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1

Neuronal glucose transporter isoform 3 deficient mice demonstrate features of autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT) isoform 3 deficiency in null heterozygous mice led to abnormal spatial learning and working memory but normal acquisition and retrieval during contextual conditioning, abnormal cognitive flexibility with intact gross motor ability, electroencephalographic seizures, perturbed social behavior with reduced vocalization and stereotypies at low frequency. This phenotypic expression is unique as it combines the neurobehavioral with the

Y Zhao; C Fung; D Shin; B-C Shin; S Thamotharan; R Sankar; D Ehninger; A Silva; S U Devaskar

2010-01-01

2

Demonstration-Based Training: A Review of Instructional Features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews instructional features used in demonstration- based training (DBT). The need for fast and effective training and performance support that can be accessed from anywhere is a growing need for organizations. DBT programs are one method t...

D. Fu D. Pavlas E. Salas M. A. Rosen R. Jensen

2010-01-01

3

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mice demonstrate abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurodegenerative disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by ABCD1 mutations and characterized by very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation. Cholesterol-lowering normalized VLCFA in fibroblasts and plasma of X-ALD patients. We show that in cultured cells, cholesterol-loading induces ABCD1. In X-ALD mice, plasma cholesterol is elevated and not further increasable by cholesterol-feeding, whereas hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and Abcd2 are downregulated.

Isabelle Weinhofer; Sonja Forss-Petter; Markus Kunze; Mihaela Žigman; Johannes Berger

2005-01-01

4

Nuclear Mice Demonstration: The Principles of Chain Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this activity to illustrate the principles of chain reactions. The demonstration uses ping pong balls and mouse traps to show the chain reaction process involved in fission. Each mouse trap is placed into a large container and given a ping pong ball placed on the trigger. Another ping pong ball is introduced into the system, demonstrating the activation energy.The lesson includes step by step directions for the experiment. Discussion questions, teacher notes and a video clip are also included.

2011-11-02

5

Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-O, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

2007-04-01

6

Connexin26 expression in brain parenchymal cells demonstrated by targeted connexin ablation in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Astrocytes are known to express the gap junction forming proteins connexin30 (Cx30) and connexin43 (Cx43), but it has remained controversial whether these cells also express connexin26 (Cx26). To investigate this issue further, we examined immunofluorescence labelling of glial connexins in wild-type vs. transgenic mice with targeted deletion of Cx26 in neuronal and glial cells (Cx26fl/fl:Nestin-Cre mice). The Cx26 antibodies utilized specifically recognized Cx26 and lacked cross reaction with highly homologous Cx30, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence in Cx26-transfected and Cx30-transfected C6 glioma cells. Punctate immunolabelling of Cx26 with these antibodies was observed in leptomeninges and subcortical brain regions. This labelling was absent in subcortical areas of Cx26fl/fl:Nestin-Cre mice, but persisted in leptomeningeal tissues of these mice, thereby distinguishing localization of Cx26 between parenchymal and non-parenchymal tissue. In subcortical brain parenchyma, Cx26-positive puncta were often co-localized with astrocytic Cx43, and some were localized along astrocyte cell bodies and processes immunolabelled for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cx26-positive puncta were also co-localized with punctate labelling of Cx47 around oligodendrocyte somata. Comparisons of Cx26 labelling in rodent species revealed a lower density of Cx26-positive puncta and a more restricted distribution in subcortical regions of mouse compared with rat brain, perhaps partly explaining reported difficulties in detection of Cx26 in mouse brain parenchyma using antibodies or Cx26 gene reporters. These results support our earlier observations of Cx26 expression in astrocytes and its ultrastructural localization in individual gap junction plaques formed between astrocytes as well as in heterotypic gap junctions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. PMID:21714813

Nagy, J I; Lynn, B D; Tress, O; Willecke, K; Rash, J E

2011-06-30

7

Non-Motor and Motor Features in LRRK2 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models. Objective Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms. Methodology We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction), and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls. Conclusions LRRK2R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

Bichler, Zoe; Lim, Han Chi; Zeng, Li; Tan, Eng King

2013-01-01

8

Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

2004-01-01

9

Development and demonstration of a structured hydrological feature coding system for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of large amounts of digital hydrological data and eventual exchange of data between various organisations can benefit from the development of a structured hydrological feature coding system. In this article we describe the development of such a system and present its implementation in the CCM2 structured hydrological feature data set, covering Europe to the Urals and including Turkey. We

A. L. de Jager; J. V. Vogt

2010-01-01

10

GIP-Overexpressing Mice Demonstrate Reduced Diet-Induced Obesity and Steatosis, and Improved Glucose Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during a meal. Since GIP has also been shown to exert ?-cell prosurvival and adipocyte lipogenic effects in rodents, both GIP receptor agonists and antagonists have been considered as potential therapeutics in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronically elevating GIP levels in a transgenic (Tg) mouse model would increase adipose tissue expansion and exert beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. In contrast, although GIP Tg mice demonstrated enhanced ?-cell function, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, they exhibited reduced diet-induced obesity. Adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and hepatic steatosis were both greatly reduced, and a number of genes involved in lipid metabolism/inflammatory signaling pathways were found to be down-regulated. Reduced adiposity in GIP Tg mice was associated with decreased energy intake, involving overexpression of hypothalamic GIP. Together, these studies suggest that, in the context of over-nutrition, transgenic GIP overexpression has the potential to improve hepatic and adipocyte function as well as glucose homeostasis.

Kim, Su-Jin; Nian, Cuilan; Karunakaran, Subashini; Clee, Susanne M.; Isales, Carlos M.; McIntosh, Christopher H. S.

2012-01-01

11

Intact memory in TGF-?1 transgenic mice featuring chronic cerebrovascular deficit: recovery with pioglitazone  

PubMed Central

The roles of chronic brain hypoperfusion and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are unresolved. We investigated the interplay between TGF-?1, cerebrovascular function, and cognition using transgenic TGF mice featuring astrocytic TGF-?1 overexpression. We further assessed the impact of short, late therapy in elderly animals with the antioxidant N-acetyl--cysteine (NAC) or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone. The latter was also administered to pups as a prophylactic 1-year treatment. Elderly TGF mice featured cerebrovascular dysfunction that was not remedied with NAC. In contrast, pioglitazone prevented or reversed this deficit, and rescued the impaired neurovascular coupling response to whisker stimulation, although it failed to normalize the vascular structure. In aged TGF mice, neuronal and cognitive indices—the stimulus-evoked neurometabolic response, cortical cholinergic innervation, and spatial memory in the Morris water maze—were intact. Our findings show that impaired brain hemodynamics and cerebrovascular function are not accompanied by memory impairment in this model. Conceivably in AD, they constitute aggravating factors against a background of aging and underlying pathology. Our data further highlight the ability of pioglitazone to protect the cerebrovasculature marked by TGF-?1 increase, aging, fibrosis, and antioxidant resistance, thus of high relevance for AD patients.

Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Aliaga, Antonio; Tong, Xin-Kang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Hamel, Edith

2011-01-01

12

Type-1 diabetes exaggerates features of Alzheimer's disease in APP transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

A number of studies suggest an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes: AD patients show impaired insulin function, whereas cognitive deficits and increased risk of developing AD occur in diabetic patients. The reasons for the increased risk are not known. Recent studies of disturbances in the insulin-signaling pathway have revealed new perspectives on the links between AD and Type 1 diabetes with a particular focus on glycogen synthase-kinase-3 (GSK3). We have therefore characterized a mouse model of combined insulin-deficient diabetes and AD and find that diabetes exaggerated defects in the brain of APP transgenic mice. Mice with combined APP overexpression and diabetes showed a decreased insulin receptor activity and an increased GSK3? activity. Concomitantly, tau phosphorylation and number of A? plaques, the two pathologic hallmarks of AD, were increased in the brain of diabetic-APP transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the pathologic features of AD are exaggerated in the brain of APP transgenic mice that have concurrent insulin-deficient diabetes, and underscore a possible mechanism of brain dysfunction common to AD and diabetes.

Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Hurford, Rosemarie; Lee, Corinne A.; Dumaop, Wilmar; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

2009-01-01

13

Resistance to change and vulnerability to stress: Autistic-like features of GAP43 deficient mice  

PubMed Central

There is an urgent need for animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to understand the underlying pathology and facilitate development and testing of new treatments. The synaptic growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) has recently been identified as an autism candidate gene of interest. Our previous studies show many brain abnormalities in mice lacking one allele for GAP43 (GAP43 (+/?)) that are consistent with the disordered connectivity theory of ASD. Thus, we hypothesized that GAP43 (+/?) mice would demonstrate at least some autistic-like behaviors. We found that GAP43 (+/?) mice, relative to wild-type (+/+) littermates, displayed resistance to change, consistent with one of the diagnostic critera for ASD. GAP43 (+/?) mice also displayed stress-induced behavioral withdrawal and anxiety, as seen in many autistic individuals. In addition, both GAP43 (+/?) mice and (+/+) littermates demonstrated low social approach and lack of preference for social novelty, consistent with another diagnostic criterion for ASD. This low sociability is likely due to the mixed C57BL/6J 129S3/SvImJ background. We conclude that GAP43 deficiency leads to the development of a subset of autistic-like behaviors. Since these behaviors occur in a mouse that displays disordered connectivity, we propose that future anatomical and functional studies in this mouse may help uncover underlying mechanisms for these specific behaviors. Strain-specific low sociability may be advantageous in these studies, creating a more autistic-like environment for study of the GAP43-mediated deficits of resistance to change and vulnerability to stress.

Zaccaria, Kimberly J; Lagace, Diane C; Eisch, Amelia J; McCasland, James S

2010-01-01

14

Unusual Features in an Adult Pancreatic Hemangioma: CT and MRI Demonstration  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas in the pancreas are very rare and only a few cases in adulthood have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of pancreatic hemangiomas in an adult with unique imaging findings. A 23-year-old woman visited the hospital for an incidentally detected pancreatic mass. CT and MRI revealed a multilocular cyst with fluid-fluid levels and no obvious enhancement. The patient underwent surgery and the mass was confirmed as a pancreatic hemangioma. The radiological features and differential diagnosis of this rare lesion are discussed.

Wu, Mei

2013-01-01

15

Demonstration of antibodies to Bacillus piliformis in SPF colonies and experimental transplacental infection by Bacillus piliformis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Antibodies to Bacillus pili\\/orm;s were demonstrated by the immunofluorescence antibody technique in sera from mice and rabbits ,from SPF breeding colonies. Mice in various stages of pregnancy were experimentally infected with Bacillus pili\\/orm;s and killed 2 to 3 days later. The organism was demon- strated in the uterus, foetal membranes and in the liver of the foetuses. Infection was

A. Schaich Fries

1978-01-01

16

Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features.  

PubMed

Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOA deficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:22850464

Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D; Simpson, Kimberly L; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L; Lin, Rick C S; Shih, Jean C

2012-07-31

17

Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features  

PubMed Central

Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOAdeficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems.

Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

2012-01-01

18

Quantitative sensory testing in painful hand osteoarthritis demonstrates features of peripheral sensitisation.  

PubMed

Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is a prevalent condition for which treatments are based on analgesia and physical therapies. Our primary objective was to evaluate pain perception in participants with HOA by assessing the characteristics of nodal involvement, pain threshold in each hand joint, and radiological severity. We hypothesised that inflammation in hand osteoarthritis joints enhances sensitivity and firing of peripheral nociceptors, thereby causing chronic pain. Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal (PIP and DIP) joint HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical parameters of joint involvement were measured including clinical nodes, VAS (visual analogue score) for pain (0-100?mm scale), HAQ (health assessment questionnaire), and Kellgren-Lawrence scores for radiological severity and pain threshold measurement were performed. The mean VAS in HOA participants was 59.3?mm ± 8.19 compared with 4.0?mm ± 1.89 in the control group (P < 0.0001). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) demonstrated lower pain thresholds in DIP/PIP joints and other subgroups in the OA group including the thumb, metacarpophalangeal (MCPs), joints, and wrists (P < 0.008) but not in controls (P = 0.348). Our data demonstrate that HOA subjects are sensitised to pain due to increased firing of peripheral nociceptors. Future work to evaluate mechanisms of peripheral sensitisation warrants further investigation. PMID:23209475

Wajed, Julekha; Ejindu, Vivian; Heron, Christine; Hermansson, Monika; Kiely, Patrick; Sofat, Nidhi

2012-11-14

19

Integrin ?1/Akita double knockout mice on a Balb/c background develop advanced features of human diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Animal models that mimic human diabetic nephropathy are useful to identify key factors in pathogenesis of this disease as well as the development of new therapies. Several mouse models of diabetes have features of human diabetic nephropathy, yet none of these completely fulfill the Animal Models of Diabetes Complications Consortium criteria and completely reproduce pathological and functional features of the human disease. The Akita mouse carries a mutation in the insulin 2 gene and, to date, only survive as heterozygotes that develop spontaneous type 1 diabetes. Here we show that Akita mice with mutation of both insulin 2 alleles (Akita knockout (KO)) survive if crossed onto the Balb/c background. These mice develop hyperglycemia, more severe albuminuria and mesangial sclerosis compared to heterozygous mice on the same genetic background. Interestingly, crossing these AkitaKO mice with integrin ?1KO mice, a model of exacerbated glomerulosclerosis after injury and also on the Balb/c background, resulted in a 16-fold increase in albuminuria, significant mesangial matrix expansion, nodular and diffuse glomerulosclerosis, and a 2-fold increase in glomerular basement membrane thickening when compared to non-diabetic mice. Moreover a significant decline in glomerular filtration was evident in the ?1KOAkitaKO mice at 6 months of age. Thus, the integrin ?1KOAkitaKO Balb/c mouse represents a promising model presenting with most features of human diabetic nephropathy.

Yu, Ling; Su, Yan; Paueksakon, Paisit; Cheng, Huifang; Chen, Xiwu; Wang, Hongtao; Harris, Raymond C.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

2012-01-01

20

Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line\\/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line\\/space (L\\/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (â90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using

G. F. Cardinale; C. C. Henderson; J. E. M. Goldsmith; P. J. S. Mangat; J. Cobb; S. D. Hector

1999-01-01

21

Hip14l-deficient mice develop neuropathological and behavioural features of Huntington disease.  

PubMed

Palmitoylation, the dynamic post-translational addition of the lipid, palmitate, to proteins by Asp-His-His-Cys-containing palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) enzymes, modulates protein function and localization and plays a key role in the nervous system. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 (HIP14), a well-characterized neuronal PAT, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms, caused by a CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Mice deficient for Hip14 expression develop neuropathological and behavioural features similar to HD, and the catalytic activity of HIP14 is impaired in HD mice, most likely due to the reduced interaction of HIP14 with HTT. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14-like (HIP14L) is a paralog of HIP14, with identical domain structure. Together, HIP14 and HIP14L are the major PATs for HTT. Here, we report the characterization of a Hip14l-deficient mouse model, which develops adult-onset, widespread and progressive neuropathology accompanied by early motor deficits in climbing, impaired motor learning and reduced palmitoylation of a novel HIP14L substrate: SNAP25. Although the phenotype resembles that of the Hip14(-/-) mice, a more progressive phenotype, similar to that of the YAC128 transgenic mouse model of HD, is observed. In addition, HIP14L interacts less with mutant HTT than the wild-type protein, suggesting that reduced HIP14L-dependent palmitoylation of neuronal substrates may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. Thus, both HIP14 and HIP14L may be dysfunctional in the disease. PMID:23077216

Sutton, Liza M; Sanders, Shaun S; Butland, Stefanie L; Singaraja, Roshni R; Franciosi, Sonia; Southwell, Amber L; Doty, Crystal N; Schmidt, Mandi E; Mui, Katherine K N; Kovalik, Vlad; Young, Fiona B; Zhang, Weining; Hayden, Michael R

2012-10-16

22

Nonallele-specific Silencing of Mutant and Wild-type Huntingtin Demonstrates Therapeutic Efficacy in Huntington's Disease Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutant huntingtin (htt) protein, and there are currently no effective treatments. Recently, we and others demonstrated that silencing mutant htt via RNA interference (RNAi) provides therapeutic benefit in HD mice. We have since found that silencing wild-type htt in adult mouse striatum is tolerated for at least 4 months. However,

Ryan L Boudreau; Jodi L McBride; Inęs Martins; Shihao Shen; Yi Xing; Barrie J Carter; Beverly L Davidson

2009-01-01

23

Prion Protein Amino Acid Determinants of Differential Susceptibility and Molecular Feature of Prion Strains in Mice and Voles  

PubMed Central

The bank vole is a rodent susceptible to different prion strains from humans and various animal species. We analyzed the transmission features of different prions in a panel of seven rodent species which showed various degrees of phylogenetic affinity and specific prion protein (PrP) sequence divergences in order to investigate the basis of vole susceptibility in comparison to other rodent models. At first, we found a differential susceptibility of bank and field voles compared to C57Bl/6 and wood mice. Voles showed high susceptibility to sheep scrapie but were resistant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy, whereas C57Bl/6 and wood mice displayed opposite features. Infection with mouse-adapted scrapie 139A was faster in voles than in C57Bl/6 and wood mice. Moreover, a glycoprofile change was observed in voles, which was reverted upon back passage to mice. All strains replicated much faster in voles than in mice after adapting to the new species. PrP sequence comparison indicated a correlation between the transmission patterns and amino acids at positions 154 and 169 (Y and S in mice, N and N in voles). This correlation was confirmed when inoculating three additional rodent species: gerbils, spiny mice and oldfield mice with sheep scrapie and 139A. These rodents were chosen because oldfield mice do have the 154N and 169N substitutions, whereas gerbil and spiny mice do not have them. Our results suggest that PrP residues 154 and 169 drive the susceptibility, molecular phenotype and replication rate of prion strains in rodents. This might have implications for the assessment of host range and molecular traceability of prion strains, as well as for the development of improved animal models for prion diseases.

Agrimi, Umberto; Nonno, Romolo; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Di Bari, Michele Angelo; Conte, Michela; Chiappini, Barbara; Esposito, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Windl, Otto; Vaccari, Gabriele; Lipp, Hans-Peter

2008-01-01

24

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-deficient mice demonstrate reduced hyperoxia-induced lung injury.  

PubMed

Patients with respiratory failure often require supplemental oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. Although both supportive measures are necessary to guarantee adequate oxygen uptake, they can also cause or worsen lung inflammation and injury. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury is characterized by neutrophil infiltration into the lungs. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been deemed important for leukocyte trafficking. To determine the expression and function of neutrophil uPAR during hyperoxia-induced lung injury, uPAR expression was determined on pulmonary neutrophils of mice exposed to hyperoxia. Hyperoxia exposure (O2>80%) for 4 days elicited a pulmonary inflammatory response as reflected by a profound rise in the number of neutrophils that were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung cell suspensions, as well as increased bronchoalveolar keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interleukin-6, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase levels. In addition, hyperoxia induced the migration of uPAR-positive granulocytes into lungs from wild-type mice compared with healthy control mice (exposed to room air). uPAR deficiency was associated with diminished neutrophil influx into both lung tissues and bronchoalveolar spaces, which was accompanied by a strong reduction in lung injury. Furthermore, in uPAR(-/-) mice, activation of coagulation was diminished. These data suggest that uPAR plays a detrimental role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and that uPAR deficiency is associated with diminished neutrophil influx into both lung tissues and bronchoalveolar spaces, accompanied by decreased pulmonary injury. PMID:19435793

van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Florquin, Sandrine; de Beer, Regina; Pater, Jennie M; Verstege, Marleen I; Meijers, Joost C M; van der Poll, Tom

2009-05-12

25

Mice Bearing Deletions of Retinoic Acid Receptors Demonstrate Reduced Lung Elastin and Alveolar Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, including rats and mice, the development of pul- monary alveolar septa is primarily limited to late gestation and the early periods of postnatal life. Before this time, the rat lung contains a relatively large supply of endogenous retinyl ester that, together with its metabolite retinoic acid, has been shown to increase elastin gene expression and the number of

Stephen McGowan; Sheila K. Jackson; Melinda Jenkins-Moore; Hui-Hui Dai; Pierre Chambon; Jeanne M. Snyder

2000-01-01

26

Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase M-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Improved Host Defense during Gram-negative Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M?/?) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M?/? alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M?/? mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M?/? mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen.

Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J; van der Windt, Gerritje JW; Blok, Dana C; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Flavell, Richard A; van der Poll, Tom

2012-01-01

27

Cortical glucose metabolism is altered in aged transgenic Tg2576 mice that demonstrate Alzheimer plaque pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Alzheimer's disease is associated with markedly impaired cerebral glucose metabolism as detected by reduced cortical desoxyglucose\\u000a utilization, by altered activities of key glycolytic enzymes or by reduced densities of cortical glucose transporter subtypes.\\u000a To determine whether formation and\\/or deposition of ?-amyloid plays a role in the pathology of glucose metabolism, transgenic\\u000a Tg2576 mice that overexpress the Swedish mutation of

M. Bigl; J. Apelt; K. Eschrich; R. Schliebs

2003-01-01

28

Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the

Orhan K. Öz; Asghar Hajibeigi; Carolyn Cummins; Monique van Abel; René J. Bindels; Makoto Kuro-O; Charles Y. C. Pak; Joseph E. Zerwekh

2007-01-01

29

Mlkl knockout mice demonstrate the indispensable role of Mlkl in necroptosis  

PubMed Central

Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (Mlkl) was recently found to interact with receptor interacting protein 3 (Rip3) and to be essential for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in cultured cell lines. We have generated Mlkl-deficient mice by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene disruption and found Mlkl to be dispensable for normal mouse development as well as immune cell development. Mlkl-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and macrophages both showed resistance to necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli. Mlkl-deficient MEFs and macrophages were indistinguishable from wild-type cells in their ability to activate NF-?B, ERK, JNK, and p38 in response to TNF and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), respectively. Consistently, Mlkl-deficient macrophages and mice exhibited normal interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and TNF production after LPS treatment. Mlkl deficiency protects mice from cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis, a necrosis-related disease, but has no effect on polymicrobial septic shock-induced animal death. Our results provide genetic evidence for the role of Mlkl in necroptosis.

Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Peng; Li, Yangxin; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Wanze; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Yang, Zhentao; Wu, Su-Qin; Chen, Lanfen; Han, Jiahuai

2013-01-01

30

Citric Acid and Quinine Share Perceived Chemosensory Features Making Oral Discrimination Difficult in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Evidence in the literature shows that in rodents, some taste-responsive neurons respond to both quinine and acid stimuli. Also, under certain circumstances, rodents display some degree of difficulty in discriminating quinine and acid stimuli. Here, C57BL/6J mice were trained and tested in a 2-response operant discrimination task. Mice had severe difficulty discriminating citric acid from quinine and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) with performance slightly, but significantly, above chance. In contrast, mice were able to competently discriminate sucrose from citric acid, NaCl, quinine, and PROP. In another experiment, mice that were conditioned to avoid quinine by pairings with LiCl injections subsequently suppressed licking responses to quinine and citric acid but not to NaCl or sucrose in a brief-access test, relative to NaCl-injected control animals. However, mice that were conditioned to avoid citric acid did not display cross-generalization to quinine. These mice significantly suppressed licking only to citric acid, and to a much lesser extent NaCl, compared with controls. Collectively, the findings from these experiments suggest that in mice, citric acid and quinine share chemosensory features making discrimination difficult but are not perceptually identical.

Treesukosol, Yada; Mathes, Clare M.

2011-01-01

31

Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist ({approx}90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO{sub 2} hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO{sub 2} (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles {>=}85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3{sigma}, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs{>=}60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

Cardinale, G. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Henderson, C. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Goldsmith, J. E. M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Mangat, P. J. S. [Motorola, Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States); Cobb, J. [Motorola, Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States); Hector, S. D. [Motorola, Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States)

1999-11-01

32

Norepinephrine transporter variant A457P knock-in mice display key features of human postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  

PubMed

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a common autonomic disorder of largely unknown etiology that presents with sustained tachycardia on standing, syncope and elevated norepinephrine spillover. Some individuals with POTS experience anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we identified a mutation, A457P, in the norepinephrine (NE; also known as noradrenaline) transporter (NET; encoded by SLC6A2) in POTS patients. NET is expressed at presynaptic sites in NE neurons and plays a crucial role in regulating NE signaling and homeostasis through NE reuptake into noradrenergic nerve terminals. Our in vitro studies demonstrate that A457P reduces both NET surface trafficking and NE transport and exerts a dominant-negative impact on wild-type NET proteins. Here we report the generation and characterization of NET A457P mice, demonstrating the ability of A457P to drive the POTS phenotype and behaviors that are consistent with reported comorbidities. Mice carrying one A457P allele (NET(+/P)) exhibited reduced brain and sympathetic NE transport levels compared with wild-type (NET(+/+)) mice, whereas transport activity in mice carrying two A457P alleles (NET(P/P)) was nearly abolished. NET(+/P) and NET(P/P) mice exhibited elevations in plasma and urine NE levels, reduced 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), and reduced DHPG:NE ratios, consistent with a decrease in sympathetic nerve terminal NE reuptake. Radiotelemetry in unanesthetized mice revealed tachycardia in NET(+/P) mice without a change in blood pressure or baroreceptor sensitivity, consistent with studies of human NET A457P carriers. NET(+/P) mice also demonstrated behavioral changes consistent with CNS NET dysfunction. Our findings support that NET dysfunction is sufficient to produce a POTS phenotype and introduces the first genetic model suitable for more detailed mechanistic studies of the disorder and its comorbidities. PMID:23580201

Shirey-Rice, Jana K; Klar, Rebecca; Fentress, Hugh M; Redmon, Sarah N; Sabb, Tiffany R; Krueger, Jessica J; Wallace, Nathan M; Appalsamy, Martin; Finney, Charlene; Lonce, Suzanna; Diedrich, André; Hahn, Maureen K

2013-04-04

33

Demonstration of persistent enterovirus in the pancreas of diabetic mice by in situ polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although Enterovirus (EV) do not persist in the tissue, which is essential to maintain autoimmunity, they have been associated as the cause of chronic autoimmunity in some cases of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Convincing reports, demonstrating persistent EV infections in the pancreases, are rare.Objectives: To determine the role of EV in IDDM, a mouse model was tested and

M. M Berger; D. M See; M Aymard; B Lina

1998-01-01

34

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing APP and Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Feature Cognitive and Vascular Hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

High brain levels of amyloid-? (A?) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) have been implicated in the cognitive and cerebrovascular alterations of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We sought to investigate the impact of combined increases in A? and TGF-?1 on cerebrovascular, neuronal, and mnemonic function using transgenic mice overproducing these peptides (A/T mice). In particular, we measured cerebrovascular reactivity, evoked cerebral blood flow and glucose uptake during brain activation, cholinergic status, and spatial memory, along with cerebrovascular fibrosis, amyloidosis, and astrogliosis, and their evolution with age. An assessment of perfusion and metabolic responses was considered timely, given ongoing efforts for their validation as AD biomarkers. Relative to wild-type littermates, A/T mice displayed an early progressive decline in cerebrovascular dilatory ability, preserved contractility, and reduction in constitutive nitric oxide synthesis that establishes resting vessel tone. Altered levels of vasodilator-synthesizing enzymes and fibrotic proteins, resistance to antioxidant treatment, and unchanged levels of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase-2, accompanied these impairments. A/T mice featured deficient neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling to whisker stimulation, cholinergic denervation, cerebral and cerebrovascular A? deposition, astrocyte activation, and impaired Morris water maze performance, which gained severity with age. The combined A?- and TGF-?1-driven pathology recapitulates salient cerebrovascular, neuronal, and cognitive AD landmarks and yields a versatile model toward highly anticipated diagnostic and therapeutic tools for patients featuring A? and TGF-?1 increments.

Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Lecrux, Clotilde; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

2010-01-01

35

Incremental Building of a Polyhedral Feature Model for Programming by Human Demonstration of Force-Controlled Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the construction of a local polyhedral 3-D feature model derived from pose and wrench sensor measurements collected during a force-controlled execution of a sequence of polyhedral contact formations. The procedure consists of two steps: 1) the sensor measurements are filtered, resulting in a (nonminimal) representation of a 3-D feature model; and 2) identification of a reduced set

Peter Slaets; Tine Lefebvre; Johan Rutgeerts; Herman Bruyninckx; Joris De Schutter

2007-01-01

36

Targeted disruption of the Hexa gene results in mice with biochemical and pathologic features of Tay-Sachs disease  

SciTech Connect

Tay-Sachs disease, the prototype of the G{sub M2} gangliosidoses, is a catastrophic neurodegenerative disorder of infancy. The disease is caused by mutations in the HEXA gene resulting in an absence of the lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-hexosaminidase A. As consequence of the enzyme deficiency, G{sub M2} ganglioside accumulates progressively, beginning early in fetal life, to excessive amounts in the central nervous system (CNS). Rapid mental and motor deterioration starting in the first year of life leads to death by 2 to 4 years of age. Through the targeted disruption of the Hexa gene in embryonic stem cells, we have produced mice with biochemical and neuropathologic features of Tay-Sachs disease. The mutant mice exhibited less than 1% of normal {beta}-hexosaminidase A activity and accumulated G{sub M2} ganglioside in their CNS in an age-dependent manner. The accumulated ganglioside was stored in neurons as membranous cytoplasmic bodies characteristically found in the neurons of Tay-Sachs disease patients. At three to five months of age the mutant mice showed no apparent defects in motor or memory function. These {beta}-hexosaminidase A deficient mice should be useful for devising strategies to introduce functional enzymes and genes into the CNS. This model may also be valuable for studying the biochemical and pathologic changes occurring during the course of the disease.

Proia, R.L.; Yamanaka, S.; Johnson, M.D. [and others

1994-09-01

37

Anatomic, Hematologic, and Biochemical Features of C57BL/6NCrl Mice Maintained on Chronic Oral Corticosterone  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that typically includes central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, a regulator of corticosterone secretion, occurs in some cases of metabolic syndrome and obesity, and Cushing hypercortisolemia is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. We therefore assessed anatomic and clinical pathology in C57BL/6NCrl mice to evaluate the effects of chronic corticosterone in the drinking water at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/mL for 25 d. Treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, electrolyte aberrations, and dyslipidemia that were dose-dependent and most severe in the 100-?g/mL treatment group. To evaluate return to normal function, additional C57BL/6NCrl mice received corticosterone-free water for 2 wk after the 25-d treatment period. According to results of gross examination, mice appeared to recover within days of exogenous corticosterone withdrawal; however, adrenal gland vacuolation and protein, lipid, and electrolyte abnormalities persisted. Together, these findings support chronic corticosterone exposure through the drinking water as a potentially useful, noninvasive method to induce some features of metabolic syndrome.

