounds targeting the latent HIV reservoir. PMID:22719966

Nischang, Marc; Sutmuller, Roger; Gers-Huber, Gustavo; Audige, Annette; Li, Duo; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Baenziger, Stefan; Hofer, Ursula; Schlaepfer, Erika; Regenass, Stephan; Amssoms, Katie; Stoops, Bart; Van Cauwenberge, Anja; Boden, Daniel; Kraus, Guenter; Speck, Roberto F.

2012-01-01

64

First Demonstration of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy-associated Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Extracellular Vesicles from Plasma of Mice Infected with Mouse-adapted Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by in Vitro Amplification.  

PubMed

The development of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in three recipients of non-leukoreduced red blood cells from asymptomatic donors who subsequently developed the disease has confirmed existing concerns about the possible spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) via blood products. In addition, the presence of disease-associated misfolded prion protein (PrP(TSE)), generally associated with infectivity, has been demonstrated in the blood of vCJD patients. However, its origin and distribution in this biological fluid are still unknown. Various studies have identified cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) among the protein cargo in human blood-circulating extracellular vesicles released from endothelial cells and platelets, and exosomes isolated from the conditioned media of TSE-infected cells have caused the disease when injected into experimental mice. In this study, we demonstrate the detection of PrP(TSE) in extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma samples collected during the preclinical and clinical phases of the disease from mice infected with mouse-adapted vCJD and confirm the presence of the exosomal marker Hsp70 in these preparations. PMID:25157106

Saá, Paula; Yakovleva, Oksana; de Castro, Jorge; Vasilyeva, Irina; De Paoli, Silvia H; Simak, Jan; Cervenakova, Larisa

2014-10-17

65

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1978-01-01

66

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1984-01-01

67

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1979-01-01

68

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

69

Hippocampal transcriptome after status epilepticus in mice rendered seizure damage-tolerant by epileptic preconditioning features suppressed calcium and neuronal excitability pathways.  

PubMed

Preconditioning brain with a sub-lethal stressor can temporarily generate a damage-refractory state. Microarray analyses have defined the changes in hippocampal gene expression that follow brief preconditioning seizures, but not the transcriptome after a prolonged and otherwise injurious seizure in previously preconditioned brain. Presently, microarray analysis was performed 24 h after status epilepticus in mice that had received previously either seizure preconditioning (tolerance) or sham-preconditioning (injury). Transcriptional changes in the hippocampal CA3 subfield of >or=2 fold were detected for 1357 genes in the tolerance group compared to a non-seizure control group, with 54% up-regulated. Of these regulated genes, 792 were also regulated in the injury group. Among the remaining 565 genes regulated only in tolerance, 73% were down-regulated. Analysis of the genes differentially suppressed in tolerance identified calcium signaling, ion channels and excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, and the synapse as over-represented among pathways, functions and compartments. Finally, 12 days continuous EEG recordings determined mice with induced tolerance had fewer spontaneous electrographic seizures compared to the injury group. Our data suggest the transcriptional phenotype of neuroprotection in tolerance may be dictated by the biology of the preconditioning stressor, functions by transcriptional reduction of vulnerability to excitotoxicity, and has anti-epileptogenic effects. PMID:18804535

Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Hatazaki, Seiji; Johnson, Martha B; Bellver-Estelles, Carmen; Mouri, Genshin; Bonner, Caroline; Prehn, Jochen H M; Meller, Robert; Simon, Roger P; Henshall, David C

2008-12-01

70

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

71

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

72

Reflectance Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

Kowalski, Frank

1993-01-01

73

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

74

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

75

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

76

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! � ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! � Image interpretation: extract information from images � but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities � Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

77

Isolation, purification, and structural features of a polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus and its hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in Oriental countries for centuries for its antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and biological activity on hyperglycemia. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide was extracted using hot water from P. linteus mycelia grown under submerged culture. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the extraction conditions of P. linteus mycelia polysaccharides (PLP). The crude polysaccharide was purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the purified P. linteus polysaccharide (PLP-I), revealing that it was mainly a branched-type glycan with both ?- and ?-linkages and a pyranoid sugar ring conformation. PLP orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight/d could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 35.60% in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that PLP had an effect on glucose disposal after 28 d of treatment. The result revealed that PLP from a submerged culture of P. linteus mycelia possessed potent hypoglycemic properties. The polysaccharide may be useful as a functional food additive and a hypoglycemic agent. PMID:24761950

Zhao, Chao; Liao, Zunsheng; Wu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Zhanxi; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

2014-05-01

78

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

79

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1978-01-01

80

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1990-01-01

81

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1981-01-01

82

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1989-01-01

83

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

84

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

85

Demonstrating Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

Foy, Barry G.

1977-01-01

86

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1986-01-01

87

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

Sands, Robert; And Others

1982-01-01

88

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1984-01-01

89

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

90

Microgravity Demonstrator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool was designed by NASA engineers to demonstrate and teach principles of microgravity and its relationship to science and math. Teachers may perform a series of demonstrations to provide a visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions and to understand why certain experiments are performed under microgravity conditions.

91

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

92

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1980-01-01

93

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1982-01-01

94

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

95

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1989-01-01

96

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1990-01-01

97

Interactive Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains general astronomy and astrophysical simulations. Lunar phases, coordinate conversion, Planck spectrum, energy levels, Kepler's laws, and the evolution of a star cluster are demonstrations under the general astronomy section. Astrophysical demonstrations include: effective potential and integrated motion, planet stability in a binary star systems, a disk galaxy, stellar models and spectra, and nuclear isotope stability.

Tomley, Les

2004-07-13

98

Earthquake Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration uses an "earthquake machine" constructed from bricks, sand paper, and a winch, to simulate the buildup of elastic strain energy prior to a seismic event and the release of that energy during an earthquake.

99

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1980-01-01

100

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

Roffia, Sergio; And Others

1988-01-01

101

Tested Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1977-01-01

102

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

Gilbert, George L.

1990-01-01

103

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

104

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

1988-01-01

105

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

106

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1981-01-01

107

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1989-01-01

108

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

Gilbert, George L.

1983-01-01

109

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

110

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1984-01-01

111

Inflammatory Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Abcg5 Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in A/J mice homozygous for the spontaneous thrombocytopenia and cardiomyopathy (trac) mutation results from a single base pair change in the Abcg5 gene. A similar mutation in humans causes sitosterolemia with high plant sterol levels, hypercholesterolemia, and early onset atherosclerosis. Analyses of CD3+ and Mac-3+ cells and trichrome stainable collagen in hearts showed inflammation and myocyte degeneration in A/J-trac/trac mice beginning post-weaning and progressed to marked dilative and fibrosing cardiomyopathy by 140 days. TEM demonstrated myocyte vacuoles consistent with swollen ER. Myocytes with abundant cytoplasmic glycogen and less dense actinomyosin filament bundles formed mature intercalated discs with adjacent normal myocytes suggesting myocyte repair. A/J-trac/trac mice fed life long phytosterol-free diets did not develop cardiomyopathy. BALB/cByJ- trac/trac mice had lesser inflammatory infiltrates and later onset DCM. BALB/cByJ- trac/trac mice changed from normal to phytosterol-free diets after initiation of cadiomyopathy had lesser T cell infiltrates but persistent monocyte infiltrates and equivalent fibrosis to mice on normal diets. B and T cell deficient BALB/cBy-Rag1null trac/trac mice fed normal diets did not develop inflammatory infiltrates or DCM. We conclude that DCM in the trac/trac mouse shares many features of inflammatory DCM and that the reversibility of myocardial T cell infiltration provides a novel model for investigating the progression of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:23129576

Wilson, Dennis W.; Oslund, Karen L.; Lyons, Bonnie; Foreman, Oded; Burzenski, Lisa; Svenson, Karen L.; Chase, Thomas H.; Shultz, Leonard D.

2014-01-01

112

Tissue iron loading and histopathological changes in hypotransferrinaemic mice.  

PubMed

Tissue iron loading in hypotransferrinaemic (hpx/hpx) mice was investigated as a model for genetic (primary) haemochromatosis. Iron loading of liver preceded that in the pancreas and heart. One-year-old hpx/hpx mice showed iron staining in exocrine pancreas, liver parenchymal cells, and cardiac and intestinal smooth muscle cells. Iron-loaded macrophages were observed in all these tissues. Islets of Langerhans, biliary epithelial cells, and spleen were iron-free. The pancreas was fibrotic with massive macrophage infiltration and loss of secretory epithelium. Liver showed evidence of chronic inflammatory infiltration with increased collagen fibres in the parenchymal region but no cirrhosis. Serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and plasma glucose were increased in hpx/hpx compared with wild-type mice. Heavy iron loading with haemosiderin deposition in the liver could be demonstrated in hpx/hpx mice from 6 weeks of age. Heterozygous hypotransferrinaemic mice showed minor increases in liver iron stores at 6-12 weeks, but not at 1 year of age. Serum ferritin levels in heterozygous mice were also increased at 6-8 weeks of age. It was concluded that 1-year-old hpx/hpx mice showed evidence of liver and pancreatic damage secondary to tissue iron overload. The iron loading pattern and tissue damage showed some features which were distinct from those observed in haemochromatosis. PMID:8277372

Simpson, R J; Konijn, A M; Lombard, M; Raja, K B; Salisbury, J R; Peters, T J

1993-11-01

113

Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service illustrates the variety of landforms and features created by volcanoes. Featured are calderas, craters, fumaroles and other geothermal features, igneous rocks, lava flows, lava tubes, and maars.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

114

Simulations/ Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over twenty Java applets from Rice University are presented on this site. The applets cover most of the major points taught in an introductory statistics course. One quality that makes this site stand out from others is the excellent background information presented with many applets, which lets users read about a concept and see it visually at the same time. Topics include applications of the central limit theorem, regression, analysis of variance, and many more. The applets are all very easy to use, and they are certainly valuable demonstrations for any high school or college student in statistics.

115

Acoustic basis of directional acuity in laboratory mice.  

PubMed

The acoustic basis of auditory spatial acuity was investigated in CBA/129 mice by relating patterns of behavioral errors to directional features of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Behavioral performance was assessed by training the mice to lick a water spout during sound presentations from a "safe" location and to suppress the response during presentations from "warning" locations. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were determined by delivering the safe and warning sounds from different locations in the inter-aural horizontal and median vertical planes. HRTFs were measured at the same locations by implanting a miniature microphone and recording the gain of sound energy near the ear drum relative to free field. Mice produced an average MAA of 31° when sound sources were located in the horizontal plane. Acoustic measures indicated that binaural inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and monaural spectral features of the HRTF change systematically with horizontal location and therefore may have contributed to the accuracy of behavioral performance. Subsequent manipulations of the auditory stimuli and the directional properties of the ear produced errors that suggest the mice primarily relied on ILD cues when discriminating changes in azimuth. The MAA increased beyond 80° when the importance of ILD cues was minimized by testing in the median vertical plane. Although acoustic measures demonstrated a less robust effect of vertical location on spectral features of the HRTF, this poor performance provides further evidence for the insensitivity to spectral cues that was noted during behavioral testing in the horizontal plane. PMID:21717290

Lauer, Amanda M; Slee, Sean J; May, Bradford J

2011-10-01

116

Mice Rule! (or Not)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the relationships between genetics, biodiversity and evolution through a simple activity involving hypothetical wild mouse populations. First, students toss coins to determine what traits a set of mouse parents possesses, such as fur color, body size, heat tolerance and running speed. Next, they use coin tossing to determine the traits a mouse pup born to these parents possesses. These physical features are then compared to features that would be most adaptive in several different environmental conditions. Finally, students consider what would happen to the mouse offspring if those environmental conditions were to change. Which mice would be most likely to survive and produce the next generation?

Engineering K-Phd Program

117

Deletion of IL-12p35 induces liver fibrosis in dominant negative transforming growth factor ? receptor type II mice  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that mice with a dominant negative transforming growth factor ? receptor restricted to T cells (dnTGF?RII mice) develop an inflammatory biliary ductular disease that strongly resembles human primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Furthermore, deletion of the gene encoding interleukin (IL)-12p40 resulted in a strain (IL-12p40?/?dnTGF?RII) with dramatically reduced autoimmune cholangitis. To further investigate the role of the IL-12 cytokine family in dnTGF?RII autoimmune biliary disease, we deleted the gene encoding the IL-12p35 subunit from dnTGF?RII mice, resulting in an IL-12p35?/? dnTGF?RII strain which is deficient in two members of the IL-12 family, IL-12 and IL-35. In contrast to IL-12p40?/? mice, the IL-12p35?/? mice developed liver inflammation and bile duct damage with similar severity but delayed onset as the parental dnTGF?RII mice. The p35?/? mice also demonstrated a distinct cytokine profile characterized by a shift from a Th1 to a Th17 response. Strikingly, liver fibrosis was frequently observed in IL-12p35?/? mice. In conclusion, IL-12p35?/? dnTGF?RII mice, histologically and immunologically, reflect key features of PBC, providing a useful generic model to understand the immunopathology of human PBC. PMID:22576253

Tsuda, Masanobu; Zhang, Weici; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Ando, Yugo; Kawata, Kazuhito; Park, Ogyi; Leung, Patrick S.C.; Coppel, Ross L.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Ridgway, William M.; Gao, Bin; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Flavell, Richard; He, Xiao-Song; Gershwin, M. Eric

2012-01-01

118

Neutral aminoaciduria in cystathionine ?-synthase-deficient mice; an animal model of homocystinuria.  

PubMed

The kidney is one of the major loci for the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). While CBS-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice display homocysteinemia/methioninemia and severe growth retardation, and rarely survive beyond the first 4 wk, CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice show homocysteinemia/cystathioninemia but develop with no apparent abnormality. This study examined renal amino acid reabsorption in those mice. Although both 2-wk-old Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice had normal renal architecture, their serum/urinary amino acid profiles largely differed from wild-type mice. The most striking feature was marked accumulation of Met and cystathionine in serum/urine/kidney samples of Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice, respectively. Levels of some neutral amino acids (Val, Leu, Ile, and Tyr) that were not elevated in Cbs(-/-) serum were highly elevated in Cbs(-/-) urine, and urinary excretion of other neutral amino acids (except Met) was much higher than expected from their serum levels, demonstrating neutral aminoaciduria in Cbs(-/-) (not Cth(-/-)) mice. Because the bulk of neutral amino acids is absorbed via a B(0)AT1 transporter and Met has the highest substrate affinity for B(0)AT1 than other neutral amino acids, hypermethioninemia may cause hyperexcretion of neutral amino acids. PMID:24761004

Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Kamata, Shotaro; Kubota, Masashi; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Chiho; Yoshida, Yuka; Yamada, Hidenori; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kasahara, Tadashi; Ishii, Isao

2014-06-15

119

Behavioral and neurobiological markers of Alzheimer's disease in Ts65Dn mice: effects of estrogen.  

PubMed

Individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) develop neuropathological features similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD) early in life, including dementia, accumulation of beta-amyloid, and irregular phosphorylation of tau proteins. Ts65Dn mice, an animal model of DS, provide a unique method to investigate the mechanisms related to AD-like symptoms in DS and possible therapeutic interventions. Ts65Dn mice undergo a decline in cholinergic phenotype and cognitive deterioration beginning at 6-8 months of age. In middle-aged female Ts65Dn mice, estrogen supplementation alleviated these cholinergic and cognitive impairments. The current study investigated AD-like markers and the effects of estrogen in male Ts65Dn mice. Estrogen treatment prior to behavioral testing did not improve cognitive deficits in 6-month-old male Ts65Dn mice, but decreased total and phosphorylated (pS199) tau in the entorhinal cortex compared to normosomic animals. Hippocampal beta-amyloid(1-42) levels were increased in Ts65Dn animals, regardless of estrogen treatment. These findings further support Ts65Dn mice as a model for specific AD-like symptoms, and demonstrate that estrogen treatment of this type does not improve the cognitive ability of male Ts65Dn mice. PMID:15212841

Hunter, Christopher L; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Nelson, Mathew; Eckman, Christopher B; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

2004-08-01

120

Web Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Features, presented by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), is a collection of online resources for consumers about public opinion data. An economic snapshot, updated weekly, provides graphs and charts to highlight an economic issue, and this site also includes a selection of opinions from the EPI staff and their analysis of current economic data written in layperson's terms.

121

Feature Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on experience from the hardware industry, product families have entered the software development process as well, since software developers often prefer not to build a single product but rather a family of similar products that share at least one common functionality while having well-identified variabilities. Such shared commonalities, also called features, reach from common hardware parts to software artefacts

Peter Höfner; Ridha Khédri; Bernhard Möller

2006-01-01

122

Mice with human livers.  

PubMed

Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections. PMID:24042096

Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

2013-12-01

123

Feature selection in bioinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bioinformatics, there are often a large number of input features. For example, there are millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are genetic variations which determine the dierence between any two unrelated individuals. In microarrays, thousands of genes can be proled in each test. It is important to nd out which input features (e.g., SNPs or genes) are useful in classication of a certain group of people or diagnosis of a given disease. In this paper, we investigate some powerful feature selection techniques and apply them to problems in bioinformatics. We are able to identify a very small number of input features sucient for tasks at hand and we demonstrate this with some real-world data.

Wang, Lipo

2012-06-01

124

Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people will never see the eruption of an active volcano. Even so, evidence of these dramatic displays can be found all over the world. In fact, more can be learned about some aspects of volcanic activity by exploring evidence left by past eruptions than by watching an eruption in progress. This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explores a variety of volcanic landforms and features, and describes how they form.

2010-10-25

125

Preliminary Entropy Minimax Search for Patterns in Structural, Physio-Chemical and Biological Features of Selected Drugs That May Be Related to Activity in Retarding Lymphoid Leukemia, Lymphocytic Leukemia and Melanocarcinoma in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical structure, physico-chemical properties, and other features of a sample of drugs were analyzed for patterns in their ability to retard tumor growth with limited general toxicity. The factors under investigation included functional groupings, ring ...

R. A. Christensen, T. A. Reichert

1975-01-01

126

A lymphatic defect causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma in mice.  

PubMed

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, afflicting more than 60 million people worldwide. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to impaired aqueous humor drainage is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma. Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, buphthalmos, and classic features of glaucoma, including retinal ganglion degeneration and vision loss. Eyes from mice with induced deletion of Angpt1 and Angpt2 (A1A2FloxWB mice) lacked drainage pathways in the corneal limbus, including Schlemm's canal and lymphatic capillaries, which share expression of the PROX1, VEGFR3, and FOXC family of transcription factors. VEGFR3 and FOXCs have been linked to lymphatic disorders in patients, and FOXC1 has been linked to glaucoma. In contrast to blood endothelium, in which ANGPT2 is an antagonist of ANGPT1, we have shown that both ligands cooperate to regulate TIE2 in the lymphatic network of the eye. While A1A2FloxWB mice developed high IOP and glaucoma, expression of ANGPT1 or ANGPT2 alone was sufficient for ocular drainage. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of FOXC2 from lymphatics results in TIE2 downregulation, suggesting a mechanism for ocular defects in patients with FOXC mutations. These data reveal a pathogenetic and molecular basis for glaucoma and demonstrate the importance of angiopoietin ligand cooperation in the lymphatic endothelium. PMID:25202984

Thomson, Benjamin R; Heinen, Stefan; Jeansson, Marie; Ghosh, Asish K; Fatima, Anees; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Onay, Tuncer; Chen, Hui; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Economides, Aris N; Flenniken, Ann; Gale, Nicholas W; Hong, Young-Kwon; Fawzi, Amani; Liu, Xiaorong; Kume, Tsutomu; Quaggin, Susan E

2014-10-01

127

C57BL/6J congenic Prp-TDP43A315T mice develop progressive neurodegeneration in the myenteric plexus of the colon without exhibiting key features of ALS.  

PubMed

ALS therapy development has been hindered by the lack of rodent animal models. The discovery of TDP-43, a transcription factor that accumulates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons (MNs) in most cases of ALS, prompted attempts to develop TDP-43-based models of the disease. The current study sought to examine, in extensive detail, the emerging disease phenotype of a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses a mutant human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) gene under mouse prion promoter control. Careful attention was given to ALS-like characteristics to determine the appropriateness of this model for testing therapies for ALS. In light of previous reports that gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is responsible for early death in these mice, gut immunohistochemistry (IHC) and longitudinal gut motility assays were used to identify the onset and the progression of these defects. IHC studies revealed that site-specific overexpression of the hTDP-43 transgene in colonic myenteric plexes resulted in progressive neurodegeneration in this region. This change was associated with progressively reduced GI motility, culminating in frank stasis that was primarily responsible for decreasing longevity in these mice. The disease phenotype was gender- and genetic background-dependent, with congenic C57BL/6J male mice exhibiting the most aggressive form of the disease. Spinal cord IHC revealed ubiquitin-positive inclusions, but not TDP-43 aggregates, in the cytoplasm of MNs. Neither gender exhibited compelling ALS-like neuromuscular deficits, irrespective of age. While this model may be useful for studying GI tract neurodegeneration, in its present state it does not display a phenotype suitable for testing ALS therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled RNA Metabolism 2013. PMID:24141148

Hatzipetros, Theo; Bogdanik, Laurent P; Tassinari, Valerie R; Kidd, Joshua D; Moreno, Andy J; Davis, Crystal; Osborne, Melissa; Austin, Andrew; Vieira, Fernando G; Lutz, Cathleen; Perrin, Steve

2014-10-10

128

Status of MICE  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment currently under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The aim of the experiment is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling for a beam of muons, crucial for the requirements of a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider. Muon cooling is achieved by measuring the reduction of the four dimensional transverse emittance for a beam of muons passing through low density absorbers and then accelerating the longitudinal component of the momentum using RF cavities. The absorbers are maintained in a focusing magnetic field to reduce the beta function of the beam and the RF cavities are kept inside coupling coils. The main goal of MICE is to measure a fractional drop in emittance, of order -10% for large emittance beams, with an accuracy of 1%(which imposes a requirement that the absolute emittance be measured with an accuracy of 0.1%). This paper will discuss the status of MICE, including the progress in commissioning the muon beam line at the ISIS accelerator at RAL, the construction of the different detector elements in MICE and the prospects for the future.

Soler, F. J. P. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2010-03-30

129

Demonstrational Features of the Tuskegee Institute Retraining Project, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 52-week Tuskegee Institute project, undertaken in 1964 to train a sample of culturally deprived male heads of households in Alabama, included vocational skills (brickmasonry, carpentry, farm machinery, and meat processing), academic skills (mathematics, English, and remedial reading), group, individual, and family counseling, medical care,…

Tuskegee Inst., AL.

130

General features  

SciTech Connect

The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

Wallace, R.E.

1990-01-01

131

Pulmonary eosinophils and their role in immunopathologic responses to formalin-inactivated pneumonia virus of mice  

PubMed Central

Enhanced disease is the term used to describe the aberrant Th2 skewed responses to naturally-acquired human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection observed in individuals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated viral antigens. Here we explore this paradigm with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a pathogen that faithfully reproduces features of severe hRSV infection in a rodent host. We demonstrate that PVM infection in mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from PVM-infected cells (PVM Ags) yields Th2-skewed hypersensitivity, analogous to that observed in response to hRSV. Specifically, we detect elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of PVM-infected mice that were vaccinated with PVM Ags, but not among mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from uninfected cells (Ctrl Ags). Interestingly, infection in PVM Ag-vaccinated mice was associated with a ~10-fold reduction in lung virus titer and protection against weight loss when compared to infected mice vaccinated with Ctrl Ags, despite the absence of serum neutralizing antibodies. Given recent findings documenting a role for eosinophils in promoting clearance of hRSV in vivo, we explored the role of eosinophils in altering the pathogenesis of disease with eosinophil-deficient mice. We found that eosinophil deficiency had no impact on virus titer in PVM Ags-vaccinated mice, nor on weight loss or levels of CCL11 (eotaxin-1), interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-5, or IL-13 in BAL fluid. However, levels of both IL-4 and CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) in BAL fluid were markedly diminished in PVM Ag-vaccinated, PVM-infected eosinophil-deficient mice when compared to wild type controls (246 words). PMID:19542471

Percopo, Caroline M.; Qiu, Zhijun; Phipps, Simon; Foster, Paul S.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2009-01-01

132

Favorite Demonstration: An Illuminating Catalysis Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The catalase demonstration presented here is a variation of a traditional experiment that is normally run to demonstrate enzyme activity in basic undergraduate biology classes. It is one of the easiest laboratory activities to demonstrate organic catalysis. The setup involves minimum preparation and inexpensive materials (Mader 1995).