Cassano, Amy E; White, Julie R; Penraat, Kelley A; Wilson, Christopher D; Rasmussen, Skye; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

2012-01-01

38

Ultrastructural features of neurons in the C57BL/6J mouse anteroventral cochlear nucleus: young mice versus old mice with chronic presbycusis.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine "bushy" and "multipolar" neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of young (2-month-old) and old (2-year-old) C57BL/6J mice, a strain that develops profound peripheral sensorineural auditory impairment during the second year of life. Two features differed with age irrespective of cell type or location within the AVCN: there was an increase in the incidence of neurons with heterochromatic nuclei and an increase in the percent of the neuron occupied by lipofuscin. Two features differed with age in multipolar cells only: there was a decrease in the roundness of nuclei and an increase in the number of nuclear invaginations. Some features differed with age to a greater extent in the dorsal portion of the AVCN: there were decreases in the length of terminals on bushy cells, and in the percentage of soma surface apposed by terminals, and increases in the incidence of neurons contacted by myelinated axons, in mean synaptic vesicle density, and in the amount of lipofuscin in bushy cells. Some features did not differ with age: the mean area of mitochondria, percentage of cytoplasm occupied by mitochondria, size of dense synaptic junctions, and for bushy cells only, nuclear shape and invaginations and width of perinuclear cisternae. Aging per se, chronic presbycusis, and neuronal type play roles in determining age-related changes in AVCN neurons. PMID:2682312

Briner, W; Willott, J F

39

Inhibition of myostatin does not ameliorate disease features of severe spinal muscular atrophy mice  

PubMed Central

There is currently no treatment for the inherited motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Severe SMA causes lower motor neuron loss, impaired myofiber development, profound muscle weakness and early mortality. Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-? family member that inhibits muscle growth. Loss or blockade of myostatin signaling increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength in mouse models of primary muscle disease and in the motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of blocking myostatin signaling in severe SMA mice (hSMN2/delta7SMN/mSmn?/?) by two independent strategies: (i) transgenic overexpression of the myostatin inhibitor follistatin and (ii) post-natal administration of a soluble activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB-Fc). SMA mice overexpressing follistatin showed little increase in muscle mass and no improvement in motor function or survival. SMA mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc showed minimal improvement in motor function, and no extension of survival compared with vehicle-treated mice. Together these results suggest that inhibition of myostatin may not be a promising therapeutic strategy in severe forms of SMA.

Sumner, Charlotte J.; Wee, Claribel D.; Warsing, Leigh C.; Choe, Dong W.; Ng, Andrew S.; Lutz, Cathleen; Wagner, Kathryn R.

2009-01-01

40

Site of localization of Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma hominis in the genital tract of female mice demonstrated by culture and scanning and immuno-electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Thirty young adult mice, of strain BALB/c, treated previously with progesterone, were inoculated intravaginally (10 mice) or directly into the uterus (10 mice) with Mycoplasma pulmonis and 10 mice remained uninoculated. Ten mice not treated with the hormone were also inoculated intrauterinely with M. pulmonis. The same numbers of mice treated with oestradiol were inoculated in the same ways with M. hominis. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from all mice 7, 14 and 28 days after inoculation and samples of genital tract tissue were collected from pairs of mice at the same time intervals. Large numbers of M. pulmonis and M. hominis organisms were isolated from the vagina throughout the course of the experiments and they were cultured also from the cervix and uterine horns. Mycoplasma-like bodies were demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy in the cervix and in the uterus, but neither mycoplasmal species was found attached to vaginal epithelium. The results of silver-enhanced immunogold labelling in conjunction with scanning microscopy provided assurance that the mycoplasma-like bodies were, in fact, mycoplasmas. The importance of hormone treatment was indicated by the diminished susceptibility of untreated mice to M. pulmonis and the almost complete insusceptibility to M. hominis, shown by culture and scanning electron microscopy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10

Furr, P. M.; Sarathchandra, P.; Hetherington, C. M.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1995-01-01

41

Hearts of Dystonia musculorum Mice Display Normal Morphological and Histological Features but Show Signs of Cardiac Stress  

PubMed Central

Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt) mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66%) ?-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95%) and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%), all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

Kothary, Rashmi; Boudreau-Lariviere, Celine

2010-01-01

42

Mice expressing the Swedish APP mutation on a 129 genetic background demonstrate consistent behavioral deficits and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant Tg2576 mice which possess the human “Swedish” APP mutation have been shown to demonstrate both A? plaque pathology and memory deficits in behavioral tasks. These mice are routinely maintained on a mixed C57BL\\/6×SJL genetic background which exhibits a high frequency of retinal degeneration allele and high variability in many behavioral assays. The same APP mutation is also available maintained

Nathan R. Rustay; Elizabeth A. Cronin; Peter Curzon; Stella Markosyan; Robert S. Bitner; Teresa A. Ellis; Jeffrey F. Waring; Michael W. Decker; Lynne E. Rueter; Kaitlin E. Browman

2010-01-01

43

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour of Childhood: A Report of Four Cases Demonstrating Wider Clinical Features and Variable Outcome  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Four further cases of desmoplastic small round cell tumour with multi phenotypic differentiation are described. Subjects. Two patients were typical (male, adolescent with peritoneal tumour and, in one case, liver metastases) and did not respond well to treatment. Two other patients showed less usual features (young, female with retroperitoneal disease, both with intraspinal extension and renal tract obstruction). Both responded favourably to multi-modal treatment regimens including extensive and invasive supportive care. Results. Histologically, all tumours showed clear features of this diagnosis, namely angulated nests of small cells in a background of fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry typically showed divergent differentiation with neural, muscle and epithelial marker positivity. All four tumours stained positive for the Wilms' tumour 1 suppressor gene product. Electron microscopy showed intercellular tight junctions, cytoplasmatic intermediate filaments and absence of microvilli. Rare neurosecretory-type granules were observed. Discussion. These cases illustrate a broader spectrum of clinical presentation than previously associated with this diagnosis.

Ray, Ruma; Traunecker, Heidi C. L.; Raafat, Faro

1997-01-01

44

Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.  

PubMed

Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID??/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. PMID:20833245

Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

2010-09-15

45

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces long-lasting IgA deficiency concurrently with features of polyclonal B cell activation in normal and in lupus-prone mice.  

PubMed Central

Polyclonal B cell activation (PBA) and autoimmune disease can be induced in immunologically normal mice, or enhanced in lupus-prone mice, by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because immune defects are common in autoimmune diseases and IgA deficiency is prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, we investigated: (i) whether LPS might induce IgA deficiency in normal mice; (ii) whether IgA deficiency might be a feature in lupus-prone mice; (iii) whether, if present in lupus-prone mice, IgA deficiency could be further accentuated by LPS; and (iv) whether the effects of LPS on IgA concentrations of normal and lupus-prone mice might be reversible upon withdrawal of LPS. We injected normal (C57BL/6) and lupus-prone (NZB/W) mice with 50 micrograms of LPS from Salmonella minnesota Re595 twice a week for 5 weeks and then discontinued LPS for 6 weeks. We determined the concentrations of plasma immunoglobulins, DNA antibodies, and circulating immune complexes before, during, and after mice were exposed to LPS. Our results indicate that: (i) LPS induces IgA deficiency in normal mice concurrently with PBA; (ii) IgA deficiency is a feature of lupus-prone mice; (iii) LPS accentuates naturally occurring PBA and IgA deficiency in lupus-prone mice; and (iv) LPS induced, or LPS enhanced, IgA deficiency and PBA in normal and lupus-prone mice persist long after withdrawal of LPS. Thus, LPS triggers or enhances autoimmune disease by a mechanism that involves in part PBA with selective increase (IgG, IgM) and concurrent decrease (IgA) of specific isotypes.

Cavallo, T; Granholm, N A

1991-01-01

46

Chemically induced mammary gland adenomyoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas of mice. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features.  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial cell tumors of the mammary gland have been observed in several mammalian species and are composed of a single cell type (myoepithelium) or, more often, present as a biphasic process including neoplastic ductal epithelial cells. In dogs, these are common tumors, but in humans they are rare neoplasms of the breast, and little is yet known of their pathogenesis, particularly with respect to myoepithelial origin. The present report describes bicellular mammary gland tumors arising from the duct epithelium that were induced in (C57BL/6NCr X DBA/2NCr)F1 (B6D2F1) mice by four weekly oral applications of 1 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) starting at 8 weeks of age. Mammary tumors developed 7 to 8 months later in 14 of 57 mice, and most showed great morphologic resemblance to human adenomyoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. Ultrastructurally, the induced tumors were composed of cuboidal epithelium with a microvillous border originating from the lining duct epithelium and plump oval or highly elongated cells that were identified as myoepithelial in origin. These spindle cells contained abundant microfilaments in parallel orientation, some with focal densities and intermediate filaments that frequently formed loose bundles or compact tonofibrils. The myoepithelial cells possessed well-developed desmosomes and plasma membrane caveolae and were regularly bordered by single or reduplicated basement membranes. By immunohistochemistry, strong immunoreactivity was observed for actin in the myoepithelial tumor component only, whereas cytokeratin was variably present in both duct epithelium and myoepithelium. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells stained purple with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) and brilliant red with Masson's trichrome. It is suggested that DMBA-induced mouse mammary gland adenomyoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas may serve as very useful animal models to study myoepithelial tumorigenesis. Images Figure 1 to 4 Figure 5 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15

Rehm, S.

1990-01-01

47

Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

1984-11-01

48

Ultrastructural features of mast cells in picryl chloride (PCL)-induced contact dermatitis in IQI/Jic mice.  

PubMed

Mast cells are one of the major effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as contact dermatitis. In the present study, ultrastructural features of mast cells in contact dermatitis were examined. Namely, the ear of IQI/Jic mice was topically applied with picryl chloride (PCL) at 4 (1st), 11 (2nd), 18 (3rd) and 25 days (4th) after the sensitization with PCL to the abdominal skin. The changes in the ear swelling responses, total serum IgE levels and histology including mast cell numbers were similar to those of previous reports by our research group (Ikeda et al. 2000; Jung et al. 2001). Ultrastructurally, after the 1st application, a close spacial relationship between mast cells and neutrophils and phagocytosis of mast cell granules by neutrophils were observed. Mast cells generally contained non-fused swollen granules filled with altered contents with low electron density and showed an extrusion of membrane-free granules through membrane pores. In addition, interestingly, a few mast cells secreted membrane-bound granules into the dermis without leaving cell membrane damage. After the 4th application when the number of mast cells prominently increased and the total serum IgE level was greatly elevated, in addition to mast cells showing typical anaphylactic degranulation, many mast cells probably in the recovery process from degranulation and several immature mast cells characterized by well-developed Golgi apparatus, many ribosomes and a few electron-dense secretory granules in the peripheral cytoplasm were also observed at the same time. The present results clarified the ultrastructural features of mast cells in the course of PCL-induced contact dermatitis in IQI/Jic mice. PMID:12710708

Jung, Ji-Youn; Yasoshima, Akira; Saegusa, Junzo; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

2003-03-01

49

Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

1986-03-01

50

Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling in the context of whole plants. In our previous study, the time course of bystander signaling in plants has been well demonstrated using the root micro-grafting technique. In this study, we further investigated the temporal cooperation pattern of multiple bystander signals, the directionality of bystander signaling, and the effect of bystander tissues on the bystander signaling. The results showed that the bystander response could also be induced efficiently when the asynchronously generated bystander signals reached the bystander tissues in the same period, but not when they entered into the bystander tissues in an inversed sequence. The absence of bystander response in root-inversed grafting indicated that the bystander signaling along roots might be of directionality. The bystander signaling was shown to be independent of the bystander tissues.

Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

2012-01-01

51

Of Mice, Birds, and Men: The Mouse Ultrasonic Song System Has Some Features Similar to Humans and Song-Learning Birds  

PubMed Central

Humans and song-learning birds communicate acoustically using learned vocalizations. The characteristic features of this social communication behavior include vocal control by forebrain motor areas, a direct cortical projection to brainstem vocal motor neurons, and dependence on auditory feedback to develop and maintain learned vocalizations. These features have so far not been found in closely related primate and avian species that do not learn vocalizations. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations with acoustic features similar to songs of song-learning birds. However, it is assumed that mice lack a forebrain system for vocal modification and that their ultrasonic vocalizations are innate. Here we investigated the mouse song system and discovered that it includes a motor cortex region active during singing, that projects directly to brainstem vocal motor neurons and is necessary for keeping song more stereotyped and on pitch. We also discovered that male mice depend on auditory feedback to maintain some ultrasonic song features, and that sub-strains with differences in their songs can match each other's pitch when cross-housed under competitive social conditions. We conclude that male mice have some limited vocal modification abilities with at least some neuroanatomical features thought to be unique to humans and song-learning birds. To explain our findings, we propose a continuum hypothesis of vocal learning.

Arriaga, Gustavo; Zhou, Eric P.; Jarvis, Erich D.

2012-01-01

52

Social features of scent-donor mice modulate scent marking of C57BL/6J recipient males.  

PubMed

Territorial male mice can form familiarity-dependent amicable relationships, suggesting that they manage their territorial aggressiveness based on individual recognition, which may be mediated by olfactory signals. The present study demonstrated modulatory effect of odorant cues from mice of different social/housing groups on territorial scent marking by C57BL/6J males. Pair-housed males deposited few scent marks in a novel situation without mouse odors, while singly-housed males marked more in the same situation (Experiment 1). However, when confronted by a conspecific, singly-housed males made fewer marks to pair-housed than to singly-housed stimulus males, while pair-housed males showed few marks to either stimulus animal (Experiment 2). Reduction in scent marking in singly-housed males was also seen on exposure to urine scent alone from a pair-housed male, indicating that the inhibitory cue is mediated by urinary odor (Experiment 3). This inhibitory odor was effective even when singly-housed males were placed in a no-odor environment following exposure to soiled bedding used by pair-housed males (Experiment 4). When singly-housed males were exposed to scent from subordinate males, they showed less marking than when the stimulus scent was from dominants or singly-housed males (Experiment 5). Scent marking was not influenced by the total amount of urine scent marks deposited on the substrates (Experiment 6), suggesting that it is a particular component in urinary odor rather than the magnitude of the odor, that plays a significant role in recipient behavior. Together, these experiments indicate that conspecific male odor signals modulate territorial scent marking behavior in mice. PMID:19616031

Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Keiko; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

2009-07-16

53

An intradermal inoculation model of scrub typhus in Swiss CD-1 mice demonstrates more rapid dissemination of virulent strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease of the Asia-Pacific region caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. To develop an effective vaccine to prevent scrub typhus infection, a better understanding of the initial host-pathogen interaction is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate early bacterial dissemination in a CD-1 Swiss outbred mouse model after intradermal injection of O. tsutsugamushi. Three human pathogenic strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Karp, Gilliam, and Woods) were chosen to investigate the early infection characteristics associated with bacterial virulence. Tissue biopsies of the intradermal injection site and draining lymph nodes were examined using histology and immunohistochemistry to characterize bacterial dissemination, and correlated with quantitative real-time PCR for O. tsutsugamushi in blood and tissue from major organs. Soluble adhesion molecules were measured to examine cellular activation in response to infection. No eschar formation was seen at the inoculation site and no clinical disease developed within the 7 day period of observation. However, O. tsutsugamushi was localized at the injection site and in the draining lymph nodes by day 7 post inoculation. Evidence of leukocyte and endothelial activation was present by day 7 with significantly raised levels of sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. Infection with the Karp strain was associated with earlier and higher bacterial loads and more extensive dissemination in various tissues than the less pathogenic Gilliam and Woods strains. The bacterial loads of O. tsutsugamushi were highest in the lungs and spleens of mice inoculated with Karp and Gilliam, but not Woods strains. Strains of higher virulence resulted in more rapid systemic infection and dissemination in this model. The CD-1 mouse intradermal inoculation model demonstrates features relevant to early scrub typhus infection in humans, including the development of regional lymphadenopathy, leukocyte activation and distant organ dissemination after low-dose intradermal injection with O. tsutsugamushi. PMID:23342173

Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Paris, Daniel H; Chan, Teik-Chye; Jones, Margaret; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Anantatat, Tippawan; Turner, Gareth D H; Day, Nicholas P J; Richards, Allen L

2013-01-16

54

Mice Lacking Expression of the Chemokines CCL21Ser and CCL19 ( plt Mice) Demonstrate Delayed but Enhanced T Cell Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paucity of lymph node T cells ( plt ) mutation leads to a loss of CCL21 and CCL19 expres- sion in secondary lymphoid organs. plt mice have defects in the migration of naive T cells and activated dendritic cells into the T cell zones of lymphoid organs, suggesting that they would have defects in T cell immune responses. We

Shigeyuki Mori; Hideki Nakano; Kentaro Aritomi; Chrong-Reen Wang; Michael D. Gunn; Terutaka Kakiuchi

55

Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes  

PubMed Central

The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2?-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h—with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)—following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 1012 neutrons per cm2 (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study.

Kueffer, Peter J.; Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Schuster, Seth A.; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Brockman, John D.; Nigg, David W.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

2013-01-01

56

Overexpression of ALS-associated p.M337V human TDP-43 in mice worsens disease features compared to wild-type human TDP-43 mice.  

PubMed

Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while wild-type TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark of patients with sporadic ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Various in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated toxicity of both mutant and wild-type TDP-43 to neuronal cells. To study the potential additional toxicity incurred by mutant TDP-43 in vivo, we generated mutant human TDP-43 (p.M337V) transgenic mouse lines driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter (Mt-TAR) and compared them in the same experimental setting to the disease phenotype observed in wild-type TDP-43 transgenic lines (Wt-TAR) expressing comparable TDP-43 levels. Overexpression of mutant TDP-43 leads to a worsened dose-dependent disease phenotype in terms of motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration, gliosis, and development of ubiquitin and phosphorylated TDP-43 pathology. Furthermore, we show that cellular aggregate formation or accumulation of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are not primarily responsible for development of the observed disease phenotype in both mutant and wild-type TDP-43 mice. PMID:23475610

Janssens, Jonathan; Wils, Hans; Kleinberger, Gernot; Joris, Geert; Cuijt, Ivy; Ceuterick-de Groote, Chantal; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

2013-03-10

57

IL10-deficient mice demonstrate multiple organ failure and increased mortality during Escherichia coli peritonitis despite an accelerated bacterial clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of endogenous IL-10 in local antibacterial host defense and in the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome during abdominal sepsis, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-102\\/2) and wild-type (IL-101\\/1) mice received an i.p. injection with Escherichia coli. Peritonitis was associated with a bacterial dose-dependent increase in IL-10 concentrations in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The recovery of E. coli

Miguel E. Sewnath; Dariusz P. Olszyna; Rakesh Birjmohun; Kate ten F. J. W; Dirk J. Gouma; Tom van der Poll

2001-01-01

58

Proteomic analysis of mice expressing human ApoE demonstrates no differences in global protein solubility between APOE 3 and APOE 4 young mice.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a major lipid carrier protein. In humans, ApoE is expressed in three polymorphic isoforms, which are encoded by three different alleles APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. In the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, each one of these three allelic isoforms is found in several "isoelectric" protein isoforms (qPI), i.e. protein isoforms resulting from PTMs altering the net charge (q) of the polypeptide. AD is a complex disease in which multiple causes and several risk factors affect the onset and disease outcome. A major risk factor for AD is ApoE4; therefore, it is important to characterize the different ApoE qPIs. We have implemented a detergent-based method for isolation and quantitation of protein isoforms, and we found differences in the solubility of protein isoforms depending on the type of solvent used. In this manuscript, we describe these methods and applied them to young human-ApoE targeted replacement mice. Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in the hippocampus proteome of these mice as a function of the APOE genotype. PMID:23161654

Londono, Carolina; DeKroon, Robert M; Mocanu, Mihaela; Booe, Jessica; Winnik, Witold M; Swank, Adam; Osorio, Cristina; Hamlett, Eric D; Alzate, Oscar

2012-12-01

59

Cognitive enhancement in aged mice after chronic administration of Cedrus deodara Loud. and Pinus roxburghii Sarg. with demonstrated antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii, plants mentioned in Indian literature, have been described to possess central nervous system effects and are used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat disorders of the mind. To investigate the memory-enhancing activity of volatile oil and chloroform extracts of C. deodara and P. roxburghii in the Morris water maze paradigm as well as evaluating their antioxidant properties. Aged albino mice were used to study the effect of oil and chloroform extracts on learning and memory by using the Morris water maze paradigm. The chloroform extract of C. deodara produced a significant decrease in escape latency over 7 days of training in both reference and working memory training in comparison to the control group. In the probe trial on day 8, mice in the chloroform extract of C. deodara group crossed the target area more often and spent more time in the target quadrant. Amongst the oils and extracts tested for oxidative stress parameters, only the chloroform extract of C. deodara at doses of 100 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) with a simultaneous significant increase in the level of glutathione (GSH) in both the frontal cortex and hippocampus. The present findings indicate that the chloroform extract of C. deodara has the best memory-enhancing effect due to its strong antioxidant properties from compounds like terpenoids and flavonoids. The study provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of C. deodara in the management of memory dysfunction and related disorders. PMID:23645071

Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Ahmad, Shamim; Mazumder, Avijit

2013-05-01

60

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

Gilbert, George L.

1982-01-01

61

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)|

Gilbert, George L.

1982-01-01

62

SMC-Specific IGF-1 Overexpression in Apoe?/? Mice Does Not Alter Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden but Increases Features of Plaque Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective Growth factors may play a permissive role in atherosclerosis initiation and progression, in part via their promotion of VSMC accumulation in plaques. However, unstable human plaques often have a relative paucity of VSMC which has been suggested to contribute to plaque rupture and/or erosion and to clinical events. IGF-1 is an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine growth factor that is a mitogen for VSMC, but when infused into Apoe?/? mice paradoxically reduces atherosclerosis burden. Methods & Results To determine the effect of stimulation of VSMC growth on atherosclerotic plaque development and to understand mechanisms of IGF-1’s atheroprotective effect we assessed atherosclerotic plaques in mice overexpressing IGF-1 in SMC under the control of the ?SMA promoter, after backcrossing to the Apoe?/? background (SMP8/Apoe?/?). When compared with Apoe?/? mice these SMP8/Apoe?/? mice developed comparable plaque burden after 12 wks on a Western diet, suggesting that the ability of increased circulating IGF-1 to reduce plaque burden was mediated in large part via non-SMC target cells. However, advanced plaques in SMP8/Apoe?/? mice displayed several features of plaque stability, including increased fibrous cap area, ?SMA positive SMC and collagen content and reduced necrotic cores. Conclusion These findings indicate that stimulation of VSMC IGF-1 signaling does not alter total atherosclerotic plaque burden and may improve atherosclerotic plaque stability.

Shai, Shaw-Yung; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Higashi, Yusuke; Vaughn, Charlotte; Kelly, James; Delafontaine, Patrice

2010-01-01

63

The natural history of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced myositis and myocarditis in mice. Viral persistence demonstrated by in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Picornaviruses can initiate chronic inflammation that persists after the virus can no longer be cultured from inflamed tissues. In an attempt to understand this transition we have sought evidence for viral persistence by methods that detect viral genome independent of whether or not whole competent virus is present. In mice infected with a myotropic variant of encephalomyocarditis virus, EMC-221A, virus can be cultured in high yield at 1 wk and in low yield at 2 wk from skeletal muscle, heart, and brain; a small number of plaque-forming units could be cultured from brain at 4 wk. By contrast, in situ hybridization detected viral nucleic acid at least a week or two thereafter, often in single cells. In the skeletal muscle, inflammation disappeared by 3 wk, but in heart it remained for the full 12 wk of observation. In the brain, microglial nodules, sometimes with associated viral nucleic acid, were present for a long period. Application of this technique allows a more accurate assessment of the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of virus-initiated but apparently autoimmune inflammation.

1988-01-01

64

Ectopic Expression of the Agouti Gene in Transgenic Mice Causes Obesity, Features of Type II Diabetes, and Yellow Fur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A^y) or viable yellow (Avy) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant \\

M. L. Klebig; J. E. Wilkinson; J. G. Geisler; R. P. Woychik

1995-01-01

65

Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant

M. L. Klebig; R. P. Woychik; J. E. Wilkinson; J. G. Geisler

1995-01-01

66

Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

Despite the eradication of smallpox, there is heightened concern that it could be reintroduced as a result of intentional release of Variola major virus through an act of bioterrorism. The live vaccine that was pivotal in the eradication of smallpox though considered a gold standard for its efficacy still retains sufficient residual virulence that can cause life-threatening sequelae especially in immune deficient individuals. Therefore, a safer smallpox vaccine that can match the efficacy of first generation vaccines is urgently needed. We previously reported that the integration of human IL-15 cytokine into the genome of Wyeth strain of vaccinia (Wyeth/IL-15), the same strain as the licensed vaccine, generates a vaccine with superior immunogenicity and efficacy in a mouse model. We now demonstrate that Wyeth/IL-15 is non-lethal to athymic nude mice when administered intravenously at a dose of 10(7) plaque forming units and it undergoes enhanced in vivo clearance in these immune deficient mice. Furthermore, a majority of cynomolgus monkeys vaccinated with vaccinia viruses with integrated IL-15, when challenged 3 years later with a lethal dose of monkeypox virus displayed milder clinical manifestations with complete recovery supporting the utility of Wyeth/IL-15 for contemporary populations as a safer and efficacious smallpox vaccine. PMID:20728526

Zielinski, Rafal J; Smedley, Jeremy V; Perera, Pin-Yu; Silvera, Peter M; Waldmann, Thomas A; Capala, Jacek; Perera, Liyanage P

2010-08-20

67

Cloning of monoclonal autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Demonstration of epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein in human plasma.  

PubMed Central

Many reactive products may be formed when LDL undergoes lipid peroxidation, which in turn can react with lipids, apoproteins, and proteins, generating immunogenic neoepitopes. Autoantibodies recognizing model epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein, such as malondialdehydelysine, occur in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of humans and animals. Because apo E-deficient mice develop particularly high titers of such autoantibodies, we used their spleens to clone 13 monoclonal antibodies to various epitopes of oxidized LDL ("E0 antibodies"). Binding and competitive RIAs demonstrated significant differences in fine specificity even between E0 antibodies initially selected for binding to the same screening antigen. For example, some E0 antibodies selected for binding to malondialdehyde-LDL also recognized copper oxidized LDL, acrolein-LDL, or LDL modified by arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products. Circulating IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to copper-oxidized LDL, 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL, acrolein-LDL, and LDL modified with arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products were found in apo E-deficient mice, suggesting that the respective antigens are formed in vivo. Epitopes recognized by some of the E0 monoclonal antibodies were also found on human circulating LDL. Each of the E0 monoclonal antibodies immunostained rabbit and human atherosclerotic lesions, and some of them yielded distinct staining patterns in advanced lesions. Together, this suggests that the natural monoclonal antibodies recognize different epitopes of complex structures formed during oxidation of lipoproteins, or epitopes formed independently at different lesion sites. Our data demonstrate that a profound immunological response to a large number of different epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins occurs in vivo. The availability of "natural" monoclonal autoantibodies should facilitate the identification of specific epitopes inducing this response.

Palinski, W; Horkko, S; Miller, E; Steinbrecher, U P; Powell, H C; Curtiss, L K; Witztum, J L

1996-01-01

68

Studies on visceral Leishmania tropica infection in BALB/c mice. I. Clinical features and cellular changes.  

PubMed Central

The visceral and lethal infection produced in BALB/c mice by Leishmania tropica (major) is accompanied by splenomegaly, anaemia and reversal of albumin-to-globulin ratio. The percentages of both B and T cells are decreased in the spleen. The spleen and lymph nodes become populated with large Ig-, Thy 1.2- 'null' cells. The similarity of some of these parameters with those produced in human kala-azar is discussed. Images Fig. 1

Djoko-Tamnou, J; Leclerc, C; Modabber, F; Chedid, L

1981-01-01

69

Mineralizing enthesopathy is a common feature of renal phosphate-wasting disorders attributed to FGF23 and is exacerbated by standard therapy in hyp mice.  

PubMed

We have previously confirmed a paradoxical mineralizing enthesopathy as a hallmark of X-linked hypophosphatemia. X-linked hypophosphatemia is the most common of the phosphate-wasting disorders mediated by elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and occurs as a consequence of inactivating mutations of the PHEX gene product. Despite childhood management of the disease, these complications of tendon and ligament insertion sites account for a great deal of the disease's morbidity into adulthood. It is unclear whether the enthesopathy occurs in other forms of renal phosphate-wasting disorders attributable to high FGF23 levels. Here we describe two patients with autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets due to the Met1Val mutation in dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1). In addition to the biochemical and skeletal features of long-standing rickets with elevated FGF23 levels, these individuals exhibited severe, debilitating, generalized mineralized enthesopathy. These data suggest that enthesophytes are a feature common to FGF23-mediated phosphate-wasting disorders. To address this possibility, we examined a murine model of FGF23 overexpression using a transgene encoding the secreted form of human FGF23 (R176Q) cDNA (FGF23-TG mice). We report that FGF23-TG mice display a similar mineralizing enthesopathy of the Achilles and plantar facial insertions. In addition, we examined the impact of standard therapy for phosphate-wasting disorders on enthesophyte progression. We report that fibrochondrocyte hyperplasia persisted in Hyp mice treated with oral phosphate and calcitriol. In addition, treatment had the untoward effect of further exacerbating the mineralization of fibrochondrocytes that define the bone spur of the Achilles insertion. These studies support the need for newer interventions targeted at limiting the actions of FGF23 and minimizing both the toxicities and potential morbidities associated with standard therapy. PMID:23038738

Karaplis, Andrew C; Bai, Xiuying; Falet, Jean-Pierre; Macica, Carolyn M

2012-10-04

70

Implantable stimulator featuring multiple programs, adjustable stimulation amplitude and bi-directional communication for implantation in mice.  

PubMed

We describe an implantable stimulator with adjustable output amplitude and bi-directional communication at a size of approximately 1 cm(3). The user selects from preset patterns of stimulation and adjusts the stimulation amplitude by sending coded flashes of light, and receives active confirmation of the chosen settings via a powerful LED in the device. These characteristics allow selectivity of motor nerve stimulation and minimize unwanted excitation of adjacent structures. For example, stimulation of dorsiflexors can be achieved in mice without stimulation of plantarflexors. The device can deliver constant frequency stimulation as well as burst-like stimulation patterns with adjustable ON/OFF times. A lifetime of at least 4 weeks of stimulation at an average frequency of 40 Hz can be achieved. The device was built from standard surface mount components and encapsulated with biocompatible silicone rubber. The use of modern microelectronics allowed us to develop a versatile and highly customizable miniature stimulator. PMID:17541669

Russold, Michael; Jarvis, Jonathan C

2007-06-01

71

Lipidomic profiling of phosphocholine-containing brain lipids in mice with sensorimotor deficits and anxiety-like features after exposure to Gulf War agents.  

PubMed

The central nervous system (CNS)-based symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) include motor dysfunction, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB), permethrin (PER), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and stress, are among the contributory factors to the pathobiology of GWI. This study characterizes disturbances in phosphocholine-containing lipids that accompany neurobehavioral and neuropathological features associated with GW agent exposure. Exposed mice received PB orally, dermal application of PER and DEET and restraint stress daily for 28 days, while controls received vehicle during this period. Neurobehavioral studies included the rotarod, open field, and Morris water maze tests. Histopathological assessments included glial fibrillary acid protein, CD45, and Nissl staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with source collision-induced dissociation in negative and positive ionization scanning modes was performed to characterize brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM). A significant increase in ether containing PC (ePC34:0, ePC36:2, and ePC36:1) or long-chain fatty acid-containing PC (38:1, 40:4, 40:2) was observed in exposed mice compared with controls. Among differentially expressed PCs, levels of those with monounsaturated fatty acids were more affected than those with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sensorimotor deficits and anxiety, together with an increase in astrocytosis, were observed in exposed mice compared with controls. These lipid changes suggest that alterations in peroxisomal pathways and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity accompany neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes after GW agent exposure and represent possible treatment targets for the CNS symptoms of GWI. PMID:22798222

Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Bishop, Alex; Reed, Jon M; Crynen, Gogce; Phillips, John; Pelot, Robert; Mullan, Myles A; Ferro, Austin; Mullan, Christopher M; Mullan, Michael J; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona C

2012-07-14

72

Relapse of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in C57BL\\/6J mice demonstrated by a reinstatement procedure involving intravenous self-administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an urgent need to develop a reliable mouse model of relapse to address the genetic factors involved in susceptibility to relapse of drug-seeking behavior by using mutant mice. This paper presents a feasible way to reinstate extinguished methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior. Male C57BL\\/6J mice acquired stable nose-poking responses for taking METH after approximately 10 daily 3-h sessions of METH

Yijin Yan; Atsumi Nitta; Hiroyuki Mizoguchi; Kiyofumi Yamada; Toshitaka Nabeshima

2006-01-01

73

Role of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in the host response to Salmonella infection as demonstrated in T-cell-receptor-deficient mice of defined Ity genotypes.  