Hoots, Rita

2004-02-01

133

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

134

Interferon-gamma deficiency reveals that 129Sv mice are inherently more susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum than C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Immunocompetent mice 129Sv (129) and C57BL/6 (B6) mice are similarly susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We now show that 129 mice lacking interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) develop more severe infection with A. phagocytophilum than IFN-gamma deficient B6 mice. These data demonstrate that there is an inherent increased susceptibility of 129 mice, compared with B6 mice, to A. phagocytophilum that can only be discerned in the absence of IFN-gamma. PMID:15477043

Wang, Tian; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa; Banerjee, Rila; Fikrig, Erol

2004-11-01

135

Special Feature: Quantum Measurement Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special feature is intended to present a comprehensive review of the present state and novel trends in the field of quantum measurement standards. Most of the present metrological research is concentrated on establishing and strengthening the links between the units and fundamental constants. This will be demonstrated in the nine articles in this feature.The first four articles are devoted

Erich Braun

2003-01-01

136

Mice Lacking the p43 Mitochondrial T3 Receptor Become Glucose Intolerant and Insulin Resistant during Aging  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (TH) play an important regulatory role in energy expenditure regulation and are key regulators of mitochondrial activity. We have previously identified a mitochondrial triiodothyronine (T3) receptor (p43) which acts as a mitochondrial transcription factor of the organelle genome, which leads in vitro and in vivo, to a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice carrying a specific p43 invalidation. At 2 months of age, we reported that p43 depletion in mice induced a major defect in insulin secretion both in vivo and in isolated pancreatic islets, and a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The present study was designed to determine whether p43 invalidation influences life expectancy and modulates blood glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity during aging. We report that from 4 months old onwards, mice lacking p43 are leaner than wild-type mice. p43?/? mice also have a moderate reduction of life expectancy compared to wild type. We found no difference in blood glucose levels, excepted at 24 months old where p43?/? mice showed a strong hyperglycemia in fasting conditions compared to controls animals. However, the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was maintained whatever the age of mice lacking p43. If up to 12 months old, glucose tolerance remained unchanged, beyond this age p43?/? mice became increasingly glucose intolerant. In addition, if up to 12 months old p43 deficient animals were more sensitive to insulin, after this age we observed a loss of this capacity, culminating in 24 months old mice with a decreased sensitivity to the hormone. In conclusion, we demonstrated that during aging the depletion of the mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 in mice progressively induced an increased glycemia in the fasted state, glucose intolerance and an insulin-resistance several features of type-2 diabetes. PMID:24098680

Bertrand, Christelle; Blanchet, Emilie; Pessemesse, Laurence; Annicotte, Jean Sebastien; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Chabi, Beatrice; Levin, Jonathan; Fajas, Lluis; Cabello, Gerard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Casas, Francois

2013-01-01

137

Favorite Demonstration: Tips for Using Demonstrations Effectively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrations are powerful learning tools when properly used in combination with other teaching strategies. They are effective ways to model scientific principles in a manner that allows students to visualize, practice, and apply the information being presented. This article describes the criteria for an educationally effective demonstration and presents two examples that "teach critical thinking in the sciences" (Shmaefsky 2004).

Shmaefsky, Brian

2004-07-01

138

Favorite Demonstration: Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration closely simulates Io's surface and validates scientists' conclusions about this satellite of Jupiter. It illustrates the importance of teaching descriptive chemistry and is suitable for a general science class as well as introductory ch

Mccarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2001-12-01

139

Favorite Demonstration: A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inquiry, high-order thinking, reasoning skills, and critical thinking are buzzwords for the outcomes for which college science instructors strive. They can all be succinctly summarized as "get students thinking about what they are learning." Classroom demonstrations are a great vechicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. A good example of this type of application is a demonstration that uses simple fruit and vegetable spoilage biochemistry principles to teach scientific reasoning skills.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2005-05-01

140

A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)

Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

1982-01-01

141

Lack of MHC expression and retention of ultrastructural characteristics by xenograft transmissible venereal tumor cells in SCID mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is primarily a tumor of adult dogs with a high incidence of spontaneous regression. We recently reported a xenograft model of CTVT (XTVT) in NOD\\/SCID mice. XTVT cells retain cytological and histological features of CTVT as well as characteristic rearranged LINE\\/c-MYC junction [Am. J. Vet. Res. 62 (2001) 907]. In this paper, we demonstrate that

A. Harmelin; J. H. Pinthus; D. Friedmann-Morvinski; K. Kaufman; O. Brenner

2002-01-01

142

Why Demonstrations Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current focus on constructivist perspectives, science demonstrations have fallen out of favor in some circles. Demonstrations are easy to do and offer many benefits and unique opportunities in the constructivist classroom. With careful use, demonstrations can be powerful teaching tools. A wonderful quality of a demonstration (or a series…

Black, Richard

2005-01-01

143

Favorite Demonstration: An Inexpensive Resonance Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resonance is commonplace and easy to recognize when it occurs. Yet it is also one of the most impressive and often unexpected phenomenon in all of physics. This article describes a visually appealing resonance demonstrator that uses readily available and inexpensive parts.

Dukes, Phillip

2005-01-01

144

Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

Cross, Rod

2014-09-01

145

Cerebellar-Dependent Expression of Motor Learning during Eyeblink Conditioning in Head-Fixed Mice.  

PubMed

Eyeblink conditioning in restrained rabbits has served as an excellent model of cerebellar-dependent motor learning for many decades. In mice, the role of the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning is less clear and remains controversial, partly because learning appears to engage fear-related circuits and lesions of the cerebellum do not abolish the learned behavior completely. Furthermore, experiments in mice are performed using freely moving systems, which lack the stability necessary for mapping out the essential neural circuitry with electrophysiological approaches. We have developed a novel apparatus for eyeblink conditioning in head-fixed mice. Here, we show that the performance of mice in our apparatus is excellent and that the learned behavior displays two hallmark features of cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning in rabbits: (1) gradual acquisition; and (2) adaptive timing of conditioned movements. Furthermore, we use a combination of pharmacological inactivation, electrical stimulation, single-unit recordings, and targeted microlesions to demonstrate that the learned behavior is completely dependent on the cerebellum and to pinpoint the exact location in the deep cerebellar nuclei that is necessary. Our results pave the way for using eyeblink conditioning in head-fixed mice as a platform for applying next-generation genetic tools to address molecular and circuit-level questions about cerebellar function in health and disease. PMID:25378152

Heiney, Shane A; Wohl, Margot P; Chettih, Selmaan N; Ruffolo, Luis I; Medina, Javier F

2014-11-01

146

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

1992-11-10

147

Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

Davies, G. R.

1990-01-01

148

Overhead Projector Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several chemistry demonstrations that use an overhead projector. Some of the demonstrations deal with electrochemistry, and another deals with the reactions of nonvolatile immiscible liquid in water. (TW)

Kolb, Doris, Ed.

1987-01-01

149

Cardio Lab Powerpoint Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Powerpoint presentation utilizing a Functional Heart Model to demonstrate the relationships among stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output. Demonstration also includes blood vessel radius and flow-pressure relationships. Oxygen consumption and VO2 MAX is discussed.

Ms. Jeannette K Hafey (Springfield College Biology/Chemistry)

2010-05-24

150

A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

Sathe, Dileep V.

1984-01-01

151

Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations \\

K. A. Schramm; S. Stein; S. van der Lee; L. Swafford; E. Klosko; J. Delaughter; M. Wysession

2005-01-01

152

TRAIL Deficiency Contributes to Diabetic Nephropathy in Fat-Fed ApoE-/- Mice  

PubMed Central

Background We recently demonstrated that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is protective of diet-induced diabetes in mice. While TRAIL has been implicated in chronic kidney disease, its role in vivo in diabetic nephropathy is not clear. The present study investigated the role of TRAIL in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy using TRAIL-/-ApoE-/- mice. Methods TRAIL-/-ApoE-/- and ApoE-/- mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 w. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed over 0, 5, 8 and 20 w. At 20 w, markers of kidney function including creatinine, phosphate, calcium and cystatin C were measured. Changes in mRNA expression of MMPs, TIMP-1, IL-1? and IL-18 were assessed in the kidney. Functional and histological changes in kidneys were examined. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Results TRAIL-/-ApoE-/- mice had significantly increased urine protein, urine protein:creatinine ratio, plasma phosphorous, and plasma cystatin C, with accelerated nephropathy. Histologically, increased extracellular matrix, mesangial expansion and mesangial cell proliferation in the glomeruli were observed. Moreover, TRAIL-/-ApoE-/- kidneys displayed loss of the brush border and disorganisation of tubular epithelium, with increased fibrosis. TRAIL-deficient kidneys also had increased expression of MMPs, TIMP-1, PAI-1, IL-1? and IL-18, markers of renal injury and inflammation. Compared with ApoE-/- mice, TRAIL-/-ApoE-/- mice displayed insulin resistance and type-2 diabetic features with reduced renal insulin-receptor expression. Conclusions Here, we show that TRAIL-deficiency in ApoE-/- mice exacerbates nephropathy and insulin resistance. Understanding TRAIL signalling in kidney disease and diabetes, may therefore lead to novel strategies for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24667560

Cartland, Sian P.; Erlich, Jonathan H.; Kavurma, Mary M.

2014-01-01

153

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

Lubowich, D. A.

2006-08-01

154

METCAN demonstration manual, version 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various features of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer program to simulate the high temperature nonlinear behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are demonstrated. Different problems are used to demonstrate various capabilities of METCAN for both static and cyclic analyses. A complete description of the METCAN output file is also included to help interpret results.

Lee, H.-J.; Murthy, P. L. N.

1992-01-01

155

Large-scale CFB combustion demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

JEA's large-scale CFB demonstration project is described. The paper focuses on the design features being incorporated into the project, its role within the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, and the projected environmental performance. A description of the circulating fluidized bed combustion process is included.

Nielsen, T.; Hebb, J.; Darling, S.L.

1999-07-01

156

Increased Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Diabetic Akita-LDLr?/? Mice Compared to Nondiabetic LDLr?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. One proposed mechanism is that diabetes aggravates atherosclerosis by enhancing plaque inflammation. The Akita mouse has recently been adopted as a relevant model for microvascular complications of diabetes. Here we investigate the development of atherosclerosis and inflammation in vessels of Akita mice on LDLr?/? background. Methods and Results. Akita-LDLr?/? and LDLr?/? mice were fed high-fat diet from 6 to 24 weeks of age. Blood glucose levels were higher in both male and female Akita-LDLr?/? mice (137% and 70%, resp.). Male Akita-LDLr?/? mice had markedly increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, a three-fold increase in atherosclerosis, and enhanced accumulation of macrophages and T-cells in plaques. In contrast, female Akita-LDLr?/? mice demonstrated a modest 29% increase in plasma cholesterol and no significant increase in triglycerides, atherosclerosis, or inflammatory cells in lesions. Male Akita-LDLr?/? mice had increased levels of plasma IL-1? compared to nondiabetic mice, whereas no such difference was seen between female diabetic and nondiabetic mice. Conclusion. Akita-LDLr?/? mice display considerable gender differences in the development of diabetic atherosclerosis. In addition, the increased atherosclerosis in male Akita-LDLr?/? mice is associated with an increase in inflammatory cells in lesions. PMID:23243415

Engelbertsen, Daniel; To, Fong; Duner, Pontus; Kotova, Olga; Soderberg, Ingrid; Alm, Ragnar; Gomez, Maria F.; Nilsson, Jan; Bengtsson, Eva

2012-01-01

157

The Microgravity Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Demonstrator is a tool to create microgravity conditions in your classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions and to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. A wealth of back-round material on free-fall, microgravity, and micro-gravity sciences is available in two educational documents available through the NASA Teacher Resource Centers: Microgravity-Activity Guide for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, and The Mathematics of Microgravity. The remainder of this manual is divided into five sections. The first explains how to put the Microgravity Demonstrator together. The next section introduces the individual demonstrations and discusses the underlying physical science concepts. Following that are detailed steps for conducting each demonstration to make your use of the Demonstrator most effective. Next are some ideas on how to make your own Microgravity Demonstrator. The last section is a tips and troubleshooting guide for video connections and operations. If you have one of the NASA Microgravity Demonstrators, this entire manual should be useful. If you have a copy of the Microgravity Demonstrator Videotape and would like to use that as a teaching tool, the Demonstrations and Scientific Background section of this manual will give you insight into the science areas studied in microgravity.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

1999-01-01

158

Boosting Object Detection Using Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature subset selection has received considerable attention in the machine learning literature, however, it has not been fully explored or exploited in the computer vision area. In this paper, we consider the problem of object detection using genetic algorithms (GA) for feature subset selection. We argue that feature selection is an important problem in object detection, and demonstrate that GA

Zehang Sun; George Bebis; Ronald Miller

2003-01-01

159

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

160

Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration  

NASA Video Gallery

Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

161

A transgenic mouse model demonstrating the oncogenic role of mutations in the polycomb-group gene EZH2 in lymphomagenesis.  

PubMed

The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently mutated in germinal center-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. To further characterize these EZH2 mutations in lymphomagenesis, we generated a mouse line where EZH2(Y641F) is expressed from a lymphocyte-specific promoter. Spleen cells isolated from the transgenic mice displayed a global increase in trimethylated H3K27, but the mice did not show an increased tendency to develop lymphoma. As EZH2 mutations often coincide with other mutations in lymphoma, we combined the expression of EZH2(Y641F) by crossing these transgenic mice with Eµ-Myc transgenic mice. We observed a dramatic acceleration of lymphoma development in this combination model of Myc and EZH2(Y641F). The lymphomas show histologic features of high-grade disease with a shift toward a more mature B-cell phenotype, increased cycling and gene expression, and epigenetic changes involving important pathways in B-cell regulation and function. Furthermore, they initiate disease in secondary recipients. In summary, EZH2(Y641F) can collaborate with Myc to accelerate lymphomagenesis demonstrating a cooperative role of EZH2 mutations in oncogenesis. This murine lymphoma model provides a new tool to study global changes in the epigenome caused by this frequent mutation and a promising model system for testing novel treatments. PMID:24802772

Berg, Tobias; Thoene, Silvia; Yap, Damian; Wee, Tracee; Schoeler, Nathalie; Rosten, Patty; Lim, Emilia; Bilenky, Misha; Mungall, Andrew J; Oellerich, Thomas; Lee, Sherry; Lai, Courteney K; Umlandt, Patricia; Salmi, Anisa; Chang, Harry; Yue, Lisa; Lai, David; Cheng, S-W Grace; Morin, Ryan D; Hirst, Martin; Serve, Hubert; Marra, Marco A; Morin, Gregg B; Gascoyne, Randy D; Aparicio, Samuel A; Humphries, R Keith

2014-06-19

162

A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

2011-01-01

163

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

164

Better Ira Remsen Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

2011-01-01

165

Token Ring Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates a Token Ring. Users may add or delete stations (or computers) from the ring. The applet allows the user to show data being circulated around the ring. Users may also select to demonstrate the cases when one of the stations is switched off, or monitoring. (UNC E-Learning Grant)

2007-01-23

166

Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

1984-01-01

167

Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

Fricker, H. S.

1994-01-01

168

Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

Worthy, Ward

1987-01-01

169

Inertia Demonstration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the inertia ball demonstration qualitatively. For the advanced level the demonstration is treated as a forced harmonic oscillator and the results verified analytically. Computer-generated graphs show that with a rapid pull, the upper cord may break, or the upper and lower cords may break simultaneously. (Author/GA)

Karioris, Frank G.

1978-01-01

170

Thermohaline Circulation Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps the students to visualize the effects of temperature and salinity on water density, and the resulting thermohaline circulation. Important processes visualized in this demonstration are upwelling, downwelling, and the formation of haloclines, thermoclines and pycnoclines. In addition, mixing by advection is clearly demonstrated.

Venn, Cynthia

171

FDDI Ring Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates an FDDI ring. Users may add or delete stations (or computers) from the ring. The applet allows the user to show data being circulated around the ring. Users may also select to demonstrate the cases when the ring becomes broken or when one of the stations is switched off. (UNC E-Learning Grant)

2007-01-23

172

Newton's Laws Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of demonstrations, learners explore Newton's Laws of Motion. These seventeen quick activities investigate air resistance, acceleration, terminal velocity, inertia, action-reaction, and other key concepts related to forces and motion. These demonstrations can be coupled together or conducted individually.

Rathjen, Don

2007-01-01

173

Demonstrating Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

1996-01-01

174

A Stellar Demonstrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

Ros, Rosa M.

2009-01-01

175

Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation. PMID:24312665

Akasheh, Rand T; Pini, Maria; Pang, Jingbo; Fantuzzi, Giamila

2013-01-01

176

Tested Demonstrations: Spectroscopy Illustrated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment to prepare three metal derivatives of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on their infrared spectra. Results and discussion of reactions involved are also provided. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

177

Advanced Features Jana Kosecka  

E-print Network

Features: Topics · Advanced features and feature matching · Template matching · SIFT features #12 Convolution #12;7 Given a template - find the region in the image with the highest matching score Matching!) Scaling - NO Rotation - NO Illumination - depends Perspective Projection - NO Feature Matching

Kosecka, Jana

178

Remote Agent Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

1999-01-01

179

Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

1984-01-01

180

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

181

Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration was designed to address the following goals: Demonstrate telecommuting to a diverse group of organizations in the Puget Sound region by designing, organizing, and managing a telecommuting research project; Research and evaluate the impacts of telecommuting on the environment and energy use; Research and evaluate the impacts of telecommuting on employees and their families; search and evaluate the impacts of telecommuting on organizations; Assess the potential for telecommuting region wide and develop policy recommendations based on the findings of this project. About 280 telecommuters, their supervisors and coworkers, and a comparison group participated. Over the course of the program these organizations, their employees, and WSEO explored the issues surrounding part-time telecommuting. Each organization agreed to participate for one year. The demonstration lasted about two years, including recruitment, research and evaluation, and report writing. This report presents the highlights of the demonstration research.

Quaid, M.; Lagerberg, B.

1992-11-01

182

Overhead Projector Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are two demonstrations for teaching chemistry using the overhead projector. Included are "Oxidation of Cyclohexanol--An Amoebalike Reaction," and "A Diels-Alder Reaction for the Overhead Projector." Materials and procedures are detailed. (CW)

Kolb, Doris, Ed.

1989-01-01

183

Thermal Conductivity Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Here are three ideas for demonstrating thermal conductivity to your students. I. Heat flow down a metal rod (or rods) is timed by seeing wax melt at different locations along the rod. II. A rod made of ...

184

Floating Magnet Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

Wake, Masayoshi

1990-01-01

185

Water Contamination Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

186

Technology Demonstration Missions  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature â??lab-provenâ? technology and "flight-ready" status....

187

Deficient Wnt signalling triggers striatal synaptic degeneration and impaired motor behaviour in adult mice.  

PubMed

Synapse degeneration is an early and invariant feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, synapse loss occurs prior to neuronal degeneration and correlates with the symptom severity of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger synaptic loss remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that deficient Wnt signalling elicits synaptic degeneration in the adult striatum. Inducible expression of the secreted Wnt antagonist Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) in adult mice (iDkk1) decreases the number of cortico-striatal glutamatergic synapses and of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor clusters. Synapse loss occurs in the absence of axon retraction or cell death. The remaining excitatory terminals contain fewer synaptic vesicles and have a reduced probability of evoked transmitter release. IDkk1 mice show impaired motor coordination and are irresponsive to amphetamine. These studies identify Wnts as key endogenous regulators of synaptic maintenance and suggest that dysfunction in Wnt signalling contributes to synaptic degeneration at early stages in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25318560

Galli, Soledad; Lopes, Douglas M; Ammari, Rachida; Kopra, Jaakko; Millar, Sarah E; Gibb, Alasdair; Salinas, Patricia C

2014-01-01

188

Deficient Wnt signalling triggers striatal synaptic degeneration and impaired motor behaviour in adult mice  

PubMed Central

Synapse degeneration is an early and invariant feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, synapse loss occurs prior to neuronal degeneration and correlates with the symptom severity of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger synaptic loss remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that deficient Wnt signalling elicits synaptic degeneration in the adult striatum. Inducible expression of the secreted Wnt antagonist Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) in adult mice (iDkk1) decreases the number of cortico-striatal glutamatergic synapses and of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor clusters. Synapse loss occurs in the absence of axon retraction or cell death. The remaining excitatory terminals contain fewer synaptic vesicles and have a reduced probability of evoked transmitter release. IDkk1 mice show impaired motor coordination and are irresponsive to amphetamine. These studies identify Wnts as key endogenous regulators of synaptic maintenance and suggest that dysfunction in Wnt signalling contributes to synaptic degeneration at early stages in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25318560

Galli, Soledad; Lopes, Douglas M.; Ammari, Rachida; Kopra, Jaakko; Millar, Sarah E.; Gibb, Alasdair; Salinas, Patricia C.

2014-01-01

189

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2007-12-01

190

Diaphragm Muscle Sarcopenia in Aging Mice  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, defined as muscle weakness and fiber atrophy, of respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm (DIAm) has not been well characterized. The DIAm is the main inspiratory muscle and knowledge of DIAm sarcopenia is important for establishing the effects of aging on respiratory function. We hypothesized that aging is associated with a loss of DIAm force and reduced fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and that these changes vary across fiber types. DIAm sarcopenia was assessed in young (5 month; n=11) and old (23 month; n=12) wild-type mice reflecting ~100 and 75% survival, respectively. In addition, DIAm sarcopenia was evaluated in BubR1H/H mice (n=4) that display accelerated aging (~60% survival at 5 months) as a result of expression of a hypomorphic allele (H) of the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1. Maximum specific force (normalized for CSA) of the DIAm was 34% less in old mice and 57% lower in BubR1H/H mice compared to young mice. Mean CSA of type IIx and/or IIb DIAm fibers was 27% smaller in old wild-type mice and 47% smaller in BubR1H/H mice compared to young mice. Mean CSA of type I or IIa fibers was not different between groups. Collectively these results demonstrate sarcopenia of the DIAm in aging wild-type mice and in BubR1H/H mice displaying accelerated aging. Sarcopenia may limit the ability of the DIAm to accomplish expulsive, non-ventilatory behaviors essential for airway clearance. As a result, these changes in the DIAm may contribute to respiratory complications with aging. PMID:23792145

Greising, Sarah M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Gorman, Britney A.; Ermilov, Leonid G.; Sieck, Gary C.

2013-01-01

191

Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

2005-12-01

192

A metabolomic view of how the human gut microbiota impacts the host metabolome using humanized and gnotobiotic mice  

PubMed Central

Defining the functional status of host-associated microbial ecosystems has proven challenging owing to the vast number of predicted genes within the microbiome and relatively poor understanding of community dynamics and community–host interaction. Metabolomic approaches, in which a large number of small molecule metabolites can be defined in a biological sample, offer a promising avenue to ‘fingerprint' microbiota functional status. Here, we examined the effects of the human gut microbiota on the fecal and urinary metabolome of a humanized (HUM) mouse using an optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based method. Differences between HUM and conventional mouse urine and fecal metabolomic profiles support host-specific aspects of the microbiota's metabolomic contribution, consistent with distinct microbial compositions. Comparison of microbiota composition and metabolome of mice humanized with different human donors revealed that the vast majority of metabolomic features observed in donor samples are produced in the corresponding HUM mice, and individual-specific features suggest ‘personalized' aspects of functionality can be reconstituted in mice. Feeding the mice a defined, custom diet resulted in modification of the metabolite signatures, illustrating that host diet provides an avenue for altering gut microbiota functionality, which in turn can be monitored via metabolomics. Using a defined model microbiota consisting of one or two species, we show that simplified communities can drive major changes in the host metabolomic profile. Our results demonstrate that metabolomics constitutes a powerful avenue for functional characterization of the intestinal microbiota and its interaction with the host. PMID:23739052

Marcobal, A; Kashyap, P C; Nelson, T A; Aronov, P A; Donia, M S; Spormann, A; Fischbach, M A; Sonnenburg, J L

2013-01-01

193

Humanized Mice, a New Model To Study the Influence of Drug Treatment on Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a prominent threat to neonates and fetuses in the Western world, causing severe organ damage and even death. To improve current therapeutic strategies and to investigate new approaches, an appropriate in vivo model to study the immune response of a human immune system is needed. Therefore, we introduced humanized mice as a new model for GBS-induced sepsis. Humanized mice feature deficiencies similar to those found in neonates, such as lower immunoglobulin levels and myeloid cell dysfunction. Due to the husbandry in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) facilities, the human immune cells in these mice also exhibit a naive phenotype which mimics the conditions in fetuses/neonates. Following infection, cytokine release and leukocyte trafficking from the bone marrow to the lymphoid organ (spleen) and into the peritoneum (site of infection) as well as bacterial spreading and clearance were traceable in the humanized mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of betamethasone and indomethacin treatment using this novel sepsis model. Although both drugs are commonly used in perinatal care, little is known about their effects on the neonatal immune system. Treatment of infected humanized mice not only induced the reduction of human leukocytes in the spleen but also increased the bacterial load in all analyzed organs, including the brain, which did not show infiltration of live GBS in untreated controls. These studies demonstrate the utility of the humanized mice as a new model to study an immature human immune response during bacterial infection and allow the investigation of side effects induced by various treatments. PMID:23439310

Ernst, Wolfgang; Zimara, Nicole; Hanses, Frank; Mannel, Daniela N.; Seelbach-Gobel, Birgit

2013-01-01

194

Functional consequences of EpCam mutation in mice and men.  

PubMed

Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe diarrheal disease of infancy characterized by villous changes and epithelial tufts. We previously identified mutations in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as the cause of CTE. We developed an in vivo mouse model of CTE based on EpCAM mutations found in patients with the aim to further elucidate the in vivo role of EpCAM and allow for a direct comparison to human CTE. Using Cre-LoxP recombination technology, we generated a construct lacking exon 4 in Epcam. Epcam(?4/?4) mice and CTE patient intestinal tissue integrity was analyzed by histology using both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Epcam(?4/?4) mice demonstrate neonatal lethality and growth retardation with pathological features, including epithelial tufts, enterocyte crowding, altered desmosomes, and intercellular gaps, similar to human CTE patients. Mutant EpCAM protein is present at low levels and is mislocalized in the intestine of Epcam(?4/?4) mice and CTE patients. Deletion of exon 4 was found to decrease expression of both EpCAM and claudin-7 causing a loss of colocalization, functionally disrupting the EpCAM/claudin-7 complex, a finding for the first time confirmed in CTE patients. Furthermore, compared with unaffected mice, mutation of Epcam leads to enhanced permeability and intestinal cell migration, uncovering underlying disease mechanisms. PMID:24337010

Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Peña, Carla A; Sivagnanam, Mamata

2014-02-15

195

Teaching Chemistry through Observation--The Exploding Can Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for a demonstration that features an exploding can. This demonstration prompts students to critically analyze the release of energy in an exothermic reaction, the work done in such a reaction, and the enthalpy. (DDR)

Golestaneh, Kamran

1998-01-01

196

Behavioral evidence for photophobia and stress-related ipsilateral head pain in transgenic Cacna1a mutant mice.  