PubMed

Salmonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria which enter the body through the intestinal tract. We studied the roles of T cells expressing either the alpha and beta chains or the gamma and delta chains of the T-cell receptor (alphabeta T cells or gammadelta T cells, respectively) in the host defense against Salmonella using mice genetically deficient in either alphabeta T cells, gammadelta T cells, or both T-cell subsets. These mutant strains of mice were infected orally or intraperitoneally with Salmonella dublin, and the progression of the disease was monitored by determining bacterial numbers in the feces, gut wall, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Since susceptibility to Salmonella infection in mice is strongly affected by the alleles at the Ity locus, T-cell-mutant mice with either the Ity-sensitive or Ity-resistant phenotype were tested for resistance to S. dublin infection. We found that even though large numbers of intraepithelial and mucosal alphabeta and gammadelta T cells populate the normal intestine, they have no role in controlling the invasion of S. dublin into the intestine or the subsequent bacterial replication in the Peyer's patches or gut wall. Furthermore, systemic infections were equally severe for the first 6 days in normal, alphabeta T-cell-deficient, and gammadelta T-cell-deficient mice, and alphabeta but not gammadelta T cells were required for clearance of S. dublin, regardless of the Ity phenotype. However, mice that lacked both T-cell subsets had higher bacterial counts in their livers 15 to 18 days after infection than did alphabeta T-cell-deficient mice, suggesting that gammadelta T cells can contribute to acquired immunity to S. dublin. PMID:9169768

Weintraub, B C; Eckmann, L; Okamoto, S; Hense, M; Hedrick, S M; Fierer, J

1997-06-01

74

Alterations in size, number, and morphology of gustatory papillae and taste buds in BDNF null mutant mice demonstrate neural dependence of developing taste organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory ganglia that innervate taste buds and gustatory papillae (geniculate and petrosal) are reduced in volume by about 40% in mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, the trigeminal ganglion, which innervates papillae but not taste buds on the anterior tongue, is reduced by only about 18%. These specific alterations in ganglia

Charlotte M. Mistretta; Ki A. Goosens; Isabel Farinas; Louis F. Reichardt

1999-01-01

75

One Percent Tenofovir Applied Topically to Humanized BLT Mice and Used According to the CAPRISA 004 Experimental Design Demonstrates Partial Protection from Vaginal HIV Infection, Validating the BLT Model for Evaluation of New Microbicide Candidates?  

PubMed Central

Recent iPrEx clinical trial results provided evidence that systemic preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) can partially prevent rectal HIV transmission in humans. Similarly, we have previously demonstrated that systemic administration of the same FTC-TDF combination efficiently prevented rectal transmission in humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice. The CAPRISA 004 trial recently demonstrated that topical application of the tenofovir could partially prevent vaginal HIV-1 transmission in humans. To further validate the usefulness of the BLT mouse model for testing HIV prevention strategies, we evaluated the topical administration of tenofovir as used in CAPRISA 004 to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in BLT mice. Our results demonstrate that vaginally administered 1% tenofovir significantly reduced HIV transmission in BLT mice (P = 0.002). Together with the results obtained after systemic antiretroviral PrEP, these topical inhibitor data serve to validate the use of humanized BLT mice to evaluate both systemic and topical inhibitors of HIV transmission. Based on these observations, we tested six additional microbicide candidates for their ability to prevent vaginal HIV transmission: a C-peptide fusion inhibitor (C52L), a membrane-disrupting amphipathic peptide inhibitor (C5A), a trimeric d-peptide fusion inhibitor (PIE12-Trimer), a combination of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (FTC-TDF), a thioester zinc finger inhibitor (TC247), and a small-molecule Rac inhibitor (NSC23766). No protection was seen with the Rac inhibitor NSC23766. The thioester compound TC247 offered partial protection. Significant protection was afforded by FTC-TDF, and complete protection was offered by three different peptide inhibitors tested. Our results demonstrate that these effective topical inhibitors have excellent potential to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in humans.

Denton, Paul W.; Othieno, Florence; Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Zou, Wei; Krisko, John F.; Fleming, Elisa; Zein, Sima; Powell, Daniel A.; Wahl, Angela; Kwak, Youn Tae; Welch, Brett D.; Kay, Michael S.; Payne, Deborah A.; Gallay, Philippe; Appella, Ettore; Estes, Jacob D.; Lu, Min; Garcia, J. Victor

2011-01-01

76

Increased locomotor activity induced by heroin in mice: pharmacokinetic demonstration of heroin acting as a prodrug for the mediator 6-monoacetylmorphine in vivo.  

PubMed

We investigated the relative importance of heroin and its metabolites in eliciting a behavioral response in mice by studying the relationship between concentrations of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM), and morphine in brain tissue and the effects on locomotor activity. Low doses (subcutaneous) of heroin (< or =5 micromol/kg) or 6MAM (< or =15 micromol/kg) made the mice run significantly more than mice given equimolar doses of morphine. There were no differences in the response between heroin and 6MAM, although we observed a shift to the left of the dose-response curve for the maximal response of heroin. The behavioral responses were abolished by pretreatment with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. Heroin was detected in brain tissue after injection, but the levels were low and its presence too short-lived to be responsible for the behavioral response observed. The concentration of 6MAM in brain tissue increased shortly after administration of both heroin and 6MAM and the concentration changes during the first hour roughly reflected the changes in locomotor activity. Both the maximal and the total concentration of 6MAM were higher after administration of heroin than after administration of 6MAM itself. The morphine concentration increased slowly after injection and could not explain the immediate behavioral response. In summary, the locomotor activity response after injection of heroin was mediated by 6MAM, which increased shortly after administration. Heroin acted as an effective prodrug. The concentration of morphine was too low to stimulate the immediate response observed but might have an effect on the later part of the heroin-induced behavioral response curve. PMID:19541908

Andersen, Jannike Mřrch; Ripel, Ase; Boix, Fernando; Normann, Per Trygve; Mřrland, Jřrg

2009-06-18

77

A novel B-domain O-glycoPEGylated FVIII (N8-GP) demonstrates full efficacy and prolonged effect in hemophilic mice models  

PubMed Central

Frequent infusions of intravenous factor VIII (FVIII) are required to prevent bleeding associated with hemophilia A. To reduce the treatment burden, recombinant FVIII with a longer half-life was developed without changing the protein structure. FVIII–polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates were prepared using an enzymatic process coupling PEG (ranging from 10 to 80 kDa) selectively to a unique O-linked glycan in the FVIII B-domain. Binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF) was maintained for all conjugates. Upon cleavage by thrombin, the B-domain and the associated PEG were released, generating activated FVIII (FVIIIa) with the same primary structure and specific activity as native FVIIIa. In both FVIII- and VWF-deficient mice, the half-life was found to increase with the size of PEG. In vivo potency and efficacy of FVIII conjugated with a 40-kDa PEG (N8-GP) and unmodified FVIII were not different. N8-GP had a longer duration of effect in FVIII-deficient mouse models, approximately a twofold prolonged half-life in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus monkeys; however, the prolongation was less pronounced in rats. Binding capacity of N8-GP on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was reduced compared with unmodified FVIII, resulting in several-fold reduced cellular uptake. In conclusion, N8-GP has the potential to offer efficacious prevention and treatment of bleeds in hemophilia A at reduced dosing frequency.

Kjalke, Marianne; Karpf, Ditte M.; Balling, Kristoffer W.; Johansen, Peter B.; Elm, Torben; ?vlisen, Kristine; Moller, Flemming; Holmberg, Heidi L.; Gudme, Charlotte N.; Persson, Egon; Hilden, Ida; Pelzer, Hermann; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Jespersgaard, Christina; Bogsnes, Are; Pedersen, Anette A.; Kristensen, Anne K.; Peschke, Bernd; Kappers, Wendy; Rode, Frederik; Thim, Lars; Tranholm, Mikael; Ezban, Mirella; Olsen, Eva H. N.; Bj?rn, S?ren E.

2013-01-01

78

A novel B-domain O-glycoPEGylated FVIII (N8-GP) demonstrates full efficacy and prolonged effect in hemophilic mice models.  

PubMed

Frequent infusions of intravenous factor VIII (FVIII) are required to prevent bleeding associated with hemophilia A. To reduce the treatment burden, recombinant FVIII with a longer half-life was developed without changing the protein structure. FVIII-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates were prepared using an enzymatic process coupling PEG (ranging from 10 to 80 kDa) selectively to a unique O-linked glycan in the FVIII B-domain. Binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF) was maintained for all conjugates. Upon cleavage by thrombin, the B-domain and the associated PEG were released, generating activated FVIII (FVIIIa) with the same primary structure and specific activity as native FVIIIa. In both FVIII- and VWF-deficient mice, the half-life was found to increase with the size of PEG. In vivo potency and efficacy of FVIII conjugated with a 40-kDa PEG (N8-GP) and unmodified FVIII were not different. N8-GP had a longer duration of effect in FVIII-deficient mouse models, approximately a twofold prolonged half-life in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus monkeys; however, the prolongation was less pronounced in rats. Binding capacity of N8-GP on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was reduced compared with unmodified FVIII, resulting in several-fold reduced cellular uptake. In conclusion, N8-GP has the potential to offer efficacious prevention and treatment of bleeds in hemophilia A at reduced dosing frequency. PMID:23335368

Stennicke, Henning R; Kjalke, Marianne; Karpf, Ditte M; Balling, Kristoffer W; Johansen, Peter B; Elm, Torben; Řvlisen, Kristine; Möller, Flemming; Holmberg, Heidi L; Gudme, Charlotte N; Persson, Egon; Hilden, Ida; Pelzer, Hermann; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Jespersgaard, Christina; Bogsnes, Are; Pedersen, Anette A; Kristensen, Anne K; Peschke, Bernd; Kappers, Wendy; Rode, Frederik; Thim, Lars; Tranholm, Mikael; Ezban, Mirella; Olsen, Eva H N; Bjřrn, Sřren E

2013-01-18

79

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

80

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

81

Two unhealthy dietary habits featuring a high fat content and a sucrose-containing beverage intake, alone or in combination, on inducing metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats and C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish animal models with diet-induced metabolic disorders similar to human metabolic syndrome, 2 unhealthy dietary habits featuring a high fat content and a sucrose-containing beverage intake, alone or in combination, were tested on Wistar rats and C57BL\\/6J mice. The 2 dietary habits were, respectively, simulated by feeding a high-fat diet (regimen A) or additionally providing 30% sucrose (wt\\/vol) in

Gou-Chun Chen; Chun-Yin Huang; Mei-Yu Chang; Chi-Hua Chen; Shiow-Wen Chen; Ching-jang Huang; Pei-Min Chao

2011-01-01

82

Analysis by single-gene reassortment demonstrates that the 1918 influenza virus is functionally compatible with a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in mice.  

PubMed

The 1918-1919 "Spanish" influenza pandemic is estimated to have caused 50 million deaths worldwide. Understanding the origin, virulence, and pathogenic properties of past pandemic influenza viruses, including the 1918 virus, is crucial for current public health preparedness and future pandemic planning. The origin of the 1918 pandemic virus has not been resolved, but its coding sequences are very like those of avian influenza virus. The proteins encoded by the 1918 virus differ from typical low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses at only a small number of amino acids in each open reading frame. In this study, a series of chimeric 1918 influenza viruses were created in which each of the eight 1918 pandemic virus gene segments was replaced individually with the corresponding gene segment of a prototypical low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H1N1 virus in order to investigate functional compatibility of the 1918 virus genome with gene segments from an LPAI virus and to identify gene segments and mutations important for mammalian adaptation. This set of eight "7:1" chimeric viruses was compared to the parental 1918 and LPAI H1N1 viruses in intranasally infected mice. Seven of the 1918 LPAI 7:1 chimeric viruses replicated and caused disease equivalent to the fully reconstructed 1918 virus. Only the chimeric 1918 virus containing the avian influenza PB2 gene segment was attenuated in mice. This attenuation could be corrected by the single E627K amino acid change, further confirming the importance of this change in mammalian adaptation and mouse pathogenicity. While the mechanisms of influenza virus host switch, and particularly mammalian host adaptation are still only partly understood, these data suggest that the 1918 virus, whatever its origin, is very similar to avian influenza virus. PMID:22718825

Qi, Li; Davis, A Sally; Jagger, Brett W; Schwartzman, Louis M; Dunham, Eleca J; Kash, John C; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

2012-06-20

83

Analysis by Single-Gene Reassortment Demonstrates that the 1918 Influenza Virus Is Functionally Compatible with a Low-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus in Mice  

PubMed Central

The 1918-1919 “Spanish” influenza pandemic is estimated to have caused 50 million deaths worldwide. Understanding the origin, virulence, and pathogenic properties of past pandemic influenza viruses, including the 1918 virus, is crucial for current public health preparedness and future pandemic planning. The origin of the 1918 pandemic virus has not been resolved, but its coding sequences are very like those of avian influenza virus. The proteins encoded by the 1918 virus differ from typical low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses at only a small number of amino acids in each open reading frame. In this study, a series of chimeric 1918 influenza viruses were created in which each of the eight 1918 pandemic virus gene segments was replaced individually with the corresponding gene segment of a prototypical low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H1N1 virus in order to investigate functional compatibility of the 1918 virus genome with gene segments from an LPAI virus and to identify gene segments and mutations important for mammalian adaptation. This set of eight “7:1” chimeric viruses was compared to the parental 1918 and LPAI H1N1 viruses in intranasally infected mice. Seven of the 1918 LPAI 7:1 chimeric viruses replicated and caused disease equivalent to the fully reconstructed 1918 virus. Only the chimeric 1918 virus containing the avian influenza PB2 gene segment was attenuated in mice. This attenuation could be corrected by the single E627K amino acid change, further confirming the importance of this change in mammalian adaptation and mouse pathogenicity. While the mechanisms of influenza virus host switch, and particularly mammalian host adaptation are still only partly understood, these data suggest that the 1918 virus, whatever its origin, is very similar to avian influenza virus.

Qi, Li; Davis, A. Sally; Jagger, Brett W.; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Kash, John C.

2012-01-01

84

Humanized Mice Recapitulate Key Features of HIV-1 Infection: A Novel Concept Using Long-Acting Anti-Retroviral Drugs for Treating HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Background Humanized mice generate a lymphoid system of human origin subsequent to transplantation of human CD34+ cells and thus are highly susceptible to HIV infection. Here we examined the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment (ART) when added to food pellets, and of long-acting (LA) antiretroviral compounds, either as monotherapy or in combination. These studies shall be inspiring for establishing a gold standard of ART, which is easy to administer and well supported by the mice, and for subsequent studies such as latency. Furthermore, they should disclose whether viral breakthrough and emergence of resistance occurs similar as in HIV-infected patients when ART is insufficient. Methods/Principal Findings NOD/shi-scid/?cnull (NOG) mice were used in all experimentations. We first performed pharmacokinetic studies of the drugs used, either added to food pellets (AZT, TDF, 3TC, RTV) or in a LA formulation that permitted once weekly subcutaneous administration (TMC278: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, TMC181: protease inhibitor). A combination of 3TC, TDF and TMC278-LA or 3TC, TDF, TMC278-LA and TMC181-LA suppressed the viral load to undetectable levels in 15/19 (79%) and 14/14 (100%) mice, respectively. In successfully treated mice, subsequent monotherapy with TMC278-LA resulted in viral breakthrough; in contrast, the two LA compounds together prevented viral breakthrough. Resistance mutations matched the mutations most commonly observed in HIV patients failing therapy. Importantly, viral rebound after interruption of ART, presence of HIV DNA in successfully treated mice and in vitro reactivation of early HIV transcripts point to an existing latent HIV reservoir. Conclusions/Significance This report is a unique description of multiple aspects of HIV infection in humanized mice that comprised efficacy testing of various treatment regimens, including LA compounds, resistance mutation analysis as well as viral rebound after treatment interruption. Humanized mice will be highly valuable for exploring the antiviral potency of new compounds or compounds targeting the latent HIV reservoir.

Nischang, Marc; Sutmuller, Roger; Gers-Huber, Gustavo; Audige, Annette; Li, Duo; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Baenziger, Stefan; Hofer, Ursula; Schlaepfer, Erika; Regenass, Stephan; Amssoms, Katie; Stoops, Bart; Van Cauwenberge, Anja; Boden, Daniel; Kraus, Guenter; Speck, Roberto F.

2012-01-01

85

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

86

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

87

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1982-01-01

88

Reflectance Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

Kowalski, Frank

1993-01-01

89

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

90

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

91

Tested Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1977-01-01

92

Demonstration of cathepsins B, H and L in xenografts of normal and Duchenne-muscular-dystrophy muscles transplanted into nude mice.  

PubMed Central

The activities and contents of the lysosomal cysteine proteinases cathepsins B, H and L were examined in xenografts of biopsied muscles transplanted from age-matched normal subjects and Duchenne-muscular-dystrophy (DMD) patients into nude mice. The activity of cathepsin B increased 9-fold and that of B-plus-L increased 24-fold in the first week after transplantation in normal muscle xenografts. By the third week, the activity of cathepsin B increased a total of 20-fold and B-plus-L increased to 36-fold the original level. The activity levels of cathepsin B, B-plus-L, H and D, and acid phosphatase in normal and DMD xenografts were not significantly different when compared 2 weeks after transplantation. However, the protein content of cathepsin B in DMD muscle xenografts was more than 3-fold that of normal xenografts at 2 weeks. The profile of cathepsin H activity in normal muscle xenografts was different than those of cathepsins B and B-plus-L. In the first week, the cathepsin H diminished sharply to about one-third of the biopsied muscle level and then, by 3 weeks after transplantation, it had increased slightly to about half the original level. The amount of endogenous cysteine-proteinase inhibitor changed in parallel with the activity of cathepsins B and B-plus-L. Cathepsins B and H, but not cathepsin L, were found immunohistochemically in regenerating muscle fibres of normal and DMD xenografts 2 weeks after transplantation. Staining of cathepsin B in DMD xenografts was slightly stronger than that in normal subjects. There was no immunostaining in degenerating or necrotic muscle fibres 2 weeks after transplantation. Western-blot analysis revealed that the cathepsin B band at 29 kDa was increased in normal xenografts 2 and 3 weeks after transplantation. Also, 2 weeks after transplantation the staining intensity of this band was slightly stronger in DMD xenografts than in normal xenografts. These results suggest that cathepsin B participates in the regeneration of transplanted muscle, both normal and DMD, and in the DMD muscle fibre-wasting processes, during regeneration. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

Takeda, A; Jimi, T; Wakayama, Y; Misugi, N; Miyake, S; Kumagai, T

1992-01-01

93

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

94

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

95

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

96

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1978-01-01

97

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

98

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1989-01-01

99

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

100

Demonstrating Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)|

Foy, Barry G.

1977-01-01

101

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

102

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1986-01-01

103

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1986-01-01

104

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

105

[Features of behavioral reactions of chronically irradiated mice in the raised crosswise labyrinth with various genetically determined radiosensitivity and possibilities of their modification by the fungal biopolymer complex].  

PubMed

Structural elements of the central nervous system--neurons, along with the higher neuroendocrine structures and the hypothalamus centres, show high sensitivity to a chronic action of low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) in view of their extreme enrichment by phospholipids and intensive supply by oxygen, creating favorable conditions for the development of oxidizing stress. Stressful influences cause negative emotions in the behaviour of animals manifested as fear or uneasiness. The study represents the results of comparative research into the behavioral reactions characterized by uneasiness in the Balb/c and C57bl/6 mice exposed to a chronic irradiation at low doses. The chitin-melanin-glucan complex from fungi Fomes fomentarius (ChMG) was approved as an adaptive agent. It has been shown that under identical conditions, deposition levels of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr are raised in mice with IR hypersensitivity--line Balb/c, in comparison with less radio sensitive mice--line C57bl/6. Simultaneously, Balb/c mice were observed to exhibit the signs of a more anxious behaviour in the new environment. Chronic external and internal radiation exposure to rare ionizing radiation at low doses promotes strengthening of anxiety and phobic reactions in mice with IR hypersensitivity. The use of ChMG in animals neutralized the increase in anxiety and phobic reactions after a prolonged irradiation, thus indicating the presence in ChMG of the anxiolitic activity along with the above mentioned powerful radiosorbent, antioxidant, gene protective and immunomodulatory properties. PMID:23786031

Seniuk, O F; Gorovo?, L F; Kovalev, V A; Palamar, L A; Krul', N I; Zhidkov, A V; Chemerski?, G F; Kireev, S I; Khatuntseva, I V

106

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

107

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

108

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1979-01-01

109

Interactive Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains general astronomy and astrophysical simulations. Lunar phases, coordinate conversion, Planck spectrum, energy levels, Kepler's laws, and the evolution of a star cluster are demonstrations under the general astronomy section. Astrophysical demonstrations include: effective potential and integrated motion, planet stability in a binary star systems, a disk galaxy, stellar models and spectra, and nuclear isotope stability.

Tomley, Les

2004-07-13

110

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1980-01-01

111

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1986-01-01

112

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

113

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

114

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1990-01-01

115

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1982-01-01

116

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1979-01-01

117

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1986-01-01

118

Physics Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of in-depth physics demonstrations with instructions for doing it yourself, videos that let you see how it's done, and suggestions for developing some of the demos into experiments. The demonstrations were developed and tested by The Science House, the mathematics and science learning outreach project of North Carolina State University.

119

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1982-01-01

120

Online feature selection with streaming features.  

PubMed

We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms. PMID:23520258

Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

2013-05-01

121

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)|

Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

1988-01-01

122

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1988-01-01

123

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

Gilbert, George L.

1990-01-01

124

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

Roffia, Sergio; And Others

1988-01-01

125

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two demonstrations suitable for chemistry instruction. One involves fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface and the other deals with molecular weights and music. (TW)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

126

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)|

Roffia, Sergio; And Others

1988-01-01

127

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1980-01-01

128

Tested Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1977-01-01

129

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

130

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1984-01-01

131

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

Gilbert, George L.

1983-01-01

132

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1984-01-01

133

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

134

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1987-01-01

135

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1985-01-01

136

Tested Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1976-01-01

137

Tested Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1981-01-01

138

Fibroblasts derived from Gpx1 knockout mice display senescent-like features and are susceptible to H 2O 2-mediated cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Free Radical Theory of Aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathophysiology of aging. Our previous data highlight the importance of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), in regulating this process. Previously, we demonstrated that a perturbation in the Sod1-to-Gpx1 ratio, as a consequence of Sod1 overexpression, leads to senescence-like changes.

Judy B de Haan; Cecile Bladier; Mehrnoush Lotfi-Miri; Juliet Taylor; Paul Hutchinson; Peter J Crack; Paul Hertzog; Ismail Kola

2004-01-01

139

Long-Term Characterization of Retinal Degeneration in rd1 and rd10 Mice Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We characterize the in vivo changes over time in the retinal structure of wild-type mice alongside two lines of mice deficient in the ?-subunit of phosphodiesterase (rd1 and rd10 mice) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. SD-OCT images were obtained using the Bioptigen spectral domain ophthalmic imaging system (SDOIS). Wild-type C57BL/6J, rd1 and rd10 mice ranging in age from P14 to P206 were sedated with 1% isoflurane. Horizontal and vertical linear scans through the optic nerve, and annular scans around the optic nerve were obtained. Results. SD-OCT imaging of wild-type mice demonstrated visibility of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction, external limiting membrane (ELM), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL). At P14, most rd10 mice exhibited normal SD-OCT profiles, but some displayed changes in the IS/OS junction. At the same time point, rd1 mice had severe outer retinal degeneration. In rd10 mice, imaging revealed loss of the IS/OS junction by P18, hyperreflective changes in the ONL at P20, hyperreflective vitreous opacities, and shallow separation of the neural retina from the RPE. Retinal separations were not observed in rd1 mice. Segmentation analysis in wild-type mice demonstrated relatively little variability between animals, while in rd10 and rd1 mice there was a steady decline in outer retinal thickness. Histologic studies demonstrated correlation of retinal features with those seen on SD-OCT scans. Segmentation analysis provides a quantitative and reproducible method for measuring in vivo retinal changes in mice. Conclusions. SD-OCT provides a non-invasive method of following long-term retinal changes in mice in vivo. Although rd10 and rd1 mice have mutations in the same gene, they demonstrate significantly different features on SD-OCT.

Pennesi, Mark E.; Michaels, Keith V.; Magee, Sienna S.; Maricle, Anastasiya; Davin, Sean P.; Garg, Anupam K.; Gale, Michael J.; Tu, Daniel C.; Wen, Yuquan; Erker, Laura R.; Francis, Peter J.

2012-01-01

140

Featuring familiarity: how a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that a familiar looking feature can influence categorization through 2 different routes, depending on whether a person is reliant on abstract feature representations or on concrete feature representations. In 2 experiments, trained participants categorized new category members in a 3-step procedure: Participants made an initial categorization, described the rule-consistent features indicated by the experimenter, and then recategorized the item. Critical was what happened on the second categorization after participants initially categorized an item based on a familiar, but misleading, feature. Participants who were reliant on abstract features most commonly reversed themselves after the rule-consistent features were pointed out, suggesting that the familiar feature had biased attention. Participants who were reliant on concrete feature representations, however, most commonly persisted with the initial response as if the familiar feature were more important than its rivals-the familiar feature biased decision making. PMID:20025385

Hannah, Samuel D; Brooks, Lee R

2009-12-01

141

Web Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Features, presented by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), is a collection of online resources for consumers about public opinion data. An economic snapshot, updated weekly, provides graphs and charts to highlight an economic issue, and this site also includes a selection of opinions from the EPI staff and their analysis of current economic data written in layperson's terms.

142

Sporadic colon cancer murine models demonstrate the value of autoantibody detection for preclinical cancer diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Although autoantibody detection has been proposed for diagnosis of colorectal cancer, little is known about their initial production and development correlation with cancer progression. Azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-treated mice developed colon adenocarcinoma in the distal colon similar to human sporadic colon cancer. We assessed this model together with AOM and DSS-only models for their applicability to early detection of cancer. All AOM/DSS-treated mice produced autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens analogous to those observed in human colon cancer patients. Autoantibody response was related to tumor antigen overexpression. Cancer autoantibodies were detected 21 days after starting treatment, when no malignant histopathological features were detectable, and they increased according to tumor progression. When carcinogenesis was induced separately by AOM or DSS, only those mice that developed malignant lesions produced significant levels of autoantibodies. These findings demonstrate that autoantibody development is an early event in tumorigenesis and validates its use for preclinical colon cancer diagnosis.

Barderas, Rodrigo; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Fernandez-Acenero, Maria Jesus; Babel, Ingrid; Pelaez-Garcia, Alberto; Torres, Sofia; Casal, J. Ignacio

2013-01-01

143

A Method of Separating the Lymph-Node Cells, of C57 BL Mice Allergized with BP8 Ascites Tumour, into Two Fractions with a Fast and Slow Electrophoretic Mobility: Demonstration that only the "Fast LNC" will Protect C3H Mice Against Challenge with the Tumour  

PubMed Central

Lymph-node cells (LNC) from C57 Bl mice, allergized with BP8 ascites tumour, were separated in vitro into 2 populations on the basis of the charge on their plasma membranes. The population with a lower electrophoretic mobility (“slow LNC”) were agglutinated at zero zeta potential by a critical dose of poly-l-lysine leaving the “fast LNC” in suspension. Only the “fast LNC” protected C3H mice against fatal challenge with BP8 tumour in vivo.

Thomas, Catherine B.; Cater, D. B.

1972-01-01

144

Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people will never see the eruption of an active volcano. Even so, evidence of these dramatic displays can be found all over the world. In fact, more can be learned about some aspects of volcanic activity by exploring evidence left by past eruptions than by watching an eruption in progress. This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explores a variety of volcanic landforms and features, and describes how they form.

2010-10-25

145

General features  

SciTech Connect

The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

Wallace, R.E.

1990-01-01

146

Favorite Demonstration: An Illuminating Catalysis Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The catalase demonstration presented here is a variation of a traditional experiment that is normally run to demonstrate enzyme activity in basic undergraduate biology classes. It is one of the easiest laboratory activities to demonstrate organic catalysis. The setup involves minimum preparation and inexpensive materials (Mader 1995).

Hoots, Rita

2004-02-01

147

Freeze-fracture studies of myofiber plasma membrane in X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the muscle plasma membrane of extensor digitorum longus muscles of X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mice was studied by freeze-fracture technique at several time points after birth. The common denominator of the abnormalities was the decreased density of orthogonal arrays throughout all the time points examined. The results demonstrated that the ultrastructural features of the muscle plasma

S. Shibuya; Y. Wakayama

1988-01-01

148

North Carolina State Physics Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lecture Demonstrations Facility is part of the physics department at North Carolina State University, and is tasked with supporting the teaching activities of the department's faculty and graduate students. This website features a number of online demonstrations that can be used by outside parties, who can click on the Visitor Access area to view some of these great videos. The demonstrations are divided into nine areas, including Optics, Modern Physics, and Waves and Oscillations. Each of these areas contains subtopics that will help users identify the specific subject of the demonstration, such as heat transfer applications or phase changes. Moving on, the Other Resources area includes online demonstration manuals from dozens of other schools, including Columbia University, Carnegie Mellon, and Macalester College.

2012-05-18

149

Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)|

Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

2003-01-01

150

Special Feature: Quantum Measurement Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special feature is intended to present a comprehensive review of the present state and novel trends in the field of quantum measurement standards. Most of the present metrological research is concentrated on establishing and strengthening the links between the units and fundamental constants. This will be demonstrated in the nine articles in this feature.The first four articles are devoted

Erich Braun

2003-01-01

151

Favorite Demonstration: Demonstrating a Thermodynamics Fountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cryogenic materials, mainly liquefied and solidified gases, are probably the most fascinating materials to use for demonstrating chemical reactions to introductory college students. A popular series of articles (Blachley 1997; Coppola et al. 1994; Haub 20

Micic, Miodrag; Leblanc, Roger M.

2002-05-01

152

Vemurafenib induces senescence features in melanoma cells.  

PubMed

A large proportion of human melanomas harbor a mutation leading to permanent activation of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF, and as a consequence, they have developed dependence on BRAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Accordingly, BRAF inhibitors such as Vemurafenib show a good anti-tumorigenic effect on metastases with the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Although an initial period of sustained tumor regression is usually observed after Vemurafenib treatment, tumors often relapse at the same site, and apoptosis induction of melanoma cells in vitro is incomplete. Here, we demonstrate, using a large panel of melanoma cell lines, that Vemurafenib induces features of stress-induced senescence in addition to apoptosis. This senescence phenotype is characterized by heterochromatin formation, changes in cell shape, and increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. Importantly, senescence features induced by BRAF(V600E) inhibition was also detected in human melanoma cells xenografted into nude mice. Our observations provide a possible explanation for the lack of complete and durable pro-apoptotic effect of Vemurafenib in patients. PMID:23321925

Haferkamp, Sebastian; Borst, Andreas; Adam, Christian; Becker, Therese M; Motschenbacher, Stephanie; Windhövel, Simone; Hufnagel, Anita L; Houben, Roland; Meierjohann, Svenja

2013-02-14

153

A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)|

Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

1982-01-01

154

Herschel's Interference Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Herschel's demonstration of interference arising from many coherent rays. Presents a method for students to reproduce this demonstration and obtain beautiful multiple-beam interference patterns. (CCM)

Perkalskis, Benjamin S.; Freeman, J. Reuben

2000-01-01

155

ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

Shanley, J.