PubMed

Migraine is a highly prevalent, disabling and complex episodic brain disorder whose pathogenesis is poorly understood, due in part to the lack of valid animal models. Here we report behavioral evidence of hallmark migraine features, photophobia and unilateral head pain, in transgenic knock-in mice bearing human familial hemiplegic migraine, type 1 (FHM-1) gain-of-function missense mutations (R192Q or S218L) in the Cacna1a gene encoding the CaV2.1 calcium channel ?1 subunit. Photophobia was demonstrated using a modified elevated plus maze in which the safe closed arms were brightly illuminated; mutant mice avoided the light despite showing no differences in the standard (anxiety) version of the test. Multiple behavioral measures suggestive of spontaneous head pain were found in 192Q mutants subjected to novelty and/or restraint stress. These behaviors were: (1) more frequent in mutant versus wildtype mice; (2) lateralized in mutant but not in wildtype mice; (3) more frequent in females versus males; and (4) dose-dependently normalized by systemic administration of 2 different acute analgesics, rizatriptan and morphine. Furthermore, some of these behaviors were found to be more frequent and severe in 218L compared to 192Q mutants, consistent with the clinical presentation in humans. We suggest that Cacna1a transgenic mice can experience migraine-related head pain and can thus serve as unique tools to study the pathogenesis of migraine and test novel antimigraine agents. PMID:23673147

Chanda, Mona Lisa; Tuttle, Alexander H; Baran, Inna; Atlin, Cori; Guindi, Daniella; Hathaway, Georgia; Israelian, Nyrie; Levenstadt, Jeremy; Low, Daniel; Macrae, Lynn; O'Shea, Louise; Silver, Alex; Zendegui, Elaina; Mariette Lenselink, A; Spijker, Sabine; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Mogil, Jeffrey S

2013-08-01

197

Video Demonstration: Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstration from Watch Know Learn will help students learning about proportions. The video will help students with some knowledge of proportions by showing examples of how to solve them. The definition of a proportion is included as well as examples of how to cross-multiply to solve proportion problems. The demonstration shows what a non-proportion problem looks like and how to solve it as well as a few examples of using the lowest common denominator to solve proportions. Flash player is required to view the video, and the running time for the video is 8:09.

2012-01-01

198

Otitis Media in Sperm-Associated Antigen 6 (Spag6)-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Mammalian SPAG6 protein is localized to the axoneme central apparatus, and it is required for normal flagella and cilia motility. Recent studies demonstrated that the protein also regulates ciliogenesis and cilia polarity in the epithelial cells of brain ventricles and trachea. Motile cilia are also present in the epithelial cells of the middle ear and Eustachian tubes, where the ciliary system participates in the movement of serous fluid and mucus in the middle ear. Cilia defects are associated with otitis media (OM), presumably due to an inability to efficiently transport fluid, mucus and particles including microorganisms. We investigated the potential role of SPAG6 in the middle ear and Eustachian tubes by studying mice with a targeted mutation in the Spag6 gene. SPAG6 is expressed in the ciliated cells of middle ear epithelial cells. The orientation of the ciliary basal feet was random in the middle ear epithelial cells of Spag6-deficient mice, and there was an associated disrupted localization of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein, FZD6. These features are associated with disordered cilia orientation, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, which leads to uncoordinated cilia beating. The Spag6 mutant mice were also prone to develop OM. However, there were no significant differences in bacterial populations, epithelial goblet cell density, mucin expression and Eustachian tube angle between the mutant and wild-type mice, suggesting that OM was due to accumulation of fluid and mucus secondary to the ciliary dysfunction. Our studies demonstrate a role for Spag6 in the pathogenesis of OM in mice, possibly through its role in the regulation of cilia/basal body polarity through the PCP-dependent mechanisms in the middle ear and Eustachian tubes. PMID:25393619

Li, Xiaofei; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Boqin; Bai, Xiaohui; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing; Wang, Haibo

2014-01-01

199

Otitis media in sperm-associated antigen 6 (spag6)-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Mammalian SPAG6 protein is localized to the axoneme central apparatus, and it is required for normal flagella and cilia motility. Recent studies demonstrated that the protein also regulates ciliogenesis and cilia polarity in the epithelial cells of brain ventricles and trachea. Motile cilia are also present in the epithelial cells of the middle ear and Eustachian tubes, where the ciliary system participates in the movement of serous fluid and mucus in the middle ear. Cilia defects are associated with otitis media (OM), presumably due to an inability to efficiently transport fluid, mucus and particles including microorganisms. We investigated the potential role of SPAG6 in the middle ear and Eustachian tubes by studying mice with a targeted mutation in the Spag6 gene. SPAG6 is expressed in the ciliated cells of middle ear epithelial cells. The orientation of the ciliary basal feet was random in the middle ear epithelial cells of Spag6-deficient mice, and there was an associated disrupted localization of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein, FZD6. These features are associated with disordered cilia orientation, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, which leads to uncoordinated cilia beating. The Spag6 mutant mice were also prone to develop OM. However, there were no significant differences in bacterial populations, epithelial goblet cell density, mucin expression and Eustachian tube angle between the mutant and wild-type mice, suggesting that OM was due to accumulation of fluid and mucus secondary to the ciliary dysfunction. Our studies demonstrate a role for Spag6 in the pathogenesis of OM in mice, possibly through its role in the regulation of cilia/basal body polarity through the PCP-dependent mechanisms in the middle ear and Eustachian tubes. PMID:25393619

Li, Xiaofei; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Boqin; Bai, Xiaohui; Strauss, Jerome F; Zhang, Zhibing; Wang, Haibo

2014-01-01

200

Evolutionary facial feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing number of acquired physiological and behavioral biometric samples, biometric data sets are experiencing tremendous growth. As database sizes increase, exhaustive identification searches by matching with entire biometric feature sets become computationally unmanageable. An evolutionary facial feature selector chooses a set of features from prior contextual or meta face features that reduces the search space. This paper discusses

Aaron K. Baughman

2008-01-01

201

Observational learning in C57BL/6j mice.  

PubMed

The ability of mice to solve a complex task by observational learning was investigated with C57BL/6j mice. Four female demonstrators were trained to reliably perform a sequence that consisted in pushing a piece of food into a tube attached to the side of a puzzle box, and recovering it by opening a drawer in front of the box. They then performed this sequence in front of naive mice assigned to individual cubicles in a box with a wire mesh front arranged in a row facing the demonstrators. A total of 25 naive mice (13 males and 12 females) were used. Fifteen mice observed 14 demonstrations a day for 5 days; 10 control mice were placed in similar cubicles, but behind a plastic screen which prevented them from observing the demonstrators. The mice were post-tested in the demonstrator situation, and 6 of 15 observers immediately reproduced the complete task successfully, but none of the naive or control mice were able to solve the task. The observers and controls were then subjected to a five level individual learning schedule. Observers learned the individual task significantly faster than the controls. No sex difference was found. These results suggest that observational learning processes at work were based on stimulus enhancement and observational conditioning. PMID:16939695

Carlier, Pascal; Jamon, Marc

2006-11-01

202

Production of homoplasmic xenomitochondrial mice  

PubMed Central

The unique features of mtDNA, together with the lack of a wide range of mouse cell mtDNA mutants, have hampered the creation of mtDNA mutant mice. To overcome these barriers mitochondrial defects were created by introducing mitochondria from different mouse species into Mus musculus domesticus (Mm) mtDNA-less (?0) L cells. Introduction of the closely related Mus spretus (Ms) or the more divergent Mus dunni (Md) mitochondria resulted in xenocybrids exhibiting grossly normal respiratory function, but mild metabolic deficiencies, with 2- and 2.5-fold increases in lactate production compared with controls. The transfer of this model from in vitro to in vivo studies was achieved by introducing Ms and Md mitochondria into rhodamine-6G-treated Mm mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The resultant xenocybrid ES cells remained pluripotent, and live-born chimerae were produced from both Ms and Md xenocybrid ES cells. Founder chimeric females (G0) were mated with successful germ-line transmission of Ms or Md mtDNA to homoplasmic G1 offspring. These xenocybrid models represent the first viable transmitochondrial mice with homoplasmic replacement of endogenous mtDNA and confirm the feasibility of producing mitochondrial defects in mice by using a xenomitochondrial approach. PMID:14745024

McKenzie, Matthew; Trounce, Ian A.; Cassar, Carolyn A.; Pinkert, Carl A.

2004-01-01

203

Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

Eckroth, Charles A.

204

New Technology Demonstration Program  

E-print Network

New Technology Demonstration Program FEMPFederal Energy Management Program Trends in Energy Management Technology ­ Part 4 Review of Advanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered

205

New Technology Demonstration Program  

E-print Network

New Technology Demonstration Program FEMPFederal Energy Management Program Trends in Energy Management Technology ­ Part 3 State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits

206

The Breaking Broomstick Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and explains the breaking broomstick demonstration first reported in 1532. A needle is fixed at each end of the broomstick, and these needles are made to rest on two glasses, placed on chairs. If the broomstick is struck violently with another stout stick, the former will be broken, but the glasses will remain intact. (PR)

Mamola, Karl C.; Pollock, Joseph T.

1993-01-01

207

MIGSOCK Migratable Demonstration  

E-print Network

MIGSOCK Migratable TCP Socket in Linux Demonstration of Functionality Karthik Rajan Bryan Kuntz #12; WhatWe Provide # Socket Migration Capability Linux kernel level implementation Primarily contained() device interface -- allows simple application layer programs to be written which achieve the migration

Yu, Bin

208

Demonstrating Usability and Safety  

E-print Network

Demonstrating Usability and Safety Ben-Tzion (Bentzi) Karsh, PhD Professor Industrial and Systems Engineering Family Medicine Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety University of Wisconsin 7804 · Critical usability issues that can affect safety #12;Who believes that there is a relationship

209

Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

Battino, Rubin

1979-01-01

210

AP Biology Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2003-06-03

211

Demonstrating the Gas Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

Holko, David A.

1982-01-01

212

A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom demonstrations are a great vehicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. Educational research is replete with data showing that concept application in an inquiry setting reinforces long-term science content retention. This means that students learn best when they experience applications of concepts and…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2005-01-01

213

SOIL BIOVENTING DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale demonstration project of a soil bioventing system, which utilizes the biodegradation in soil and physical removal of VOC by induced air flow, is in operation at the U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Field in Traverse City, Michigan. he system is being tested to determine it...

214

Demonstrating Marketing Accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of

William R. Gombeski Jr; Jason Britt; Jan Taylor; Karen Riggs; Tanya Wray; Wanda Adkins; Suzanne Springate

2008-01-01

215

DEMONSTRATION OF MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in cooperation with E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc. (DuPont) and the Oberlin Filter Company (Oberlin), undertook a field demonstration project to evaluate microfil...

216

A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

1995-01-01

217

Electromagnetic Induction Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple demonstration shows the interaction between electricity and magnetism. Two coils of wire are held close to each other, but not touching. One is attached to a music source, such as a small radio or iPod, and the other is attached to an external speaker. Students can hear the music through the speaker even though there is no direct connection.

Hobbs, Marsha

218

Space fabrication demonstration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lower right aluminum beam cap roll forming mill was delivered and installed in the beam builder. The beam was brought to full operational status and beams of one to six bay lengths were produced to demonstrate full system capability. Although the cap flange waviness problem persists, work is progressing within cost and schedule.

1978-01-01

219

Satellite Feature Identification: Atmospheric Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Satellite Feature Identification: Atmospheric Rivers module presents the global moisture transport phenomenon known as the Atmospheric River (AR). ARs are responsible for transporting the majority of maritime moisture from low to middle latitudes. Advanced satellite products, including Integrated Water Vapor and Total Precipitable Water, provide excellent observations of AR development and evolution.. This module demonstrates the usefulness of these products in forecasting the impacts of ARs, especially when they are combined with numerical weather prediction products. Several AR case studies highlight the importance of using satellite information regarding ARs and allow the user to practice forecasting their impacts. This module is part of the series: "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".

Comet

2012-03-13

220

Histopathological Study of the Lungs of Mice Receiving Human Secretory IgA and Challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The hsIgA was purified from human colostrum and administered to Balb/c mice by the intranasal route prior to infection with M. tuberculosis or in a pre-incubated formulation with mycobacteria, with the principal aim to study its effect on qualitative pulmonary histopathology. Results: The intranasal administration of hsIgA and the pre-incubation of mycobacteria with this preparation was associated with the presence of organised granulomas with signs of immune activation and histological features related to efficient disease control. This effect was highly evident during the late stage of infection (60 days), as demonstrated by numerous organised granulomas with numerous activated macrophages in the lungs of treated mice. Conclusion: The administration of hsIgA to mice before intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis or the pre-incubation of the bacteria with the antibody formulation induced the formation of well-organised granulomas and inflammatory lesions in lungs compared with non-treated animals which correlates with the protective effect already demonstrated by these antibody formulations.

ALVAREZ, Nadine; INFANTE, Juan Francisco; BORRERO, Reinier; MATA, Dulce; PAYAN, JORGE BARRIOS-; HOSSAIN, Md. Murad; MOHD NOR, Norazmi; SARMIENTO, Maria Elena; HERNANDEZ-PANDO, Rogelio; ACOSTA, Armando

2014-01-01

221

AVNG system demonstration  

SciTech Connect

An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

2010-01-01

222

Nucla CFB Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

Not Available

1990-12-01

223

Computer controlled polisher demonstration.  

PubMed

A recent effort was conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the computer controlled polisher process. A computer algorithm was written that predicts the surface figure progress for each polishing cycle. A 1.8-m diam lightweight glass mirror was polished with the computer controlled polisher for four cycles. The prediction program was used to provide an estimate of expected figure improvement for each cycle. The activity used only 72 h of polishing time and improved the mirror surface from an rms figure error of 0.16-0.04 waves, where a wave is 0.633 microm. Even though this figure improvement lagged the predicted improvement due to metrology uncertainty, the rapid error correction demonstrates the computer controlled polisher to be a highly valuable manufacturing tool. PMID:20221183

Jones, R A

1980-06-15

224

Molecular Dynamics Demonstration Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Molecular Dynamics Demonstration model is constructed using the Lennard-Jones potential truncated at a distance of 3 molecular diameters. The motion of the molecules is governed by Newton's laws, approximated using the Verlet algorithm with the indicated Time step. For sufficiently small time steps dt, the system's total energy should be approximately conserved. Users can select various initial configurations using the drop down menu. Ejs Molecular Dynamics Demonstration model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the js_stp_md_MolecularDynamicsDemo.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for statistical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-11-15

225

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

226

Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to develop a autonomous umbilical mating for the mars umbilical technology demonstrator. The Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator (MUTD) shall provide electrical power and fiber optic data cable connections between two simulated mars vehicles. The Omnibot is used to provide the mobile base for the system. The mate to umbilical plate is mounted on a three axis Cartesian table, which is installed on the Omnibot mobile base. The Omnibot is controlled in a teleoperated mode. The operator using the vision system will guide the Omnibot to get close to the mate to plate. The information received from four ultrasonic sensors is used to identify the position of mate to plate and mate the umbilical plates autonomously. A successful experimentation verifies the approach.

Houshangi, Nasser

2000-01-01

227

Measuring the strength of mice.  

PubMed

Kondziela devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice. PMID:23770643

Deacon, Robert M J

2013-01-01

228

Sendai virus infection in genetically resistant and susceptible mice.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of Sendai virus infection in genetically resistant (C57Bl/6) and susceptible (DBA/2) nonimmune adult mice was investigated. Rising serum complement-fixation (CF) antibody titers were delayed in DBA/2 mice as compared with C57Bl/6 mice. C57Bl/6 mice developed descending desquamative endobronchiolitis, and DBA/2 mice developed descending proliferative endobronchiolitis and bronchogenic alveolitis. Peribronchiolar lymphoid cuffs that formed in C57Bl/6 mice were thicker and more densely populated than those of DBA/2 mice. Immunofluorescence demonstrated viral antigens confined to the epithelial lining of conducting airways in C57Bl/6 mice but extending to alveolar corner cells in DBA/2 mice. Studies with a transmission electron microscope confirmed that Type II pneumocytes were infected only in DBA/2 mice. IgG-containing cells selectively accumulated along the airways of both strains, but fewer were recruited by DBA/2 mice. These results suggest that genetic resistance to Sendai virus is expressed through the immune system. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6271017

Brownstein, D. G.; Smith, A. L.; Johnson, E. A.

1981-01-01

229

The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

2008-01-01

230

Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

231

Technology Tips: Building Interactive Demonstrations with Sage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sage is an open-source software package that can be used in many different areas of mathematics, ranging from algebra to calculus and beyond. One of the most exciting pedagogical features of Sage (http://www.sagemath.org) is its ability to create interacts--interactive examples that can be used in a classroom demonstration or by students in a…

Murray, Maura

2013-01-01

232

The Mileura Widefield Array Demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mileura Widefield Array is a low-frequency radio array planned for construction in the outback of Western Australia. In the next 3 years, we plan to build a demonstration array operating in the 80-300 MHz range, comprising 500 antenna systems, and capable of a variety of frontier scientific investigations. The instrument will feature a number of innovations that exploit modern digital signal processing capabilities, and implement functionality that has not hitherto been possible. Among the science goals of the demonstration array is the first detection and characterization of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen during the period of reheating and reionization at redshifts from 6 to 16. The array will also enable a search for transient radio phenomena with a sensitivity that is 6 orders of magnitude better than current limits. The measurement of scintillation and Faraday rotation due to plasma in the heliosphere will be used to diagnose density and magnetic field parameters of coronal mass ejections, with application to space weather studies. The project is a collaboration between MIT, CfA, the Australia Telescope National Facility, and multiple Australian universities.

Lonsdale, C. J.; Salah, J. E.; Hewitt, J. N.; Greenhill, L. J.; Cappallo, R. J.; Morales, M. F.

2004-12-01

233

Autism-like socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies in mice lacking heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate regulates diverse cell-surface signaling events, and its roles in the development of the nervous system recently have been increasingly uncovered by studies using genetic models carrying mutations of genes encoding enzymes for its synthesis. On the other hand, the role of heparan sulfate in the physiological function of the adult brain has been poorly characterized, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting its role in the regulation of synaptic function. To address this issue, we eliminated heparan sulfate from postnatal neurons by conditionally inactivating Ext1, the gene encoding an enzyme essential for heparan sulfate synthesis. Resultant conditional mutant mice show no detectable morphological defects in the cytoarchitecture of the brain. Remarkably, these mutant mice recapitulate almost the full range of autistic symptoms, including impairments in social interaction, expression of stereotyped, repetitive behavior, and impairments in ultrasonic vocalization, as well as some associated features. Mapping of neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry demonstrates that neuronal activation in response to social stimulation is attenuated in the amygdala in these mice. Electrophysiology in amygdala pyramidal neurons shows an attenuation of excitatory synaptic transmission, presumably because of the reduction in the level of synaptically localized AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Our results demonstrate that heparan sulfate is critical for normal functioning of glutamatergic synapses and that its deficiency mediates socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies characteristic for autism. PMID:22411800

Irie, Fumitoshi; Badie-Mahdavi, Hedieh; Yamaguchi, Yu

2012-03-27

234

Neurodevelopmental defects resulting from ATRX overexpression in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Several X-linked mental retardation syndromes are caused by mutations in the ATRX gene. Common clinical features associated with ATRX mutations include severe mental retardation, characteristic facial anomalies and variable degrees of urogenital defects and alpha-thalassemia. Although the ATRX protein is a member of the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins, little is known about the biochemical activity of the ATRX protein or its in vivo function during development. Here we demonstrate that ATRX is part of a large multiprotein complex similar in size to the SWI/SNF complex. Furthermore, we have generated transgenic mice that overexpress ATRX as an initial model for studying the function of this protein during development. Misexpression of ATRX was associated with growth retardation, neural tube defects and a high incidence of embryonic death. Moreover, brains from E10.5 transgenic embryos displayed abnormal growth and organization of the ventricular zone that was highly convoluted in the most severely affected embryos. Transgenic mice that survived to birth exhibited a high incidence of perinatal death, as well as seizures, mild craniofacial anomalies and abnormal behavior. Our findings indicate that ATRX dosage is crucial for normal development and organization of the cortex, and emphasize the relevance of our model for the study of ATRX function and disease pathogenesis. PMID:11823444

Bérubé, Nathalie G; Jagla, Magdalena; Smeenk, Cecelia; De Repentigny, Yves; Kothary, Rashmi; Picketts, David J

2002-02-01

235

Immunological Characterization of Human Vaginal Xenografts in Immunocompromised Mice  

PubMed Central

A small animal model for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and other fastidious infectious agents in human host target tissues is critical for the advancement of therapeutic and preventative strategies. Our laboratory has developed a human vaginal xenograft model that histologically recapitulates features of the human vaginal epithelial barrier. Vaginal xenografts were surgically implanted into C.B.-Igh-1b/IcrTac-Prkdcscid (SCID) and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid (NOD/SCID) mice, with and without human peripheral blood mononuclear cell reconstitution. Immunohistochemical staining of vaginal xenografts demonstrated that in the SCID strain healed vaginal xenografts did not retain intrinsic human immune cells at baseline levels, whereas the NOD/SCID strain supported retention of intrinsic human immune cell populations within the xenografts for at least 2 months after engraftment. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD/SCID mice with vaginal xenografts, flow cytometric analyses detected human immune cell populations in the peripheral blood and immunohistochemical methods detected infiltration of human CD45+ cells in the mouse spleens and vaginal xenografts for at least 2 months after reconstitution. This optimized NOD/SCID human vaginal xenograft model may provide a unique small animal in vivo system for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission and infection. PMID:11733382

Kish, Tina M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Howett, Mary K.

2001-01-01

236

Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

2010-05-16

237

Exploration Medical System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. f. Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management. g. Provide a better standard of healthcare for crew members through reductions in the time required by crew and ground personnel to provide medical treatment and the number of crew errors experienced during treatment.

Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

2014-01-01

238

Slime: Classroom Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Education Resource Center has provided this hands on lab activity created by Andrew Nydam and Debbie Goodwin. The activity demonstrates property change due to crosslinking in slime formed from mixing PVA and Borax solution. This lab will teach the students the important concepts of plastic flow vs. elastic flow, hydrogen bonding, and viscosity. This pdf document provides instructions for the instructor, recommendations to ensure the experiment goes smoothly for both students and teacher, and an evaluation packet for the students to complete once the lab is finished. All in all, this is a fun and education tool for any high school or community college science classroom.

Goodwin, Debbie; Nydam, Andrew

2010-08-06

239

Demonstration tokamak power plant  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

1983-01-01

240

NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

Terry W. Battiest

2008-06-11

241

Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.

2012-12-06

242

Small sample feature selection  

E-print Network

all feature subsets and using 2 measures of performance. The results show that their ranking is strongly affected by inaccurate error estimation. Secondly, since enumerating all feature subsets is computationally impossible in practice, a suboptimal...

Sima, Chao

2007-09-17

243

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

Lundgren, R.A.

1981-09-01

244

PFBC Utility Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

Not Available

1992-11-01

245

The feature selective validation (FSV) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature selective validation (FSV) method is one of the candidate techniques for the quantitative validation of computational electromagnetics (CEM), particularly within electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and signal integrity (SI). In applications so far, it has demonstrated significant promise and is likely to be a central feature of the growing research interest in CEM validation. This paper presents a detailed review

A. Duffy; A. Martin; G. Antonini; A. Orlandi; C. Ritota

2005-01-01

246

Fast webpage classification using URL features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the usefulness of the uniform resource locator (URL) alone in performing web page classification. This approach is faster than typical web page classification, as the pages do not have to be fetched and analyzed. Our approach segments the URL into meaningful chunks and adds component, sequential and orthographic features to model salient patterns. The resulting features are used

Min-Yen Kan; Hoang Oanh Nguyen Thi

2005-01-01

247

Latent Semantic Kernels for Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Indexing is a method for selecting informative subspacesof feature spaces. It was developed for information retrieval to reveal semanticinformation from document co-occurrences. The paper demonstrates how thismethod can be implemented implicitly to a kernel defined feature space andhence adapted for application to any kernel based learning algorithm and data.Experiments with text and UCI data show the technique can

Nello Cristianini; Huma Lodhi; John Shawe-taylor

2000-01-01

248

JCE Feature Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using

Jon L. Holmes

1999-01-01

249

Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid running a multiphase low frequency AC signal. Electrostatically charged particles, such as those encountered on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid, are carried along by the traveling field due to the action of Coulomb and dielectrophoretic forces."2 The technical details have been described in a separate article. This document details the design and construction process of a small demonstration unit. Once finished, this device will go to the Office of the ChiefTechnologist at NASA headquarters, where it will be used to familiarize the public with the technology. 1 NASA KSC FO Intern, Prototype Development Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, University of Central Florida Kennedy Space

Stankie, Charles G.

2013-01-01

250

Jennings Demonstration PLant  

SciTech Connect

Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

Russ Heissner

2010-08-31

251

Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

1987-01-01

252

Fusion Power Demonstration III  

SciTech Connect

This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

Lee, J.D. (ed.)

1985-07-01

253

Resistance of Fc receptor- deficient mice to fatal glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed Central

Immune complex-mediated inflammation is a common mechanism of various autoimmune diseases. Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of these diseases, and the main mechanism of the induction of GN has been unclear. We examined the contribution of Fc receptors in the induction of nephrotoxic GN by establishing and analyzing mice deficient in the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRgamma). Whereas all wild-type mice died from severe glomerulonephritis with hypernitremia by administration of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies, all FcRgamma-deficient mice survived. Histologically, wild-type mice showed glomerular hypercellularity and thrombotic changes, whereas the renal tissue in FcRgamma-deficient mice was almost intact. Deposition of anti-GBM antibody as well as complement components in the GBM were equally observed in both wild-type and knockout mice. These results demonstrate that the triggering of this type of glomerulonephritis is completely dependent on FcR+ cells. PMID:9739057

Park, S Y; Ueda, S; Ohno, H; Hamano, Y; Tanaka, M; Shiratori, T; Yamazaki, T; Arase, H; Arase, N; Karasawa, A; Sato, S; Ledermann, B; Kondo, Y; Okumura, K; Ra, C; Saito, T

1998-01-01

254

Generation of Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, and equipment required for successful generation of transgenic mice using pronuclear injection. The experimental methods and practical tips given here will help guide beginners in understanding what is required and what to avoid in these standard protocols for efficiently generating transgenic mice. PMID:19283729

Cho, Andrew; Haruyama, Naoto; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

2009-01-01

255

Dopamine deficiency in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter that mediates a wide range of brain functions, including locomotion, emotion, learning, and neuroendocrine modulation. To clarify the role of dopamine during postnatal development, it is useful to have mutant mice genetically deleting dopamine. In this paper, we describe the mice lacking expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthetic

Kazuto Kobayashi; Hiromi Sano

2000-01-01

256

Loss of Asxl1 leads to myelodysplastic syndrome-like disease in mice.  

PubMed

ASXL1 is mutated/deleted with high frequencies in multiple forms of myeloid malignancies, and its alterations are associated with poor prognosis. De novo ASXL1 mutations cause Bohring-Opitz syndrome characterized by multiple congenital malformations. We show that Asxl1 deletion in mice led to developmental abnormalities including dwarfism, anophthalmia, and 80% embryonic lethality. Surviving Asxl1(-/-) mice lived for up to 42 days and developed features of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), including dysplastic neutrophils and multiple lineage cytopenia. Asxl1(-/-) mice had a reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, and Asxl1(-/-) HSCs exhibited decreased hematopoietic repopulating capacity, with skewed cell differentiation favoring granulocytic lineage. Asxl1(+/-) mice also developed mild MDS-like disease, which could progress to MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm, demonstrating a haploinsufficient effect of Asxl1 in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. Asxl1 loss led to an increased apoptosis and mitosis in Lineage(-)c-Kit(+) (Lin(-)c-Kit(+)) cells, consistent with human MDS. Furthermore, Asxl1(-/-) Lin(-)c-Kit(+) cells exhibited decreased global levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 and altered expression of genes regulating apoptosis (Bcl2, Bcl2l12, Bcl2l13). Collectively, we report a novel ASXL1 murine model that recapitulates human myeloid malignancies, implying that Asxl1 functions as a tumor suppressor to maintain hematopoietic cell homeostasis. Future work is necessary to clarify the contribution of microenvironment to the hematopoietic phenotypes observed in the constitutional Asxl1(-/-) mice. PMID:24255920

Wang, Jiapeng; Li, Zhaomin; He, Yongzheng; Pan, Feng; Chen, Shi; Rhodes, Steven; Nguyen, Lihn; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Li; Yang, Xianlin; Weeks, Ophelia; Liu, Ziyue; Zhou, Jiehao; Ni, Hongyu; Cai, Chen-Leng; Xu, Mingjiang; Yang, Feng-Chun

2014-01-23

257

Microcephalia with mandibular and dental dysplasia in adult Zmpste24-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

ZMPSTE24 (also called FACE-1) is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the post-translational processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a major component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene or in that encoding its substrate prelamin A (LMNA) result in a series of human inherited diseases known collectively as laminopathies and showing regional or systemic manifestations (i.e. the Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome). Typically, patients suffering some laminopathies show craniofacial or mandible anomalies, aberrant dentition or facial features characteristic of aged persons. To analyse whether Zmpste24?/– mice reproduce the cranial phenotype observed in humans due to mutations in ZMPSTE24or LMNA, we conducted a craniometric study based on micro-computer tomography (µCT) images. Furthermore, using simple radiology, µCT, µCT-densitometry and scanning electron microscopy, we analysed the mandible and the teeth from Zmpste24?/– mice. Finally, the structure of the lower incisor was investigated using an H&E technique. The results demonstrate that Zmpste24?/– mice are microcephalic and show mandibular and dental dysplasia affecting only the mandible teeth. In all cases, the lower incisor of mice lacking Zmpste24 was smaller than in control animals, showed cylindrical morphology and a transverse fissure at the incisal edge, and the pulpal cavity was severely reduced. Structurally, the dental layers were normally arranged but cellular layers were disorganized. The inferior molars showed a reduced cusp size. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Zmpste24?/– mice represent a good model to analyse the craniofacial and teeth malformations characteristic of lamin-related pathologies, and might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events underlying these diseases. PMID:19014358

de Carlos, F; Varela, I; Germana, A; Montalbano, G; Freije, J M P; Vega, J A; Lopez-Otin, C; Cobo, J M

2008-01-01

258

Fish Oil Has Beneficial Effects on Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation and Hyperreactivity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Fish oil (FO) is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which have been suggested to be anti-inflammatory and are associated with improvement of several inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the influence of FO on allergen-induced lung inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in mice. Methods Male A/J mice were fed either a standard-chow (SC) or a FO diet (FO) for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, each group was further randomized for ovalbumin (SC-OVA and FO-OVA) or saline (SC-SAL and FO-SAL) challenge. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine, 24h after the last challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for leukocyte counts. Lung tissue mucus deposition, peribronchiolar matrix deposition and eosinophil infiltration were quantified. Serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 (ref 2.2), lung IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, INF? and eotaxin-1 and 2 were detected by ELISA and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), GATA-3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) expression was measured by Western blot. Results Levels of serum IgE and IgG1 were significantly higher in OVA sensitized mice. OVA challenge resulted in increased eosinophil infiltration, increased inflammatory cytokine production, peribronchiolar matrix and mucus deposition and airway hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Elevated lung NF?B and GATA-3 expression was noted in OVA-challenged mice. These changes were attenuated in mice fed with FO diet. Higher PPAR? expression was also detected in the lungs from the FO-fed groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that FO intake attenuated classical asthma features by suppressing the systemic sensitization, thus providing evidence that FO might be a prophylactic alternative for asthma prevention. PMID:24040386

Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Ferreira, Tatiana Paula Teixeira; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marco Aurelio; Silva, Patricia Machado Rodrigues; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

2013-01-01

259

Orbital construction demonstration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

1976-01-01

260

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

261

Glypican-3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Developmental Overgrowth and Some of the Abnormalities Typical of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Glypicans are a family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are linked to the cell surface through a glycosyl–phosphatidylinositol anchor. One member of this family, glypican-3 (Gpc3), is mutated in patients with the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS). These patients display pre- and postnatal overgrowth, and a varying range of dysmorphisms. The clinical features of SGBS are very similar to the more extensively studied Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Since BWS has been associated with biallelic expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), it has been proposed that GPC3 is a negative regulator of IGF-II. However, there is still no biochemical evidence indicating that GPC3 plays such a role. Here, we report that GPC3-deficient mice exhibit several of the clinical features observed in SGBS patients, including developmental overgrowth, perinatal death, cystic and dyplastic kidneys, and abnormal lung development. A proportion of the mutant mice also display mandibular hypoplasia and an imperforate vagina. In the particular case of the kidney, we demonstrate that there is an early and persistent developmental abnormality of the ureteric bud/collecting system due to increased proliferation of cells in this tissue element. The degree of developmental overgrowth of the GPC3-deficient mice is similar to that of mice deficient in IGF receptor type 2 (IGF2R), a well characterized negative regulator of IGF-II. Unlike the IGF2R-deficient mice, however, the levels of IGF-II in GPC3 knockouts are similar to those of the normal littermates. PMID:10402475

Cano-Gauci, Danielle F.; Song, Howard H.; Yang, Huiling; McKerlie, Colin; Choo, Barbara; Shi, Wen; Pullano, Rose; Piscione, Tino D.; Grisaru, Silviu; Soon, Shawn; Sedlackova, Larisa; Tanswell, A. Keith; Mak, Tak W.; Yeger, Herman; Lockwood, Gina A.; Rosenblum, Norman D.; Filmus, Jorge

1999-01-01

262

Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program assisted in the design and implementation of the composite casting demonstration for the Apollo 14 mission. Both flight and control samples were evaluated. Some conclusions resulting from a comparison of the flight and control samples were: (1) Solidification in neither the flight nor control samples was truly directional. (2) Apparent intermittent contact of the melt with the container in the flight samples led to unusual nucleation and growth structures. (3) There was greater uniformity, on a macro scale, of both pores and structural features in the flight sample; presumably the result of the reduced gravity conditions. (4) It seems quite feasible to produce enhanced dispersions of gases and dense phases in a melt which is solidified in reduced gravity. (5) A two-stage heating/cooling cycle may help directional solidification. (6) Sample materials should be selected from materials in which the dispersant fully wets the matrix material. (7) Experiments should be conducted in two modes: (1) where the melt is in good thermal contact with the container, and (2) where the melt is in a free-float condition.

1971-01-01

263

Adaptive feature extraction expert  

SciTech Connect

The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

Yuschik, M.

1983-01-01

264

Earth's Surface Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in pairs on this worksheet and strengthen their background knowledge by identifying different features in photographs of Earth's surface. Then to build on this base, the students need to determine the key processes that form each of the features. To address a common misconception, students read a debate between two hypothetical students and need to determine which student is stating the scientifically correct idea. The project is summarized by a question posed about the features on a hypothetical planet.

Smay, Jessica

265

The evolution of hod mice The evolution of hod mice  

E-print Network

The evolution of hod mice The evolution of hod mice Grigor Sargsyan UCLA Harvard Mamls February 20, 2011 Cambridge, Massachusetts The evolution of hod mice Grigor Sargsyan #12;The evolution of hod mice The beginnings CH in HOD Theorem (Harrington-Kechris) Assume V = L(R) + AD. Then HOD CH. The evolution of hod

Koellner, Peter

266

Role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in the development of fungal allergic airway disease in mice.  

PubMed

Growth arrest-specific gene (Gas)6 is a secreted vitamin K-dependent protein with pleiotropic effects via activation of receptor tyrosine kinase Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk receptors, but little is known about its role in allergic airway disease. We investigated the role of Gas6 in the development of fungal allergic airway disease in mice. The immune response was evaluated in Gas6-deficient (Gas6-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice and in recombinant Gas6-treated WT mice during Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic airway disease. Gas6 plasma levels were significantly elevated in adult clinical asthma of all severities compared with subjects without asthma. In a murine model of fungal allergic airway disease, increased protein expression of Axl and Mertk were observed in the lung. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), whole lung Th2 cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and peribronchial fibrosis were ameliorated in Gas6-/- mice compared with WT mice with fungal allergic airway disease. Intranasal Gas6 administration into WT mice had a divergent effect on airway inflammation and AHR. Specifically, a total dose of 2 ?g of exogenous Gas6 (i.e., low dose) significantly increased whole lung Th2 cytokine levels and subsequent AHR, whereas a total dose of 7 ?g of exogenous Gas6 (i.e., high dose) significantly suppressed Th1 and Th2 cytokines and AHR compared with appropriate control groups. Mechanistically, Gas6 promoted Th2 activation via its highest affinity receptor Axl expressed by myeloid DCs. Intranasal administration of Gas6 consistently exacerbated airway remodeling compared with control WT groups. These results demonstrate that Gas6 enhances several features of fungal allergic airway disease. PMID:24810144

Shibata, Takehiko; Ismailoglu, Ugur Burcin; Kittan, Nicolai A; Moreira, Ana Paula; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Chupp, Geoffrey L; Kunkel, Steven L; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Hogaboam, Cory M

2014-11-01

267

High-dimensional feature selection by feature-wise kernelized Lasso.  

PubMed

The goal of supervised feature selection is to find a subset of input features that are responsible for predicting output values. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) allows computationally efficient feature selection based on linear dependency between input features and output values. In this letter, we consider a feature-wise kernelized Lasso for capturing nonlinear input-output dependency. We first show that with particular choices of kernel functions, nonredundant features with strong statistical dependence on output values can be found in terms of kernel-based independence measures such as the Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion. We then show that the globally optimal solution can be efficiently computed; this makes the approach scalable to high-dimensional problems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through feature selection experiments for classification and regression with thousands of features. PMID:24102126

Yamada, Makoto; Jitkrittum, Wittawat; Sigal, Leonid; Xing, Eric P; Sugiyama, Masashi

2014-01-01

268

Ablation of TNF-RI/RII Expression in Alzheimer's Disease Mice Leads to an Unexpected Enhancement of Pathology  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe memory loss and cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation, including the extensive production of pro-inflammatory molecules and the activation of microglia, has been implicated in the disease process. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine, is elevated in AD, is neurotoxic, and colocalizes with amyloid plaques in AD animal models and human brains. We previously demonstrated that the expression of TNF-? is increased in AD mice at ages preceding the development of hallmark amyloid and tau pathological features and that long-term expression of this cytokine in these mice leads to marked neuronal death. Such observations suggest that TNF-? signaling promotes AD pathogenesis and that therapeutics suppressing this cytokine's activity may be beneficial. To dissect TNF-? receptor signaling requirements in AD, we generated triple-transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) lacking both TNF-? receptor 1 (TNF-RI) and 2 (TNF-RII), 3xTg-ADxTNF-RI/RII knock out, the cognate receptors of TNF-?. These mice exhibit enhanced amyloid and tau-related pathological features by the age of 15 months, in stark contrast to age-matched 3xTg-AD counterparts. Moreover, 3xTg-ADxTNF-RI/RII knock out–derived primary microglia reveal reduced amyloid-? phagocytic marker expression and phagocytosis activity, indicating that intact TNF-? receptor signaling is critical for microglial-mediated uptake of extracellular amyloid-? peptide pools. Overall, our results demonstrate that globally ablated TNF receptor signaling exacerbates pathogenesis and argues against long-term use of pan-anti-TNF-? inhibitors for the treatment of AD. PMID:21835156

Montgomery, Sara L.; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Habib, Diala; Narrow, Wade C.; Knowlden, Sara A.; Wright, Terry W.; Bowers, William J.

2011-01-01

269

Fingerprint verification using SIFT features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fingerprints are being extensively used for person identification in a number of commercial, civil, and forensic applications. Most of the current fingerprint verification systems utilize features that are based on minutiae points and ridge patterns. While minutiae based fingerprint verification systems have shown fairly high accuracies, further improvements in their performance are needed for acceptable performance, especially in applications involving very large scale databases. In an effort to extend the existing technology for fingerprint verification, we propose a new representation and matching scheme for fingerprint using Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT). We extract characteristic SIFT feature points in scale space and perform matching based on the texture information around the feature points using the SIFT operator. A systematic strategy of applying SIFT to fingerprint images is proposed. Using a public domain fingerprint database (FVC 2002), we demonstrate that the proposed approach complements the minutiae based fingerprint representation. Further, the combination of SIFT and conventional minutiae based system achieves significantly better performance than either of the individual schemes.

Park, Unsang; Pankanti, Sharath; Jain, A. K.

2008-03-01

270

Tight skin 2 mice exhibit a novel time line of events leading to increased extracellular matrix deposition and dermal fibrosis.  

PubMed

The tight skin 2 (Tsk2) mouse model of systemic sclerosis (SSc) has many features of the human disease including tight skin, fibrosis, extracellular matrix abnormalities, and reported antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Here we report that Tsk2/+ mice develop excess dermal fibrosis with age, as skin is not significantly fibrotic until 10weeks, a full eight weeks after the development of the physical tight skin phenotype. Concomitantly with the tight skin phenotype at two weeks of age, Tsk2/+ mice demonstrate increased levels of total transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) and excessive accumulation of dermal elastic fibers. The increase in elastic fibers is not responsible for tight skin, however, because Tsk2/+ mice genetically engineered to lack skin elastic fibers nevertheless have tight skin and fibrosis. Finally, about two months after the first measurable increases of total collagen, a portion of Tsk2/+ mice produce ANAs, but at a similar level to wild-type littermates. The timeline of disease development in the Tsk2/+ mouse shows that fibrosis is progressive, with elastic fiber alterations and TGF-?1 over-production occurring at least two months before bona fide fibrosis, that is not dependent on ANA production. PMID:24820199

Long, Kristen B; Artlett, Carol M; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P

2014-09-01

271

Reversal of reduced parvalbumin neurons in hippocampus and amygdala of Angelman syndrome model mice by chronic treatment of fluoxetine.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by autism, intellectual disability and motor disturbances. The disease is primarily caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited UBE3A. Ube3a maternal-deficient mice recapitulates many essential feature of AS. These AS mice have been shown to be under chronic stress and exhibits anxiety-like behaviour because of defective glucocorticoid receptor signalling. Here, we demonstrate that chronic stress in these mice could lead to down-regulation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala from early post-natal days. Down-regulation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons number could be because of decrease in the expression of parvalbumin in these neurons. We also find that treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in restoration of impaired glucocorticoid signalling, elevated serum corticosterone level, parvalbumin-positive interneurons and anxiety-like behaviours. Our findings suggest that impaired glucocorticod signalling in hippocampus and amygdala of AS mice is critical for the decrease in parvalbumin interneurons number, emergence of anxiety and other behavioural deficits and highlights the importance of fluoxetine in the recovery of these abnormalities. PMID:24678582

Godavarthi, Swetha K; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

2014-08-01

272

Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

Swearingen, Thomas S [ORNL] [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

273

A framework for feature selection in clustering.  

PubMed

We consider the problem of clustering observations using a potentially large set of features. One might expect that the true underlying clusters present in the data differ only with respect to a small fraction of the features, and will be missed if one clusters the observations using the full set of features. We propose a novel framework for sparse clustering, in which one clusters the observations using an adaptively chosen subset of the features. The method uses a lasso-type penalty to select the features. We use this framework to develop simple methods for sparse K-means and sparse hierarchical clustering. A single criterion governs both the selection of the features and the resulting clusters. These approaches are demonstrated on simulated data and on genomic data sets. PMID:20811510

Witten, Daniela M; Tibshirani, Robert

2010-06-01

274

Comparative analysis of single and combined APP/APLP knockouts reveals reduced spine density in APP-KO mice that is prevented by APPs? expression.  

PubMed

Synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss are key features of Alzheimer's pathogenesis. Previously, we showed an essential function of APP and APLP2 for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal cultures to investigate the specific role(s) of APP family members and their fragments for dendritic complexity and spine formation of principal neurons within the hippocampus. Whereas CA1 neurons from APLP1-KO or APLP2-KO mice showed normal neuronal morphology and spine density, APP-KO mice revealed a highly reduced dendritic complexity in mid-apical dendrites. Despite unaltered morphology of APLP2-KO neurons, combined APP/APLP2-DKO mutants showed an additional branching defect in proximal apical dendrites, indicating redundancy and a combined function of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture. Remarkably, APP-KO neurons showed a pronounced decrease in spine density and reductions in the number of mushroom spines. No further decrease in spine density, however, was detectable in APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Mechanistically, using APPs?-KI mice lacking transmembrane APP and expressing solely the secreted APPs? fragment we demonstrate that APPs? expression alone is sufficient to prevent the defects in spine density observed in APP-KO mice. Collectively, these studies reveal a combined role of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture and a unique function of secreted APPs for spine density. PMID:24684730

Weyer, Sascha W; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Herrmann, Ulrike; Hick, Meike; Ganss, Lennard; Gobbert, Julia; Gruber, Morna; Altmann, Christine; Korte, Martin; Deller, Thomas; Müller, Ulrike C

2014-01-01

275

Comparative analysis of single and combined APP/APLP knockouts reveals reduced spine density in APP-KO mice that is prevented by APPs? expression  

PubMed Central

Synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss are key features of Alzheimer’s pathogenesis. Previously, we showed an essential function of APP and APLP2 for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal cultures to investigate the specific role(s) of APP family members and their fragments for dendritic complexity and spine formation of principal neurons within the hippocampus. Whereas CA1 neurons from APLP1-KO or APLP2-KO mice showed normal neuronal morphology and spine density, APP-KO mice revealed a highly reduced dendritic complexity in mid-apical dendrites. Despite unaltered morphology of APLP2-KO neurons, combined APP/APLP2-DKO mutants showed an additional branching defect in proximal apical dendrites, indicating redundancy and a combined function of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture. Remarkably, APP-KO neurons showed a pronounced decrease in spine density and reductions in the number of mushroom spines. No further decrease in spine density, however, was detectable in APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Mechanistically, using APPs?-KI mice lacking transmembrane APP and expressing solely the secreted APPs? fragment we demonstrate that APPs? expression alone is sufficient to prevent the defects in spine density observed in APP-KO mice. Collectively, these studies reveal a combined role of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture and a unique function of secreted APPs for spine density. PMID:24684730

2014-01-01

276

Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced memory insult, ?-secretase, and neuroinflammation in triple transgenic mice by 5-lipoxygenase.  

PubMed

Besides amyloid and tau pathology, a constant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an intense inflammatory response, which is considered an active player in its pathogenesis. The 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a proinflammatory enzyme and an endogenous modulator of AD-like phenotype in mouse models of the disease. To further understand the role of 5LO in AD pathogenesis, we exposed the triple transgenic (3×Tg) and 3×Tg/5LO knockout mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known inducer of neuroinflammation, and evaluated its effect on their AD-like phenotype. 3×Tg mice treated with LPS manifested a worsening of behavior, ?-secretase up-regulation, and increased neuroinflammatory responses. These effects were completely prevented in 3×Tg mice genetically deficient for 5LO. By contrast, the absence of 5LO did not protect against increase in tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes that were mediated by the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Our data demonstrate that the 5LO pathway affects key neuropathological features of the AD-like phenotype (behavior, abeta, microgliosis, astrocytosis) but not others (tau pathology) in the LPS-dependent neuroinflammation model. The opposite ways whereby 5LO influences the LPS-dependent effects in vivo supports the complex nature of the neuroinflammatory response in AD and its differential role in modulating amyloid and tau neuropathology. PMID:24332986

Joshi, Yash B; Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Chu, Jin; Praticò, Domenico

2014-05-01

277

Speaking Activities: Five Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that speaking activities for language teaching make use of a limited and describable number of features to make them interesting and relevant. The author suggests that by understanding these features, teachers can improve the speaking activities they use, and that they can create their own activities, Speaking activities in second-language learning usually involves language functions which are

Yongwu Li

2005-01-01

278

Formation of Oceanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a picture inquiry based lesson for students to explore four specific oceanic features (mid-ocean ridge, trench, seamount, and continental shelf). Groups of three students will observe and explain features found in pictures and share ideas with their peers.

Wicks, Katlyn

2012-07-16

279

Linear and Planar Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gesture the orientations of linear and planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations.

Ormand, Carol

280

Height of Moon's Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about utilizing proportional mathematics to determine the height of lunar features. Learners will use the length of shadows to calculate the height of some of the lunar features. This activity is Astronomy Activity 6 in a larger resource entitled Space Update.

281

Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations, which become self-propagating. Increasing evidence argues that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Although TgM83+/+ mice homozygous for a mutant A53T ?-synuclein transgene begin developing CNS dysfunction spontaneously at ?10 mo of age, uninoculated TgM83+/? mice (hemizygous for the transgene) remain healthy. To determine whether MSA brains contain ?-synuclein prions, we inoculated the TgM83+/? mice with brain homogenates from two pathologically confirmed MSA cases. Inoculated TgM83+/? mice developed progressive signs of neurologic disease with an incubation period of ?100 d, whereas the same mice inoculated with brain homogenates from spontaneously ill TgM83+/+ mice developed neurologic dysfunction in ?210 d. Brains of MSA-inoculated mice exhibited prominent astrocytic gliosis and microglial activation as well as widespread deposits of phosphorylated ?-synuclein that were proteinase K sensitive, detergent insoluble, and formic acid extractable. Our results provide compelling evidence that ?-synuclein aggregates formed in the brains of MSA patients are transmissible and, as such, are prions. The MSA prion represents a unique human pathogen that is lethal upon transmission to Tg mice and as such, is reminiscent of the prion causing kuru, which was transmitted to chimpanzees nearly 5 decades ago. PMID:24218576

Watts, Joel C.; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Middleton, Lefkos; Dexter, David T.; Gentleman, Steve M.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2013-01-01

282

JCE Feature Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

Holmes, Jon L.

1999-05-01

283

Simple Buoyancy Demonstrations Using Saltwater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of saline solutions for demonstrations of buoyancy showing oscillations of the Cartesian diver. Describes the physical principles, preparation, and instructional uses for the demonstration. (YP)

Cosby, Ronald M.; Petry, Douglas E.