1989-02-01

156

Evaluation of Milwaukee's Judicial Oversight Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Judicial Oversight Demonstration (JOD) was designed to implement and test model responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) that featured a strong judicial response combined with coordinated community services and integrated justice system policies. ...

A. Harrell M. Schaffer C. DeStefano J. Castro

2006-01-01

157

Why Demonstrations Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current focus on constructivist perspectives, science demonstrations have fallen out of favor in some circles. Demonstrations are easy to do and offer many benefits and unique opportunities in the constructivist classroom. With careful use, demonstrations can be powerful teaching tools. A wonderful quality of a demonstration (or a series…

Black, Richard

2005-01-01

158

Automatic visual tracking and social behaviour analysis with multiple mice.  

PubMed

Social interactions are made of complex behavioural actions that might be found in all mammalians, including humans and rodents. Recently, mouse models are increasingly being used in preclinical research to understand the biological basis of social-related pathologies or abnormalities. However, reliable and flexible automatic systems able to precisely quantify social behavioural interactions of multiple mice are still missing. Here, we present a system built on two components. A module able to accurately track the position of multiple interacting mice from videos, regardless of their fur colour or light settings, and a module that automatically characterise social and non-social behaviours. The behavioural analysis is obtained by deriving a new set of specialised spatio-temporal features from the tracker output. These features are further employed by a learning-by-example classifier, which predicts for each frame and for each mouse in the cage one of the behaviours learnt from the examples given by the experimenters. The system is validated on an extensive set of experimental trials involving multiple mice in an open arena. In a first evaluation we compare the classifier output with the independent evaluation of two human graders, obtaining comparable results. Then, we show the applicability of our technique to multiple mice settings, using up to four interacting mice. The system is also compared with a solution recently proposed in the literature that, similarly to us, addresses the problem with a learning-by-examples approach. Finally, we further validated our automatic system to differentiate between C57B/6J (a commonly used reference inbred strain) and BTBR T+tf/J (a mouse model for autism spectrum disorders). Overall, these data demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new machine learning system in the detection of social and non-social behaviours in multiple (>2) interacting mice, and its versatility to deal with different experimental settings and scenarios. PMID:24066146

Giancardo, Luca; Sona, Diego; Huang, Huiping; Sannino, Sara; Managň, Francesca; Scheggia, Diego; Papaleo, Francesco; Murino, Vittorio

2013-09-16

159

Automatic Visual Tracking and Social Behaviour Analysis with Multiple Mice  

PubMed Central

Social interactions are made of complex behavioural actions that might be found in all mammalians, including humans and rodents. Recently, mouse models are increasingly being used in preclinical research to understand the biological basis of social-related pathologies or abnormalities. However, reliable and flexible automatic systems able to precisely quantify social behavioural interactions of multiple mice are still missing. Here, we present a system built on two components. A module able to accurately track the position of multiple interacting mice from videos, regardless of their fur colour or light settings, and a module that automatically characterise social and non-social behaviours. The behavioural analysis is obtained by deriving a new set of specialised spatio-temporal features from the tracker output. These features are further employed by a learning-by-example classifier, which predicts for each frame and for each mouse in the cage one of the behaviours learnt from the examples given by the experimenters. The system is validated on an extensive set of experimental trials involving multiple mice in an open arena. In a first evaluation we compare the classifier output with the independent evaluation of two human graders, obtaining comparable results. Then, we show the applicability of our technique to multiple mice settings, using up to four interacting mice. The system is also compared with a solution recently proposed in the literature that, similarly to us, addresses the problem with a learning-by-examples approach. Finally, we further validated our automatic system to differentiate between C57B/6J (a commonly used reference inbred strain) and BTBR T+tf/J (a mouse model for autism spectrum disorders). Overall, these data demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new machine learning system in the detection of social and non-social behaviours in multiple (>2) interacting mice, and its versatility to deal with different experimental settings and scenarios.

Giancardo, Luca; Sona, Diego; Huang, Huiping; Sannino, Sara; Manago, Francesca; Scheggia, Diego; Papaleo, Francesco; Murino, Vittorio

2013-01-01

160

Genetic inactivation of IL-1 signaling enhances atherosclerotic plaque instability and reduces outward vessel remodeling in advanced atherosclerosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Clinical complications of atherosclerosis arise primarily as a result of luminal obstruction due to atherosclerotic plaque growth, with inadequate outward vessel remodeling and plaque destabilization leading to rupture. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes atherogenesis in animal models, but its role in plaque destabilization and outward vessel remodeling is unclear. The studies presented herein show that advanced atherosclerotic plaques in mice lacking both IL-1 receptor type I and apolipoprotein E (Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice) unexpectedly exhibited multiple features of plaque instability as compared with those of Il1r1+/+Apoe–/– mice. These features included reduced plaque SMC content and coverage, reduced plaque collagen content, and increased intraplaque hemorrhage. In addition, the brachiocephalic arteries of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice exhibited no difference in plaque size, but reduced vessel area and lumen size relative to controls, demonstrating a reduction in outward vessel remodeling. Interestingly, expression of MMP3 was dramatically reduced within the plaque and vessel wall of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice, and Mmp3–/–Apoe–/– mice showed defective outward vessel remodeling compared with controls. In addition, MMP3 was required for IL-1–induced SMC invasion of Matrigel in vitro. Taken together, these results show that IL-1 signaling plays a surprising dual protective role in advanced atherosclerosis by promoting outward vessel remodeling and enhancing features of plaque stability, at least in part through MMP3-dependent mechanisms.

Alexander, Matthew R.; Moehle, Christopher W.; Johnson, Jason L.; Yang, Zhengyu; Lee, Jae K.; Jackson, Christopher L.; Owens, Gary K.

2011-01-01

161

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

1992-11-10

162

Abnormal adaptations to stress and impaired cardiovascular function in mice lacking corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2.  

PubMed

The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a mediator of endocrine and behavioural responses to stress, and the related hormone urocortin (Ucn) are coordinated by two receptors, Crhr1 (encoded by Crhr) and Crhr2. These receptors may exhibit distinct functions due to unique tissue distribution and pharmacology. Crhr-null mice have defined central functions for Crhr1 in anxiety and neuroendocrine stress responses. Here we generate Crhr2-/- mice and show that Crhr2 supplies regulatory features to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) stress response. Although initiation of the stress response appears to be normal, Crhr2-/- mice show early termination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) release, suggesting that Crhr2 is involved in maintaining HPA drive. Crhr2 also appears to modify the recovery phase of the HPA response, as corticosterone levels remain elevated 90 minutes after stress in Crhr2-/- mice. In addition, stress-coping behaviours associated with dearousal are reduced in Crhr2-/- mice. We also demonstrate that Crhr2 is essential for sustained feeding suppression (hypophagia) induced by Ucn. Feeding is initially suppressed in Crhr2-/- mice following Ucn, but Crhr2-/- mice recover more rapidly and completely than do wild-type mice. In addition to central nervous system effects, we found that, in contrast to wild-type mice, Crhr2-/- mice fail to show the enhanced cardiac performance or reduced blood pressure associated with systemic Ucn, suggesting that Crhr2 mediates these peripheral haemodynamic effects. Moreover, Crhr2-/- mice have elevated basal blood pressure, demonstrating that Crhr2 participates in cardiovascular homeostasis. Our results identify specific responses in the brain and periphery that involve Crhr2. PMID:10742107

Coste, S C; Kesterson, R A; Heldwein, K A; Stevens, S L; Heard, A D; Hollis, J H; Murray, S E; Hill, J K; Pantely, G A; Hohimer, A R; Hatton, D C; Phillips, T J; Finn, D A; Low, M J; Rittenberg, M B; Stenzel, P; Stenzel-Poore, M P

2000-04-01

163

Constructing Training Demonstrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstrations have been favored by the Army as a complement to more traditional training materials because they accelerate learning, stimulate interest, and communicate better than text. Unfortunately, demonstrations have received little attention in the...

A. Davis D. Fu J. R. Elam R. Jensen

2009-01-01

164

Overhead Projector Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are demonstrations of the optical activity of two sugar solutions, and the effects of various substituents on acid strength using an overhead projector. Materials and procedures for each demonstration are discussed. (CW)|

Kolb, Doris, Ed.

1989-01-01

165

Cardio Lab Powerpoint Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Powerpoint presentation utilizing a Functional Heart Model to demonstrate the relationships among stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output. Demonstration also includes blood vessel radius and flow-pressure relationships. Oxygen consumption and VO2 MAX is discussed.

Ms. Jeannette K Hafey (Springfield College Biology/Chemistry)

2010-05-24

166

Mice deficient in MIM expression are predisposed to lymphomagenesis  

PubMed Central

Missing in metastasis (MIM) is a member of newly emerged inverse BAR-domain protein family and a putative metastasis suppressor. Although reduced MIM expression has been associated with bladder, breast, gastric cancers, evidence for the role of MIM in tumor progression remains scarce and controversial. Herein we characterized a MIM knockout mouse strain and observed that MIM deficient mice often developed enlarged spleens. Autopsy and histological analysis revealed that nearly 78% of MIM(?/?) mice developed tumors with features similar to diffuse large B lymphoma during a period from one to two years. MIM(?/?) mice also exhibited abnormal distribution of B cells in lymphoid organs with decrease in the spleen but increase in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the bone marrow of MIM(?/?) mice contained a higher percentage of pre-B2 cells but fewer immature B-cells than wild type mice. In response to CXCL13, a B-cell chemokine released from splenic stromal cells, MIM deficient B-cells did not undergo chemotaxis or morphologic changes in response to the chemokine and also did not internalize CXCR5, the receptor of CXCL13. Microarray analyses demonstrated that MIM is the only member of the I-BAR domain family that was highly expressed in human B cells. However, low or absent MIM expression was common in either primary B-cell malignancies or established B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphomas. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time an important role for MIM in B-cell development and suggests that predisposition of MIM null mice to lymphomagenesis may involve aberrant interactions between B lineage cells and the lymphoid microenvironment.

Yu, Dan; Zhan, Xiaoguo H.; Zhao, Xianfeng Frank; Williams, Mark S.; Carey, Gregory B.; Smith, Elizabeth; Scott, David; Zhu, Jianwei; Guo, Yin; Cherukuri, Srujana; Civin, Curt I.; Zhan, Xi

2012-01-01

167

Mice deficient in MIM expression are predisposed to lymphomagenesis.  

PubMed

Missing in metastasis (MIM) is a member of newly emerged inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain protein family and a putative metastasis suppressor. Although reduced MIM expression has been associated with bladder, breast and gastric cancers, evidence for the role of MIM in tumor progression remains scarce and controversial. Herein we characterized a MIM knockout mouse strain and observed that MIM-deficient mice often developed enlarged spleens. Autopsy and histological analysis revealed that nearly 78% of MIM(-/-) mice developed tumors with features similar to diffuse large B lymphoma during a period from 1 to 2 years. MIM(-/-) mice also exhibited abnormal distribution of B cells in lymphoid organs with decrease in the spleen but increase in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the bone marrow of MIM(-/-) mice contained a higher percentage of pre-B2 cells but fewer immature B-cells than wild-type mice. In response to CXCL13, a B-cell chemokine released from splenic stromal cells, MIM-deficient B-cells did not undergo chemotaxis or morphological changes in response to the chemokine and also did not internalize CXCR5, the receptor of CXCL13. Microarray analyses demonstrated that MIM is the only member of the I-BAR domain family that was highly expressed in human B cells. However, low or absent MIM expression was common in either primary B-cell malignancies or established B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphomas. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time an important role for MIM in B-cell development and suggest that predisposition of MIM-null mice to lymphomagenesis may involve aberrant interactions between B lineage cells and the lymphoid microenvironment. PMID:22081072

Yu, D; Zhan, X H; Zhao, X F; Williams, M S; Carey, G B; Smith, E; Scott, D; Zhu, J; Guo, Y; Cherukuri, S; Civin, C I; Zhan, X

2011-11-14

168

Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

Singer, Sandra M.

169

Classical Demonstration of Polarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a classical demonstration of polarization for high school students. The initial state of this model, which demonstrates the important concepts of the optical and quantum problems, was developed during the 1973 summer program on lecture demonstration at the U.S. Naval Academy. (HM)

Bauman, Robert P.; Moore, Dennis R.

1980-01-01

170

Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home  

SciTech Connect

This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

2012-12-01

171

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

Lubowich, D. A.

2006-08-01

172

Characterization of the insulin sensitivity of ghrelin receptor KO mice using glycemic clamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR) knock out (KO) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in GhrR KO

Yong Qi; Kenneth A Longo; Derek J Giuliana; Samantha Gagne; Tom McDonagh; Elizabeth Govek; Anna Nolan; Chaoseng Zou; Kristen Morgan; Jeffrey Hixon; Jeffrey O Saunders; Peter S DiStefano; Brad J Geddes

2011-01-01

173

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) is a prototype effort for the Next Generation Space Telescope that uses a combination of artificial intelligence and user interface techniques to explore ways to substantially reduce the time and effort involved in proposal preparation for both scientists and the telescope operations staff. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been working with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) to explore SEA alternatives. At ADASS '99 we were demonstrating the latest version of the SEA software. This article summarizes the new features and lessons learned in the SEA project over the last year.

Grosvenor, S. R.; Burkhardt, C.; Koratkar, A.; Fishman, M.; Wolf, K. R.; Jones, J. E.; Ruley, L.

174

Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

2001-01-01

175

Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

2001-01-01

176

Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Feature Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe an unsupervised feature selection algorithm suitable for data sets, large in both dimension and size. The method is based on measuring similarity between features whereby redundancy therein is removed. This does not need any search and, therefore, is fast. A new feature similarity measure, called maximum information compression index, is introduced. The algorithm is generic

Pabitra Mitra; C. A. Murthy; Sankar K. Pal

2002-01-01

177

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)|

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

178

LIMB demonstration project extension  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

Not Available

1990-09-21

179

Tested Demonstrations: Spectroscopy Illustrated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment to prepare three metal derivatives of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on their infrared spectra. Results and discussion of reactions involved are also provided. (JN)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

180

Tested Demonstrations: Spectroscopy Illustrated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment to prepare three metal derivatives of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on their infrared spectra. Results and discussion of reactions involved are also provided. (JN)|

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

181

Thermohaline Circulation Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps the students to visualize the effects of temperature and salinity on water density, and the resulting thermohaline circulation. Important processes visualized in this demonstration are upwelling, downwelling, and the formation of haloclines, thermoclines and pycnoclines. In addition, mixing by advection is clearly demonstrated.

Venn, Cynthia

182

Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

1984-01-01

183

Newton's Laws Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of demonstrations, learners explore Newton's Laws of Motion. These seventeen quick activities investigate air resistance, acceleration, terminal velocity, inertia, action-reaction, and other key concepts related to forces and motion. These demonstrations can be coupled together or conducted individually.

Rathjen, Don

2007-01-01

184

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

185

Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)|

Worthy, Ward

1987-01-01

186

Demonstrating Reduced Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the construction of the Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator, which can be used to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena, including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems behave. Presents experiments, appropriate for classroom use, to demonstrate how the behavior of common physical systems change when…

Pearlman, Howard; And Others

1996-01-01

187

Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

1984-01-01

188

Medicare Therapeutic Shoe Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 4072(e)(2)(B)(i) of P.L. 100-203, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) 1987, mandated a demonstration to test the cost-effectiveness of providing therapeutic shoes to Medicare beneficiaries with severe diabetic foot disease. The demonstration ...

L. W. Sullivan

1990-01-01

189

A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

2011-01-01

190

Better Ira Remsen Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration

Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

2011-01-01

191

ISU Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at SE Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Student activities and descriptions of the demonstrated material are also provided.

Shropshire, Steven

2004-04-06

192

The MICE Muon Beam Line  

SciTech Connect

In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

Apollonio, Marco [High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-10-06

193

Pictorial demonstrations of photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Theodor Engelmann's experiments in 1882 provided the first recorded visual demonstration of light wavelengths that are absorbed by photosynthetic pigments. Later, starch images in intact leaves were used to demonstrate photosynthesis in green plants. Similarly, light-induced chloroplast movements can form images in leaves as a result of changes in light transmittance through leaves and photoinhibition can form images that can be visualized by whole leaf chlorophyll fluorescence. This paper provides a brief account of how photosynthesis has been used to create an assortment of 'living images' that offer stunning demonstrations of various aspects of photosynthesis. PMID:16328838

Hangarter, Roger P; Gest, Howard

2004-01-01

194

Salmonella Infection Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video Dr. Finlay and a student volunteer illustrate how Salmonella infects a cell, using a marble, plastic wrap, and some yellow gelatin. This video is also featured on the DVD 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace, available free from HHMI. This video is one minute and 20 seconds in length, and available in MOV (13 MB) and WMV (18 MB). All Infectious Disease videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/video.html.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Dr. Finlay;)

2007-03-28

195

Listeria Infection Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Finlay and a student volunteer show how Listeria infects a cell, using a marble and some yellow gelatin. Also featured on the DVD 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace, available free from HHMI. This video is one minute and 4 seconds in length, and available in MOV (7 MB) and WMV (10 MB). All Infectious Disease videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/video.html.

Dr. Brett Finlay (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-27

196

Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center was formed by scientists from the University of Southern Mississippi (USM), the University of New Orleans (UNO), and the Stennis Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and maintained that structure fo...

G. H. Rayborn

2006-01-01

197

Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstration houses or 'show' homes are a familiar sight at trade events inviting builders, trade contractors, architects, media representatives, and manufacturers to see firsthand the latest building techniques and innovations. While from the outside th...

C. Metzger

2012-01-01

198

Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

Dolson, David A.; And Others

1995-01-01

199

Floating Magnet Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)|

Wake, Masayoshi

1990-01-01

200

Thermal Conductivity Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Here are three ideas for demonstrating thermal conductivity to your students. I. Heat flow down a metal rod (or rods) is timed by seeing wax melt at different locations along the rod. II. A rod made of ...

201

Water Contamination Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

202

Classroom Demonstration of Sunspots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overhead projector, projection screen, and clear tungsten Filament light bulb operated through a dimmer or variac switch are used to demonstrate the fact that black appearance of sunspots is due only to contrast and that sunspots are bright. (SK)

Callaway, Thomas O.; And Others

1982-01-01

203

Solar renovation demonstration projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, 'Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation'. In a part of the task, Subtask C 'Design of Solar Renovation Projects', different solar renovation demonstration projec...

O. Bruun Joergensen

1998-01-01

204

Shuttle Bay Telerobotics Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of sp...

W. Chun P. Cogeos

1987-01-01

205

Floating Magnet Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

Wake, Masayoshi

1990-01-01

206

Crossett Demonstration Forest Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A brief history of forestry in the area; Demonstration areas; (Unmanaged vs. managed forest, methods of cutting, stand conversion through release cutting, farm forestry forties, precommercial thinning, sudden sawlogs).

J. B. Baker L. M. Bishop

1986-01-01

207

Witches' Potion Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners will discover that phenolphthalein is an acid/base indicator. One learner will read a poem about four witches making a potion. Four learners will act out the parts, adding chemicals and water to different beakers (with adult supervision). Learners will enjoy the poem as the indicators react with the substances and change color. This is a fun chemistry demonstration to use during Halloween.

House, The S.

2013-05-15

208

Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methanol "cannon" is a popular demonstration where emphasis is placed on a vapor-phase explosive mixture simulating the explosions occurring in a car engine when a cylinder is filled with a fuel mixture from a carburetor. Here we describe two interesting variations to the demonstration. The first is a "chain" reaction using real metal chains. The second involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature.

Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S.

1995-08-01

209

Predictive Learning from Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A model-free learning algorithm called Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL) is presented and evaluated in a robot Learning from\\u000a Demonstration (LFD) setting. PSL is inspired by several functional models of the brain. It constructs sequences of predictable\\u000a sensory-motor patterns, without relying on predefined higher-level concepts. The algorithm is demonstrated on a Khepera II\\u000a robot in four different tasks. During training, PSL

Erik A. Billing; Thomas Hellström; Lars-Erik Janlert

210

Pictorial Demonstrations of Photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodor Engelmann's experiments in 1882 provided the first recorded visual demonstration of light wavelengths that are absorbed\\u000a by photosynthetic pigments. Later, starch images in intact leaves were used to demonstrate photosynthesis in green plants.\\u000a Similarly, light-induced chloroplast movements can form images in leaves as a result of changes in light transmittance through\\u000a leaves and photoinhibition can form images that can

Roger P. Hangarter; Howard Gest

2004-01-01

211

Maintenance of donor phenotype after full-thickness skin transplantation from mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm) to C57BL/Ka and nude mice and vice versa.  

PubMed

Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm) and is characterized by epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To elucidate whether these pathologic features are the result of a local (skin) process or a consequence of a systemic disorder, transplantations were performed of full-thickness grafts of affected skin from cpdm/cpdm mice and normal skin from control (C57BL/Ka) mice on the back of cpdm/cpdm, C57BL/Ka and athymic nude mice. After 3 months, the grafts maintained the histologic phenotype of the donor animal. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 continued to be expressed by basal keratinocytes of the cpdm/cpdm grafts after transplantation. In contrast, the basal keratinocytes of the C57BL/Ka grafts onto cpdm/cpdm mice remained negative for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 3 months after transplantation. An increased number of proliferating keratinocytes was present in the cpdm/cpdm skin-graft transplanted to nudes or to C57BL/Ka mice based on short-term bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the keratinocytes of the control C57BL/Ka skin grafts transplanted to cpdm/cpdm, nude, or C57BL/Ka mice was the same as in the keratinocytes of normal C57BL/Ka mice. This study demonstrates that the pathologic features found in the cpdm/cpdm mice are the result of a disorder in the epidermis or dermis and not due to a systemic defect. PMID:7490470

Gijbels, M J; HogenEsch, H; Bruijnzeel, P L; Elliott, G R; Zurcher, C

1995-12-01

212

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2007-12-01

213

Engineering design features of FUGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 Oct ; 1972). FUGEN is a pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light ; water cooled reactor with an output of 165 MW(e). One of the main objects of the ; FUGEN project is to demonstrate a Plutonium Self-Sustaining Cycle. Engineering ; design features of major systems of the plant

S. Shima; M. Akebi

1972-01-01

214

Bootstrapping nonparametric feature selection algorithms for mining small data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents feature selection algorithms based on nonparametric feature ranking indices, and demonstrates for small data sets that by bootstrapping feature ranking indices one uniformly (over various data sets and different ranking indices) improves the performance of correct detection of true features (i.e., probability of the top ranking features matching the true ones)

Jen-Lun Yuan

1999-01-01

215

Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

Prall, Bruce R.

2008-04-01

216

TRUEX hot demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1990-04-01

217

Infection by Leishmania amazonensis in mice: a potential model for chronic hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a common feature of injured and infected tissues. Hypoxia inducible factors 1? and 2? (HIF-1?, HIF-2?) are heterodimeric transcription factors mediating the cellular responses to hypoxia and also the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a cytokine which can be induced by hypoxia, whose pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear and which is the subject of debate. Murine cutaneous lesions during Leishmania amazonensis parasite infection are chronic, although they are small and self-controlled in C57BL/6 mice and severe in BALB/c mice. In the present study we examined the presence of hypoxia, HIF-1?, HIF-2? and VEGF during the course of infection in both mouse strains. Hypoxia was detected in lesions from BALB/c mice by pimonidazole marking, which occurred earlier than in lesions from C57Bl/6 mice. The lesions in the BALB/c mice showed HIF-1? and HIF-2? expression in the cytoplasm of macrophages and failed to promote any VEGF expression, while lesions in the C57BL/6 mice showed HIF-2? nuclear accumulation and subsequent VEGF expression. In conclusion, the animal models of leishmaniasis demonstrated a diversity of patterns of expression, cell localization and activity of the main transducers of hypoxia and may be useful models for studying the pathogenic mechanisms of HIF-1? and HIF-2? during chronic hypoxic diseases. PMID:22360823

Araújo, Alexandra Paiva; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber; Giorgio, Selma

2012-02-22

218

Improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility in ghrelin receptor knockout mice.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the ghrelin receptor (GhrR) by ghrelin results in a variety of metabolic changes including increased food intake, fat storage and insulin resistance. Loss of ghrelin signaling is protective against diet-induced obesity, suggesting that ghrelin plays a significant homeostatic role in conditions of metabolic stress. We examined glycemic control in GhrR -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, and used indirect calorimetry to assess fuel substrate usage and energy expenditure. GhrR -/- mice fed a high-fat diet had several measures of greater insulin sensitivity, including: lower fasted blood glucose and plasma insulin, lower %Hb(A1c), lower insulin levels during glucose tolerance tests, and improved performance in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp studies. GhrR -/- mice fed a high-fat diet did not develop hepatic steatosis and had lower total cholesterol, relative to controls. Furthermore, GhrR -/- mice demonstrated a lower intestinal triglyceride secretion rate of dietary lipid. GhrR -/- mice have higher respiratory quotients (RQ), indicating a preference for carbohydrate as fuel. The range of RQ values was wider in GhrR -/- mice, indicating greater metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity in these animals. We therefore propose that loss of ghrelin signaling promotes insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility, and protects against several fatty diet-induced features of metabolic syndrome due to convergent changes in the intake, absorption and utilization of energy. PMID:18453014

Longo, Kenneth A; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Govek, Elizabeth K; McDonagh, Thomas; Qi, Yong; DiStefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

2008-03-30

219

Standing Wave Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is intended to help students better understand the electromagnetic spectrum. At the end of this activity students will be able to explain that energy travels from the sun to the earth by means of electromagnetic waves, and that the shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy per photon. They will understand why shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic energy carry more energy than longer wavelengths. Students will also be able to demonstrate how wavelength is measured. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

220

Video Demonstration: Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstration from Watch Know Learn will help students learning about proportions. The video will help students with some knowledge of proportions by showing examples of how to solve them. The definition of a proportion is included as well as examples of how to cross-multiply to solve proportion problems. The demonstration shows what a non-proportion problem looks like and how to solve it as well as a few examples of using the lowest common denominator to solve proportions. Flash player is required to view the video, and the running time for the video is 8:09.

2012-01-01

221

Designing using manufacturing features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

2012-04-01

222

Fusion Power Demonstration III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and...

J. D. Lee

1985-01-01

223

A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classroom demonstrations are a great vehicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. Educational research is replete with data showing that concept application in an inquiry setting reinforces long-term science content retention. This means that students learn best when they experience applications of concepts and…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2005-01-01

224

Organic Lecture Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids,…

Silversmith, Ernest F.

1988-01-01

225

Organic Lecture Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

Silversmith, Ernest F.

1988-01-01

226

Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the 21st Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period from April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992.

Not Available

1992-07-01

227

Rate of Solution Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the factors that increase the rate of dissolution for a solid. Learners will compare how crushing sugar cubes, stirring and water temperature affect the rate at which the sugar dissolved. This resource guide includes extensions and notes about factors that accelerate dissolution and Henry's Law.

House, The S.

2013-05-15

228

Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)|

Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

1984-01-01

229

AP Biology Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2003-06-03

230

Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

2002-01-01

231

A Biofeedback Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a demonstration for measurement of biophysical signals produced by the human body. The signals, after amplification, could provide acoustical feedback through a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), or they could be seen either with an oscilloscope or a high speed chart recorder. (GA)|

Garrity, Michael K.

1978-01-01

232

Innovative technology demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found

D. B. Anderson; J. N. Hartley; S. P. Luttrell

1992-01-01

233

Nuclear power demonstrating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared

V. V. Basmajian; C. W. Haldeman

1980-01-01

234

Demonstrating Reduced Gravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of t...

H. Pearlman D. Stocker D. Gotti D. Urban H. Ross T. Sours

1996-01-01

235

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing

Gerald Brun

2006-01-01

236

Electromagnetic Induction Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple demonstration shows the interaction between electricity and magnetism. Two coils of wire are held close to each other, but not touching. One is attached to a music source, such as a small radio or iPod, and the other is attached to an external speaker. Students can hear the music through the speaker even though there is no direct connection.

Hobbs, Marsha

237

The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab…

Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

2008-01-01

238

Demonstration of Microfiltration Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in cooperation with E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Inc. (DuPont) and the Oberlin Filter Company (Oberlin), undertook a field demonstration p...

J. F. Martin K. Topudurti S. Labunski

1991-01-01

239

A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)|

Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

1995-01-01

240

SOIL BIOVENTING DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale demonstration project of a soil bioventing system, which utilizes the biodegradation in soil and physical removal of VOC by induced air flow, is in operation at the U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Field in Traverse City, Michigan. he system is being tested to determine it...

241

Calculus demonstrations using MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learn- ing process. In particular, v e matlab programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introduc- tory calculus: Newton's method, dieren tiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the graphical user inter- face have been specically

Peter K Dunn; Chris Harman

2002-01-01

242

Phenylthiocarbamide Produces Conditioned Taste Aversions in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has demonstrated that SWR\\/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB\\/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by

S. J. St. John; John D. Boughter

2005-01-01

243

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

244

Automatic lighting controls demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

1990-03-01

245

Commercial incineration demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985.

Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

1981-01-01

246

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1\\/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques

Lundgren

1981-01-01

247

Hexone remediation demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hexone Remediation Demonstration is funded by the US Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program to show complete remediation of an industrial-scale quantity of radioactively contaminated hazardous solvent waste. The specific material to be remediated consists of 34,000 gal of hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbon, and tributyl phosphate complexes as well as 2,000 gal of solvent-saturated

W. F. Heine; O. R. Rasmussen

1990-01-01

248

HIPAA: demonstrating compliance.  

PubMed

This article is a practical guide to using policies and procedures, communication, documentation, and training to demonstrate compliance with HIPAA mandates. Practice examples are used to show how the case manager can use inservice education to advance the HIPAA training requirements, as well as increase individual skills and provide continuing education opportunities. It identifies case managers as leaders and advocates for their clients' new privacy rights and shows how communications are affected by the advent of the Privacy Rule. PMID:15076836

Muller, Lynn S

249

Overhead Projector Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two oscillating reactions: the Briggs-Raucher reaction using H202, KIO3, malonic acid, and MnSO4 which changes from yellow to blue, and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction uses NaBrO3, NaBr, malonic acid, and ferroin solution and changes from red to blue. Includes a third color demonstration on the six oxidation states of manganese.…

Kolb, Doris

1988-01-01

250

Projectile Motion Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a recent lecture, I went to our apparatus stock room and took out our venerable Sargent-Welch projectile apparatus1 that demonstrates that a dropped ball and a horizontally launched ball hit the floor at the same time, if they are simultaneously released. A problem with this apparatus is that its small size makes it difficult for a large class to see what is going on. Furthermore, the projectiles are ball bearings, which tend to roll under chairs, benches, etc.

Graf, Erlend H.

2008-12-01

251

Invisible Ink Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners will discover that phenolphthalein is a chemical that displays different colors depending on the acidity or basicity of the environment. Learners will be surprised to see a "secret message" appear in bright pink ink when it is sprayed with Windex containing ammonia (a base). They compare this to what happens when the message is sprayed with Windex containing acetic acid (nothing!).