1989-01-01

284

Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic fields on mice injected with cyclophosphamide  

SciTech Connect

C3H mice have been used to investigate the effect of a combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Mice were injected i.p. with a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of CY and then exposed to PEMF 24 h per day. In an initial series of experiments immediately after CY injection mice were exposed to PEMF until sacrifice. WBC counts in the peripheral blood demonstrated a quicker decline in WBC at days 1 and 2 in mice exposed to PEMF. Groups of mice were sacrificed at days 1, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after CY injection. In mice exposed to PEMF the spleen weight was less than in controls at days 6, 8, and 10. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that the labeling index of bone marrow smears did not significantly differ between controls and experimental mice exposed to PEMF, whereas the spleen labeling index proved to be higher among control mice versus mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, and higher among mice exposed to PEMF versus controls at day 8. In a second series of experiments mice were exposed to PEMF only over the 24 h following CY injection. We found that the spleens of mice exposed to PEMF weighed less than those of controls at days 6 and 8. The labeling index of bone marrow did evidence a slight decrease among mice exposed to PEMF at days 8 and 10 after CY injection versus control mice. The spleen labeling index proved to be lower in experimental mice exposed to PEMF than in controls at days 4, 6, and 8. Mice were then injected with CY, half were exposed to PEMF, and 24 h later bone marrow was recovered from both groups of animals. The same number of bone marrow cells was injected via the tail vein into recipient mice irradiated to 8.5 Gy.

Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.; Santantonio, M.; Mandolini, G.; Torelli, G. (Univ. of Modena (Italy))

1991-03-01

285

Mapping Pathological Phenotypes in Reelin Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication deficits and the presence of repetitive behaviors/interests. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we assessed the behavioral, neurochemical, and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in the ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development of reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous (Het) reeler mice did not show social behavior and communication deficits during male–female social interactions. Wildtype and Het mice showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection) only Het mice showed an over response to stress. In addition to the behavioral studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in Het mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD neurobehavioral phenotype.

Michetti, Caterina; Romano, Emilia; Altabella, Luisa; Caruso, Angela; Castelluccio, Paolo; Bedse, Gaurav; Gaetani, Silvana; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

286

Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis, uses water vapor satellite imagery to present a satellite perspective of basic features associated with the formation and development of extratropical cyclones. First, through an initial case study, the precursor elements leading to cyclogenesis are identified. Then three conceptual views of different ways cyclogenesis can evolve are presented along with additional examples to illustrate the concepts. Finally a series of exercises, again using real case studies, are used to emphasize the important points and provide realistic scenarios describing some of the many ways cyclogenesis reveals itself on satellite imagery. This module is part of the series: 'Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette'.

Comet

2012-08-17

287

Influence of testicular microanatomy on the potential genetic dose from internally deposited ²³⁹Pu citrate in Chinese hamster, mouse, and man. [Measurements in mice and hamsters of dose distributions used in calculations for man based on measured anatomical features of human testes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization, retention, and microdistribution of ²³⁹Pu citrate in the testes of the Chinese hamster were determined. Testicular morphometric measurements were made in adult mice and Chinese hamsters as well as in aged, adult, and immature humans. Calculations based on these morphometric measurements and a nonuniform microdistribution of plutonium indicated that the radiation dose to spermatogonia of man was less

A. L. Brooks; J. H. Diel; R. O. McClellan

1979-01-01

288

Disruption of Proprotein Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) Expression in Mice Causes Innate Immune Defects and Uncontrolled Cytokine Secretion*  

PubMed Central

The proprotein convertase 1/3 is expressed in the regulated secretory pathway of neural and endocrine cells. Its major function is in the post-translational processing and activation of precursor proteins. The PC1/3 knock-out (KO) mouse model has allowed us to elucidate its physiological functions in studies focused primarily on neuroendocrine tissues. However, PC1/3 is also expressed in cells of the immune system, mainly in macrophages. The present study explores the effects of innate immune challenge in the PC1/3 KO mouse. PC1/3 KO mice have an enlarged spleen with marked disorganization of the marginal zone and red pulp. Immunohistochemical studies using various markers demonstrate a depletion of dendritic cells in PC1/3 KO spleens. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, PC1/3 KO mice are more susceptible to septic shock than wild-type controls or other PC KO mice, such as PC2 and PC7 null mice. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?) were very significantly elevated in PC1/3 KO mice, consistent with a hypercytokinemia, i.e. indicative of a major systemic uncontrolled inflammatory response or cytokine storm. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from PC1/3 KO mice also demonstrate elevated cytokine secretion when treated with LPS. Electron micrographs show morphological features indicating a prolonged activation of these cells following LPS stimulation. We also present evidence that the proinflammatory Th1 pathway is dominant in the PC1/3 KO mouse model. We conclude that aside from its important role in neuroendocrine functions PC1/3 also has an important role in the regulation of the innate immune system, most likely through the regulation of cytokine secretion in macrophages. PMID:22396549

Refaie, Sarah; Gagnon, Sandra; Gagnon, Hugo; Desjardins, Roxane; D'Anjou, Francois; D'Orleans-Juste, Pedro; Zhu, Xiaorong; Steiner, Donald F.; Seidah, Nabil G.; Lazure, Claude; Salzet, Michel; Day, Robert

2012-01-01

289

Structural features of nephritogenic lupus autoantibodies.  

PubMed

We have identified monoclonal antibodies derived from MRL-lpr/lpr lupus-prone mice that produced nephritis after passive transfer to normal mice. Our present goal was to elucidate the structural and immunochemical features of nephritogenic Ig that facilitate immune deposition. For this purpose the antigen binding properties, capacity to form immune deposits, and nucleotide sequence of a genetically related autoantibody subgroup were compared. The prototype, H147 (an IgG encoded by 7183/81X VH gene), produced glomerular and tubular basement membrane, mesangial immune deposits, and proliferative glomerulonephritis after passive transfer to normal mice. For comparison three other 7183/81X encoded anti-DNA IgG (H257, H171, and H8a) were evaluated (predicted heavy chain aa homology >75%). H257 produced similar types of immune deposits as H147, and this was associated with nephritis; H8a produced predominantly mesangial deposits, whereas H171 did not produce significant deposits. Although their antigen binding profile to a panel of soluble autoantigens was variable, only H147 and H257 bound to both mesangial and aortic endothelial cell surfaces. V gene sequence analysis of the IgG suggests that individual residues, motifs, and conformations influence the autoantigen binding specificities that contributed to the observed differences in immune deposit formation. PMID:8990090

Vargas, M T; Gustilo, K; D'Andrea, D M; Kalluri, R; Foster, M H; Madaio, M P

1997-01-01

290

Feature Leads That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents advice to scholastic journalists on writing leads for feature stories. Discusses using a summary, a question, a direct quote, a first-person account, alliteration, a shocking statement, contrast, historical reference, descriptions, narratives, metaphors, and similes. (RS)

Konkle, Bruce E.

1999-01-01

291

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

292

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

293

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

294

Features in Saturn's rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic, uniform search of Voyage 2 photopolarimeter system (PSS) data set for all significant features of Saturn's rings is described. On August 25, 1981, the PSS observed the occultation of the star Delta Scorpii by the rings of Saturn, and the timing of the data taking was rapid enough that the spatial resolution in the radial direction in the ring plane was better than 100 m. Tabular information and figures for 216 significant features that were found are presented.

Esposito, Larry W.; Harris, Craig C.; Simmons, Karen E.

1987-01-01

295

Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional ? pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

2013-12-01

296

Feature-selected tree-based classification.  

PubMed

Feature selection can decrease classifier size and improve accuracy by removing noisy and/or redundant features. However, it is possible for feature selection to yield features that are only partially informative about the classes in the set. These features are beneficial for distinguishing between some classes but not others. In these cases, it is beneficial to divide the large classification problem into a set of smaller problems, where a more specific set of features can be used to classify different classes. Dividing a problem this way is also common when the base classifier is binary, and the problem needs to be reformulated as a set of two-class problems so it can be handled by the classifier. This paper presents a method for multiclass classification that simultaneously formulates a binary tree of simpler classification subproblems and performs feature selection for the individual classifiers. The feature selected hierarchical classifier (FSHC) is tested against several well-known techniques for multiclass division. Tests are run on nine different real data sets and one artificial data set using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The results show that the accuracy obtained by the FSHC is comparable with other common multiclass SVM methods. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the algorithm creates solutions with fewer classifiers, fewer features, and a shorter testing time than the other SVM multiclass extensions. PMID:23757587

Freeman, Cecille; Kuli, Dana; Basir, Otman

2013-12-01

297

Response of Germfree, Conventional, Conventionalized and E. coli Monocontaminated Mice to Starvation1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of germfree, conventional, conventionalized and Escher- ichia coli monocontaminated mice to starvation was studied. This was undertaken as an extension of some investigations of the effect of microorganisms on the reactions of mice and rats to shock and radiation injury because acute deprivation of food is a common feature of such experiments. Since fasting markedly influences the physio

BUD TENNANT; OLE J. MALM; RICHARD E. HOROWITZ

298

Independent Modes of Natural Killing Distinguished in Mice Lacking Lag3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LAG3 protein has several features in common with CD4, suggesting that it may be important in controlling T cell reactivity. However, mice with a Lag3 null mutation have now been shown to exhibit a defect in the natural killer cell, rather than the T cell, compartment. Killing of certain tumor targets by natural killer cells from these mice was

Toru Miyazaki; Andree Dierich; Christophe Benoist; Diane Mathis

1996-01-01

299

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

300

Favorite Demonstration: Interactive Demonstrations -- Examples From Biology Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrations have long been a part of postsecondary science teaching. However, in today's constructivist classroom we know that to show completely, we must actively involve students in their learning. This need for active student involvement extends to all aspects of instruction, including learning from demonstrations. This article shares three successful, interative demonstrations.

Wilke, R. R.; Straits, William J.

2006-01-01

301

Features in visual search combine linearly.  

PubMed

Single features such as line orientation and length are known to guide visual search, but relatively little is known about how multiple features combine in search. To address this question, we investigated how search for targets differing in multiple features (intensity, length, orientation) from the distracters is related to searches for targets differing in each of the individual features. We tested race models (based on reaction times) and co-activation models (based on reciprocal of reaction times) for their ability to predict multiple feature searches. Multiple feature searches were best accounted for by a co-activation model in which feature information combined linearly (r = 0.95). This result agrees with the classic finding that these features are separable i.e., subjective dissimilarity ratings sum linearly. We then replicated the classical finding that the length and width of a rectangle are integral features-in other words, they combine nonlinearly in visual search. However, to our surprise, upon including aspect ratio as an additional feature, length and width combined linearly and this model outperformed all other models. Thus, length and width of a rectangle became separable when considered together with aspect ratio. This finding predicts that searches involving shapes with identical aspect ratio should be more difficult than searches where shapes differ in aspect ratio. We confirmed this prediction on a variety of shapes. We conclude that features in visual search co-activate linearly and demonstrate for the first time that aspect ratio is a novel feature that guides visual search. PMID:24715328

Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

2014-01-01

302

Myeloperoxidase deficiency ameliorates progression of chronic kidney disease in mice.  

PubMed

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme expressed in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Beside its well-defined role in innate immune defence, it may also be responsible for tissue damage. To identify the role of MPO in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we investigated CKD in a model of renal ablation in MPO knockout and wild-type mice. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were followed for 10 wk to evaluate the impact of MPO deficiency on renal morbidity. Renal ablation induced CKD in wild-type mice with increased plasma levels of MPO compared with controls. No difference was found between MPO-deficient and wild-type mice regarding albuminuria 1 wk after renal ablation, indicating similar acute responses to renal ablation. Over the next 10 wk, however, MPO-deficient mice developed significantly less albuminuria and glomerular injury than wild-type mice. This was accompanied by a significantly lower renal mRNA expression of the fibrosis marker genes plasminogen activator inhibitor-I, collagen type III, and collagen type IV as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. MPO-deficient mice also developed less renal inflammation after renal ablation, as indicated by a lower infiltration of CD3-positive T cells and F4/80-positive monocytes/macrophages compared with wild-type mice. In vitro chemotaxis of monocyte/macrophages isolated from MPO-deficient mice was impaired compared with wild-type mice. No significant differences were observed for mortality and blood pressure after renal ablation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MPO deficiency ameliorates renal injury in the renal ablation model of CKD in mice. PMID:24990898

Lehners, Alexander; Lange, Sascha; Niemann, Gianina; Rosendahl, Alva; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Oh, Jun; Stahl, Rolf; Ehmke, Heimo; Benndorf, Ralf; Klinke, Anna; Baldus, Stephan; Wenzel, Ulrich Otto

2014-08-15

303

Immune Destruction of Larval Taenia crassiceps in Mice  

PubMed Central

Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps was examined by first injecting BALB/cJ mice subcutaneously with larval buds and 30 to 60 days later challenging the mice with larvae injected into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) secondarily are killed by host cells that completely encase the larvae in a thick sheath. The peritoneal exudate cells and the cytokines they produced were characterized by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). No changes in percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B1 cells, or macrophages were detected in the peritoneal cavities of mice that were killing larvae compared to mice with a primary 7-day infection i.p. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated a decrease in cytokines including gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in mice that were killing the larvae compared to control mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, although there was little difference compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Serum cytokine levels in mice that were killing the larvae showed a decrease in IFN-? and IL-4, an increase in IL-10 when compared to mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, and increases in all cytokines compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Inhibition of nitric oxide production did not significantly affect the number or the viability of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mice that were killing larvae during secondary infection. PMID:10768922

Mooney, K. A.; Spolski, R. J.; See, E. J.; Kuhn, R. E.

2000-01-01

304

Resilient emotionality and molecular compensation in mice lacking the oligodendrocyte-specific gene Cnp1  

PubMed Central

Altered oligodendrocyte structure and function is implicated in major psychiatric illnesses, including low cell number and reduced oligodendrocyte-specific gene expression in major depressive disorder (MDD). These features are also observed in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rodent model of the illness, suggesting that they are consequential to environmental precipitants; however, whether oligodendrocyte changes contribute causally to low emotionality is unknown. Focusing on 2?-3?-cyclic nucleotide 3?-phosphodiesterase (Cnp1), a crucial component of axoglial communication dysregulated in the amygdala of MDD subjects and UCMS-exposed mice, we show that altered oligodendrocyte integrity can have an unexpected functional role in affect regulation. Mice lacking Cnp1 (knockout, KO) displayed decreased anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms (i.e., low emotionality) compared with wild-type animals, a phenotypic difference that increased with age (3–9 months). This phenotype was accompanied by increased motor activity, but was evident before neurodegenerative-associated motor coordination deficits (?9–12 months). Notably, Cnp1KO mice were less vulnerable to developing a depressive-like syndrome after either UCMS or chronic corticosterone exposure. Cnp1KO mice also displayed reduced fear expression during extinction, despite normal amygdala c-Fos induction after acute stress, together implicating dysfunction of an amygdala-related neural network, and consistent with proposed mechanisms for stress resiliency. However, the Cnp1KO behavioral phenotype was also accompanied by massive upregulation of oligodendrocyte- and immune-related genes in the basolateral amygdala, suggesting an attempt at functional compensation. Together, we demonstrate that the lack of oligodendrocyte-specific Cnp1 leads to resilient emotionality. However, combined with substantial molecular changes and late-onset neurodegeneration, these results suggest the low Cnp1 seen in MDD may cause unsustainable and maladaptive molecular compensations contributing to the disease pathophysiology. PMID:22832658

Edgar, N M; Touma, C; Palme, R; Sibille, E

2011-01-01

305

Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No ?-amyloid (A?) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD. PMID:22864021

Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

2013-01-01

306

Clinical Features: Angelman syndrome (AS) [OMIM #105830] is characterized by four essential features, demonstrated by all those  

E-print Network

% of patients include microcephaly, seizures, and a specific, abnormal EEG pattern. Patients may also exhibit with the highest incidence of seizures (90%). Complete absence of speech and severe microcephaly is also typically may have fewer severe seizures and less severe microcephaly; almost 50% can speak a few words [4

Gilad, Yoav

307

Clinical Features: Angelman syndrome (AS) [OMIM #105830] is characterized by four essential features, demonstrated by all those  

E-print Network

% of patients include microcephaly, seizures, and a specific, abnormal EEG pattern. Patients may also exhibit with the highest incidence of seizures (90%). Complete absence of speech and severe microcephaly is also typically may have fewer severe seizures and less severe microcephaly; almost 50% can speak a few words (4

Das, Soma

308

Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice.  

PubMed Central

Four species of probiotic bacteria were assessed for their capacities to protect athymic bg/bg-nu/nu and euthymic bg/bg-nu/+ mice from mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Each bacterial species and Candida albicans colonized the gastrointestinal tracts of both strains of mice. The presence of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei GG, or Bifidobacterium animalis) in the gastrointestinal tracts prolonged the survival of adult and neonatal bg/bg-nu/nu mice compared to that of isogenic mice colonized with C. albicans alone. The incidence of systemic candidiasis in bg/bg-nu/nu mice was significantly reduced by each of the four probiotic bacterial species. The numbers of C. albicans present in the alimentary tracts of euthymic bg/bg-nu/+ mice were significantly reduced by L. casei GG and B. animalis. None of the probiotic bacteria species completely prevented mucosal candidiasis, but B. animalis reduced its incidence and severity. Probiotic bacteria also modulated antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses to C. albicans. The prolonged survival of mice, decreased severity of mucosal and systemic candidiasis, modulation of immune responses, decreased number of C. albicans in the alimentary tract, and reduced numbers of orogastric infections demonstrated not only that probiotic bacteria have biotherapeutic potential for prophylaxis against and therapy of this fungal disease but also that probiotic bacteria protect mice from candidiasis by a variety of immunologic (thymic and extrathymic) and nonimmunologic mechanisms in this model. PMID:9317023

Wagner, R D; Pierson, C; Warner, T; Dohnalek, M; Farmer, J; Roberts, L; Hilty, M; Balish, E

1997-01-01

309

Early-life viral infection and allergen exposure interact to induce an asthmatic phenotype in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. Methods We employed a unique combination of animal models in which BALB/c mice were neonatally infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM, which replicates severe RSV disease in human infants) and following recovery, were intranasally sensitised with ovalbumin. Animals received low-level challenge with aerosolised antigen for 4 weeks to elicit changes of chronic asthma, followed by a single moderate-level challenge to induce an exacerbation of inflammation. We then assessed airway inflammation, epithelial changes characteristic of remodelling, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and host immunological responses. Results Allergic airway inflammation, including recruitment of eosinophils, was prominent only in animals that had recovered from neonatal infection with PVM and then been sensitised and chronically challenged with antigen. Furthermore, only these mice exhibited an augmented Th2-biased immune response, including elevated serum levels of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1 as well as increased relative expression of Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. By comparison, development of AHR and mucous cell change were associated with recovery from PVM infection, regardless of subsequent allergen challenge. Increased expression of IL-25, which could contribute to induction of a Th2 response, was demonstrable in the lung following PVM infection. Signalling via the IL-4 receptor ? chain was crucial to the development of allergic inflammation, mucous cell change and AHR, because all of these were absent in receptor-deficient mice. In contrast, changes of remodelling were evident in mice that received chronic allergen challenge, regardless of neonatal PVM infection, and were not dependent on signalling via the IL-4 receptor. Conclusion In this mouse model, interaction between early-life viral infection and allergen sensitisation/challenge is essential for development of the characteristic features of childhood asthma, including allergic inflammation and a Th2-biased immune response. PMID:20122285

2010-01-01

310

CX3CR1-dependent subretinal microglia cell accumulation is associated with cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

The role of retinal microglial cells (MCs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. Here we demonstrated that all retinal MCs express CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and that homozygosity for the CX3CR1 M280 allele, which is associated with impaired cell migration, increases the risk of AMD. In humans with AMD, MCs accumulated in the subretinal space at sites of retinal degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In CX3CR1-deficient mice, MCs accumulated subretinally with age and albino background and after laser impact preceding retinal degeneration. Raising the albino mice in the dark prevented both events. The appearance of lipid-bloated subretinal MCs was drusen-like on funduscopy of senescent mice, and CX3CR1-dependent MC accumulation was associated with an exacerbation of experimental CNV. These results show that CX3CR1-dependent accumulation of subretinal MCs evokes cardinal features of AMD. These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel pathogenic process with important implications for the development of new therapies for AMD. PMID:17909628

Combadiere, Christophe; Feumi, Charles; Raoul, William; Keller, Nicole; Rodero, Mathieu; Pezard, Adeline; Lavalette, Sophie; Houssier, Marianne; Jonet, Laurent; Picard, Emilie; Debre, Patrice; Sirinyan, Mirna; Deterre, Philippe; Ferroukhi, Tania; Cohen, Salomon-Yves; Chauvaud, Dominique; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Chemtob, Sylvain; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Sennlaub, Florian

2007-01-01

311

Feature of the Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) maintains a special section entitled "Feature of the Month," which provides detailed information on a timely subject. Previous features, accessible through the site archive, include 'Spring Migration Guide' (March), 'The Conservation Reserve Program' (June), and 'How Old Is My Deer?' (November). In response to scientific and public attention to amphibian malformations in the US and Canada, this month's feature highlights the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (NARCAM), "a centralized database of confirmed malformation sightings and related information." The database includes background information, an online amphibian identification guide, a map of historical and recent reports, examples of malformations, a bibliography, forms for submitting reports, and technical information for researchers.

312

Three featured plenary sessions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

2012-07-01

313

Wound Healing in MIP-1??/? and MCP-1?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

A salient feature of normal wound healing is the development and resolution of an acute inflammatory response. Although much is known about the function of inflammatory cells within wounds, little is known about the chemotactic and activation signals that influence this response. As the CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) are abundant in acute wounds, wound repair was examined in MIP-1??/? and MCP-1?/? mice. Surprisingly, wound re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis in MIP-1??/? mice was nearly identical to wild-type controls. In contrast, MCP-1?/? mice displayed significantly delayed wound re-epithelialization, with the greatest delay at day 3 after injury (28 ± 5% versus 79 ± 14% re-epithelialization, P < 0.005). Wound angiogenesis was also delayed in MCP-1?/? mice, with a 48% reduction in capillary density at day 5 after injury. Collagen synthesis was impeded as well, with the wounds of MCP-1?/? mice containing significantly less hydroxyproline than those of control mice (25 ± 3 versus 50 ± 8 ?g/wound at day 5, P < 0.0001). No change in the number of wound macrophages was observed in MCP-1?/? mice, suggesting that monocyte recruitment into wounds is independent of this chemokine. The data suggest that MCP-1 plays a critical role in healing wounds, most likely by influencing the effector state of macrophages and other cell types. PMID:11485904

Low, Quentin E. H.; Drugea, Iulia A.; Duffner, Lisa A.; Quinn, Daniel G.; Cook, Donald N.; Rollins, Barrett J.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

2001-01-01

314

Gene expression: RNA interference in adult mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RNA interference is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that responds to double-stranded RNA by sequence-specific silencing of homologous genes. Here we show that transgene expression can be suppressed in adult mice by synthetic small interfering RNAs and by small-hairpin RNAs transcribed in vivo from DNA templates. We also show the therapeutic potential of this technique by demonstrating effective targeting of a sequence from hepatitis C virus by RNA interference in vivo.

McCaffrey, Anton P.; Meuse, Leonard; Pham, Thu-Thao T.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Kay, Mark A.

2002-07-01

315

Favorite Demonstrations for College Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer-reviewed, classroom-tested, and tailored specifically for introductory science courses, Favorite Demonstrations is a complement to every college instructor's lesson plans. The book is an all-in-one compilation of 36 popular classroom demonstrations published since 1993 in the "Favorite Demonstration" column of NSTA's Journal of College …

Shmaefsky, Brian

2004-01-01

316

Escalator design features evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

1982-01-01

317

Bovine ephemeral fever virus in cell culture and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Light, immunofluorescent and electron microscopic observations were carried out sequentially on mice and VERO cell cultures infected with bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus. In early harvests from cell culture, 185×73 nm cone-shaped particles with nearly parallel sides predominated; these particles had all other features typical of the Rhabdoviruses (surface projections, envelope, axial channel, precisely coiled helical nucleocapsid with 35

Frederick A. Murphy; William P. Taylor; Cedric A. Mims; Sylvia G. Whitfield

1972-01-01

318

Favorite Demonstration: One Hot Demonstration -- The Urban Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrations are most successful as a teaching tool when they can link a scientific principle to a real-life application of the knowledge. When posed as an inquiry activity, classroom demonstrations reinforce factual retention and facilitate the use of the information in critical thinking situations. Instructional effectiveness can be further improved by using the demonstration to stimulate collaborative problem-solving projects. This demonstration uses the concept of the urban heat island effect to reinforce science concepts in biology, chemistry, geology, and physics.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-07-01

319

Feature-feature causal relations and statistical co-occurrences in object concepts  

PubMed Central

Influences of feature-feature statistical co-occurrences and causal relations have been found in some circumstances, but not others. We hypothesized that detecting an influence of these knowledge types hinges crucially on the congruence between the task and type of knowledge. We show that both knowledge types influence tasks that tap feature relatedness. Detailed descriptions of causal theories were collected, and co-occurrence statistics were based on feature production norms. Regression analyses tested the influences of these knowledge types in untimed relatedness ratings and speeded relatedness decisions for 65 feature pairs spanning a range of correlational strength. Both knowledge types influenced both tasks, demonstrating that causal theories and statistical co-occurrences between features influence conceptual computations. PMID:17691142

McNorgan, Chris; Kotack, Rachel A.; Meehan, Deborah C.; McRae, Ken

2011-01-01

320

Introduction Feature Selection  

E-print Network

Vision Group Dept. of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Alicante June 29th Feature Selection Applications Conclusions Outline 1 Introduction History State of the art Motivation 2 Selection Applications Conclusions History State of the art Motivation Outline 1 Introduction History State

Escolano, Francisco

321

Integrated Education. Feature Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "feature issue" provides various perspectives on a number of integrated education topics, including successful integration practices and strategies, the changing roles of teachers, the appropriate role of research, the history and future of integrated education, and the realization of dreams of life in the mainstream for children with severe…

York, Jennifer, Ed.; Vandercook, Terri, Ed.