House, The S.

2013-05-15

252

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension  

SciTech Connect

The DOE LIMB Demonstration Project Extension is a continuation of the EPA Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration. EPA ultimately expects to show that LIMB is a low cost control technology capable of producing moderate SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} control (50--60 percent) with applicability for retrofit to the major portion of the existing coal-fired boiler population. The current EPA Wall-Fired LIMB Demonstration is a four-year project that includes design and installation of a LIMB system at the 105-MW Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. LIMB Extension testing continued during the quarter with lignosulfonated hydrated lime, pulverized limestone, and hydrated dolomitic lime while firing 1.8% and 3% sulfur coals. Sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies were equivalent to the results found during EPA, base LIMB testing. Sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies were lower than expected while testing with pulverized limestone without humidification. A slight increase in sulfur capture was noted while injecting pulverized limestone at the 187' elevation and with the humidifier outlet temperature at 145{degree}F.

Not Available

1990-09-21

253

Simple SAR demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a simple SAR radar demonstrator build using commercially available (COTS) components. For the microwave analog front end, a standard police radar microwave head has been used. The Motorola DSP processor board, equipped with ADC and DAC, has been used for generating of modulating signal and for signal acquisition. The raw radar signal (I and Q components) have been recorded on 2.5" HDD. The signal processing has been performed on standard PC computer after copying the recorded data. The aim of constructing simple and relatively cheap demonstrator was to provide the students the real-life unclassified radar signals and motivate them to test and develop various kinds of SAR and ISAR algorithms, including image formation, motion compensation and autofocusing. The simple microwave frontend hardware has a lot of non-idealities, so for obtaining nice SAR image it was necessary to develop the number of correction algorithms at the calibration stage. The SAR demonstrator have been tested using car as a moving platform. The flight tests with a small airborne platform are planned for the summer.

Kulpa, Krzysztof; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Baranowski, Piotr; Wojdo?owicz, Grzegorz

2008-01-01

254

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency phenocopies features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

The pregnancy complication preeclampsia (PE), which occurs in approximately 3% to 8% of human pregnancies, is characterized by placental pathologies that can lead to significant fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Currently, the only known cure is delivery of the placenta. As the etiology of PE remains unknown, it is vital to find models to study this common syndrome. Here we show that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) deficiency causes physiological and placental abnormalities in mice, which mimic features of PE. As with the severe cases of this syndrome, which commence early in gestation, MMP9-null mouse embryos exhibit deficiencies in trophoblast differentiation and invasion shortly after implantation, along with intrauterine growth restriction or embryonic death. Reciprocal embryo transfer experiments demonstrated that embryonic MMP9 is a major contributor to normal implantation, but maternal MMP9 also plays a role in embryonic trophoblast development. Pregnant MMP9-null mice bearing null embryos exhibited clinical features of PE as VEGF dysregulation and proteinuria accompanied by preexisting elevated blood pressure and kidney pathology. Thus, our data show that fetal and maternal MMP9 play a role in the development of PE and establish the MMP9-null mice as a much-needed model to study the clinical course of this syndrome. PMID:23776237

Plaks, Vicki; Rinkenberger, Julie; Dai, Joanne; Flannery, Margaret; Sund, Malin; Kanasaki, Keizo; Ni, Wei; Kalluri, Raghu; Werb, Zena

2013-06-17

255

Mice Lacking the p43 Mitochondrial T3 Receptor Become Glucose Intolerant and Insulin Resistant during Aging  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (TH) play an important regulatory role in energy expenditure regulation and are key regulators of mitochondrial activity. We have previously identified a mitochondrial triiodothyronine (T3) receptor (p43) which acts as a mitochondrial transcription factor of the organelle genome, which leads in vitro and in vivo, to a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice carrying a specific p43 invalidation. At 2 months of age, we reported that p43 depletion in mice induced a major defect in insulin secretion both in vivo and in isolated pancreatic islets, and a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The present study was designed to determine whether p43 invalidation influences life expectancy and modulates blood glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity during aging. We report that from 4 months old onwards, mice lacking p43 are leaner than wild-type mice. p43?/? mice also have a moderate reduction of life expectancy compared to wild type. We found no difference in blood glucose levels, excepted at 24 months old where p43?/? mice showed a strong hyperglycemia in fasting conditions compared to controls animals. However, the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was maintained whatever the age of mice lacking p43. If up to 12 months old, glucose tolerance remained unchanged, beyond this age p43?/? mice became increasingly glucose intolerant. In addition, if up to 12 months old p43 deficient animals were more sensitive to insulin, after this age we observed a loss of this capacity, culminating in 24 months old mice with a decreased sensitivity to the hormone. In conclusion, we demonstrated that during aging the depletion of the mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 in mice progressively induced an increased glycemia in the fasted state, glucose intolerance and an insulin-resistance several features of type-2 diabetes.

Bertrand, Christelle; Blanchet, Emilie; Pessemesse, Laurence; Annicotte, Jean Sebastien; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Chabi, Beatrice; Levin, Jonathan; Fajas, Lluis; Cabello, Gerard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Casas, Francois

2013-01-01

256

Remote sentry advanced technology demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiences in Operational Desert Shield and Desert Storm revealed deficiencies in several areas of major importance in the post-Cold Ware era. Early entry forces must be provided with improved warfighting capabilities, especially against heavy armor, without affecting their deployability. The Rapid Force Projection Initiative (RFPI) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) is tasked with addressing this deficiency. The RFPI ACTD features a hunter/standoff killer concept that relies on a variety of hunters and standoff killers to provide a significant increase in the warfighting capability of early entry forces. One of the hunters is the Remote Sentry Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD). The Remote Sentry ATD will provide an autonomous, remote, ground based, wide-area Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition capability during day/night and limited visibility conditions. The Remote Sentry ATD is being produced by Alliant Techsystems in partnership with the Harris RF Communications. The ATD is managed and technically directed by the CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.

Brooks, Joseph A.; Gallo, Michael A.

1996-06-01

257

Interferon-gamma deficiency reveals that 129Sv mice are inherently more susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum than C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Immunocompetent mice 129Sv (129) and C57BL/6 (B6) mice are similarly susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We now show that 129 mice lacking interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) develop more severe infection with A. phagocytophilum than IFN-gamma deficient B6 mice. These data demonstrate that there is an inherent increased susceptibility of 129 mice, compared with B6 mice, to A. phagocytophilum that can only be discerned in the absence of IFN-gamma. PMID:15477043

Wang, Tian; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa; Banerjee, Rila; Fikrig, Erol

2004-11-01

258

Demonstrating Group Process Using "12 Angry Men"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feature film "12 Angry Men" focuses on an organizational task group that demonstrates the dynamics of a working group. The film is discussed as an effective tool for illuminating group process. The authors describe their experiences using the movie as a teaching tool and provide examples of how it can be used to depict critical incidents, the…

Armstrong, Stephen A.; Berg, Robert C.

2005-01-01

259

Demonstrating Group Process Using 12 Angry Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature film 12 Angry Men focuses on an organizational task group that demonstrates the dynamics of a working group. The film is discussed as an effective tool for illuminating group process. The authors describe their experiences using the movie as a teaching tool and provide examples of how it can be used to depict critical incidents, the recognition and

Stephen A. Armstrong; Robert C. Berg

2005-01-01

260

Demonstration of optical microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a novel method for the control of small droplets using laser-based heating. Temperature dependent interfacial surface tensions were the primary force used to move droplets. With this approach, ~1.7 ?L to 14 pL droplets were moved on a bare, unmodified polystyrene surface, at speeds of up to 3 mm/s. Upon contact, droplets spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed within 33 ms. We performed an optical absorption-based protein assay using horseradish peroxidase and a chromogenic substrate (ABTS), and readily detected as little as ~125 attomoles of reacting enzyme.

Kotz, Kenneth T.; Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Noble, Kyle A.; Smith, Sarah E.; Faris, Gregory W.

2004-06-01

261

Commercial incineration demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described.

Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

1982-01-01

262

NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

Terry W. Battiest

2008-06-11

263

Solar Thermal Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ?ť system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

2012-01-30

264

Targeted inactivation of the mouse locus encoding coagulation factor XIII-A: hemostatic abnormalities in mutant mice and characterization of the coagulation deficit.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) promotes cross-linking of fibrin during blood coagulation; impaired clot stabilization in human genetic deficiency is associated with marked pathologies of major clinical impact, including bleeding symptoms and deficient wound healing. To investigate the role of FXIII we employed homologous recombination to generate a targeted deletion of the inferred exon 7 of the FXIII-A gene. FXIII transglutaminase activity in plasma was reduced to about 50% in mice heterozygous for the mutant allele, and was abolished in homozygous null mice. Plasma fibrin gamma-dimerization was also indetectable in the homozygous deficient animals, confirming the absence of activatable FXIII. Homozygous mutant mice were fertile, although reproduction was impaired. Bleeding episodes, hematothorax, hematoperitoneum and subcutaneous hemorrhage in mutant mice were associated with reduced survival. Arrest of tail-tip bleeding in FXIII-A deficient mice was markedly and significantly delayed; replacement of mutant mice with human plasma FXIII (Fibrogammin P) restored bleeding time to within the normal range. Thrombelastography (TEG) experiments demonstrated impaired clot stabilization in FXIII-A mutant mice, replacement with human FXIII led to dose-dependent TEG normalization. The mutant mice thus reiterate some key features of the human genetic disorder: they will be valuable in assessing the role of FXIII in other associated pathologies and the development of new therapies. PMID:12529747

Lauer, Peter; Metzner, Hubert J; Zettlmeissl, Gerd; Li, Meng; Smith, Austin G; Lathe, Richard; Dickneite, Gerhard

2002-12-01

265

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

Lundgren, R.A.

1981-09-01

266

Paramagnetism Paradoxes: Projectable Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops of oil in Mn(SO 4 )(aq) and drops of the solution in oil show opposite effects when brought near a rare earth magnet. Oxygen, nitrogen, and air bubbles atop water show expected attraction, repulsion, and null behavior, respectively. Air bubbles atop aqueous Mn(SO 4 ) show paradoxical behavior because the magnet's attraction of the solution forms a complex crest. The existence and shape of this crest is examined, and the unexpected behavior used to motivate student examination of paramagnetism. Several improvements in the bubble demonstration are suggested. A rare earth magnet is also powerful enough to demonstrate paramagnetism in crystals of Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·9H 2 O, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O, MnSO 4 ·H 2 O, and to a lesser extent CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O, CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O, NiCl 2 ·6H 2 O, MnO 2 , and NiSO 4 ·7H 2 O.

Sauls, Frederick C.; Vitz, Ed

2008-04-01

267

PFBC Utility Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

Not Available

1992-11-01

268

Features of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study various features of the Sun in order to understand how the Sun varies. Students will learn that the Sun contains many complex features and compare this to their own prior knowledge about the Sun. Features studied include sunspots, plages, solar flares, prominences, filaments, the corona, helmet streamers, and coronal holes.

Meier, Beverly

269

Multitask Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address joint feature selection across a group of classiflcation or regression tasks. In many multi-task learning scenarios, difierent but related tasks share a large proportion of relevant features. We propose a novel type of joint regularization for the parameters of support vector machines in order to couple feature selection across tasks. Intuitively, we extend the '1 regularization for single-task

Guillaume Obozinski; Ben Taskar

270

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15

271

Demonstration of microfiltration technology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in cooperation with E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Inc. (DuPont) and the Oberlin Filter Company (Oberlin), undertook a field demonstration project to evaluate microfiltration technology for removal of zinc and suspended solids from wastewater. The microfiltration system utilized DuPont's Tyvek T-980 membrane filter media in conjunction with the Oberlin automatic pressure filter. The project was undertaken at the Palmerton Zinc Superfund site in April, 1990. Analysis of the treated filtrate indicated that the system removed precipitated zinc and other suspended solids at an efficiency greater than 99.9 percent. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

Martin, J.F.; Topudurti, K.; Labunski, S.

1991-01-01

272

Feature space transformation using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed an autonomous system that transforms feature spaces to improve classification techniques. They apply their method to an eye-detection face recognition system, demonstrating substantially better classification rates than competing systems

Haleh Vafaie; Kenneth De Jong

1998-01-01

273

Modern features for systems programming languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case for the design and implementa- tion of a modern programming language for systems pro- gramming. It shows that traditional systems languages like C and Fortran possess features no longer relevant to the modern world. The paper also demonstrates how many of these features have a negative impact on the practice of sys- tems programming. Finally,

Eric L. Mccorkle

2006-01-01

274

Vehicle detection fusing 2D visual features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for detection and tracking of vehicles by finding various characteristic features in the images of a monochrome camera. The detection process uses shadow and symmetry features to generate vehicle hypotheses. These are fused and tracked over time using an Interacting Multiple Model method (IMM). Results for natural traffic scenes demonstrate high reliability of the proposed

C. Hoffman; Thao Dang; Christoph Stiller

2004-01-01

275

Paroxysmal Dyskinesias in Mice  

PubMed Central

Animal models of human disease are important tools for revealing the underlying mechanisms of pathophysiology and developing therapeutic strategies. Several unique mouse calcium channel mutants have been identified with nonepileptic, episodic dyskinetic movements that are phenotypically similar to human paroxysmal dyskinesias. In this report, video demonstrations of these motor attacks are provided for two previously described mouse mutants, tottering and lethargic, as well as a new one, rocker. Semiquantitative comparisons using two different rating scales reveal differences in attack morphology, severity, and duration among the strains. These mice provide three independent models of paroxysmal dyskinesia and support for prior proposals that channelopathies may underlie the human disorders.

Shirley, Thomas L.; Rao, Lekha M.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.

2009-01-01

276

Enhanced airway inflammation and remodeling in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice lacking the A2B adenosine receptor.  

PubMed

Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside that is generated in response to cellular injury and orchestrates the balance between tissue protection and the progression to pathological tissue remodeling. Adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice develop progressive airway inflammation and remodeling in association with adenosine elevations, suggesting that adenosine can promote features of chronic lung disease. Furthermore, pharmacological studies in ADA-deficient mice demonstrate that A(2B)R antagonism can attenuate features of chronic lung disease, implicating this receptor in the progression of chronic lung disease. This study examines the contribution of A(2B)R signaling in this model by generating ADA/A(2B)R double-knockout mice. Our hypothesis was that genetic removal of the A(2B)R from ADA-deficient mice would lead to diminished pulmonary inflammation and damage. Unexpectedly, ADA/A(2B)R double-knockout mice exhibited enhanced pulmonary inflammation and airway destruction. Marked loss of pulmonary barrier function and excessive airway neutrophilia are thought to contribute to the enhanced tissue damage observed. These findings support an important protective role for A(2B)R signaling during acute stages of lung disease. PMID:19494329

Zhou, Yang; Mohsenin, Amir; Morschl, Eva; Young, Hays W J; Molina, Jose G; Ma, Wenbin; Sun, Chun-Xiao; Martinez-Valdez, Hector; Blackburn, Michael R

2009-06-15

277

Novel targeted deregulation of c-Myc cooperates with Bcl-XL to cause plasma cell neoplasms in mice  

PubMed Central

Deregulated expression of both Myc and Bcl-XL are consistent features of human plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs). To investigate whether targeted expression of Myc and Bcl-XL in mouse plasma cells might lead to an improved model of human PCN, we generated Myc transgenics by inserting a single-copy histidine-tagged mouse Myc gene, MycHis, into the mouse Ig heavy-chain C? locus. We also generated Bcl-XL transgenic mice that contain a multicopy Flag-tagged mouse Bcl-xFlag transgene driven by the mouse Ig ? light-chain 3? enhancer. Single-transgenic Bcl-XL mice remained tumor free by 380 days of age, whereas single-transgenic Myc mice developed B cell tumors infrequently (4 of 43, 9.3%). In contrast, double-transgenic Myc/Bcl-XL mice developed plasma cell tumors with short onset (135 days on average) and full penetrance (100% tumor incidence). These tumors produced monoclonal Ig, infiltrated the bone marrow, and contained elevated amounts of MycHis and Bcl-XLFlag proteins compared with the plasma cells that accumulated in large numbers in young tumor-free Myc/Bcl-XL mice. Our findings demonstrate that the enforced expression of Myc and Bcl-XL by Ig enhancers with peak activity in plasma cells generates a mouse model of human PCN that recapitulates some features of human multiple myeloma.

Cheung, Wan Cheung; Kim, Joong Su; Linden, Michael; Peng, Liangping; Van Ness, Brian; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Janz, Siegfried

2004-01-01

278

Chemotherapy-Associated Changes of Histopathological Features of Mycobacterium ulcerans Lesions in a Buruli Ulcer Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Combination chemotherapy with rifampin and streptomycin (RIF-STR) for 8 weeks is currently recommended by the WHO as the first-line treatment for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer). To gain better insight into the mode of action of these antibiotics against established M. ulcerans infection foci and to characterize recovery of local immune responses during chemotherapy, we conducted a detailed histopathological study of M. ulcerans-infected and RIF-STR-treated mice. Mice were inoculated with M. ulcerans in the footpad and 11 weeks later treated with RIF-STR. Development of lesions during the first 11 weeks after infection and subsequent differences in disease progression between RIF-STR-treated and untreated mice were studied. Changes in histopathological features, footpad swelling, and number of CFU were analyzed. After inoculation with M. ulcerans, massive infiltrates dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes developed at the inoculation site but did not prevent bacterial multiplication. Huge clusters of extracellular bacteria located in large necrotic areas and surrounded by dead leukocytes developed in the untreated mice. Chemotherapy with RIF-STR led to a rapid drop in CFU associated with loss of solid Ziehl-Neelsen staining of acid-fast bacilli. Development of B-lymphocyte clusters and of macrophage accumulations surrounding the mycobacteria demonstrated the resolution of local immune suppression. Results demonstrate that the experimental M. ulcerans mouse infection model will be a valuable tool to investigate efficacy of new treatment regimens and of candidate vaccines.

Ruf, Marie-Therese; Schutte, Daniela; Chauffour, Aurelie; Jarlier, Vincent; Ji, Baohong

2012-01-01

279

Neighborhood Discriminant Nearest Feature Line Analysis for Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel subspace learning algorithm named neighborhood discriminant nearest feature line analysis (NDNFLA) is proposed in this paper. NDNFLA aims to find the discriminant feature of samples by maximizing the between-class feature line (FL) distances and minimizing the within-class FL distance. At the same time, theneighborhood is preserved in the feature space. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed

Lijun Yan; Jeng-Shyang Pan; Shu-Chuan Chu; John F. Roddick

2011-01-01

280

Unsupervised feature evaluation: a neuro-fuzzy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonstrates a way of formulating neuro-fuzzy approaches for both feature selection and extraction under unsupervised learning. A fuzzy feature evaluation index for a set of features is defined in terms of degree of similarity between two patterns in both the original and transformed feature spaces. A concept of flexible membership function incorporating weighted distance is introduced for computing membership values

Sankar K. Pal; Rajat K. De; Jayanta Basak

2000-01-01

281

Impairment of Cell-Mediated Immunity Functions by Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several immunologic features were analyzed in mice on a zinc-deficient diet [Zn(-)], in mice pair-fed a diet containing zinc [Zn(+)], in mice fed a Zn(+) diet ad lib, and in mice fed laboratory chow ad lib. When placed on a Zn(-) diet, 6- to 8-week-old A\\/Jax, C57BL\\/Ks, and CBA\\/H mice showed loss of body weight, low lymphoid tissue weight, and

Gabriel Fernandes; Madhavan Nair; Kazunori Onoe; Toshio Tanaka; Rachael Floyd; Robert A. Good

1979-01-01

282

Context Processing in Aging: Older Mice Are Impaired in Renewal of Extinguished Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear conditioning, extinction, and renewal were evaluated in adult (6-month-old) and aging (17-month-old) male C57Bl\\/6 mice. Mice were subjected to five tone-shock trials and later exposed to 150 tone-alone trials. Thereafter, all mice showed little fear in the extinction context. Adult mice demonstrated return of fear in a distinct context (renewal) but aging mice did not. Aging mice showed normal

Matthew J. Sanders

2011-01-01

283

Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Transgenic Mice Bearing a Human Mutant Thyroid Hormone ?1 Receptor Gene  

PubMed Central

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor ? (TR?) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligandbinding domain of the TR? gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TR? gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TR? gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD.

McDonald, Michael P.; Wong, Rosemary; Goldstein, Gregory; Weintraub, Bruce; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

1998-01-01

284

Rescue of cardiomyopathy in PPAR? transgenic mice by deletion of lipoprotein lipase identifies sources of cardiac lipids and PPAR? activators  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence in obesity and diabetes demonstrates that excessive myocardial fatty acid (FA) uptake and oxidation contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the FA-activated nuclear receptor PPAR? (MHC-PPAR? mice) exhibit phenotypic features of the diabetic heart, which are rescued by deletion of CD36, a FA transporter, despite persistent activation of PPAR? gene targets involved in FA oxidation. Methods and Results To further define the source of FA that leads to cardiomyopathy associated with lipid excess, we crossed MHC-PPAR? mice with mice deficient for cardiac lipoprotein lipase (hsLpLko). MHC-PPAR?/hsLpLko mice exhibit improved cardiac function and reduced myocardial triglyceride content when compared with MHC-PPAR? mice. Surprisingly, in contrast to MHC-PPAR?/CD36ko mice, the activity of the cardiac PPAR? gene regulatory pathway is normalized in MHC-PPAR?/hsLpLko mice suggesting that PPAR? ligand activity exists in the lipoprotein particle. Indeed, LpL-mediated hydrolysis of very low-density lipoprotein activated PPAR? in cardiac myocytes in culture. The rescue of cardiac function in both models was associated with improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and re-activation of transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial function. Conclusions 1) MHC-PPAR? mouse hearts acquire excess lipoprotein-derived lipids, 2) LpL-deficiency rescues mycocyte triglyceride accumulation, mitochondrial gene regulatory derangements, and contractile function in MHC-PPAR? mice, 3) LpL serves as a source of activating-ligand for PPAR? in the cardiomyocyte.

Duncan, Jennifer G.; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G.; Fong, Juliet L.; Mitra, Riddhi; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Courtois, Michael R.; Lavine, Kory J.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Kelly, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

285

VLBI2010 Demonstrator Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation geodetic VLBI instrument is being developed with a goal of 1 mm position uncertainty in twenty-four hours. Knowing that spatial and temporal fluctuations in the atmosphere delay are a major component of the error in position determination, the VLBI2010 committee has carried out a large number of simulations to arrive at design goals for the antenna system. These goals are fast slewing antennas and high delay precision per observation. With existing and anticipated data recording capabilities, these translate to an antenna diameter of 12 m or larger and a per-observation delay precision of approximately 4 psec. The major innovation for the VLBI2010 concept that allows the use of relatively small antennas to achieve these goals is the proposal to observe in four frequency bands, instead of the two currently used, in order to gain the higher precision of phase delays compared to the group delay. The other advance that enables the use of small antennas is the significant increase in data acquisition rates that has been made possible by the development of disk-based recorders and digital back ends. To evaluate this concept, a prototype of the feed-to-recorder system has been implemented by the Broadband Development Team* on two antennas, the 5 m MV-3 antenna at Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington, D.C., and the 18 m Westford antenna at Haystack Observatory near Boston. The system includes a broadband feed and low noise amplifiers covering the range approximately 2 GHz to 13 GHz, all cooled to 20K; a newly developed phase calibration generator; a flexible local oscillator (LO) that allows selection of any band in the range of the feed/LNAs; Digital Back End; and a disk-based recorder capable of a sustained rate of 2 gigabits per second (gbps). Four sets of the LO/DBE/recorder chain are used at each antenna to give a total record rate of 8 gbps. The systems have been successfully used in the band 8.5 to 9 GHz with one set of the recorder chain. Observations demonstrating the full four-band configuration are planned for October. In this talk the results of these tests, the improvements that are anticipated for the operational VLBI2010 network, and the status of other developments in the next generation of geodetic VLBI systems will be presented. * Bruce Whittier, Mike Titus, Jason SooHoo, Dan Smythe, Alan Rogers, Jay Redmond, Mike Poirier, Chuck Kodak, Alan Hinton, Ed Himwich, Skip Gordon, Mark Evangelista, Irv Diegel, Brian Corey, Tom Clark, Chris Beaudoin (in reverse alphabetical order)

Niell, A.

2008-12-01

286

Gait recognition based on fusion features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gait recognition and analysis is a promising biometrics technology finding applications in numerous sectors of our society. This paper proposes a new fusion algorithm where the static and dynamic features are fused to obtain optimal performance. The new fusion algorithm divides decision situations into two categories. The wavelet moment is used to describe the static features of gait sequence images, and the three widths of the body contour are used to describe the dynamic features. In addition, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for feature transformation of spatial templates is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs an encouraging recognition rate.

Wu, Haizhen; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Xi

2009-10-01

287

Earth's Surface Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in pairs on this worksheet and strengthen their background knowledge by identifying different features in photographs of Earth's surface. Then to build on this base, the students need to determine the key processes that form each of the features. To address a common misconception, students read a debate between two hypothetical students and need to determine which student is stating the scientifically correct idea. The project is summarized by a question posed about the features on a hypothetical planet.

Smay, Jessica J.

288

Exacerbation of Retinal Degeneration and Choroidal Neovascularization Induced by Subretinal Injection of Matrigel in CCL2/MCP-1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

This study presents a mouse model for human age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as characterized by subretinal deposit and choroidal neovascularization. Matrigel, a basement membrane extract, solidifies after implantation in tissue and can stimulate local angiogenesis. This study demonstrates the induction of neovascularization and focal retinal degeneration following subretinal Matrigel injection in mice. In senescent mice, the normal functioning of CC chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 confers protection against age-related retinal degeneration, a disease that shares many similar features with human AMD. Our data shows that CCL2-deficient mice develop more severe disease as compared to the wild-type controls. These findings suggest that Matrigel subretinal injection could be used to generate AMD-like pathological changes. The data support the previously proposed role of CCL2 in AMD pathogenesis.

Shen, Defen; Wen, Rong; Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Chan, Chi-Chao

2007-01-01

289

Neonatal cardiomyopathy in mice homozygous for the Arg403Gln mutation in the ? cardiac myosin heavy chain gene  

PubMed Central

Heterozygous mice bearing an Arg403Gln missense mutation in the ? cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (?-MHC403/+) exhibit the histopathologic features of human familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Surprisingly, homozygous ?-MHC403/403 mice die by postnatal day 8. Here we report that neonatal lethality is caused by a fulminant dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte dysfunction and loss. Heart tissues from neonatal wild-type and ?-MHC403/403 mice demonstrate equivalent switching of MHC isoforms; ? isoforms in each increase from 30% at birth to 70% by day 6. Cardiac dimensions and function, studied for the first time in neonatal mice by high frequency (45 MHz) echocardiography, were normal at birth. Between days 4 and 6, ?-MHC403/403 mice developed a rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dilation, wall thinning, and reduced systolic contraction. Histopathology revealed myocardial necrosis with dystrophic calcification. Electron microscopy showed normal architecture intermixed with focal myofibrillar disarray. We conclude that 45-MHz echocardiography is an excellent tool for assessing cardiac physiology in neonatal mice and that the concentration of Gln403 ? cardiac MHC in myocytes influences both cell function and cell viability. We speculate that variable incorporation of mutant and normal MHC into sarcomeres of heterozygotes may account for focal myocyte death in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Fatkin, Diane; Christe, Michael E.; Aristizabal, Orlando; McConnell, Bradley K.; Srinivasan, Shardha; Schoen, Frederick J.; Seidman, Christine E.; Turnbull, Daniel H.; Seidman, J.G.

1999-01-01

290

Mice lacking p35 display hyperactivity and paradoxical response to psychostimulants.  

PubMed

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35 kinase complex plays a critical role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) signaling is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. As cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) requires association with p35 for its proper activation, we hypothesized that dysregulation of Cdk5 activity might have an effect on striatal-mediated behavior. We used a mutant mouse, deficient in p35 protein (p35 KO), which displayed reduced Cdk5 activity. Throughout behavioral and biochemical characterization of naďve and psychostimulant-treated mice, we demonstrated that only juvenile p35 KO mice displayed spontaneous hyperactivity, responded with a paradoxical hypolocomotor effect to psychostimulant drugs and exhibited deficit on proper behavioral inhibition. Strong immunolabeling for tyrosine-hydroxylase and high striatal DA synthesis and contents with a low DA turnover, which were reverted by psychostimulants, were also found in mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that p35 deficiency is critically involved in the expression of a hyperactive behavioral phenotype with hyper-functioning of the dopaminergic system, emphasizing the importance of proper Cdk5 kinase activity for normal motor and emotional features. Thus, p35 KO mice may be another useful animal model for understanding cellular and molecular events underlying attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like disorders. PMID:20403084

Krapacher, Favio Ariel; Mlewski, Estela Cecilia; Ferreras, Soledad; Pisano, Victoria; Paolorossi, Mariana; Hansen, Cristian; Paglini, Gabriela

2010-04-16

291

Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

1985-01-01

292

Fingerprint verification using SIFT features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fingerprints are being extensively used for person identification in a number of commercial, civil, and forensic applications. Most of the current fingerprint verification systems utilize features that are based on minutiae points and ridge patterns. While minutiae based fingerprint verification systems have shown fairly high accuracies, further improvements in their performance are needed for acceptable performance, especially in applications involving very large scale databases. In an effort to extend the existing technology for fingerprint verification, we propose a new representation and matching scheme for fingerprint using Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT). We extract characteristic SIFT feature points in scale space and perform matching based on the texture information around the feature points using the SIFT operator. A systematic strategy of applying SIFT to fingerprint images is proposed. Using a public domain fingerprint database (FVC 2002), we demonstrate that the proposed approach complements the minutiae based fingerprint representation. Further, the combination of SIFT and conventional minutiae based system achieves significantly better performance than either of the individual schemes.

Park, Unsang; Pankanti, Sharath; Jain, A. K.

2008-03-01

293

Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.  

PubMed

The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises. PMID:22389153

da Costa, Ronaldo Martins; Gonzaga, Adilson

2012-02-29

294

Renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lupus autoimmune mice.  