1988-01-01

322

Case Overview Featured Case  

E-print Network

in Ann's laboratory, TSP technician Joe Nelson adjusted the cabinet blower to lower the downflow fromChallenge Case Overview Solution Featured Case Tissue culture is a widely used tool in medical Technician at the UVM College of Medicine. She utilizes biological safety cabinets to accurately perform her

Hayden, Nancy J.

323

SELECTED FEATURES: American Vintage  

E-print Network

SELECTED FEATURES: American Vintage Fashion, by Anna Goldina p. 6 The Sweetest Thing , a mouthwatering guide for dessert lovers, by Young Gyun p. 12 The Beautiful Upper West Side to be er regulate taxis and raise their standards. These medallions are very expensive. As of 2011

Qiu, Weigang

324

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

325

Resistance of Chemokine Receptor 6-Deficient Mice to Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection  

PubMed Central

M cells, specialized cells within Peyer’s patches (PPs), are reduced in number in chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)-deficient mice. The pathogenic microorganism Yersinia enterocolitica exploits M cells for the purpose of mucosal tissue invasion exclusively through PPs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of yersiniosis in CCR6-deficient mice and to investigate whether these mice might be used as an in vivo model to determine M-cell function. After oral challenge with Y. enterocolitica, control mice suffered from lethal septic infection whereas CCR6-deficient mice showed very limited symptoms of infection. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated PP invasion by Y. enterocolitica in control mice whereas no bacteria could be found in CCR6-deficient mice. In addition, a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines could be found in control mice whereas proinflammatory cytokine levels in CCR6-deficient mice remained unchanged. In contrast, intraperitoneal infection resulted in severe systemic yersiniosis in both mouse groups. Abrogated oral Y. enterocolitica infection in CCR6-deficient mice demonstrates the importance of CCR6 expression in the physiological and pathological immune responses generated within PPs by influencing M-cell differentiation, underscoring the important role of M cells in the process of microbial uptake. CCR6-deficient mice may therefore represent a suitable model for the study of M-cell function in vivo. PMID:18258848

Westphal, Sabine; Lugering, Andreas; von Wedel, Julia; von Eiff, Christof; Maaser, Christian; Spahn, Thomas; Heusipp, Gerhard; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Herbst, Hermann; Williams, Ifor R.; Domschke, Wolfram; Kucharzik, Torsten

2008-01-01

326

Iterative feature removal yields highly discriminative pathways  

PubMed Central

Background We introduce Iterative Feature Removal (IFR) as an unbiased approach for selecting features with diagnostic capacity from large data sets. The algorithm is based on recently developed tools in machine learning that are driven by sparse feature selection goals. When applied to genomic data, our method is designed to identify genes that can provide deeper insight into complex interactions while remaining directly connected to diagnostic utility. We contrast this approach with the search for a minimal best set of discriminative genes, which can provide only an incomplete picture of the biological complexity. Results Microarray data sets typically contain far more features (genes) than samples. For this type of data, we demonstrate that there are many equivalently-predictive subsets of genes. We iteratively train a classifier using features identified via a sparse support vector machine. At each iteration, we remove all the features that were previously selected. We found that we could iterate many times before a sustained drop in accuracy occurs, with each iteration removing approximately 30 genes from consideration. The classification accuracy on test data remains essentially flat even as hundreds of top-genes are removed. Our method identifies sets of genes that are highly predictive, even when comprised of genes that individually are not. Through automated and manual analysis of the selected genes, we demonstrate that the selected features expose relevant pathways that other approaches would have missed. Conclusions Our results challenge the paradigm of using feature selection techniques to design parsimonious classifiers from microarray and similar high-dimensional, small-sample-size data sets. The fact that there are many subsets of genes that work equally well to classify the data provides a strong counter-result to the notion that there is a small number of “top genes” that should be used to build classifiers. In our results, the best classifiers were formed using genes with limited univariate power, thus illustrating that deeper mining of features using multivariate techniques is important. PMID:24274115

2013-01-01

327

Behavior of captive white-footed mice.  

PubMed

Detailed studies of the behavior of captive white-footed mice have cast a number of old problems in new perspectives. Many responses of small captive mammals cannot be interpreted at face value because of severe distortions of behavior that are caused by depriving the wild animal of natural outlets for activity. Confined animals are likely to seize upon and repeatedly exercise virtually any opportunities to modify (and alter their relationships with) their surroundings. In addition they have a strong tendency to counteract nonvolitional and "unexpected" deviations from the status quo. As a result, their responses do not bear an immutable relationship to the nature of the stimulus or other variable being modified; stimuli and activities that are rewarding in certain circumstances are avoided in others. These aspects of behavior have been illustrated by studies of nest occupancy, running in motordriven wheels, and control of intensity of illumination. The results of the control-of-illumination studies suggest the complex interplay of tendencies to modify features of the environment, to avoid conditions imposed compulsorily, and to select preferred levels of illumination. The importance of split-second timing, coordination, and quick reflex actions in the running of activity wheels is indicated by the fact that experienced white-footed mice prefer running in square "wheels" and wheels with hurdles to running in plain round wheels. The relatively conservative behavior of these mice in selecting between multiple sources of food and water and different types of activity wheels suggests the need for careful experimental design in free-choice studies with inexperienced animals. The tendency of trained animals to give some so-called "incorrect" responses even after long experience can be interpreted most reasonably in terms of the adaptive value of a certain degree of variability of behavior in the wild. White-footed mice readily master complex regimes in which several different levers and shutters must be pressed or rotated in certain sequences within seconds for different rewards. They quickly learn to traverse mazes containing hundreds of blind alleys and do so frequently without extrinsic reward. It is unlikely that these remarkable learning performances even begin to approach the capacities of the animals. When two female mice having markedly different solitary behavior patterns were placed in consort, the behavior of each changed, becoming more like that of the other, and the animals showed a strong tendency to remain in each other's company. The behavior of mice in enclosures of great extent casts doubt upon the postulate that hunger and thirst play leading roles in the motivation of wide-ranging locomotor movements. Accordingly, studies of deprived domestic animals in simple mazes may have but limited significance for understanding the behavior of wild and relatively unconfined animals. The existence of marked individual differences between mice selected at random from wild populations sounds the need for a cautious approach in the interpretation of results obtained with highly inbred domestic animals. The relatively uniform behavior of inbred strains represents only a small fragment of the total response spectrum for the species and probably has minimal significance for adaptation and evolution in the wild. When allowed to control the intensity of illumination by operating a series of switches, white-footed mice establish a roughly 24-hour regime consistent with that experienced in the wild, namely dim light during periods of activity and very dim light during periods of inactivity. Consistent with this finding, when exposed to a dim-dark light cycle, the mice are active during the dim phase, not in darkness. Artificial twilight transitions of both constant and varying color temperature have several marked effects upon the activity of white-footed mice. The existence of a strong orienting influence of dim light on the direction of wheel-running suggests that mice in the wild use the twilight

Kavanau, J L

1967-03-31

328

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

329

Demonstration: Male Workers in Day Care. Demonstration Project Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration project using young men as day care workers in the Early Learning and Child care centers in Atlanta is described. The proposal for the demonstration project and a progress report are given. Four white advantaged and four black disadvantaged male high school students were recruited to work as caregivers for black and white boys and…

McCandless, B. R.

330

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description

D. A. Arrenholz; J. L. Knight

1991-01-01

331

Cbfa1-independent decrease in osteoblast proliferation, osteopenia, and persistent embryonic eye vascularization in mice deficient in Lrp5, a Wnt coreceptor  

PubMed Central

The low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein (Lrp)-5 functions as a Wnt coreceptor. Here we show that mice with a targeted disruption of Lrp5 develop a low bone mass phenotype. In vivo and in vitro analyses indicate that this phenotype becomes evident postnatally, and demonstrate that it is secondary to decreased osteoblast proliferation and function in a Cbfa1-independent manner. Lrp5 is expressed in osteoblasts and is required for optimal Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. In addition, Lrp5-deficient mice display persistent embryonic eye vascularization due to a failure of macrophage-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These results implicate Wnt proteins in the postnatal control of vascular regression and bone formation, two functions affected in many diseases. Moreover, these features recapitulate human osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, caused by LRP5 inactivation. PMID:11956231

Kato, Masaki; Patel, Millan S.; Levasseur, Regis; Lobov, Ivan; Chang, Benny H.-J.; Glass, Donald A.; Hartmann, Christine; Li, Lan; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Brayton, Cory F.; Lang, Richard A.; Karsenty, Gerard; Chan, Lawrence

2002-01-01

332

Effect of melittin on mice stomach  

PubMed Central

Melittin, the main bee venom component, has many positive biological effects and a relatively low toxicity in various cell types. However, there is no evidence of the effect of melittin on gastrointestinal cells. In the present study, we investigated the histological and immuonohistochemical effects of melittin on mice stomach. Adult male mice (Albino Swiss) were randomly divided into two groups (7 mice for each group): control group and melittin only treated group (10 and 40 ?g/kg). These mice were sacrificed, then samples from the stomach were collected and prepared for histopathological studies by using alcian blue stain and immuonohistochemical studies by using smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Treatment with melittin alone do not cause any harmful effect on the stomach tissue where the microscopic examination of Alcian blue stained section showed the normal distribution of the mucous secreting cells of the stomach tissues. On other hand, no changes were observed on smooth muscle cells. This study demonstrated the safety of using melittin on gastrointestinal tissues if used in definite dose and for suitable duration, which offers an opportunity for its use as a treatment for many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24596505

Abu-Zinadah, Osama; Rahmy, Tarek; Alahmari, Abeer; Abdu, Faiza

2013-01-01

333

Progress with the MICE scintillating fiber trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof of principle demonstration of ionization cooling, for application in a future neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), where a dedicated beam line has been commissioned to transport particles produced inside the ISIS accelerator facility. The beam emittance will be measured using two scintillating fiber trackers on each side of the cooling channel, which will be mounted inside a 4 T solenoid. As particles pass through the tracker, their position will be measured at 5 stations, each of which provides a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm. The fiber trackers have been validated using cosmic ray tests, which have allowed the light yield to be found. In addition, a spare tracking station was exposed to the MICE beam, which has enabled the tracker readout to be integrated with the MICE DAQ for the first time. This test required the integration gate on the D0 AFE-IIt readout boards to be synchronized with particle arrival by using diagnostic signals from the ISIS accelerator.

Overton, Edward

2013-12-01

334

Staring naval infrared search and track demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Naval Infrared Search and Track (IRST) demonstrator has been developed for the UK Ministry of Defence. The system uses two staring infrared cameras and split field of view optics to provide panoramic surveillance of the horizon. Use of staring detectors provides improved sensitivity and faster update rate than current scanning IRST systems. The demonstrator is fitted with commercial 640x512 pixel medium waveband detectors but is designed to accommodate 1024x768 pixel detectors in the future. The system features switchable spectral filters to allow choice of the optimum waveband for the prevailing environmental conditions and beam steering optics for non uniformity correction and image stabilisation. Real time processing has been implemented using a combination of Field Programmable Gate Array and PowerPC hardware for detection and tracking. The paper describes the system and presents some examples of its output.

Manson, Don; Richards, Mike; Nicolson, Tim; Khan, Tariq; Barron, Don; Evans, Graham

2005-10-01

335

Integrating electrostatics with demonstrations and interactive teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching electrostatics is challenging due to its complexity and high degree of abstraction. To facilitate students' understanding of the meanings and relations of the key terms, this paper describes a series of demonstrations and conceptual questions based on an interactive teaching approach. The context was an introductory university physics course for engineering and science students in Taiwan. Features of the teaching intervention include the utilization of a series of demonstrations for repeated practice applying the important concepts, the incorporation of derivations of equations and verbal elaboration of concepts, and the engagement of students in thinking and discussing. Data show that the teaching intervention benefited the students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the learning achievement.

Chang, Wheijen

2011-02-01

336

Geochemical dynamics in selected Yellowstone hydrothermal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellowstone National Park has a wide diversity of thermal features, and includes springs with a range of pH conditions that significantly impact sulfur speciation. We have utilized a combination of voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the intermediate sulfur chemistry of Cinder Pool, Evening Primrose, Ojo Caliente, Frying Pan, Azure, and Dragon thermal springs. These measurements additionally have demonstrated the

G. Druschel; A. Kamyshny; A. Findlay; D. Nuzzio

2010-01-01

337

From Simple Features to Sophisticated Evaluation Functions  

E-print Network

, we present experimental results for Othello, which demonstrate the po- tential of the described approach. Keywords: automatic feature construction, GLEM, Othello 1 Introduction Many AI systems use the presented techniques can be applied to the game of Othello and discuss the new approach with regard

Buro, Michael

338

Feature selection using sparse Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for selecting a sparse subset of features that maximize discrimination between target classes is described in a Bayesian framework. Demonstrated on high range resolution radar (HRR) signature data, this has the effect of selecting the most informative range bins for a classification task. The sparse Bayesian classifier (SBC) model is directly compared against Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA), showing a clear performance gain with the Bayesian framework using HRRs from the publicly available MSTAR data set. The discriminative power of the selected features from the SBC is shown to be particularly dominant over LDA when only a few features are selected or when there is a shift in training and testing data sets, as demonstrated by training on a specific target type and testing on a slightly different target type.

Brandes, T. Scott; Baxter, James R.; Woodworth, Jonathan

2014-06-01

339

Tg(Grm1) transgenic mice: A murine model that mimics spontaneous uveal melanoma in humans?  

PubMed

Although rare, uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. About half of UM patients develop metastatic disease typically in the liver and die within a short period, due to ineffective systemic therapies. UM has unique and distinct genetic features predictive of metastasis. Animal models are required to improve our understanding of therapeutic options in disseminated UM. Since spontaneous murine UM models are lacking, our aim was to analyze the suitability of the established transgenic melanoma mouse model Tg(Grm1) as a new UM model system. We demonstrated that adult Grm1 transgenic mice develop choroidal thickening and uveal melanocytic neoplasia with expression of the melanocytic markers S100B and MelanA. Further, we showed that GRM1 is expressed in human UM, similar to skin melanoma. This study presents a new mouse model for spontaneous UM and suggests that the glutamate signaling pathway is a possible target for UM therapy. PMID:25051141

Schiffner, Susanne; Braunger, Barbara M; de Jel, Miriam M; Coupland, Sarah E; Tamm, Ernst R; Bosserhoff, Anja K

2014-10-01

340

Schizophrenia classification using functional network features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on discovering statistical biomarkers (features) that are predictive of schizophrenia, with a particular focus on topological properties of fMRI functional networks. We consider several network properties, such as node (voxel) strength, clustering coefficients, local efficiency, as well as just a subset of pairwise correlations. While all types of features demonstrate highly significant statistical differences in several brain areas, and close to 80% classification accuracy, the most remarkable results of 93% accuracy are achieved by using a small subset of only a dozen of most-informative (lowest p-value) correlation features. Our results suggest that voxel-level correlations and functional network features derived from them are highly informative about schizophrenia and can be used as statistical biomarkers for the disease.

Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Heuton, Kyle

2012-03-01

341

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

342

Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will review the clinical and histopathologic features associated with the presentation and diagnosis of retinoblastoma.\\u000a A thorough appreciation of the differential and a detailed clinical assessments is the cornerstone of arriving at the proper\\u000a diagnosis. Unlike most cancers, retinoblastoma is unique, as tissue is generally not necessary for diagnostic and treatment\\u000a purposes. However, once the eye is enucleated,

P. Chévez-Barrios; D. S. Gombos

343

Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2R?(null) mice.  

PubMed

More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2R?(null) mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

2014-08-01

344

FEATURE FISHFEATURE FISH Brassy minnow  

E-print Network

FEATURE FISHFEATURE FISH Brassy minnow Hybognathus hankinsoni the #12;The brassy minnow (Fig. 1, however, brassy minnows were discovered in a FEATURE FISH Brassy minnow Hybognathus hankinsoni Photograph

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

345

International Space Station technology demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an

Alan C. Holt

1998-01-01

346

Status of RERTR fuel demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel demonstration activity of the US RERTR Program is moving ahead on several fronts with the active participation by European fuel fabricators and reactor operators. A number of fuel elements are currently being fabricated or will soon be fabricated for irradiation in several reactors in the US and Europe. A whole-core demonstration of the physics properties of LEU fuel

Snelgrove

1980-01-01

347

A Demonstration of Sample Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demonstration of sample segregation, which is simple, and visually compelling illustrates the importance of sample handling for students studying analytical chemistry and environmental chemistry. The mixture used in this demonstration has two components, which have big particle size, and different colors, which makes the segregation graphic.

Fritz, Mark D.; Brumbach, Stephen B.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

2005-01-01

348

A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

2013-01-01

349

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

350

The Attica region REMSSBOT demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article gives an overall presentation of the demonstrator implemented, in the framework of the REMSSBOT project, in Attica. The application site is the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works of Greece and fields of application are the domains of air pollution, water quality and solid waste. The objectives of the demonstrator are examined, under the specific Greek

Athena Bourka

1998-01-01

351

A Demonstration on Every Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that inclusion of demonstrations on examinations increases students' ability to observe carefully the physical world around them, translate from observation in terms of models, and make quantitative estimates and physicist-type "back-of-the-envelope" calculations. Presents demonstration ideas covering the following topics: mechanics,…

Julian, Glenn M.

1995-01-01

352

Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)

Gilber, George L., Ed.

1979-01-01

353

DSTYK kinase domain ablation impaired the mice capabilities of learning and memory in water maze test  

PubMed Central

DSTYK (Dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase) is a putative dual Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinase with unique structural features. It is proposed that DSTYK may play important roles in brain because of its high expression in most brain areas. In the present study, a DSTYK knockout (KO) mouse line with the ablation of C-terminal of DSTYK including the kinase domain was generated to study the physiological function of DSTYK. The DSTYK KO mice are fertile and have no significant morphological defects revealed by Nissl staining compared with wildtype mice. Open field test and rotarod test showed there is no obvious difference in basic motor and balance capacity between the DSTYK homozygous KO mice and DSTYK heterozygous KO mice. In water maze test, however, the DSTYK homozygous KO mice show impaired capabilities of learning and memory compared with the DSTYK heterozygous KO mice.

Li, Kui; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zhu, Zhi-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zu, Yong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Hong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Shen, Xu; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan

2014-01-01

354

Altered receptor binding densities in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome despite only moderately enhanced autoantibody levels and absence of behavioral features.  

PubMed

Experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (eAPS) in Balb/c mice causes neuropsychiatric abnormalities including hyperactivity, increased explorative behavior and cognitive deficits. Recently, we have demonstrated that these behavioral changes were linked to an upregulation of serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor binding densities in cortical and hippocampal regions while excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors remain largely unchanged. To examine whether the observed behavioral features depend on a critical antibody concentration, mice with only moderately enhanced antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), about 50-80% of high levels, were analyzed and compared to controls. The staircase test was used to test animals for hyperactivity and explorative behavior. The brains were analyzed for tissue integrity and inflammation. Ligand binding densities of NMDA, AMPA, GABAA, 5-HT1A, M1 and M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, were analyzed by in vitro receptor autoradiography and compared to brains of mice from our previous study with high levels of aPL. Mice with only moderately enhanced aPL did not develop significant behavioral changes. Brain parenchyma remained intact and neither inflammation nor glial activation was detectable. However, there was a significant decrease of NMDA receptor binding densities in the motor cortex as well as an increase in M1 binding densities in cortical and hippocampal regions, whereas the other receptors analyzed were not altered. Lack of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be due to modulations of receptors resulting in normal behavior. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that high levels of aPL are required for the manifestation of neuropsychiatric involvement while at lower antibody levels compensatory mechanisms may preserve normal behavior. PMID:24332889

Frauenknecht, Katrin; Katzav, Aviva; Grimm, Christina; Chapman, Joab; Sommer, Clemens J

2014-05-01

355

PPAR? activation protects endothelial function in diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Recent evidence highlights the therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists to increase insulin sensitivity in diabetes. However, the role of PPAR? in regulating vascular function is incompletely characterized. We investigate whether PPAR? activation improves endothelial function in diabetic and obese mice. PPAR? knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed with high-fat diet and db/db mice were used as diabetic mouse models, compared with PPAR? KO and WT mice on normal diet and db/m(+) mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured by wire myograph. Flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) was measured by pressure myograph. Nitric oxide (NO) production was examined in primary endothelial cells from mouse aortae. PPAR? agonist GW1516 restored EDRs in mouse aortae under high-glucose conditions or in db/db mouse aortae ex vivo. After oral treatment with GW1516, EDRs in aortae and FMDs in mesenteric resistance arteries were improved in obese mice in a PPAR?-specific manner. The effects of GW1516 on endothelial function were mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt with a subsequent increase of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. The current study demonstrates an endothelial-protective effect of PPAR? agonists in diabetic mice through PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, suggesting the therapeutic potential of PPAR? agonists for diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:22933110

Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Wang, Nanping; Lu, Ye; Cheang, Wai San; Liu, Jian; Liu, Limei; Liu, Yahan; Lee, Susanna Sau-Tuen; Chen, Zhen Yu; Cooke, John P; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Yu

2012-12-01

356

PPAR? Activation Protects Endothelial Function in Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence highlights the therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists to increase insulin sensitivity in diabetes. However, the role of PPAR? in regulating vascular function is incompletely characterized. We investigate whether PPAR? activation improves endothelial function in diabetic and obese mice. PPAR? knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed with high-fat diet and db/db mice were used as diabetic mouse models, compared with PPAR? KO and WT mice on normal diet and db/m+ mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured by wire myograph. Flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) was measured by pressure myograph. Nitric oxide (NO) production was examined in primary endothelial cells from mouse aortae. PPAR? agonist GW1516 restored EDRs in mouse aortae under high-glucose conditions or in db/db mouse aortae ex vivo. After oral treatment with GW1516, EDRs in aortae and FMDs in mesenteric resistance arteries were improved in obese mice in a PPAR?-specific manner. The effects of GW1516 on endothelial function were mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt with a subsequent increase of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. The current study demonstrates an endothelial-protective effect of PPAR? agonists in diabetic mice through PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, suggesting the therapeutic potential of PPAR? agonists for diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:22933110

Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Wang, Nanping; Lu, Ye; Cheang, Wai San; Liu, Jian; Liu, Limei; Liu, Yahan; Lee, Susanna Sau-Tuen; Chen, Zhen Yu; Cooke, John P.; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Yu

2012-01-01

357

CD34 mediates intestinal inflammation in Salmonella-infected mice.  

PubMed

CD34 is a highly glycosylated sialomucin expressed on a variety of cells, ranging from vascular endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells. Depending on its glycosylation state, CD34 has been shown to promote or inhibit cell adhesion and migration; however, a functional role for CD34 in the gut has not been determined. Using a model of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis, we investigated the role of CD34 in the context of infection. Upon oral infection, the number of CD34+ cells detected in the submucosa, vascular endothelium and lamina propria significantly increased in S. Typhimurium-infected C57Bl/6 mice. The pathology of S. Typhimurium-infected C57Bl/6 mice was characterized by recruitment of neutrophils to the site of inflammation, submucosal oedema and crypt destruction. In contrast, Cd34(-/-) mice showed a delayed pathology, a defect in inflammatory cell migration into the intestinal tissue and enhanced survival. Importantly, this was not due to a lack of chemotactic signals in Cd34(-/-) mice as these mice had either similar or significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines post infection when compared with infected C57/Bl6 control mice. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for CD34 in enhancing migration of inflammatory cells and thereby exacerbating host-mediated immunopathology in the intestine of S. Typhimurium-infected mice. PMID:20497179

Grassl, Guntram A; Faustmann, Marco; Gill, Navkiran; Zbytnuik, Lori; Merkens, Helen; So, Leslie; Rossi, Fabio M; McNagny, Kelly M; Finlay, B Brett

2010-11-01

358

Abnormal regulation of TSG101 in mice with spongiform neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Summary Spongiform neurodegeneration is characterized by the appearance of vacuoles throughout the central nervous system. It has many potential causes, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Mice lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 (MGRN1) develop age-dependent spongiform encephalopathy. We identified an interaction between a “PSAP” motif in MGRN1 and the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of TSG101, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I), and demonstrate that MGRN1 multimonoubiquitinates TSG101. We examined the in vivo consequences of loss of MGRN1 on TSG101 expression and function in the mouse brain. The pattern of TSG101 ubiquitination differed in the brains of wild-type mice and Mgrn1 null mutant mice: at 1 month of age, null mutant mice had less ubiquitinated TSG101, while in adults, mutant mice had more ubiquitinated, insoluble TSG101 than wild-type mice. There was an associated increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels in mutant brains. These results suggest that loss of MGRN1 promotes ubiquitination of TSG101 by other E3s and may prevent its disassociation from endosomal membranes or cause it to form insoluble aggregates. Our data implicate loss of normal TSG101 function in endo-lysosomal trafficking in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration in Mgrn1 null mutant mice. PMID:19703557

Jiao, Jian; Sun, Kaihua; Walker, Will P.; Bagher, Pooneh; Cota, Christina D.; Gunn, Teresa M.