PubMed

Mononuclear cell infiltration in glomeruli and renal interstitium is a prominent feature of some types of glomerulonephritis, including lupus nephritis. The mechanism(s) underlying monocyte influx into the kidney is not fully understood. Recently, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been identified as a chemotactic factor involved in the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages in the glomeruli of rats with mesangioproliferative as well as anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. In the study presented here, renal MCP-1 mRNA expression in New Zealand Black x New Zealand White (NZB/W) F1 mice, a model of genetically determined immune complex disease that mimics systemic lupus in humans, was investigated. Northern blot analysis revealed a single 0.7 kb MCP-1 transcript of very low intensity in kidneys from 2-month-old NZB/W mice that had not yet developed proteinuria nor renal damage. Message levels, which increased markedly with the progression of nephritis and in association with mononuclear cell infiltration, were 10- and 15- fold higher in 8-10-month-old mice than in 2-month-old mice. By in situ hybridization, increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA was demonstrated in glomeruli and, even more striking, in tubular epithelial cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of MCP-1 protein in kidneys of 10-month-old NZB/W mice, consistent with MCP-1 mRNA data. When NZB/W mice were treated with cyclophosphamide up to 12 months of age, expression of MCP-1 in the renal tissue remained low, the influx of inflammatory cells did not appear, and glomerular and tubular structures remained well preserved. These data suggest that elevated MCP-1 might act as a signal for inflammatory cells to infiltrate the kidney in lupus nephritis. PMID:9176841

Zoja, C; Liu, X H; Donadelli, R; Abbate, M; Testa, D; Corna, D; Taraboletti, G; Vecchi, A; Dong, Q G; Rollins, B J; Bertani, T; Remuzzi, G

1997-05-01

295

Cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice: age-related vulnerability and exploratory behavior deficit.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a mental disease that mainly affects young individuals (15 to 35 years old) but its etiology remains largely undefined. Recently, accumulating evidence indicated that demyelination and/or dysfunction of oligodendrocytes is an important feature of its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the vulnerability of young individuals to demyelination may contribute to the onset of schizophrenia. In the present study, three different age cohorts of mice, i.e. juvenile (3 weeks), young-adult (6 weeks) and middle-aged (8 months), were subjected to a 6-week diet containing 0.2% cuprizone (CPZ) to create an animal model of acute demyelination. Then, age-related vulnerability to CPZ-induced demyelination, behavioral outcomes, and myelination-related molecular biological changes were assessed. We demonstrated: (1) CPZ treatment led to more severe demyelination in juvenile and young-adult mice than in middle-aged mice in the corpus callosum, a region closely associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; (2) the higher levels of demyelination in juvenile and young-adult mice were correlated with a greater reduction of myelin basic protein, more loss of CC-1-positive mature oligodendrocytes, and higher levels of astrocyte activation; and (3) CPZ treatment resulted in a more prominent exploratory behavior deficit in juvenile and young-adult mice than in middle-aged mice. Together, our data demonstrate an age-related vulnerability to demyelination with a concurrent behavioral deficit, providing supporting evidence for better understanding the susceptibility of the young to the onset of schizophrenia. PMID:23558591

Wang, Hongkai; Li, Chengren; Wang, Hanzhi; Mei, Feng; Liu, Zhi; Shen, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Lan

2013-04-05

296

Speaking Activities: Five Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that speaking activities for language teaching make use of a limited and describable number of features to make them interesting and relevant. The author suggests that by understanding these features, teachers can improve the speaking activities they use, and that they can create their own activities, Speaking activities in second-language learning usually involves language functions which are

Yongwu Li

2005-01-01

297

Feature Selection for Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection has been the focus of interest for quite some time and much work has been done. With the creation of huge databases and the consequent requirements for good machine learning techniques, new problems arise and novel approaches to feature selection are in demand. This survey is a comprehensive overview of many existing methods from the 1970's to the

Manoranjan Dash; Huan Liu

1997-01-01

298

Robust Feature Selection Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting a set of features which is optimal for a given task is a problem which plays an important role in a wide variety of contexts including pattern recognition, adaptive control, and machine learning. Our experience with traditional feature selection algorithms in the domain of machine learning lead to an appreciation for their computational efficiency and a concern for their

Haleh Vafaie; Kenneth Dejong

1993-01-01

299

Features for FORTRAN Portability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly summarizes experience with a Fortran preprocessor that simplifies the task of writing efficient and transportable mathematical software. The main part of the paper lists features in the preprocessor and other features that would have been useful to have.

Fred T. Krogh

1976-01-01

300

Escalator Design Features Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors eng...

W. F. Zimmerman G. K. Deshpande

1981-01-01

301

Feature Extraction Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the feature extraction assessment study (FEAS) is to assess the degree to which the DMA feature extraction process can be automated by 1985. The major conclusion of the study is that given the state-of-the-art in image understanding and pat...

M. J. Carlotto V. T. Tom G. K. Wallace

1984-01-01

302

Modular Feature Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRESS (CHISEL Representation Employing Systematic Specification) is a no tation and set of tools for graphical specification and analysis of feat ures. It is applicable wherever a system consists of base functionality to which are added optionally selected features. The CRESS notation is introduced for basic diagrams, feature diagrams, and rules governing their behaviour. Although telephony is used to illustrate

Kenneth J. Turner

303

A framework for feature selection in clustering  

PubMed Central

We consider the problem of clustering observations using a potentially large set of features. One might expect that the true underlying clusters present in the data differ only with respect to a small fraction of the features, and will be missed if one clusters the observations using the full set of features. We propose a novel framework for sparse clustering, in which one clusters the observations using an adaptively chosen subset of the features. The method uses a lasso-type penalty to select the features. We use this framework to develop simple methods for sparse K-means and sparse hierarchical clustering. A single criterion governs both the selection of the features and the resulting clusters. These approaches are demonstrated on simulated data and on genomic data sets.

Witten, Daniela M.; Tibshirani, Robert

2010-01-01

304

A framework for feature selection in clustering.  

PubMed

We consider the problem of clustering observations using a potentially large set of features. One might expect that the true underlying clusters present in the data differ only with respect to a small fraction of the features, and will be missed if one clusters the observations using the full set of features. We propose a novel framework for sparse clustering, in which one clusters the observations using an adaptively chosen subset of the features. The method uses a lasso-type penalty to select the features. We use this framework to develop simple methods for sparse K-means and sparse hierarchical clustering. A single criterion governs both the selection of the features and the resulting clusters. These approaches are demonstrated on simulated data and on genomic data sets. PMID:20811510

Witten, Daniela M; Tibshirani, Robert

2010-06-01

305

Feature Transformation And Subset Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

uction and feature extraction. Bothare sometimes called feature discovery. Assuming the original set consists of A 1 ; A 2 ; :::; A nfeatures, these variants can be defined below.Feature construction is a process that discovers missing information about the relationshipsbetween features and augments the space of features by inferring or creatingadditional features [5, 7, 6]. After feature construction, we

Huan Liu; Hiroshi Motoda

1998-01-01

306

Defeating feature fatigue.  

PubMed

Consider a coffeemaker that offers 12 drink options, a car with more than 700 features on the dashboard, and a mouse pad that's also a clock, calculator, and FM radio. All are examples of "feature bloat", or "featuritis", the result of an almost irresistible temptation to load products with lots of bells and whistles. The problem is that the more features a product boasts, the harder it is to use. Manufacturers that increase a product's capability--the number of useful functions it can perform--at the expense of its usability are exposing their customers to feature fatigue. The authors have conducted three studies to gain a better understanding of how consumers weigh a product's capability relative to its usability. They found that even though consumers know that products with more features are harder to use, they initially choose high-feature models. They also pile on more features when given the chance to customize a product for their needs. Once consumers have actually worked with a product, however, usability starts to matter more to them than capability. For managers in consumer products companies, these findings present a dilemma: Should they maximize initial sales by designing high-feature models, which consumers consistently choose, or should they limit the number of features in order to enhance the lifetime value of their customers? The authors' analytical model guides companies toward a happy middle ground: maximizing the net present value of the typical customer's profit stream. The authors also advise companies to build simpler products, help consumers learn which products suit their needs, develop products that do one thing very well, and design market research in which consumers use actual products or prototypes. PMID:16485808

Rust, Roland T; Thompson, Debora Viana; Hamilton, Rebecca W

2006-02-01

307

JCE Feature Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

Holmes, Jon L.

1999-05-01

308

FeaturePlugin: feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature modeling is a key technique used in product-line development to model commonalities and variabilities of product-line members. In this paper, we present FeaturePlugin, a feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse. The tool supports cardinality-based feature modeling, specialization of feature diagrams, and configuration based on feature diagrams.

Michal Antkiewicz; Krzysztof Czarnecki

2004-01-01

309

Humoral Mediator of Antigenic Competition Demonstrated in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if a soluble mediator of antigenic competition could be demonstrated in vivo, various groups of mice received implants of intraperitoneal Millipore diffusion chambers containing normal spleen cells and sheep erythrocytes (SRC). Priming and boosting the chamber hosts so that a vigorous secondary immune response to horse erythrocytes (HoRC) coincided with chamber implantation resulted in the suppression of the

Susan Zolla-Pazner; Catherine Koehne; Ruth Oratz

1979-01-01

310

Prototype Construction and Demonstration. Operation Breakthrough. Phase II. Volume 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the nine Operation Breakthrough prototype sites and detail how they were built. Operation Breakthrough is the first large - scale systematic housing demonstration program in the United States featuring the public ...

E. K. Muller

1975-01-01

311

Volcanic features of Io  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

Carr, M. H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R. G.; Terrile, R. J.

1979-01-01

312

Automatic Feature Extraction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFES (Automatic Feature Extraction System) is designed to be a testbed for evaluation of semi-automatic and computer-assisted techniques for automated production flow processes. Its intended input sources included National Sensors and LANDSAT imagery,...

J. L. Cambier

1982-01-01

313

Researcher Web Site Features  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Automated Self-administered 24-hour Dietary Recall (ASA24™) Researcher Web Site Overview Features System Requirements Researcher

314

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Thyroid Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials Related

315

Systemic features of COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disorder of the lung parenchyma characterised by varying combinations of\\u000a chronic bronchitis and emphysema [1]. Only recently we have realized that COPD is also associated with significant abnormalities outside of the lungs, the so-called\\u000a systemic features of COPD. These systemic features are clinically relevant because they contribute to jeopardize significantly\\u000a the quality of

Alvar G. N. Agustí

316

Absence of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 Signaling in Mice Confers Protection from fMLP-Induced Goblet Cell Metaplasia  

PubMed Central

The morphological features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in man include emphysema and chronic bronchitis associated with mucus hypersecretion. These alterations can be induced in mice by a single intratracheal instillation of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), a chemoattractant and degranulating agent for neutrophils. The mechanisms underlying excessive mucus production and, in particular, goblet cell hyperplasia/metaplasia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain poorly understood. The proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are widely recognized for their modulatory properties during inflammation. In this study, we examined whether PAR-1 contributes to inflammation and lung damage induced by fMLP by comparing the response of PAR-1–deficient (PAR-1?/?) mice with that of wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were killed at various time points after fMLP instillation (200 ?g/50 ?l). WT mice developed emphysema and goblet cell metaplasia. The onset of pulmonary lesions was preceded by an increase in thrombin immunoreactivity in bronchial airways and alveolar tissue. This was followed by a decrease in PAR-1 immunoreactivity, and by an increase in IL-13 immunostaining on the luminal surface of airway epithelial cells. In PAR-1?/? mice, fMLP administration induced similar responses in terms of inflammation and emphysema, but these mice were protected from the development of goblet cell metaplasia. The involvement of PAR-1 in airway epithelial cell transdifferentiation was confirmed by demonstrating that intratracheal instillation of the selective PAR-1 agonist (TFLLR) induced goblet cell metaplasia in the airways of WT mice only. These data suggest that emphysema and goblet cell metaplasia occur independently, and that PAR-1 signaling through IL-13 stimulation may play an important role in inducing goblet cell metaplasia.

Atzori, Luigi; Lucattelli, Monica; Scotton, Chris J.; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Bartalesi, Barbara; De Cunto, Giovanna; Lunghi, Benedetta; Chambers, Rachel C.; Lungarella, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

317

Memory-Erasing Gene Discovered in Mice  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Memory-Erasing Gene Discovered in Mice Researchers say finding ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Memory Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder FRIDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay ...

318

Of mice and men, metals and mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mutations affecting the transport of copper and zinc in humans and in mice have been discovered over the last 15 years, joining the long known disturbance of copper transport in Wilson's disease. Menkes' disease (classical and mild variant forms) and X linked Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type IX, X linked cutis laxa) have features in common with one another and with

D M Danks

1986-01-01

319

Clonality, activated antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, and development of autoimmune cholangitis in dnTGF?RII mice.  

PubMed

There are several murine models described with features similar to human primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Among these models, the one which has the closest serologic features to PBC is a mouse with a T-cell-restricted expression of the dominant negative transforming growth factor ? receptor type II (dnTGF?RII). Our work has demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells from dnTGF?RII mice transfer autoimmune cholangitis to Rag1(-/-) recipients. However, it remained unclear whether the autoimmune cholangitis was secondary to an intrinsic function within CD8(+) T cells or due to the abnormal TGF?R environment within which CD8(+) T cells were generated. To address this mechanistic issue, we used our dnTGF?RII, OT-I/Rag1(-/-) , OT-II/Rag1(-/-) mice and in addition generated OT-I/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) , and OT-II/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) mice in which the entire T-cell repertoire was replaced with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells, respectively. Importantly, neither the parental OT-I/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) mice and/or OT-II/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) mice developed cholangitis. However, adoptive transfer demonstrated that only transfer of CD8(+) T cells from dnTGF?RII mice but not CD8(+) T cells from OT-I/Rag1(-/-) mice or from OT-I/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) mice transferred disease. These data were not secondary to an absence of CD4(+) T cell help since a combination of CD8(+) T cells from OT-I/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) and CD4(+) T cells from OT II/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) or CD8(+) T cells from OT-I/dnTGF?RII/Rag1(-/-) with CD4(+) T cells from OT-II/Rag1(-/-) mice failed to transfer disease. Conclusion: Defective TGF?RII signaling, in addition to clonal CD8(+) T cells that target biliary cells, are required for induction of autoimmune cholangitis. (Hepatology 2013;53:1094-1104). PMID:23532950

Kawata, Kazuhito; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Ando, Yugo; Tanaka, Hajime; Zhang, Weici; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Leung, Patrick S C; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Ridgway, William M; Ansari, Aftab A; He, Xiao-Song; Gershwin, M Eric

2013-07-24

320

Inherent design features of the GCFR  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several inherent design features of the GCFR that enhance its safety and presents analyses to demonstrate the degree of protection they provide. These features are a subset of a larger group of potential inherent features that form the third line of protection (LOP-3) for the GCFR. The function of LOP-3 is to demonstrate that the inherent response of the reactor system will limit core damage even if active cooling and shutdown systems in LOP-1 and LOP-2 fail. By providing this function with inherent features, which do not depend on active components and are self-controlling, an additional level of protection against common cause failure mechanisms is provided for both protected and unprotected events. The examples of LOP-3 discussed in this paper are natural circulation core cooling to the ultimate atmospheric heat sink and inherent reactor shutdown mechanisms.

Medwid, W.; Breher, W.; Shenoy, A.; Elliott, R.

1980-05-01

321

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

1994-12-31

322

RESTORATION OF IMMUNE COMPETENCE IN TOLERANT MICE BY PARABIOSIS TO NORMAL MICE  

PubMed Central

These studies demonstrate that mice tolerant to human gamma globulin (HGG) regain their ability to make antibody to HGG after parabiosis to normal mice. This can be demonstrated by enumeration of PFC in the spleens of both the normal and tolerant partners. Hemagglutinin titers of normal-tolerant parabionts, however, are exceptionally low; serum antibody appears to be neutralized by circulating HGG present originally in the serum of the tolerant partner. These data support the hypothesis that tolerance to HGG in mice is a "defective" state due to the absence of cells capable of responding to this antigen.

Zolla, Susan; Naor, David

1974-01-01

323

Robust feature detection using sonar sensors for mobile robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonar sensor is an attractive tool for the SLAM of mobile robot because of their economic aspects. This cheap sensor gives relatively accurate range readings if disregarding angular uncertainty and specular reflections. However, these defects make feature detection difficult for the most part of the SLAM. This paper proposed a robust sonar feature detection algorithm. This algorithm gives feature detection methods for both point features and line features. The point feature detection method was based on the TBF scheme. Moreover, three additional processes improved the performance of feature detection as follows; 1) stable intersections, 2) efficient sliding window update and 3) removal of the false point features on the wall. The line feature detection method was based on the basic property of adjacent sonar sensors. Along the line feature, three adjacent sonar sensors gave similar range readings. Using this sensor property, it proposed a novel algorithm for line feature detection, which is simple and the feature can be obtained by using only current sensor data. The proposed feature detection algorithm gives a good solution for the SLAM of mobile robots because it gives accurate feature information for both the point and line features even with sensor errors. Furthermore, a sufficient number of features are available to correct mobile robot pose. Experimental results for point feature and line feature detection demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm in a home-like environment.

Choi, Jinwoo; Ahn, Sunghwan; Chung, Wan Kyun

2005-12-01

324

Favorite Demonstration: Interactive Demonstrations -- Examples From Biology Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrations have long been a part of postsecondary science teaching. However, in today's constructivist classroom we know that to show completely, we must actively involve students in their learning. This need for active student involvement extends to all aspects of instruction, including learning from demonstrations. This article shares three successful, interative demonstrations.

Wilke, R. R.; Straits, William J.

2006-01-01

325

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

326

CBFS: High Performance Feature Selection Algorithm Based on Feature Clearness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy.MethodologyIn this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS) based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature.

Minseok Seo; Sejong Oh

2012-01-01

327

A metabolomic view of how the human gut microbiota impacts the host metabolome using humanized and gnotobiotic mice.  

PubMed

Defining the functional status of host-associated microbial ecosystems has proven challenging owing to the vast number of predicted genes within the microbiome and relatively poor understanding of community dynamics and community-host interaction. Metabolomic approaches, in which a large number of small molecule metabolites can be defined in a biological sample, offer a promising avenue to 'fingerprint' microbiota functional status. Here, we examined the effects of the human gut microbiota on the fecal and urinary metabolome of a humanized (HUM) mouse using an optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method. Differences between HUM and conventional mouse urine and fecal metabolomic profiles support host-specific aspects of the microbiota's metabolomic contribution, consistent with distinct microbial compositions. Comparison of microbiota composition and metabolome of mice humanized with different human donors revealed that the vast majority of metabolomic features observed in donor samples are produced in the corresponding HUM mice, and individual-specific features suggest 'personalized' aspects of functionality can be reconstituted in mice. Feeding the mice a defined, custom diet resulted in modification of the metabolite signatures, illustrating that host diet provides an avenue for altering gut microbiota functionality, which in turn can be monitored via metabolomics. Using a defined model microbiota consisting of one or two species, we show that simplified communities can drive major changes in the host metabolomic profile. Our results demonstrate that metabolomics constitutes a powerful avenue for functional characterization of the intestinal microbiota and its interaction with the host. PMID:23739052

Marcobal, A; Kashyap, P C; Nelson, T A; Aronov, P A; Donia, M S; Spormann, A; Fischbach, M A; Sonnenburg, J L

2013-06-06

328

Gestational caffeine modifies offspring behaviour in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams from two strains of mice, BALB\\/c and C57BR were treated during gestation with caffeine, at doses of about 60, 80 and 100 mg\\/kg\\/day, in their drinking water. The resulting offspring were behaviourally tested over a 6-month period commencing at age 9 months. When compared with controls, mice from dams that had received caffeine demonstrated longer latencies in a passive

C. M. Sinton; J. L. Valatx; M. Jouvet

1981-01-01

329

Three featured plenary sessions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

2012-07-01

330

NASA: Interactive Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amidst many strong and detailed government websites, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) site always presents a rich variety of material for the space-curious public. Their "Interactive Features" area is embedded in their larger "Multimedia" site, and it's a fantastic kaleidoscope of sweeping views of Saturn, fun with the X-15 spacecraft, and more than a few (several dozen, actually) interactive timelines. First-time users can browse through the archive of features at their leisure, or they can also use the search engine to look for specific items. Some of the more noteworthy features here include a timeline which explores the history of "planet hunting" ("PlanetQuest Historic Timeline") and the trip through space in the "Virtual Lunar Outpost". It's easy to while away a few hours on the site and it is one that budding space scientists will want to bookmark.

331

Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

1989-01-01

332

Easy projectile-motion demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note describes three demonstrations that can be used to introduce projectile motion. They are simple to conduct, are fun for the students, and require their participation at all stages. There is no lack of student volunteers for these demonstrations.

Andrew Depino

1999-01-01

333

Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project are: (1) to determine operating characteristics for different solar cell systems and subsystems, (2) to prove, through tests and demonstrations, that solar cell systems can satisfy ...

A. F. Forestieri H. W. Brandhorst J. N. Deyo

1976-01-01

334

Feature Selection Algorithm Based on Association Rules Mining Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel feature selection algorithm based on the technique of mining association rules. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to find the features that are closely correlative with the class attribute by association rules mining method. Experimental results on several real and artificial data sets demonstrate that the proposed feature selection algorithm is able to

Jianwen Xie; Jianhua Wu; Qingquan Qian

2009-01-01

335

A Comparative Evaluation of Sequential Feature Selection Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent machine learning publications demonstrate the utility of using feature selection algorithms in supervised learning tasks. Among these, sequential feature selection algorithms are receiving attention. The most frequently studied variants of these algorithms are forward and backward sequential selection. Many studies on supervised learning with sequential feature selection report applications of these algorithms, but do not consider variants of

David W. Aha; Richard L. Bankert

1995-01-01

336

Molecular, Physiological, and Motor Performance Defects in DMSXL Mice Carrying >1,000 CTG Repeats from the Human DM1 Locus  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3?UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene expression, RNA stability and splicing regulation, protein translation, and micro–RNA metabolism. We previously generated transgenic mice with 45-kb of the DM1 locus and >300 CTG repeats (DM300 mice). After successive breeding and a high level of CTG repeat instability, we obtained transgenic mice carrying >1,000 CTG (DMSXL mice). Here we described for the first time the expression pattern of the DMPK sense transcripts in DMSXL and human tissues. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that DMPK antisense transcripts are expressed in various DMSXL and human tissues, and that both sense and antisense transcripts accumulate in independent nuclear foci that do not co-localize together. Molecular features of DM1-associated RNA toxicity in DMSXL mice (such as foci accumulation and mild missplicing), were associated with high mortality, growth retardation, and muscle defects (abnormal histopathology, reduced muscle strength, and lower motor performances). We have found that lower levels of IGFBP-3 may contribute to DMSXL growth retardation, while increased proteasome activity may affect muscle function. These data demonstrate that the human DM1 locus carrying very large expansions induced a variety of molecular and physiological defects in transgenic mice, reflecting DM1 to a certain extent. As a result, DMSXL mice provide an animal tool to decipher various aspects of the disease mechanisms. In addition, these mice can be used to test the preclinical impact of systemic therapeutic strategies on molecular and physiological phenotypes.

Huguet, Aline; Medja, Fadia; Nicole, Annie; Vignaud, Alban; Guiraud-Dogan, Celine; Ferry, Arnaud; Decostre, Valerie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas; Baraibar, Martin; Gomes-Pereira, Mario; Puymirat, Jack; Bassez, Guillaume; Furling, Denis; Munnich, Arnold; Gourdon, Genevieve

2012-01-01

337

Three Demonstrations of Projectile Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the techniques for three classroom demonstrations on projectile motion for the physics classroom. These demonstrations are the plotting of projectile motion using the overhead projector, photographing falling objects using stroboscopic methods, and a variation in the technique of performing the Monkey and the Gun demonstration.

William F. Poole

1967-01-01

338

Overexpression of Batf induces an apoptotic defect and an associated lymphoproliferative disorder in mice  

PubMed Central

Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of the Jun, Fos and Atf families of proteins. Batf is expressed in the immune system and participates in AP-1 dimers that modulate gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli. Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human BATF in T cells were generated using the human CD2 promoter (CD2-HA (hemagglutinin antigen) - BATF). By 1 year of age, over 90% of the mice developed a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The enlarged lymph nodes characteristic of this LPD contain a polyclonal accumulation of T cells with a CD4+ bias, yet efforts to propagate these tumor cells in vitro demonstrate that they do not proliferate as well as wild-type CD4+ T cells. Instead, the accumulation of these cells is likely due to an apoptotic defect as CD2-HA-BATF Tg T cells challenged by trophic factor withdrawal in vitro resist apoptosis and display a pro-survival pattern of Bcl-2 family protein expression. As elevated levels of Batf expression are a feature of lymphoid tumors in both humans and mice, these observations support the use of CD2-HA-BATF mice as a model for investigating the molecular details of apoptotic dysregulation in LPD.

Logan, M R; Jordan-Williams, K L; Poston, S; Liao, J; Taparowsky, E J

2012-01-01

339

Xenobiotic acceleration of idiopathic systemic autoimmunity in lupus-prone bxsb mice.  

PubMed Central

The diverse genetic backgrounds of lupus-prone murine models, which produce both quantitative and qualitative differences in disease expression, may be a valuable resource for studying the influence of environmental exposure on autoimmune disease in sensitive populations. We tested this premise by exposing autoimmune-prone BXSB and the nonautoimmune C57BL/6 mice to the heavy metal mercury. Although both strains express a nonsusceptible H-2 haplotype, exposure to mercury accelerated systemic autoimmunity in both male and female BXSB mice, whereas the C57BL/6 mice were resistant. The subclasses of antichromatin antibodies elicited in BXSB mice by mercury exposure were more consistent with the predominant Th1-type response of idiopathic disease than with the Th2-type response found in mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA). The appearance and magnitude of both humoral and cellular features of systemic autoimmunity correlated with the mercury dose. Furthermore, environmentally relevant tissue levels of mercury were associated with exacerbated systemic autoimmunity. These studies demonstrate that xenobiotic exposure can accelerate spontaneous systemic autoimmunity, and they support the possibility that low-level xenobiotic exposure enhances susceptibility to systemic autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals.

Pollard, K M; Pearson, D L; Hultman, P; Deane, T N; Lindh, U; Kono, D H

2001-01-01

340

JPEG image steganalysis using joint discrete cosine transform domain features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A JPEG image steganalysis scheme based on joint discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain features is proposed. Intrinsic characteristics of DCT coefficients, such as histogram, intrablock correlation, and interblock correlation, are exploited to construct three feature sets. Support vector machine is utilized to learn and discriminate the difference of features between cover and stego images. First, the three feature sets are investigated separately to reveal their individual capability of attacking steganographic methods. Second, the feature sets are combined to form a joint feature set with better performance. Experimental results demonstrate that all three feature sets individually succeed in attacking the four typical steganographic tools to some extent, with the intrablock feature set performing the best. Furthermore, the comparison experiments show that the jointed feature set not only outperforms the three individual feature sets but also proves to be better than a previous state-of-the-art steganalysis method.

Xia, Zhihua; Sun, Xingming; Liang, Wei; Qin, Jiaohua; Li, Feng

2010-04-01

341

Humanized Mice, a New Model To Study the Influence of Drug Treatment on Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a prominent threat to neonates and fetuses in the Western world, causing severe organ damage and even death. To improve current therapeutic strategies and to investigate new approaches, an appropriate in vivo model to study the immune response of a human immune system is needed. Therefore, we introduced humanized mice as a new model for GBS-induced sepsis. Humanized mice feature deficiencies similar to those found in neonates, such as lower immunoglobulin levels and myeloid cell dysfunction. Due to the husbandry in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) facilities, the human immune cells in these mice also exhibit a naive phenotype which mimics the conditions in fetuses/neonates. Following infection, cytokine release and leukocyte trafficking from the bone marrow to the lymphoid organ (spleen) and into the peritoneum (site of infection) as well as bacterial spreading and clearance were traceable in the humanized mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of betamethasone and indomethacin treatment using this novel sepsis model. Although both drugs are commonly used in perinatal care, little is known about their effects on the neonatal immune system. Treatment of infected humanized mice not only induced the reduction of human leukocytes in the spleen but also increased the bacterial load in all analyzed organs, including the brain, which did not show infiltration of live GBS in untreated controls. These studies demonstrate the utility of the humanized mice as a new model to study an immature human immune response during bacterial infection and allow the investigation of side effects induced by various treatments.

Ernst, Wolfgang; Zimara, Nicole; Hanses, Frank; Mannel, Daniela N.; Seelbach-Gobel, Birgit

2013-01-01

342

Strain-Dependent Genomic Factors Affect Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice  

PubMed Central

Asthma is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous, making the genomic basis of asthma difficult to identify. We exploited the strain-dependence of a murine model of allergic airway disease to identify different genomic responses in the lung. BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with the immunodominant allergen from the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus species of house dust mite (Der p 1), without exogenous adjuvant, and the mice then underwent a single challenge with Der p 1. Allergic inflammation, serum antibody titers, mucous metaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness were evaluated 72 hours after airway challenge. Whole-lung gene expression analyses were conducted to identify genomic responses to allergen challenge. Der p 1–challenged BALB/cJ mice produced all the key features of allergic airway disease. In comparison, C57BL/6J mice produced exaggerated Th2-biased responses and inflammation, but exhibited an unexpected decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness compared with control mice. Lung gene expression analysis revealed genes that were shared by both strains and a set of down-regulated genes unique to C57BL/6J mice, including several G-protein–coupled receptors involved in airway smooth muscle contraction, most notably the M2 muscarinic receptor, which we show is expressed in airway smooth muscle and was decreased at the protein level after challenge with Der p 1. Murine strain–dependent genomic responses in the lung offer insights into the different biological pathways that develop after allergen challenge. This study of two different murine strains demonstrates that inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness can be decoupled, and suggests that the down-modulation of expression of G-protein–coupled receptors involved in regulating airway smooth muscle contraction may contribute to this dissociation.

Kelada, Samir N. P.; Wilson, Mark S.; Tavarez, Urraca; Kubalanza, Kari; Borate, Bhavesh; Whitehead, Greg S.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Roy, Michelle G.; Olive, Michelle; Carpenter, Danielle E.; Brass, David M.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Cook, Donald N.; Evans, Christopher M.; Schwartz, David A.

2011-01-01

343

Pharmacological inhibition of PPAR? increases osteoblastogenesis and bone mass in male C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Infiltration of bone marrow with fat is a prevalent feature in people with age-related bone loss and osteoporosis, which correlates inversely with bone formation and positively with high expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Inhibition of PPAR? thus represents a potential therapeutic approach for age-related bone loss. In this study, we examined the effect of PPAR? inhibition on bone in skeletally mature C57BL/6 male mice. Nine-month-old mice were treated with a PPAR? antagonist, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE), alone or in combination with active vitamin D (1,25[OH](2) D(3) ) for 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomography and bone histomorphometry indicated that mice treated with either BADGE or BADGE?+?1,25(OH)(2) D(3) had significantly increased bone volume and improved bone quality compared with vehicle-treated mice. This phenotype occurred in the absence of alterations in osteoclast number. Furthermore, the BADGE?+?1,25(OH)(2) D(3) -treated mice exhibited higher levels of unmineralized osteoid. All of the treated groups showed a significant increase in circulating levels of bone formation markers without changes in bone resorption markers, while blood glucose, parathyroid hormone, and Ca(+) remained normal. Furthermore, treatment with BADGE induced higher levels of expression of vitamin D receptor within the bone marrow. Overall, treated mice showed higher levels of osteoblastogenesis and bone formation concomitant with decreased marrow adiposity and ex vivo adipogenesis. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PPAR? may represent an effective anabolic therapy for osteoporosis in the near future. PMID:23044841

Duque, Gustavo; Li, Wei; Vidal, Christopher; Bermeo, Sandra; Rivas, Daniel; Henderson, Janet

2013-03-01

344

Specific features of underwater \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of investigation s on specific features of acoustic conditions in the Gulf of Gdansk formed by the impact of Vistula water. On the basis of monthly temperature and salinity distributions averaged over 20 years, the annual changes in chosen thermodynamic and acoustic parameters have been determined at the station ZN2 close to the Vistula mouth, at

Kozaczka Eugeniusz; Grelowska Grazyna; Gdynia Poland

345

Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

1995-01-01

346

Featuring People in Ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a book chapter from a new casebook, Advertising & Marketing Law: Cases and Materials, by Rebecca Tushnet and Eric Goldman. This chapter examines the legal issues arising from featuring people in advertisements, including publicity rights and endorsement\\/testimonial guidelines.

Eric Goldman; Rebecca Tushnet

2012-01-01

347

Using STEP to integrate design features with manufacturing features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several parametric or variational feature-based solid modeling design tools that aid the user in productively creating a product design. However, most of these systems do not address mapping from the design feature to the manufacturing feature. ...

S. L. Brooks W. J. Kirk W. R. Simons C. W. Brown R. B. Greenway

1995-01-01

348

A toxicogenomic approach for the prediction of murine hepatocarcinogenesis using ensemble feature selection.  

PubMed

The current strategy for identifying the carcinogenicity of drugs involves the 2-year bioassay in male and female rats and mice. As this assay is cost-intensive and time-consuming there is a high interest in developing approaches for the screening and prioritization of drug candidates in preclinical safety evaluations. Predictive models based on toxicogenomics investigations after short-term exposure have shown their potential for assessing the carcinogenic risk. In this study, we investigated a novel method for the evaluation of toxicogenomics data based on ensemble feature selection in conjunction with bootstrapping for the purpose to derive reproducible and characteristic multi-gene signatures. This method was evaluated on a microarray dataset containing global gene expression data from liver samples of both male and female mice. The dataset was generated by the IMI MARCAR consortium and included gene expression profiles of genotoxic and nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens obtained after treatment of CD-1 mice for 3 or 14 days. We developed predictive models based on gene expression data of both sexes and the models were employed for predicting the carcinogenic class of diverse compounds. Comparing the predictivity of our multi-gene signatures against signatures from literature, we demonstrated that by incorporating our gene sets as features slightly higher accuracy is on average achieved by a representative set of state-of-the art supervised learning methods. The constructed models were also used for the classification of Cyproterone acetate (CPA), Wy-14643 (WY) and Thioacetamid (TAA), whose primary mechanism of carcinogenicity is controversially discussed. Based on the extracted mouse liver gene expression patterns, CPA would be predicted as a nongenotoxic compound. In contrast, both WY and TAA would be classified as genotoxic mouse hepatocarcinogens. PMID:24040119

Eichner, Johannes; Kossler, Nadine; Wrzodek, Clemens; Kalkuhl, Arno; Bach Toft, Dorthe; Ostenfeldt, Nina; Richard, Virgile; Zell, Andreas

2013-09-10

349

The MICE luminosity monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of simulation codes.

Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P.

2013-02-01

350

Mining features for sequence classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification algorithms are difficult to apply to sequential examples because there is a vast number of potentially useful features for describing each example. Past work on feature selection has focused on searching the space of all subsets of features, which is intractable for large feature sets. We adapt sequence mining techniques to act as a preprocessor to select features for

Neal Leshl; Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Mitsunori Ogihara

1999-01-01

351

MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the project leader manage data access through a web-interface represent Phase I implementation. In Phase II, features for uploading image analysis scripts and results back to the MICE server will be implemented, as well as mechanisms facilitating asynchronous and synchronous discussion, annotation, and analysis. Most of MICE features are being implemented in the Plone5 object-oriented database environment which greatly shortens developmental time and effort by the reuse of a variety of Plone's open-source modules for Content Management Systems.7, 8 The open-source modules are well suited as an implementation basis of MICE and provide data integration as a built-in primitive.

Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

2006-03-01

352

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

353

Demonstration: Male Workers in Day Care. Demonstration Project Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration project using young men as day care workers in the Early Learning and Child care centers in Atlanta is described. The proposal for the demonstration project and a progress report are given. Four white advantaged and four black disadvantaged male high school students were recruited to work as caregivers for black and white boys and…

McCandless, B. R.

354

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

355

Fusion of Multiple Facial Features for Age Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel age estimation method is presented which improves performance by fusing complementary information acquired from global and local features of the face. Two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA) is used for dimensionality reduction and construction of individual feature spaces. Each feature space contributes a confidence value which is calculated by Support vector machines (SVMs). The confidence values of all the facial features are then fused for final age estimation. Experimental results demonstrate that fusing multiple facial features can achieve significant accuracy gains over any single feature. Finally, we propose a fusion method that further improves accuracy.

Lu, Li; Shi, Pengfei

356

Prenatal hypoxia may aggravate the cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in APPSwe/PS1A246E transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) arise through interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It is believed that hypoxia is an important environmental factor influencing the development of AD. Our group has previously demonstrated that hypoxia increased ?-amyloid (A?) generation in aged AD mice. Here, we further investigate the pathological role of prenatal hypoxia in AD. We exposed the pregnant APP(Swe)/PS1(A246E) transgenic mice to high-altitude hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber during days 7-20 of gestation. We found that prenatal hypoxic mice exhibited a remarkable deficit in spatial learning and memory and a significant decrease in synapses. We also documented a significantly higher level of amyloid precursor protein, lower level of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin, and increased A? accumulation in the brain of prenatal hypoxic mice. Finally, we demonstrated striking neuropathologic changes in prenatal hypoxic AD mice, showing increased phosphorylation of tau, decreased hypoxia-induced factor, and enhanced activation of astrocytes and microglia. These data suggest that although the characteristic features of AD appear later in life, hypoxemia in the prenatal stage may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease, supporting the notion that environmental factors can trigger or aggravate AD. PMID:22795785

Zhang, Xin; Li, Lixi; Zhang, Xiaojie; Xie, Wenjie; Li, Liang; Yang, Dehua; Heng, Xin; Du, Yunlan; Doody, Rachelle S; Le, Weidong

2012-07-15

357

Diaphragm muscle sarcopenia in aging mice.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia, defined as muscle weakness and fiber atrophy, of respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm (DIAm) has not been well characterized. The DIAm is the main inspiratory muscle and knowledge of DIAm sarcopenia is important for establishing the effects of aging on respiratory function. We hypothesized that aging is associated with a loss of DIAm force and reduced fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and that these changes vary across fiber types. DIAm sarcopenia was assessed in young (5month; n=11) and old (23month; n=12) wild-type mice reflecting ~100 and 75% survival, respectively. In addition, DIAm sarcopenia was evaluated in BubR1(H/H) mice (n=4) that display accelerated aging (~60% survival at 5months) as a result of expression of a hypomorphic allele (H) of the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1. Maximum specific force (normalized for CSA) of the DIAm was 34% less in old mice and 57% lower in BubR1(H/H) mice compared to young mice. Mean CSA of type IIx and/or IIb DIAm fibers was 27% smaller in old wild-type mice and 47% smaller in BubR1(H/H) mice compared to young mice. Mean CSA of type I or IIa fibers was not different between groups. Collectively these results demonstrate sarcopenia of the DIAm in aging wild-type mice and in BubR1(H/H) mice displaying accelerated aging. Sarcopenia may limit the ability of the DIAm to accomplish expulsive, non-ventilatory behaviors essential for airway clearance. As a result, these changes in the DIAm may contribute to respiratory complications with aging. PMID:23792145

Greising, Sarah M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Gorman, Britney A; Ermilov, Leonid G; Sieck, Gary C

2013-06-19

358

Integrating electrostatics with demonstrations and interactive teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching electrostatics is challenging due to its complexity and high degree of abstraction. To facilitate students' understanding of the meanings and relations of the key terms, this paper describes a series of demonstrations and conceptual questions based on an interactive teaching approach. The context was an introductory university physics course for engineering and science students in Taiwan. Features of the teaching intervention include the utilization of a series of demonstrations for repeated practice applying the important concepts, the incorporation of derivations of equations and verbal elaboration of concepts, and the engagement of students in thinking and discussing. Data show that the teaching intervention benefited the students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the learning achievement.

Chang, Wheijen

2011-02-01

359

CBFS: High Performance Feature Selection Algorithm Based on Feature Clearness  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. Methodology In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS) based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. Conclusions/Significance From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

Seo, Minseok; Oh, Sejong

2012-01-01

360

Autism-like socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies in mice lacking heparan sulfate  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate regulates diverse cell-surface signaling events, and its roles in the development of the nervous system recently have been increasingly uncovered by studies using genetic models carrying mutations of genes encoding enzymes for its synthesis. On the other hand, the role of heparan sulfate in the physiological function of the adult brain has been poorly characterized, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting its role in the regulation of synaptic function. To address this issue, we eliminated heparan sulfate from postnatal neurons by conditionally inactivating Ext1, the gene encoding an enzyme essential for heparan sulfate synthesis. Resultant conditional mutant mice show no detectable morphological defects in the cytoarchitecture of the brain. Remarkably, these mutant mice recapitulate almost the full range of autistic symptoms, including impairments in social interaction, expression of stereotyped, repetitive behavior, and impairments in ultrasonic vocalization, as well as some associated features. Mapping of neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry demonstrates that neuronal activation in response to social stimulation is attenuated in the amygdala in these mice. Electrophysiology in amygdala pyramidal neurons shows an attenuation of excitatory synaptic transmission, presumably because of the reduction in the level of synaptically localized AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Our results demonstrate that heparan sulfate is critical for normal functioning of glutamatergic synapses and that its deficiency mediates socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies characteristic for autism.

Irie, Fumitoshi; Badie-Mahdavi, Hedieh; Yamaguchi, Yu

2012-01-01

361

A Cyclosporine-Sensitive Psoriasis-Like Disease Produced in Tie2 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model.

Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S.; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J.

2005-01-01

362

A cyclosporine-sensitive psoriasis-like disease produced in Tie2 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model. PMID:15743796

Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J

2005-03-01

363

Hepcidin as a therapeutic tool to limit iron overload and improve anemia in ?-thalassemic mice  

PubMed Central

Excessive iron absorption is one of the main features of ?-thalassemia and can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Serial analyses of ?-thalassemic mice indicate that while hemoglobin levels decrease over time, the concentration of iron in the liver, spleen, and kidneys markedly increases. Iron overload is associated with low levels of hepcidin, a peptide that regulates iron metabolism by triggering degradation of ferroportin, an iron-transport protein localized on absorptive enterocytes as well as hepatocytes and macrophages. Patients with ?-thalassemia also have low hepcidin levels. These observations led us to hypothesize that more iron is absorbed in ?-thalassemia than is required for erythropoiesis and that increasing the concentration of hepcidin in the body of such patients might be therapeutic, limiting iron overload. Here we demonstrate that a moderate increase in expression of hepcidin in ?-thalassemic mice limits iron overload, decreases formation of insoluble membrane-bound globins and reactive oxygen species, and improves anemia. Mice with increased hepcidin expression also demonstrated an increase in the lifespan of their red cells, reversal of ineffective erythropoiesis and splenomegaly, and an increase in total hemoglobin levels. These data led us to suggest that therapeutics that could increase hepcidin levels or act as hepcidin agonists might help treat the abnormal iron absorption in individuals with ?-thalassemia and related disorders.

Gardenghi, Sara; Ramos, Pedro; Marongiu, Maria Franca; Melchiori, Luca; Breda, Laura; Guy, Ella; Muirhead, Kristen; Rao, Niva; Roy, Cindy N.; Andrews, Nancy C.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Follenzi, Antonia; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Ginzburg, Yelena; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.; Giardina, Patricia J.; Grady, Robert W.; Rivella, Stefano

2010-01-01

364

NEW FEATURES FOR MCNPX  

SciTech Connect

Many of the features and options recently developed for and tested in LAHETS have been implemented for the next release of MCNPX. The most significant of these are: defined elastic scattering and reaction cross sections for incident particles at all energies in the absence of cross section libraries; attenuated primary beam transport without nonelastic interaction; a new atomic mass data base and the code to access it for all the physics packages shared by LAHET and MCNPX; a new nuclear structure/decay data library and the coding necessary to provide estimation of metastable state production; and the cross section calculation option adapted from LAHETL4, with output processed by the XSEXS code. Of these features, the first has the greatest impact on calculations with MCNPX.

R. E. PRAEL; H. G.HUGHES; W. B. WILSON; S. MASHNIK

2000-09-01

365

Robust Facial Feature Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust technique for tracking a set of pre-determined points on a human face. To achieve robustness, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi point tracker is extended and specialised to work on facial features by embedding knowledge about the configuration and visual characteristics of the face. The resulting tracker is designed to recover from the loss of points caused by tracking drift

Fabrice Bourel; Claude C. Chibelushi; Adrian A. Low

2000-01-01

366

Evaluating Feature Selection Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the substantial number of existing feature selection algorithms, the need arises to count on criteria that enables\\u000a to adequately decide which algorithm to use in certain situations. In this work a step is made is this direction by assessing\\u000a the performance of several fundamental algorithms in a controlled scenario. A scoring measure ranks the algorithms by taking

Luis Carlos Molina; Lluís Belanche; Ŕngela Nebot

2002-01-01

367

NASA - Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM)  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

368

Leishmaniasis in beige mice.  

PubMed Central

The courses of two protozoal diseases, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, were examined in three groups of C57BL/6J mice. One group of mice was homozygous recessive for the beige gene (bg/bg). Beige mice are the genetic homologue of the human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome and, among other defects, are profoundly deficient in natural killer cell activity. Wild-type (+/+) mice, which respond to experimental cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis by eventually eliminating their parasites, and heterozygous beige (bg/+) mice served as controls; both are phenotypically normal in natural killer cell activity, which is particularly high in the spleen. In bg/bg mice, the course of Leishmania tropica, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, was similar to that in control mice after both primary and challenge inoculations. All groups of mice expressed similar humoral and cellular immune responses to L. tropica antigen. However, bg/bg mice failed to eliminate amastigotes of Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, from their spleens over an observation period of 56 days, in contrast to bg/+ and +/+ controls. Similar levels of anti-leishmanial antibody were produced by all groups of mice, and all mice responded comparably to footpad injections of L. donovani antigen. The results of this study suggest a possible role for natural killer cells in recovery from L. donovani but not from L. tropica infection.

Kirkpatrick, C E; Farrell, J P

1982-01-01

369

Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

2010-05-16

370

[Fibrous splenic hamartoma: imaging features].  

PubMed

Splenoma or splenic hamartoma is a rare primary splenic tumor most often incidentally discovered. The authors report the case of a splenic hamartoma, developed in an asymptomatic man and imaged by US, CT and MRI. This tumor which measured 7 cm in diameter, was hypoechoic with posterior hardening of the ultrasound beam, and not much vascularized as demonstrated by Duplex and color Doppler examination. The tumor MR imaging showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted and hypointensity on T2-weighted. The final diagnosis was not established until the histologic examination of the splenectomy specimen was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor corresponded to a fibrous type of splenic hamartoma. The atypical imaging features which led to splenectomy were probably related to the fibrous component of the hamartoma. PMID:10642662

Chevallier, P; Guzman, E; Fabiani, P; Dib, M; Oddo, F; Padovani, B

1999-12-01

371

Heber geothermal binary demonstration project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work completed on the nominal 65 Megawatt (Mwe gross) Heber geothermal binary demonstration project, located at Heber, California, is documented. Topics covered include progress made in the areas of wells, fluid production and injection systems, power plant design and construction, power plant demonstration, and data acquisition and dissemination.

Vandemark, G. D.

1981-09-01

372

Demonstrative Pronouns in Natural Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine demonstrative pronouns in a portion of the Santa Barbara Corpus of American English and propose a coding scheme that classifies pronouns with nominal as well as non-nominal antecedents into direct and indirect, depending on whether their referent is the same as the referent\\/denotation of the antecedent. In agreement with previous studies, we find that demonstratives more often have

Jeanette K. Gundel; Nancy Hedberg; Ron Zacharski

373

Understanding Statistics Using Computer Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses programs that clarify some statistical ideas often discussed yet poorly understood by students. The programs adopt the approach of demonstrating what is happening, rather than using the computer to do the work for the students (and hide the understanding). The programs demonstrate normal probability plots, overfitting of…

Dunn, Peter K.

2004-01-01

374

A Demonstration on Every Exam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that inclusion of demonstrations on examinations increases students' ability to observe carefully the physical world around them, translate from observation in terms of models, and make quantitative estimates and physicist-type "back-of-the-envelope" calculations. Presents demonstration ideas covering the following topics: mechanics,…

Julian, Glenn M.

1995-01-01

375

Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is being carried out jointly by NASA, the U.S. Department of the Interior (USDI) and Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC) through the technical capability provided by NASA, USDI and contractor support. The project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective

J. D. Nichols

1976-01-01

376

A Demonstration Handbook for Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as a guide for high school and college physics teachers, this handbook contains hundreds of apparatus demonstrations that require only low-cost, everyday materialsis. These demonstrations can be used for lecture presentations, laboratory exercises, or projects. A valuable resource for any teacher looking to perk up their classroom.

2007-06-22

377

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)|

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

378

Severe colitis in mice with aberrant thymic selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tg?26 mice display an arrest very early in T cell development that has a profound effect on the architecture of thymic stromal cells. We have recently demonstrated that transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells restores the thymic microenvironment of fetal but not adult Tg?26 mice. Here, we report that T cell-reconstituted adult Tg?26 mice develop a spontaneous wasting syndrome characterized

Georg A. Holländer; Stephen J. Simpson; Emiko Mizoguchi; Aliki Nichogiannopoulou; Jian She; José-Carlos Gutierrez-Ramos; Atul K. Shan; Steven J. Burakoff; Baoping Wang; Cox Terhorst

1995-01-01

379

Inactive Enzyme Molecules in Aging Mice: Liver Aldolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented that there is a considerable accumulation of inactive fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.7) in the liver of senescent mice. Liver aldolase was purified from 3-month-old mice and used to immunize rabbits. It was demonstrated with the monospecific antibody thus produced that the liver aldolase of young adult (3 month) and aged (31 month) mice are antigenically identical. With

Harriet Gershon; David Gershon

1973-01-01

380

Research resource: RNA-Seq reveals unique features of the pancreatic ?-cell transcriptome.  

PubMed

The pancreatic ?-cell is critical for the maintenance of glycemic control. Knowing the compendium of genes expressed in ?-cells will further our understanding of this critical cell type and may allow the identification of future antidiabetes drug targets. Here, we report the use of next-generation sequencing to obtain nearly 1 billion reads from the polyadenylated RNA of islets and purified ?-cells from mice. These data reveal novel examples of ?-cell-specific splicing events, promoter usage, and over 1000 long intergenic noncoding RNA expressed in mouse ?-cells. Many of these long intergenic noncoding RNA are ?-cell specific, and we hypothesize that this large set of novel RNA may play important roles in ?-cell function. Our data demonstrate unique features of the ?-cell transcriptome. PMID:22915829

Ku, Gregory M; Kim, Hail; Vaughn, Ian W; Hangauer, Matthew J; Myung Oh, Chang; German, Michael S; McManus, Michael T

2012-08-21

381

Research Resource: RNA-Seq Reveals Unique Features of the Pancreatic ?-Cell Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The pancreatic ?-cell is critical for the maintenance of glycemic control. Knowing the compendium of genes expressed in ?-cells will further our understanding of this critical cell type and may allow the identification of future antidiabetes drug targets. Here, we report the use of next-generation sequencing to obtain nearly 1 billion reads from the polyadenylated RNA of islets and purified ?-cells from mice. These data reveal novel examples of ?-cell-specific splicing events, promoter usage, and over 1000 long intergenic noncoding RNA expressed in mouse ?-cells. Many of these long intergenic noncoding RNA are ?-cell specific, and we hypothesize that this large set of novel RNA may play important roles in ?-cell function. Our data demonstrate unique features of the ?-cell transcriptome.

Ku, Gregory M.; Kim, Hail; Vaughn, Ian W.; Hangauer, Matthew J.; Myung Oh, Chang

2012-01-01

382

Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)|

Gilber, George L., Ed.

1979-01-01

383

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations  

SciTech Connect

The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations.

Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

1991-11-01

384

Favorite Demonstration: Demonstrating Emergent Properties in Dynamic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration was developed for an introduction to a soil science class to show how emergent properties are an essential behavior endemic to dynamic systems; explanations for their existence are not dependent on external forces. Emergent properties a

Fink, Douglas S.

2009-09-01

385

Demonstration av Adaptiv Radionod (Demonstration of Adaptive Radio Node).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptive radio nodes are expected to give substantial improvements in future military and civilian radio systems, e.g. improved capacity, higher robustness, and stealth performance. Therefore, we plan a (computer-based) demonstration of adaptive radio nod...

L. Ahlin P. Johansson S. Linder L. Paeaejaervi J. Rantakokko

2004-01-01

386

Tested Demonstrations: A Demonstration of an Autocatalytic Reaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An autocatalytic reaction is one in which the reaction is catalyzed by its own products. Materials needed and procedures used to demonstrate an autocatalytic reaction with bromethymol blue indicator are provided. (JN)

Maric, Dubravko; Strajnar, Franjo

1983-01-01

387

Measuring the strength of mice.  

PubMed

Kondziela devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice. PMID:23770643

Deacon, Robert M J

2013-06-02

388

Measuring the Strength of Mice  

PubMed Central

Kondziela7 devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them beyond the reach of many laboratories which do not specialize in strength testing. Hence in 2000 a cheap and simple apparatus was devised by the author. It consists of a series of chain links of increasing length, attached to a "fur collector" a ball of fine wire mesh sold for preventing limescale build up in hard water areas. An accidental observation revealed that mice could grip these very tightly, so they proved ideal as a grip point for a weight-lifting apparatus. A common fault with commercial strength meters is that the bar or other grip feature is not thin enough for mice to exert a maximum grip. As a general rule, the thinner the wire or bar, the better a mouse can grip with its small claws. This is a pure test of strength, although as for any test motivational factors could potentially play a role. The use of scale collectors, however, seems to minimize motivational problems as the motivation appears to be very high for most normal young adult mice.

Deacon, Robert M.J.

2013-01-01

389

Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

390

[Clinical features of neuroferritinopathy].  

PubMed

Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant basal ganglia disease with iron accumulation caused by a mutation of the gene encoding ferritin light polypeptide (FTL). Six pathogenic mutations in the FTL gene have so far been reported. One such mutation was found in a Japanese family, thus suggesting that a new mutation in the FTL gene can therefore occur anywhere in the world. The typical clinical features of neuroferritinopathy are dystonia (especially orofacial dystonia related to speech and leading to dysarthrophonia) and involuntary movement, but such features vary greatly among the affected individuals. The findings of excess iron storage and cystic changes involving the globus pallidus and the putamen on brain MRI. and low serum ferritin levels are characteristic in neuroferritinopathy. Brain histochemistry shows abnormal aggregates of ferritin and iron throughout the central nervous system. Iron atoms are stored in the central cavity of the ferritin polymer and the E-helices of ferritin play an important role in maintaining the central cavity. A mutation in exon 4 of the FTL gene is known to alter the structure of E-helices, thereby leading to the release of free iron and excessive oxidative stress. Iron depletion therapy by iron chelation in symptomatic patients has not been shown to be beneficial, however before the nset of clinical symptoms, such a treatment strategy may still have some benefit. Neuroferritinopathy should therefore be considered in all patients presenting with basal ganglia disorders of unknown origin. These characteristic MRI findings may help to differentiate neuroferritinopathy from other diseases showing similar clinical features. PMID:19594102

Ohta, Emiko; Nagasaka, Takamura; Shindo, Kazumasa; Toma, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Kaori; Miwa, Michiaki; Takiyama, Yoshihisa; Shiozawa, Zenji

2009-05-01

391

Tectonic features on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is based on the exploration of tectonic patterns on Titan from a global perspective. Several moons in the outer solar system display known stress fields driven or modified by global forces which affect patterns of tectonism. Patterns such as these are seen in Europa's tidal forces, Enceladus' tiger strips, and Ganymede's global expansion. Given its proximity to Saturn, as well as its eccentric orbit, tectonic features and global stresses may be present on Titan as well. Titan displays visible tectonic structures, such as mountain chains along its equator (Radebaugh et al. 2007), as well as the unexplored Virgae.

Cook, C.; Barnes, J.

2011-10-01

392

Rare cardiomyopathies: diagnostic features.  

PubMed

Cardiomyopathies (CM) are an important and heterogeneous group of diseases affecting the myocardium. They can induce mechanical and/or electrical disorders and are due to a variety of causes, they frequently are genetic. However, since their high number and their clinical complexity, the identification is still a challenge. Echocardiography is a very useful tool in the assessment of CM. In this review we aim to define the typical clinical features and to discuss the main diagnostic tool, above all echocardiography that can help physicians in the correct assessment of CM. PMID:23681138

Novo, G; Fazio, G; Di Salvo, G; Di Bella, G; Zito, C; Caritŕ, P; Centineo, F; Toia, P; Mancuso, D; Castellano, F; Carerj, S; Novo, S

2013-06-01

393

Classification by Voting Feature Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new classification algorithm called VFI (for Voting Feature Intervals) is proposed. A concept is represented by a set of feature intervals on each feature dimension separately. Each feature participates in the classification by distributing real-valued votes among classes. The class receiving the highest vote is declared to be the predicted class. VFI is compared with the Naive Bayesian Classifier,

Gülsen Demiröz; H. Altay Güvenir

1997-01-01

394

Feature interactions in telecommunications systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of defining features, services, and feature interactions in telecommunication systems are discussed. Several ways of classifying feature interactions are surveyed. Existing approaches for solving the feature-interaction problem are reviewed. It is seen that no full approach exists; they are all partial solutions. The approaches are divided into three classes: avoidance, detection, and resolution. Avoidance looks at ways to

E. Jane Cameron; Hugo Velthuijsen

1993-01-01

395

Heber geothermal binary demonstration project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics covered include progress made in the areas of wells and fluids production and injection systems. Power plant design and construction, power plant demonstration, and data acquisition and dissemination are discussed.

Hanenburg, W. H.; Lacy, R. G.; Yandemark, G. D.

1981-06-01

396

Vanpooling Demonstration Project. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activities of Grey Advertising Inc. in the design, development, and implementation of the Vanpooling Demonstration Project are detailed. The purpose of the project was to sell individual employers of over 500 employees the concept of vanpooling. Over ...

1977-01-01

397

Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration  

EPA Science Inventory

In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

398

CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)|

Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

2009-01-01

399

Submarine Automation: Demonstration No. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objectives of this project are to: Demonstrate the application of the NIST RCS to submarine automation; and Refine and document the RCS methodology. This cycle of the submarine automation project emphasizes: Continuing investigating and developi...

H. M. Huang R. Quintero K. Young

1995-01-01

400

Rural Health Care Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rural health care demonstration project attempted to develop various types of family practices to serve as models for increasing the availability of primary health care in rural areas. The hypothesis was that family nurse practitioners could be employed...

L. H. Andrus

1976-01-01

401

Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study demonstrates the Fenton reaction, which is carried out using the Fenton reagent that is used for groundwater and soil remediation. The Fenton reaction can be implicated in DNA damage, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and ageing in general.|

Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E.

2007-01-01

402

Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)|

Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

2002-01-01

403

Favorite Demonstrations for College Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peer-reviewed, classroom-tested, and tailored specifically for introductory science courses, Favorite Demonstrations is an essential complement to every college instructor's lesson plans. The book is an all-in-one compilation of 36 popular classroom demonstrations published since 1993 in the "Favorite Demonstration" column of NSTA's Journal of College Science Teaching. The collection begins with a chapter on safety, "The Rules of Research." From there, chapters emphasize conveying scientific principles while making them memorable. The demonstrations cover general science, biology, chemistry, Earth science, and physics while many illustrate the interdisciplinary nature of science by showing how the various subjects contribute to each other's knowledge base. Most are simple to prepare; use low-cost, readily available materials; and can be repeated throughout the day for back-to-back classes.

2004-01-01

404

Novel Third-Law Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)|

Lonc, William

1995-01-01

405

Demonstrate Transdisciplinary Training and Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project directed by United Cerebral Palsy Associations was to demonstrate transdisciplinary training and operations as used in the care of the severely developmentally disabled. Four transdisciplinary teams participated in the training ...

1974-01-01

406

Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classroom demonstrations of selected mechanical properties of polymers are described that can be used to make quantitative measurements. Stiffness, strength, and extensibility are mechanical properties used to distinguish one polymer from another. (KR)|

Rodriguez, F.

1990-01-01

407

Social Service Evaluation Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) of the State of Washington participated in the social service evaluation demonstration project (SSEDP) during fiscal years 1971-1973, in order to test the applicability of an operations research model in...

1973-01-01

408

Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)|

Baker, Blane

2000-01-01

409

Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

GARDNER, M.G.

2000-07-19

410

Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Demonstration Plan is to define a pathway to IR technology implementation and use by addressing these issues. The intended outcome of this demonstration and evaluation is to identify and remove barriers for the targeted use of IR technologies in trucking applications. Positive results will encourage truck operators to demand these systems and motivate truck manufacturers to integrate and install IR as standard equipment.

Proc, K.; Nitschke, B.; Wagner, F.; Anderson, M.; Slezak, L.

2003-04-01

411

DOE/EPA site demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan applies to the technology demonstration of the Retech, Inc., centrifugal furnace under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Evaluation (SITE) Program. Retech will conduct a series of furnace tests at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. MSE, operating contractor of the CDIF, will evaluate the furnace technology and determine the feasibility of further testing based on these demonstrations. This plan applies to the field demonstration at DOE's CDIF. This plan is designed to cover most work assignment activities under the Retech furnace evaluation to ensure safe and healthful conditions. Specific guidance is necessary for workers at the CDIF for the entire demonstration, addressing each of the known or expected safety hazards and contaminants. The layout of the exclusion zone and decontamination areas at the CDIF has been incorporated into this plan. This plan has been prepared in accordance with applicable federal regulations, but should the regulations be changed or if other situations require, the plan will be modified by the SITE Program Health and Safety Manager. The following items are covered in the plan: organization and responsibilities for the demonstration; hazard evaluation of the technology, test waste, and test site; contamination control zones; standard operating procedures (SOP) for the demonstration; protective and emergency equipment; exposure monitoring during test operations; medical surveillance; applicable safety and health regulations; and, references. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Not Available

1989-11-01

412

[Clinical feature of neuroferritinopathy].  

PubMed

Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset disorder characterized by the deposition of iron and ferritin in the brain and a decreased level of serum ferritin. The disease is caused by mutations of the gene encoding ferritin light chain polypeptide. Seven pathogenic mutations have so far been reported, and two of the mutations were found in Japanese families. The mutations are predicted to affect tertiary structure and stability of the ferritin light chain polypeptide and may cause inappropriate iron release from feritin polymers. The excess iron may cause oxidative stress and lead to cell and tissue damage. The typical clinical features are dystonia and involuntary movement. Some patients may present cerebellar ataxia and cognitive decline. The clinical features appear to be restricted to the nervous system. The variety of MRI findings including T(2) hypointense lesions reflecting iron deposits, cystic degeneration of the basal ganglia, and cortical atrophy are characteristic of neuroferritinopathy. Iron depletion therapy by iron chelation in symptomatic patients has not been shown to be beneficial. Recent study shows the iron deposition in neuroferritinopathy begins in early childhood before symptomatic presentation. This finding suggests the importance of early intervention of therapy. PMID:23196480

Ohta, Emiko

2012-01-01

413

Solar feature correlation tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a tracking system that stabilizes atmospheric and instrumental image motion in vacuum tower telescopes. The system is designed to lock on low contrast features, such as solar granulation or other small scale structure. A matrix diode array rapidly scans the scene of interest, usually with a field of 5 arcsec. Images are cross-correlated in real time with a previously recorded reference image of the same area. The drive signal for the image motion corrector, a small, articulated mirror, is generated by measuring the position of the cross correlation maximum. Reference pictures are updated every 30 s in order to adapt to the changing small scale solar features. Performance tests show that the residual image motion in the tracked image is 0.05 arcsec rms compared to a typical 0.5 arcsec rms for the untracked image. The system locks on any small scale structure anywhere on the sun. The bandwidth of the servo system is 40 Hz, or sufficient to stabilize image motion on a meter-class solar telescope.

Rimmele, Th.; von der Luehe, O.; Wiborg, P. H.; Widener, A. L.; Dunn, R. B.; Spence, G.