2009-01-01

359

Abnormal regulation of TSG101 in mice with spongiform neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Spongiform neurodegeneration is characterized by the appearance of vacuoles throughout the central nervous system. It has many potential causes, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Mice lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 (MGRN1) develop age-dependent spongiform encephalopathy. We identified an interaction between a "PSAP" motif in MGRN1 and the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of TSG101, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I), and demonstrate that MGRN1 multimonoubiquitinates TSG101. We examined the in vivo consequences of loss of MGRN1 on TSG101 expression and function in the mouse brain. The pattern of TSG101 ubiquitination differed in the brains of wild-type mice and Mgrn1 null mutant mice: at 1 month of age, null mutant mice had less ubiquitinated TSG101, while in adults, mutant mice had more ubiquitinated, insoluble TSG101 than wild-type mice. There was an associated increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels in mutant brains. These results suggest that loss of MGRN1 promotes ubiquitination of TSG101 by other E3s and may prevent its disassociation from endosomal membranes or cause it to form insoluble aggregates. Our data implicate loss of normal TSG101 function in endo-lysosomal trafficking in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration in Mgrn1 null mutant mice. PMID:19703557

Jiao, Jian; Sun, Kaihua; Walker, Will P; Bagher, Pooneh; Cota, Christina D; Gunn, Teresa M

2009-10-01

360

The Unfolded Protein Response and Chemical Chaperones Reduce Protein Misfolding and Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with development of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of ER stress–induced chaperone response and the orally active chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which facilitate protein folding and reduce ER stress, in mice with colitis. METHODS We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis in mice that do not express the transcription factor ATF6? or the protein chaperone P58IPK. We examined the effects of TUDCA and PBA in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); in wild-type, P58IPK?/?, and Atf6??/? mice with colitis; and in Il10?/? mice. RESULTS P58IPK?/? and Atf6??/? mice developed more severe colitis following administration of DSS than wild-type mice. IECs from P58IPK?/? mice had excessive ER stress, and apoptotic signaling was activated in IECs from Atf6??/? mice. Inflammatory stimuli induced ER stress signals in cultured IECs, which were reduced by incubation with TUDCA or PBA. Oral administration of either PBA or TUDCA reduced features of DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis in wild-type mice, the colitis that develops in Il10?/? mice, and DSS-induced colitis in P58IPK?/? and Atf6??/? mice. Reduced signs of colonic inflammation in these mice were associated with significantly decreased ER stress in colonic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS The unfolded protein response induces expression of genes that encode chaperones involved in ER protein folding; these factors prevent induction of colitis in mice. Chemical chaperones such as TUDCA and PBA alleviate different forms of colitis in mice and might be developed for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23336977

CAO, STEWART SIYAN; ZIMMERMANN, ELLEN M.; CHUANG, BRANDY-MENGCHIEH; SONG, BENBO; NWOKOYE, ANOSIKE; WILKINSON, J. ERBY; EATON, KATHRYN A.; KAUFMAN, RANDAL J.

2013-01-01

361

Prenatal androgen exposure programs metabolic dysfunction in female mice  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common fertility disorder with metabolic sequelae. Our lab previously characterized reproductive phenotypes in a prenatally androgenized (PNA) mouse model for PCOS. PNA mice exhibited elevated testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) levels, irregular oestrous cycles, and neuroendocrine abnormalities suggesting increased central drive to the reproductive system. In this study we examined metabolic characteristics of female PNA mice. PNA mice exhibited increased fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) that were independent of age and were not associated with changes in body composition or peripheral insulin sensitivity. IGT was associated with defects in pancreatic islet function leading to an impaired response to high glucose, consistent with impaired insulin secretion. Exposure of isolated pancreatic islets to androgen in vitro demonstrated an impaired response to glucose stimulation similar to that in PNA mice, suggesting androgens may have activational in addition to organizational effects on pancreatic islet function. PNA mice also exhibited increased size of visceral adipocytes, suggesting androgens programmed differences in adipocyte differentiation and/or function. These studies demonstrate that in addition to causing reproductive axis abnormalities, in utero androgen exposure can induce long-term metabolic alterations in female mice. PMID:20713501

Roland, Alison V.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Moenter, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

362

Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-03-15

363

Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in the NAS Preliminary planning for a notional mission to achieve the objectives and goals has been prepared. The planning is intended to serve as a guide for detailed planning of the AOD.

Trongale, Nicholas A.

2006-01-01

364

Linear dimensionality reduction applied to scale invariant feature transformation and speeded up robust feature descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust local descriptors usually consist of high-dimensional feature vectors to describe distinctive characteristics of images. The high dimensionality of a feature vector incurs considerable costs in terms of computational time and storage. It also results in the curse of dimensionality that affects the performance of several tasks that use feature vectors, such as matching, retrieval, and classification of images. To address these problems, it is possible to employ some dimensionality reduction techniques, leading frequently to information lost and, consequently, accuracy reduction. This work aims at applying linear dimensionality reduction to the scale invariant feature transformation and speeded up robust feature descriptors. The objective is to demonstrate that even risking the decrease of the accuracy of the feature vectors, it results in a satisfactory trade-off between computational time and storage requirements. We perform linear dimensionality reduction through random projections, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and partial least squares in order to create lower dimensional feature vectors. These new reduced descriptors lead us to less computational time and memory storage requirements, even improving accuracy in some cases. We evaluate reduced feature vectors in a matching application, as well as their distinctiveness in image retrieval. Finally, we assess the computational time and storage requirements by comparing the original and the reduced feature vectors.

Valenzuela, Ricardo Eugenio González; Schwartz, William Robson; Pedrini, Helio

2014-05-01

365

Antigen binding and capping by lymphocytes of genetic nonresponder mice.  

PubMed

Radioautographic study of the binding of GAT-(125)I to spleen cells of genetic responder and nonresponder mice demonstrates that among mice not injected with antigen all strains have approximately the same number of antigen-binding cells; after injection with antigen the number of antigen-binding cells increases in responders but not in nonresponders. Nonresponders are shown to make antibody after injection with GAT complexed with an immunogenic carrier, demonstrating the presence of potentially functional B cells in responders and nonresponders alike. When incubated in the warm, antigen-binding cells of both responders and nonresponders concentrate antigen at one pole of the cell, forming caps. PMID:5043419

Dunham, E K; Unanue, E R; Benacerraf, B

1972-08-01

366

Features of MCNP6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory's X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. These new features are summarized in this document. Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers.

Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L. J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R. A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H. G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.; Waters, L.; Wilcox, T.; Zukaitis, T.

2014-06-01

367

Magnesium Carbonate-Containing Phosphate Binder Prevents Connective Tissue Mineralization in Abcc6-/- Mice - Potential for Treatment of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues primarily in the skin, eyes, and the cardiovascular system. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. While PXE is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, there is currently no effective or specific treatment. In this study, we tested oral phosphate binders for treatment of a mouse model of PXE which we have developed by targeted ablation of the corresponding mouse gene (Abcc6-/-). This “knock-out” (KO) mouse model recapitulates features of PXE and demonstrates mineralization of a number of tissues, including the connective tissue capsule surrounding vibrissae in the muzzle skin which serves as an early biomarker of the mineralization process. Treatment of these mice with a magnesium carbonate-enriched diet (magnesium concentration being 5-fold higher than in the control diet) completely prevented mineralization of the vibrissae up to six months of age, as demonstrated by computerized morphometric analysis of histopathology as well as by calcium and phosphate chemical assays. The magnesium carbonate-enriched diet also prevented the progression of mineralization when the mice were placed on that experimental diet at three months of age and followed up to six months of age. Treatment with magnesium carbonate was associated with a slight increase in the serum concentration of magnesium, with no effect on serum calcium and phosphorus levels. In contrast, concentration of calcium in the urine was increased over ten-fold while the concentration of phosphorus was markedly decreased being essentially undetectable after long term (> 4 month) treatment. No significant changes were noted in the serum parathyroid hormone levels. Computerized axial tomography scan of bones in mice placed on magnesium carbonate-enriched diet showed no differences in the bone density compared to mice on the control diet, and chemical assays showed a small increase in the calcium and phosphate content of the femurs by chemical assay, in comparison to mice on control diet. Similar experiments with another experimental diet supplemented with lanthanum carbonate did not interfere with the mineralization process in Abcc6-/- mice. These results suggest that magnesium carbonate may offer a potential treatment modality for PXE, a currently intractable disease, as well as for other conditions characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues. PMID:20443931

Li, Qiaoli; LaRusso, Jennifer; Grand-Pierre, Alix E.; Uitto, Jouni

2010-01-01

368

Gene-dose dependent effects of methamphetamine on interval timing in dopamine-transporter knockout mice.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the major regulator of the spatial and temporal resolution of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. Hyperdopaminergic mice with DAT gene deletions were evaluated for their ability to perform duration discriminations in the seconds-to-minutes range. DAT -/- mice were unable to demonstrate temporal control of behavior in either fixed-interval or peak-interval timing procedures, whereas DAT +/- mice were similar to DAT +/+ mice under normal conditions. Low to moderate-dose methamphetamine (MAP) challenges indicated that DAT +/- mice were less sensitive to the clock-speed enhancing effects of MAP compared with DAT +/+ mice. In contrast, DAT +/- mice were more vulnerable than DAT +/+ mice to the disruptive effects of MAP at high doses as revealed by the elevation of response rate in the right hand tail of the Gaussian-shaped timing functions. Moreover, this treatment made DAT +/- mice functionally equivalent to DAT -/- mice in terms of the loss of temporal control. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of dopaminergic control of interval timing in cortico-striatal circuits and the potential link of timing dysfunctions to schizophrenia and drug abuse. PMID:21296093

Meck, Warren H; Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; MacDonald, Christopher J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Cevik, Münire Özlem

2012-03-01

369

Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.  

PubMed

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

2012-11-01

370

Impaired clot lysis in copper-deficient mice  

SciTech Connect

Cu-deficient mice exhibit atrial thrombosis but have significantly lowered plasma coagulation factor V and VIII activities. To investigate the effects of a dietary Cu deficiency on clot lysis, groups of adult male and female Swiss-Webster mice were fed Cu-supplemented or -deficient diets with deionized water for 49 days. Animals were exsanguinated under pentobarbital anesthesia; platelet-poor plasma prepared and assayed for euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and antithrombin III activity. A protamine sulfate test was also performed. The highly significant ECLT prolongation in Cu-deficient mice clearly demonstrates that critical components of the physiological clot-lysing mechanism must be severely impaired in these animals. These results may help to explain the thrombotic sequelae of a dietary Cu deficiency in mice.

Lynch, S.M.; Klevay, L.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

371

Broad protection against influenza infection by vectored immunoprophylaxis in mice  

PubMed Central

Neutralizing antibodies that target epitopes conserved among many strains of influenza virus have been recently isolated from humans. Here we demonstrate that adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encoding two such broadly neutralizing antibodies are protective against diverse influenza strains. Serum from mice that received a single intramuscular AAV injection efficiently neutralized all H1, H2 and H5 influenza strains tested. After infection with diverse strains of H1N1 influenza, treated mice showed minimal weight loss and lung inflammation. Protection lasted for at least 11 months after AAV injection. Notably, even immunodeficient and older mice were protected by this method, suggesting that expression of a monoclonal antibody alone is sufficient to protect mice from illness. If translated to humans, this prophylactic approach may be uniquely capable of protecting immunocompromised or elderly patient populations not reliably protected by existing vaccines. PMID:23728362

Balazs, Alejandro B.; Bloom, Jesse D.; Hong, Christin M.; Rao, Dinesh S.; Baltimore, David

2014-01-01

372

SEROLOGICALLY DEMONSTRABLE ALLOANTIGENS OF MOUSE EPIDERMAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Single cells were prepared from mouse tail epidermis by a method which gives high viability counts and so permits their use in cytotoxicity tests. According to tests with standard alloantisera, the antigen phenotype of mouse epidermal cells is H-2+?+Sk+H-Y+TL-Ly-A-Ly-B,C-PC-. The skin differentiation alloantigen Sk, which is responsible for homograft reactions directed selectively against skin, is expressed also on brain, but not on other cell types; it is present on the transplanted neuroblastoma C1300. Cytotoxicity tests with epidermal cells of H-2 congenic mouse stocks confirm that the Sk locus is not closely linked to H-2. The lymphoid cell differentiation antigen ? also is present on both epidermal cells and brain. Mice frequently retain ?-incompatible or Sk-incompatible skin grafts although they have formed substantial titers of ? or Sk antibody in response to grafting. Male (H-Y) antigen is demonstrable on epidermal cells by cytotoxicity tests with H-Y antibody, as it is also on one other type of cell, spermatozoa. PMID:4553016

Scheid, Margrit; Boyse, Edward A.; Carswell, Elizabeth A.; Old, Lloyd J.

1972-01-01

373

Feature Identification: An Epidemiological Metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature identification is a technique to identify the source code constructs activated when exercising one of the features of a program. We propose new statistical analyses of static and dynamic data to accurately identify features in large multithreaded object- oriented programs. We draw inspiration from epidemiology to improve previous approaches to feature identification and develop an epidemiological metaphor. We build

Giuliano Antoniol; Yann-gaël Guéhéneuc

2006-01-01

374

Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

1979-01-01

375

Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration  

EPA Science Inventory

In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

376

Novel Third-Law Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

Lonc, William

1995-01-01

377

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

378

The Physics Video Demonstration Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains a database of a wide range of short videos demonstrating physics concepts. The videos can be used during lecture by instructors, by students for coursework outside lecture, and for students to review demonstrations after class. The database can be browsed by topic or searched by keyword. Those with videos they may wish to contribute can contact the creator of the web site.

Liepe, Mattias

2008-09-17

379

Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

Layton, William

2013-01-01

380

Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

Snyder, Philip H.

1996-01-01

381

De novo 325 kb microdeletion in chromosome band 10q25.3 including ATRNL1 in a boy with cognitive impairment, autism and dysmorphic features.  

PubMed

We provide the first description of a patient with a heterozygous deletion of the Attractin-like (ATRNL1) gene. The patient presented with a novel and distinctive phenotype comprising dysmorphic facial appearance, ventricular septal defect, toe syndactyly, radioulnar synostosis, postnatal growth retardation, cognitive impairment with autistic features, and ataxia. A 325 kb de novo deletion in ATRNL1 was demonstrated using SNP microarray and confirmed by FISH analysis using BAC probes. Sequence analysis of the undeleted allele did not identify any alterations, suggesting that the phenotype was the result of haploinusfficiency. ATRNL1 and its paralog ATRN are highly conserved transmembrane proteins thought to be involved in cell adhesion and signalling events. The phenotype of mice with homozygous Atrn mutations overlaps considerably with the features observed in our patient. We therefore postulate that our patient's phenotype is caused by the deletion of ATRNL1, and provide further insight into the role of ATRNL1 in human development. PMID:20670697

Stark, Zornitza; Bruno, Damien L; Mountford, Hayley; Lockhart, Paul J; Amor, David J

2010-01-01

382

Resistance to experimental colitis depends on cytoprotective heat shock proteins in macrophage migration inhibitory factor null mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. We investigated the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis using MIF null (?\\/?) mice. MIF?\\/? mice given 3% DSS showed no clinical and histological feature of colitis in contrast to wild-type (WT) mice. Lack of MIF suppressed the up-regulation

Tatsuya Ohkawara; Jun Nishihira; Yoh Ishiguro; Eiji Otsubo; Koichi Nagai; Hiroshi Takeda; Mototsugu Kato; Takashi Yoshiki; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Masahiro Asaka

2006-01-01

383

Altered anxiety and defensive behaviors in Bax knockout mice.  

PubMed

Developmental neuronal cell death is critically regulated by the pro-death protein Bax. Bax-/- mice exhibit increased neuron number, the elimination of several neural sex differences, and altered socio-sexual behaviors. Here we examined the effects of Bax gene deletion on anxiety and defensive behaviors by comparing the responses of male and female wildtype and Bax-/- mice to two different tests. On the elevated plus maze, Bax-/- mice of both sexes made more entries into and spent more time in the outer portion of open arms, indicating decreased anxiety compared to wildtype animals. Next, we exposed mice to two odors: trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an olfactory component of fox feces that rodents find aversive, and butyric acid (BA), an aversive odor without ecological significance. Each odor was presented individually and all animals were tested with both odors in a counterbalanced design. TMT was consistently more aversive than BA across a variety of behaviors (e.g., mice spent less time close to the odor source). Overall, Bax -/- mice showed fewer stretch approaches to both TMT and BA than wildtypes, but they avoided the odor source more (e.g., fewer contacts and less time spent in proximity). Finally, no effect of genotype was seen in baseline olfactory behavior; all mice were able to locate a buried food item, demonstrating that Bax-/- mice do not have impaired olfaction per se. Collectively, these data suggest a change in strategy with anxiety and defensive behaviors in Bax-/- mice, indicating that alterations in cell number affect more general mechanisms of fear and anxiety in addition to behaviors directly related to reproduction. PMID:23142367

Luedke, Angela C; Boucher, Pierre O; Niel, Lee; Holmes, Melissa M

2013-02-15

384

State Machine Operation of the MICE Cooling Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The cooling channel for MICE has between 12 and 18 superconductnig solenoid coils in 3 to 7 magnets, depending on the staged development of the experiment. The magnets are coaxial and in close proximity which requires coordinated operation of the magnets when ramping, responding to quench conditions, and quench recovery. To reliably manage the operation of the magnets, MICE is implementing state machines for each magnet and an over-arching state machine for the magnets integrated in the cooling channel. The state machine transitions and operating parameters are stored/restored to/from the configuration database and coupled with MICE Run Control. Proper implementation of the state machines will not only ensure safe operation of the magnets, but will help ensure reliable data quality. A description of MICE, details of the state machines, and lessons learned from use of the state machines in recent magnet training tests will be discussed.

Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

2014-06-01

385

A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (V ASIMR) for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft and has the potential to open the entire solar system to human exploration. One feature of this propulsion technology is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. Variation of specific impulse and thrust enhances the ability to optimize interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times and lower propellant requirements than with a fixed specific impulse. In its ultimate application for interplanetary travel, the VASIMR would be a multi-megawatt device. A much lower power system is being designed for demonstration in the 2004 timeframe. This first space demonstration would employ a lO-kilowatt thruster aboard a solar powered spacecraft in Earth orbit. The 1O-kilowatt V ASIMR demonstration unit would operate for a period of several months with hydrogen or deuterium propellant with a specific impulse of 10,000 seconds.

Petro, Andrew; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schwenterly, WIlliam; Hitt, Michael; Lepore, Joseph

2000-01-01

386

Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

1988-01-01

387

Demonstration Extension: Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Penny Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This demonstration, if done in the original way, can lead to fires in waste containers (sometimes in the middle of the night after the experiment has been conducted), because pyrophoric zinc is generated by suspending powdered zinc in hot sodium hydroxide. This is avoided by using hot ZnSO[subscript 4].

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

388

Multi-class target recognition based on adaptive feature selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new approach of multi-class target recognition is proposed for remote sensing image analysis. A multiclass feature model is built, which is based on sharing features among classes. In order to make the recognition process efficient, we adopted the idea of adaptive feature selection. In each layer of the integrated feature model, the most salient and stable feature are selected first, and then the less ones. Experiments demonstrated the approach proposed is efficient in computation and is adaptive to scene variation.

Wang, Yuehuan; Yao, Wei; Song, Yunfeng; Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

2010-04-01

389

Experimental osteoarthritis models in mice.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly progressing, degenerative disorder of synovial joints culminating in the irreversible destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It affects almost everyone over the age of 65 and influences life quality of affected individuals with enormous costs to the health care system. Current therapeutic strategies seek to ameliorate pain and increase mobility; however, to date none of them halts disease progression or regenerates damaged cartilage or bone. Thus, there is an ultimate need for the development of new, noninvasive treatments that could substitute joint replacement for late- or end-stage patients. Therefore, osteoarthritis animal models for mimicking of all OA features are important. Mice develop an OA pathology that is comparable to humans, rapidly develop OA due to the short lifetime and show reproducible OA symptoms. They provide a versatile and widely used animal model for analyzing molecular mechanisms of OA pathology. One major advantage over large animal models is the availability of knockout or transgenic mice strains to examine genetic predispositions/contributions to OA.In this chapter, we describe three widely used instability-inducing murine osteoarthritis models. The most common two methods for surgical induction are: (1) destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) and (2) anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). In the DMM model, the medial meniscotibial ligament is transected while in the ACLT model the anterior cruciate ligament is destroyed. In the third, chemical induced instability method, intraarticular collagenase is injected into the knee joint. Intraarticular collagenase weakens articular ligaments which cause instability of the joint, and full-blown OA develops within 6 weeks. For morphological evaluation, we correspond mainly to the recommendations of OARSI for histological assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse. For statistical evaluation summed or mean scores of all four knee areas (medial tibial plateau (MTP), medial tibial condyle (MFC), lateral tibial plateau (LTP) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC)), medial and/or lateral regions are used.In future, not only large animal models like guinea pigs, sheep, goats, or horses will be important for a better understanding of osteoarthritis, but especially the mouse model with its rapid development of osteoarthritis and its numerous advantages by providing knockout or transgenic strains will become more and more relevant for drug development and determination of genetic predispositions of osteoarthritis pathology. PMID:25064117

Lorenz, Julia; Grässel, Susanne

2014-01-01

390

Absence of a Major Role for the Snai1 and Snai3 Genes in Regulating Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Mice  

PubMed Central

The Snail gene family encodes DNA-binding zinc finger proteins that function as transcriptional repressors. While the Snai1 and Snai2 genes are required for normal development in mice, Snai3 mutant mice exhibit no obvious abnormalities. The Snai3 gene is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle. However, we demonstrate by histological analysis that Snai3 null mutant mice exhibit normal skeletal muscle. During hindlimb muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin-mediated injury, the Snai3 null mice exhibited efficient regeneration. To determine whether the Snai3 gene functions redundantly with the Snai1 gene during skeletal muscle regeneration, we performed hindlimb muscle regeneration in mice with skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Snai1 gene on a Snai3 null genetic background. These mice also exhibited efficient regeneration, demonstrating that there is no major role for the Snai1 and Snai3 genes in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. PMID:24270643

Norton, Christine R.; Chen, Ying; Han, Xiang Hua; Bradley, Cara K.; Krebs, Luke T.; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gridley, Thomas

2013-01-01

391

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01

392

Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

Lubman, David

2005-09-01

393

Vasopressin Stimulates Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neurons via Oxytocin Receptors in Oxytocin Gene Knockout Male and Female Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of neuropharmacological data demonstrates that oxytocin (OT) actions in the mammalian forebrain support a wide variety of affiliative behaviors and repress aggressive behaviors. Based on that literature, it was expected that reproductive and affiliative behaviors would be vastly decreased and aggression markedly increased in OT gene knockout (OTKO) mice. The initial publications reporting the behaviors of these mice

André K. Ragnauth; Andrew Goodwillie; Cornelia Brewer; Louis J. Muglia; Donald W. Pfaff; Lee-Ming Kow

2004-01-01

394

Dobrava-Belgrade virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice, Turkey.  

PubMed

In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice-borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia. PMID:24377763

Oktem, I Mehmet Ali; Uyar, Yavuz; Dincer, Ender; Gozalan, Aysegul; Schlegel, Mathias; Babur, Cahit; Celebi, Bekir; Sozen, Mustafa; Karatas, Ahmet; Ozkazanc, Nuri Kaan; Matur, Ferhat; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ulrich, Rainer G; Ertek, Mustafa; Ozkul, Aykut

2014-01-01

395

Creatine supplementation reduces skeletal muscle degeneration and enhances mitochondrial function in mdx mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mdx mouse serves as animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Energy status in muscles of mdx mice is impaired and we have demonstrated recently that the energy precursor creatine exerts beneficial effects on mdx skeletal muscle cells in culture. Here we show that feeding a creatine-enriched diet to new-born mdx mice strongly reduced the first wave of muscle necrosis

Anne-Catherine Passaquin; Mathilde Renard; Laurence Kay; Corinne Challet; Armand Mokhtarian; Theo Wallimann; Urs T. Ruegg

2002-01-01

396

Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism Are Impaired in Mice Lacking the Nuclear Oxysterol Receptor LXR?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that mice lacking the oxysterol receptor, LXR?, lose their ability to respond normally to dietary cholesterol and are unable to tolerate any amount of cholesterol in excess of that which they synthesize de novo. When fed diets containing cholesterol, LXR? (?\\/?) mice fail to induce transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7a), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile

Daniel J Peet; Stephen D Turley; Wenzhen Ma; Bethany A Janowski; Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro; Robert E Hammer; David J Mangelsdorf

1998-01-01

397

Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey  

PubMed Central

In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice–borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia. PMID:24377763

Oktem, I. Mehmet Ali; Uyar, Yavuz; Dincer, Ender; Gozalan, Aysegul; Schlegel, Mathias; Babur, Cahit; Celebi, Bekir; Sozen, Mustafa; Karatas, Ahmet; Ozkazanc, Nuri Kaan; Matur, Ferhat; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Ertek, Mustafa

2014-01-01

398

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TREATMENT OF PHENOBARBITAL IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

A strain specificity has been demonstrated for the effect of subsequent administration of phenobarbital. n which diethylnitresamine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis was presented in C3H mice, inhibited in B6C3F1 (C57BL X C3M) and not affected in C57BL mice. herefore, we examined in...

399

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TREATMENT OF PHENOBARBITAL IN DIFFERENT STARINS OF MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

A strain specificity has been demonstrated for the effect of subsequent administration of phenobarbital, in which diethylnitrosamine initiated hepatocarcinogensis was promoted in C3H mice, inhibited in B6C3F1 (C57BL X C3H) and not affect in C57BL mice. herefore, we examined in th...

400

CDC Features: Data & Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes reams of data every day of the year, and this website is a nice place to find germane information quickly with relatively little fuss. At the top of the page, visitors can view press releases that digest recent findings on depression, cancer deaths, the norovirus illness, and brain injury. These reports date back to June 2007, and include summary statistics, along with a narrative description of the findings for each topic. The descriptions are written in non-technical language that can be utilized by journalists, students, and those working in the field of public health. Some of the more recent features include Top 10 Cancers Among Men, Lung Cancer, Obesity Rates, and Painkiller Overdoses. Overall, this is a great resource and one that visitors can keep tabs on via the CDC's social media, which includes a RSS or Twitter feed.

401

Creature Feature: Vampire Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

2002-01-01

402

Integrating Vocational & Academic Education. A Handbook Featuring Four Demonstration Sites Including Students from Special Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook describes the processes and techniques used to develop, implement, and evaluate four integrated vocational and academic learning programs in Wisconsin that included students from special populations. The handbook contains seven chapters. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the project, including the request for proposal process and…

Tindall, Lloyd W.; And Others

403

77 FR 11677 - Medicaid Program; Review and Approval Process for Section 1115 Demonstrations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CMS. (b) Demonstration evaluations. Demonstration evaluations will include the following: (1) Quantitative research methods. (i) These methods involve the empirical investigation of the impact of key programmatic features of the...

2012-02-27

404

Yo-yo Pull Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in its lowest position.2,3 As well as pulling the yo-yo horizontally, often the string is lifted until the angle it makes with the table causes no motion. This occurs when the line extended from the string intersects the point of contact of the yo-yo with the table.4 This paper describes an apparatus that extends these demonstrations to the situation where the force pulling the yo-yo is still horizontal yet is below the level of the table.

Layton, William

2013-03-01

405

Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixtures of materials of different specific gravities would remain stable in the liquid state and during freezing in low g and not segregate as they do on earth. An inflight demonstration was performed on the Apollo 14 mission during the translunar and and transearth coast periods. The apparatus consisted of an electrical heater, a heat sink device for cooling, and sealed metal capsules containing matrix materials having a low-melting point and dispersants. The evaluation of the demonstration samples was accomplished by comparing space processed (flight) samples with (control) samples processed on the ground under otherwise similar conditions. In the low q environment of space flight the dispersions of particles, fibers, and gases in a liquid metal matrix were maintained during solidification. Dispersions of normally immiscible liquids were also maintained during solidification.

Yates, I. C., Jr.

1971-01-01

406

Demonstration of blind quantum computing.  

PubMed

Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available. PMID:22267806

Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

2012-01-20

407

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

408

Diclazuril preventive therapy of gamma interferon knockout mice fed Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.  

PubMed

Gamma interferon knockout (KO) mice (n=74) were fed a lethal dose of approximately 1000 sporocysts of the SN15-OP isolate of Sarcocystis neurona. Groups of mice were given pelleted rodent feed containing 50ppm of diclazuril at different times before and after feeding sporocysts. All mice were examined at necropsy and their tissues were examined immunohistochemically for S. neurona infection. Twenty mice were fed sporocysts and given diclazuril starting 5 days before feeding sporocysts and continuing 30-39 days post-infection (p.i.). One mouse died of causes unrelated to S. neurona with no demonstrable parasites; the remaining 19 mice remained clinically normal and S. neurona organisms were not found in their tissues. Sarcocystis neurona organisms were not demonstrable by bioassay of the brains of these 19 mice in uninfected KO mice. Sarcocystis neurona organisms were not found in tissues of five mice treated with diclazuril, starting 7 days after feeding sporocysts and continuing up to 39 days p.i. Therapy was less efficient when diclazuril was given 10 days p.i. Sarcocystis neurona organisms were found in two of 19 mice treated with diclazuril starting 10 days after feeding sporocysts, in two of five mice starting therapy 12 days p.i., and in 10 of 10 mice when treatment was delayed until 15 days p.i. All 15 mice fed S. neurona, but not given diclazuril, developed neural sarcocystosis and were euthanized 22-30 days after feeding sporocysts. Six mice not fed S. neurona, but given diclazuril for 44 days, remained clinically normal. Results indicate that diclazuril can kill the early stages of S. neurona. PMID:11137273

Dubey, J P; Fritz, D; Lindsay, D S; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C; Thompson, K C

2001-01-20

409

PKC? regulates hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin signaling in Lepr(db/db) mice.  

PubMed

PKC? has been linked to key pathophysiological features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Yet, our knowledge of PKC?'s role in NAFLD development and progression in obese models is limited. PKC?(-/-)/Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice were generated to evaluate key pathophysiological features of NAFLD in mice. Hepatic histology, oxidative stress, apoptosis, gene expression, insulin signaling, and serum parameters were analyzed in Lepr(db)(/)(db) and PKC?(-/-)/Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice. The absence of PKC? did not abrogate the development of obesity in Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice. In contrast, serum triglyceride levels and epididymal white adipose tissue weight normalized to body weight were reduced in PKC?(-/-)/Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice compared Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice. Analysis of insulin signaling in mice revealed that hepatic Akt and GSK3? phosphorylation were strongly stimulated by insulin in PKC?(-/-)/Lepr(db)(/)(db) compared Lepr(db)(/)(db) mice. PKC? may be involved in the development of obesity-associated NAFLD by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. PMID:25035929

Zhang, Jian; Burrington, Christine M; Davenport, Samantha K; Johnson, Andrew K; Horsman, Melissa J; Chowdhry, Saleem; Greene, Michael W

2014-08-01

410

A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

2009-01-01

411

Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

Parker, Bradford H.

2008-01-01

412

Photovoltaic test and demonstration project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project are: (1) to determine operating characteristics for different solar cell systems and subsystems, (2) to prove, through tests and demonstrations, that solar cell systems can satisfy the requirements of potentially attractive residential, commercial, industrial, and smaller terrestrial applications, (3) to devise and implement the methodology, techniques and equipment to make accurate and reproducible measurements of solar cell and array performance, and diagnostic measurements on solar cells, modules and arrays, and (4) to determine the endurance of solar cell modules, component parts, and materials under expected environmental conditions.

Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

1976-01-01

413

Demonstrable farm scale ethanol plant  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were: to build and demonstrate that a farm scale alcohol plant can be built and run on renewable resources, i.e. corn as the source and corn cobs as the fuel; to show that it can be a continuous operation during the winter months when field work is at a minimum; and to demonstrate that a sufficient supply of fuel can be produced to dramatically reduce dependence on non-renewable energy. The investigators felt they had succeeded with their project. The spent spillage was fed to cattle on the farm. They feel by using corn grown on the farm, the project should continue to be profitable. 7 figures.

Mapel, J.R.

1982-01-01

414

A demonstration of sympathetic cotransmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Currently, most undergraduate textbooks that cover the autonomic nervous system retain the concept that autonomic nerves release either acetylcholine or norepinephrine. However, in recent years, a large volume of research has superseded this concept with one in which autonomic nerves normally release at least one cotransmitter along with a dominant transmitter that may or may not be acetylcholine or norepinephrine. Cotransmission involving the simultaneous release of norepinephrine, ATP, and neuropeptide Y can easily be demonstrated in an isometric ring preparation of the rat tail artery, which is described here. The experiment clearly demonstrates the principle of cotransmission but allows more advanced concepts in autonomic cotransmission to be addressed.

2010-10-01

415

DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

416

Double-Diffusive Convection: A Simple Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double-diffusive convection can be demonstrated using a cup, a pipet, coffee-whitener, and (optionally) a microscope. At first, cells (0.1 1 mm each) are formed; then, hundreds of needlelike structures become visible to the naked eye. This observation is related to a large number of interesting phenomena, such as deposition of chemical sewage at the bottom of the sea, salt distribution in oceans, and pattern formation in alloys, stars, and magma. If the microscope can be connected to video equipment (preferably with image storage in a computer) then a quantitative analysis of the emergence time and the size of the cells can be performed and compared to existing predictions. Featured on the Cover

Markus, Mario

2004-04-01

417

A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

Petro, Andrew

1999-01-01

418

Favorite Demonstration: Demonstrating Translation With a Student-Centered Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of protein synthesis translation is difficult for many students to understand. The reasons for this include the fact that it is difficult to visualize the process since the components involved in the process are not observable. Also, there are many details, often dependent on each other and difficult to grasp independently that are necessary to know in order to understand the process. With that in mind, an interactive group demonstration was developed to help students vizualize the process of translation.

Poole, Therese M.

2006-03-01

419

Generalised and conditional inactivation of Pex genes in mice.  

PubMed

During the past 10 years, several Pex genes have been knocked out in the mouse with the purpose to generate models to study the pathogenesis of peroxisome biogenesis disorders and/or to investigate the physiological importance of the Pex proteins. More recently, mice with selective inactivation of a Pex gene in particular cell types were created. The metabolic abnormalities in peroxisome deficient mice paralleled to a large extent those of Zellweger patients. Several but not all of the clinical and histological features reported in patients also occurred in peroxisome deficient mice as for example hypotonia, cortical and cerebellar malformations, endochondral ossification defects, hepatomegaly, liver fibrosis and ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria in hepatocytes. Although the molecular origins of the observed pathologies have not yet been resolved, several new insights on the importance of peroxisomes in different tissues have emerged. PMID:17007945

Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

2006-12-01

420

Strain-Dependent Differences in Bone Development, Myeloid Hyperplasia, Morbidity and Mortality in Ptpn2-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP (encoded by PTPN2) have been linked with the development of autoimmunity. Here we have used Cre/LoxP recombination to generate Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice with a global deficiency in TCPTP on a C57BL/6 background and compared the phenotype of these mice to Ptpn2?/? mice (BALB/c-129SJ) generated previously by homologous recombination and backcrossed onto the BALB/c background. Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice exhibited growth retardation and a median survival of 32 days, as compared to 21 days for Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice, but the overt signs of morbidity (hunched posture, piloerection, decreased mobility and diarrhoea) evident in Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice were not detected in Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice. At 14 days of age, bone development was delayed in Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice. This was associated with increased trabecular bone mass and decreased bone remodeling, a phenotype that was not evident in Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice. Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice had defects in erythropoiesis and B cell development as evident in Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice, but not splenomegaly and did not exhibit an accumulation of myeloid cells in the spleen as seen in Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice. Moreover, thymic atrophy, another feature of Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice, was delayed in Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice and preceded by an increase in thymocyte positive selection and a concomitant increase in lymph node T cells. Backcrossing Ptpn2?/? (BALB/c) mice onto the C57BL/6 background largely recapitulated the phenotype of Ptpn2ex2?/ex2? mice. Taken together these results reaffirm TCPTP's important role in lymphocyte development and indicate that the effects on morbidity, mortality, bone development and the myeloid compartment are strain-dependent. PMID:22590589

Wiede, Florian; Chew, Sock Hui; van Vliet, Catherine; Poulton, Ingrid J.; Kyparissoudis, Konstantinos; Sasmono, Tedjo; Loh, Kim; Tremblay, Michel L.; Godfrey, Dale I.; Sims, Natalie A.; Tiganis, Tony

2012-01-01

421

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

1992-11-10

422

Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1963-01-01

423

Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

1986-01-01

424

Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

2011-01-01

425

Solar heating demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

1980-01-01

426

Unmanned space vehicle technology demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unmanned space vehicle (USV) program has been undertaken by the Italian Center for Aerospace Research with the aim of developing flying test beds of next generation reentry launch vehicles. In this framework, the development of small demonstrators is also foreseen to validate technological and operational aspects of full-scale vehicles and missions. In this paper, a small-scale demonstrator of the sub-orbital re-entry test mission of the USV program is described. Both mission profile and objectives are very challenging in terms of demonstrator guidance, navigation and control. After a short description of the mission and demonstrator architectures, particular emphasis is given to the guidance and navigation analysis. To this end, mission objectives and reduced-scale system constaints are integrated and translated into innovative guidance solutions relying on optimization techniques. Then, performance of a commercial-off-the-shelf GPS-aided, miniature inertial navigation system over the proposed trajectories is evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis. Standalone inertial and GPS-aided inertial navigation performance is also compared considering GPS loss conditions due to antenna plasma effects.

Tancredi, U.; Accardo, D.; Grassi, M.; Curreri, F.

2007-02-01

427

GLOBAL EMISSIONS DATABASE (GLOED) DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the EPA-developed Global Emissions Database (GloED) and how it works. t was prepared to accompany a demonstration of GloED, a powerful software package. loED is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool for storing and retriEving emissions factors and activity data on...

428

Augmenting a Classical Electrochemical Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an augmentation of a classical electrochemical demonstration that addresses the learning styles of the students and teaches electrochemistry in a concrete manner. Enables each student to see each event clearly, repeatedly, or in stop-action mode and enables students to improve their own mental models by providing them with a visually…

Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.

1995-01-01

429

A Demonstration of Simultaneous Electrochemiluminescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paired (simultaneous) electrochemical processes can increase energy savings in selected cases by using the reactions at both electrodes of an electrochemical cell to perform a desired process, as is the case in the commercially successful chlor-alkali process. In the demonstration described herein, simultaneous blue electrochemiluminescence (ECL)…

Ibanez, Jorge G.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sotomayor-Martinez Barranco, Biaani; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Camacho-Zuniga, Claudia; Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W.

2013-01-01

430

Kinects in Unity Product Demonstration  

E-print Network

Kinects in Unity Product Demonstration Team Hex Pistols UCSB Computer Science Capstone 2013 #12 Control Microsoft Kinect for Windows SDK Unity3D Rendering Engine #12;Necessary Components x 2 x 3 x 2 x 3x 4 x 3x 4x 5 x 5 #12;Microsoft Kinect RGB Camera Infrared Depth Sensor Data Streams: Skeleton

Liebling, Michael

431

Classifying human activities using feature points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new classification method for single person's motion, which is represented by Haar wavelet transform and classified by Hidden Markov Models. What it solves is that the feature points are detected by Haar wavelet transform. We extract binary silhouette and segment them by cycle after creating the background model. Then the low-level features are detected by Haar wavelet transform and principal vectors are determined by Principal Component Analysis. We utilize Hidden Markov Models to train and classify cycle sequences, and demonstrate the usability. Compared with others, our approach is simple and effective in feature point detection, as the advantages of Haar wavelet transform detector lying in computational complexity. So the video surveillance based on these is practicable in (but not limited to) many scenarios where the background is known.

Zhang, Hao; Liu, Zhijing; Wei, Qing; Zhao, Haiyong; Wang, Weihua

2010-08-01

432

Music genre classification using temporal domain features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in the music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. In addition to other features, the temporal domain features of a music signal are exploited so as to increase the classification rate in this research. Three temporal techniques are examined in depth. First, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to emulate the time-varying properties of music signals. Second, to further increase the classification rate, we propose another feature set that focuses on the residual part of music signals. Third, the overall classification rate is enhanced by classifying smaller segments from a test material individually and making decision via majority voting. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques.

Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

2004-10-01

433

Wfs1-deficient mice display impaired behavioural adaptation in stressful environment.  

PubMed

Wfs1-deficient mice were generated by disrupting the 8th exon of Wfs1 gene. Reproduction rates of homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice were slightly below the expected values, they displayed intolerance to glucose and overall lower body weight. The present behavioural study was performed in female Wfs1-deficient mice due to their milder metabolic disturbances. Non-fasting blood glucose levels did not differ between homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice and wild-type littermates. While there was no difference in baseline plasma corticosterone, exposure to stress induced a nearly three-fold elevation of corticosterone in Wfs1-deficient mice in relation to wild-type littermates. Wfs1-deficient mice did not display obvious shortcomings in sensory and motor functioning as exemplified by intact responses in conditioned learning paradigms and rota-rod test. Locomotor activity of Wfs1-deficient mice was significantly lower only in brightly lit environment. Short-term isolation had a significant anxiogenic-like effect on the behaviour of Wfs1-deficient mice in dark/light exploration test. Lower exploratory activity of Wfs1-deficient mice in the plus-maze was antagonised by pre-treatment with diazepam (1 mg/kg), a GABA(A) receptor agonist. Wfs1-deficient mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in hyponeophagia test. The locomotor stimulatory effects of amphetamine (2.5-7.5 mg/kg) and apomorphine (3 mg/kg) were significantly attenuated and facilitated, respectively, in Wfs1-deficient mice. There were no differences between Wfs1-deficient mice and wild-types in forced swimming behaviour and conditioned fear responses. Subtle impairments in reversal learning were apparent in Wfs1-deficient mice in the Morris water maze. Altogether, the present study demonstrates impaired behavioural adaptation of Wfs1-deficient mice in stress-inducing situations. It is likely that Wfs1 protein plays a major role in the behavioural adaptation mechanisms to novel and stressful environments. PMID:19041897

Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Raud, Sirli; Innos, Jürgen; Sütt, Silva; Lasner, Helena; Abramov, Urho; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

2009-03-17

434

Traumatic Brain Injury Precipitates Cognitive Impairment and Extracellular A? Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many American soldiers, even those undiagnosed but likely suffering from mild TBI, display Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairments, suggesting a pathological overlap between TBI and AD. This study examined the cognitive and neurohistological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic mice. AD mice and non-transgenic (NT) mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. Animals were trained in a water maze task for spatial memory before TBI, and then reevaluated in the same task at two and six weeks post-TBI. The results showed that AD mice with TBI made significantly more errors in the task than AD mice without TBI and NT mice regardless of TBI. A separate group of AD mice and NT mice were evaluated neurohistologically at six weeks after TBI. The number of extracellular beta-amyloid (A?)-deposits significantly increased by at least one fold in the cortex of AD mice that received TBI compared to the NT mice that received TBI or the AD and NT mice that underwent sham surgery. A significant decrease in MAP2 positive cells, indicating neuronal loss, was observed in the cortex of both the AD and NT mice that received TBI compared to the AD and NT mice subjected to sham surgery. Similar changes in extracellular A? deposits and MAP2 positive cells were also seen in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate for the first time that TBI precipitates cognitive impairment in presymptomatic AD mice, while also confirming extracellular A? deposits following TBI. The recognition of this pathological link between TBI and AD should aid in developing novel treatments directed at abrogating cellular injury and extracellular A? deposition in the brain. PMID:24223856

Shimizu, Toru; Arendash, Gary W.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

2013-01-01

435

Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice  

PubMed Central

Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to “humanize” the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly ? cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions. PMID:25082483

Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Tranberg, Britt; Vogensen, Finn K.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Bahl, Martin I.; Licht, Tine R.; Hansen, Axel K.; Hansen, Camilla H. F.

2014-01-01

436

Histopathological characterization of the skeletal myopathy in rasH2 mice carrying human prototype c-Ha-ras gene.  

PubMed

A skeletal myopathy is found in approximately 100% of rasH2 mice. To confirm detailed features of the rasH2 skeletal myopathy, the biceps femoris, diaphragm, triceps brachii, gastrocnemial (types I and II fiber-mixed muscles) and soleus muscle (type I fiber-dominant muscle) obtained from male rasH2 and non-transgenic littermates aged 10-13 and 34 weeks were examined. Variations in the muscle fiber size, early-scattered degeneration/necrosis and regeneration of muscle fibers were detected in 10-13-week-old rasH2 mice. The severity of the above muscular lesions was more prominent in older rasH2 mice. These lesions were noted in the type II myofiber dominant muscles (biceps femoris, triceps brachii and gastrocnemial). NADH-TR stain clearly demonstrated a disorganized intermyofibrillar network and necrotic change in muscle fibers. No specific morphological changes, like rod structure or tubular aggregation seen in some types of myopathy, were noted in Gomori trichrome and NADH-TR stains in the rasH2 mouse like in many types of muscular dystrophy. Electronmicroscopically, occasional muscle fiber degeneration/regeneration, invaded phagocytic cells, indistinct Z-band suggesting excessive contraction and dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum were observed. In summary, the skeletal myopathy occurring in rasH2 mice is consistent with muscular dystrophy characterized morphologically by progressive degeneration and regeneration of myofibers. The myopathy is confined to the type II myofiber predominant muscles and is not associated with any pathognomonic lesions. These characteristics will provide us with a useful model for research in muscular dystrophy of diverse myofibers. PMID:15942132

Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Okada, Miyoko; Sakairi, Tetsuya; Sano, Fumiko; Sugimoto, Jiro; Takagi, Shirou

2005-05-01

437

Antifatigue effect of Gracilaria eucheumoides in mice  

PubMed Central

Gracilaria eucheumoides Linn (Gracilariaceae; G. eucheumoides) is abundant in dietary fiber, which aids the clearance of excess cholesterol from the blood and maintains stable blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifatigue effect of G. eucheumoides in mice and the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Mice were randomly divided into four groups and three of the groups were administered different doses of G. eucheumoides extract. A loaded swimming test demonstrated that the swimming times of the low-, medium- and high-dose groups were longer than those of the control group. Examinations revealed that the liver and muscle glycogen, lactate dehydrogenase and blood glucose concentration levels of the treatment groups were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). However, this was not the case for lactic acid concentration (P>0.05). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the gene expression levels of glucose transport protein 4 and AMP-activated protein kinase in the medium-dose group exhibited the largest increases, compared with the other treatment groups, and were 3.0- and 1.8-fold higher than those in the control group, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that G. eucheumoides exerts an antifatigue effect on mice. PMID:24255683

SHAO, JIN-TING; WANG, MEI-YAN; ZHENG, LU-BIN

2013-01-01

438

Autobacteriographic studies of clarithromycin and erythromycin in mice  

SciTech Connect

The antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin was compared with that of erythromycin in experimentally infected mice by whole-body autobacteriography. In mice with systemic staphylococcal infections, the number of vital microbes in the body was relatively low in the early period after oral administration of erythromycin, but increased thereafter to the levels found in nonmedicated control mice. On the other hand, with clarithromycin treatment, a significantly smaller number of microbes was evident throughout the body. The microbes were scarcely seen in the parenchyma of any organs during the examination period. This potent antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin was further demonstrated in mice with respiratory infections. On the other hand, to examine the distribution properties of both antibiotics in the whole body, an autoradiographic study was carried out with (N-methyl-14C)clarithromycin and (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin. Both labeled antibiotics were distributed widely throughout the body after oral administration in both uninfected control mice and mice with systemic infections. However, the radioactivity was more marked and persistent for (14C)clarithromycin than it was for (14C)erythromycin, particularly in the lungs. The observations described above indicate the superior in vivo antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin and suggest that the superiority of clarithromycin is largely attributed to its favorable distribution properties. The advantages of whole-body autobacteriography, coupled with whole-body autoradiography, are discussed.

Kohno, Y.; Ohta, K.; Suwa, T.; Suga, T. (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ohmiya (Japan))

1990-04-01

439

Heparin cofactor II attenuates vascular remodeling in humans and mice.  

PubMed

Heparin cofactor II (HCII), a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), inactivates thrombin action in the subendothelial layer of the vascular wall. Because a congenitally HCII-deficient patient has been shown to have multiple atherosclerotic lesions, it is hypothesized that HCII plays a pivotal role in the development of vascular remodeling, including atherosclerosis. To clarify this issue, 3 clinical studies concerning plasma HCII activity and atherosclerosis were carried out, and results demonstrated that a higher incidence of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, maximum carotid arterial plaque thickness, and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease occurred in subjects with low plasma HCII activity. Furthermore, HCII-deficient mice were generated by a gene targeting method to determine the mechanism of the vascular protective action of HCII. Because HCII(-/-) mice were embryonically lethal, we used HCII(+/-) mice and found that they manifested augmentation of intimal hyperplasia and increased thrombosis after cuff or wire injury to the femoral arteries. HCII(+/-) mice with vascular injury showed augmentation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and oxidative stress. These abnormal phenotypes of vascular remodeling observed in HCII(+/-) mice were almost restored by human HCII protein supplementation. HCII protects against vascular remodeling, including atherosclerosis, in both humans and mice, and plasma HCII activity might be a predictive biomarker and novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20671370

Aihara, Ken-ichi

2010-08-01

440

New BRAF knockin mice provide a pathogenetic mechanism of developmental defects and a therapeutic approach in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.  

PubMed

Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is one of the 'RASopathies', a group of phenotypically overlapping syndromes caused by germline mutations that encode components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Germline mutations in BRAF cause CFC syndrome, which is characterized by heart defects, distinctive facial features and ectodermal abnormalities. To define the pathogenesis and to develop a potential therapeutic approach in CFC syndrome, we here generated new knockin mice (here Braf(Q241R/+)) expressing the Braf Q241R mutation, which corresponds to the most frequent mutation in CFC syndrome, Q257R. Braf(Q241R/+) mice manifested embryonic/neonatal lethality, showing liver necrosis, edema and craniofacial abnormalities. Histological analysis revealed multiple heart defects, including cardiomegaly, enlarged cardiac valves, ventricular noncompaction and ventricular septal defects. Braf(Q241R/+) embryos also showed massively distended jugular lymphatic sacs and subcutaneous lymphatic vessels, demonstrating lymphatic defects in RASopathy knockin mice for the first time. Prenatal treatment with a MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, rescued the embryonic lethality with amelioration of craniofacial abnormalities and edema in Braf(Q241R/+) embryos. Unexpectedly, one surviving pup was obtained after treatment with a histone 3 demethylase inhibitor, GSK-J4, or NCDM-32b. Combination treatment with PD0325901 and GSK-J4 further increased the rescue from embryonic lethality, ameliorating enlarged cardiac valves. These results suggest that our new Braf knockin mice recapitulate major features of RASopathies and that epigenetic modulation as well as the inhibition of the ERK pathway will be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CFC syndrome. PMID:25035421

Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Moriya, Mitsuji; Watanabe, Yusuke; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Oba, Daiju; Ono, Masao; Kure, Shigeo; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Aoki, Yoko

2014-12-15