1991-12-01

414

Selective pattern of motor system damage in gamma-synuclein transgenic mice mirrors the respective pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by substantial loss of both upper and lower motor neuron function, with sensory and cognitive systems less affected. Though heritable forms of the disease have been described, the vast majority of cases are sporadic with poorly defined underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the neurological pathology induced in transgenic mice by overexpression of ?-synuclein, a protein not previously associated with ALS, recapitulates key features of the disease, namely selective damage and loss of discrete populations of upper and lower motor neurons and their axons, contrasted by limited effects upon the sensory system.

Peters, Owen M.; Millership, Steven; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana A.; Soto, Ileana; Keeling, Lora; Hann, Anthony; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Buchman, Vladimir L.; Ninkina, Natalia

2012-01-01

415

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-11-01

416

Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

Virr, M.J.

1992-01-01

417

Demonstration Extension: Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Penny Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This demonstration, if done in the original way, can lead to fires in waste containers (sometimes in the middle of the night after the experiment has been conducted), because pyrophoric zinc is generated by suspending powdered zinc in hot sodium hydroxide. This is avoided by using hot ZnSO[subscript 4].|

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

418

Favorite Demonstrations: A Macroscopic Demonstration of a Microscopic Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding ways to demonstrate microscopic phenomena and contending with life science students' lack of interest in physical principles are two problems in laboratory courses. Describes a clinical laboratory test for parasite infection that can be used to effectively solve both of them. (RT)

Mellen, John W.

1988-01-01

419

Favorite Demonstrations: A Macroscopic Demonstration of a Microscopic Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finding ways to demonstrate microscopic phenomena and contending with life science students' lack of interest in physical principles are two problems in laboratory courses. Describes a clinical laboratory test for parasite infection that can be used to effectively solve both of them. (RT)|

Mellen, John W.

1988-01-01

420

Immunophilin Ligands Demonstrate Common Features of Signal Transduction Leading to Exocytosis or Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the actions and interactions of the immunophilin ligands FK506, cyclosporin A (CsA), rapamycin, and 506BD suggest that complexes of FK506 with an FK506-binding protein or of CsA with a cyclophilin (CsA-binding protein) inhibit the T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction that results in the transcription of interleukin 2. Now we report an identical spectrum of activities of FK506, CsA, rapamycin,

Thomas Hultsch; Mark W. Albers; Stuart L. Schreiber; R. J. Hohman

1991-01-01

421

Allelotypes of lung adenocarcinomas featuring ALK fusion demonstrate fewer onco- and suppressor gene changes  

PubMed Central

Background A subset of lung adenocarcinomas harboring an EML4-ALK fusion gene resulting in dominant oncogenic activity has emerged as a target for specific therapy. EML4-ALK fusion confers a characteristic histology and is detected more frequently in never or light smokers and younger patients. Methods To gain insights into etiology and carcinogenic mechanisms we conducted analyses to compare allelotypes of 35 ALK fusion-positive and 95 -negative tumours using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and especially designed software which enabled precise global genomic profiling. Results Overall aberration numbers (gains + losses) of chromosomal alterations were 8.42 and 9.56 in tumours with and without ALK fusion, respectively, the difference not being statistically significant, although patterns of gain and loss were distinct. Interestingly, among selected genomic regions, oncogene-related examples such as 1p34.3(MYCL1), 7q11.2(EGFR), 7p21.1, 8q24.21(MYC), 16p13.3, 17q12(ERBB2) and 17q25.1 showed significantly less gain. Also, changes in tumour suppressor gene-related regions, such as 9p21.3 (CDKN2A) 9p23-24.1 (PTPRD), 13q14.2 (RB1), were significantly fewer in tumours with ALK fusion. Conclusion Global genomic comparison with SNP arrays showed tumours with ALK fusion to have fewer alterations in oncogenes and suppressor genes despite a similar overall aberration frequency, suggesting very strong oncogenic potency of ALK activation by gene fusion.

2013-01-01

422

Fish Oil Has Beneficial Effects on Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation and Hyperreactivity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Fish oil (FO) is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which have been suggested to be anti-inflammatory and are associated with improvement of several inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the influence of FO on allergen-induced lung inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in mice. Methods Male A/J mice were fed either a standard-chow (SC) or a FO diet (FO) for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, each group was further randomized for ovalbumin (SC-OVA and FO-OVA) or saline (SC-SAL and FO-SAL) challenge. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine, 24h after the last challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for leukocyte counts. Lung tissue mucus deposition, peribronchiolar matrix deposition and eosinophil infiltration were quantified. Serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 (ref 2.2), lung IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, INF? and eotaxin-1 and 2 were detected by ELISA and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), GATA-3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) expression was measured by Western blot. Results Levels of serum IgE and IgG1 were significantly higher in OVA sensitized mice. OVA challenge resulted in increased eosinophil infiltration, increased inflammatory cytokine production, peribronchiolar matrix and mucus deposition and airway hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Elevated lung NF?B and GATA-3 expression was noted in OVA-challenged mice. These changes were attenuated in mice fed with FO diet. Higher PPAR? expression was also detected in the lungs from the FO-fed groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that FO intake attenuated classical asthma features by suppressing the systemic sensitization, thus providing evidence that FO might be a prophylactic alternative for asthma prevention.

Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Ferreira, Tatiana Paula Teixeira; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marco Aurelio; Silva, Patricia Machado Rodrigues; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

2013-01-01

423

Microcephalia with mandibular and dental dysplasia in adult Zmpste24-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

ZMPSTE24 (also called FACE-1) is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the post-translational processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a major component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene or in that encoding its substrate prelamin A (LMNA) result in a series of human inherited diseases known collectively as laminopathies and showing regional or systemic manifestations (i.e. the Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome). Typically, patients suffering some laminopathies show craniofacial or mandible anomalies, aberrant dentition or facial features characteristic of aged persons. To analyse whether Zmpste24?/– mice reproduce the cranial phenotype observed in humans due to mutations in ZMPSTE24or LMNA, we conducted a craniometric study based on micro-computer tomography (µCT) images. Furthermore, using simple radiology, µCT, µCT-densitometry and scanning electron microscopy, we analysed the mandible and the teeth from Zmpste24?/– mice. Finally, the structure of the lower incisor was investigated using an H&E technique. The results demonstrate that Zmpste24?/– mice are microcephalic and show mandibular and dental dysplasia affecting only the mandible teeth. In all cases, the lower incisor of mice lacking Zmpste24 was smaller than in control animals, showed cylindrical morphology and a transverse fissure at the incisal edge, and the pulpal cavity was severely reduced. Structurally, the dental layers were normally arranged but cellular layers were disorganized. The inferior molars showed a reduced cusp size. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Zmpste24?/– mice represent a good model to analyse the craniofacial and teeth malformations characteristic of lamin-related pathologies, and might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events underlying these diseases.

de Carlos, F; Varela, I; Germana, A; Montalbano, G; Freije, J M P; Vega, J A; Lopez-Otin, C; Cobo, J M

2008-01-01

424

Evaluation of feature descriptors for texture classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful execution of tasks such as image classification, object detection and recognition, and scene classification depends on the definition of a set of features able to describe images effectively. Texture is among the features used by the human visual system. It provides information regarding spatial distribution, changes in brightness, and description regarding the structural arrangement of surfaces. However, although the visual human system is extremely accurate to recognize and describe textures, it is difficult to define a set of textural descriptors to be used in image analysis on different application domains. This work evaluates several texture descriptors and demonstrates that the combination of descriptors can improve the performance of texture classification.

Schwartz, William Robson; Roberti de Siqueira, Fernando; Pedrini, Helio

2012-04-01

425

Secondary School Feature Columns: Mission Statements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This feature brings to light inexpensive materials for laboratories and demonstrations, especially those that would be of interest to high school or introductory college teachers. Articles describing the construction and use of apparatus or electronic devices should be based on materials that are readily available at relatively low cost. Techniques required for fabrication or assembly should be relatively simple. Tools required should be items that are likely to be accessible, such as a soldering iron, multimeter, electric drill, or scroll saw. Techniques requiring the use of more sophisticated instruments such as a wave form generator or digital caliper would be less appropriate for this feature.

1997-09-01

426

Hepatic haemangioma: Common and uncommon imaging features.  

PubMed

The haemangioma, the most common non-cystic hepatic lesion, most often discovered by chance, may in certain situations raise diagnostic problems in imaging. In this article, the authors first demonstrate that the radiological appearance of the hepatic haemangioma, in its typical form, is closely related to three known histological sub-types. They then show that certain atypical features should be known in order to establish a diagnosis. They also observe the potential interactions between the haemangioma, an active vascular lesion, and the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Finally, they discuss the specific paediatric features of hepatic haemangiomas and illustrate the case of a hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:23796395

Klotz, T; Montoriol, P-F; Da Ines, D; Petitcolin, V; Joubert-Zakeyh, J; Garcier, J-M

2013-06-21

427

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

Kostelnik, K.M.

1991-12-01

428

Feature selection for computer-aided polyp detection using MRMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In building robust classifiers for computer-aided detection (CAD) of lesions, selection of relevant features is of fundamental importance. Typically one is interested in determining which, of a large number of potentially redundant or noisy features, are most discriminative for classification. Searching all possible subsets of features is impractical computationally. This paper proposes a feature selection scheme combining AdaBoost with the Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (MRMR) to focus on the most discriminative features. A fitness function is designed to determine the optimal number of features in a forward wrapper search. Bagging is applied to reduce the variance of the classifier and make a reliable selection. Experiments demonstrate that by selecting just 11 percent of the total features, the classifier can achieve better prediction on independent test data compared to the 70 percent of the total features selected by AdaBoost.

Yang, Xiaoyun; Tek, Boray; Beddoe, Gareth; Slabaugh, Greg

2010-03-01

429

Creature Feature: Vampire Bats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from National Geographic (last mentioned in the October 11, 2002 Scout Report) offers a short multimedia introduction to vampire bats. Geared toward younger kids, this site includes vampire bat audio and video files, Fun Facts in the form of a brief but educational article, a map of vampire bat global distribution, links to bat-related Web sites, and an email postcard. It may be too late to get much Halloween mileage out of this site, but teachers and students should enjoy this quick and very visual look at a fascinating animal. The site includes links to other National Geographic Creature Features, and could be useful for reports and other activities.

2002-01-01

430

Multispectral Image Feature Points  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH) descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

Aguilera, Cristhian; Barrera, Fernando; Lumbreras, Felipe; Sappa, Angel D.; Toledo, Ricardo

2012-01-01

431

PATHOGENESIS OF THYMIC CHANGES IN NZB MICE WITH HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

Lymphoid follicles evolve in the perivascular connective tissue of many organs, including the thymuses, in NZB/Bl mice with hemolytic anemia. In previously published studies, these thymic follicles have been held to be causal in the autoimmune genesis of the hemolytic anemia. The present study contradicts this interpretation by demonstrating: (a) lymphoid follicles develop in the perivascular connective tissue of many organs in NZB mice, and are not restricted to the thymuses; and (b) thymic lymphoid follicles develop in aged Swiss mice without hemolytic anemia. Contrary to previous reports, the thymuses of NZB mice contain normal numbers of Hassall's corpuscles, which develop from preexisting thymic epithelial cells, and not from blood vessels.

Siegler, Richard

1965-01-01

432

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

433

Demonstration of blind quantum computing.  

PubMed

Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available. PMID:22267806

Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

2012-01-20

434

Human respiratory mechanics demonstration model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Respiratory mechanics is a difficult topic for instructors and students alike. Existing respiratory mechanics models are limited in their abilities to demonstrate any effects of rib cage movement on alveolar and intrapleural pressures. We developed a model that can be used in both large and small classroom settings. This model contains digital pressure displays and computer integration for real-time demonstration of pressure changes that correspond to the different phases of breathing. Moving the simulated diaphragm and rib cage causes a volume change that results in pressure changes visible on the digital sensors and computer display. Device testing confirmed the model's ability to accurately demonstrate pressure changes in proportion to physiological values. Classroom testing in 427 surveyed students showed improved understanding of respiratory concepts (P < 0.05). We conclude that our respiratory mechanics model is a valuable instructional tool and provide detailed instructions for those who would like to create their own.

Janelle Anderson (University of Wisconsin Biomedical Engineering); Chris Goplen (University of Wisconsin); Lynn Murray (University of Wisconsin); Kristen Seashore (University of Wisconsin Biomedical Engineering); Malini Soundarrajan (University of Wisconsin Biomedical Engineering); Andrew Lokuta (University of Wisconsin Physiology)

2009-03-01

435

Classroom demonstrations of acoustic beamforming.  

PubMed

A tabletop apparatus permitting demonstrations and hands-on student exercises in the acoustic beamforming of linear arrays is described. The apparatus can be used to demonstrate how interference effects from two or more linearly arranged sources produce patterns of maxima and minima as described by theory. A transmitting array is attached to the top of a rotating table and a receiving transducer provides voltages to a signal processor. Students measure the angular speed of the rotating table and the voltages produced by the receiving transducer as a function of time. These data can be analyzed in a spreadsheet program and compared to theory. The angles at which signal maxima occur correspond well to theory and useful teaching discussions result from comparisons of signal maxima magnitudes. The spreadsheet analysis can also provide the students a graphical demonstration of l'Hôpital's rule. PMID:22423786

Carman, Jessie C

2012-03-01

436

TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1990-04-01

437

A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

Choi, J.; Usery, E. L.

2009-01-01

438

2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4(5H)-ones as potent and selective 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: enzyme-ligand co-crystal structure and demonstration of pharmacodynamic effects in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) has attracted considerable attention during the past few years as a potential target for the treatment of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. In our ongoing work on 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors, a series of new 2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4(5 H)-ones were explored. By inserting various cycloalkylamines at the 2-position and alkyl groups or spirocycloalkyl groups at the 5-position of the thiazolone, several potent 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors were identified. An X-ray cocrystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 with compound 6d (Ki=28 nM) revealed a large lipophilic pocket accessible by substitution off the 2-position of the thiazolone. To increase potency, analogues were prepared with larger lipophilic groups at this position. One of these compounds, the 3-noradamantyl analogue 8b, was a potent inhibitor of human 11beta-HSD1 (Ki=3 nM) and also inhibited 11beta-HSD1 activity in lean C57Bl/6 mice when evaluated in an ex vivo adipose and liver cortisone to cortisol conversion assay. PMID:18419108

Johansson, Lars; Fotsch, Christopher; Bartberger, Michael D; Castro, Victor M; Chen, Michelle; Emery, Maurice; Gustafsson, Sonja; Hale, Clarence; Hickman, Dean; Homan, Evert; Jordan, Steven R; Komorowski, Renee; Li, Aiwen; McRae, Kenneth; Moniz, George; Matsumoto, Guy; Orihuela, Carlos; Palm, Gunnar; Veniant, Murielle; Wang, Minghan; Williams, Meredith; Zhang, Jiandong

2008-04-18

439

EUVE Satellite Data Flow Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on demonstration of the communication path between the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite and a scientist on Earth, where students play the parts of various satellites, ground stations, and science centers. The module includes a Java applet animation of the Satellite data flow and background information on the various communication links. The purpose of this lesson plan is to show students how the data are sent and received by making them active participants in the chain of events. This demonstration also allows students to get a feel for the dynamic of satellite communications and orbital motion around the Earth.

1996-07-01

440

Progress of the MICE experiment at RAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration comprises one cell of the US Neutrino Factory Study II cooling channel. Results obtained on the construction of the beamline and its instrumentation (STEP I) will be reviewed, together with progress towards final measurements of ionization cooling (STEP IV and VI).

Bonesini, M.

2013-04-01

441

IMPAIRED RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN MDX AND MDX/UTRN+/- MICE  

PubMed Central

Introduction Muscle fibrosis is a prominent pathological feature that directly causes muscle dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The DMD mouse models, mdx mice and mdx mice with haploinsufficiency of the utrophin gene (mdx/utrn+/?), display progressive diaphragm fibrosis. Materials and Methods We performed unrestrained whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in mdx and mdx/utrn+/? mice, and compared them with wild-type controls. Results Respiratory function gauged by respiratory frequency, tidal volume, minute volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow was significantly impaired in mdx mice. Consistent with more severe diaphragm fibrosis in mdx/utrn+/? mice, respiratory impairment was worse than in mdx mice at 6 months. Discussion WBP is useful in monitoring in vivo respiratory function of mdx and mdx/utrn+/? mice, and it may serve as an outcome measurement of therapies that target diaphragm fibrosis. Mdx/utrn+/? mice may be a better model than mdx mice for testing antifibrotic therapies, especially at a severe stage.

Huang, Ping; Cheng, Georgiana; Lu, Haiyan; Aronica, Mark; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Zhou, Lan

2011-01-01

442

Acoustic Basis of Directional Acuity in Laboratory Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustic basis of auditory spatial acuity was investigated in CBA\\/129 mice by relating patterns of behavioral errors to\\u000a directional features of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Behavioral performance was assessed by training the mice\\u000a to lick a water spout during sound presentations from a “safe” location and to suppress the response during presentations\\u000a from “warning” locations. Minimum audible angles

Amanda M. Lauer; Sean J. Slee; Bradford J. May

443

Generation and Characterization of Mice with Myh9 Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant alleles of MYH9 encoding a class II non-muscle myosin heavy chain-A (NMMHC-IIA) have been linked to hereditary megathrombocytopenia with\\u000a or without additional clinical features that include sensorineural deafness, cataracts, and nephritis. To assess its biological\\u000a role in the affected targets, particularly the inner ear, we have generated and characterized mice with Myh9 deficiency. These\\u000a mice were generated using the

Anand N. Mhatre; Yan Li; Nitin Bhatia; Kevin H. Wang; Graham Atkin; Anil K. Lalwani

2007-01-01

444

Ablation of TNF-RI/RII Expression in Alzheimer's Disease Mice Leads to an Unexpected Enhancement of Pathology  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe memory loss and cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation, including the extensive production of pro-inflammatory molecules and the activation of microglia, has been implicated in the disease process. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine, is elevated in AD, is neurotoxic, and colocalizes with amyloid plaques in AD animal models and human brains. We previously demonstrated that the expression of TNF-? is increased in AD mice at ages preceding the development of hallmark amyloid and tau pathological features and that long-term expression of this cytokine in these mice leads to marked neuronal death. Such observations suggest that TNF-? signaling promotes AD pathogenesis and that therapeutics suppressing this cytokine's activity may be beneficial. To dissect TNF-? receptor signaling requirements in AD, we generated triple-transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) lacking both TNF-? receptor 1 (TNF-RI) and 2 (TNF-RII), 3xTg-ADxTNF-RI/RII knock out, the cognate receptors of TNF-?. These mice exhibit enhanced amyloid and tau-related pathological features by the age of 15 months, in stark contrast to age-matched 3xTg-AD counterparts. Moreover, 3xTg-ADxTNF-RI/RII knock out–derived primary microglia reveal reduced amyloid-? phagocytic marker expression and phagocytosis activity, indicating that intact TNF-? receptor signaling is critical for microglial-mediated uptake of extracellular amyloid-? peptide pools. Overall, our results demonstrate that globally ablated TNF receptor signaling exacerbates pathogenesis and argues against long-term use of pan-anti-TNF-? inhibitors for the treatment of AD.

Montgomery, Sara L.; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Habib, Diala; Narrow, Wade C.; Knowlden, Sara A.; Wright, Terry W.; Bowers, William J.

2011-01-01

445

SEROLOGICALLY DEMONSTRABLE ALLOANTIGENS OF MOUSE EPIDERMAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

Single cells were prepared from mouse tail epidermis by a method which gives high viability counts and so permits their use in cytotoxicity tests. According to tests with standard alloantisera, the antigen phenotype of mouse epidermal cells is H-2+?+Sk+H-Y+TL-Ly-A-Ly-B,C-PC-. The skin differentiation alloantigen Sk, which is responsible for homograft reactions directed selectively against skin, is expressed also on brain, but not on other cell types; it is present on the transplanted neuroblastoma C1300. Cytotoxicity tests with epidermal cells of H-2 congenic mouse stocks confirm that the Sk locus is not closely linked to H-2. The lymphoid cell differentiation antigen ? also is present on both epidermal cells and brain. Mice frequently retain ?-incompatible or Sk-incompatible skin grafts although they have formed substantial titers of ? or Sk antibody in response to grafting. Male (H-Y) antigen is demonstrable on epidermal cells by cytotoxicity tests with H-Y antibody, as it is also on one other type of cell, spermatozoa.

Scheid, Margrit; Boyse, Edward A.; Carswell, Elizabeth A.; Old, Lloyd J.

1972-01-01

446

Colonic gene expression profile in NHE3-deficient mice: evidence for spontaneous distal colitis.  

PubMed

Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) provides a major route for intestinal Na+ absorption. NHE3 has been considered a target of proinflammatory cytokines and enteropathogenic bacteria, and impaired NHE3 expression and/or activity may be responsible for inflammation-associated diarrhea. However, the possibility of loss of NHE3 function reciprocally affecting gut immune homeostasis has not been investigated. In this report, we describe that NHE3-deficient mice spontaneously develop colitis restricted to distal colonic mucosa. NHE3(-/-) mice housed in a conventional facility exhibited phenotypic features such as mild diarrhea, occasional rectal prolapse, and reduced body weight. Genomewide microarray analysis identified not only a large group of transport genes that potentially represent an adaptive response, but also a considerable number of genes consistent with an inflammatory response. Histological examination demonstrated changes in the distal colon consistent with active inflammation, including crypt hyperplasia with an increased number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells, diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate with concomitant 15-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase 8 expression, an increased number of pSer276-RelA-positive cells, and a significant decrease in periodic acid-Schiff-positive goblet cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated elevated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (38-fold), TNF-alpha (6-fold), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (48-fold), and IL-18 (3-fold) in the distal colon of NHE3(-/-) mice. NHE3(-/-) mice showed enhanced bacterial adhesion and translocation in the distal colon. Colitis was ameliorated by oral administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. In conclusion, NHE3 deficiency leads to an exacerbated innate immune response, an observation suggesting a potentially novel role of NHE3 as a modifier gene, which when downregulated during infectious or chronic colitis may modulate the extent and severity of colonic inflammation. PMID:18467500

Laubitz, Daniel; Larmonier, Claire B; Bai, Aiping; Midura-Kiela, Monica T; Lipko, Maciej A; Thurston, Robert D; Kiela, Pawel R; Ghishan, Fayez K

2008-05-08

447

A Progressive Feature Selection Algorithm for Ultra Large Feature Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in statistical modeling of various linguistic phenomena have shown that additional features give consistent per- formance improvements. Quite often, im- provements are limited by the number of fea- tures a system is able to explore. This paper describes a novel progressive training algo- rithm that selects features from virtually unlimited feature spaces for conditional maximum entropy (CME) modeling.

Qi Zhang; Fuliang Weng; Zhe Feng

2006-01-01

448

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

1992-11-10

449

Hepatic Pathology in Mice after Continuous Inhalation Exposure to 1,1,1-Trichloroethane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Male CF-1 mice (24-34g) were exposed to either 250ppm or 1,000ppm 1,1,1-trichloroethane in air continuously for 14 weeks. Control mice were exposed to room air. Serial sacrifice of exposed and control mice from 1 to 14 weeks demonstrated significant chang...

N. S. McNutt R. L. Amster E. E. McConnell F. Morris

1975-01-01

450

Selective Resistance to Central Neural Administration of Leptin in Agouti Obese Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently demonstrated that in a rodent model of obesity (agouti yellow mice), there is a selective leptin resistance with preservation of the sympathetic actions despite loss of appetite and weight-reducing actions of systemic leptin. Here, we examined whether selective leptin resistance exists in agouti mice during central neural administration of leptin. In agouti obese mice and lean controls, we

Kamal Rahmouni; William G. Haynes; Donald A. Morgan; Allyn L. Mark

2010-01-01

451

Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2'/') were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsen...

452

BIOSYNTHESIS OF DIMETHYLNITROSAMINE IN DIMETHYLAMINE-TREATED MICE AFTER EXPOSURE TO NITROGEN DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies demonstrate the nitrosating potential of NO2 in vivo in 1CR mice. Groups of mice were gavaged with 2 mg dimethylamine (DMA) and exposed to NO2 at levels from 0.04 to 44.5 ppm for periods up to 4 hours. Mice were individually frozen and blended to a powder, aliquots ...

453

Radiation sensitivity of T-lymphocytes from immunodeficient wasted mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice with the autosomal recessive gene wasted (wst/wst) exhibit neurologic disorders, reduced mucosal immune responses, and abnormal DNA repair mechanisms. The wst/wst mouse has been proposed as a murine model for the human disorder ataxia telangiectasia. Experiments were designed to examine the sensitivity of T-cells from wasted mice to ionizing radiation. Results demonstrated that T-cell clones derived from wasted mice are more sensitive to the killing effects of gamma-rays than similar T-cell clones from control mice. Bulk thymocyte and splenic cell cultures demonstrated similar radiation sensitivity. Both thymic and splenic lymphocytes from wasted mice also expressed low proliferative responses to mitogenic stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) that could not be attributed to an absence or reduction in T-cell number. However, following activation with Con A, cell cultures exhibited a marked decrease in the percentage of Thyl + cells in wasted mice, in contrast to cultures from control mice in which significant increases in Thyl + cells were observed. Furthermore, when cells were treated with gamma-rays in combination with Con A, Thyl + cells were decreased in control spleen and thymus, but were elevated in similarly treated wasted cultures. These changes were accompanied by an increase in cell volume in T-cells from wasted but not from control mice. These results describe the sensitivity of T-cells from wasted mice to ionizing radiation; in addition, they suggest that the wst/wst abnormality may be associated with cell cycle aberrancies.

Padilla, M.; Libertin, C.; Krco, C.; Woloschak, G.E. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA))

1990-10-01

454

Dehydration Parameters and Standards for Laboratory Mice  

PubMed Central

Water deprivation and restriction are common features of many physiologic and behavioral studies; however, there are no data-driven humane standards regarding mice on water deprivation or restriction studies to guide IACUC, investigators, and veterinarians. Here we acutely deprived outbred CD1 mice of water for as long as 48 h or restricted them to a 75% or 50% water ration; physical and physiologic indicators of dehydration were measured. With acute water deprivation, the appearance and attitude of mice deteriorated after 24 h, and weight loss exceeded 15%. Plasma osmolality was increased, and plasma volume decreased with each time interval. Plasma corticosterone concentration increased with duration of deprivation. There were no differences in any dehydration measures between mice housed in conventional static cages or ventilated racks. Chronic water restriction induced no significant changes compared with ad libitum availability. We conclude that acute water deprivation of as long as 24 h produces robust physiologic changes; however, deprivation in excess of 24 h is not recommended in light of apparent animal distress. Although clearly thirsty, mice adapt to chronic water restriction of as much as 50% of the ad libitum daily ration that is imposed over an interval of as long as 8 d.

Bekkevold, Christine M; Robertson, Kimberly L; Reinhard, Mary K; Battles, August H; Rowland, Neil E

2013-01-01

455

Demonstration of an instrumented patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration

M. Martinez; G. Renaud; D. Backman; M. Genest; M. Delannoy

2007-01-01

456

Notes of an Itinerant Demonstrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A professor describes his involvement in the Trainers of Teacher Trainers Program (TTT). As part of his contribution to the program he has assembled a series of physics experiments which he demonstrates for teachers and students in both the secondary and elementary schools. A description of the experiments is also presented. (JP)|

Nicklin, R. C.

1974-01-01

457

Demonstrations with an "LCR" Circuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "LCR" circuit is an important topic in the course of electricity and magnetism. Papers in this field consider mainly the forced oscillations and resonance. Our aim is to show how to demonstrate the free and self-excited oscillations in an "LCR" circuit. (Contains 4 figures.)

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2011-01-01

458

Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

2011-01-01

459

Solar heating demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

1980-01-01

460

The Demonstration of Telemetry Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the analytical, techniques which can be utilized in the demonstration of telemetry reliability in a system development program. Analytical techniques have been established to provide telemetry equipment reliability predictions at periodic intervals as functional and environmental test data are accrued. A mathematical model has been developed which allows for a realistic and sound approach to the problem.

Edwin D. Karmiol; W. Thomas Weir; John S. Youtchaff

1963-01-01

461

Techniques for Programming Visual Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual demonstrations may be used as part of programs to deliver both content objectives and process objectives. Research has shown that learning of concepts is easier, more accurate, and more broadly applied when it is accompanied by visual examples. The visual examples supporting content learning should emphasize both discrimination and…

Gropper, George L.

462

E/Z MAS demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities.

Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

1998-12-31

463

A Multiband Passive Radar Demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive radar systems that exploit signals from the plethora of RF emissions that exist in the external environment offer a number of advantages over conventional active radar system, including procurement and operational cost saving. Each emitter has its own characteristics, including waveforms, which dictate system performance. BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre has designed and built a demonstrator system to act

Dale Gould; Robert Pollard; Carlos Sarno; Paul Tittensor

2006-01-01

464

Diffraction Plates for Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the computer generation of random and regular arrays of apertures on photographic film and their applications for classroom demonstrations of the Fraunhofer patterns produced by simple and complex apertures, Babinet's principle, resolution according to the Rayleigh criterion, and many other aspects of diffraction. (LC)|

Hoover, Richard B.

1969-01-01

465

Demonstrations with an "LCR" Circuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "LCR" circuit is an important topic in the course of electricity and magnetism. Papers in this field consider mainly the forced oscillations and resonance. Our aim is to show how to demonstrate the free and self-excited oscillations in an "LCR" circuit. (Contains 4 figures.)|

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2011-01-01

466

GLOBAL EMISSIONS DATABASE (GLOED) DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the EPA-developed Global Emissions Database (GloED) and how it works. t was prepared to accompany a demonstration of GloED, a powerful software package. loED is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool for storing and retriEving emissions factors and activity data on...

467

Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

Prall, Bruce R.

2008-01-01

468

Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

2011-01-01

469

Constitutive Notch2 signaling in neural stem cells promotes tumorigenic features and astroglial lineage entry  

PubMed Central

Recent studies identified a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) within malignant gliomas. GSCs are proposed to originate from transformed neural stem cells (NSCs). Several pathways active in NSCs, including the Notch pathway, were shown to promote proliferation and tumorigenesis in GSCs. Notch2 is highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant astrocytoma. It is therefore conceivable that increased Notch2 signaling in NSCs contributes to the formation of GBM. Here, we demonstrate that mice constitutively expressing the activated intracellular domain of Notch2 in NSCs display a hyperplasia of the neurogenic niche and reduced neuronal lineage entry. Neurospheres derived from these mice show increased proliferation, survival and resistance to apoptosis. Moreover, they preferentially differentiate into astrocytes, which are the characteristic cellular population of astrocytoma. Likewise, we show that Notch2 signaling increases proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in human GBM cell lines. Gene expression profiling of GBM patient tumor samples reveals a positive correlation of Notch2 transcripts with gene transcripts controlling anti-apoptotic processes, stemness and astrocyte fate, and a negative correlation with gene transcripts controlling proapoptotic processes and oligodendrocyte fate. Our data show that Notch2 signaling in NSCs produces features of GSCs and induces astrocytic lineage entry, consistent with a possible role in astrocytoma formation.

Tchorz, J S; Tome, M; Cloetta, D; Sivasankaran, B; Grzmil, M; Huber, R M; Rutz-Schatzmann, F; Kirchhoff, F; Schaeren-Wiemers, N; Gassmann, M; Hemmings, B A; Merlo, A; Bettler, B

2012-01-01

470

Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.  

PubMed

Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine. PMID:24025773

Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cańamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Grańa, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

2013-09-11

471

Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin,