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Sample records for mice peritoneal macrophages

  1. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.M.B.D.; Seabra, S.H.; Vallim, D.C.; Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L.; Vommaro, R.C.; Domingues, R.M.C.P.

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  2. Concanavalin A enhances phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by mice peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Wagner; Gaziri, Daniel Augusto; Gaziri, Luis Carlos Jabur; Felipe, Ionice

    2002-07-12

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that after administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of concanavalin A (Con-A) to mice, the proportion of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal exudate and their phagocytic and candidacidal activities should change with time. The number of neutrophils in the peritoneal exudate was greatly increased 6 h after administration of Con-A, and those cells were able to kill both intracellular and extracellular yeast and germ tube forms of Candida albicans. Addition of catalase to the culture medium reduced the killing of C. albicans, suggesting that the candidacidal activity depended on the myeloperoxidase system. The survival of mice pretreated with Con-A and submitted to an inoculum of C. albicans 6 h afterwards was twice higher than that of controls, which suggests that neutrophils were able to clear the experimental infection. One day after the treatment, the population of neutrophils in the exudate was about 45%, but after 2 days it was reduced to only 5% and the candidacidal activity was also reduced. After 4 days the exudate contained over 95% of macrophages, the candidacidal activity reached a maximum, and the phagocytosis mediated by both complement receptors and mannose receptors was increased. Uptake of FITC-mannose-BSA by macrophages was maximal on about the 4th day and was inhibited by mannan, suggesting that treatment with Con-A increased the activity of mannose receptors. These results support the hypothesis that activation of cellular immunity by Con-A occurred in two phases, one dominated by neutrophils, and the other by macrophages expressing increased activity of mannose receptors. PMID:12110482

  3. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta on accumulation of inflammatory peritoneal macrophages in mice treated with pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Torre, D; Speranza, F; Pugliese, A; Tambini, R

    1990-01-01

    In this study we report that treatment with recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) (10 U per mouse, intraperitoneally) significantly increased the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with pertussis toxin (PT) (1 micrograms per mouse, intravenously). The administration of rIL-1 beta in a single intraperitoneal dose (10 U per mouse) 1 or 2 days before challenge with PT did not prevent the decrease in the number of inflammatory macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice. On the other hand, the simultaneous administration of rIL-1 beta and PT, as well as the administration of rIL-1 beta 24 h after injection of PT, significantly counteracted the inhibitory effect of PT on inflammatory peritoneal macrophages. PMID:2254036

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora

  5. Naloxone treatment prevents prenatal stress effects on peritoneal macrophage activity in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Evelise S M; Sakai, Monica; Carvalho-Freitas, Maria Isabel R; Palermo Neto, João

    2005-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of maternal stress (PS) and/or naloxone treatment on the activity of peritoneal macrophage in male and female Swiss mice offspring. Pregnant female rats received a daily footshock (0.2 mA) and/or a naloxone injection from gestational day 15 to 19. Experiments were performed on postnatal day 30 on male and female pups. The following results were obtained in male offspring: (1) PS decreased both the index and the percentage of phagocytosis, this decrement being reversed by naloxone treatment, and (2) naloxone alone decreased the percentage of phagocytosis. The following results were obtained in female offspring: (1) PS decreased spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced macrophage oxidative burst, this decrement being reversed by naloxone pretreatment, and (2) PS decreased both the index and percentage of the phagocytosis, this effect was prevented by naloxone treatment. These data are discussed focussing on a putative neuroimmune interaction involving opioidergic systems during the ontogeny of the central nervous and immune systems. PMID:16210866

  6. Effect of immunochemotherapy with OK-432 and yeast cell wall on the activities of peritoneal macrophages of mice.

    PubMed

    Mashiba, H; Matsunaga, K; Gojobori, M

    1979-10-01

    The effect of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulants on the activities of macrophages in mice was studied. The number of macrophages and exudate cells in the peritoneal cavity increased 3 days after ip injection with mitomycin-C, cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracil together with OK-432 or yeast cell wall and decreased to normal level after 9 days, while the number of the cells remained decreased in mice receiving multi-drugs alone. Acid phosphatase activity of the macrophages of mice was elevated after the simultaneous injection of yeast cell wall and OK-432, and high activity was preserved in the macrophages of mice receiving yeast cell wall even after 9 days. Spreading of these cells was also enhanced. Macrophage activities examined by these assays were maximal in every respect 6 days after combination therapy. Cytostatic activity of the cells was strengthened after 6 days by combined use of OK-432 or yeast cell wall. Role of the activated macrophages in combination therapy was discussed. PMID:520759

  7. Miltefosine enhances phagocytosis but decreases nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Charlene Barreto; Alves, Erica Alessandra Rocha; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Urdapilleta, Ada Amalia Ayala; Kückelhaus, Carlos dos Santos; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada; Kückelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2012-05-01

    Miltefosine is an anticancer drug currently used to treat visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, also presents a broad-spectrum of fungicidal and antiamoebae activities. It acts on the metabolism of phospholipids and glycoproteins of the membrane of parasites. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of miltefosine (0.4 to 50.0 μg/mL) on the phagocytosis and nitric oxide production by macrophages of C57BL/6 mice to clarify the immunomodulatory effects of the drug on macrophages of C57BL/6, strain mice that is biased to Th1 response. Peritoneal macrophages were in vitro treated with miltefosine and phagocytosis of sensitized or nonsensitized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed. NO production was evaluated by Griess reaction. In the concentration of 1.6 μg/mL and 50.0 μg/mL, miltefosine increased phagocytosis of non-opsonized S. cerevisiae in 59.7% and 214.3%, respectively. For phagocytosis through opsonin receptors, miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) increased the phagocytic index in 208.6% (p=0.04, paired t test). Miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) decreased in 39.3% NO production by macrophages. However, treatment with miltefosine (50.0 μg/mL) after infection of macrophages with Leishmania amazonensis increased NO production in 73.4% (p=0.01, Wilcoxon test). Our data showed that, besides the antimicrobial effect of miltefosine, the drug showed immunomodulatory effects on macrophages of C57BL/6 mice, improving phagocytosis and decreasing NO production, but was able to increase NO production when macrophages were previously infected with L. amazonensis. These results suggest that miltefosine may favor the better evolution of infectious diseases by improving the innate immune response of macrophages. PMID:22465961

  8. Eicosanoid production by peritoneal and splenic macrophages in mice depleted of bone marrow by /sup 89/Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Bautista, A.P.; Pennington, S.N.; Humes, J.L.; Volkman, A.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies showed that the prostaglandin-forming macrophages (M phi) induced in the spleens of CBA/J mice by intraperitoneal administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) could not be demonstrated following the depletion of bone marrow and blood monocytes with /sup 89/Sr. The present study compares prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and LTB4 release by splenic and resident peritoneal M phi in /sup 89/Sr-treated mice and /sup 88/Sr controls following in vivo CP and in vitro incubation with zymosan, calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol ester (PMA). Intraperitoneal administration of CP resulted in the appearance of PGE2- and LTB4-releasing M phi in the spleens of control but not /sup 89/Sr mice. The incorporation and quantitative distribution of 3H-arachidonic acid into membrane lipids, however, were comparable in test and control mice. Neither zymosan nor any of the other stimulatory agents was able to effect significant release of PGE2 in vitro. No release of LTC4 by splenic M phi was detectable under experimental or control conditions. In contrast, the capacity of resident peritoneal M phi to release PGE2, LTC4, and LTB4 was apparently unaffected by /sup 89/Sr-induced bone marrow and monocyte depletion with virtually no demonstrable elicitation. Resident peritoneal M phi removed after CP in such mice showed a dramatic decrease in PGE2 release when incubated in vitro with zymosan, A23187, or PMA. These results, taken with earlier findings, demonstrate characteristically different phenotypic expression of metabolism of certain eicosanoids by splenic M phi from the spleen and the peritoneal cavity and suggest in addition that the induction of PGE2-synthesizing M phi in the spleen by CP is dependent on either an immigrant cell originating in the bone marrow or a regulatory agent derived from a bone marrow cell.

  9. NFATc1 releases BCL6-dependent repression of CCR2 agonist expression in peritoneal macrophages from Saccharomyces cerevisiae infected mice.

    PubMed

    Busch, Rhoda; Murti, Krisna; Liu, Jiming; Patra, Amiya K; Muhammad, Khalid; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Lichtinger, Monika; Bonifer, Constanze; Wörtge, Simone; Waisman, Ari; Reifenberg, Kurt; Ellenrieder, Volker; Serfling, Edgar; Avots, Andris

    2016-03-01

    The link between the extensive usage of calcineurin (CN) inhibitors cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506) in transplantation medicine and the increasing rate of opportunistic infections within this segment of patients is alarming. Currently, how peritoneal infections are favored by these drugs, which impair the activity of several signaling pathways including the Ca(++) /CN/NFAT, Ca(++) /CN/cofilin, Ca(++) /CN/BAD, and NF-κB networks, is unknown. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection of peritoneal resident macrophages triggers the transient nuclear translocation of NFATc1β isoforms, resulting in a coordinated, CN-dependent induction of the Ccl2, Ccl7, and Ccl12 genes, all encoding CCR2 agonists. CN inhibitors block the CCR2-dependent recruitment of inflammatory monocytes (IM) to the peritoneal cavities of S. cerevisiae infected mice. In myeloid cells, NFATc1/β proteins represent the most prominent NFATc1 isoforms. NFATc1/β ablation leads to a decrease of CCR2 chemokines, impaired mobilization of IMs, and delayed clearance of infection. We show that, upon binding to a composite NFAT/BCL6 regulatory element within the Ccl2 promoter, NFATc1/β proteins release the BCL6-dependent repression of Ccl2 gene in macrophages. These findings suggest a novel CN-dependent cross-talk between NFAT and BCL6 transcription factors, which may affect the outcome of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26631626

  10. In vitro Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative stress in mice murine peritoneal macrophages: a duration-dependent approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the free radical generation and status of the antioxidant enzymes in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro vancomycin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treatment with different time interval. Methods Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 5×106 CFU/mL VSSA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide generation, antioxidant enzyme status and components of glutathione cycle were analyzed. Results Superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide generation got peak at 3 h, indicating maximum free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during VSSA infection. Reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-s-transferase activity were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of VSSA infection. But the oxidized glutathione level was time dependently increased significantly (P<0.05) in murine peritoneal macrophages. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 3 h in vitro VSSA treatment had no significant difference. Conclusions From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro VSSA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant status and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25183101

  11. In the Absence of Endogenous Gamma Interferon, Mice Acutely Infected with Neospora caninum Succumb to a Lethal Immune Response Characterized by Inactivation of Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Inoue, Noboru; Makala, Levi; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Otsuka, Haruki; Mikami, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    Following infection with Neospora caninum, BALB/c mice were shown to be resistant to an acute infection but developed a latent chronic infection. However, BALB/c background gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-deficient mice were sensitive to the acute infection. Since the immune response in IFN-γ-deficient mice is scantly known, we examined the function of macrophages, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, T-cell responses, and serum cytokine levels in the mice. All IFN-γ-deficient mice died within 9 days of infection with N. caninum, whereas those treated with exogenous IFN-γ lived longer. Although N. caninum invaded various organs in both types of mice at the early stage of infection, the parasite was not detected in the brains of resistant hosts until 21 days postinfection (dpi). Peritoneal macrophages from IFN-γ-deficient mice were activated by exogenous IFN-γ associated with inhibition of parasite growth and nitric oxide production as were those from BALB/c mice. IFN-γ-deficient mice failed to increase MHC class II expression on macrophages. Moreover, BALB/c mice induced T-cell proliferation while IFN-γ-deficient mice did not. However, in vivo treatment with exogenous IFN-γ induced up-regulated MHC class II expression in IFN-γ-deficient mice. BALB/c mice treated with an antibody to CD4 showed an increase in morbidity and mortality after parasite infection. In serum, significant levels of IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were detected in resistant hosts, whereas IL-10 was detected in IFN-γ-deficient mice. The levels of IL-12 in IFN-γ-deficient mice were higher than those in BALB/c mice at 7 dpi. The present study indicates that early IFN-γ production has a crucial role in the activation of peritoneal macrophages for the induction of protective immune responses against N. caninum. PMID:11427432

  12. BMP4 is increased in the aortas of diabetic ApoE knockout mice and enhances uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein into peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background BMP4, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is upregulated in the aortas of diabetic db/db mice. However, little is known about its role in diabetic atherosclerosis. Therefore, we examined the roles of BMP4 in the formation of diabetic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice and in the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in peritoneal macrophages of wild-type mice. Methods To induce diabetes, ApoE KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin. Diabetic and non-diabetic ApoE KO mice were then fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Next, to investigate a role of BMP4 in the peritoneal macrophages, we examined the uptake of oxLDL in BMP4-treated macrophages. Results Diabetic ApoE KO mice showed accelerated progression of aortic plaques accompanied by increased luminal plaque area. Western blot analysis showed that BMP4 expression in the whole aorta was greatly increased in diabetic ApoE KO mice, than non-diabetic mice. Western blot analysis showed that the BMP4/SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway was strongly activated in the aorta from diabetic ApoE KO mice, compared with control ApoE KO mice. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that BMP4 was expressed in MOMA2-labeled macrophage in the aortic lesions of ApoE KO mice. BMP4 significantly increased the uptake of oxLDL into peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Conclusion We show that in the aorta of diabetic ApoE KO mice, BMP4 is increased and activates SMAD1/5/8. Our in vitro findings indicate that BMP4 enhances oxLDL uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages, suggesting BMP4 may be involved in aortic plaque formation in diabetic ApoE KO mice. Targeting BMP4 may offer a new strategy for inhibition of plaque progression and stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24107300

  13. Effect of triptolide on secretion of inflammatory cellular factors TNF-α and IL-8 in peritoneal macrophages of mice activated by lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Xiang-jun; Hu, Duan; Li, Zhan-fei; Liu, Kai-jun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has been carried out to look for safe and effective anti-inflammation drugs from traditional Chinese herbal medicine. As a powerful research technology of life science, molecular biology has entered many areas of traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) of peritoneal macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. METHODS: Peritoneal elicited macrophages were separated, purified and activated by LPS in mice, then cultured in vitro with triptolide at different concentrations. The activity of TNF-α and the level of IL-8 of cellular supernatants were determined by MTT colorimetric assay and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The activity of TNF-α in macrophages was significantly inhibited (P<0.01) by triptolide (10-1-101μg/ml) during 4-24 hours in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of IL-8 in macrophages was significantly inhibited (P<0.01) by triptolide (10-1-101μg/ml) in 12 hours in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Triptolide could inhibit the activity of TNF-α and the level of IL-8 in macrophages activated by LPS. PMID:25214945

  14. Deletion of scavenger receptor A gene in mice resulted in protection from septic shock and modulation of TLR4 signaling in isolated peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Robert; Cauvi, David M; Hawisher, Dennis; Song, Donghuan; Niño, Diego F; Coimbra, Raul; Bickler, Stephen; De Maio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor A (Sra), also known as macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1), is a surface glycoprotein preferentially present in macrophages that plays a primary role in innate immunity. Previous studies have shown that Sra is a modifier gene for the response to bacterial LPS in mice at the level of IL-10 production, in particular. In the present study, we found that Sra(−/−) mice are more resistant to septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture than wild-type C57BL/6 J (B6) mice. In addition, Sra(−/−) mice displayed initial elevated high density lipoprotein (HDL) circulating levels. Naïve peritoneal macrophages (PMϕs) were isolated from Sra(−/−) mice to understand the possible protective mechanism. Incubation of these cells with LPS was found to modulate TLR4 signaling, leading to a reduction in IL-10 and IL-6 mRNA levels, but not TNF-α expression, at low concentrations of LPS in comparison with PMϕs isolated from B6 mice. No differences were found in LPS binding between PMϕs derived from Sra(−/−) or B6 mice. The lack of Sra binding to LPS was confirmed after transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with the Sra gene. The contribution of Sra to the outcome of sepsis may be a combination of changes in TLR4 signaling pathway and elevated levels of HDL in circulation, but also LPS toxicity. PMID:22751446

  15. Increasing cytotoxic activity and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by peritoneal macrophages during the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M J; Hendriks, T; Huyben, C M; Tax, W J; van der Meer, J W; Goris, R J

    1996-10-01

    A major problem in the intensive care unit nowadays is the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a cumulative sequence of progressive deterioration of organ functions. While the pathogenic pathways of MODS remain to be elucidated, it is assumed that cells of the host defence system, especially the macrophages, are altered in their function. During the development of MODS it is assumed that macrophages are overactivated and that an exaggerated inflammatory response may contribute to its pathogenesis. In order to gain insight into the alterations of the functional status of the macrophage during the development of MODS, a series of macrophage functions was measured in the subsequent phases of zymosan induced generalized inflammation in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a single dose of zymosan intraperitoneally and groups of animals were killed after 2, 5, 8, and 12 days. Peritoneal macrophages were collected for in vitro assessment of the ADCC, the production of superoxide (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO), and complement mediated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus. A single intraperitoneal injection with zymosan resulted in a three-phase illness. During the third phase the animals developed MODS-like symptoms. Peritoneal cells from control animals produced very low to non-detectable amounts of O2- and NO, and the cytotoxic activity was also low. During the development of MODS, from day 7 onwards, the ability to produce O2- and NO2- became strongly elevated, as did the cytotoxic activity. These findings are in parallel with the development of MODS whereas the phagocytic and killing capacity remained essentially unaltered. The changes found could be detrimental for the organism, thus possibly contributing to the onset and development of MODS. PMID:8845029

  16. Impact of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Ratios in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLr-/-) Mice on Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Elicited Peritoneal Macrophage Inflamm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with decreased risk of CVD. LDL receptor knockout mice were used to assess the effect of different omega-6:EPA+DHA ratios on atherosclerotic lesion formation and elicited peritoneal macrophage inflammatory response. Methods and R...

  17. Effect of aflatoxins on rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, V; Costa, G B; Seminara, S

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Candida albicans, and superoxide production by rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, B2a, and M1 at several times and concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the intensity of a depressive effect for each mycotoxin. All aflatoxins used at very low concentrations had a depressive effect on the functions of macrophages. The biggest impairment of phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and spontaneous superoxide production was observed in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1 and M1. PMID:2176448

  18. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qilin; An, Yarui; Tang, Linlin; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Hua; Bi, Wenji; Wang, Zhongchuan; Zhang, Wen

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the risk of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The biosensor was constructed by a three-step method. First, a poly-thionine (PTH) film was assembled on the surface of glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric electropolymerization of thionine, which serves as an electron transfer mediator (ETM). Second, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx), cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and electrode. Finally, the enzymes, GOx, cholesterol esterase (ChE), and ChOx, were covalently attached to the PTH layer through a chitosan (CH) linker. The PTH coupled with GNPs provides good selectivity, high sensitivity and little crosstalk for the dual enzymatic-biosensor. The developed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibiting a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level did not change obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was induced with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, which is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:22027130

  19. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP. PMID:26529190

  20. Linagliptin Ameliorates Methylglyoxal-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takuo; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Irifuku, Taisuke; Sasaki, Kensuke; Ueno, Toshinori; Masaki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported increases of methylglyoxal (MGO) in peritoneal dialysis patients, and that MGO-mediated inflammation plays an important role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis through production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exerts anti-inflammatory effects independent of blood glucose levels. In this study, we examined whether linagliptin suppresses MGO-induced peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were divided into three groups: control, MGO injection plus saline, and MGO injection plus linagliptin (n = 6 per group). Peritoneal fibrosis was induced by daily intraperitoneal injection of saline containing 40 mmol/L MGO for 21 days. Saline was administered intraperitoneally to the control group. Linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or saline were administrated by once-daily oral gavage from 3 weeks before starting MGO injections. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that linagliptin suppressed expression of α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast-specific protein-1, deposition of type I and III collagen, and macrophage (F4/80) infiltration. Peritoneal equilibration testing showed improved peritoneal functions in mice treated with linagliptin. Peritoneal injection of MGO increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in mice, and a further increase was observed in linagliptin-treated mice. Although MGO increased plasma glucose levels, linagliptin did not decrease plasma glucose levels. Moreover, linagliptin reduced the TGF-β1 concentration in the peritoneal fluid of MGO-treated mice. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) was expressed in monocytes/macrophages and linagliptin suppressed GLP-1R expression in MGO-injected mice. These results suggest that oral administration of linagliptin ameliorates MGO-induced peritoneal fibrosis. PMID:27513960

  1. Vagal nerve stimulation blocks peritoneal macrophage inflammatory responsiveness after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Nicole E; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Costantini, Todd W; De Maio, Antonio; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

    2012-08-01

    Large surface area burn injuries lead to activation of the innate immune system, which can be blocked by parasympathetic inputs mediated by the vagus nerve. We hypothesized that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would alter the inflammatory response of peritoneal macrophages after severe burn injury. Male BALB/c mice underwent right cervical VNS before 30% total body surface area steam burn and were compared with animals subjected to burn alone. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested at several time points following injury and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in culture conditions. The inflammatory response of peritoneal macrophages was measured by analyzing changes in nuclear factor κB p65 phosphorylation using flow cytometry. We found that peritoneal macrophages isolated from mice subjected to burn injury were hyperresponsive to LPS challenge, suggesting burn-induced macrophage activation. We identified a protective role for VNS in blocking peritoneal macrophage activation. Analysis of the phosphorylation state of nuclear factor κB pathway mediator, p65 Rel A, revealed a VNS-mediated reduction in p65 phosphorylation levels after exposure to LPS compared with burn alone. In combination, these studies suggest VNS mediates the inflammatory response in peritoneal macrophages by affecting the set point of LPS responsiveness. PMID:22683732

  2. Inflammation status in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages of young and old mice in diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity causes a low grade inflammation. We have shown that aging is also associated with upregulated inflammation in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated effect of diet-induced obesity on inflammation status in young and old mice. Young (2-mo) and old (19-mo) C57BL/6 mice were fed low fat...

  3. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages. PMID:27095137

  4. Sepsis-Induced Potentiation of Peritoneal Macrophage Migration is mitigated by PD-1 Gene Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Alfred; Elphick, Gwendolyn F.; Kim, Ye Sul; Huang, Xin; Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Santos, Sadella C.; Shubin, Nicholas; Chen, Yaping; Reichner, Jonathan; Chung, Chun-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1’s effect on phagocyte function has not been extensively described. Here we report that experimental mouse sepsis, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), induced a marked increase in peritoneal macrophage random migration/ motility/ cell spread, but these changes were lost in the absence of PD-1. Alternatively, phagocytic activity was inversely affected. In vitro cell culture imaging studies, with the macrophage cell line J774, documented that blocking PD-1 with antibody led to aggregation of cytoskeletal proteins alphaactinin and F-actin. Further experiments looking at ex vivo peritoneal macrophages from mice illustrated that a similar pattern of alpha-actinin and F-actin was evident on cells from wild-type CLP mice but not PD-1 −/− CLP mouse cells. We also observed that fMLP-induced migration by J774 cells was markedly attenuated using PD-1 blocking antibodies, a non-selective phosphatase inhibitor and a selective Rap1 inhibitor. Finally, peritoneal macrophages derived from CLP as opposed to Sham mice demonstrated aspects of both cell surface co-localization with CD11b and internalization of PD-1 within vacuoles independent of CD11b staining. Together, we believe the data support a role for PD-1 in mediating aspects of innate macrophage immune dysfunction during sepsis, heretofore unappreciated. PMID:24247196

  5. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Fernández, Luisa; Recio-Poveda, Lucía; Aristorena, Mikel; Lastres, Pedro; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; de las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Corbí, Ángel; Arthur, Helen M.; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Engfl/flLysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Engfl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients. PMID:27010826

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of miR-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rebecca Elise; Conklin, Daniel J; Ryan, Lindsey; Keskey, Robert C; Ramjee, Vikram; Sepulveda, Ernesto A; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Cheadle, William G

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the role of microRNA-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis; microRNA-21 expression increases in peritoneal macrophages after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but is delayed until 48 hours after cecal ligation and puncture. MicroRNA-21-null mice and bone marrow-derived cell lines were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture or lipopolysaccharide, and survival, microRNA-21 levels, target messenger RNAs and proteins, and cytokines were assayed. Macrophages were also transfected with microRNA-21 mimics and antagomirs, and similar endpoints were measured. Survival in microRNA-21-null mice was significantly decreased after lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis but unchanged after cecal ligation and puncture compared with similarly treated wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and programmed cell death protein 4 levels were increased after lipopolysaccharide addition in peritoneal cells. Pelino1 and sprouty (SPRY) messenger RNAs were similarly increased early, whereas programmed cell death protein 4 messenger RNA was decreased after lipopolysaccharide, and all microR-21 target messenger RNAs were subsequently decreased by 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide. Transfection with mimics and antagomirs led to appropriate responses in microRNA-21 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Knockdown of microRNA-21 in bone marrow-derived cells showed increased tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased interleukin 10 in response to lipopolysaccharide. Target proteins were unaffected by knockdown as was extracellular signal-regulated kinase; however, the nuclear factor κB p65 subunit was increased after lipopolysaccharide in the microRNA-21 knockout cells. In contrast, there was little change in these parameters after cecal ligation and puncture induction between null and wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 is beneficial to survival in mice following lipopolysaccharide peritonitis. Overexpression of microRNA-21 decreased tumor necrosis factor

  7. Suppression of Mcl-1 induces apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yu; Wang, Xin-Min; Wang, Chan; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wu, Jiang-Dong; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Zhang, Le

    2016-04-01

    The effect of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) inhibition on apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated and the primary signaling pathway associated with the transcriptional regulation of Mcl-1 was identified. Real-time PCR and western blotting indicated that Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression are upregulated during infection with virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Xinjiang strains but not with attenuated M. tuberculosis strain H37Ra or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression were downregulated by specific inhibitors of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways (AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, respectively). The strongest inhibitor of Mcl-1 expression was PD98059, the MAPK inhibitor. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages is significantly higher in mice infected with M. tuberculosis and the rate of apoptosis is correlated with the virulence of the strain of M. tuberculosis. Apoptosis was found to be upregulated by AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, whereas inhibition of the MAPK pathway sensitized the infected macrophages to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that specific downregulation of Mcl-1 significantly increases apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages and that the MAPK signaling pathway is the primary mediator of Mcl-1 expression. PMID:26876933

  8. Effect of lectins on mouse peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, G; Porras, F; Fernández, L; Vázquez, L; Zenteno, E

    1994-11-01

    We studied the in vitro ability of lectin-treated murine peritoneal macrophages to attach and phagocytize particulate antigens. Glucose and mannose specific lectins such as Con-A and lentil lectin, as well as complex lactosamine residues specific lectins, such as Phaseolus vulgaris var. cacahuate and Phaseolus coccineus var. alubia, increased the macrophage phagocytic activity towards heterologous erythrocytes, whereas peanut agglutinin, a galactose-specific lectin, diminished the macrophage phagocytic activity. These results suggest that a galactose-N-acetyl-D galactosamine-containing structure could participate as negative modulator of the phagocytic activity. PMID:7851961

  9. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  10. Fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, V; Meera, R; Puvanakrishnan, R; Narayanan, P R

    1997-10-01

    Rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the fate of M. tuberculosis inside macrophages was monitored. Alteration in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) measured in terms of nitrite formed, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lysosomal enzymes such as acid phosphatase, cathepsin-D and beta-glucuronidase in macrophages following M. tuberculosis infection was also studied. Elevation in the levels of nitrite were observed from 72 h of M. tuberculosis infection. Irrespective of the time point, M. tuberculosis infected macrophages produced elevated levels of H2O2. Maximum increase in the level of acid phosphatase was observed from 72 h of M. tuberculosis infection, whereas maximum elevation in the level of beta-glucuronidase was observed 48 h after M. tuberculosis infection. However these microbicidal agents did not alter the intracellular viability of M. tuberculosis. PMID:9350049

  11. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  12. Further analysis of the anti-tumour effect in vitro of peritoneal exudate cells from mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, A; Cullen, R T; Woodruff, M A

    1975-01-01

    Administration of C. parvum to both intact and thymectomized mice resulted in the appearance in the peritoneal exudate of cells which inhibited tumour growth in vitro. This effect was mediated by intact, viable adherent cells, which it seems reasonable to categorize as macrophages, and was contingent on contact between the effector and target cells. No co-operation was observed between lymph node cells from C. parvum treated mice and peritoneal exudate cells from normal mice. PMID:1156505

  13. A Role for Connexin43 in Macrophage Phagocytosis and Host Survival after Bacterial Peritoneal Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Gribar, Steven C.; Richardson, Ward; Kohler, Jeff W.; Hoffman, Rosemary A.; Branca, Maria F.; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The pathways that lead to the internalization of pathogens via phagocytosis remain incompletely understood. We now demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in the regulation of phagocytosis by macrophages and in the host response to bacterial infection of the peritoneal cavity. Primary and cultured macrophages were found to express Cx43, which localized to the phagosome upon the internalization of IgG-opsonized particles. The inhibition of Cx43 using small interfering RNA or by obtaining macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or knockout mice resulted in significantly impaired phagocytosis, while transfection of Cx43 into Fc-receptor expressing HeLa cells, which do not express endogenous Cx43, conferred the ability of these cells to undergo phagocytosis. Infection of macrophages with adenoviruses expressing wild-type Cx43 restored phagocytic ability in macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or deficient mice, while infection with viruses that expressed mutant Cx43 had no effect. In understanding the mechanisms involved, Cx43 was required for RhoA-dependent actin cup formation under adherent particles, and transfection with constitutively active RhoA restored a phagocytic phenotype after Cx43 inactivation. Remarkably, mortality was significantly increased in a mouse model of bacterial peritonitis after Cx43 inhibition and in Cx43 heterozygous mice compared with untreated and wild-type counterparts. These findings reveal a novel role for Cx43 in the regulation of phagocytosis and rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton, and they implicate Cx43 in the regulation of the host response to microbial infection. PMID:19050272

  14. Kinetics of tumour necrosis factor and prostaglandin production by murine resident peritoneal macrophages as affected by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hardard'ottir, I; Whelan, J; Kinsella, J E

    1992-01-01

    Cell-associated and secreted tumour necrosis factor (TNF), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were monitored at various times following in vitro stimulation of resident peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Macrophages were obtained from mice maintained on diets containing 1.5 wt% n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)+ 1.5 wt% n-6 fatty acids; 1.5 wt% n-6 fatty acids; or 3 wt% n-6 fatty acids, for 4 weeks. Cell-associated TNF increased transiently in the resident peritoneal macrophages from mice consuming all diets and decreased after TNF secretion had reached maximum and plateaued. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA contained more cell-associated TNF and secreted more TNF than macrophages from mice consuming diets containing n-6 fatty acids only, at all time-points studied. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA showed an earlier increase in cell-associated and secreted TNF compared with macrophages from mice consuming n-6 fatty acids only. Kinetics of maximum TNF production was not affected by the diets and dietary n-3 PUFA did not cause a prolonged increase in TNF secretion. Macrophages from mice consuming the n-3 PUFA produced less PG than macrophages from mice consuming the n-6 fatty acids only. PG secretion increased following appearance of cell-associated TNF but when PG had accumulated in the medium there was no further increase in TNF production. PMID:1398747

  15. Coumarin or warfarin treatment of mice does not increase the microbicidal or tumoricidal capacities of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Filice, G. A.; Remington, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Benzopyrones have been shown to affect several functions of macrophages. We examined the effects of two benzopyrones, coumarin and warfarin, on the capacity of mouse macrophages to inhibit microorganisms and tumour target cells. Mice were treated with daily i.v. doses of either drug. Then the mice were challenged with lethal doses of Toxoplasma gondii or peritoneal macrophages from these mice were challenged in vitro with T. gondii or tumour target cells Survival of coumarin or warfarin-treated mice challenged with T. gondii was similar to that of control mice. Multiplication of T gondii and growth of tumour target cells were similar in preparations of macrophages from coumarin-treated, warfarin-treated, or control mice and were inhibited in preparations of activated macrophages from Corynebacterium parvum-treated mice that served as positive controls. Under our experimental conditions, benzopyrones did not activate mouse macrophages. PMID:7236495

  16. Estradiol Is a Critical Mediator of Macrophage-Nerve Cross Talk in Peritoneal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Erin; Temp, Julia; Esnal-Zufiurre, Arantza; Mechsner, Sylvia; Horne, Andrew W.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis occurs in approximately 10% of women and is associated with persistent pelvic pain. It is defined by the presence of endometrial tissue (lesions) outside the uterus, most commonly on the peritoneum. Peripheral neuroinflammation, a process characterized by the infiltration of nerve fibers and macrophages into lesions, plays a pivotal role in endometriosis-associated pain. Our objective was to determine the role of estradiol (E2) in regulating the interaction between macrophages and nerves in peritoneal endometriosis. By using human tissues and a mouse model of endometriosis, we demonstrate that macrophages in lesions recovered from women and mice are immunopositive for estrogen receptor β, with up to 20% being estrogen receptor α positive. In mice, treatment with E2 increased the number of macrophages in lesions as well as concentrations of mRNAs encoded by Csf1, Nt3, and the tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptor, TrkB. By using in vitro models, we determined that the treatment of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons with E2 increased mRNA concentrations of the chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 that stimulated migration of colony-stimulating factor 1–differentiated macrophages. Conversely, incubation of colony-stimulating factor 1 macrophages with E2 increased concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3, which stimulated neurite outgrowth from ganglia explants. In summary, we demonstrate a key role for E2 in stimulating macrophage-nerve interactions, providing novel evidence that endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent neuroinflammatory disorder. PMID:26073038

  17. Intracellular replication of Leishmania tropica in mouse peritoneal macrophages: amastigote infection of resident cells and inflammatory exudate macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, A H; Hoover, D L; Nacy, C A

    1982-01-01

    C3HeB/FeJ peritoneal exudate cells elicited by a variety of sterile inflammatory agents were exposed to Leishmania tropica amastigotes in vitro. Cytochemical characterization of cells that contained intracellular parasites suggested that young, peroxidase-positive macrophages were more susceptible to infection by amastigotes than more mature cells. Replication of the parasite in these younger cells, however, was similar to that observed in resident peritoneal macrophages. PMID:7152674

  18. Piperine metabolically regulates peritoneal resident macrophages to potentiate their functions against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hao; Xu, Li-Hui; Huang, Mei-Yun; Zha, Qing-Bing; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Hou, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Zi-Jian; Lin, Qiu-Ru; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-10-20

    Pepper, a daily-used seasoning for promoting appetite, is widely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases. Piperine is the major alkaloid in pepper and possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism for linking metabolic and medicinal activities of piperine remains unknown. Here we report that piperine robustly boosts mTORC1 activity by recruiting more system L1 amino acid transporter (SLC7A5/SLC3A2) to the cell membrane, thus promoting amino acid metabolism. Piperine-induced increase of mTORC1 activity in resident peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs) is correlated with enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α upon LPS stimulation. Such an enhancement of cytokine production could be abrogated by inhibitors of the mTOR signaling pathway, indicating mTOR's action in this process. Moreover, piperine treatment protected resident pMΦs from bacterium-induced apoptosis and disappearance, and increased their bacterial phagocytic ability. Consequently, piperine administration conferred mice resistance against bacterial infection and even sepsis. Our data highlight that piperine has the capacity to metabolically reprogram peritoneal resident macrophages to fortify their innate functions against bacterial infection. PMID:26439699

  19. Enhancement of carrier-mediated transport after immunologic activation of peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bonventre, P F; Straus, D; Baughn, R E; Imhoff, J

    1977-05-01

    Immunologically activated peritoneal macrophages from inbred mice and Hartley strain guinea pigs demonstrate a markedly greater than normal transport of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and L-leucine. The degree of nutrilite transport enhancement was greatest when animals were injected with the appropriate eliciting antigens before harvesting and also, if antigen was included in the tissue culture medium during the initial hours of in vitro culture. Enhanced hexose and amino acid uptake could also be achieved by exposure of macrophages from nonimmunized animals for 48 hr to supernatants of sensitized splenic lymphocyte cultures incubated with specific antigens. The animal systems in which this phenomenon was observed included CBA/J and C57BL/6J mice immunized with Staphylococcus aureus or sub-lethal doses of Listeria monocytogens, and the Hartley strain, albino guinea pig immunized with S. aureus or BCG. In all cases, immunization resulted in a state of delayed hypersensitivity as measured by skin testing or footpad swelling. Splenic cell supernatants contained lymphokines as detected by the presence of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), and by the supernatants' capacity to stimulate incorporation of 14C-glucosamine by macrophages in vitro. No increase of glucose or leucine transport by macrophages was observed in the absence of appropriate antigen stimulation in vivo or in vitro. We previously showed that a phagocytic stimulus results in a significant increase in hexose transport by normal macrophages; leucine transport by these same cells was unaltered after phagocytosis. In contrast, immunologically activated macrophages do not transport measurably more 2-deoxy-C-glucose after particle ingestion; activation or the phagocytic stimulus enhance 2-deoxy-C-glucose uptake to approximately the same extent. Analysis of nutrilite transport kinetics revealed that immunologic activation of macrophages increases the initial velocity (V1) and Vmax but does not change the Km values of

  20. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72h functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.

  1. Targeting macrophages rescues age-related immune deficiencies in C57BL/6J geriatric mice.

    PubMed

    Jackaman, Connie; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Soffe, Zoe; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Nelson, Delia J

    2013-06-01

    Changes to innate cells, such as macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), during aging in healthy or tumor-bearing hosts are not well understood. We compared macrophage subpopulations and MDSCs from healthy young (6-8 weeks) C57BL/6J mice to those from healthy geriatric (24-28 months) mice. Spleens, lymph nodes, and bone marrow of geriatric hosts contained significantly more M2 macrophages and MDSCs than their younger counterparts. Peritoneal macrophages from geriatric, but not young, mice co-expressed CD40 and CX3CR1 that are usually mutually exclusively expressed by M1 or M2 macrophages. Nonetheless, macrophages from geriatric mice responded to M1 or M2 stimuli similarly to macrophages from young mice, although they secreted higher levels of TGF-β in response to IL-4. We mimicked conditions that may occur within tumors by exposing macrophages from young vs. geriatric mice to mesothelioma or lung carcinoma tumor cell-derived supernatants. While both supernatants skewed macrophages toward the M2-phenotype regardless of age, only geriatric-derived macrophages produced IL-4, suggesting a more immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment will be established in the elderly. Both geriatric- and young-derived macrophages induced allogeneic T-cell proliferation, regardless of the stimuli used, including tumor supernatant. However, only macrophages from young mice induced T-cell IFN-γ production. We examined the potential of an IL-2/agonist anti-CD40 antibody immunotherapy that eradicates large tumors in young hosts to activate macrophages from geriatric mice. IL-2-/CD40-activated macrophages rescued T-cell production of IFN-γ in geriatric mice. Therefore, targeting macrophages with IL-2/anti-CD40 antibody may improve innate and T-cell immunity in aging hosts. PMID:23442123

  2. Ternatin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, inhibits thioglycolate-elicited rat peritoneal neutrophil accumulation and LPS-activated nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rao, V S N; Paiva, L A F; Souza, M F; Campos, A R; Ribeiro, R A; Brito, G A C; Teixeira, M J; Silveira, E R

    2003-09-01

    Ternatin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid from Egletes viscosa Less., was examined for its possible influence on thioglycolate-elicited neutrophil influx into the rat peritoneal cavity in vivo and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages ex vivo. The neutrophil influx induced by thioglycolate was found to be significantly lower in ternatin (25 and 50 mg/kg, s. c.) pre-treated rats with a similar magnitude of inhibition produced by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, s. c.), a known anti-inflammatory agent. Also, peritoneal macrophages from ternatin (25 mg/kg)-treated mice that were exposed to LPS demonstrated significantly less production of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that ternatin exerts its anti-inflammatory action, at least in part, through inhibition of neutrophil migration and modulation of macrophage function. PMID:14598213

  3. HUMAN ALVEOLAR AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES MEDIATE FUNGISTASIS INDEPENDENTLY OF L-ARGININE OXIDATION TO NITRITE OR NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human alveolar macrophages (HAM) from 28 normal volunteers were found to inhibit replication of Cryptoccous neoformans. onditions under which fungistasis occurred were different than those required for mouse peritoneal macrophage-mediated fungi stasis. nhibition of fungal replica...

  4. In Vitro Study of Cytophysiological Characteristics of Multinuclear Macrophages from Intact and BCG-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Il'in, D A; Arkhipov, S A; Shkurupy, V A

    2016-03-01

    Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from intact and BCG-infected BALB/c mice and explanted in vitro. Multinuclear macrophages formed in these cultures differed by the number of nuclei, expression of apoptosis inductors and regulators (TNF-α, p53 protein, caspase 3, and Bcl-2 protein), and cytophysiological characteristics (phagocytic activity, ROS generation, and antimycobacterial properties). Our results indicate that the formation of multinuclear macrophages is accompanied by induction of apoptosis (p53 signaling pathway) and appearance of multinuclear macrophage-derived cells characterized by high phagocytic and antimycobacterial activity. PMID:27021088

  5. Peritoneal cavity is a route for gut-derived microbial signals to promote autoimmunity in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Emani, R; Alam, C; Pekkala, S; Zafar, S; Emani, M R; Hänninen, A

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in innate immune reactions, and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) guard the sterility of this compartment mainly against microbial threat from the gut. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which gut microbiota and gut immune system appear to contribute to disease pathogenesis. We have recently reported elevated free radical production and increased permeability of gut epithelium in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Impaired barrier function could lead to bacterial leakage to the peritoneal cavity. To explore the consequences of impaired gut barrier function on extra-intestinal immune regulation, we characterized peritoneal lavage cells from young newly weaned NOD mice. We detected a rapid increase in the number of macrophages 1-2 weeks after weaning in NOD mice compared to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, this increase in macrophages was abrogated in NOD mice that were fed an antidiabetogenic diet (ProSobee), which improves gut barrier function. Macrophages in young (5-week-old) NOD mice displayed a poor TNF-α cytokine response to LPS stimulation and high expression of interleukin-1receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), indicating prior in vivo exposure to TLR-4 ligand(s). Furthermore, injection of LPS intraperitoneally increased T cell CD69 expression in pancreatic lymph node (PaLN), suggestive of T cell activation. Leakage of bacterial components such as endotoxins into the peritoneal cavity may contribute to auto-reactive T cell activation in the PaLN. PMID:25410403

  6. Enhanced resistance against Listeria monocytogenes at an early phase of primary infection in pregnant mice: activation of macrophages during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Y; Mitsuyama, M; Sano, M; Nakano, H; Nomoto, K

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the pregnancy-induced changes in macrophage activity which are important in the expression of host defense against infections. Several macrophage functions were examined by using Listeria monocytogenes. In pregnant mice, prolonged survival and enhanced in vivo elimination of bacteria were observed in the early phase of primary infection. Functions of peritoneal macrophages, including in vitro phagocytosis intracellular killing, glucose consumption, generation of superoxide anion, and intracellular beta-glucuronidase activity were shown to be enhanced in pregnant mice. These findings indicate that pregnancy enhances macrophage functions qualitatively. Possible mechanisms for this enhancement and the significance of macrophage activation for pregnant hosts are discussed. PMID:3011673

  7. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  8. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  9. The mannose-sensitive hemagglutination pilus strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa shift peritoneal milky spot macrophages towards an M1 phenotype to dampen peritoneal dissemination.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Miao, Feng; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Xu, Ying-Ying; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Gao, Jian; Wu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xing-Yu; You, Yi; Xu, Hao; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2014-05-01

    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) of tumor cells is the most frequent pattern of gastric cancer recurrence and the leading cause of death. Peritoneal milky spots are deemed as the site of origin of gastric cancer PD wherein the main cellular components are macrophages. A vaccine derived from the mannose-sensitive hemagglutination pilus strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-MSHA) has exhibit strong immune modulatory properties. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether the PA-MSHA vaccine activated peritoneal milky spot macrophages (PMSM) in a manner that would attenuate PD. It was observed that PA-MSHA activated PMSM towards a classical activation phenotype via a toll-like receptor4/9-dependent mechanism, which increased interleukin-12 levels and promoted the expression of co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules like CD80, CD86, and MHC-II (P < 0.05). In addition, PA-MSHA-treated PMSM exhibited strong nonspecific antitumor effects in both contact-dependent and contact-independent modes of action (P < 0.05). In mice treated with PA-MSHA before inoculating gastric cancer cells, we noted alleviated PD toward the untreated mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that PA-MSHA can stimulate PMSM towards an M1 phenotype and that activated PMSM inhibit gastric cancer growth and PD both in vitro and in vivo. The results of the current study provide a mechanistic insight that is relevant to the potential application of PA-MSHA in the treatment of gastric cancer-mediated PD. PMID:24385384

  10. Electron microscopic study on the interaction between normal guinea pig peritoneal macrophages and Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, R A; Veltri, B J; Canonico, P G; Shirey, F G; Walker, J S

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscopic study was conducted to explore the interaction between normal guinea pig peritoneal macrophages and phase I and II Coxeilla burnetii previously treated with either normal or immune serum. A comparison was made on the efficiency of phagocytosis and subsequent killing of rickettsiae by macrophages. Both phases of rickettsiae previously treated with normal serum multiplied within phagosomes after phagocytosis with resultant destruction of macrophages. In contrast, suspending rickettsiae in immune serum rendered them more susceptible to phagocytosis and potentiated their destruction within macrophages. Images PMID:825466

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  13. Differences in peroxidase localization of rabbit peritoneal macrophages after surface adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Bodel, P. T.; Nichols, B. A.; Bainton, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike resident peritoneal macrophages, which contain peroxidase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and perinuclear cisternae (PN), macrophages elicited into the rabbit peritoneal cavity by various stimulants lack the enzyme. Since we had previously found that such peroxidase reactivity rapidly appears in the RER and PN of blood monocytes after surface adherence in vitro, we wondered whether the enzyme could be similarly produced in elicited macrophages by adherence. Cells from peritoneal exudates (96 hours after endotoxin injection) were harvested, suspended in culture medium, and allowed to adhere to fibrin-coated or plastic surfaces. Following culture for various intervals, they were fixed, incubated for peroxidase, and examined by electron microscopy. We observed that these elicited cells, which initially contained no cytochemically detectable peroxidase, acquired peroxidatic activity in the RER and PN within 2 hours after adherence in culture. Thus macrophages, like blood monocytes, may rapidly acquire peroxidase reactivity as a consequence of plasma membrane: external surface interaction. In view of this finding, it would seem unwise to use peroxidase localization as the basis for advocating the existence of two separate lines of peritoneal macrophages, as has been proposed by previous investigators. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 PMID:645814

  14. The kampo medicine Daikenchuto inhibits peritoneal fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Mineaki; Nishino, Tomoya; Obata, Yoko; Oka, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi; Muta, Kumiko; Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis therapy causes inflammation and histological changes in the peritoneal membrane. Inflammation generally activates fibroblasts and results in fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation. Heat-shock protein 47 (HSP 47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is localized in myofibroblasts and is involved in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a Kampo medicine, is used to prevent postoperative colon adhesion. It inhibits inflammation and HSP 47 expression in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the effect of DKT on chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis in mice injected with 0.1% CG dissolved in 15% ethanol. DKT was dissolved in the drinking water. Histological changes were assessed using Masson trichrome staining. Cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were examined immunohistochemically. Compared with the control group, the peritoneal tissues of the CG group were markedly thickened, and the number of cells expressing α-SMA, HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly increased. However, these changes were inhibited in the DKT-treated group. These results indicate that DKT can prevent peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation and HSP 47 expression. PMID:25747978

  15. Effects of immunomodulatory drugs on TNF-α and IL-12 production by purified epidermal langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells constitute a special subset of immature dendritic cells localized in the epidermis that play a key role in the skin's immune response. The production of cytokines is a key event in both the initiation and the regulation of immune responses, and different drugs can be used to remove or modify their production by DC and, therefore, alter immune responses in a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of prednisone, thalidomide, cyclosporine A, and amitriptyline, drugs used in a variety of clinical conditions, on the production of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Findings All drugs inhibited TNF-α production by Langerhans cells after 36 hours of treatment at two different concentrations, while prednisone and thalidomide decreased IL-12 secretion significantly, amitriptyline caused a less pronounced reduction and cyclosporine A had no effect. Additionally, TNF-α and IL-12 production by macrophages decreased, but IL-10 levels were unchanged after all treatments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that these drugs modulate the immune response by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages, indicating that these cells are important targets for immunosuppression in various clinical settings. PMID:21276247

  16. Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myungwon; Ju, Jaehyun; Suh, Jae Soo; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Kwang Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential fatty acid necessary for human health, and it protects against cardiovascular disease, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of omega-3-rich harp seal oil (HSO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) in peritoneal macrophages of mice. The culture supernatants of murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HSO, or HSO+LPS were harvested to assay IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) cytokines and NO. TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) levels, except IL-6, were lower in the culture supernatants of mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to LPS plus HSO than those of the groups exposed to LPS alone. These observations demonstrate that omega-3-rich harp seal oil downregulates the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40). These results suggest that HSO could be potentially used as a preventive agent or as an adjunct in anti-inflammatory therapy, if more research results were accumulated. PMID:26175994

  17. Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myungwon; Ju, Jaehyun; Suh, Jae Soo; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Kwang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential fatty acid necessary for human health, and it protects against cardiovascular disease, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of omega-3-rich harp seal oil (HSO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) in peritoneal macrophages of mice. The culture supernatants of murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HSO, or HSO+LPS were harvested to assay IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) cytokines and NO. TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40) levels, except IL-6, were lower in the culture supernatants of mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to LPS plus HSO than those of the groups exposed to LPS alone. These observations demonstrate that omega-3-rich harp seal oil downregulates the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12/IL-23 (p40). These results suggest that HSO could be potentially used as a preventive agent or as an adjunct in anti-inflammatory therapy, if more research results were accumulated. PMID:26175994

  18. Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by water-soluble extracts of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pine wood nematode.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroaki; Tai, Akihiro; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2006-01-01

    In our previous study, water-soluble extracts from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus), a pine wood nematode, were shown to enhance interleukin (IL)-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-induced polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro in mice and to increase serum levels of an antigen-nonspecific IgE in vivo. Here we examined whether the nematode extracts stimulate immunofunctions of murine peritoneal macrophages. In both resident and inflammatory macrophages, Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis was markedly activated by B. xylophilus extracts, while non-specific phagocytosis was not. The enhancement of specific phagocytosis was accompanied by an increase in the formation of IgG-Fcgamma receptor rosettes. B. xylophilus extracts also stimulated IL-1beta production in both types of macrophages, and enhanced NO production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory macrophages. These results indicate that the extracts of B. xylophilus contain an activating substance(s) for immunofunctions in macrophages, besides an enhancing factor for polyclonal IgE production. PMID:16428838

  19. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. PMID:26629697

  20. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. II. Peritoneal macrophage function

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, G.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.

  1. IL-33 Priming Enhances Peritoneal Macrophage Activity in Response to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Vuvi G; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2014-08-01

    IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and plays a role in the host defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In this study, we investigated the function of IL-33 and its receptor in in vitro macrophage responses to Candida albicans. Our results demonstrate that pre-sensitization of isolated peritoneal macrophages with IL-33 enhanced their pro-inflammatory cytokine production and phagocytic activity in response to C. albicans. These macrophage activities were entirely dependent on the ST2-MyD88 signaling pathway. In addition, pre-sensitization with IL-33 also increased ROS production and the subsequent killing ability of macrophages following C. albicans challenge. These results indicate that IL-33 may increase anti-fungal activity against Candida through macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms. PMID:25177252

  2. [Effects of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Peng, Yao-zong; Huang, Tao; Li, Ling; Mou, Shao-xia; Kou, Shu-ming; Li, Xue-gang

    2015-12-01

    This work was mainly studied the effects of the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and preliminarily discussed the regulating mechanisms. The effect of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the vitality of macrophages was measured by the MTT assay. The effect of alkaloids on the phagocytosis of macrophages was determined by neutral red trial and respiratory burst activity was tested by NBT. The expressions of respiratory-burst-associated genes influenced by alkaloids were detected by qRT-PCR. The conformation change of membrane protein in macrophages by the impact of alkaloids was studied by fluorospectro-photometer. Results showed that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could increase the phagocytosis of macrophages in different level and berberine had the best effect. Berberine, coptisine and palmatine had up-regulation effects on respiratory burst activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated by PMA and regulatory activity on the mRNA expression of PKC, p40phox or p47phox, whereas the epiberberine had no significant influence on respiratory burst. Moreover, alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could change the conformation of membrane protein and the berberine showed the strongest activity. The results suggested that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma might activate macrophages through changing the conformation of membrane protein of macrophages and then enhanced the phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of macrophages. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of alkaloids on the respiratory burst activity of macrophages may be also related to the expression level of PKC, p40phox and p47phox. PMID:27141680

  3. Aging affects the responsiveness of rat peritoneal macrophages to GM-CSF and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Blagojević, Veljko; Ćuruvija, Ivana; Vujnović, Ivana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Vujić, Vesna; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages undergo significant functional alterations during aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes of rat macrophage functions and response to M1/M2 polarization signals with age. Therefore, resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from young (3-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) rats were tested for phagocytic capacity and ability to secrete inflammatory mediators following in vitro stimulation with LPS and GM-CSF, and IL-4, prototypic stimulators for classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, respectively. Aging increased the frequency of monocyte-derived (CCR7+ CD68+) and the most mature (CD163+ CD68+) macrophages within resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, respectively. The ability to phagocyte zymosan of none of these two cell subsets was affected by either LPS and GM-CSF or IL-4. The upregulated production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 and downregulated that of TGF-β was observed in response to LPS in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from rats of both ages. GM-CSF elevated production of IL-1β and IL-6 in resident macrophages from aged rats and in thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats. Unexpectedly, IL-4 augmented production of proinflammatory mediators, IL-1β and IL-6, in resident macrophages from aged rats. In both resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages aging decreased NO/urea ratio, whereas LPS but not GM-SCF, shifted this ratio toward NO in the macrophages from animals of both ages. Conversely, IL-4 reduced NO/urea ratio in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats only. In conclusion, our study showed that aging diminished GM-CSF-triggered polarization of elicited macrophages and caused paradoxical IL-4-driven polarization of resident macrophages toward proinflammatory M1 phenotype. This age-related deregulation of macrophage inflammatory mediator secretion and phagocytosis in response to M1/M2

  4. POLY(1):POLY(C)-ENHANCED ALVEOLAR AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGE PHAGOCYTOSIS: QUANTIFICATION BY A NEW METHOD UTILIZING FLUOROESCENT BEADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for quantifying nonspecific phagocytosis of alveolar and peritoneal macrophages in the same animal has been developed utilizing fluorescent polystyrene beads. When incorporated into inhalation studies, the technique can be used to determine whether the toxic effect of...

  5. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko; Takeya, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup –/–}) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE{sup –/–} mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE{sup –/–} mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  6. Enhanced superoxide anion production in activated peritoneal macrophages from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) exposed to PACs

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, E.; Arkoosh, M.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    In fish, as in mammals, macrophages play a vital role in the destruction of infective organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if peritoneal macrophages (M{O}s) from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), a marine benthic fish, have an altered ability to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) after exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). ROIs are the principle product of M{O}s used to destroy engulfed organisms. Assay conditions, including the concentration of M{O}s, type of in vitro stimulant, tissue culture media, and incubation time were optimized to measure the production of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{minus}), the progenitor ROI, in English sole M{O}s. English sole were injected with an organic solvent extract of a PAH-contaminated sediment, equivalent to 20g sediment/kg fish, via their dorsal lymphatic sinus, and peritoneal M{O}s were harvested on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post injection. Activated peritoneal M{O}s from English sole injected with the sediment extract produced significantly more superoxide radicals after stimulation in vitro with either opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than the vehicle injected or control fish. Specifically, activated peritoneal M{O}s stimulated with PMA in vitro produced greater amounts (compared to controls) of O{sub 2}{minus} on days 7 and 14 after exposure, whereas the same cells stimulated with OZ showed heightened production only on day 7 after exposure. No differences in the basal amounts of O{sub 2}{minus} production from activated peritoneal M{O}s between the treatment groups were observed. This study shows that exposure of English sole to PACs altered production of O{sub 2}{minus} by macrophages, however, the consequence to the immunocompetence of exposed fish remains to be elucidated.

  7. On the response of mouse peritoneal macrophages to titanium dioxide pigments in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nuuja, I.J.; Arstila, A.U.

    1982-10-01

    Acid phosphatase activity and cell morphology were followed using mouse peritoneal macrophages as a toxicity test model in vitro. The cells were given titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and five titanium pigments with different coating materials in 100 ..mu..g/ml of culture medium. The cell reactions were studied from 1 to 17 days. Titanium particles inhibited the acid phosphatase activity of the cells compared to controls. In comparison to untreated cells the activity of this enzyme increased in most groups studied, being highest in the control cells (2-3.5 times) after 7 days. The titanium pigments did not cause the drastic alterations in these cells as seen with quartz and asbestos particles, but the titanium pigments were not harmless to the mouse peritoneal macrophages with the doses and culture times used.

  8. Effect of Kramecyne on the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Miranda, E.; Lemus-Bautista, J.; Pérez, S.; Pérez-Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Kramecyne is a new peroxide, it was isolated from Krameria cytisoides, methanol extract, and this plant was mostly found in North and South America. This compound showed potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, the mechanisms by which this compound exerts its anti-inflammatory effect are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of kramecyne on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that kramecyne inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6. During the inflammatory process, levels of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, kramecyne suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23573152

  9. Hypoxia enhances lysosomal TNF-alpha degradation in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Nitza; Rahat, Michal A; Kinarty, Amalia; Weiss-Cerem, Lea; Pinchevski, Sigalit; Bitterman, Haim

    2008-07-01

    Infection, simulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a potent stimulator of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and hypoxia often synergizes with LPS to induce higher levels of the secreted cytokine. However, we show that in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages and in three mouse peritoneal macrophage cell lines (RAW 264.7, J774A.1, and PMJ-2R), hypoxia (O(2) < 0.3%) reduces the secretion of LPS-induced TNF-alpha (P < 0.01). In RAW 264.7 cells this reduction was not regulated transcriptionally as TNF-alpha mRNA levels remained unchanged. Rather, hypoxia and LPS reduced the intracellular levels of TNF-alpha by twofold (P < 0.01) by enhancing its degradation in the lysosomes and inhibiting its secretion via secretory lysosomes, as shown by confocal microscopy and verified by the use of the lysosome inhibitor Bafilomycin A1. In addition, although hypoxia did not change the accumulation of the soluble receptor TNF-RII, it increased its binding to the secreted TNF-alpha by twofold (P < 0.05). We suggest that these two posttranslational regulatory checkpoints coexist in hypoxia and may partially explain the reduced secretion and diminished biological activity of TNF-alpha in hypoxic peritoneal macrophages. PMID:18434619

  10. A SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy network orchestrates the protective effects of trans-resveratrol in stressed peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen-Jun; Li, Yi-Fang; Liu, Fang-Lan; Deng, Jie; Wu, Yan-Ping; Yuan, Wei-Lin; Tsoi, Bun; Chen, Jun-Li; Wang, Qi; Cai, Shao-Hui; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Resveratrol gains a great interest for its strong antioxidant properties, while the molecular mechanisms underlie the beneficial effects on psychosocial stress remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol protected peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells from stress-induced decrease in the total cell count, phagocytic capability, reactive oxygen species generation, monodansylcadaverine and mitochondrial membrane potential in stressed mice. Resveratrol promoted stress-induced autophagy in both models. Modulation of autophagy by rapamycin or 3-methyladenine regulated the protective effect of resveratrol, suggesting a role of autophagy in the protective mechanisms of resveratrol. The comparison studies revealed that distinct mechanisms were implicated in the protective effect of resveratrol and other antioxidants (vitamin C and edaravone). Resveratrol promoted autophagy via upregulating SIRT3 expression and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Knockdown of SIRT3 resulted in decreased autophagy and abolished protective effect of resveratrol. SIRT1 was also involved in the protective mechanism of resveratrol, although its effect on autophagy was unnoticeable. Pharmacological manipulation of autophagy modulated the effects of resveratrol on SIRT3 and AMPK, revealing the engagement of a positive feedback loop. In sharp contrast, vitamin C and edaravone effectively protected macrophages from stress-induced cytotoxicity, accompanied by downregulated SIRT3 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, and decreased level of autophagy response. Taken together, we conclude that a SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy network orchestrates in the protective effect of resveratrol in macrophages. PMID:27021965

  11. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is Involved in Ectopic Endometrial Tissue Growth and Peritoneal-Endometrial Tissue Interaction In Vivo: A Plausible Link to Endometriosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Rakhila, Halima; Girard, Karine; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Lemyre, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factorsrelevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis. PMID:25329068

  12. Impairment of the oxidative metabolism of mouse peritoneal macrophages by intracellular Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    Buchmüller-Rouiller, Y; Mauël, J

    1987-01-01

    When stimulated in vitro with macrophage-activating factor or lipopolysaccharide, mouse peritoneal macrophages acquire the capacity to develop a strong respiratory burst when they are triggered by membrane-active agents. The presence of intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania (L. enriettii, L. major) significantly inhibited such activity, as measured by chemiluminescence, reduction of cytochrome c and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, and hexose monophosphate shunt levels. On the contrary, inert intracellular particles such as latex beads strongly increased the macrophage respiratory burst, suggesting that the Leishmania-linked inhibition resulted from a specific parasite effect. Impairment of macrophage oxidative metabolism by intracellular Leishmania spp. was a function of the number of infecting microorganisms and was more pronounced in macrophages infected with living than with dead parasites. Moreover, the metabolic inhibition was less apparent in L. enriettii-infected macrophages that were exposed to both macrophage-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide, i.e., conditions leading to complete parasite destruction. The mechanisms of respiratory burst inhibition by intracellular Leishmania spp. are unclear, but these observations suggest that such effects may contribute significantly to intracellular survival of the microorganisms. PMID:3546131

  13. Macrophages are stimulated by muramyl dipeptide to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneal cavities of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Nakanishi, M; Kutsukake, H; Yagawa, K; Kusumoto, S; Shiba, T; Tanaka, A; Kotani, S

    1990-02-01

    N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) injected intraperitoneally significantly increased the number of cells entering the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs primed with liquid paraffin or thioglycollate. There was a close relationship between peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation and the uptake of glucosamine by macrophages in guinea pigs treated with a variety of bacterial cell surface components such as cell wall peptidoglycan subunits and bacterial or synthetic lipid A. The PMN accumulation was also facilitated by the intraperitoneal transfer of the peritoneal macrophages that had been stimulated by MDP in vitro. Furthermore, cell-free lavage fluids taken from the peritoneum of MDP-treated guinea pigs also initiated the influx of PMNs when introduced into the peritoneal cavities of liquid paraffin-pretreated guinea pigs. These results suggest that a soluble factor which attracts neutrophils is produced by MDP-treated macrophages. Partial characterization of the factor is described. PMID:2298491

  14. Dynasore, a Dynamin Inhibitor, Inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi Entry into Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Barrias, Emile S.; Reignault, Lissa C.; De Souza, Wanderley; Carvalho, Tecia M. U.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that, like some other intracellular pathogens, targets specific proteins of the host cell vesicular transport machinery, leading to a modulation of host cell processes that results in the generation of unique phagosomes. In mammalian cells, several molecules have been identified that selectively regulate the formation of endocytic transport vesicles and the fusion of such vesicles with appropriate acceptor membranes. Among these, the GTPase dynamin plays an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and it was recently found that dynamin can participate in a phagocytic process. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a compound called dynasore that has the ability to block the GTPase activity of dynamin. Dynasore acts as a potent inhibitor of endocytic pathways by blocking coated vesicle formation within seconds of its addition. Here, we investigated whether dynamin is involved in the entry process of T. cruzi in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells by using dynasore. In this aim, peritoneal macrophages and LLC-MK2 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of dynasore before interaction with trypomastigotes, amastigotes or epimastigotes. We observed that, in both cell lines, the parasite internalization was drastically diminished (by greater than 90% in LLC-MK2 cells and 70% in peritoneal macrophages) when we used 100 µM dynasore. The T. cruzi adhesion index, however, was unaffected in either cell line. Analyzing these interactions by scanning electron microscopy and comparing peritoneal macrophages to LLC-MK2 cells revealed differences in the stage at which cell entry was blocked. In LLC-MK2 cells, this blockade is observed earlier than it is in peritoneal macrophages. In LLC-MK2 cells, the parasites were only associated with cellular microvilli, whereas in peritoneal macrophages, trypomastigotes were not completely engulfed by a host cell plasma membrane. Conclusions/Significance Taken

  15. Biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance by cultured peritoneal exudate macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.S.; Hsu, S.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated changes in radiosensitivity of peritoneal exudate macrophage colony-forming cells (PE-CFC) when exudative peritoneal macrophages were cultured in vitro. The change in the shape of the dose-response curve of PE-CFC to ionizing irradiation was partly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the gas phase of the incubators. When cells were incubated in an environment containing 20% oxygen, the value of both Dq and D0 for PE-CFC increased. The dose-response curve of PE-CFC cultured for 3 days resembled that of alveolar macrophage colony-forming cells (AL-CFC). The changes in radiosensitivity were accompanied by an increase in the level of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, when they were cultured in a 6% oxygen environment, only the value of Dq increased. When alveolar macrophages were incubated in vitro, no significant change in the shape of the dose-response curve of AL-CFC was noted whether they were cultured in gas phase containing either 20 or 6% oxygen. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of PE-CFC changes when they are cultured in vitro. The increase in D0 appears to be related to the intracellular level of antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Decrease in free-radical production with age in rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, E; Conde, M; Machado, A; Sobrino, F; Santa Maria, C

    1995-01-01

    The respiratory-burst reaction has been studied in rat peritoneal macrophages of different ages (3, 12 and 24 months) using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to stimulate NADPH oxidase. Production of O2-. and H2O2 decreased with age (about 50 and 75% respectively); however, no difference in NADPH oxidase activity was found. NO. production was also reduced with age (40%). Furthermore, a progressive and significant decrease in the pentose phosphate flux was detected as a function of age in control and PMA-stimulated macrophages. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio decreased with age in control and PMA-stimulated macrophages. Glucose uptake was lower in middle-aged (12 months) and old (24 months) animals but no differences were found between these groups. PMID:8526870

  17. Specificity and inhibition of glucocorticoid-induced macrocortin secretion from rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The secretion of the phospholipase A2-inhibitor macrocortin and the binding of dexamethasone were studied in suspensions of rat peritoneal macrophages. Corticosteroid-induced macrocortin secretion was specific for glucocorticoids and did not occur in response to glucocorticoid antagonists or other steroids or in response to non-steroid macrophage activators (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine f-MLP), the calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide-E.-coli(LPS) ). The apparent potency of competition by secretory glucocorticoids for dexamethasone binding to the macrophage parallelled their ability to induce secretion, implying that these binding sites represent the receptors by which macrocortin secretion is initiated. Agents which interfere with microtubule assembly (colchicine, vinblastine and trimethylcolchicinic acid) and prostacyclin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhibit macrocortin secretion. Inhibition studies of glucocorticoid-induced macrocortin secretion also suggest dependence upon metabolic energy, a source of Ca2+ and proteolysis and glycosylation prior to secretion. PMID:6317116

  18. Transcriptional switching in macrophages associated with the peritoneal foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane E; Summers, Kim M; Gongora, Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Campbell, Julie H; Hume, David A; Rolfe, Barbara E

    2014-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that myeloid cells are the source of fibrotic tissue induced by foreign material implanted in the peritoneal cavity. This study utilised the MacGreen mouse, in which the Csf1r promoter directs myeloid-specific enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, to determine the temporal gene expression profile of myeloid subpopulations recruited to the peritoneal cavity to encapsulate implanted foreign material (cubes of boiled egg white). Cells with high EGFP expression (EGFP(hi)) were purified from exudate and encapsulating tissue at different times during the foreign body response, gene expression profiles determined using cDNA microarrays, and data clustered using the network analysis tool, Biolayout Express(3D). EGFP(hi) cells from all time points expressed high levels of Csf1r, Emr1 (encoding F4/80), Cd14 and Itgam (encoding Mac-1) providing internal validation of their myeloid nature. Exudate macrophages (days 4-7) expressed a large cluster of cell cycle genes; these were switched off in capsule cells. Early in capsule formation, Csf1r-EGFP(hi) cells expressed genes associated with tissue turnover, but later expressed both pro- and anti-inflammatory genes alongside a subset of mesenchyme-associated genes, a pattern of gene expression that adds weight to the concept of a continuum of macrophage phenotypes rather than distinct M1/M2 subsets. Moreover, rather than transdifferentiating to myofibroblasts, macrophages contributing to later stages of the peritoneal foreign body response warrant their own classification as 'fibroblastoid' macrophages. PMID:24638066

  19. Inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage DNA synthesis by infection with the arenavirus Pichinde.

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, A M; Jahrling, P B; Merrill, P; Tobery, S

    1984-01-01

    Macrophage DNA synthesis and proliferation occur during the development of cell-mediated immunity and in the early nonspecific reaction to infection. Arenaviruses have a predilection for infection of cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and in this study we have examined the effect of the arenavirus Pichinde on macrophage DNA synthesis. We have found that infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages with Pichinde caused a profound dose-dependent inhibition of the DNA synthesis induced by macrophage growth factor-colony stimulating factor. At a multiplicity of inoculum of 5, there is a 75 to 95% inhibition of DNA synthesis. Viable virus is necessary for inhibition since Pichinde inactivated by heat or cobalt irradiation had no effect. Similarly, virus pretreated with an antiserum to Pichinde was without inhibitory effect. Inhibition was demonstrated by measuring DNA synthesis spectrofluorometrically as well as by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was not associated with any cytopathology. There was no evidence that the inhibition was due to soluble factors, such as prostaglandins or interferon, released by infected cells. These studies demonstrate, for the first time in vitro, a significant alteration in macrophage function caused by infection with an arenavirus. It is possible that inhibition of macrophage proliferation represents a mechanism by which some microorganisms interfere with host resistance. PMID:6690404

  20. Contribution of complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 to carbohydrate-dependent uptake of oligomannose-coated liposomes by peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kuboki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Misao; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kojima, Naoya

    2008-11-01

    Peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) preferentially and rapidly take up oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) and subsequently mature to induce a Th-1 immune response following administration of OMLs into the peritoneal cavity. Here, we examine the contributions of complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 (CR3) to carbohydrate-dependent uptake of OMLs by PEMs. Effective uptake of OMLs into PEMs in vitro was observed only in the presence of peritoneal fluid (PF), and OMLs incubated with PF were incorporated by PEMs in vitro in the absence of PF. These phenomena were inhibited by methyl-alpha-mannoside, N-acetylglucosamine or EDTA, but not by galactose. Pull-down analysis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting of PF-treated OMLs indicated that the OMLs were opsonized with complement fragment iC3b. In vivo uptake of OMLs by PEMs was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against CR3, a receptor for iC3b, and OML uptake by PEMs in the peritoneal cavity was not observed in C3-deficient mice. Thus, our results indicate that OMLs are opsonized with iC3b in a mannose-dependent manner in the peritoneal cavity and then incorporated into PEMs via CR3. PMID:18694897

  1. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human peritoneal macrophages in response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed

    Buyalos, R P; Rutanen, E M; Tsui, E; Halme, J

    1991-08-01

    We examined the release in vitro of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes following incubation with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We obtained peritoneal macrophages from 22 women at laparoscopy and peripheral blood monocytes from four healthy women during both the midfollicular and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 C with 10(-2)-10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 or 10(4) ng/mL of bacterial endotoxin. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity was determined with a bioassay using an actinomycin D-sensitized WEHI-164 murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Twenty-four-hour incubation with TSST-1 resulted in a dose-dependent release of TNF-alpha by both peritoneal macrophages (maximal response 554 +/- 97 U of activity) and peripheral blood monocytes (maximal response 478 +/- 81 U of activity). We observed enhanced TNF-alpha release by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis, compared with those without endometriosis, at a concentration of 10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 (704 +/- 134 versus 354 +/- 103 U of activity; P less than .05). These data support the theory that the metabolic and physiologic derangements of perimenstrual toxic shock syndrome may be partially mediated by TNF-alpha released by peritoneal macrophages as a result of exposure to TSST-1. PMID:2067760

  2. Immunocytochemical demonstration of feline infectious peritonitis virus within cerebrospinal fluid macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ives, Edward J; Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Cian, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    A 4-month-old female entire domestic shorthair cat presented with an acute onset of blindness, tetraparesis and subsequent generalised seizure activity. Haematology and serum biochemistry demonstrated a moderate, poorly regenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia with a low albumin:globulin ratio. Serology for feline coronavirus antibody was positive with an elevated alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Analysis of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated markedly elevated protein and a mixed, predominately neutrophilic pleocytosis. Immunocytochemistry for feline coronavirus was performed on the CSF, with positive staining observed inside macrophages. The cat was subsequently euthanased, and both histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. This is the first reported use of immunocytochemistry for detection of feline coronavirus within CSF macrophages. If this test proves highly specific, as for identification of feline coronavirus within tissue or effusion macrophages, it would be strongly supportive of an ante-mortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats with central nervous system involvement without the need for biopsy. PMID:23744728

  3. Anti-inflammatory action of γ-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-12-01

    This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (γ)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). γ-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 μM than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 μM showed that γ-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), γ-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by γ irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, γ-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

  4. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Angelin, B

    1988-01-01

    The lipoprotein-mediated regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-(HMG-) CoA reductase in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages has been investigated. In contrast to what has been reported for other cells, HMG-CoA reductase activity is not suppressed by normal serum or by normal low density lipoproteins (LDL) from humans or dogs. Suppression of reductase activity occurred when cells were cultured in the presence of beta-migrating very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) or LDL from hypercholesterolaemic dogs, or LDL modified by acetoacetylation. Human beta-VLDL from an atypical type III hyperlipoproteinaemic patient was also effective, as was apolipoprotein (apo) E-containing high density lipoproteins (HDL) from cholesterol-fed dogs (apo-E HDLc). The results indicate that cholesterol biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages is regulated by lipoprotein cholesterol entering via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Normal LDL were not effective because of the poor binding and uptake of these lipoproteins by the apo-B, E (LDL) receptor. Only beta-VLDL, apo-E HDLc, and hypercholesterolaemic LDL were avidly taken up by this receptor and were able to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. Acetoacetylated LDL were internalized via the acetyl-LDL (scavenger) receptor. Thus, mouse macrophages differ from human fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in their physiological regulation of cholesterogenesis. PMID:3202831

  5. Phagocytic responses of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils are different in rats following prolonged exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Clílton K O; Prestes, Jonato; Donatto, Felipe F; Verlengia, Rozangela; Navalta, James W; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of exhausting long‐duration physical exercise (swimming) sessions of different durations and intensities on the number and phagocytic capacity of macrophages and neutrophils in sedentary rats. INTRODUCTION: Exercise intensity, duration and frequency are important factors in determining immune response to physical effort. Thus, the effects of exhausting long‐duration exercise are unclear. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups: an untreated group (macrophage study) and oyster glycogen‐treated rats (neutrophil study). In each group, the animals were subdivided into five groups (10 rats per group): unexercised controls, an unadapted low‐intensity exercise group, an unadapted moderate‐intensity exercise group, a preadapted low‐intensity exercise group and a preadapted moderate‐intensity exercise group. All exercises were performed to exhaustion, and preadaptation consisted of 5, 15, 30 and 45 min sessions. RESULTS: Macrophage study: the number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased (9.22 ± 1.78 × 106) after unadapted exercise but increased (21.50 ± 0.63 × 106) after preadapted low‐intensity exercise, with no changes in the moderate‐intensity exercise group. Phagocytic capacity, however, increased by more than 80% in all exercise groups (low/moderate, unadapted/preadapted). Neutrophil study: the number of peritoneal neutrophils significantly decreased after unadapted (29.20 ± 3.34 × 106) and preadapted (50.00 ± 3.53 × 106) low‐intensity exercise but increased after unadapted (127.60 ± 5.14 × 106) and preadapted (221.80 ± 14.85 × 106) moderate exercise. Neutrophil phagocytic capacity decreased by 63% after unadapted moderate exercise but increased by 90% after corresponding preadapted sessions, with no changes in the low‐intensity exercise groups. CONCLUSION: Neutrophils and macrophages of sedentary rats respond differently to exercise‐induced stress. Adaptation sessions reduce

  6. Combined influence of teichoic acids from Staphylococcus aureus and heterometallik Cu/Cd ethylenediamine complex on peritoneal macrophages and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, V V; Garmanchuk, L V; Senchylo, N V; Nikolaenko, T V; Dzhus, O I; Ostapchenko, L I; Khranovska, N M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teichoic acid (TA) from Staphylococcus aureus Wood 46 on tumor growth and metastasis of the experimental Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Intranasal administration of TA alone aggravated both tumor growth and metastasis, whereas combined administration of TA with a synthetic bimetallic (copper : cadmium) ethylene diamine complex PO244 resulted in pronounced antitumor and antimetastatic effects. The group of animals subjected to the combined treatment with TA and PO244 manifested the highest degree of lymphocyte infiltration into the tumor tissue, compared to the control group and those exposed to TA or PO244 alone. Moreover, the combined treatment negatively affected the adhesive properties of peritoneal macrophages in the LLC bearing mice. Co-cultivation of the isolated macrophages with primary LLC cultures revealed significant (p < 0.05) cytotoxic and cytostatic effects, detected as an increased level of apoptosis and a reduced fraction of replicating cells. PMID:25536823

  7. Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Useful for Suppressing Macrophages In Vivo in Mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, Chie; Minematsu, Hideki; Fujita, Kazuyo; Iwashita, Shinki; Adachi, Masaki; Igarashi, Koichi; Hinuma, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel method using liposomes to suppress macrophages, we screened food constituents through cell culture assays. Curcumin was one of the strongest compounds exhibiting suppressive effects on macrophages. We subsequently tried various methods to prepare liposomal curcumin, and eventually succeeded in preparing liposomes with sufficient amounts of curcumin to suppress macrophages by incorporating a complex of curcumin and bovine serum albumin. The diameter of the resultant nanoparticles, the liposomes containing curcumin, ranged from 60 to 100 nm. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that after intraperitoneal administration of the liposomes containing curcumin into mice, these were incorporated mainly by macrophages positive for F4/80, CD36, and CD11b antigens. Peritoneal cells prepared from mice injected in vivo with the liposomes containing curcumin apparently decreased interleukin-6-producing activities. Major changes in body weight and survival rates in the mice were not observed after administrating the liposomes containing curcumin. These results indicate that the liposomes containing curcumin are safe and useful for the selective suppression of macrophages in vivo in mice. PMID:26361331

  8. Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Useful for Suppressing Macrophages In Vivo in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Chie; Minematsu, Hideki; Fujita, Kazuyo; Iwashita, Shinki; Adachi, Masaki; Igarashi, Koichi; Hinuma, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel method using liposomes to suppress macrophages, we screened food constituents through cell culture assays. Curcumin was one of the strongest compounds exhibiting suppressive effects on macrophages. We subsequently tried various methods to prepare liposomal curcumin, and eventually succeeded in preparing liposomes with sufficient amounts of curcumin to suppress macrophages by incorporating a complex of curcumin and bovine serum albumin. The diameter of the resultant nanoparticles, the liposomes containing curcumin, ranged from 60 to 100 nm. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that after intraperitoneal administration of the liposomes containing curcumin into mice, these were incorporated mainly by macrophages positive for F4/80, CD36, and CD11b antigens. Peritoneal cells prepared from mice injected in vivo with the liposomes containing curcumin apparently decreased interleukin-6-producing activities. Major changes in body weight and survival rates in the mice were not observed after administrating the liposomes containing curcumin. These results indicate that the liposomes containing curcumin are safe and useful for the selective suppression of macrophages in vivo in mice. PMID:26361331

  9. Involvement of proton-sensing TDAG8 in extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Masayuki; Tomura, Hideaki; Murata, Naoya; He, Xiao-dong; Sato, Koichi; Kimura, Takao; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Sasaki, Takehiko; Sato, Takashi; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Harada, Akihiro; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular acidification inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein production, which was associated with an inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA expression, in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The LPS-induced cytokine production was also inhibited by G(s) protein-coupled receptor agonists prostaglandin E(1) and isoproterenol. Among OGR1 family proton-sensing GTP-binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors, TDAG8, OGR1, and G2A are expressed in the cells. The inhibitory action by acidic pH on TNF-alpha production was significantly attenuated in macrophages from TDAG8(Tp/Tp) mice but not in those from OGR1(geo/geo) mice. Moreover, small interfering RNA specific to TDAG8, but not to G2A, clearly attenuated the acidification-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production. On the other hand, the down-regulation or deficiency of TDAG8 hardly affected prostaglandin E(1)- or isoproterenol-induced actions. LPS-induced IL-6 production was also inhibited by extracellular acidification in a manner that was sensitive to TDAG8 expression. The acidic pH-induced inhibitory action on the cytokine production was significantly reversed either by a small interfering RNA specific to G(s) proteins or by a protein kinase A (PKA)-specific inhibitor H89. Indeed, a PKA-specific cAMP derivative inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production. Moreover, acidification induced cAMP accumulation in a TDAG8-specific way. We conclude that TDAG8, at least partly, mediates the extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production through the G(s) protein/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in mouse macrophages. PMID:19234222

  10. Endotoxin-induced enhancement of glucose influx into murine peritoneal macrophages via GLUT1.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, M; Shinomiya, H; Shimizu, Y; Ohishi, K; Utsumi, S

    1996-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is among the most injurious metabolic disorders caused by endotoxemia. In experimental endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in animals, a marked glucose consumption is observed in macrophage-rich organs. However, the direct effect of LPS on the uptake of glucose by macrophages has not been fully understood, and the present study was undertaken to shed light on this point. The consumption and uptake of glucose, as measured with 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, by murine peritoneal exudate macrophages in culture were accelerated two- to threefold by stimulation with 3 ng of LPS per ml. The rate of glucose uptake reached a plateau after 20 min of stimulation and remained at the maximum as long as LPS was present. Northern (RNA) blot analysis with cDNA probes for five known isoforms of glucose transporter (GLUT) revealed that the expression of GLUT by macrophages was restricted to the GLUT1 isoform during LPS stimulation and the amount of GLUT1 mRNA was increased by the stimulation. These results suggest that macrophage responses to LPS are supported by a rapid and sustained glucose influx via GLUT1 and that this is a participating factor in the development of systemic hypoglycemia when endotoxemia is prolonged. PMID:8557327

  11. Interaction of bioactive glasses with peritoneal macrophages and monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, M; Hench, L; Cannas, M

    2002-04-01

    Macrophage activation was analyzed following exposure to pure, crystalline alpha-quartz powders, two bioactive gel-glass powders of different compositions, and a melt-derived glass, 45S5 Bioglass. The release of reactive oxygen metabolites (chemiluminescence test), modifications of cell morphology, the amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secreted, and the amount of TNFalpha mRNA expression were evaluated. The 45S5 Bioglass powders elicited the highest chemiluminescence response while the two solgel glasses had a lower response with less of an oxidative burst difference between them. Particulate bioactive glasses are actively ingested by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and only the 58S solgel glass had a moderate toxic effect on the macrophages. Macrophage cell morphology showed increased size and cell spreading, consistent with the high level of cytokine secretion induced by 45S5 Bioglass. The 45S5 Bioglass powders led to an increased release of TNFalpha and expression of TNFalpha mRNA relative to unstimulated and control treated monocytes. Bioactive glasses (and particularly 45S5 Bioglass) that in vivo induce rapid bone growth appear to activate an autocrine-like process in which the response evoked by the material (for example monocyte and macrophage activation with cytokine production) enhances subsequent interactions with cells in contact with the material. PMID:11835162

  12. Lysosomal glycosidases in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro with soluble and insoluble glycans.

    PubMed

    Bøgwald, J; Johnson, E; Hoffman, J; Seljelid, R

    1984-04-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with insoluble glycans in vitro release high amounts of acid hydrolases, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-D-glucuronidase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The most potent of the stimulatory glycans is a beta-1,3-D-glucan isolated from yeast cell walls. Up to 50% of total enzyme activity was found in the medium after stimulation with this glycan for three days. Agarose, another insoluble glycan containing an alternating sequence of the disaccharide beta-1,3-D-galactose-alpha-1,4-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose units was less potent. The soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan laminaran, which also contains small amounts of mannitol, was not able to induce release of acid glycosidases from macrophages. The release was independent of serum since macrophages cultured under serum-free conditions showed nearly the same pattern of enzyme activities, both in the cells and media. There was no increased release of the acid hydrolase alpha-D-mannosidase after stimulation with the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan for three days. The release of the lysosomal glycosidases was not due to cell death, since only small amounts of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were found in the culture media. Insoluble polystyrene latex particles were not able to stimulate mouse macrophages to release lysosomal glycosidases. Tritiated glycans (amylose, dextran, laminaran, the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, and agarose) and the p-nitrophenyl-glycopyranoside derivatives were used as substrates to investigate whether the macrophages contained or released glucanases capable of degrading alpha-1,4-D-glucans, alpha-1-6-D-glucans, beta-1,3-D-glucans, and agarose respectively. We conclude that the glycans were not degraded in macrophage cultures during the time period tested nor were the enzymes induced in macrophages by the glycans during in vitro culture for seven days. PMID:6584526

  13. Repeatedly administered antidepressant drugs modulate humoral and cellular immune response in mice through action on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Kozlowski, Michael; Bryniarski, Pawel; Strobel, Spencer; Bryk, Agata; Myszka, Michal; Tyszka, Anna; Kuszmiersz, Piotr; Nowakowski, Jaroslaw; Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Depression is associated with an altered immune response, which could be normalized by antidepressant drugs. However, little is known about the influence of antidepressants on the peripheral immune response and function of macrophages in individuals not suffering from depression. Our studies were aimed at determining the influence of antidepressant drugs on the humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with imipramine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or moclobemide and contact immunized with trinitrophenyl hapten followed by elicitation and measurement of contact sensitivity by ear swelling response. Peritoneal macrophages from drug-treated mice were either pulsed with sheep erythrocytes or conjugated with trinitrophenyl and transferred into naive recipients to induce humoral or contact sensitivity response, respectively. Secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, and cytokines by macrophages from drug-treated mice was assessed, respectively, in chemiluminometry, Griess-based colorimetry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression of macrophage surface markers was analyzed cytometrically. Treatment of mice with fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and moclobemide results in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with a reduction of the release of macrophage proinflammatory mediators and the expression of antigen-presentation markers. In contrast, treatment with imipramine enhanced the humoral immune response and macrophage secretory activity but slightly suppressed active contact sensitivity. Our studies demonstrated that systemically delivered antidepressant drugs modulate the peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, mostly through their action on macrophages. Imipramine was rather proinflammatory, whereas other tested drugs expressed immunosuppressive potential. Current observations may be applied to new therapeutic strategies dedicated to various disorders associated with excessive

  14. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  15. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  16. Stimulation of the ceramide pathway partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, S A; Detore, G; McNally, R; Vogel, S N

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that lipolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates cells by mimicking the second-messenger function of ceramide, a lipid generated in the cell by the action of sphingomyelinase (SMase). To examine this possibility further, we compared the abilities of LPS, SMase, and/or ceramide analogs to induce cytokine secretion, modulate gene expression, and induce endotoxin tolerance in macrophages. SMase and LPS induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to comparable degrees; however, unlike LPS, SMase failed to stimulate detectable interferon activity. Cell-permeable analogs of ceramide induced the expression of many LPS-inducible genes; however, the expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) mRNAs was significantly lower than that induced by LPS. Both SMase-induced TNF-alpha secretion and LPS-induced TNF-alpha secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A. Macrophages preexposed in vitro to LPS to induce a well-characterized state of endotoxin tolerance secreted little or no TNF-alpha upon secondary challenge with either LPS or SMase, whereas macrophages preexposed to SMase secreted high levels of TNF-alpha upon secondary stimulation with LPS or SMase. Collectively, these results suggest that ceramide activates a subset of LPS-induced signaling pathways in murine peritoneal exudate macrophages. PMID:8757882

  17. microRNA-155 deficiency results in decreased macrophage inflammation and attenuated atherogenesis in apoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fen; Yu, Fang; Wang, Yuzhen; Hui, Yvonne; Carnevale, Kevin; Fu, Mingui; Lu, Hong; Fan, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Objective microRNA-155 (miR155) plays a critical role in immunity and macrophage inflammation. We aim to investigate the role of miR155 in atherogenesis. Approach and Results Quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR155 was expressed in mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. miR155 expression in macrophages was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine expression. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR155 in macrophages enhanced their inflammatory response to LPS through targeting SOCS-1, and impaired cholesterol efflux from acetylated LDL-loaded macrophages, whereas deficiency of miR155 blunted macrophage inflammatory responses, and enhanced cholesterol efflux possibly via enhancing lipid loading-induced macrophage autophagy. We next examined the atherogenesis in apoE−/− and miR155−/−/apoE−/− (DKO) mice fed a western diet. Compared with apoE−/− mice, the DKO mice developed less atherosclerosis lesion in aortic root, with reduced neutral lipid content and macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed that there were increased number of regulatory T cells, and reduced numbers of Th17 cells and CD11b+/Ly6Chigh cells in the spleen of DKO mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the DKO mice had significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion both in the absence and presence of LPS stimulation. To determine whether miR155 in leukocytes contributes to atherosclerosis, we performed bone marrow transplantation study. Deficiency of miR155 in bone marrow-derived cells suppressed atherogenesis in apoE−/− mice, demonstrating that hematopoietic cell-derived miR155 plays a critical role. Conclusion miR155 deficiency attenuates atherogenesis in apoE−/− mice by reducing inflammatory responses of macrophages, enhancing macrophage cholesterol efflux and resulting in an anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile. Targeting miR155 may be a promising strategy to halt atherogenesis. PMID:24504735

  18. Functions of mononuclear phagocytes in mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol: a model of aberrant macrophage development.

    PubMed

    Dean, J H; Lauer, L D; Murray, M J; Luster, M I; Neptun, D; Adams, D O

    1986-10-15

    Administration of the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) lowers the systemic resistance of mice to challenge with either tumor cells or the facultative intracellular parasite Listeria monocytogenes. To assess the potential role of impaired mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) function in this depression of host resistance, we addressed the question of systemic perturbations of the MPS induced by administration of DES. A panel of objective quantitative markers which have been previously shown to identify and characterize macrophages in the several stages of development of activation was employed. DES perturbed the resident population of peritoneal macrophages by increasing their number approximately twofold and by enhancing their competence for phagocytosis, cytostasis of tumor cells, and secretion of plasminogen activator. When we examined the competence of the MPS in DES-treated mice to respond to challenge with activating stimuli, we found that DES systemically suppressed the development of macrophages, in response to either pyran copolymer or BCG, to develop tumoricidal function and to gain competence for secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates such as H2O2. Since these data suggested that DES inhibited the development of macrophages from a precursor stage (i.e., responsive macrophages) to activated macrophages in vivo, we tested this possibility directly by applying known activating signals in vitro to responsive macrophages. Responsive macrophages from DES-treated mice did not become activated in response to the application of two known potent activating signals (i.e., MAF + LPS). Taken together, the data indicate that DES systemically perturbs the MPS and does so by enhancing development of the early stages of maturation and suppressing subsequent development. PMID:3802203

  19. Antiorthostatic suspension stimulates profiles of macrophage activation in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    The antiorthostatic suspension model simulates certain physiological effects of spaceflight. We have previously reported BDF1 mice suspended by the tail in the antiorthostatic orientation for 4 days express high levels of resistance to virulent Listeria monocytogenesinfection. In the present study, we examined whether the increased resistance to this organism correlates with profiles of macrophage activation, given the role of the macrophage in killing this pathogen in vivo. We infected BDF1 mice with a lethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes on day 4 of antiorthostatic suspension and 24 h later constructed profiles of macrophage activation. Viable listeria could not be detected in mice suspended in the antiorthostatic orientation 24 h after infection. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the numbers of granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes in the spleen of infected mice were not significantly altered as a result of antiorthostatic suspension. Splenocytes from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice produced increased titers of IL-1. Serum levels of neopterin, a nucleotide metabolite secreted by activated macrophages, were enhanced in mice infected during antiorthostatic suspension, but not in antiorthostatically suspended naive mice. Splenic macrophages from mice infected on day 4 of suspension produced enhanced levels of lysozyme. In contrast to the results from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice, macrophages from antiorthostatically suspended uninfected mice did not express enhanced bactericidal activities. The collective results indicate that antiorthostatic suspension can stimulate profiles of macrophage activation which correlate with increased resistance to infection by certain classes of pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  1. Peritonitis

    MedlinePlus

    Acute abdomen ... of blood, body fluids, or pus in the abdomen ( intra-abdominal abscess ). Types of peritonitis are: Spontaneous ... The belly (abdomen) is very painful or tender. The pain may become worse when the belly is touched or when you ...

  2. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom stimulates leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity of mice.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Vanessa Alves; de Queiroz Guimarães, Alessandra; Hyslop, Stephen; de Araújo, Paulo Maria Ferreira; Bon, Cassian; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Bothrops lanceolatus venom to induce neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity of mice was investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of venom caused dose- and time-dependent neutrophil migration, which peaked with 750 ng of venom/cavity 4h after venom injection. The neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by pretreatment with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), an indirect inhibitor of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), and AA861 (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, but in contrast, was not modified by pretreatment with indomethacin (2 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, meloxicam (5 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, or the PAF inhibitor WEB2086 (40 mg/kg, s.c.). Dexamethasone and AA861 also inhibited the neutrophil migration by 60% when administered immediately after venom injection, and the coadministration of these two drugs caused a 75% reduction in migration. BLV-induced neutrophil migration was not due to contamination by endotoxin since polymyxin B-treated venom retained its activity. Heating the venom (97 degrees C, 2 min) reduced the PLA(2) activity by 64% and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction (68%) in neutrophil migration. These results suggest that arachidonate-derived lipoxygenase metabolites (possibly leukotriene B(4)) are involved in the chemotaxis observed. Macrophages may be an important source of these metabolites since the migratory response to venom was potentiated in mice pretreated with thioglycollate, but reduced when the peritoneal cavity was washed with sterile saline. PMID:12467667

  3. Yeast mannans inhibit binding and phagocytosis of zymosan by mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, S S; Nelson, R S; Silverstein, S C

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effects of various mannans, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and sugar phosphates on the binding and phagocytosis of yeast cell walls (zymosan) by mouse peritoneal macrophages. A phosphonomannan (PO(4):mannose ratio = 1:8:6) from kloeckera brevis was the most potent inhibitor tested; it inhibited binding and phagocytosis by 50 percent at concentrations of approximately 3-5 mug/ml and 10 mug/ml, respectively. Removal of the phosphate from this mannan by mild acid and alkaline phosphatase treatment did not appreciably reduce its capacity to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis. The mannan from saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant LB301 inhibits phagocytosis by 50 percent at 0.3 mg/ml, and a neutral exocellular glucomannan from pichia pinus inhibited phagocytosis by 50 percent at 1 mg/ml. Cell wall mannans from wild type S. cervisiae X2180, its mnn2 mutant which contains mannan with predominantly 1(arrow)6- linked mannose residues, yeast exocellular mannans and O-phosphonomannans were less efficient inhibitors requiring concentrations of 1-5 mg/ml to achieve 50 percent reduction in phagocytosis. Horseradish peroxidase, which contains high-mannose type oligosaccharides, was also inhibitory. Mannan is a specific inhibitor of zymosan binding and phagocytosis. The binding and ingestion of zymosan but not of IgG- or complement-coated erythrocytes can be obliterated by plating macrophages on substrates coated with poly-L-lysin (PLL)-mannan. Zymosan uptake was completely abolished by trypsin treatment of the macrophages and reduced by 50-60 percent in the presence of 10 mM EGTA. Pretreatment of the macrophages with chloroquine inhibited zymosan binding and ingestion. These results support the proposal that the macrophage mannose/N-acetylglucosamine receptor (P. Stahl, J.S. Rodman, M.J. Miller, and P.H. Schlesinger, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1399-1403, mediates the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. PMID:6298248

  4. Hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoproteins induce triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gianturco, S H; Bradley, W A; Gotto, A M; Morrisett, J D; Peavy, D L

    1982-07-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may be responsible for the lipid accumulation in macrophages that can occur in hypertriglyceridemia. Chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, total and with flotation constant [S(f)] 100-400) from fasting hypertriglyceridemic subjects induced a massive accumulation of oil red O-positive inclusions in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages. Cell viability was not affected. The predominant lipid that accumulated in cells exposed to hypertriglyceridemic VLDL was triglyceride. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL stimulated the incorporation of [(14)C]oleate into cellular triglyceride up to ninefold in 16 h, but not into cholesteryl esters. Mass increase in cellular triglyceride was 38-fold. The stimulation of cellular triglyceride formation was dependent on time, temperature, and concentration of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL. By contrast, VLDL, low density, and high density lipoproteins from fasting normolipemic subjects had no significant effect on oleate incorporation into neutral lipids or on visible lipid accumulation.(125)I-Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (S(f) 100-400) were degraded by macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, with 50 and 100% saturation observed at 3 and 24 mug protein/ml (2.5 and 20 nM), respectively. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL inhibited the internalization and degradation of (125)I-hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (4 nM) by 50% at 3 nM. Cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL from cholesterol-fed rabbits gave 50% inhibition at 5 nM. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) inhibited by 10% at 5 nM and 40% at 47 nM. Acetyl LDL at 130 nM had no effect. We conclude that the massive triglyceride accumulation produced in macrophages by hypertriglyceridemic VLDL is a direct consequence of uptake via specific receptors that also recognize cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL and LDL but are distinct from the acetyl LDL receptor. Uptake of these triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by monocyte-macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of

  5. Antibody-dependent cytolysis of chicken erythrocytes by an in vitro-established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Demus, A

    1975-02-01

    An in vitro-established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages (IC-21) was tested for its ability to mediate the cytolysis of 51chromiun-labeled chicken erythrocytes. In the presence of specific antibody, but independently of complement, the macrophages phagocytized and lysed labeled erythrocytes. The phagocytic process proved to be functionally distinct from the cytolytic reaction as demonstrated by enhanced cytolysis in the presence of iodoacetate, an inhibitor of phagocytosis. This cell line, because of its effector activity in antibody-dependent cell-mediated immune reactions, will be useful in characterizing the mechanism(s) involved in macrophage-mediated cytolysis. PMID:1167563

  6. Resistance of C58 mice to primary systemic herpes simplex virus infection: macrophage dependence and T-cell independence.

    PubMed Central

    Schlabach, A J; Martinez, D; Field, A K; Tytell, A A

    1979-01-01

    The relative contribution of thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells) and of macrophages to resistance to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was studied in C58 mice. Resistance was dependent on macrophage competence, but was relatively independent of T-lymphocyte competence. Although aging mice became progressively more deficient in functional T-cells, as demonstrated by a decreasing resistance to transplanted line Ib leukemia and by declining responses to T-cell nitogens (concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin), their resistance to HSV-1 increased with increasing age. Moreover, in mice that were made selectively deficient in T-cells by the combination of adult thymectomy and treatment with anti-thymocyte serum, resistance to HSV-1 did not correlate spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, selective reduction of macrophages by intraperitoneal injection of silica resulted in enhanced susceptibility to HSV-1. Furthermore, in vitro suppression of HSV-1 plaque formation in mouse embryo fibroblast cells was obtained by cocultivation of infected fibroblast monolayers with peritoneal macrophages, but not with splenic lymphocytes, from adult mice. Macrophages from weanling mice failed to suppress the development of plaques, indicating that the increase in resistance to HSV-1 with age is a result of increased macrophage competence. PMID:232692

  7. Interleukin-10 overexpression in macrophages suppresses atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinbing; Kitamoto, Shiro; Wang, Hongwei; Boisvert, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In atherogenesis, macrophage foam cell formation is modulated by pathways involving both the uptake and efflux of cholesterol. We recently showed that interleukin-10 (IL-10) modulates lipid metabolism by enhancing both uptake and efflux of cholesterol in macrophages. However, the mechanistic details of these properties in vivo have been unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of IL-10 in macrophages would alter susceptibility to atherosclerosis and whether IL-10 exerts its antiatherosclerotic properties by modulating lipid metabolism in macrophages. We utilized a macrophage-specific retroviral vector that allows long-term in vivo expression of IL-10 in macrophages through transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow cells (BMCs). IL-10 expressed by macrophages derived from transduced BMCs inhibited atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice by reducing cholesteryl ester accumulation in atherosclerotic sites. Experiments with primary macrophages indicated that macrophage source of IL-10 stimulated both the uptake (by up-regulating scavenger receptors) and efflux of cholesterol (by activating the PPARγ-LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway), thereby reducing inflammation and apoptosis in atherosclerosis. These findings indicate that BMC-transduced macrophage IL-10 production can act as a strong antiatherogenic agent, and they highlight a novel antiatherosclerotic therapy using a simple, yet effective, stem cell transduction system that facilitates long-term expression of IL-10 in macrophages.—Han, X., Kitamoto, S., Wang, H., Boisvert, W. A. Interleukin-10 overexpression in macrophages suppresses atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:20354139

  8. Evidence that Resorption of Bone by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages Occurs in an Acidic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal loss in space, like any form of osteoporosis, reflects a relative imbalance of the activities of cells resorbing (degrading) or forming bone. Consequently, prevention of weightlessness induced bone loss may theoretically be accomplished by (1) stimulating bone formation or (2) inhibiting bone resorption. This approach, however, requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which cells form or degrade bone, information not yet at hand. An issue central to bone resorption is the pH at which resorption takes place. The pH dependent spectral shift of a fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) conjugated to bone matrix was used to determine the pH at the resorptive cell bone matrix interface. Devitalized rat bone was used as the substrate, and rat peritoneal macrophages were used as the bone resorbing cells. The results suggest that bone resorption is the result of generation of an acidic microenvironment at the cell matrix junction.

  9. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Bomford, Adrian; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Davies, Ted; Smith, Roger; Williams, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-γ made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-γ significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP. PMID:24371553

  10. Antibacterial Responses by Peritoneal Macrophages Are Enhanced Following Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Chun, Rene F.; Gales, Barbara; Zaritsky, Joshua J.; Leroy, Sandrine; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Boregaard, Niels; Rastogi, Anjay; Salusky, Isidro B.; Hewison, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who usually display low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), are at high risk of infection, notably those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We hypothesized that peritoneal macrophages from PD patients are an important target for vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity. Dialysate effluent fluid was obtained from 27 non-infected PD patients. Flow cytometry indicated that PD cells were mainly monocytic (37.9±17.7% cells CD14+/CD45+). Ex vivo analyses showed that PD cells treated with 25D (100 nM, 6 hrs) or 1,25D (5 nM, 6 hrs) induced mRNA for antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP) but conversely suppressed mRNA for hepcidin (HAMP). PD cells from patients with peritonitis (n = 3) showed higher baseline expression of CAMP (18-fold±9, p<0.05) and HAMP (64-fold±7) relative to cells from non-infected patients. In 12 non-infected PD patients, oral supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D2 (100,000 IU) increased serum levels of 25D from 18±8 to 41±15 ng/ml (p = 0.002). This had no significant effect on PD cell CD14/CD45 expression, but mRNA for HAMP was suppressed significantly (0.5-fold, p = 0.04). Adjustment for PD cell CD14/CD45 expression using a mixed linear statistical model also revealed increased expression of CAMP (mRNA in PD cells and protein in effluent) in vitamin D-supplemented patients. These data show for the first time that vitamin D supplementation in vitro and in vivo promotes innate immune responses that may enhance macrophage antibacterial responses in patients undergoing PD. This highlights a potentially important function for vitamin D in preventing infection-related complications in CKD. PMID:25549329

  11. Optimization on conditions of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposome by RSM and its effects on the peritoneal macrophages function.

    PubMed

    Bo, Ruonan; Ma, Xia; Feng, Yibo; Zhu, Qian; Huang, Yee; Liu, Zhenguang; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides liposome (LBPL) by response surface methodology (RSM) and to investigate the effect of LBPL activating function of peritoneal macrophages. LBPL was prepared using the reverse-phase evaporation method. The optimal preparation conditions of LBPL by RSM were as follows: the ratio of lipid to drug (w/w) of 25:1, the ultrasound time of 14 min and the ratio of soybean phospholipids to cholesterol (w/w) of 2.4:1. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of LBPL was 86.37±0.63%, which was close to the predicted value. These indicated that LBPL with high entrapping efficiency and small particle size could be prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method, which is applied easily. Furthermore, macrophages are the key players in the innate immune system. LBPL could effectively enhance peritoneal macrophages phagocytosis and resulted in inducing NO (nitric oxide) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25498628

  12. Amelioration of oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages by Hippophae salicifolia due to its proton (H+) donation capability: Ex vivo and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mainak; Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Das, Avratanu; Bala, Asis; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study evaluates the antioxidant effect of methanol extract of Hippophae salicifolia (MEHS) bark with special emphasis on its role on oxidative DNA damage in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Material and Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was estimated by standard antioxidant assays whereas the antioxidant activity concluded the H+ donating capacity. Mouse erythrocytes’ hemolysis and peritoneal macrophages’ DNA damage were determined spectrophotometrically. In vivo antioxidant activity of MEHS was determined in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice by studying its effect on superoxide anion production in macrophages cells, superoxide dismutase in the cell lysate, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and reduces glutathione. Results: The extract showed good in vitro antioxidant activities whereas the inhibitory concentrations values ranged from 5.80 to 106.5 μg/ml. MEHS significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the oxidative DNA damage. It also attenuated the oxidative conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin and elevation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant in cells. Conclusion: The result indicates MEHS has good in vitro-in vivo antioxidant property as well as the protective effect on DNA and red blood cell may be due to its H+ donating property. PMID:27413349

  13. Mice lacking macrophage 12/15-lipoxygenase are resistant to experimental hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cepura, Cody; Magier, Devora; Siangjong, Lawan; Gauthier, Kathryn M.; Campbell, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In mouse arteries, Alox15 [leukocyte-type 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO)] is assumed to regulate vascular function by metabolizing arachidonic acid (AA) to dilator eicosanoids that mediate the endothelium-dependent relaxations to AA and acetylcholine (ACh). We used Alox15−/− mice, made by targeted disruption of the Alox15 gene, to characterize its role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. Systolic blood pressures did not differ between wild-type (WT) and Alox15−/− mice between 8–12 wk of age, but Alox15−/− mice exhibited resistance toward both NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME)- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/high-salt-induced hypertension. ACh relaxed mesenteric arteries and abdominal aortas of WT and Alox15−/− mice to an identical extent. The LO inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated the ACh relaxations by 35% in arteries from both WT and Alox15−/− mice. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of [14C]AA metabolites in aorta and peritoneal macrophages (PM) revealed differences. Unlike PM, aorta tissue did not produce detectable amounts of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Although Alox15 mRNA was detected in aorta, high-resolution gel electrophoresis with immunodetection revealed no Alox15 protein expression. Unlike aorta, Alox15 protein was detected in PM, intestine, fat, lung, spleen, and skin from WT, but not Alox15−/−, mice. Injection of WT PM, a primary source of Alox15 protein, into Alox15−/− mice abolished their resistance toward l-NAME-induced hypertension. On the other hand, WT mice acquired resistance to l-NAME-induced hypertension after depletion of macrophages by clodronate injection. These studies indicate that Alox15 is involved in development of experimental hypertension by altering macrophage functions but not via synthesis of the vasoactive LO metabolites in mouse arteries. PMID:22467300

  14. Changes in lymphocyte subsets and macrophage functions from high, short-term dietary ethanol in C57/BL6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Abril, E.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of a diet containing 7% ethanol (36% of total calories) for 8 days to male C57/BL6 mice resulted in significant changes in functioning of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages from the ethanol-fed mice released more tumor cell cytotoxic materials upon culturing in vitro than cells from controls. However, peritoneal exudate cells continued to respond to exogenous beta carotene in vitro to produce additional cytotoxic materials. Phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells in vitro was suppressed in cells from ethanol treated mice. The number of splenic lymphocytes of various subsets was significantly changed by the ethanol exposure. Total T cells and T suppressor cells were lower, with a significant decrease in B cells containing IgM on their surface. The percentage of spleen cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced. It is concluded that short-term chronic consumption of dietary ethanol, which was sufficient to produce physical dependence, results in significant alterations in lymphocyte subtypes and suppression of some macrophage functions.

  15. Effects of β-endorphin on the production of reactive oxygen species, IL-1β, Tnf-Α, and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A; Nebogatikov, V O

    2016-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that β-endorphin stimulates the zymosan-induced secretion of reactive oxygen species and suppresses the spontaneous production of IL-1β and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo. PMID:27595832

  16. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of tumor cells by cationized catalase in mice.

    PubMed

    Hyoudou, Kenji; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mukai, Sakiko; Ikemura, Mai; Kuramoto, Yukari; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2007-05-14

    To inhibit peritoneal dissemination of tumor cells by destroying hydrogen peroxide, ethylenediamine-conjugated catalase (ED-catalase), a cationized derivative, was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice. ED-catalase had about a 6-fold longer retention time within the cavity than unmodified catalase. Peritoneal dissemination was evaluated after intraperitoneal inoculation of B16-BL6/Luc, a melanoma clone stably expressing firefly luciferase, by measuring luciferase activity. An intraperitoneal injection of ED-catalase just before tumor inoculation significantly reduced the number of tumor cells in peritoneal organs. Catalase was less effective, confirming the importance of the retention of the enzyme within the cavity for the inhibition. ED-catalase injected 3 days after tumor inoculation was also effective in inhibiting tumor growth. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that ED-catalase significantly suppressed the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Daily dosing of ED-catalase for 7 days significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. These findings indicate that ED-catalase, which is retained for a long time within the peritoneal cavity, is highly effective in inhibiting the adhesion and proliferation of peritoneally disseminated tumor cells, and in increasing the survival of tumor-bearing mice. PMID:17382424

  17. Kinsenoside isolated from Anoectochilus formosanus suppresses LPS-stimulated inflammatory reactions in macrophages and endotoxin shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Ho; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, we reported that kinsenoside, a major component of Anoectochilus formosanus, inhibited inflammatory reactions in mouse peritoneal lavage macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock. In LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal lavage macrophages, kinsenoside inhibited the inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor production. Furthermore, kinsenoside decreased the formation of a nuclear factor [kappa]B-DNA complex and nuclear p65 and p50 protein levels. Kinsenoside inhibited nuclear factor [kappa]B translocation through both I[kappa]B[alpha]-dependent and -independent pathway. In contrast, it stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 generation and enhanced the mRNA expression of IL-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in the same cells induced by LPS. In an animal model, both pretreatment and posttreatment of kinsenoside increased the survival rate of ICR mice challenged by LPS (80 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with kinsenoside decreased serum levels of TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and migration inhibitory factor at 1 h after sublethal dose of LPS (40 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. In contrast, kinsenoside enhanced serum IL-10 level at 24 h after LPS injection in mice. In conclusion, kinsenoside inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine generation. Therefore, kinsenoside can alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:20661184

  18. POLYMICROBIAL SEPSIS INDUCES DIVERGENT EFFECTS ON SPLENIC AND PERITONEAL DENDRITIC CELL FUNCTION IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanli; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Newton, Sarah; Chen, Yaping; Carlton, Stacey; Albina, Jorge E.; Ayala, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that act as sentinels in the cell-mediated response against invading pathogens associated with septic challenge. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there is a loss of dendritic cells and/or changes in function of these cells in septic mice. Here we report that the number of DCs, in both spleen and peritoneum, decreased over 24 h postsepsis [cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)] when compared with sham. The most dramatic change was seen in the peritoneal cavity. This decrease appeared to be caused mainly by the depletion of immature DCs rather than mature DCs. This change was LPS independent and minimally affected by FasL; however, overexpression of human Bcl-2 gene provides protection of the septic peritoneal DCs. Moreover, although the level of IL-12 release decreased significantly in splenic DCs obtained from CLP mice, IL-12 secretion was markedly elevated by peritoneal DCs as well as in both plasma and peritoneal fluid at 24 h post-CLP. In peritoneal cells, the expression of CD40, CD80, and CD86 was unchanged, but their respective ligands CD40L, CD28, and CD152 all increased in mice 24 h after CLP, although no such change was observed in splenocytes. Regardless of the presence or absence of antigen, peritoneal DCs from CLP mice showed higher capacity to stimulate T-cell proliferation than those cells from the sham control. However, splenic DCs from CLP mice only showed augmented capacity to induce antigen-dependent stimulation of T-cell proliferation. Together, these data indicate that sepsis produces divergent functional changes in splenic and peritoneal DC populations. PMID:15257086

  19. Amelioration of Hyperglycemia with a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Prevents Macrophage-Driven Atherosclerosis through Macrophage Foam Cell Formation Suppression in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Michishige; Hiromura, Munenori; Mori, Yusaku; Kohashi, Kyoko; Nagashima, Masaharu; Kushima, Hideki; Watanabe, Takuya; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Direct associations between hyperglycemia and atherosclerosis remain unclear. We investigated the association between the amelioration of glycemia by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and macrophage-driven atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. We administered dapagliflozin or ipragliflozin (1.0 mg/kg/day) for 4-weeks to apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe−/−) mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe−/− mice, and diabetic db/db mice. We then determined aortic atherosclerosis, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation, and related gene expression in exudate peritoneal macrophages. Dapagliflozin substantially decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose tolerance without affecting body weight, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and lipids in diabetic Apoe−/− mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions, atheromatous plaque size, and macrophage infiltration in the aortic root increased in diabetic Apoe−/− mice; dapagliflozin attenuated these changes by 33%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. Atherosclerotic lesions or foam cell formation highly correlated with HbA1c. Dapagliflozin did not affect atherosclerosis or plasma parameters in non-diabetic Apoe−/− mice. In db/db mice, foam cell formation increased by 4-fold compared with C57/BL6 mice, whereas ipragliflozin decreased it by 31%. Foam cell formation exhibited a strong correlation with HbA1c. Gene expression of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 was upregulated, whereas that of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was downregulated in the peritoneal macrophages of both types of diabetic mice. SGLT2i normalized these gene expressions. Our study is the first to demonstrate that SGLT2i exerts anti-atherogenic effects by pure glucose lowering independent of insulin action in diabetic mice through suppressing macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting that foam cell formation is highly sensitive to glycemia ex vivo. PMID:26606676

  20. Amelioration of Hyperglycemia with a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Prevents Macrophage-Driven Atherosclerosis through Macrophage Foam Cell Formation Suppression in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Michishige; Hiromura, Munenori; Mori, Yusaku; Kohashi, Kyoko; Nagashima, Masaharu; Kushima, Hideki; Watanabe, Takuya; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Direct associations between hyperglycemia and atherosclerosis remain unclear. We investigated the association between the amelioration of glycemia by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and macrophage-driven atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. We administered dapagliflozin or ipragliflozin (1.0 mg/kg/day) for 4-weeks to apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe-/-) mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe-/- mice, and diabetic db/db mice. We then determined aortic atherosclerosis, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation, and related gene expression in exudate peritoneal macrophages. Dapagliflozin substantially decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose tolerance without affecting body weight, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and lipids in diabetic Apoe-/- mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions, atheromatous plaque size, and macrophage infiltration in the aortic root increased in diabetic Apoe-/- mice; dapagliflozin attenuated these changes by 33%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. Atherosclerotic lesions or foam cell formation highly correlated with HbA1c. Dapagliflozin did not affect atherosclerosis or plasma parameters in non-diabetic Apoe-/- mice. In db/db mice, foam cell formation increased by 4-fold compared with C57/BL6 mice, whereas ipragliflozin decreased it by 31%. Foam cell formation exhibited a strong correlation with HbA1c. Gene expression of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 was upregulated, whereas that of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was downregulated in the peritoneal macrophages of both types of diabetic mice. SGLT2i normalized these gene expressions. Our study is the first to demonstrate that SGLT2i exerts anti-atherogenic effects by pure glucose lowering independent of insulin action in diabetic mice through suppressing macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting that foam cell formation is highly sensitive to glycemia ex vivo. PMID:26606676

  1. Alpha-D-galactosylation of surface fucoglycoconjugate(s) upon stimulation/activation of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Petryniak, J

    1992-04-01

    Murine resident macrophages express, on their surface, carbohydrate epitopes which undergo changes during their stimulation/activation as monitored by binding of 125I labelled Evonymus europaea and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B4 lectins. Treatment of the stimulated macrophages with coffee bean alpha-galactosidase abolished binding of the GS I-B4 isolectin and changed the binding pattern of the Evonymus lectin. The affinity (Ka) of Evonymus lectin for alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages decreased approximately 23-fold, from 1.25 x 10(8) M-1 to 5.5 x 10(6) M-1. Subsequent digestion of alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages with alpha-L-fucosidase from Trichomonas foetus, further reduced binding of Evonymus lectin. Resident macrophages showed the same pattern of Evonymus lectin binding, with the same affinity, as alpha-galactosidase-treated, stimulated macrophages. These results, together with a consideration of the carbohydrate binding specificity of the Evonymus lectin which, in the absence of alpha-D-galactosyl groups, requires alpha-L-fucosyl groups for binding, indicate the presence, on resident macrophages, of glycoconjugates with terminal alpha-L-fucosyl residues. It is also concluded that during macrophage stimulation/activation alpha-D-galactosyl residues are added to this glycoconjugate and that they form part of the receptor for Evonymus lectin. The same glycoconjugate(s) is/are also expressed on the activated macrophage IC-21 cell line which exhibits the same characteristics as that of stimulated peritoneal macrophages, i.e., it contains alpha-D-galactosyl end groups and is resistant to the action of trypsin. Both lectins were also specifically bound to Corynaebacterium parvum activated macrophages. PMID:1344714

  2. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  3. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Jasper, Melinda J; Brown, Hannah M; Ingman, Wendy V; Robertson, Sarah A

    2013-08-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow-derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  4. Toxicological interactions of silver nanoparticles and organochlorine pesticides in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Pelletier, Èmilien; Voigt, Carmen Lucia; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Filipak Neto, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology occupies a prominent space in economy and science due to the beneficial properties of nanomaterials. However, nanoparticles may pose risks to living organisms due to their adsorption and pro-oxidative properties. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as their combined effects on mouse peritoneal macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and exposed to three concentrations of AgNPs (groups: N1 = 30, N2 = 300 and N3 = 3000 ng.ml(-1)), two concentrations of OCPs (groups: P1 = 30 and P2 = 300 ng.ml(-1)) and the six possible combinations of these two contaminants for 24 h. AgNPs had irregular shape, Feret diameter of 8.7 ± 7.5 nm and zeta potential of -28.7 ± 3.9 mV in water and -10.7 ± 1.04 mV in culture medium. OCP mixtures and the lower concentrations of AgNPs had no detectable effects on cell parameters, but the highest AgNPs concentration showed high toxicity (trypan blue and MTT assays) resulting in morphological changes, increase of nitric oxide levels and phagocytic index. Foremost, the association of N3 and P2 led to distinct effects from those observed under single exposure. PMID:27001549

  5. Correlation of Surface Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression with IL-17 Production in Neutrophils during Septic Peritonitis in Mice Induced by E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yunjia; Hao, Xu; Zhao, Peiyan; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2016-01-01

    IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by various immune cells. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense in bacterial infection and express surface Toll-like receptor 9 (sTLR9). To study the relationship of sTLR9 and IL-17 in PMNs during bacterial infection, we infected mice with E. coli intraperitoneally to establish a septic peritonitis model for studying the PMNs response in peritoneal cavity. We found that PMNs and some of “giant cells” were massively accumulated in the peritoneal cavity of mice with fatal septic peritonitis induced by E. coli. Kinetically, the CD11b+ PMNs were increased from 20–40% at 18 hours to >80% at 72 hours after infection. After E. coli infection, sTLR9 expression on CD11b+ and CD11b− PMNs and macrophages in the PLCs were increased at early stage and deceased at late stage; IL-17 expression was also increased in CD11b+ PMNs, CD11b− PMNs, macrophages, and CD3+ T cells. Using experiments of in vitro blockage, qRT-PCR and cell sorting, we confirmed that PMNs in the PLCs did increase their IL-17 expression during E. coli infection. Interestingly, sTLR9−CD11b+Ly6G+ PMNs, not sTLR9+CD11b+Ly6G+ PMNs, were found to be able to increase their IL-17 expression. Together, the data may help understand novel roles of PMNs in septic peritonitis. PMID:27057095

  6. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, B A; Lee, G S; Franco, M; Hofman, F M

    1992-01-01

    Experimental infection of animals with Histoplasma capsulatum caused a massive macrophage infiltration into the spleen and induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) locally. The cytokine was also produced in vitro by peritoneal exudate macrophages exposed to a large inoculum of yeast cells. Depletion of the cytokine by injection of polyclonal sheep anti-TNF-alpha antibody was detrimental to sublethally infected mice. Fungous burdens in the spleens of TNF-alpha-depleted mice were higher than they were in the infected control mice at days 2, 7, and 9 after infection, and the antibody-treated animals succumbed to the infection. Histopathological study of spleen sections revealed that splenic macrophages were not able to control proliferation of intracellular yeasts as a result of TNF-alpha depletion. It seems that TNF-alpha plays a role in early activation of splenic macrophages which is important in controlling the outcome of an infection. Images PMID:1398934

  7. MicroRNA-223 Induced Repolarization of Peritoneal Macrophages Using CD44 Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles for Anti-Inflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Krishnan, Swathi; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macrophages repolarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype upon transfection with microRNA-223 (miR-223) duplexes and miR-223 expressing plasmid DNA encapsulated in CD44-targeting hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) (HA-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs). The HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs with spherical shape and an average diameter of 200 nm were efficiently internalized by J774A.1 alveolar and primary peritoneal macrophages and non-cytotoxic at HA-PEI concentration less than 200 μg/mL. Transfection of HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs in J774A.1 macrophages showed significantly higher miR-223 expression than that with HA-PEI/plasmid DNA expressing miR-223 (pDNA-miR-223). HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs mediated transfection increased miR-223 expression to 90 fold in primary peritoneal macrophages compared to untreated cells. The overexpression of miR-223 in both J774A.1 and peritoneal macrophages induced a phenotypic change from M1 to M2 state as indicated by a decrease in iNOS-2 (M1 marker) and an increase in Arg-1 (M2 marker) levels compared to those in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-stimulated macrophages (M1). The change in macrophage phenotype by HA-PEI/miR-223 NPs could suppress the inflammation in peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS as evidenced by a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, compared to LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages without treatment. The results demonstrated that miR-223-encapsulated HA-PEI NPs modulated macrophage polarity toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which has potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27148749

  8. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Missima, Fabiane

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress. PMID:18317551

  9. Effects of Macrophage Depletion on Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ames, Conner; Boland, Erin; Szentirmai, Éva

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between the immune system and sleep regulation has been widely acknowledged but the cellular mechanisms that underpin this interaction are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of macrophages in sleep loss- and cold exposure-induced sleep and body temperature responses. Macrophage apoptosis was induced in mice by systemic injection of clodronate-containing liposomes (CCL). We report that CCL treatment induced an immediate and transient increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and fever accompanied by decrease in rapid-eye movement sleep, motor activity and NREMS delta power. Chronically macrophage-depleted mice had attenuated NREMS rebound after sleep deprivation compared to normal mice. Cold-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREMS, rapid-eye movement sleep and body temperature were significantly enhanced in macrophage-depleted mice indicating increased cold sensitivity. These findings provide further evidence for the reciprocal interaction among the immune system, sleep and metabolism, and identify macrophages as one of the key cellular elements in this interplay. PMID:27442442

  10. Effects of Macrophage Depletion on Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Conner; Boland, Erin; Szentirmai, Éva

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between the immune system and sleep regulation has been widely acknowledged but the cellular mechanisms that underpin this interaction are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of macrophages in sleep loss- and cold exposure-induced sleep and body temperature responses. Macrophage apoptosis was induced in mice by systemic injection of clodronate-containing liposomes (CCL). We report that CCL treatment induced an immediate and transient increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and fever accompanied by decrease in rapid-eye movement sleep, motor activity and NREMS delta power. Chronically macrophage-depleted mice had attenuated NREMS rebound after sleep deprivation compared to normal mice. Cold-induced increase in wakefulness and decrease in NREMS, rapid-eye movement sleep and body temperature were significantly enhanced in macrophage-depleted mice indicating increased cold sensitivity. These findings provide further evidence for the reciprocal interaction among the immune system, sleep and metabolism, and identify macrophages as one of the key cellular elements in this interplay. PMID:27442442

  11. Relationship between enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity and the induction of interferon by Newcastle disease virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, S I; Cassell, G H; Rabinovitch, M

    1980-03-01

    The relationship between phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages and serum interferon (IF) titers was evaluated in mice challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Time course studies indicated peak serum IF titers between 6 and 12 hr, whereas Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis was maximal 18 hr after viral administration. Both responses decreased in parallel as the inoculated dose of the virus was reduced. Splenectomy, shown by others to decrease the NDV-induced serum IF titers, significantly decreased the stimulation of phagocytosis. The role of T cells in the response to the virus was studied with nude mice raised under germfree conditions. NDV-induced serum IF titers and macrophage phagocytosis were both diminished in BALB/c nudes compared with their heterozygous littermates. Both responses could be partially restored by transfer of thymocytes obtained from heterozygous mice. The results provide further evidence that in vivo macrophage stimulation by NDV is mediated by induced IF. The experiments with nude mice also indicate that the IF response to NDV is regulated by T lymphocytes. PMID:6965692

  12. Adherence of Legionella pneumophila to guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, J774 mouse macrophages, and undifferentiated U937 human monocytes: role of Fc and complement receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, L K; Johnson, W

    1992-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a facultative intracellular pathogen of alveolar macrophages. Although previous studies have demonstrated that specific antibody facilitates uptake of L. pneumophila by phagocytic cells, the role of complement has been unclear. Thus, we have examined the relative contributions of Fc gamma- and complement receptor-mediated adherence to guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, U937 human monocytic cells, and J774 mouse macrophage cells. Opsonization of L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 2) with polyclonal immunoglobulin G promoted maximum adherence to guinea pig macrophages. In contrast, incubation in the presence of 20% fresh nonimmune human serum from a single donor did not promote adherence. The results obtained with U937 and J774 cells paralleled those obtained with guinea pig macrophages. In the absence of specific antibody, opsonization with guinea pig complement did not enhance adherence of the Philadelphia 1, Philadelphia 2, or Knoxville strain. However, when complement was added to heat-inactivated, specific antiserum, a fourfold increase in the number of adherent organisms was observed. Blocking studies utilizing membrane receptor-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that both Fc and complement receptors mediated adherence of organisms treated with complement in the presence of specific antibody. These results suggest that complement augments adherence of L. pneumophila only when acting in concert with specific antibody. PMID:1452353

  13. In vitro morphology, viability and cytokine secretion of uterine telocyte-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chi; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Su, Lei; Shen, Zong-Ji; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Telocytes (TCs), a distinct interstitial cell population, have been identified in the uterus, oviduct and placenta, with multiple proposed potential biological functions. Their unique structure allows them to form intercellular junctions with various immunocytes, both in normal and diseased tissues, suggesting a potential functional relationship with the local immune response. It has been hypothesized that through direct heterocellular junctions or indirect paracrine effects, TCs influence the activity of local immunocytes that are involved in the inflammatory process and in immune-mediated reproductive abnormalities. However, no reliable cytological evidence for this hypothesis is currently available. In this study, we cultured primary murine uterine TCs and collected TC conditioned media (TCM). Mouse peritoneal macrophages (pMACs) were co-cultured for 48 hrs with TCM or with DMEM/F12 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as negative and positive controls, respectively. Normal uterine TCs with a typical structure and a CD-34-positive/vimentin-positive/c-kit-negative immunophenotype were observed during culture. Morphologically, TCM-treated pMACs displayed an obvious activation/immunoresponse, in contrast to over-stimulation and cell death after LPS treatment and no sign of activation in the presence of DMEM/F12. Accordingly, a cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay indicated significant activation of pMACs by TCM and LPS compared to DMEM/F12, thus supporting the marked morphological differences among these groups of cells. Furthermore, within a panel of macrophage-derived cytokines/enzymes, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly elevated in TCM-treated pMACs; tumour necrosis factor α, IL1-R1, and IL-10 were slightly, but significantly, up-regulated; and no changes were observed for transforming growth factor-β1, IL-1β, IL-23α and IL-18. Our results indicate that TCs are not simply innocent bystanders but are rather functional players in

  14. Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Resident Peritoneal Macrophages by Listeria monocytogenes Involves Listeriolysin O and TLR2*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Shahid; Goldfine, Howard; Tucker, Dawn E.; Suram, Saritha; Lenz, Laurel L.; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Girotti, Milena; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Breuel, Kevin; Williams, David L.; Leslie, Christina C.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoid production by macrophages is an early response to microbial infection that promotes acute inflammation. The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes stimulates arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid production from resident mouse peritoneal macrophages through activation of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). The ability of wild type L. monocytogenes (WTLM) to stimulate arachidonic acid release is partially dependent on the virulence factor listeriolysin O; however, WTLM and L. monocytogenes lacking listeriolysin O (ΔhlyLM) induce similar levels of cyclooxygenase 2. Arachidonic acid release requires activation of MAPKs by WTLM and ΔhlyLM. The attenuated release of arachidonic acid that is observed in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM correlates with diminished MAPK activation. WTLM but not ΔhlyLM increases intracellular calcium, which is implicated in regulation of cPLA2α. Prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin I2, and leukotriene C4 are produced by cPLA2α+/+ but not cPLA2α−/− macrophages in response to WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production is significantly lower in cPLA2α+/+ than in cPLA2α−/− macrophages infected with WTLM and ΔhlyLM. Treatment of infected cPLA2α+/+ macrophages with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin increases TNFα production to the level produced by cPLA2α−/− macrophages implicating prostaglandins in TNFα down-regulation. Therefore activation of cPLA2α in macrophages may impact immune responses to L. monocytogenes. PMID:18083708

  15. Protein kinase C α inhibition prevents peritoneal damage in a mouse model of chronic peritoneal exposure to high-glucose dialysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Balzer, Michael S; Rong, Song; Menne, Jan; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Dong, Lei; Gueler, Faikah; Jang, Mi-Sun; Xu, Gang; Timrott, Kai; Tkachuk, Sergey; Hiss, Marcus; Haller, Hermann; Shushakova, Nelli

    2016-06-01

    Chronic exposure to commercial glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids during peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal membrane damage leading to ultrafiltration failure. In this study the role of protein kinase C (PKC) α in peritoneal membrane damage was investigated in a mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. We used 2 different approaches: blockade of biological activity of PKCα by intraperitoneal application of the conventional PKC inhibitor Go6976 in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and PKCα-deficient mice on a 129/Sv genetic background. Daily administration of peritoneal dialysis fluid for 5 weeks induced peritoneal upregulation and activation of PKCα accompanied by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and macrophage and T cell infiltration, paralleled by reduced ultrafiltration capacity. All pathological changes were prevented by PKCα blockade or deficiency. Moreover, treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency resulted in strong reduction of proinflammatory, profibrotic, and proangiogenic mediators. In cell culture experiments, both treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency prevented peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced release of MCP-1 from mouse peritoneal mesothelial cells and ameliorated transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced MCP-1 release in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Thus, PKCα plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of peritoneal membrane dysfunction induced by peritoneal dialysis fluids, and we suggest that its therapeutic inhibition might be a valuable treatment option for peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27142955

  16. Expression of the Homeobox Gene HOXA9 in Ovarian Cancer Induces Peritoneal Macrophages to Acquire an M2 Tumor-Promoting Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Song Yi; Ladanyi, Andras; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24332016

  17. Measuring the thickness of the peritoneal membrane in mice with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwafi, Reem; Dickinson, Mark; Brenchley, Paul; Walkin, Louise

    2011-06-01

    The detection and diagnosis of diseases have improved in recent years. Developments in diagnostic techniques have helped to improve treatment in the early stages and to avoid many risks to patients. One such technique is optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is used in many medical applications to perform internal microstructural imaging of the human body at high resolution (typically 10 μm), at high speed and in real time. OCT is non-invasive and can be used as a contact or non-contact technique to obtain an image. In medicine, there are many applications that involve OCT, such as in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, cardiology and oncology. This work demonstrates the use of an OCT system incorporating a swept laser source with a high sweep rate of 16 kHz over a wide range of wavelengths (1260 nm to 1390 nm) to measure the thickness of the peritoneal membrane in mice of different sizes and weights. The real axial line speed is limited by the source that is used in the OCT system. The optical source has a bandwidth of ▵λ =110 nm, centred at λ0 =1325 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate the thickening of the peritoneal membrane which can occur during prolonged peritoneal dialysis in mice. As part of this preliminary study, healthy mice of different weights were euthanized and the thickness of the peritoneal membrane was measured using OCT. The aim was to gather data on the expected range of thicknesses present in healthy animals for future studies. For this work, two locations on the peritoneal membrane of each of 20 mice were imaged.

  18. Eicosanoid production by mouse peritoneal macrophages during Toxoplasma gondii penetration: role of parasite and host cell phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Thardin, J F; M'Rini, C; Beraud, M; Vandaele, J; Frisach, M F; Bessieres, M H; Seguela, J P; Pipy, B

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by mouse resident peritoneal macrophages infected in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii was studied. Prelabeling of macrophages with [5,6,8,9,11,12,14,15-3H]arachidonic acid and challenge with tachyzoites for 15 min resulted in a high mobilization of free labeled arachidonic acid (178%) in the culture medium. The parasites also triggered the synthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (47%), prostaglandin E2 (44%), leukotrienes C4 and D4 (33%) and 5-, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (155%). The study indicated that during the intracellular development phase of the parasites, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (38%), prostaglandin E2 (31%) leukotrienes C4 and D4 (15%), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (43%), and free arachidonic acid (110%) were secreted into the culture medium. Pretreatment of tachyzoites with phospholipase A2 inhibitors (4-p-bromophenacyl bromide and quinacrine) and no calcium in the culture medium resulted in inhibition of tachyzoite penetration into the macrophages and a decrease of the arachidonic acid metabolism. The triggering of the arachidonic acid cascade by T. gondii was dependent on the active penetration of the parasites into the macrophages, whereas preincubation of the macrophages with phospholipase A2 inhibitors did not affect penetration or free arachidonic acid release, thereby supporting a role for parasite phospholipase in the penetration process and in arachidonic acid mobilization from macrophage membrane phospholipids. Moreover, treatment of macrophages with phospholipase A2 inhibitors decreased the activities of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, also suggesting an activation of host cell phospholipase A2 by the parasite. PMID:8454347

  19. Effects of opsonization and gamma interferon on growth of Brucella melitensis 16M in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eze, M O; Yuan, L; Crawford, R M; Paranavitana, C M; Hadfield, T L; Bhattacharjee, A K; Warren, R L; Hoover, D L

    2000-01-01

    Entry of opsonized pathogens into phagocytes may benefit or, paradoxically, harm the host. Opsonization may trigger antimicrobial mechanisms such as reactive oxygen or nitric oxide (NO) production but may also provide a safe haven for intracellular replication. Brucellae are natural intramacrophage pathogens of rodents, ruminants, dogs, marine mammals, and humans. We evaluated the role of opsonins in Brucella-macrophage interactions by challenging cultured murine peritoneal macrophages with Brucella melitensis 16M treated with complement- and/or antibody-rich serum. Mouse serum rich in antibody against Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (aLPS) and human complement-rich serum (HCS) each enhanced the macrophage uptake of brucellae. Combinations of suboptimal levels of aLPS (0. 01%) and HCS (2%) synergistically enhanced uptake. The intracellular fate of ingested bacteria was evaluated with an optimal concentration of gentamicin (2 microg/ml) to control extracellular growth but not kill intracellular bacteria. Bacteria opsonized with aLPS and/or HCS grew equally well inside macrophages in the absence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Macrophage activation with IFN-gamma inhibited replication of both opsonized and nonopsonized brucellae but was less effective in inhibiting replication of nonopsonized bacteria. IFN-gamma treatment of macrophages with opsonized or nonopsonized bacteria enhanced NO production, which was blocked by N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine (MMLA), an NO synthesis inhibitor. MMLA also partially blocked IFN-gamma-mediated bacterial growth inhibition. These studies suggest that primary murine macrophages have limited ability to control infection with B. melitensis, even when activated by IFN-gamma in the presence of highly opsonic concentrations of antibody and complement. Additional cellular immune responses, e.g., those mediated by cytotoxic T cells, may play more important roles in the control of murine brucellosis. PMID:10603396

  20. Activation of calcium-insensitive phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) by P2X(7) receptors in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    El Ouaaliti, M; Seil, M; Dehaye, J P

    2012-12-01

    Free fatty acid releases are triggered by PLA2 activation and are substrates for many enzymes such as cyclooxygenases. These reactions are responsible for the production of many prostaglandins implicated in the inflammation yet many purinergic receptors have been implicated in diseases characterised by chronic inflammation. The role of P2X receptors was evaluated in LPS-primed murine peritoneal macrophages which were labelled with either [(3)H]-oleic acid or [(3)H]-arachidonic acid. Ten μmolar thapsigargin and 1mM ATP stimulated the release of both unsaturated acids. ATP had no effect at 10 μM and ivermectin had no effect on the response to ATP. The response to ATP was inhibited by magnesium and was not observed with cells from P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The response to ATP was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium and was inhibited by arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone and bromoenol lactone but not by pyrrophenone. The release of the [(3)H]-fatty acids by ATP and thapsigargin was diminished by PD-98058, an inhibitor of MEK-1. It was concluded that in LPS-primed macrophages, P2X(7) receptors, not P2X(4) receptors, activated an iPLA(2) and promoted the release of unsaturated fatty acids secondary to the activation of a kinase. This response might contribute to the inflammation provoked by extracellular ATP. PMID:23041292

  1. Treatment with sulphated galactan inhibits macrophage chemotaxis and reduces intraplaque macrophage content in atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes Quinderé, Ana Luíza; Barros Benevides, Norma Maria; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Burger, Fabienne; Carbone, Federico; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Pagano, Sabrina; Bertolotto, Maria; Dallegri, Franco; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Experimental data from animal models and clinical studies support connections between the haemostasis and inflammation in atherogenesis. These interfaces among inflammation and thrombogenesis have been suggested as targets for pharmacological intervention to reduce disease progression. We hypothesize that the recently discovered antithrombotic drug Sulphated Galactan (SG) (isolated from the red marine alga Acanthophora muscoides) might reduce atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and inflammatory gene expression in 10-week aged apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice under high-cholesterol diet for additional 11weeks. Then, the underlying cellular mechanisms were investigated in vitro. SG (10mg/kg) or Vehicle was subcutaneously injected from week 6 until week 11 of the diet. Treatment with SG reduced intraplaque macrophage and Tissue Factor (TF) content as compared to Vehicle-treated animals. Intraplaque TF co-localized and positively correlated with macrophage rich-areas. No changes on atherosclerotic plaque size, and other intraplaque features of vulnerability (such as lipid, neutrophil, MMP-9 and collagen contents) were observed. Moreover, mRNA expression of MMPs, chemokines and genetic markers of Th1/2/reg/17 lymphocyte polarization within mouse aortic arches and spleens was not affected by SG treatment. In vitro, treatment with SG dose-dependently reduced macrophage chemotaxis without affecting TF production. Overall, the chronic SG treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, our results indicate that SG treatment reduced intraplaque macrophage content (by impacting on cell recruitment) and, concomitantly, intraplaque TF content of potential macrophage origin in atherosclerotic mice. PMID:25869506

  2. Rates of utilization of glucose, glutamine and oleate and formation of end-products by mouse peritoneal macrophages in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Newsholme, P; Newsholme, E A

    1989-01-01

    1. The metabolism of mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages was studied in culture for up to 96 h. 2. The rates of glycolysis, lactate formation and glutamine utilization were approximately linear with time for at least 80 h of culture. 3. The rates of glucose and glutamine utilization by cultured macrophages were approx. 500 and 90 nmol/h per mg of protein respectively. This rate of glucose utilization is at least 50% greater than that previously reported for macrophages during 60 min incubation in a shaking flask; and it is now increased by addition of glutamine to the culture medium. The rate of glutamine utilization in culture is similar to that previously reported for macrophages during 60 min incubation. The major end-product of glucose metabolism is lactate, and those of glutamine metabolism are CO2, glutamate, ammonia and alanine. 4. Oleate was utilized by these cells: 14C from [14C]oleate was incorporated into CO2 and cellular lipid. The highest rate of oleate utilization was observed when both glucose and glutamine were present in the culture medium. The presence of oleate in the culture medium did not affect the rates of utilization of either glucose or glutamine. Of the [14C]oleate incorporated into lipid, approx. 80% was incorporated into triacylglycerol and only 18% into phospholipid. 5. The turnover rate for the total ATP content of the macrophage in culture is about 10 times per minute: the value for the perfused isolated maximally working rat heart is 22. This indicates a high metabolic rate for macrophages, and consequently emphasizes the importance of the provision of fuels for their function in an immune response. PMID:2775207

  3. Acute exposure to air pollution particulate matter aggravates experimental myocardial infarction in mice by potentiating cytokine secretion from lung macrophages.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Timoteo; Wolf, Dennis; Michel, Nathaly Anto; Mauler, Maximilian; Dufner, Bianca; Hoppe, Natalie; Beckert, Jessica; Jäckel, Markus; Magnani, Natalia; Duerschmied, Daniel; Tasat, Deborah; Alvarez, Silvia; Reinöhl, Jochen; von Zur Muhlen, Constantin; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Evelson, Pablo; Zirlik, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Clinical, but not experimental evidence has suggested that air pollution particulate matter (PM) aggravates myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we aimed to describe mechanisms and consequences of PM exposure in an experimental model of MI. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with a PM surrogate (Residual Oil Fly Ash, ROFA) by intranasal installation before MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Histological analysis of the myocardium 7 days after MI demonstrated an increase in infarct area and enhanced inflammatory cell recruitment in ROFA-exposed mice. Mechanistically, ROFA exposure increased the levels of the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1, activated myeloid and endothelial cells, and enhanced leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity and the vascular endothelium. Notably, these effects on endothelial cells and circulating leukocytes could be reversed by neutralizing anti-TNF-α treatment. We identified alveolar macrophages as the primary source of elevated cytokine production after PM exposure. Accordingly, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages by intranasal clodronate attenuated inflammation and cell recruitment to infarcted tissue of ROFA-exposed mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that exposure to environmental PM induces the release of inflammatory cytokines from alveolar macrophages which directly worsens the course of MI in mice. These findings uncover a novel link between air pollution PM exposure and inflammatory pathways, highlighting the importance of environmental factors in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27240856

  4. DNA methylation in cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) gene promoter induced by ox-LDL in macrophages and in apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Hua-Ping; Li, Jiaojiao; You, Shou-Jiang; Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Fen; Cao, Yong-Jun; Hu, Li-Fang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation control many aspects of monocytes/macrophages and participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, a lipid-driven inflammatory disorder. Our and other groups demonstrated that dysregulation of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) -hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway was involved in monocyte/macrophages-mediated inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, it remains unknown whether altered cse methylation in macrophages may play a role in linking CSE-H2S dysregulation and atherosclerosis. In the present study, we showed that plasma H2S and H2S production in the peritoneal macrophages of apolipoprotein knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice gradually decreased with ages, and were also lower than that in control mice at 12 weeks older. Moreover, CSE mRNA expressions decreased while DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expressions increased in the peritoneal macrophages isolated from apoE(-/-) mice, compared to age-matched wildtype mice. Similar observations were obtained in an in vitro study. In oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated raw264.7 macrophages, cse transcription was down-regulated while the expression and activity of DNMT was up-regulated, associated with enhanced DNA methylation in cse promoter. Suppression of DNMT with its inhibitor or siRNA reversed the decrease of CSE mRNA. Therefore, our data suggest that DNA hypermethylation of CpG rich region in cse promoter might contribute to the decrease of cse transcription and H2S production in macrophages, and thus contribute to atherosclerosis development. PMID:26692478

  5. Macrophage function in alloxan diabetic mice: expression of adhesion molecules, generation of monokines and oxygen and NO radicals

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, W; Klimek, M; Bryniarski, K; Ptak, M; Majcher, P

    1998-01-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial and mycotic infections in poorly controlled diabetic patients or animals is frequently attributed to impaired activities of professional phagocytes (granulocytes, macrophages) in hypoinsulinaemic milieu. We measured production of monokines (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)), active NO and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), as well as expression of several cell surface adhesion molecules (Mac-1, -2 and -3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and FcγRII), by thioglycollate medium-induced peritoneal macrophages of normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic CBA/J mice (blood glucose level in the range 300 or 500 mg/dl). Macrophages of animals with moderate diabetes (300 mg/dl) produced significantly more IL-6 and TNF-α and ROIs than cells of control mice and showed an increased expression of all cell surface molecules, except Mac-3. NO/NO2 production was not affected. Administration of insulin restored enhanced values to normal levels, except for the production of ROIs which remained unusually high. We conclude that two separate mechanisms influence macrophage physiology in diabetes—lack of saturation of insulin receptors on macrophages and an indirect effect due to formation of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE) on their surfaces. The latter is possibly responsible for increased generation of ROIs, since it cannot be down-regulated by prolonged insulin treatment. How the increased activity of macrophages of moderately diabetic mice (enhanced production of proinflammatory monokines and oxygen radicals as well as expression of molecules) is related to their ability to kill bacteria is now under investigation. PMID:9764597

  6. Output of peritoneal cells during peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, O; Al-Mondhiry, H; Rifaat, U N; Khalil, M A; Al-Rawi, A M

    1978-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis provides a good source for the collection of macrophages. Six patients with chronic renal failure undergoing peritoneal dialysis for the first time were studied, and maximum cell egress, mostly macrophages, occurred at 24-48 hours and diminished after 48 hours. PMID:670419

  7. Semaphorin7A promotes tumor growth and exerts a pro-angiogenic effect in macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Libreros, Stephania; Amat, Samantha; Keating, Patricia; Carrio, Roberto; Robinson, Phillip; Blieden, Clifford; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a large family of molecules involved in axonal guidance during the development of the nervous system and have been recently shown to have both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic properties. Specifically, semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) has been reported to have a chemotactic activity in neurogenesis and to be an immune modulator through α1β1integrins. SEMA7A has been shown to promote monocyte chemotaxis and induce them to produce proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explored the role of SEMA7A in a murine model of breast cancer. We show that SEMA7A is highly expressed by DA-3 murine mammary tumor cells in comparison to normal mammary cells (EpH4), and that peritoneal elicited macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice also express SEMA7A at higher levels compared to those derived from normal mice. We also show that murine macrophages treated with recombinant murine SEMA7A significantly increased their expression of proangiogenic molecule CXCL2/MIP-2. Gene silencing of SEMA7A in peritoneal elicited macrophages from DA-3 tumor-bearing mice resulted in decreased CXCL2/MIP-2 expression. Mice implanted with SEMA7A silenced tumor cells showed decreased angiogenesis in the tumors compared to the wild type tumors. Furthermore, peritoneal elicited macrophages from mice bearing SEMA7A-silenced tumors produce significantly (p < 0.01) lower levels of angiogenic proteins, such as CXCL2/MIP-2, CXCL1, and MMP-9, compared to those from control DA-3 mammary tumors. We postulate that SEMA7A in mammary carcinomas may skew monocytes into a pro-tumorigenic phenotype to support tumor growth. SEMA7A could prove to be valuable in establishing new research avenues toward unraveling important tumor-host immune interactions in breast cancer patients. PMID:24550834

  8. A2B Adenosine Receptor Blockade Enhances Macrophage-Mediated Bacterial Phagocytosis and Improves Polymicrobial Sepsis Survival in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Belikoff, Bryan G.; Hatfield, Stephen; Georgiev, Peter; Ohta, Akio; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Buras, Jon A.; Remick, Daniel G.; Sitkovsky, Michail

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatment strategies must improve to reduce the high mortality rates in septic patients. In noninfectious models of acute inflammation, activation of A2B adenosine receptors (A2BR) in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments causes immunosuppression. We examined A2BR in antibacterial responses in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Antagonism of A2BR significantly increased survival, enhanced bacterial phagocytosis, and decreased IL-6 and MIP-2 (a CXC chemokine) levels after CLP in outbred (ICR/CD-1) mice. During the CLP-induced septic response in A2BR knockout mice, hemodynamic parameters were improved compared with wild-type mice in addition to better survival and decreased plasma IL-6 levels. A2BR deficiency resulted in a dramatic 4-log reduction in peritoneal bacteria. The mechanism of these improvements was due to enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity without augmenting neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria. Following ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic macrophages from A2BR knockout mice had increased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion compared with wild-type mice. A therapeutic intervention with A2BR blockade was studied by using a plasma biomarker to direct therapy to those mice predicted to die. Pharmacological blockade of A2BR even 32 h after the onset of sepsis increased survival by 65% in those mice predicted to die. Thus, even the late treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly improved survival of mice (ICR/CD-1) that were otherwise determined to die according to plasma IL-6 levels. Our findings of enhanced bacterial clearance and host survival suggest that antagonism of A2BRs offers a therapeutic target to improve macrophage function in a late treatment protocol that improves sepsis survival. PMID:21242513

  9. Enzymatically-Processed Wheat Bran Enhances Macrophage Activity and Has in Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee; Lee, Mi-Gi; Lee, Jae-Kang; Choi, Yong-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Wheat bran is a rich source of dietary fiber, of which arabinoxylan is the most abundant non-starch polysaccharide. Arabinoxylan has been known to exert in vivo immunological activities. Based on prior findings, we pretreated wheat bran with enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the release of soluble arabinoxylan and investigated whether oral administration of wheat bran altered macrophage activity in a mouse model. After four weeks of treatment, we isolated peritoneal macrophages for phagocytic receptor analysis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory changes. In the second experiment, mice given wheat bran were intraperitoneally stimulated with LPS and serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined. The expression of SRA and CD36, and phagocytic activity increased (p < 0.05, respectively). Ex vivo stimulation of macrophages by LPS resulted in reduced surface expression of CD40 (p < 0.05) and decreased production of nitric oxide (p < 0.005), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.005), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.01), and IL-12 (p < 0.05). Mice treated with wheat bran showed decreased levels of serum TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05, respectively) and an increased level of serum anti-inflammatory IL-10 (p < 0.05) in response to intraperitoneal LPS. Enzymatically-processed wheat bran boosts macrophage phagocytic capacity possibly through up-regulation of scavenger receptors and confers anti-inflammatory effects, indicating its potential as an immuno-enhancing functional food. PMID:27043618

  10. Protective effect of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in leukocytopenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, T.; Okamura, S.; Okada, K.; Suga, A.; Shimono, N.; Ohhara, N.; Hirota, Y.; Sawae, Y.; Niho, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in ICR mice were investigated. Mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and were then injected intraperitoneally with rmGM-CSF three times daily, beginning on the day after CPA treatment, for 7 days. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in both CPA- and rmGM-CSF-treated mice and control CPA-treated mice reached a nadir on day 4, when P. aeruginosa was injected intraperitoneally. The administration of rmGM-CSF significantly increased the proportion of survivors among mice infected with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa. This effect was further analyzed by monitoring sequential changes in leukocyte count and bacterial growth in various organs. The number of bacteria in the peritoneal cavities, peripheral blood samples, and livers of GM-CSF-treated mice decreased to an undetectable level after a transient increase, and the number was significantly lower than that in control mice. In GM-CSF-treated mice, the neutrophil levels in peripheral blood started to increase 5 days after CPA administration and were consistently higher than those in controls. Furthermore, the neutrophils in GM-CSF-treated mice were more mature morphologically. Thus, the prophylactic effect of rmGM-CSF against P. aeruginosa infection may result from a rapid recovery of myelopoiesis and a partial enhancement of mature neutrophil function. PMID:2656523

  11. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, T.; Hata, S.; Kusafuka, T. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested whether nonspecific tumoricidal immune cells can suppress congenital malformations by killing precursor cells destined to cause such defects. Pretreatment of pregnant ICR mice with synthetic (Pyran copolymer) and biological (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) agents significantly suppressed radiation- and chemical-induced congenital malformations (cleft palate, digit anomalies, tail anomalies, etc.). Such suppressive effects were associated with the activation of maternal macrophages by these agents, but were lost either after the disruption of activated macrophages by supersonic waves or by inhibition of their lysosomal enzyme activity with trypan blue. These results indicate that a live activated macrophage with active lysosomal enzymes can be an effector cell to suppress maldevelopment. A similar reduction by activated macrophages was observed in strain CL/Fr, which has a high spontaneous frequency of cleft lips and palates. Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo. It is likely that a maternal immunosurveillance system eliminating preteratogenic cells allows for the replacement with normal totipotent blast cells during the pregnancy to protect abnormal development.

  12. Temporal sequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses to graded polymicrobial peritonitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stamme, C; Bundschuh, D S; Hartung, T; Gebert, U; Wollin, L; Nüsing, R; Wendel, A; Uhlig, S

    1999-11-01

    The lungs are the remote organ most commonly affected in human peritonitis. The major goals of this study were to define the dose- and time-dependent relationship between graded septic peritonitis and systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses in mice. BALB/c mice were treated with intraperitoneal polymicrobial inoculi and sacrificed at 3, 12, and 24 h. The treatment protocol resulted in distinct groups of animals with respect to mortality rate, kinetics, and concentrations of a broad spectrum of pro- and anti-inflammatory endogenous mediators, intrapulmonary bacterial accumulation, and static lung compliance. In sublethally infected mice, pulmonary bacterial proliferation was controlled. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-10, interleukin-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in plasma were elevated 3 h after infection exclusively. At 3 h, MCP-1, gamma interferon, and TNF were detected in extracts of pulmonary tissue or in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Static lung compliance (C(st)) was transiently decreased at 12 h. In contrast, in lethally infected mice pulmonary bacterial proliferation was not contained. Concentrations of MCP-1, G-CSF, and TNF in plasma were maximal at 24 h, as were pulmonary MCP-1 levels. Lung myeloperoxidase activity was increased at 3, 12, and 24 h. C(st) was reduced after 3 h and did not reach control values at 24 h. Pulmonary cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and eicosanoids in BAL fluid and plasma were elevated at 3 and 24 h. This study shows that polymicrobial peritonitis in mice leads to dose-dependent systemic and pulmonary inflammation accompanied by a decrease in lung compliance. PMID:10531211

  13. Use of mice tolerant to lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate requirement of cooperation between macrophages and lymphocytes to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Z; Hertogs, C F; Pluznik, D H

    1983-01-01

    Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was followed by a rapid elevation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the serum. A second, challenging injection of LPS given 3 to 4 days later failed to induce elevated levels of CSF in the serum. Such mice tolerant to LPS were used as an experimental tool to identify the CSF-producing cells which respond to LPS. We observed that generation of LPS-induced CSF in mice tolerant to LPS could be restored by an intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells 24 h before the challenging injection of LPS. Depletion of the adherent cells from the spleen cells reduced the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to restore the capacity of the mice tolerant to LPS to generate serum CSF. Reconstitution of the splenic lymphocytes with 5% thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, however, reestablished the restorative capacity of these cells, whereas almost no restoration was observed after direct injection of elicited peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that the spleen cells are active in generating CSF, provided that macrophages are present and can interact with the splenic lymphocytes to generate LPS-induced CSF in the serum. PMID:6602767

  14. Different Effects of the Immunomodulatory Drug GMDP Immobilized onto Aminopropyl Modified and Unmodified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles upon Peritoneal Macrophages of Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Antsiferova, Yuliya; Sotnikova, Nataliya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs) and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs) for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1), was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24455738

  15. Different effects of the immunomodulatory drug GMDP immobilized onto aminopropyl modified and unmodified mesoporous silica nanoparticles upon peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Antsiferova, Yuliya; Sotnikova, Nataliya; Parfenyuk, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare in vitro the possibility of application of unmodified silica nanoparticles (UMNPs) and modified by aminopropyl groups silica nanoparticles (AMNPs) for topical delivery of immunomodulatory drug GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages of women with endometriosis. The absence of cytotoxic effect and high cellular uptake was demonstrated for both types of silica nanoparticles. The immobilization of GMDP on the UMNPs led to the suppression of the stimulatory effect of GMDP on the membrane expression of scavenger receptors SR-AI and SR-B, mRNAs expression of NOD2 and RAGE, and synthesis of proteolytic enzyme MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs, enhanced the initially reduced membrane expression of SRs and increased NOD2, RAGE, and MMP-9 mRNAs expression by macrophages. Simultaneously high level of mRNAs expression of factors, preventing undesirable hyperactivation of peritoneal macrophages (SOCS1 and TIMP-1), was observed in macrophages incubated in the presence of GMDP, immobilized onto AMNPs. The effect of AMNPs immobilized GMDP in some cases exceeded the effect of free GMDP. Thus, among the studied types of silica nanoparticles, AMNPs are the most suitable nanoparticles for topical delivery of GMDP to the peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24455738

  16. Endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin gold through mice peritoneal mesothelium.

    PubMed

    Gotloib, L; Shostak, A

    1995-05-01

    The present transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was designed to investigate whether mesothelial cells of mice diaphragmatic, parietal and mesenteric peritoneum are actively coupled to the mechanisms involved in the transerosal absorption of albumin gold complexes (Alb-Au). Five albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of a suspension of Alb-Au. In three animals, in vivo fixation was done 10 minutes after injection of Alb-Au, whereas in the remaining two, fixation was performed 45 minutes after injection of the tracer. At both time intervals, a substantial part of Alb-Au complexes was observed within plasmalemmal and coated vesicles, mainly attached to the luminal aspect of the internal luminal membranes. The amount of Alb-Au contained in plasmalemmal vesicles was significantly higher than that detected in intermesothelial junctions. Plasmalemmal vesicles were observed discharging Alb-Au complexes in the submesothelial interstitium, showing a significantly higher proportion of the tracer associated with non-junctional areas. Evidence presented in this study supports the idea of local degradation of Alb-Au in mesothelial cells after endocytosis, and that of a continuously transcytotic mechanism transporting polymerized albumin across the mesothelial layer. In this sense, transcytotic vesicles could represent the large pore equivalent. PMID:7637257

  17. Involvement of proton-sensing receptor TDAG8 in the anti-inflammatory actions of dexamethasone in peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiao-dong; Tobo, Masayuki; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Komachi, Mayumi; Murata, Naoya; Takano, Mutsumi; Tomura, Hideaki; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucocorticoid (GC) induced the expression of proton-sensing TDAG8 in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC enhanced acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation and inhibition of TNF-{alpha} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement of the GC-induced actions was lost by TDAG8 deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC-induced anti-inflammatory actions are partly mediated by TDAG8 expression. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent glucocorticoid, increased the expression of T-cell death associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, which is associated with the enhancement of acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation, in peritoneal macrophages. We explored the role of increased TDAG8 expression in the anti-inflammatory actions of DEX. The treatment of macrophages with either DEX or acidic pH induced the cell death of macrophages; however, the cell death was not affected by TDAG8 deficiency. While DEX inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, an inflammatory cytokine, which was independent of TDAG8, at neutral pH, the glucocorticoid enhanced the acidic pH-induced inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} production in a manner dependent on TDAG8. In conclusion, the DEX-induced increase in TDAG8 expression is in part involved in the glucocorticoid-induced anti-inflammatory actions through the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production under the acidic pH environment. On the other hand, the role of TDAG8 in the DEX-induced cell death is questionable.

  18. In vitro immune toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptosis and immune cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia; Yang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are often detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, presenting potential threats to ecosystem and human health. PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, data on PBDE immunotoxicity are limited, and the toxicity mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both immune cell death and dysfunction can modulate the responses of the immune system. This study examined the toxic effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the immune system by using peritoneal macrophages as the model. The macrophages were exposed to PBDEs, and cell death was determined through flow cytometry and immunochemical blot. The results showed that after 24h of exposure, BDE-47 (>5 μM) and BDE-209 (>20 μM) induced cell apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and depleted glutathione. BDE-47 was more potent than BDE-209; the cytotoxic concentrations for BDE-47 and BDE-209 were determined to be 5 μM and 20 μM, respectively, during 24h of exposure. However, pretreatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) partially reversed the cytotoxic effects. Further gene expression analyses on Caspase-3,-8,-9, TNFR1, and Bax revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. More importantly, non-cytotoxic concentrations BDE-47 (<2 μM) and BDE-209 (<10 μM) could impair macrophage accessory cell function in a concentration-dependent manner, but no effects were observed on phagocytic responses. These revealed effects of PBDEs on macrophages may shed light on the toxicity mechanisms of PBDEs and suggest the necessity of evaluating cellular functionality during the risk assessment of PBDE immunotoxicity. PMID:25462306

  19. Regulation of the surface expression of the platelet-activating factor receptor in IC-21 peritoneal macrophages. Effects of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Chao, W; Olson, M S

    1992-10-15

    The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of the receptor for platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; AGEPC) was examined in cultured IC-21 peritoneal macrophages. AGEPC binding to its receptors reached saturation within 20 min at 25 degrees C and was reversible. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of AGEPC receptors with a Bmax of approximately 170 fmol/mg cellular protein and a Kd of 0.25 nM. Preincubation of IC-21 cells with LPS (0.01-1,000 ng/ml) induced an increase in the surface expression of AGEPC receptors in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The maximal effect of LPS on the AGEPC receptor was observed between 5 and 8 h, with a typical increase between 150 and 200%. Scatchard analysis indicated that LPS treatment of IC-21 cells increased the number of AGEPC receptors on the cell surface without any apparent change in the affinity of the receptor for the ligand. The effect of LPS on the surface expression of the AGEPC receptor was nearly abolished by cycloheximide (0.1 mM) and by actinomycin D (3 microM), suggesting the involvement of enhanced receptor protein synthesis and mRNA production in this event. Moreover, LPS treatment increased the capability of the IC-21 cell to respond to AGEPC addition by elevating intracellular free Ca2+ without causing an increase in the basal level of intracellular Ca2+. The present study demonstrates that IC-21 peritoneal macrophages possess high affinity AGEPC receptors and provides the evidence that the number of functional AGEPC receptors on a cell can be increased significantly upon exposure to LPS. PMID:1328211

  20. Retinoic acid induces macrophage cholesterol efflux and inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Xia, Min

    2015-08-28

    It has been suggested that retinoic acid (RA) has a potential role in the prevention of atherosclerotic CVD. In the present study, we used J774A.1 cell lines and primary peritoneal macrophages to investigate the protective effects of RA on foam cell formation and atherogenesis in apoE-deficient (apoE- / -) mice. A total of twenty male apoE- / - mice (n 10 animals per group), aged 8 weeks, were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with vehicle or 9-cis-RA for 8 weeks. The atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic sinus of mice in the 9-cis-RA group was 40·7 % less than that of mice in the control group (P< 0·01). Mouse peritoneal macrophages from the 9-cis-RA group had higher protein expression levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) than those from the control group. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower in the 9-cis-RA group than in the control group (P< 0·05). In vitro studies showed that incubation of cholesterol-loaded J774A.1 macrophages with 9-cis-RA (0·1, 1 and 10 μmol/l) induced cholesterol efflux in a dose-dependent manner. The 9-cis-RA treatment markedly attenuated lipid accumulation in macrophages exposed to oxidised LDL. Moreover, treatment with 9-cis-RA significantly increased the protein expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in J774A.1 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 9-cis-RA dose-dependently enhanced the protein expression level of liver X receptor-α (LXRα), the upstream regulator of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, the present results show that 9-cis-RA suppresses foam cell formation and prevents HFD-induced atherogenesis via the LXRα-dependent up-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. PMID:26201974

  1. β-(1→3)-Glucan of the Southern Bracket Mushroom, Ganoderma australe (Agaricomycetes), Stimulates Phagocytosis and Interleukin-6 Production in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Renan Henrique; do Amaral, Alex Evangelista; Menolli, Rafael Andrade; Ayala, Thais Soprani; de Cassia Garcia Simao, Rita; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixao; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Kadowaki, Marina Kimiko; da Conceicao Silva, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma australe was studied to determine the composition of the cell wall, and polysaccharide fraction SK5 was obtained after freeze-thawing an aqueous 5% potassium hydroxide extraction. The monosaccharide composition of the SK5 fraction revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed 81.3% glucose, and analyses by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed a β-glucan with glycosidic links of the (1→3)-β type and most likely 4-O substituted. In addition, the biological effect of the β-glucan from G. australe was evaluated via in vitro cell cultures of peritoneal macrophages isolated from Swiss mice. Biological assays were assessed for toxicity and cell activation, interleukin-6 cytokine concentrations, and the ability to stimulate phagocytic activity. There was an increase in interleukin-6 by approximately 111% with 1.0 µg/mL of polysaccharide, and phagocyte activity was increased in all concentrations examined, obtaining 52.3% with 0.25 µg/mL polysaccharide. The results indicate that a β-(1→3)-glucan isolated from G. australe can be classified as a biological response modifier. PMID:27481297

  2. Uptake of remnant like particles (RLP) in diabetic patients from mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tomono, S; Kawazu, S; Kato, N; Ono, T; Ishii, C; Ito, Y; Shimizu, M; Shimoyama, M; Nakano, T; Nakajima, K

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether the remnant like particles (RLP), separated from serum by an immunoaffinity gel mixture of anti-apo B-100 and apo A-I monoclonal antibodies, are relevant to the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis, the incorporation of RLP into mouse macrophages was studied using histochemical and biochemical techniques. Remnant lipoproteins such as RLP are reported to contain a large quantity of chyloniron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, especially in diabetic patients. The RLP separated from the sera of 32 diabetic patients were found to be predominantly taken up into macrophages harvested from mouse abdominal cavities by the staining method applying oil red O. Furthermore, using 14C-oleate to prove the uptake of lipoproteins by macrophages, the uptake of RLP-VLDL, a VLDL fraction of RLP by ultracentrifugation, was the next highest to that of the oxidized LDL, which suggests that RLP-VLDL is also aggressively taken up by macrophages. The degree of uptake of RLP-VLDL by macrophages was positively correlated with HbA1c of these diabetic patients (r = 0.556, p < 0.01), irrespective of the ways of the treatment of diabetes. In conclusion, RLP can contribute to the foaming of macrophages, which in turn may explain the acceleration of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. PMID:9222876

  3. Flaxseed lignans enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside prevent acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Menges, Craig W.; Testa, Joseph R.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Albelda, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM), linked to asbestos exposure, is a highly lethal form of thoracic cancer with a long latency period, high mortality and poor treatment options. Chronic inflammation and oxidative tissue damage caused by asbestos fibers are linked to MM development. Flaxseed lignans, enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. As a prelude to chronic chemoprevention studies for MM development, we tested the ability of flaxseed lignan component (FLC) to prevent acute asbestos-induced inflammation in MM-prone Nf2+/mu mice. Mice (n = 16–17 per group) were placed on control (CTL) or FLC-supplemented diets initiated 7 days prior to a single intraperitoneal bolus of 400 µg of crocidolite asbestos. Three days post asbestos exposure, mice were evaluated for abdominal inflammation, proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine release, WBC gene expression changes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF). Asbestos-exposed mice fed CTL diet developed acute inflammation, with significant (P < 0.0001) elevations in WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and active TGFß1) relative to baseline (BL) levels. Alternatively, asbestos-exposed FLC-fed mice had a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in PLF WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine levels relative to CTL-fed mice. Importantly, PLF WBC gene expression of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and TGFß1) and cytokine receptors (TNFαR1 and TGFßR1) were also downregulated by FLC. FLC also significantly (P < 0.0001) blunted asbestos-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress. FLC reduces acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation, nitrosative and oxidative stress and may thus prove to be a promising agent in the chemoprevention of MM. PMID:26678224

  4. Flaxseed lignans enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside prevent acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Menges, Craig W; Testa, Joseph R; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Albelda, Steven M; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM), linked to asbestos exposure, is a highly lethal form of thoracic cancer with a long latency period, high mortality and poor treatment options. Chronic inflammation and oxidative tissue damage caused by asbestos fibers are linked to MM development. Flaxseed lignans, enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. As a prelude to chronic chemoprevention studies for MM development, we tested the ability of flaxseed lignan component (FLC) to prevent acute asbestos-induced inflammation in MM-prone Nf2(+/mu) mice. Mice (n = 16-17 per group) were placed on control (CTL) or FLC-supplemented diets initiated 7 days prior to a single intraperitoneal bolus of 400 µg of crocidolite asbestos. Three days post asbestos exposure, mice were evaluated for abdominal inflammation, proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine release, WBC gene expression changes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF). Asbestos-exposed mice fed CTL diet developed acute inflammation, with significant (P < 0.0001) elevations in WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and active TGFß1) relative to baseline (BL) levels. Alternatively, asbestos-exposed FLC-fed mice had a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in PLF WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine levels relative to CTL-fed mice. Importantly, PLF WBC gene expression of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and TGFß1) and cytokine receptors (TNFαR1 and TGFßR1) were also downregulated by FLC. FLC also significantly (P < 0.0001) blunted asbestos-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress. FLC reduces acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation, nitrosative and oxidative stress and may thus prove to be a promising agent in the chemoprevention of MM. PMID:26678224

  5. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-γ was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications. PMID:25857980

  6. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid induced suppression of phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress phagocytosis of heat killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in macrophage cultures. In order to determine the mechanisms by which this response occurs, this investigation was initiated to examine whether the suppression of phagocytosis is mediated by a steroid induced phagocytosis inhibitory protein (PIP). Furthermore, it is postulated that these suppressive effects may be associated with alterations in macrophage phospholipid metabolism. To assess the association between phospholipid metabolism and phagocytosis, control and 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone treated macrophages were exposed to the phospholipase inhibitor bromophenacylbromide. The enzyme inhibitor suppressed phagocytosis in a time and dose dependent manner. However, supplying dexamethasone treated cultures with arachidonate did not reverse the steroid induced suppression of phagocytosis, whether the arachidonate was supplied alone or together with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Control cells, prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonate, exhibited an increased percentage of the radiolabeled fatty acid in neutral lipids following phagocytosis, with a corresponding decrease in the percentage associated with phosphatidylcholine.

  7. Aging of mice is associated with p16(Ink4a)- and β-galactosidase-positive macrophage accumulation that can be induced in young mice by senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brandon M.; Balan, Vitaly; Gleiberman, Anatoli S.; Strom, Evguenia; Krasnov, Peter; Virtuoso, Lauren P.; Rydkina, Elena; Vujcic, Slavoljub; Balan, Karina; Gitlin, Ilya; Leonova, Katerina; Polinsky, Alexander; Chernova, Olga B.; Gudkov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells (SCs) have been considered a source of age-related chronic sterile systemic inflammation and a target for anti-aging therapies. To understand mechanisms controlling the amount of SCs, we analyzed the phenomenon of rapid clearance of human senescent fibroblasts implanted into SCID mice, which can be overcome when SCs were embedded into alginate beads preventing them from immunocyte attack. To identify putative SC killers, we analyzed the content of cell populations in lavage and capsules formed around the SC-containing beads. One of the major cell types attracted by secretory factors of SCs was a subpopulation of macrophages characterized by p16(Ink4a) gene expression and β-galactosidase activity at pH6.0 (β-galpH6), thus resembling SCs. Consistently, mice with p16(Ink4a) promoter-driven luciferase, developed bright luminescence of their peritoneal cavity within two weeks following implantation of SCs embedded in alginate beads. p16(Ink4a)/β-galpH6-expressing cells had surface biomarkers of macrophages F4/80 and were sensitive to liposomal clodronate used for the selective killing of cells capable of phagocytosis. At the same time, clodronate failed to kill bona fide SCs generated in vitro by genotoxic stress. Old mice with elevated proportion of p16(Ink4a)/β-galpH6-positive cells in their tissues demonstrated reduction of both following systemic clodronate treatment, indicating that a significant proportion of cells previously considered to be SCs are actually a subclass of macrophages. These observations point at a significant role of p16(Ink4a)/β-galpH6-positive macrophages in aging, which previously was attributed solely to SCs. They require re-interpretation of the mechanisms underlying rejuvenating effects following eradication of p16(Ink4a)/β-galpH6-positive cells and reconsideration of potential cellular target for anti-aging treatment. PMID:27391570

  8. Paricalcitol Reduces Peritoneal Fibrosis in Mice through the Activation of Regulatory T Cells and Reduction in IL-17 Production

    PubMed Central

    González-Mateo, Guadalupe T.; Fernández-Míllara, Vanessa; Bellón, Teresa; Liappas, Georgios; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Selgas, Rafael; Aroeira, Luiz S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a significant health problem associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction. The precise mechanisms involved in the fibrotic process are still poorly understood. However, given that inflammation is a major causative factor, immunomodulation is a possible therapeutic approach to reduce fibrosis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) that is present in all hematopoietic cells has been associated with immunomodulation. We investigated whether the intraperitoneal administration of paricalcitol, a specific activator of the VDR, modulates peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF)-induced peritoneal fibrosis. We characterized the inflammatory process in the peritoneal cavity of mice treated or not treated with paricalcitol and analyzed the ensuing fibrosis. The treatment reduced peritoneal IL-17 levels, which strongly correlated with a significantly lower peritoneal fibrotic response. In vitro studies demonstrate that both CD4+ and CD8+ regulatory T cells appear to impact the regulation of IL-17. Paricalcitol treatment resulted in a significantly increased frequency of CD8+ T cells showing a regulatory phenotype. The frequency of CD4+ Tregs tends to be increased, but it did not achieve statistical significance. However, paricalcitol treatment increased the number of CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells in vivo. In conclusion, the activation of immunological regulatory mechanisms by VDR signaling could prevent or reduce fibrosis, as shown in peritoneal fibrosis induced by PDF exposure in mice. PMID:25279459

  9. Paricalcitol reduces peritoneal fibrosis in mice through the activation of regulatory T cells and reduction in IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    González-Mateo, Guadalupe T; Fernández-Míllara, Vanessa; Bellón, Teresa; Liappas, Georgios; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Selgas, Rafael; Aroeira, Luiz S

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a significant health problem associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction. The precise mechanisms involved in the fibrotic process are still poorly understood. However, given that inflammation is a major causative factor, immunomodulation is a possible therapeutic approach to reduce fibrosis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) that is present in all hematopoietic cells has been associated with immunomodulation. We investigated whether the intraperitoneal administration of paricalcitol, a specific activator of the VDR, modulates peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF)-induced peritoneal fibrosis. We characterized the inflammatory process in the peritoneal cavity of mice treated or not treated with paricalcitol and analyzed the ensuing fibrosis. The treatment reduced peritoneal IL-17 levels, which strongly correlated with a significantly lower peritoneal fibrotic response. In vitro studies demonstrate that both CD4+ and CD8+ regulatory T cells appear to impact the regulation of IL-17. Paricalcitol treatment resulted in a significantly increased frequency of CD8+ T cells showing a regulatory phenotype. The frequency of CD4+ Tregs tends to be increased, but it did not achieve statistical significance. However, paricalcitol treatment increased the number of CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells in vivo. In conclusion, the activation of immunological regulatory mechanisms by VDR signaling could prevent or reduce fibrosis, as shown in peritoneal fibrosis induced by PDF exposure in mice. PMID:25279459

  10. Intracellularly survived Staphylococcus aureus after phagocytosis are more virulent in inducing cytotoxicity in fresh murine peritoneal macrophages utilizing TLR-2 as a possible target.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus with high virulence potential is contributing to a current public health crisis in both hospital and community settings. TLR-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells is thought to be an important component of the host's immunity against S. aureus infection. However, response of S. aureus against modulation of host-derived ROS in absence of TLR-2 during acute staphylococcal infection is still remains unclear. Peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with either inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase in presence or absence of anti TLR-2 antibody and were infected with S. aureus strain AG-789. Bacteria were recovered after time dependent phagocytosis; intracellular killing, level and expression of SOD and catalase were measured. Phagocytosed bacteria from respective groups were further used for infection to fresh peritoneal macrophages as well as for in vivo infection. Levels of ROS, cytokine, lysozyme, antioxidant enzymes activity and TLR-2 expression were measured. Results revealed that more bacteria were escaped killing in SOD and catalase inhibitor pretreated TLR-2 neutralized macrophages, found to express more catalase and are antibiotic resistant. Infection of fresh macrophages with S. aureus, recovered from SOD and catalase inhibited TLR-2 neutralized macrophages induced lower ROS, lysozyme and cytokine production and caused increased bacterial count. Furthermore, bacterial antioxidants by modulating host-derived ROS could regulate the cell surface TLR-2 expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. So, in the early phase of infection, TLR-2 participates in the innate immune response and targeting bacterial antioxidants might be useful in the alleviation of Staphylococcus aureus infection. PMID:27270212

  11. A murine platelet-activating factor receptor gene: cloning, chromosomal localization and up-regulation of expression by lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal resident macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, S; Matsuda, Y; Nakamura, M; Waga, I; Kume, K; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    A murine gene encoding a platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was cloned. The gene was mapped to a region of the D2.2 band of chromosome 4 both by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by molecular linkage analysis. Northern blot analysis showed a high expression of the PAFR message in peritoneal macrophages. When C3H/HeN macrophages were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic lipid A, the PAFR gene expression was induced. Bacterial LPS, but not lipid A, induced the level of PAFR mRNA in LPS unresponsive C3H/HeJ macrophages. These induction patterns were parallel to those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Thus the PAFR in macrophages is important in LPS-induced pathologies. PMID:8670084

  12. Azithromycin protects mice against ischemic stroke injury by promoting macrophage transition towards M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amantea, Diana; Certo, Michelangelo; Petrelli, Francesco; Tassorelli, Cristina; Micieli, Giuseppe; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Puccetti, Paolo; Fallarino, Francesca; Bagetta, Giacinto

    2016-01-01

    To develop novel and effective treatments for ischemic stroke, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin in a mouse model system of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Intraperitoneal administration of azithromycin significantly reduced blood-brain barrier damage and cerebral infiltration of myeloid cells, including neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages. These effects resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of cerebral ischemic damage, and in a remarkable amelioration of neurological deficits up to 7 days after the insult. Neuroprotection was associated with increased arginase activity in peritoneal exudate cells, which was followed by the detection of Ym1- and arginase I-immunopositive M2 macrophages in the ischemic area at 24-48 h of reperfusion. Pharmacological inhibition of peritoneal arginase activity counteracted azithromycin-induced neuroprotection, pointing to a major role for drug-induced polarization of migratory macrophages towards a protective, non-inflammatory M2 phenotype. PMID:26518285

  13. Macrophage Depletion Prior to Neospora caninum Infection Results in Severe Neosporosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Chisa; Tanaka, Sachi; Ihara, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    We observed that murine macrophages showed greater activation and increased interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production during Neospora caninum infection. Many macrophages migrated to the site of infection. Furthermore, macrophage-depleted mice exhibited increased sensitivity to N. caninum infection. This study indicates that macrophages are required for achieving protective immunity against N. caninum. PMID:24872515

  14. Protective effects of macrophage-derived interferon against encephalomyocarditis virus-induced diabetes mellitus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, K; Ogiso, Y; Takeda, M; Lee, M J; Itagaki, S; Doi, K

    1995-12-01

    The involvement of macrophages in protection against diabetes mellitus in mice of BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL (resistant) strains infected with the B (non-diabetogenic) or D (highly diabetogenic) variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was examined. Pretreatment with the B variant of EMC virus (EMC-B), avirulent interferon (IFN) inducer, or Corynebacterium parvum inhibited diabetes in BALB/c mice infected with the D variant of EMC virus (EMC-D). Treatment of C57BL mice with carrageenan to compromise macrophage function rendered C57BL mice susceptible to EMC-D-induced diabetes. In macrophage culture for BALB/c mice, EMC-B induced IFN at an earlier stage than did EMC-D. The C57BL mouse-derived macrophages produced more IFN than did BALB/c mouse-derived macrophages after stimulation with EMC-D. Moreover, C. parvum increased IFN production in macrophage cultures from BALB/c mice, whereas carrageenan inhibited that in macrophage cultures from C57BL mice. These results suggest that IFN derived from macrophages may have an important role in protecting mice against EMC virus infection. PMID:8746525

  15. Macrophages Are the Determinant of Resistance to and Outcome of Nonlethal Babesia microti Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Cao, Shinuo; Herbas, Maria S.; Nishimura, Maki; Li, Yan; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Pyarokhil, Asadullah Hamid; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kato, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zhou, Jinlin; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the contributions of macrophages to the outcome of infection with Babesia microti, the etiological agent of human and rodent babesiosis, in BALB/c mice. Mice were treated with clodronate liposome at different times during the course of B. microti infection in order to deplete the macrophages. Notably, a depletion of host macrophages at the early and acute phases of infection caused a significant elevation of parasitemia associated with remarkable mortality in the mice. The depletion of macrophages at the resolving and latent phases of infection resulted in an immediate and temporal exacerbation of parasitemia coupled with mortality in mice. Reconstituting clodronate liposome-treated mice at the acute phase of infection with macrophages from naive mice resulted in a slight reduction in parasitemia with improved survival compared to that of mice that received the drug alone. These results indicate that macrophages play a crucial role in the control of and resistance to B. microti infection in mice. Moreover, analyses of host immune responses revealed that macrophage-depleted mice diminished their production of Th1 cell cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, depletion of macrophages at different times exaggerated the pathogenesis of the infection in deficient IFN-γ−/− and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Collectively, our data provide important clues about the role of macrophages in the resistance and control of B. microti and imply that the severity of the infection in immunocompromised patients might be due to impairment of macrophage function. PMID:25312951

  16. Direct measurement of intracellular free Ca2+ in rat peritoneal macrophages: correlation with oxygen-radical production.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M B; Campbell, A K

    1983-01-01

    A novel method has been developed, based on osmotic lysis of intracellular pinocytotic vesicles, to introduce the Ca2+-activated photoprotein obelin into the cytoplasm of rat peritoneal macrophages. The change in osmolarity of the incubating medium necessary to induce lysis of the pinocytotic vesicles did not significantly affect the viability or responsiveness of the cells. The method enabled on average 3 fl of external medium to be introduced into each cell. Macrophages loaded with photoprotein had a resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration of 0.24 +/- 0.02 microM, calculated from the obelin consumption rate. The calcium ionophore, A23187, induced a prolonged rise in intracellular Ca2+ and also stimulated oxygen-radical production, monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, 1 microM, produced a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ which reached a plateau of 1.2 +/- 0.64 microM (n = 7) and declined with a half-time of approximately 40 sec. Unopsonized particles, latex beads (diameter = 1 micron), did not produce any detectable rise in intracellular Ca2+. Incorporation of a calcium chelator EGTA-ethylene-glycol-bis-(aminoethylether) tetra-acetate--into the cytoplasm abolished the transient intracellular Ca2+ rise induced by chemotactic peptide. Oxygen-radical production was also abolished. However, oxygen radical production induced by unopsonized particles was unaffected by intracellular EGTA. It was concluded that oxygen-radical production detected by chemiluminescence can be triggered by a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Chemotactic peptide induces oxygen-radical production by this mechanism. However, unopsonized particles induce oxygen-radical production by a mechanism independent of a rise in intracellular Ca2+. Images Figure 1 PMID:6414943

  17. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Pogranichniy, R; Lin, T-L

    2013-11-01

    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Immunohistochemical testing of biopsy specimens and postmortem examination are the standard diagnostic methods, although direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing to detect feline coronavirus in macrophages in effusion specimens has been reported to have 100% specificity and has been recommended as an antemortem confirmatory test. The aim of this study was to compare the results of DIF testing in antemortem feline effusions with postmortem results using field samples. Effusion specimens were collected antemortem from 17 cats and tested by DIF, followed by postmortem examination. Histopathological examination of specimens collected at postmortem confirmed FIP in 10/17 cases and ruled out FIP out in 7/17 cases. Antemortem DIF testing was positive in all 10 cases confirmed as FIP at postmortem examination. In the seven cats where FIP was ruled out at postmortem examination, DIF was negative in five cases and positive in the remaining two cases. The calculated sensitivity of DIF testing was 100% and the specificity was 71.4%. Duplicate effusion specimens from eight cats that were initially DIF positive were stored refrigerated (4 °C) or at room temperature (22-25 °C) and subjected to serial DIF testing to determine the duration of positive results. DIF-positive specimens stored at both temperatures retained their positive status for at least 2 days. PMID:24076123

  18. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  19. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  20. The peritoneal macrophage inflammatory profile in cirrhosis depends on the alcoholic or hepatitis C viral etiology and is related to ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of ascites in cirrhotic patients generally heralds a deterioration in their clinical status. A differential gene expression profile between alcohol- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis has been described from liver biopsies, especially those associated with innate immune responses. The aim of this work was to identify functional differences in the inflammatory profile of monocyte-derived macrophages from ascites in cirrhotic patients of different etiologies in an attempt to extrapolate studies from liver biopsies to immune cells in ascites. To this end 45 patients with cirrhosis and non-infected ascites, distributed according to disease etiology, HCV (n = 15) or alcohol (n = 30) were studied. Cytokines and the cell content in ascites were assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokines and ERK phosphorylation in peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages isolated and stimulated in vitro were also determined. Results A different pattern of leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity and differences in the primed status of macrophages in cirrhosis were observed depending on the viral or alcoholic etiology. Whereas no differences in peripheral blood cell subpopulations could be observed, T lymphocyte, monocyte and polymorphonuclear cell populations in ascites were more abundant in the HCV than the alcohol etiology. HCV-related cirrhosis etiology was associated with a decreased inflammatory profile in ascites compared with the alcoholic etiology. Higher levels of IL-10 and lower levels of IL-6 and IL-12 were observed in ascitic fluid from the HCV group. Isolated peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages maintained their primed status in vitro throughout the 24 h culture period. The level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was higher in ALC peritoneal macrophages at baseline than in HCV patients, although the addition of LPS induced a greater increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HCV than in ALC patients. Conclusions The

  1. Unique cytokine production profile following stimulation with DNA in macrophages from NZB/W F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Takaharu; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Nucleosome is the major autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as macrophages (M Phis) and dendritic cells (DCs), play the central roles in the acquisition of Ag-specific immune responses and activation of such APCs is required for the efficient Ag-presentation. Therefore, adjuvant activity of DNA in nucleosomes would cause the prominent effects on the production of anti-nucleosome antibodies. In this study, we report that elicited peritoneal M Phis from New Zealand Black/White F1 (NZB/W) mice showed a unique cytokine production profile following stimulation with DNA. M Phis from 5-week old NZB/W mice produced a higher amount of IL-6 and about a half amount of TNF-alpha after stimulation with DNA complexed with cationic liposomes compared with those from control ICR mice. These results suggest that M Phis of NZB/W mice have altered responsiveness to DNA and this might elevate the antigenicity of nucleosomes to induce the production of anti-nucleosome antibodies. PMID:18520062

  2. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  3. Peritoneal "melanosis".

    PubMed

    Chang, Ea-sle; Bachul, Piotr; Szura, Mirosław; Szpor, Joanna; Okoń, Krzysztof; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2015-09-01

    A case of a23 year old female with peritoneal melanosis associated with adenocarcinoma of the rectum is reported. During laparoscopic anterior resection of the rectum, diffuse black pigmentations on the parietal peritoneum, greater omentum, mesenteric lymph nodes and ovaries were discovered. The histopathological findings revealed the presence of macrophages packed with black pigment. These results together with clinical data excluded metastatic melanoma and confirmed the diagnosis of the race condition called peritoneal melanosis. Due to the begin character of the lesions the laparoscopic treatment was continued. There were no remissions or progression of the reported in English literature and this is the second case of peritoneal melanosis that has been associated with adenocarcinoma of the large intestine. PMID:26619112

  4. In vivo imaging of human malignant mesothelioma grown orthotopically in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  5. In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  6. CD36 and Proteoglycan-Mediated Pathways for (n-3) Fatty Acid–Enriched Triglyceride-Rich Particle Blood Clearance in Mouse Models In Vivo and in Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro1,2

    PubMed Central

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Carpentier, Yvon A.; Racine, Radjini; Murray, Faith M.; Seo, Toru; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Because the mechanisms of (n-3) fatty acid–enriched triglyceride-rich particle [(n-3)-TGRP] uptake are not well characterized, we questioned whether (n-3)-TGRP are removed via “nonclassical” pathways, e.g., pathways other than an LDL receptor and/or involving apolipoprotein E (apoE). Chylomicron-sized model (n-3)-TGRP labeled with [3H]cholesteryl ether were injected into wild-type (WT) and CD36 knockout (CD36−/−) mice at low, nonsaturating and high, saturating doses. Blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP was determined by calculating fractional catabolic rates. At saturating doses, blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP was slower in CD36−/− mice relative to WT mice, suggesting that in part CD36 contributes to (n-3)-TGRP uptake. To further examine the potential nonclassical clearance pathways, peritoneal-elicited macrophages from WT and CD36−/− mice were incubated with (n-3)-TGRP in the presence of apoE, lactoferrin, and/or sodium chlorate. Cellular (n-3)-TGRP uptake was measured to test the roles of apoE-mediated pathways and/or proteoglycans. ApoE-mediated pathways compensated in part for defective (n-3)-TGRP uptake in CD36−/− cells. Lactoferrin decreased (n-3)-TGRP uptake in the presence of apoE. Inhibition of cell proteoglycan synthesis by chlorate reduced (n-3)-TGRP uptake in both groups of macrophages, and chlorate effects were independent of apoE. We conclude that although CD36 is involved, it is not the primary contributor to the blood clearance of (n-3)-TGRP. The removal of (n-3)-TGRP likely relies more on nonclassical pathways, such as proteoglycan-mediated pathways. PMID:18203888

  7. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Ja; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Hyun-Ji; Kang, JongWook; Lee, Beom Su; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found that alpha-pinene (α-pinene) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. α-Pinene is found in the oils of many coniferous trees and rosemary. We investigated the inhibitory effects of α-Pinene on inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using mouse peritoneal macrophages. α-Pinene significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). α-Pinene also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, the activations of MAPKs and NF-κB were attenuated by means of α-pinene treatment. These results indicate that α-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect and that it is a potential candidate as a new drug to treat various inflammatory diseases. PMID:26119957

  8. Induction of LAK-like cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice by inactivated Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Scaringi, L; Cornacchione, P; Rosati, E; Boccanera, M; Cassone, A; Bistoni, F; Marconi, P

    1990-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of multiple administrations of inactivated Candida albicans (CA) cells on induction of non-MHC-restricted antitumor cytotoxic responses both in normal and congenitally athymic (nude) mice. Intraperitoneal inoculation of CD2F1 mice with five doses of 2 x 10(7) CA cells over a 2-week interval was associated with the induction of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) that mediated natural killer cell activity. These cells, in contrast to those elicited by a single dose of CA, killed both NK-sensitive and NK-resistant tumor target cells in vitro. This broad-spectrum, antitumor cytotoxicity peaked 1 day after the last injection of CA, and decreased to control values within 6 (NK-resistant) or 14 (NK-sensitive target cells) days. Cytotoxicity could be recalled to a high level by a boosting injection of CA or a major mannoprotein-soluble antigen (MP) from the Candida cell wall, given 30 days after multiple CA treatment. Upon a 24-hr in vitro incubation, CA-induced peritoneal immunoeffectors lost their killing activity unless human recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) was added to cultures. The non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic PEC activity induced by CA was mainly associated with nonadherent, nonphagocytic large granular lymphocytes (LGL) which exhibited the following phenotypes: (i) asialo GM1+, Lyt 2.2-, and partially Thy 1.2+ (effectors active against NK-sensitive targets) and (ii) asialo GM1+, Lyt 2.2-, and Thy 1.2+ (effectors active against NK-resistant targets). Nude mice also responded to multiple CA inoculations by displaying high cytotoxic activity against NK-sensitive targets and significant cytotoxicity against NK-resistant targets. This cytotoxicity could be recalled on Day +30, and the cytotoxic effectors involved were highly sensitive to anti-asialo GM1 plus complement treatment. Overall, the results add further experimental evidence to the wide range of immunomodulatory properties possessed by C. albicans, and demonstrate that the majority

  9. Selectively eliminated blood monocytes and splenic suppressor macrophages in mice depleted of bone marrow by strontium 89

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Dempsey, W.L.; Morahan, P.S.; Volkman, A.

    1985-12-01

    The contribution of specific activity to the effects of the bone-seeking isotope, strontium 89 on radiosensitive components of mononuclear phagocyte populations was investigated in mice. CBA/J mice received a fixed dose of 2 microCi/g body weight of 89Sr with three different specific activities, 6 Ci, 100 microCi and 20 microCi per mg Sr. The estimated radioactivity located in the bone surface was 4200, 3000 and 2400 cpm/mg bone when measured 2 days after the administration of 89Sr, and was lost with an estimated biological half-life of 27, 25, and 23 days, respectively. Bone marrow suppression was assessed by quantitation of the depletion of macrophage-colony forming cells (M-CFC) grown in vitro in the presence of macrophage growth factor. The decline in M-CFC closely paralleled the level of radioactivity in the bone. These effects were clearly reflected by the depletion of monocytes in the blood, which were reduced to 14%, 14%, and 21% of control levels corresponding to SA's of 6 Ci/mg, 100 microCi/mg and 20 microCi/mg when counted on day 10. By day 30 the respective monocyte levels were 15%, 31%, and 77%. Furthermore, the induction of prostaglandin E producing suppressor macrophages (M phi) by Corynebacterium parvum administration was found to vary inversely with the effects of radioactivity in the bone, with initial impairment followed by quantitative recovery. Resident-type M phi in peritoneal cavity, however, appear to be unaffected by 89Sr-treatment. These data suggest, as before, that the monocytes and suppressor M phi are dependent on radiosensitive marrow cells. The observations also lead to the conclusion that the specific activity of 89Sr preparations is an important determinant of the degree of suppression and of the rate of recovery of bone marrow from the effects of irradiation that follow the administration of this isotope.

  10. Macrophage dysfunction and susceptibility to pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in surfactant protein C-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Senft, Albert P; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Maxfield, Melissa D; Ross, Gary F; Richardson, Theresa R; Prows, Daniel R; Xu, Yan; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    To determine the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in host defense, SP-C-deficient (Sftpc-/-) mice were infected with the pulmonary pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by intratracheal injection. Survival of young, postnatal day 14 Sftpc-/- mice was decreased in comparison to Sftpc+/+ mice. The sensitivity to Pseudomonas bacteria was specific to the 129S6 strain of Sftpc-/- mice, a strain that spontaneously develops interstitial lung disease-like lung pathology with age. Pulmonary bacterial load and leukocyte infiltration were increased in the lungs of Sftpc-/- mice 24 h after infection. Early influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the lungs of uninfected newborn Sftpc-/- mice relative to Sftpc+/+ mice indicate that the lack of SP-C promotes proinflammatory responses in the lung. Mucin expression, as indicated by Alcian blue staining, was increased in the airways of Sftpc-/- mice following infection. Phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice was reduced. The uptake of fluorescent beads in vitro and the number of bacteria phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in vivo was decreased in the Sftpc-/- mice. Alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice expressed markers of alternative activation that are associated with diminished pathogen response and advancing pulmonary fibrosis. These findings implicate SP-C as a modifier of alveolar homeostasis. SP-C plays an important role in innate host defense of the lung, enhancing macrophage-mediated Pseudomonas phagocytosis, clearance and limiting pulmonary inflammatory responses. PMID:18566429

  11. Inhibition of immunological function mediated DNA damage of alveolar macrophages caused by cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takahiro; Hirono, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Hutei, Yoshimi; Miyagawa, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Pinkerton, Kent E; Takeuchi, Minoru

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke impairs the pulmonary immune system, including alveolar macrophage function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully elucidated. This study investigates the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages, which is required for antigen-specific response to T cells. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 days using a Hamburg II smoking machine, and alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages was significantly inhibited in mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice not exposed to cigarette smoke. Major histocompatibility complex class II cell surface molecule-positive cells, B7-1 molecule-positive cells, and interleukin-1beta messenger RNA gene expression in alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased in mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice not exposed to cigarette smoke. In contrast, DNA damage and generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in alveolar macrophages were significantly increased by cigarette smoke exposure. These results suggest that inhibition of the antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages may result from decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and B7-1 molecules and interleukin-1beta messenger RNA gene expression following cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, inhibition of antigen presentation in alveolar macrophage may result from DNA damage induced by excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species being generated by alveolar macrophages following cigarette smoke exposure. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke impairs the immunological function of alveolar macrophages and, as a result, increases the risk for pulmonary infection. PMID:19922407

  12. Rhinovirus infection of allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice induces eotaxin release from functionally polarized macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Deepti R; Bowman, Emily R; Schneider, Dina; Wang, Qiong; Shim, Jee; Zhao, Ying; Linn, Marisa J; McHenry, Christina L; Gosangi, Babina; Bentley, J Kelley; Tsai, Wan C; Sajjan, Umadevi S; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Hershenson, Marc B

    2010-08-15

    Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. To determine the immunologic mechanisms underlying rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations, we combined mouse models of allergic airways disease and human rhinovirus infection. We inoculated OVA-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with rhinovirus serotype 1B, a minor group strain capable of infecting mouse cells. Compared with sham-infected, OVA-treated mice, virus-infected mice showed increased lung infiltration with neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness, and increased lung expression of cytokines including eotaxin-1/CCL11, IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-gamma. Administration of anti-eotaxin-1 attenuated rhinovirus-induced airway eosinophilia and responsiveness. Immunohistochemical analysis showed eotaxin-1 in the lung macrophages of virus-infected, OVA-treated mice, and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed colocalization of rhinovirus, eotaxin-1, and IL-4 in CD68-positive cells. RV inoculation of lung macrophages from OVA-treated, but not PBS-treated, mice induced expression of eotaxin-1, IL-4, and IL-13 ex vivo. Macrophages from OVA-treated mice showed increased expression of arginase-1, Ym-1, Mgl-2, and IL-10, indicating a shift in macrophage activation status. Depletion of macrophages from OVA-sensitized and -challenged mice reduced eosinophilic inflammation and airways responsiveness following RV infection. We conclude that augmented airway eosinophilic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in RV-infected mice with allergic airways disease is directed in part by eotaxin-1. Airway macrophages from mice with allergic airways disease demonstrate a change in activation state characterized in part by altered eotaxin and IL-4 production in response to RV infection. These data provide a new paradigm to explain RV-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:20644177

  13. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90

  14. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. volatile oil exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Fan, Te; Zhou, Ping; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

    2013-11-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) is a medicinal herb that generally used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating allergic inflammation. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the volatile oil from HC Thunb. on animal models of inflammation and the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema were significantly decreased by HC volatile oil. HC volatile oil showed pronounced inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and malondialdehyde production in the edematous exudates. In vitro exposure of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages to 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL of HC volatile oil significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to HC volatile oil had no effect on cell viability and systemic toxicity. Furthermore, HC volatile oil inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α by down-regulating LPS-stimulated iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression. Western blot analysis showed that HC volatile oil attenuated LPS-stimulated synthesis of iNOS and TNF-α protein in the macrophages, in parallel. These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of HC and clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:23280586

  15. Gene silencing in adipose tissue macrophages regulates whole-body metabolism in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Myriam; Tencerova, Michaela; Vangala, Pranitha; Yawe, Joseph C; Nicoloro, Sarah M; Amano, Shinya U; Cohen, Jessica L; Czech, Michael P

    2013-05-14

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and infiltration by macrophages is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese humans, offering a potential target for therapeutics. However, whether AT macrophages (ATMs) directly contribute to systemic glucose intolerance has not been determined. The reason is the lack of methods to ablate inflammatory genes expressed in macrophages specifically localized within AT depots, leaving macrophages in other tissues unaffected. Here we report that i.p. administration of siRNA encapsulated by glucan shells in obese mice selectively silences genes in epididymal ATMs, whereas macrophages within lung, spleen, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous (SubQ) adipose, and liver are not targeted. Such administration of GeRPs to silence the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α or osteopontin in epididymal ATMs of obese mice caused significant improvement in glucose tolerance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokines produced by ATMs can exacerbate whole-body glucose intolerance. PMID:23630254

  16. Phagocytosis of Giardia muris by macrophages in Peyer's patch epithelium in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, R L; Allen, C L; Stevens, D P

    1981-01-01

    No mechanism for the initiation of immunological clearance of Giardia from the mammalian intestinal tract has been identified. In normal and nude mice experimentally infected with G. muris, we examined antigen-sampling epithelium over Peyer's patch follicles by electron microscopy for evidence of interaction between G. muris and lymphoid cells. Invading G. muris were found in the epithelium near dying or desquamating columnar cells. Macrophages beneath the basal lamina extended pseudopods into the epithelium, trapping invading G. muris and enclosing them in phagolysosomes. In normal mice, which clear G. muris in 4 to 6 weeks, macrophages containing digested G. muris were surrounded by rosettes of lymphoblasts in the epithelium. In nude mice deficient in lymphocytes, there was apparent hyperplasia of macrophages, which filled the follicle domes, resulting in more frequent entrapment of G. muris but no contact between macrophages and lymphoblasts in the epithelium. In nude mice, which require 6 months to control G. muris infection, lymphoblast contact with macrophages containing distinctive microtubular remnants of G. muris was only identified in the follicle dome. This close physical association of lymphoblasts and macrophages containing G. muris remnants suggests that this macrophage activity represents intraepithelial antigen processing as well as a defense against the effects of the uncontrolled entrance of microorganisms and other antigenic particles into Peyer's patch lymphoid follicles. Images PMID:7275318

  17. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. PMID:27328771

  18. The toxic effects of indoor atmospheric fine particulate matter collected from allergic and non-allergic families in Wuhan on mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yan, Biao; Li, Jinquan; Guo, Junhui; Ma, Ping; Wu, Zhuo; Ling, ZhenHao; Guo, Hai; Hiroshi, Yoshino; Yanagi, U; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Shengwei; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and PM2.5-induced oxidative stress is now commonly known as a proposed mechanism of PM2.5-mediated toxicity. However, the association between allergic symptoms in children and exposure to PM2.5 has not been fully elucidated, particularly the role of PM2.5 on the indoor environment involved in allergy or non-allergy is unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore whether indoor PM2.5 from the homes of children with allergic symptoms had more increased risks of allergy than that of healthy ones and then compare the toxicity and inflammatory response of them. In this study, indoor PM2.5 was collected from the homes of schoolchildren with allergic symptoms and those of healthy ones respectively, and components of PM2.5 were analyzed. PM2.5-mediated oxidative damage and inflammatory response were further evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages based on its effects on the levels of reactive oxygen species accumulation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage or cytokine production. It seems that oxidative stress may contribute to PM2.5-induced toxicity, and PM2.5 from the allergic indoor environment produced more serious toxic effects and an inflammatory response on mouse peritoneal macrophages than that from a non-allergic indoor environment. PMID:26304222

  19. DNMT1-PPARγ pathway in macrophages regulates chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Qiu, Youzhu; Yang, Jie; Bian, Shizhu; Chen, Guozhu; Deng, Mengyang; Kang, Huali; Huang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase-mediated proinflammatory activation of macrophages is causally linked to the development of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the role of DNMT1, a DNA methylation maintenance enzyme, in macrophage polarization and AS development remains obscure. Here, we established transgenic mice with macrophage-specific overexpression of DNMT1 (Tg(DNMT1)) or PPAR-γ (Tg(PPAR-γ)) to investigate their effects on AS progression in ApoE-knockout mice fed an atherogenic diet. Primary macrophages were extracted to study the role of the DNMT1/PPAR-γ pathway in regulating inflammatory cytokine production. We demonstrated that Tg(DNMT1) significantly increased proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and plasma, and it accelerated the progression of AS in the atherogenic diet-treated ApoE-knockout mice. Further, we found that the DNA methylation status of the proximal PPAR-γ promoter was regulated by DNMT1 in macrophages. Notably, additional Tg(PPAR-γ) or pharmacological activation of PPAR-γ effectively prevented Tg(DNMT1)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and AS development in the mouse model. Finally, we demonstrated that elevated DNMT1 was correlated with decreased PPAR-γ, and increased proinflammatory cytokine production in the peripheral blood monocytes isolated from the patients with AS, compared to those of healthy donors. Our findings shed light on a novel strategy for the prevention and therapy of AS. PMID:27530451

  20. DNMT1-PPARγ pathway in macrophages regulates chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Qiu, Youzhu; Yang, Jie; Bian, Shizhu; Chen, Guozhu; Deng, Mengyang; Kang, Huali; Huang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase-mediated proinflammatory activation of macrophages is causally linked to the development of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the role of DNMT1, a DNA methylation maintenance enzyme, in macrophage polarization and AS development remains obscure. Here, we established transgenic mice with macrophage-specific overexpression of DNMT1 (TgDNMT1) or PPAR-γ (TgPPAR-γ) to investigate their effects on AS progression in ApoE-knockout mice fed an atherogenic diet. Primary macrophages were extracted to study the role of the DNMT1/PPAR-γ pathway in regulating inflammatory cytokine production. We demonstrated that TgDNMT1 significantly increased proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and plasma, and it accelerated the progression of AS in the atherogenic diet-treated ApoE-knockout mice. Further, we found that the DNA methylation status of the proximal PPAR-γ promoter was regulated by DNMT1 in macrophages. Notably, additional TgPPAR-γ or pharmacological activation of PPAR-γ effectively prevented TgDNMT1-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and AS development in the mouse model. Finally, we demonstrated that elevated DNMT1 was correlated with decreased PPAR-γ, and increased proinflammatory cytokine production in the peripheral blood monocytes isolated from the patients with AS, compared to those of healthy donors. Our findings shed light on a novel strategy for the prevention and therapy of AS. PMID:27530451

  1. Pdcd4 deficiency enhances macrophage lipoautophagy and attenuates foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Jiang, Y; Song, X; Guo, C; Zhu, F; Wang, X; Wang, Q; Shi, Y; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhao, W; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells, a major component of the atherosclerotic lesion, have vital roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoautophagy, a type of autophagy characterized by selective delivery of lipid droplet for lysosomal degradation, may impact atherosclerosis by regulating macrophage foam cell formation. Previously, we reported that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor, negatively regulated autophagy in tumor cells. However, its roles in macrophage lipoautophagy, foam cell formation and atherosclerosis remain to be established. Here we found that Pdcd4 deficiency clearly improved oxidized low-density lipoproteins-impaired autophagy efflux, promoted autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in murine macrophages and thus prevented macrophage conversion into foam cells. Importantly, Pdcd4 deficiency in mice significantly upregulated macrophage autophagy in local plaques along with attenuated lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat-fed Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment demonstrated that PDCD4-mediated autophagy in hematopoietic cells contributed to the development of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that endogenous PDCD4 promotes for macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development via inhibiting autophagy and provides new insights into atherogenesis, suggesting that promoting macrophage autophagy through downregulating PDCD4 expression may be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:26775706

  2. Pdcd4 deficiency enhances macrophage lipoautophagy and attenuates foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Jiang, Y; Song, X; Guo, C; Zhu, F; Wang, X; Wang, Q; Shi, Y; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhao, W; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells, a major component of the atherosclerotic lesion, have vital roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoautophagy, a type of autophagy characterized by selective delivery of lipid droplet for lysosomal degradation, may impact atherosclerosis by regulating macrophage foam cell formation. Previously, we reported that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor, negatively regulated autophagy in tumor cells. However, its roles in macrophage lipoautophagy, foam cell formation and atherosclerosis remain to be established. Here we found that Pdcd4 deficiency clearly improved oxidized low-density lipoproteins-impaired autophagy efflux, promoted autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in murine macrophages and thus prevented macrophage conversion into foam cells. Importantly, Pdcd4 deficiency in mice significantly upregulated macrophage autophagy in local plaques along with attenuated lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat-fed Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment demonstrated that PDCD4-mediated autophagy in hematopoietic cells contributed to the development of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that endogenous PDCD4 promotes for macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development via inhibiting autophagy and provides new insights into atherogenesis, suggesting that promoting macrophage autophagy through downregulating PDCD4 expression may be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:26775706

  3. Crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum promotes immune responses in leukemic mice through enhancing phagocytosis of macrophage and natural killer cell activities in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lin, Jing-Pin; Yu, Fu-Shun; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Ma, Yi-Shih; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used in the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether the crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (CEPC) could affect immune responses of murine leukemia cells in vivo. Normal BALB/c mice were i.p. injected with WEHI-3 cells to generate leukemic mice and then were treated orally with CEPC at 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for three weeks. Animals were weighed and blood, liver, spleen samples were collected for further analyses. Results indicated that CEPC did not significantly affect the body and liver weight of animals, but reduced the weight of spleen when compared to control groups. Flow cytometric assay demonstrated that CEPC increased the percentage of CD3- (T-cell marker) and CD19- (B-cell marker) positive cells, but reduced that of CD11b-positive ones (monocytes). However, it did not significantly affect the proportion of Mac-3-positive cells (macrophages), compared to control groups. Results indicated that CEPC promoted phagocytosis by macrophages from blood samples at all examined doses but did not affect that of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. CEPC also promoted natural killer cell activity of splenocytes at 200 mg/kg of CEPC. CEPC promoted B-cell proliferation at 200 mg/kg treatment when cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides but did not promote T-cell proliferation at three doses of CEPC treatment on concanavalin A stimulation. PMID:25792654

  4. Assessment of intensive care unit‐acquired weakness in young and old mice: An E. coli septic peritonitis model

    PubMed Central

    Hoogland, Inge C.M.; Wieske, Luuk; Weber, Nina C.; Verhamme, Camiel; Schultz, Marcus J.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Horn, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There are few reports of in vivo muscle strength measurements in animal models of ICU‐acquired weakness (ICU‐AW). In this study we investigated whether the Escherichia coli (E. coli) septic peritonitis mouse model may serve as an ICU‐AW model using in vivo strength measurements and myosin/actin assays, and whether development of ICU‐AW is age‐dependent in this model. Methods: Young and old mice were injected intraperitoneally with E. coli and treated with ceftriaxone. Forelimb grip strength was measured at multiple time points, and the myosin/actin ratio in muscle was determined. Results: E. coli administration was not associated with grip strength decrease, neither in young nor in old mice. In old mice, the myosin/actin ratio was lower in E. coli mice at t = 48 h and higher at t = 72 h compared with controls. Conclusions: This E. coli septic peritonitis mouse model did not induce decreased grip strength. In its current form, it seems unsuitable as a model for ICU‐AW. Muscle Nerve 53: 127–133, 2016 PMID:26015329

  5. Oncolytic viral therapy using a spontaneously generated herpes simplex virus type 1 variant for disseminated peritoneal tumor in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, H; Goshima, F; Nozawa, N; Yoshikawa, T; Kimata, H; Nakao, A; Nawa, A; Kurata, T; Sata, T; Nishiyama, Y

    2003-04-01

    The present study demonstrates that a clonal derivative (HF10) of HSV-1 strain HF effectively treated disseminated peritoneal neoplasm in an immunocompetent animal model and that all of survived mice acquired resistance to rechallenge with tumor cells. The survival time of mice treated with HF10 was longer than that of mice treated with hrR3, indicating that the oncolytic effect of HF10 was more potent than that of hrR3 in this animal model. HF10 induces syncytia formation in vitro, whereas hrR3 forms rounded CPE. The sequential administration of HF10 gave a long term survival of more than 90 days after tumor injection, with no signs of disease, in 8 of the 9 treated mice. The results suggest that treatment of disseminated peritoneal tumor with HF10 induces a specific antitumor immune response. Genomic structure determination showed that HF10 has a deletion of 3.9-kilobase pair (kbp) in the right end of UL and UL/IRL junction, resulting in the loss of UL 56 expression. A 2.3 kbp deletion and extensive rearrangement were also observed in the left end of the genome. PMID:12664303

  6. Acute phase inflammation is characterized by rapid changes in plasma/peritoneal fluid N-glycosylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Yoann; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Reiding, Karli R; Jansen, Bas C; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjörg; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Giera, Martin; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Murine zymosan-induced peritonitis is a widely used model for studying the molecular and cellular events responsible for the initiation, persistence and/or resolution of inflammation. Among these events, it is becoming increasingly evident that changes in glycosylation of proteins, especially in the plasma and at the site of inflammation, play an important role in the inflammatory response. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based glycosylation profiling, we investigated the qualitative and quantitative effect of zymosan-induced peritonitis on N-glycosylation in mouse plasma and peritoneal fluid. Our results show that both N-glycomes exhibit highly similar glycosylation patterns, consisting mainly of diantennary and triantennary complex type N-glycans with high levels (>95 %) of galactosylation and sialylation (mostly NeuGc) and a medium degree of core fucosylation (30 %). Moreover, MS/MS structural analysis, assisted by linkage-specific derivatization of sialic acids, revealed the presence of O-acetylated sialic acids as well as disialylated antennae ("branching sialylation") characterized by the presence of α2-6-linked NeuGc on the GlcNAc of the NeuGcα2-3-Galβ1-3-GlcNAc terminal motif. A significant decrease of (core) fucosylation together with an increase of both α2-3-linked NeuGc and "branching sialylation" were observed in N-glycomes of mice challenged with zymosan, but not in control mice injected with PBS. Importantly, substantial changes in glycosylation were already observed 12 h after induction of peritonitis, thereby demonstrating an unexpected velocity of the biological mechanisms involved. PMID:26924641

  7. Polydatin Inhibits Formation of Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Liu, Meixia; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Wengao; Liu, Longtao

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Polydatin, one of the major active ingredients in Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, has been recently shown to possess extensive cardiovascular pharmacological activities. In present study, we examined the effects of Polydatin on the formation of peritoneal macrophage-derived foam cells in Apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice (ApoE−/−) and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from ApoE−/− mice and cultured in vitro. These cells sequentially were divided into four groups: Control group, Model group, Lovastatin group, and Polydatin group. Our results demonstrated that Polydatin significantly inhibits the formation of foam cells derived from peritoneal macrophages. Further studies indicated that Polydatin regulates the metabolism of intracellular lipid and possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which may be regulated through the PPAR-γ signaling pathways. PMID:26557864

  8. Immunomodulatory action of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis: stimulation of activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Stepanov, Vadim G; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2010-12-01

    Six monosulfated triterpene glycosides, frondoside A1 (1), okhotoside B1 (2), okhotoside A1-1 (3), frondoside A (4), okhotoside A2-1 (5) and cucumarioside A2-5 (6), isolated from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, stimulate spreading and lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages and ROS-formation in the macrophages. The highest macrophage spreading and stimulation of their lysosomal activity was induced by glycosides 1, 4 and 6. All glycosides similarly stimulate ROS formation in macrophages, but glycoside 2 caused minimal stimulation. PMID:21299111

  9. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low‐grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high‐fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow‐fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT‐PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow‐fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune‐metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity‐related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075

  10. Synovial macrophage-derived IL-1β regulates the calcitonin receptor in osteoarthritic mice.

    PubMed

    Takano, S; Uchida, K; Miyagi, M; Inoue, G; Aikawa, J; Fujimaki, H; Minatani, A; Sato, M; Iwabuchi, K; Takaso, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributes to joint pain. However, regulation of the CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling in osteoarthritis (OA) is not fully understood. To investigate the regulation of CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling by macrophages in the synovial tissue (ST) of OA joints, we characterized the gene expression profiles of CGRP and CGRP receptors in the ST of OA mice (STR/Ort). In addition, we examined whether macrophage depletion by the systemic injection of clodronate-laden liposomes affected the expression of CGRP and CGRP receptors in ST. CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort and C57BL/6J mice were analysed by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, CGRP, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) in F4/80(+) and F4/80(-) cells. The effects of IL-1β on the expression of CGRP and CLR by cultured synovial cells were also examined. The percentage of CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort was higher than that in C57/BL6J mice. Notably, the F4/80(+) cell fraction expressed IL-1β highly, whereas the F4/80(-) cell fraction expressed CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 highly. In addition, expression of the IL-1β and CLR genes was increased in ST, but was decreased upon macrophage depletion, and the IL-1β treatment of cultured synovial cells up-regulated CLR. Taken together, the present findings suggest that synovial macrophages are the major producers of IL-1β and regulators of CLR in OA mice. Therefore, macrophages and IL-1β may be suitable therapeutic targets for treating OA pain. PMID:26400621

  11. A20 overexpression alleviates pristine-induced lupus nephritis by inhibiting the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages of mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Shi, Xiaowei; Qian, Tian; Li, Jian; Tian, Zhiqiang; Ni, Bing; Hao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lupus nephritis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease and urgently needs effective anti-inflammation therapies. A20, tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), is a key negative regulator of inflammation, however whether A20 can regulate lupus nephritis has not been clarified. This study aimed at investigating the potential therapeutic effect of A20 on renal inflammation in mouse pristine model oflupus. Methodology/Principal Findings: Female BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with pristine to establish lupus renal injury. The levels of serum IL-1β, IL-6 and autoantibodies and the degrees of renal injury and CCL2 and F4/80 levels were measured. The levels of the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in peritoneal macrophages were determined. We found that injection with pristine increased the levels of serum IL-1β, IL-6, autoantibodies and CCL20 and F4/80 expression in the kidney and induced renal injury, accompanied by enhancing the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages of mice. In contrast, treatment with Ad-A20, but not with Ad-control, significantly mitigated pristine-induced inflammatory responses and renal injury,and reduced the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages in mice. Conclusion/Significance: Our data indicated that induction of A20 overexpression inhibited pristane induced lupus inflammation and renal injury in mice and may be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of lupus nephritis. PMID:26770333

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from the fruit pulp of Spondias cytherea and its effect on peritoneal macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Iacomini, Marcello; Serrato, Rodrigo V; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Lopes, Luciana; Buchi, Dorly F; Gorin, Phillip A J

    2005-12-01

    The total carbohydrate content of the intact pulp of Spondias cytherea was 41%. Polysaccharides were obtained via hot aqueous extraction after defatting with organic solvents. The aqueous extract was treated with excess ethanol to form a precipitate, which was then solubilized in water. The material precipitated upon acidification when HCl was removed. The resulting supernatant fraction was submitted to freeze-thawing treatment yielding a soluble fraction (sFTS). This fraction had Ara, Rha, Gal and GalA in its structure as determined by GC-MS. 13C NMR analysis showed signals assigned to alpha-L-Araf, beta-D-Galp, alpha-D-GalpA and alpha-L-Rhap units, in addition to galacturonic acid units, which were present also as methyl ester. These results suggest a type I rhamnogalacturonan with arabinogalactan branches. Cell eliciting activity in a dose-depending pattern was observed in vitro on peritoneal macrophages treated with sFTS. PMID:16239076

  13. Impaired differentiation of macrophage lineage cells attenuates bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis in Ndrg1 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Fukunaga, Yuichi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a responsible gene for a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 4D). This is the first study aiming to assess the contribution of NDRG1 to differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, which has important implications for bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. Ndrg1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal curvature of the spine, high trabecular bone mass, and reduced number of osteoclasts. We observed that serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and macrophage-related cytokines were markedly decreased in KO mice. Differentiation of bone marrow (BM) cells into osteoclasts, M1/M2-type macrophages and dendritic cells was all impaired. Furthermore, KO mice also showed reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis by cancer cells, accompanied by decreased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages. The transfer of BM-derived macrophages from KO mice into BM-eradicated wild type (WT) mice induced much less tumor angiogenesis than observed in WT mice. Angiogenesis in corneas in response to inflammatory stimuli was also suppressed with decreased infiltration of macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that NDRG1 deficiency attenuates the differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, suppressing bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. This study strongly suggests the crucial role of NDRG1 in differentiation process for macrophages. PMID:26778110

  14. Depletion of resident alveolar macrophages does not prevent Fas-mediated lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Bem, R A; Farnand, A W; Wong, V; Koski, A; Rosenfeld, M E; van Rooijen, N; Frevert, C W; Martin, T R; Matute-Bello, G

    2008-08-01

    Activation of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system in the lungs results in a form of injury characterized by alveolar epithelial apoptosis and neutrophilic inflammation. Studies in vitro show that Fas activation induces apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells and cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. The main goal of this study was to determine the contribution of alveolar macrophages to Fas-induced lung inflammation in mice, by depleting alveolar macrophages using clodronate-containing liposomes. Liposomes containing clodronate or PBS were instilled by intratracheal instillation. After 24 h, the mice received intratracheal instillations of the Fas-activating monoclonal antibody Jo2 or an isotype control antibody and were studied 18 h later. The Jo2 MAb induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total neutrophils, lung caspase-3 activity, and BALF total protein and worsened histological lung injury in the macrophage-depleted mice. Studies in vitro showed that Fas activation induced the release of the cytokine KC in a mouse lung epithelial cell line, MLE-12. These results suggest that the lung inflammatory response to Fas activation is not primarily dependent on resident alveolar macrophages and may instead depend on cytokine release by alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:18556802

  15. Chop Deficiency Protects Mice Against Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Attenuating M2 Macrophage Production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingying; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhijun; He, Long; Zhu, Jianghui; Zhang, Meng; He, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Zhenshun; Ao, Qilin; Cao, Yong; Yang, Ping; Su, Yunchao; Zhao, Jianping; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Qilin; Ning, Qin; Xiang, Xudong; Xiong, Weining; Wang, Cong-Yi; Xu, Yongjian

    2016-05-01

    C/EBP homologous protein (Chop) has been shown to have altered expression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but its exact role in IPF pathoaetiology has not been fully addressed. Studies conducted in patients with IPF and Chop(-/-) mice have dissected the role of Chop and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis. The effect of Chop deficiency on macrophage polarization and related signalling pathways were investigated to identify the underlying mechanisms. Patients with IPF and mice with bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis were affected by the altered Chop expression and ER stress. In particular, Chop deficiency protected mice against BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Loss of Chop significantly attenuated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) production and reduced M2 macrophage infiltration in the lung following BLM induction. Mechanistic studies showed that Chop deficiency repressed the M2 program in macrophages, which then attenuated TGF-β secretion. Specifically, loss of Chop promoted the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling 3, and through which Chop deficiency repressed signal transducer and activator of transcription 6/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling, the essential pathway for the M2 program in macrophages. Together, our data support the idea that Chop and ER stress are implicated in IPF pathoaetiology, involving at least the induction and differentiation of M2 macrophages. PMID:26883801

  16. Leukocytes recruited by tumor-derived HMGB1 sustain peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Lucia; Capobianco, Annalisa; Gualteroni, Chiara; Monno, Antonella; Raccagni, Isabella; Valtorta, Silvia; Canu, Tamara; Tomaso, Tiziano Di; Lombardo, Angelo; Esposito, Antonio; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Maschio, Alessandro Del; Naldini, Luigi; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Bianchi, Marco E; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2016-05-01

    The factors that determine whether disseminated transformed cells in vivo yield neoplastic lesions have only been partially identified. We established an ad hoc model of peritoneal carcinomatosis by injecting colon carcinoma cells in mice. Tumor cells recruit inflammatory leukocytes, mostly macrophages, and generate neoplastic peritoneal lesions. Phagocyte depletion via clodronate treatment reduces neoplastic growth. Colon carcinoma cells release a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)/alarmin, High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which attracts leukocytes. Exogenous HMGB1 accelerates leukocyte recruitment, macrophage infiltration, tumor growth and vascularization. Lentiviral-based HMGB1 knockdown or pharmacological interference with its extracellular impair macrophage recruitment and tumor growth. Our findings provide a preclinical proof of principle that strategies based on preventing HMGB1-driven recruitment of leukocytes could be used for treating peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:27467932

  17. Foxp3 Expression in Macrophages Associated with RENCA Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Christel; Yong, Carmen S. M.; John, Liza B.; Westwood, Jennifer A.; Duong, Connie P. M.; House, Colin M.; Denoyer, Delphine; Li, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Foxp3 represents the most specific functional marker of CD4+ regulatory T cells (TRegs). However, previous reports have described Foxp3 expression in other cell types including some subsets of macrophages, although there are conflicting reports and Foxp3 expression in cells other than Treg is not well characterized. We performed detailed investigations into Foxp3 expression in macrophages in the normal tissue and tumor settings. We detected Foxp3 protein in macrophages infiltrating mouse renal cancer tumors injected subcutaneously or in the kidney. Expression was demonstrated using flow cytometry and Western blot with two individual monoclonal antibodies. Further analyses confirmed Foxp3 expression in macrophages by RT PCR, and studies using ribonucleic acid-sequencing (RNAseq) demonstrated a previously unknown Foxp3 messenger (m)RNA transcript in tumor-associated macrophages. In addition, depletion of Foxp3+ cells using diphtheria toxin in Foxp3DTR mice reduced the frequency of type-2 macrophages (M2) in kidney tumors. Collectively, these results indicate that tumor-associated macrophages could express Foxp3. PMID:25264896

  18. β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor protect mice against S. typhimurium challenge by activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Ke-Yan; Jiang, Yan-Long; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Yu

    2016-05-01

    The effects of β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor (CVP), which are extracted from a well-known immune stimulator C. versicolor, have been demonstrated extensively in vitro and in vivo. However, until now, the phagocytic activity has not been elucidated. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify the antibacterial activity of CVP or CVP-treated macrophages by an analysis of cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity, intracellular bacterial survival, macrophage activation, production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in CVP-treated macrophages using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, a gentamicin protection assay, a Nitric oxide assay and an iNOS enzymatic activity assay. The results indicate that CVP-treated macrophages can phagocytize and kill bacteria, probably due to the production of NO and iNOS. More importantly, CVP-treated macrophages are effective at protecting mice against the challenge of Salmonella typhimurium. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial effects of CVP are probably caused by the activation of innate immune cells, especially macrophages, because the activated macrophage produces NO, which kills bacteria. These phenomena indicate the possibility of CVP as a potential alternative for antibiotics against resistant bacteria. PMID:26802244

  19. Pristane-induced granulocyte recruitment promotes phenotypic conversion of macrophages and protects against diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage in Mac-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiqin; Tsuboi, Naotake; Furuhashi, Kazuhiro; Du, Qiuna; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maeda, Kayaho; Kosugi, Tomoki; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2014-11-15

    Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage (DPH) is an uncommon but critical complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Peritoneal administration of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) can recapitulate a lupus-like syndrome in mice, which can develop into DPH within a few weeks, especially in C57BL/6 mice. Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), a leukocyte adhesion molecule, is known to play a role in inflammation by regulating migration of leukocytes into injured tissue. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of Mac-1 in pristane-induced DPH, using Mac-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice on a C57BL/6 background. After pristane injection, Mac-1(-/-) mice showed reduced prevalence of DPH and attenuated peritonitis compared with WT mice. Analysis of the peritoneal lavage on days 5 and 10 after pristane treatment revealed increased numbers of eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, but decreased numbers of neutrophils and classically activated macrophages in Mac-1(-/-) mice compared with WT. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IL-13, both key mediators of macrophage polarization toward the mannose receptor(+) (MMR(+)) phenotype, was observed in the peritoneal cavity of Mac-1(-/-) mice. Depletion of neutrophils and eosinophils or adoptive transfer of classically activated macrophages resulted in the exacerbation of pristane-mediated DPH in both WT and Mac-1(-/-) mice. Moreover, peritoneal transfer of F4/80(high)MMR(+) alternatively activated macrophages successfully reduced the prevalence of DPH in WT mice. Collectively, Mac-1 promoted acute inflammatory responses in the peritoneal cavity and the lungs by downregulating granulocyte migration and subsequent phenotypic conversion of macrophages in a pristane-induced systemic lupus erythematosus model. PMID:25281714

  20. Extensive macrophage accumulation in young and old Niemann-Pick C1 model mice involves the alternative, M2, activation pathway and inhibition of macrophage apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Gail; Muralidhar, Akshay; Le, Ellen; Borbon, Ivan A; Erickson, Robert P

    2016-03-10

    We have studied the pathophysiology of lung disease which occurs in two mouse models of Niemann-Pick C1 disease. We utilized Npc1(-/-) mice transgenic for normal gene expression in glia or neurons and glia at ages several fold the usual and a mouse model of the juvenile form of NPC1, a point mutation, at one age to confirm some findings. Lung weights, as per cent of body weight, increase much more than liver and spleen weights. Although pulmonary function parameters only vary for hysteresis between young and older Npc1(-/-) mice, they are markedly different than those found in normal control mice. Cholesterol accumulation continued in the older mice but sphingosine-1-phosphate was not increased. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed a massive increase (26×) in the number of macrophages. Histologic examination from the older, transgenic Npc1(-/-) mice showed small foci of alveolar proteinosis and evidence of hemorrhage, as well as dense macrophage accumulation. A large subset of macrophages was immunopositive for Fizz1 or arginase-1, markers of the alternative activation pathway, while no Fizz1 or arginase-1 positive macrophages were found in wild-type mice. The percentage of marker positive macrophages was relatively stable at 5-10% at various ages and within the 2 transgenic models. Phosphohistone H3 and Ki67 showed low levels of proliferation of these macrophages. Apoptosis was prominent within lung capillary endothelial cells, but limited within macrophages. Thus, activation of the alternative pathway is involved in Niemann-Pick C1 associated pulmonary macrophage accumulation, with low proliferation of these cells balanced by low levels of apoptosis. PMID:26707209

  1. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

    2014-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NFκB translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. PMID:24740524

  2. Immunoregulation by macrophages II. Separation of mouse peritoneal macrophages having tumoricidal and bactericidal activities and those secreting PGE and interleukin I

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, K.E.; Cahill, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    Macrophage subpopulations having bactericidal or tumoricidal activities and secreting interleukin I (IL1) or prostaglandin E (PGE) were identified through primary or secondary infection with Salmonella enteritidis and separated by sedimentation velocity. Bactericidal activity was measured by (3H)-thymidine release from Listeria monocytogenes and tumoricidal activity by 51Cr-release from C-4 fibrosarcoma or P815 mastocytoma cells. Macrophages with bactericidal activity were distinguished from those with tumoricidal activity a) during secondary infection when cytolytic activity occurred only at days 1-4 post injection and bactericidal activity remained high throughout and b) after sedimentation velocity separation. Cytolysis was consistently greatest among adherent cells of low sedimentation velocity, whereas cells with bactericidal activity increased in size during the infection. Tumour cytostasis (inhibition and promotion of (3H)-thymidine uptake) differed from cytolysis in that the former was more prolonged during infection and was also detected among large cells. Secretion of immunoregulatory molecules PGE and IL1 occurred maximally among different macrophage subpopulations separated by sedimentation velocity and depending on the type of stimulus used in vitro. There was an inverse correlation between IL1 production and PGE production after stimulation with C3-zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The development of immunity during infection may therefore be dependent upon the relative proportions of effector and regulatory macrophage subpopulations and the selective effects of environmental stimuli on these functions.

  3. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, T; Blumenstock, E; Kanegasaki, S

    1981-01-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria. Images PMID:6788707

  4. Rheb1-mTORC1 maintains macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghao; Gao, Yanan; Gao, Juan; Yang, Wanzhu; Liang, Haoyue; Ji, Qing; Li, Yanxin; Liu, Hanzhi; Huang, Jian; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Weiping

    2016-06-10

    Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb1) is a small GTPase and is known to be a direct activator of mTORC1. Dysregulation of Rheb1 has been shown to impair the cellular-energetic state and cell homeostasis. However, the role of Rheb1 in monocytes/macrophages differentiation and maturation is not clear. Here, we investigate the role of Rheb1 in mouse myelopoiesis using a Rheb1 conditional deletion murine model. We found that the absolute number of macrophages decreased in the bone marrow (BM) of Rheb1-deficient mice. Loss of Rheb1 inhibited the monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation process. Additionally, Rheb1 deletion reduced phagocytosis ability of macrophages by inhibiting the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, 3BDO (an activator of mTORC1) rescued the phagocytosis ability of Rheb1-deficient macrophages. Thus, Rheb1 is critical for macrophage production and phagocytosis and executes these activities possibly via mTORC1-dependent pathway. PMID:27163399

  5. The antinociceptive activity of paracetamol in zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice: the role of prostacyclin and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, N. S.; Beaver, T. H.; Chan, K. Y.; Dinerstein, R. J.; Diekema, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Oral administration of high doses of paracetamol (600 mg kg-1 or more) resulted in inhibition of the writhing and reduced the levels of prostacyclin (PGI2, measured as 6-keto-PGF1 alpha) induced by intraperitoneal administration of zymosan in mice. The high oral doses of paracetamol required were accompanied by behavioural toxicity which may have contributed to the inhibition of writhing. 2. The number of writhes per mouse and the proportion of mice writhing at least once correlated significantly with the levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. However, inhibition of writhing by paracetamol occurred at higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha than was previously observed with acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. 3. When injected i.p., PGI2, carbacyclin and iloprost (agonists at the PGI2 receptor) induced writhing. Intraperitoneal injection of PGI2 reversed the inhibition of writhing induced by indomethacin (1 mg kg-1, p.o.) but not that induced by oral administration of paracetamol. 4. Paracetamol at 800 mg kg-1, p.o., inhibited carbacyclin-induced writhing but indomethacin at 1 mg kg-1 p.o. did not. Paracetamol administered i.p. at 100 mg kg-1 reduced the peritoneal levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inhibited zymosan-induced but not carbacyclin-induced writhing and did not produce behavioural toxicity. 5. The in vitro potency of paracetamol as a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor is known to be reduced by the presence of lipid peroxides. However, no lipid peroxides, measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive material, were detected in the peritoneal lavage fluid of zymosan-injected mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1707707

  6. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongkil; Chung, Kunho; Choi, Changseon; Beloor, Jagadish; Ullah, Irfan; Kim, Nahyeon; Lee, Kuen Yong; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT) can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival. PMID:26812653

  7. Characterization of Distinct Subpopulations of Hepatic Macrophages in HFD/Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morinaga, Hidetaka; Mayoral, Rafael; Heinrichsdorff, Jan; Osborn, Olivia; Franck, Niclas; Hah, Nasun; Walenta, Evelyn; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Pessentheiner, Ariane R.; Chi, Tyler J.; Chung, Heekyung; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The current dogma is that obesity-associated hepatic inflammation is due to increased Kupffer cell (KC) activation. However, recruited hepatic macrophages (RHMs) were recently shown to represent a sizable liver macrophage population in the context of obesity. Therefore, we assessed whether KCs and RHMs, or both, represent the major liver inflammatory cell type in obesity. We used a combination of in vivo macrophage tracking methodologies and adoptive transfer techniques in which KCs and RHMs are differentially labeled with fluorescent markers. With these approaches, the inflammatory phenotype of these distinct macrophage populations was determined under lean and obese conditions. In vivo macrophage tracking revealed an approximately sixfold higher number of RHMs in obese mice than in lean mice, whereas the number of KCs was comparable. In addition, RHMs comprised smaller size and immature, monocyte-derived cells compared with KCs. Furthermore, RHMs from obese mice were more inflamed and expressed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 than RHMs from lean mice. A comparison of the MCP-1/C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) chemokine system between the two cell types showed that the ligand (MCP-1) is more highly expressed in KCs than in RHMs, whereas CCR2 expression is approximately fivefold greater in RHMs. We conclude that KCs can participate in obesity-induced inflammation by causing the recruitment of RHMs, which are distinct from KCs and are not precursors to KCs. These RHMs then enhance the severity of obesity-induced inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25315009

  8. [Effects of mannose derivatives on development of selectin-dependent peritoneal inflammation in rats and mice].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, N A; Probrazhenskaia, M E; Nifant'ev, N E; Voznyĭ, Ia V; Pochechueva, T V; Bovin, N V

    2001-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of mannose-containing oligosaccharides on model carbohydrate ligand interaction with E-, P- and L-selectins in vitro, as well as on the ability of these compounds to block the leukocyte extravasation in rat and mouse peritonitis in vivo was studied. The monomeric and polymeric compounds, 4-nitrophenylthiomannoside, phenylmannoside, conjugated with polyacrylic acid, and alpha-mannose, conjugated with polyacrylamide, inhibited the binding of the model ligand to P- and L-selectins (but not to E-selectin). Intravenous injection of these compounds was found to cause a dose-dependent reduction of neutrophil accumulation in rat peritoneum. The polysaccharide mannan was inactive in both types of experiments. The conjugate of phenylmannoside with polyacrylic acid was the most effective blocker as in vitro experiments, as well as in vivo. The inhibitory effect of subcutaneous injection of 4-nitrophenylthiomannoside on mouse peritonitis was demonstrated. PMID:11766259

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:26926145

  10. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:26926145

  11. Intracellular survival of wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and macrophage-sensitive mutants in diverse populations of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Buchmeier, N A; Heffron, F

    1989-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium survives within macrophages and causes a fatal infection in susceptible strains of mice. A number of S. typhimurium mutants that contain Tn10 insertions in genes which are necessary for survival within the macrophage have been isolated. To demonstrate the importance of each gene in intracellular survival, the mutations were transduced into a smooth-strain background and the ability to survive intracellularly was assayed in five different populations of macrophages. The majority of the original macrophage-sensitive mutants retained the macrophage-sensitive phenotype in the smooth-strain background. The ability to survive or grow within macrophages varied with both the source of macrophages and the individual mutants. S. typhimurium grew best in the macrophage-like cell line J774, survived at moderate levels in splenic and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and was killed most efficiently in peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-sensitive mutants transduced into a smooth background were also less virulent than the parent, with a 50% lethal dose of 2 to 5 logs greater than that of the parental strain. These experiments demonstrate that survival of S. typhimurium within macrophages varies with the source of cells, with a distinct ability to survive in macrophages from mouse spleens, where S. typhimurium grows rapidly. These experiments also demonstrate the heterogeneity in intracellular survival among the various macrophage-sensitive mutants, which may reflect the relative importance of the individual mutated genes in survival within macrophages. PMID:2642463

  12. An efferocytosis-induced, IL-4–dependent macrophage-iNKT cell circuit suppresses sterile inflammation and is defective in murine CGD

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Melody Yue; Pham, Duy; Bagaitkar, Juhi; Liu, Jianyun; Otero, Karel; Shan, Ming; Wynn, Thomas A.; Brombacher, Frank; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages following tissue injury is fundamental to the resolution of inflammation and initiation of tissue repair. Using a sterile peritonitis model in mice, we identified interleukin (IL)-4–producing efferocytosing macrophages in the peritoneum that activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to produce cytokines including IL-4, IL-13, and interferon-γ. Importantly, IL-4 from macrophages contributes to alternative activation of peritoneal exudate macrophages and augments type 2 cytokine production from NKT cells to suppress inflammation. The increased peritonitis in mice deficient in IL-4, NKT cells, or IL-4Rα expression on myeloid cells suggested that each is a key component for resolution of sterile inflammation. The reduced NAD phosphate oxidase is also critical for this model, because in mice with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) that lack oxidase subunits, activation of iNKT cells by X-CGD peritoneal exudate macrophages was impaired during sterile peritonitis, resulting in enhanced and prolonged inflammation in these mice. Therefore, efferocytosis-induced IL-4 production and activation of IL-4–producing iNKT cells by macrophages are immunomodulatory events in an innate immune circuit required to resolve sterile inflammation and promote tissue repair. PMID:23426944

  13. Intermedin Restores Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced Macrophage Polarization and Improves Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yanli; Li, Yang; Lv, Ying; Sun, Lulu; Zhang, Songyang; Li, Yin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Wang, Xian; Jiang, Changtao

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a condition characterized by an abnormally high level of homocysteine, an inflammatory factor. This condition has been suggested to promote insulin resistance. To date, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown, and identifying novel therapeutic targets for HHcy-induced insulin resistance is of high priority. It is well known that intermedin (IMD), a calcitonin family peptide, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the effects of IMD on HHcy-induced insulin resistance were investigated. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed on mice treated with IMD by minipump implantation (318 ng/kg/h for 4 weeks) or adipocyte-specific IMD overexpression mice (Adipo-IMD transgenic mice). The expression of genes and proteins related to M1/M2 macrophages and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was evaluated in adipose tissues or cells. The expression of IMD was identified to be lower in the plasma and adipose tissues of HHcy mice. In both IMD treatment by minipump implantation and Adipo-IMD transgenic mice, IMD reversed HHcy-induced insulin resistance, as revealed by glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Further mechanistic study revealed that IMD reversed the Hcy-elevated ratio of M1/M2 macrophages by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Adipo-IMD transgenic mice displayed reduced ERS and lower inflammation in adipose tissues with HHcy. Soluble factors from Hcy-treated macrophages induced adipocyte ERS, which was reversed by IMD treatment. These findings revealed that IMD treatment restores the M1/M2 balance, inhibits chronic inflammation in adipose tissues, and improves systemic insulin sensitivity of HHcy mice. PMID:27080257

  14. Limited Role of Nuclear Receptor Nur77 in Escherichia coli-Induced Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Hamers, Anouk A. J.; Uleman, Sven; van Tiel, Claudia M.; Kruijswijk, Daniëlle; van Stalborch, Anne-Marieke; Huveneers, Stephan; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1, TR3, or NGFI-B) has been shown to play an anti-inflammatory role in macrophages, which have a crucial function in defense against peritonitis. The function of Nur77 in Escherichia coli-induced peritoneal sepsis has not yet been investigated. Wild-type and Nur77-knockout mice were inoculated with E. coli, and bacterial outgrowth, cell recruitment, cytokine profiles, and tissue damage were investigated. We found only a minor transient decrease in bacterial loads in lung and liver of Nur77-knockout compared to wild-type mice at 14 h postinfection, yet no changes were found in the peritoneal lavage fluid or blood. No differences in inflammatory cytokine levels or neutrophil/macrophage numbers were observed, and bacterial loads were equal in wild-type and Nur77-knockout mice at 20 h postinfection in all body compartments tested. Also, isolated peritoneal macrophages did not show any differences in cytokine expression patterns in response to E. coli. In endothelial cells, Nur77 strongly downregulated both protein and mRNA expression of claudin-5, VE-cadherin, occludin, ZO-1, and β-catenin, and accordingly, these genes were upregulated in lungs of Nur77-deficient mice. Functional permeability tests pointed toward a strong role for Nur77 in endothelial barrier function. Indeed, tissue damage in E. coli-induced peritonitis was notably modulated by Nur77; liver necrosis and plasma aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT)/alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) levels were lower in Nur77-knockout mice. These data suggest that Nur77 does not play a role in the host response to E. coli in the peritoneal and blood compartments. However, Nur77 does modulate bacterial influx into the organs via increased vascular permeability, thereby aggravating distant organ damage. PMID:24166953

  15. Proteomic profiling of dextran sulfate sodium induced acute ulcerative colitis mice serum exosomes and their immunomodulatory impact on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Kam, Richard Kin-Tin; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tai, William Chi-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and their activation has been proposed to be critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although there are many recognized mediators of macrophage activation, increasing evidence suggests that macrophages respond to exosome stimulation. Exosomes are 40-150 nm microvesicles released from different cell types and are found in a variety of physiological fluids, including serum. As studies have shown that circulating exosomes participate in intercellular communication and can mediate the immune response, we hypothesized that exosomes may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD though modulation of macrophage activity. In this study, we used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis mice model to investigate the effect of serum exosomes on macrophages and identify exosome proteins potentially involved in macrophage activation. We treated RAW264.7 macrophages with serum exosomes isolated from dextran sulfate sodium induced mice and found that treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK and production of tumor necrosis factor α when compared to treatment with exosomes isolated from control mice. Subsequent proteomic analysis identified 56 differentially expressed proteins, a majority of which were acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins. Bioinformatics analysis suggested these proteins were mainly involved in the complement and coagulation cascade, which has been implicated in macrophage activation. Our findings provide new insight into the role of circulating serum exosomes in acute colitis and contribute to the understanding of macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:26806198

  16. Ovarian steroid hormone-regulated uterine remodeling occurs independently of macrophages in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Ingman, Wendy V; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages are abundant in the uterine stroma and are intimately juxtaposed with other cell lineages comprising the uterine epithelial and stromal compartments. We postulated that macrophages may participate in mediating or amplifying the effects of ovarian steroid hormones to facilitate the uterine remodeling that is a characteristic feature of every estrus cycle and is essential for pregnancy. Using the Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mouse model with an ovariectomy and hormone replacement strategy, we depleted macrophages to determine their role in hormone-driven proliferation of uterine epithelial and stromal cells and uterine vascular development. Following diphtheria toxin (DT) administration, approximately 85% of EMR1-positive (EMR1⁺) macrophages, as well as 70% of CD11C⁺ dendritic cells, were depleted from Cd11b-Dtr mice. There was no change in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into epithelial cells induced to proliferate by administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized mice or into stromal cells induced to proliferate in response to E2 and progesterone (P4), and the resulting sizes and structures of the luminal epithelial and stromal cell compartments were not altered compared with those of leukocyte replete controls. Depletion of CD11B⁺ myeloid cells failed to alter the density or pattern of distribution of uterine blood vessels, as identified by staining PECAM1-positive endothelial cells in the uterine stroma of E2- or E2 combined with P4 (E2P4)-treated ovariectomized mice. These experiments support the interpretation that macrophages are dispensable to regulation of proliferative events induced by steroid hormones in the cycling and early pregnant mouse uterus to establish the epithelial, stromal, and vascular architecture which is critical for normal reproductive competence. PMID:25061095

  17. Macrophages promote vasculogenesis of retinal neovascularization in an oxygen-induced retinopathy model in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Qin; Hou, Hui-Yuan; Su, Jing-Bo; Yao, Li-Bo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the role of macrophages in oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization (NV) in mice, particularly the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) and the underlying mechanisms, BMCs from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into postnatal day (P) 1 mice after irradiation. The mice were exposed to 75 % oxygen from P7 to P12 to initiate oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The macrophages were depleted by injection of clodronate-liposomes (lip) intraperitoneally. The eyes were collected at P12 and P17. Retinal flatmounts and histopathological cross-sections were performed to analyze the severity of retinal NV and BMC recruitment. BMCs immunopositive for CD31 (PECAM-1; endothelial cell marker) and α-SMA (smooth muscle cell marker) antigens were detected using a confocal microscope. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The VEGF, SDF-1, CXCR4 and CD45 protein expression was detected by western blot examination. The retinal avascular area in OIR mice at P12 was unaffected after macrophage depletion carried out twice (38.27 ± 1.92 % reduction) using clodronate-lip. The retinal avascular area and the NV area at P17 were reduced after macrophage depletion four times (79.53 ± 1.02 % reduction); these findings were supported by retinal flatmounts and histopathological cross-sections. Macrophage depletion led to significant inhibition of BMC recruitment into the NV tufts at P17, with decreased expression of retinal VEGF, SDF-1, CXCR4 and CD45. The recruited BMCs differentiated primarily into CD31-positive endothelial cells (ECs) and α-SMA-positive smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study suggested that macrophages promoted the vasculogenesis of retinal NV, particularly the contribution of BMCs in the mouse OIR model, which might be triggered by VEGF and SDF-1 production. PMID:26841878

  18. Role of gut macrophages in mice orally contaminated with scrapie or BSE.

    PubMed

    Maignien, Thomas; Shakweh, Monjed; Calvo, Pilar; Marcé, Dominique; Salès, Nicole; Fattal, Elias; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Couvreur, Patrick; Lasmezas, Corinne Ida

    2005-07-25

    While there is a growing consensus on the understanding of the propagation pathways after oral infection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents and even if the central role of follicular dendritic cells is identified, little is known about the key players in the first steps of the infection and about the site of the disease development. We investigated the role of gut macrophages, which are capable of capturing aggregates of the prion protein. PLGA particles containing clodronate were designed in order to be orally administered and to target Peyer's patches for inducing gut-associated macrophages suicide in mice. Mice were subsequently infected with scrapie or BSE by the oral route. It was found that the efficacy of macrophage suppression in the Peyer's patches correlated well with an earlier appearance of PrPres in these formations and with a higher amount of PrPres at a later stage of the infection. Thus, the capture of infectious particles that have crossed the epithelial gut barrier and their elimination by macrophages seems to be a key event to restrict the amount of agent initiating the infection. PMID:15964722

  19. Altered Arachidonate Distribution in Macrophages from Caveolin-1 Null Mice Leading to Reduced Eicosanoid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Alma M.; Pérez-Chacón, Gema; Meana, Clara; Balgoma, David; Pol, Albert; del Pozo, Miguel A.; Balboa, María A.; Balsinde, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of caveolin-1 deficiency on the mechanisms that regulate free arachidonic acid (AA) availability. The results presented here demonstrate that macrophages from caveolin-1-deficient mice exhibit elevated fatty acid incorporation and remodeling and a constitutively increased CoA-independent transacylase activity. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses reveal stable alterations in the profile of AA distribution among phospholipids, manifested by reduced levels of AA in choline glycerophospholipids but elevated levels in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol. Furthermore, macrophages from caveolin-1 null mice show decreased AA mobilization and prostaglandin E2 and LTB4 production upon cell stimulation. Collectively, these results provide insight into the role of caveolin-1 in AA homeostasis and suggest an important role for this protein in the eicosanoid biosynthetic response. PMID:21852231

  20. Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization: Enhancement of the M2 phenotype in ARF-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Sandra; Través, Paqui G; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-11-01

    The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. The aim of the present work was to get further insights into the immune functions of ARF and to evaluate its possible contribution to the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or M2 phenotype. Our results demonstrate that resting Arf(-/-) macrophages express high levels of Ym1 and Fizz-1, two typical markers of alternatively-activated macrophages (M2). Additionally, Arf(-/-) peritoneal macrophages showed an impaired response to lipopolysaccharide (a classical inducer of M1 polaryzation) and a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), an inducer of the M2 phenotype, well established M2 markers such as Fizz-1, Ym1 and arginase-1 were upregulated in Arf(-/-) as compared with wild type macrophages. Accordingly, the cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the M2 phenotype was significantly overexpressed in Arf(-/-) macrophages responding to IL-4. In addition, multiple pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMP-9 were also increased. In summary, these results indicate that ARF contributes to the polarization and functional plasticity of macrophages. PMID:23243586

  1. Arctigenin ameliorates inflammation in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hyam, Supriya R; Lee, In-Ah; Gu, Wan; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Seeds of Arctium lappa, containing arctigenin and its glycoside arctiin as main constituents, have been used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent in Chinese traditional medicine. In our preliminary study, arctigenin inhibited IKKβ and NF-κB activation in peptidoglycan (PGN)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritoneal macrophages. To understand the anti-inflammatory effect of arctigenin, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and on LPS-induced systemic inflammation as well as 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, but increased LPS-reduced IL-10 and CD204 expression. Arctigenin inhibited LPS-induced PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation, but did not suppress LPS-induced IRAK-1 phosphorylation. However, arctigenin did not inhibit NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated PI3K siRNA-treated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed the binding of p-PI3K antibody and the nucleus translocation of NF-κB p65 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Arctigenin suppressed blood IL-1β and TNF-α level in mice systemically inflamed by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Arctigenin also inhibited colon shortening, macroscopic scores and myeloperoxidase activity in TNBS-induced colitic mice. Arctigenin inhibited TNBS-induced IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 expression, as well as PI3K, AKT and IKKβ phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in mice, but increased IL-10 and CD204 expression. However, it did not affect IRAK-1 phosphorylation. Based on these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, by inhibiting PI3K and polarizing M1 macrophages to M2-like macrophages. PMID:23375938

  2. Impaired Hematopoiesis and Disrupted Monocyte/Macrophage Homeostasis in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Mice.

    PubMed

    Viana, Gustavo Monteiro; Buri, Marcus Vinícius; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Martins, Ana Maria; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2016-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency in which heparan and dermatan sulfate degradation is compromised. Besides primary lysosomal glycosaminoglycan accumulation, further changes in cellular functions have also been described in several murine MPS models. Herein, we evaluated alterations in hematopoiesis and its implications on the production of mature progeny in a MPS I murine model. Despite the significant increase in hematopoietic stem cells, a reduction in common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells was observed in Idua -/- mice bone marrow. Furthermore, no alterations in number, viability nor activation of cell death mechanisms were observed in Idua -/- mice mature macrophages but they presented higher sensitivity to apoptotic induction after staurosporine treatment. In addition, changes in Ca(2+) signaling and a reduction in phagocytosis ability were also found. In summary, our results revealed significant intracellular changes in mature Idua -/- macrophages related to alterations in Idua -/- mice hematopoiesis, revealing a disruption in cell homeostasis. These results provide new insights into physiopathology of MPS I. PMID:26235607

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-06-01

    This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719μg/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5μg/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219μg/g dry weight), morin (101±68μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42μg/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-γ+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

  4. Model for high-throughput screening of drug immunotoxicity--study of the anti-microbial G1 over peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Borroto, Esvieta; Peñuelas-Rivas, Claudia G; Vásquez-Chagoyán, Juan C; Castañedo, Nilo; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; García-Mera, Xerardo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-24

    Quantitative Structure-Activity (mt-QSAR) techniques may become an important tool for prediction of cytotoxicity and High-throughput Screening (HTS) of drugs to rationalize drug discovery process. In this work, we train and validate by the first time mt-QSAR model using TOPS-MODE approach to calculate drug molecular descriptors and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) function. This model correctly classifies 8258 out of 9000 (Accuracy = 91.76%) multiplexing assay endpoints of 7903 drugs (including both train and validation series). Each endpoint correspond to one out of 1418 assays, 36 molecular and cellular targets, 46 standard type measures, in two possible organisms (human and mouse). After that, we determined experimentally, by the first time, the values of EC50 = 21.58 μg/mL and Cytotoxicity = 23.6% for the anti-microbial/anti-parasite drug G1 over Balb/C mouse peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry. In addition, the model predicts for G1 only 7 positive endpoints out 1251 cytotoxicity assays (0.56% of probability of cytotoxicity in multiple assays). The results obtained complement the toxicological studies of this important drug. This work adds a new tool to the existing pool of few methods useful for multi-target HTS of ChEMBL and other libraries of compounds towards drug discovery. PMID:24445280

  5. Choroidal Neovascularization Is Inhibited in Splenic-Denervated or Splenectomized Mice with a Concomitant Decrease in Intraocular Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xue; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Nishida, Junko; Yamagishi, Reiko; Terashima, Yuya; Matsushima, Kouji; Kaburaki, Toshikatsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the involvement of sympathetic activity in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using laser-induced CNV in a mouse model. Methods We investigated changes in the proportions of intraocular lymphocytes, granulocytes, and three macrophage subtypes (Ly6Chi, Ly6Cint, and Ly6Clo) after laser injury in mice using flow cytometry, and evaluated CNV lesion size in mice lacking inflammatory cells. Further, we evaluated the lesion size in mice administered the β3 receptor antagonist, splenic-denervated and splenectomized mice. We also assessed changes in the proportions of intraocular macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes in splenic-denervated and splenectomized mice. Lastly, lesion size was compared between splenic-denervated mice with or without adoptive transfer of macrophages following laser injury. After Ly5.1 mice spleen-derived Ly6Chi cells were transferred into Ly5.2 mice, the proportions of intraocular Ly5.1+Ly6Chi cells were compared. Results In WT mice, the proportion of CD4+ T cells recruited into the eye increased progressively from day 3 to day 7 after laser injury, whereas, intraocular CD8+ T cells did not change significantly. Proportions of B220+ cells, granulocytes, and two subtypes of intraocular macrophages (Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo) peaked at day 3 following laser injury. In contrast, Ly6Cint/loCD64+ subtype showed a significantly higher percentage at day 7 after laser injury. There were no differences in lesion size between CD4–/–or Rag2–/–mice and controls, whereas lesion size was significantly reduced in CCR2−/− mice and clodronate liposome-treated mice. CNV lesion area was significantly reduced in mice with β3 blocker treatment, splenic-denervated and splenectomized mice compared with controls. Intraocular Ly6Chi macrophages were also reduced by splenic denervation or splenectomy. Adoptive transfer of spleen-derived Ly6Chi cells increased the lesion size in splenic-denervated mice. Compared with controls, intraocular

  6. Grape powder polyphenols attenuate atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient (E0) mice and reduce macrophage atherogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Bianca; Volkova, Nina; Coleman, Raymond; Aviram, Michael

    2005-04-01

    The beneficial health effects of red wine have been attributed to the antioxidant activity of its polyphenols. The present study investigated the effects of a standardized freeze-dried powder made from fresh grapes, rich in grape-specific polyphenols and free of alcohol, on oxidative stress, atherogenicity of macrophages, and the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient (E(0)) mice. Thirty E(0) mice were assigned to 3 groups. Mice consumed water alone (control), 150 mug total polyphenols/d in the form of grape powder (grape powder), or the equivalent amount of glucose and fructose (placebo) in drinking water for 10 wk. Consumption of grape powder reduced the atherosclerotic lesion area by 41% (P < 0.0002) compared to the control or placebo mice. The antiatherosclerotic effect was at least partly due to a significant 8% reduction in serum oxidative stress, an up to 22% increase in serum antioxidant capacity, a significant 33% reduction in macrophage uptake of oxidized LDL, and a 25% decrease in macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL relative to controls. Grape powder directly protected both plasma LDL and macrophages from oxidative stress in vitro. We conclude that polyphenols from fresh grape powder directly affect macrophage atherogenicity by reducing macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL and cellular uptake of oxidized LDL. Both of these processes can eventually reduce macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation and hence attenuate atherosclerosis development. PMID:15795424

  7. Lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in macrophages leading to coronary atherosclerosis in CD38(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Yuan, Xinxu; Li, Ningjun; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    The disruption in transportation of oxLDL-derived cholesterol and the subsequent lipid accumulation in macrophages are the hallmark events in atherogenesis. Our recent studies demonstrated that lysosomal Ca(2+) messenger of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), an enzymatic product of CD38 ADP-ribosylcyclase (CD38), promoted lipid endocytic trafficking in human fibroblast cells. The current studies are designed to examine the functional role of CD38/NAADP pathway in the regulation of lysosomal cholesterol efflux in atherosclerosis. Oil red O staining showed that oxLDL concentration-dependently increased lipid buildup in bone marrow-derived macrophages from both wild type and CD38(-/-) , but to a significant higher extent with CD38 gene deletion. Bodipy 493/503 fluorescence staining found that the deposited lipid in macrophages was mainly enclosed in lysosomal organelles and largely enhanced with the blockade of CD38/NAADP pathway. Filipin staining and direct measurement of lysosome fraction further revealed that the free cholesterol constituted a major portion of the total cholesterol segregated in lysosomes. Moreover, in situ assay disclosed that both lysosomal lumen acidity and the acid lipase activity were reduced upon cholesterol buildup in lysosomes. In CD38(-/-) mice, treatment with Western diet (12 weeks) produced atherosclerotic damage in coronary artery with striking lysosomal cholesterol sequestration in macrophages. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the proper function of CD38/NAADP pathway plays an essential role in promoting free cholesterol efflux from lysosomes and that a defection of this signalling leads to lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and results in coronary atherosclerosis in CD38(-/-) mice. PMID:26818887

  8. Host and Bacterial Factors Involved in the Innate Ability of Mouse Macrophages To Eliminate Internalized Unopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Terri S.; Havell, Edward A.; Horton, John R.; Orndorff, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to better understand genetic and cellular factors that influence innate immunity, we examined host and bacterial factors involved in the nonopsonic phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by mouse macrophages. Unelicited (resident) peritoneal macrophages from five different mouse strains, BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, C3H/HeJ, and C3H/HeN, were employed. Additional macrophage populations were obtained from CD-1 mice (bone marrow-derived macrophages). Also, for BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, peritoneal macrophages elicited with either thioglycolate or proteose peptone, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and macrophage-like cell lines derived from the two strains were employed. Two E. coli K-12 strains that differed specifically in their abilities to produce type 1 pili containing the adhesive protein FimH were examined. The parameters used to assess macrophage bacteriocidal activity were (i) the killing of internalized (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during the approximately 4-h assay and (ii) the initial rate at which internalized E. coli were eliminated. Data on these parameters allowed the following conclusions: (i) unelicited or proteose peptone-elicited peritoneal macrophages were significantly better at eliminating internalized bacteria than thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages, or macrophage cell lines; (ii) the host genetic background had no significant effect upon the ability of unelicited peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli (even though the mouse strains differ widely in their in vivo susceptibilities to bacterial infection); and (iii) the FimH phenotype had no significant effect upon E. coli survival once the bacterium was inside a macrophage. Additionally, there was no correlation between the bacteriocidal effectiveness of a macrophage population and the number of bacteria bound per macrophage. However, macrophage populations that were the least bacteriocidal tended to bind higher ratios of FimH+ to Fim

  9. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibits the Translocation of Bacteria of Gut-Origin in Mice with Peritonitis: Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Shan-Wen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Guo-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the inhibitory effect of IAP on acute intestinal inflammation and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying IAP in ameliorating intestinal permeability. We used an in vivo imaging method to evaluate disease status and the curative effect of IAP. Two Escherichia coli (E.coli) B21 strains, carrying EGFP labeled enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and RFP labeled red fluorescent protein (RFP), were constructed as tracer bacteria and were administered orally to C57/B6N mice to generate an injection peritonitis (IP) model. The IP model was established by injecting inflammatory lavage fluid. C57/B6N mice bearing the tracer bacteria were subsequently treated with (IP+IAP group), or without IAP (IP group). IAP was administered to the mice via tail vein injections. The amount of tracer bacteria in the blood, liver, and lungs at 24 h post-injection was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM), in vivo imaging, and Western blotting. Intestinal barrier function was measured using a flux assay with the macro-molecule fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, molecular weight 40kD, (FD40). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IAP, we examined the levels of ERK phosphorylation, and the expression levels of proteins in the ERK-SP1-VEGF and ERK-Cdx-2-Claudin-2 pathways. We observed that IAP inhibited the expression of Claudin-2, a type of cation channel-forming protein, and VEGF, a cytokine that may increase intestinal permeability by reducing the levels of dephosphorylated ERK. In conclusion, exogenous IAP shows a therapeutic effect in an injection peritonitis model. This including inhibition of bacterial translocation. Moreover, we have established an imaging methodology for live-animals can

  10. Myeloid SIRT1 regulates macrophage infiltration and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ka, Sun-O; Song, Mi-Young; Bae, Eun Ju; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance. SIRT1, a class 3 histone/protein deacetylase, has anti-inflammatory functions. Myeloid-specific deletion of Sirt1 promotes macrophage infiltration into insulin-sensitive organs and aggravates tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated how SIRT1 in macrophages alters tissue inflammation in the pancreas as well as liver and adipose tissue, and further explored the role of SIRT1 in locomotion of macrophages. Myeloid-specific Sirt1-deleted mice (mS1KO) and WT littermates were fed a 60% calorie high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Tissue inflammation and metabolic phenotypes were compared. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from WT or mS1KO mice were used in in vitro chemotaxis assays and macrophage polarization studies. mS1KO mice fed a HFD exhibited glucose intolerance, reduced insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity with a slight decrease in body weight. Consistent with these results, pancreatic islets of mS1KO mice fed a HFD displayed decreased mass with profound apoptotic cell damage and increased macrophage infiltration and inflammation. Liver and adipose tissues from mS1KO HFD mice also showed greater accumulation of macrophages and tissue inflammation. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that deletion of myeloid Sirt1 stimulated proinflammatory M1-like polarization of BMMs and augmented the adipocyte-mediated macrophage chemotaxis. The latter effect was accompanied by increased expression and acetylation of focal adhesion kinase, as well as nuclear factor kappa B. Our results indicate that myeloid SIRT1 plays a crucial role in macrophage polarization and chemotaxis, and thus regulates the development of HFD-induced pancreatic inflammation and insulin secretion, and metabolic derangements in liver and adipose tissue. PMID:25349250

  11. [Surface structure of the macrophages and lymphocytes in their interaction under conditions of antigenic stimulation observed with the scanning electron microscope].

    PubMed

    Favorskaia, Iu N; Krymskiĭ, L D; Nestaĭko, G V

    1975-01-01

    The surface structure of macrophages, lymphocytes of peritoneal exudate and lymphocytes from the lymphatic node of intact, stimulated with meat-pentone broth and induced with antigen mice was studied using raster electron microscopy. Lymphocytes outwardly did not differ from each other irrespective the source of their origin. Macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavity of the stimulated mice morphologically differed from those isolated from intact mice. Antigenic stimulation of macrophages made it possible to investigate the dynamics of absorption and digestion of sheep corpuscles, as well as the morphology of this process. It was established that in combined cultivation of macrophages and lymphocytes under conditions of antigenic stimulation the number of contacts between lymphocytes and between lymphocytes and macrophages considerably increased. The cytoplasmic ponticulus connecting cells was formed mostly at the expense of a single finger-shaped growth of the lymphocyte membrane. PMID:1167113

  12. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins from the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, T.; Yokode, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Narumiya, S.; Kawai, C.

    1986-05-01

    Cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit induced marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. This WHHL rabbit, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, has severe hypercholesterolemia, cutaneous xanthomas, and fulminant atherosclerosis due to the deficiency of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, the VLDL from WHHL rabbit (WHHL-VLDL) stimulated cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate synthesis 124-fold more than did VLDL from the normal Japanese White rabbit (control-VLDL). The enhancement in cholesteryl ester synthesis and accumulation of WHHL-VLDL was due to the presence of a high affinity binding receptor site on the macrophage cell surface that mediated the uptake and lysosomal degradation of WHHL-VLDL. Competition studies showed that the uptake and degradation of /sup 125/I-WHHL-VLDL was inhibited by unlabeled excess WHHL-VLDL and beta-migrating VLDL (beta-VLDL), but not LDL. Furthermore, the degradation of WHHL-VLDL was not blocked by either fucoidin, polyinosinic acid, or polyguanylic acid, potent inhibitors of the acetylated (acetyl)-LDL binding site, or by acetyl-LDL. These results suggest that macrophages possess a high affinity receptor that recognizes the cholesterol-rich VLDL present in the plasma of the WHHL rabbit and that the receptor which mediates ingestion of WHHL-VLDL seems to be the same as that for beta-VLDL and leads to cholesteryl ester deposition within macrophages. Thus, the uptake of the cholesterol-rich VLDL from the WHHL rabbit by macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the WHHL rabbit.

  13. FNDC4 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor on macrophages and improves colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Madeleen; Gerling, Marco; Pasto, Jenny; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Graham, Evan; Shilkova, Olga; Iwata, Yasunori; Almer, Sven; Söderman, Jan; Toftgård, Rune; Wermeling, Fredrik; Boström, Elisabeth Almer; Boström, Pontus Almer

    2016-01-01

    FNDC4 is a secreted factor sharing high homology with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). Here we report that Fndc4 is robustly upregulated in several mouse models of inflammation as well as in human inflammatory conditions. Specifically, FNDC4 levels are increased locally at inflamed sites of the intestine of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Interestingly, administration of recombinant FNDC4 in the mouse model of induced colitis markedly reduces disease severity compared with mice injected with a control protein. Conversely, mice lacking Fndc4 develop more severe colitis. Analysis of binding of FNDC4 to different immune cell types reveals strong and specific binding to macrophages and monocytes. FNDC4 treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro results in reduced phagocytosis, increased cell survival and reduced proinflammatory chemokine expression. Hence, treatment with FNDC4 results in a state of dampened macrophage activity, while enhancing their survival. Thus, we have characterized FNDC4 as a factor with direct therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other inflammatory diseases. PMID:27066907

  14. FNDC4 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor on macrophages and improves colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Madeleen; Gerling, Marco; Pasto, Jenny; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Graham, Evan; Shilkova, Olga; Iwata, Yasunori; Almer, Sven; Söderman, Jan; Toftgård, Rune; Wermeling, Fredrik; Boström, Elisabeth Almer; Boström, Pontus Almer

    2016-01-01

    FNDC4 is a secreted factor sharing high homology with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). Here we report that Fndc4 is robustly upregulated in several mouse models of inflammation as well as in human inflammatory conditions. Specifically, FNDC4 levels are increased locally at inflamed sites of the intestine of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Interestingly, administration of recombinant FNDC4 in the mouse model of induced colitis markedly reduces disease severity compared with mice injected with a control protein. Conversely, mice lacking Fndc4 develop more severe colitis. Analysis of binding of FNDC4 to different immune cell types reveals strong and specific binding to macrophages and monocytes. FNDC4 treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro results in reduced phagocytosis, increased cell survival and reduced proinflammatory chemokine expression. Hence, treatment with FNDC4 results in a state of dampened macrophage activity, while enhancing their survival. Thus, we have characterized FNDC4 as a factor with direct therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other inflammatory diseases. PMID:27066907

  15. Wild-type macrophages reverse disease in heme oxygenase 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre, Wade; Weitzel, R Patrick; Eckhaus, Michael A; Tisdale, John F; Yachie, Akihiro; Rouault, Tracey A

    2014-08-28

    Loss-of-function mutation in the heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) gene causes a rare and lethal disease in children, characterized by severe anemia and intravascular hemolysis, with damage to endothelia and kidneys. Previously, we found that macrophages engaged in recycling of red cells were depleted from the tissues of Hmox1(-/-) mice, which resulted in intravascular hemolysis and severe damage to the endothelial system, kidneys, and other organs. Here, we report that subablative bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has a curative effect for disease in Hmox1(-/-) animals as a result of restoration of heme recycling by repopulation of the tissues with wild-type macrophages. Although engraftment was transient, BMT reversed anemia, normalized blood chemistries and iron metabolism parameters, and prevented renal damage. The largest proportion of donor-derived cells was observed in the livers of transplanted animals. These cells, identified as Kupffer cells with high levels of Hmox1 expression, persisted months after transient engraftment of the donor bone marrow and were responsible for the full restoration of heme-recycling ability in Hmox1(-/-) mice and reversing Hmox1-deficient phenotype. Our findings suggest that BMT or the development of specific cell therapies to repopulate patients' tissues with wild-type or reengineered macrophages represent promising approaches for HMOX1 deficiency treatment in humans. PMID:24963040

  16. Akt3 Deficiency in Macrophages Promotes Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang; Biswas, Sudipta; Morton, Richard E.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hay, Nissim; Byzova, Tatiana; Febbraio, Maria; Podrez, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Akt, a serine-threonine protein kinase, exists as three isoforms. The Akt signaling pathway controls multiple cellular functions in the cardiovascular system, and the atheroprotective endothelial cell dependent role of Akt1 has been recently demonstrated. The role of Akt3 isoform in cardiovascular pathophysiology is not known. We explored the role of Akt3 in atherosclerosis using mice with a genetic ablation of the Akt3 gene. Using hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice, we demonstrated a macrophage dependent, atheroprotective role for Akt3. In vitro experiments demonstrated differential subcellular localization of Akt1 and Akt3 in macrophages, and showed that Akt3 specifically inhibits macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation and foam cell formation, a critical early event in atherogenesis. Mechanistically, Akt3 suppresses foam cell formation by reducing lipoprotein uptake and promoting ACAT-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These studies demonstrate the non-redundant atheroprotective role for Akt3 exerted via the previously unknown link between the Akt signaling pathway and cholesterol metabolism. PMID:22632897

  17. Effects of ketanserin on experimental colitis in mice and macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, JUNHUA; SHAO, LIMEI; SHEN, JIAQING; JIANG, WEILIANG; FENG, YUN; ZHENG, PING; LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    Ketanserin is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist. Studies have suggested that ketanserin exerts anti-inflammatory effects independent of the baroreflex; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of ketanserin in colitis and the possible underlying mechanisms. The expression of 5-HT2AR was assessed in the colon tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The therapeutic potential of ketanserin was investigated in the mice with colitis. In the colon tissue samples from the patients with IBD, a high expression level of 5-HT2AR was observed. Treatment with ketanserin attenuated the progression of experimental colitis in the mice, as indicated by body weight assessment, colon length, histological scores and cytokine release. The colonic macrophages from the ketanserin-treated mice with colitis exhibited a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, with M2 polarization and impaired migration. The knockdown of 5-HT2AR using siRNA partly abolished the inhibitory effects of ketanserin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMDMs), thus demonstrating that the inhibitory effects of ketanserin on the production of inflammatory cytokines are partly dependent on 5-HT2AR. Ketanserin also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in BMDMs. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrate that ketanserin alleviates colitis. Its anti-inflammatory effects may be due to the promotion of the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages through 5-HT2AR/NF-κB. PMID:26865503

  18. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  19. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-05-11

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  20. Toll-like Receptor 4 on Macrophage Promotes the Development of Steatohepatitis-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kouichi; Ishioka, Mitsuaki; Minami, Shinichiro; Horie, Yasuo; Ohshima, Shigetoshi; Goto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2016-05-27

    The role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has attracted much attention in the development of hepatic inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We herein sought to determine the role of TLRs and responsible cells in steatohepatitis-related HCC. We used hepatocyte-specific Pten-deficient (Pten(Δ) (hep)) mice, which exhibit steatohepatitis followed by liver tumor formation, including HCC. We then generated Pten(Δ) (hep)/Tlr4(-/-) and Pten(Δ) (hep)/Tlr2(-/-) double-mutant mice and investigated the role of macrophages using reconstitution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells, chemical depletion of macrophages, and isolated macrophages. Tlr4 but not Tlr2 deficiency in the Pten(Δ) (hep) mice suppressed tumor growth as well as hepatic inflammation. Gut sterilization by an antibiotic mixture reduced the portal LPS levels as well as tumor growth in the Pten(Δ) (hep) mice. Tumor growth was also decreased by reconstitution of BM-derived cells to Tlr4(-/-) BM cells. In addition, chemical depletion of macrophages significantly reduced tumor size and numbers. Macrophages expressing Ly6C were increased in number, which was associated with inflammation and tumor progression in the Pten(Δ) (hep) mice. Hepatic macrophages isolated from the Pten(Δ) (hep) mice abundantly expressed the Ly6C gene and produced much more IL-6 and TNFα in response to LPS. These proinflammatory cytokines induced the proliferation of HCC cells as well as oval cells, putative cancer progenitor cells. Indeed, putative cancer progenitor cells emerged before the development of macroscopic liver tumors and then increased in number under sustained inflammation. TLR4 on macrophages contributes to the development of steatohepatitis-related HCC in mice. PMID:27022031

  1. Macrophage ABCA5 deficiency influences cellular cholesterol efflux and increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis in female LDLr knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Dan; Meurs, Illiana; Ohigashi, Megumi; Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Habets, Kim L.L.; Zhao, Ying; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Van Eck, Miranda

    2010-05-07

    Objectives: To determine the role of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and atherosclerotic lesion development. Methods and results: Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA5 (ABCA5{sup -M/-M}) were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA5 knockout (ABCA5{sup -/-}) mice into irradiated LDLr{sup -/-} mice. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages from ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras exhibited a 29% (P < 0.001) decrease in cholesterol efflux to HDL, whereas a 21% (P = 0.07) increase in cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was observed. Interestingly, expression of ABCA1, but not ABCG1, was up-regulated in absence of functional ABCA5 in macrophages. To induce atherosclerosis, the transplanted LDLr{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD) for 6, 10, or 18 weeks, allowing analysis of effects on initial as well as advanced lesion development. Atherosclerosis development was not affected in male ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras after 6, 10, and 18 weeks WTD feeding. However, female ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras did develop significantly (P < 0.05) larger aortic root lesions as compared with female controls after 6 and 10 weeks WTD feeding. Conclusions: ABCA5 influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, and selective disruption of ABCA5 in macrophages leads to increased atherosclerotic lesion development in female LDLr{sup -/-} mice.

  2. Delayed antibody synthesis in mice after transfer of immune peritoneal fluid cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, E.

    1964-01-01

    Ascites fluid, rich in bacteriophage-neutralizing antibody, was produced when mice were treated first, with lethal or near-lethal whole body X-radiation; secondly, intravenous injection of spleen cells from donor mice immunized against bacteriophage; and thirdly, with an intraperitoneal injection of bacteriophage in Freund's adjuvant. The `immune ascites cells' were washed and transferred to other mice without further addition of antigen. The production of phage-neutralizing antibody in recipient mice showed the following properties. (1) The highest rate of antibody synthesis occurred between the 5th and the 11th day after cell transfer. In contrast, spleen cells similarly transferred gave rise to antibody formation with the maximum rate of synthesis immediately after transfer. (2) The antibody formation occurred essentially only in isologous recipients, not in homologous ones, whether the latter were pre-immunized against cells of the donor strain or not. With spleen cells, antibody synthesis was not impaired in homologous hosts for about 4 days after transfer, if the hosts were not pre-immunized against the donor strain. (3) Freezing and thawing of the donor cells prior to injection into the hosts abolished subsequent antibody synthesis. (4) Irradiation of the cells with 650 R. abolished antibody formation after transfer. (5) Whole-body irradiation of the recipient mice resulted in increased antibody formation. (6) When immune ascites cells were injected into newborn mice, high levels of antibody were found 13 days afterwards. It is concluded (a) that the population of immune ascites cells carries both the specific information and the stimulus for antibody synthesis, and (b) that the antibody-forming apparatus is not yet present in a functional state at the time of transfer, but develops several days afterwards in the host mice. PMID:14169104

  3. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor. PMID:9893164

  4. Alveolar Macrophage Recruitment and Activation by Chronic Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Almut; Solon, Margaret; Cambier, Christopher J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Koth, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% of cases of COPD occur in non-smokers. Among the potential risk factors for COPD in non-smokers is second hand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, the Surgeon General reported in 2006 that the evidence linking second hand smoke and COPD is insufficient to infer a causal relationship, largely because current evidence does not establish a biological link. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether SHS exposure can induce alveolar macrophage recruitment and expression of activation markers that we have previously demonstrated in human smokers and in mouse models of emphysema. To achieve these goals, we studied mice exposed to an ambient mixture of predominantly [89%] sidestream smoke at increasing doses over 3 months. Results We found that second hand smoke exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in alveolar macrophage recruitment (mean ± sd; 224,511 ± 52,330 vs 166,152 ± 47,989 macrophages/ml of bronchoalveolar lavage in smoke-exposed vs air-exposed controls at 3 months, p=0.003). We also found increased expression of several markers of alveolar macrophage activation (PLA2g7, dkfzp434l142, Trem-2, and pirin, all p<0.01 at 3 months) and increased lavage levels of two inflammatory mediators associated with COPD (CCL2 [MCP-1], 58 ± 12 vs. 43 ± 22 pg/ml, p=0.03; and TNFα, 138 ± 43 vs 88 ± 78 pg/ml, p=0.04 at 3 months). Conclusions These findings indicate that second smoke exposure can cause macrophage recruitment and activation, providing a biological link between second hand smoke exposure and the development of inflammatory processes linked to COPD. PMID:19378221

  5. TRPA1 mediates trigeminal neuropathic pain in mice downstream of monocytes/macrophages and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Benemei, Silvia; Materazzi, Serena; De Logu, Francesco; De Siena, Gaetano; Fusi, Camilla; Fortes Rossato, Mateus; Coppi, Elisabetta; Marone, Ilaria Maddalena; Ferreira, Juliano; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina

    2016-05-01

    Despite intense investigation, the mechanisms of the different forms of trigeminal neuropathic pain remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel (encoded by TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to allodynia or hyperalgesia in some neuropathic pain models, including those produced by sciatic nerve constriction. However, the role of TRPA1 and the processes that cause trigeminal pain-like behaviours from nerve insult are poorly understood. The role of TRPA1, monocytes and macrophages, and oxidative stress in pain-like behaviour evoked by the constriction of the infraorbital nerve in mice were explored. C57BL/6 and wild-type (Trpa1(+/+)) mice that underwent constriction of the infraorbital nerve exhibited prolonged (20 days) non-evoked nociceptive behaviour and mechanical, cold and chemical hypersensitivity in comparison to sham-operated mice (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Both genetic deletion of Trpa1 (Trpa1(-/-)) and pharmacological blockade (HC-030031 and A-967079) abrogated pain-like behaviours (both P < 0.001), which were abated by the antioxidant, α-lipoic acid, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor, apocynin (both P < 0.001). Nociception and hypersensitivity evoked by constriction of the infraorbital nerve was associated with intra- and perineural monocytic and macrophagic invasion and increased levels of oxidative stress by-products (hydrogen peroxide and 4-hydroxynonenal). Attenuation of monocyte/macrophage increase by systemic treatment with an antibody against the monocyte chemoattractant chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or the macrophage-depleting agent, clodronate (both P < 0.05), was associated with reduced hydrogen peroxide and 4-hydroxynonenal perineural levels and pain-like behaviours (all P < 0.01), which were abated by perineural administration of HC-030031, α-lipoic acid or the anti-CCL2 antibody (all P < 0.001). The present findings propose that, in the constriction of the

  6. The effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Moos, A B; Oughton, J A; Kerkvliet, N I

    1997-02-01

    Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that TNF plays a critical role in mediating the TCDD-induced enhanced inflammatory response to intraperitoneal (i.p.) sheep red blood cells. The current studies were designed to evaluate the effects of TCDD on TNF production by ex-vivo peritoneal cells and a peritoneal macrophage cell line (IC-21) stimulated with LPS. In support of the hypothesis that TCDD can act directly on the peritoneal macrophage to increase TNF production, following pretreatment with TCDD, both ex-vivo peritoneal cells and IC-21 cells produced increased levels of bioactive TNF when stimulated with LPS. Flow cytometric analyses of IC-21 cells indicate that TCDD exposure increases intracellular production and secretion of TNF but does not alter levels of membrane associated TNF. PMID:9067482

  7. Alveolar Macrophages and Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediate Ventilated Lung Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Arun; Mesa, Kailin R.; Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Xu, Fengyun; Dodd-o, Jeffrey M.; Hellman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury involves sterile inflammation and is commonly associated with diverse clinical situations such as hemorrhage followed by resuscitation, transient embolic events, and organ transplantation. I/R injury can induce lung dysfunction whether the I/R occurs in the lung itself or in a remote organ. Recently, evidence has emerged that receptors and pathways of the innate immune system are involved in recognizing sterile inflammation and overlap considerably with those involved in recognition and response to pathogens. Methods We used a mouse surgical model of transient unilateral left pulmonary artery occlusion without bronchial involvement to create ventilated lung I/R injury. Additionally, we mimicked nutritional I/R injury in vitro by transiently depriving cells of all nutrients. Results Compared with sham-operated mice, mice subjected to ventilated lung I/R injury had upregulated lung expression of inflammatory mediator messenger RNA for IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL1 and 2, paralleled by histologic evidence of lung neutrophil recruitment, and increased plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and HMGB1 proteins. This inflammatory response to I/R required toll-like receptor-4. Furthermore, we demonstrated in vitro cooperativity and cross-talk between macrophages and endothelial cells, resulting in augmented inflammatory responses to I/R. Remarkably, we found that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages rendered mice resistant to ventilated lung I/R injury. Conclusions Our data reveal that alveolar macrophages and the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor-4 are required for the generation of the early inflammatory response to lung I/R injury. PMID:22890118

  8. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage protein enhances intraluminal debris clearance and ameliorates acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Kitada, Kento; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Takai, Ryosuke; Zhang, Xizhong; Tsugawa, Yoji; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Mori, Mayumi; Yoshihara, Yasunori; Doi, Kent; Maehara, Natsumi; Kusunoki, Shunsuke; Takahata, Akiko; Noiri, Eisei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yahagi, Naoki; Nishiyama, Akira; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Takano, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with prolonged hospitalization and high mortality, and it predisposes individuals to chronic kidney disease. To date, no effective AKI treatments have been established. Here we show that the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) protein on intraluminal debris interacts with kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and promotes recovery from AKI. During AKI, the concentration of AIM increases in the urine, and AIM accumulates on necrotic cell debris within the kidney proximal tubules. The AIM present in this cellular debris binds to KIM-1, which is expressed on injured tubular epithelial cells, and enhances the phagocytic removal of the debris by the epithelial cells, thus contributing to kidney tissue repair. When subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI, AIM-deficient mice exhibited abrogated debris clearance and persistent renal inflammation, resulting in higher mortality than wild-type (WT) mice due to progressive renal dysfunction. Treatment of mice with IR-induced AKI using recombinant AIM resulted in the removal of the debris, thereby ameliorating renal pathology. We observed this effect in both AIM-deficient and WT mice, but not in KIM-1-deficient mice. Our findings provide a basis for the development of potentially novel therapies for AKI. PMID:26726878

  9. Stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) expression driven by a macrophage-specific promoter results in reduced viability in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Moore, K J; Libby, P; Freeman, M W

    2000-02-01

    Macrophage expression of matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human atheroma has been found to occur in rupture-prone areas of plaques. To investigate the effect of metalloproteinase activity on plaque stability, we attempted to generate mice that expressed a stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) transgene specifically in macrophages. Promoter sequences taken from a macrophage-tropic lentivirus (visna) were used to drive transgene expression. The transgene construct was expressed in macrophages in vitro and its autoactivation was established by casein zymography. Transgenic mice generated with this construct died at or before birth. No gross anatomical changes were observed in these mice. Embryos arising from a second round of oocyte injections with the transgene were examined at day 16 of gestation. Of the products of conception, approximately 40% resulted in vacant conceptuses. Only one animal of 38 examined carried the transgene and its expression of MMP-3 mRNA at E16 was faintly detected by RT-PCR. When a non-toxic reporter gene, luciferase, was substituted for the MMP-3 cDNA, healthy transgenic mice were produced that expressed the reporter gene in a wide variety of tissue macrophages, including those located in the brain, testis, lung, and thymus. These studies suggest that constitutive expression of MMP-3 in diverse populations of tissue macrophages leads to prenatal or neonatal death in the mouse. It appears likely that more sophisticated transcriptional control of MMP-3 expression will be required in order to generate stromelysin-1 transgenic mice that could be useful models for studying overexpression of this metalloproteinase's activity in the lesional macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:10657574

  10. Effect of hemopoietic microenvironment on splenic suppressor macrophages in congenitally anemic mice of genotype S1/sup d/

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying mononuclear phagocyte specialization are being probed by studying suppressor macrophages as a reference population in mouse models with impaired blood monocyte formation. Splenic suppressor macrophages, defined by PGE-mediated inhibition of Con A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation are induced by the i.p. administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Mice severely depleted of bone marrow and blood monocytes by treatment with /sup 89/Sr fail to show this suppressor macrophages response to CP, although macrophages-forming stem cells, assessed as splenic M-CFC in vitro, are increased 20-fold. These observations suggest that radiosensitive bone marrow stem cells are necessary for the generation of both suppressor macrophages and monocytes and that one such stem cell may be common to both types of mononuclear phagocytes. This notion was explored further by employing congenitally anemic mice of the genotype S1/S1 superscript d in which the hemopoietic microenvironment is genetically defective and thus unable to support the proliferation, differentiation, and function of stem cells. The congenital defect was found to be additionally expressed in the S1/S1/sup d/ mouse by a monocytopenia of less than 10% of the values in normal congenic littermate controls and by the failure of splenic M-CFC to increase in response to cp. PGE-producing suppressor macrophages expressing Fcy2b receptors, however, were induced by CP in S1/S1/sup d/ mice with no significant diminution of suppressor activity.

  11. Efficient replication of pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in a mouse macrophage cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Schellens, Ingrid MM; Bonville, Cynthia A; Martin, Brittany V; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2007-01-01

    Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumovirinae) is a natural respiratory pathogen of rodent species and an important new model for the study of severe viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia. However, despite high virus titers typically detected in infected mouse lung tissue in vivo, cell lines used routinely for virus propagation in vitro are not highly susceptible to PVM infection. We have evaluated several rodent and primate cell lines for susceptibility to PVM infection, and detected highest virus titers from infection of the mouse monocyte-macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Additionally, virus replication in RAW 264.7 cells induces the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines relevant to respiratory virus disease, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-β (IFN-β), macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β (MIP-1α and MIP-1β) and the functional homolog of human IL-8, mouse macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 (MIP-2). Identification and characterization of a rodent cell line that supports the replication of PVM and induces the synthesis of disease-related proinflammatory mediators will facilitate studies of molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis that will complement and expand on findings from mouse model systems. PMID:17547763

  12. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, NaNa; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade was determined. The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group. A significant decrease in protein levels of F4/80, mannose receptor (MR), and COX-2 in stroma of intestinal polyps and an increase in the level of iNOS were observed after berberine treatment. The mRNA level of MR and Arg-1 in berberine group was significantly lower than those in IL-10 or IL-4 group, while no significant difference in mRNA levels of iNOS and CXCL10 was observed. The migration and invasiveness assays in vitro showed that berberine could reduce the capability of migration and invasiveness. These findings suggest that berberine attenuates intestinal tumorigenesis by inhibiting the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells via regulation of macrophage polarization. PMID:27493671

  13. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, NaNa; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade was determined. The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group. A significant decrease in protein levels of F4/80, mannose receptor (MR), and COX-2 in stroma of intestinal polyps and an increase in the level of iNOS were observed after berberine treatment. The mRNA level of MR and Arg-1 in berberine group was significantly lower than those in IL-10 or IL-4 group, while no significant difference in mRNA levels of iNOS and CXCL10 was observed. The migration and invasiveness assays in vitro showed that berberine could reduce the capability of migration and invasiveness. These findings suggest that berberine attenuates intestinal tumorigenesis by inhibiting the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells via regulation of macrophage polarization. PMID:27493671

  14. Humanized θ-Defensins (Retrocyclins) Enhance Macrophage Performance and Protect Mice from Experimental Anthrax Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, S.; Cote, C. K.; Hahn, U.; Shastak, O.; Jedermann, J.; Bozue, J.; Jung, G.; Ruchala, P.; Pratikhya, P.; Tang, T.; Lehrer, R. I.; Beyer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Retrocyclins are humanized versions of the θ-defensin peptides expressed by the leukocytes of several nonhuman primates. Previous studies, performed in serum-free media, determined that retrocyclins 1 (RC1) and RC2 could prevent successful germination of Bacillus anthracis spores, kill vegetative B. anthracis cells, and inactivate anthrax lethal factor. We now report that retrocyclins are extensively bound by components of native mouse, human, and fetal calf sera, that heat-inactivated sera show greatly enhanced retrocyclin binding, and that native and (especially) heat-inactivated sera greatly reduce the direct activities of retrocyclins against spores and vegetative cells of B. anthracis. Nevertheless, we also found that retrocyclins protected mice challenged in vivo by subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intranasal instillation of B. anthracis spores. Retrocyclin 1 bound extensively to B. anthracis spores and enhanced their phagocytosis and killing by murine RAW264.7 cells. Based on the assumption that spore-bound RC1 enters phagosomes by “piggyback phagocytosis,” model calculations showed that the intraphagosomal concentration of RC1 would greatly exceed its extracellular concentration. Murine alveolar macrophages took up fluorescently labeled retrocyclin, suggesting that macrophages may also acquire extracellular RC1 directly. Overall, these data demonstrate that retrocyclins are effective in vivo against experimental murine anthrax infections and suggest that enhanced macrophage function contributes to this property. PMID:21768520

  15. Humanized theta-defensins (retrocyclins) enhance macrophage performance and protect mice from experimental anthrax infections.

    PubMed

    Welkos, S; Cote, C K; Hahn, U; Shastak, O; Jedermann, J; Bozue, J; Jung, G; Ruchala, P; Pratikhya, P; Tang, T; Lehrer, R I; Beyer, W

    2011-09-01

    Retrocyclins are humanized versions of the -defensin peptides expressed by the leukocytes of several nonhuman primates. Previous studies, performed in serum-free media, determined that retrocyclins 1 (RC1) and RC2 could prevent successful germination of Bacillus anthracis spores, kill vegetative B. anthracis cells, and inactivate anthrax lethal factor. We now report that retrocyclins are extensively bound by components of native mouse, human, and fetal calf sera, that heat-inactivated sera show greatly enhanced retrocyclin binding, and that native and (especially) heat-inactivated sera greatly reduce the direct activities of retrocyclins against spores and vegetative cells of B. anthracis. Nevertheless, we also found that retrocyclins protected mice challenged in vivo by subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intranasal instillation of B. anthracis spores. Retrocyclin 1 bound extensively to B. anthracis spores and enhanced their phagocytosis and killing by murine RAW264.7 cells. Based on the assumption that spore-bound RC1 enters phagosomes by "piggyback phagocytosis," model calculations showed that the intraphagosomal concentration of RC1 would greatly exceed its extracellular concentration. Murine alveolar macrophages took up fluorescently labeled retrocyclin, suggesting that macrophages may also acquire extracellular RC1 directly. Overall, these data demonstrate that retrocyclins are effective in vivo against experimental murine anthrax infections and suggest that enhanced macrophage function contributes to this property. PMID:21768520

  16. Novel Endothelial Cell-Specific AQP1 Knockout Mice Confirm the Crucial Role of Endothelial AQP1 in Ultrafiltration during Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Freichel, Marc; van der Hoeven, Frank; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Katus, Hugo; Kälble, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) mediates about 50% ultrafiltration during a 2-hour hypertonic dwell in global AQP1 knockout (AQP1-/-) mice. Although AQP1 is widely expressed in various cell types including mesothelial cells, the ultrafiltration has been assumed to be mediated via endothelial AQP1 of the peritoneum. The partial embryonic lethality and reduced body weight in AQP1-/- mice may reflect potential confounding phenotypic effects evoked by ubiquitous AQP1 deletion, which may interfere with functional analysis of endothelial AQP1. Using a Cre/loxP approach, we generated and characterised endothelial cell- and time-specific AQP1 knockout (AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+) mice. Compared to controls, AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+ mice showed no difference in an initial clinical and biological analysis at baseline, including body weight and survival. During a 1-hour 3.86% mini-peritoneal equilibration test (mini-PET), AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+ mice exhibited strongly decreased indices for AQP1-related transcellular water transport (43.0% in net ultrafiltration, 93.0% in sodium sieving and 57.9% in free water transport) compared to controls. The transport rates for small solutes of urea and glucose were not significantly altered. Our data provide the first direct experimental evidence for the functional relevance of endothelial AQP1 to the fluid transport in peritoneal dialysis and thereby further validate essential predictions of the three-pore model of peritoneal transport. PMID:26760974

  17. Circulating cell-free DNA indicates M1/M2 responses during septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yi; Gao, Xingjuan; Wang, Wenxiao; Xu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Lijuan; Ju, Xiuli; Li, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been widely suggested as clinical indicator in diseases, including sepsis. It was thought that the cfDNA was coming from the cell lysis, necrosis and apoptosis caused by tissue damages during sepsis. M1 or M2 macrophage-type responses kill or repair in vivo, which is highly relevant with the tissue damages in sepsis. The correlation between cfDNA and M1/M2 responses during sepsis was never investigated. Here, we used bacteria injection induced septic peritonitis mouse model in both M1-dominant C57bl/6 and M2-dominant Balb/c mouse strains. We found that M2-dominant Balb/c mice showed better prognosis of septic peritonitis than C57bl/6 mice, which is corresponded with lower level of cfDNA in septic Balb/c mice compared to septic C57bl/6 mice. By assessing the M1 and M2 related cytokines in both septic Balb/c and C57bl/6 mice, we found out that Balb/c mice has lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and higher interleukin 10 (IL-10) productions than C57bl/6 mice during septic peritonitis. Especially, when monitoring the monocyte subtypes in peripheral blood of these septic mice, we found out that C57bl/6 showed higher inflammatory (Ly6C(high)) monocyte (corresponding to M1 macrophage) proportion than Balb/c mice. Interestingly, we find out that cfDNA is highly correlated with the ratio of Ly6C(high) monocytes versus Ly6C(low) monocytes, which represents M1/M2 (killing/healing) responses. Our study suggested that the cfDNA is a good indicator for evaluating M1/M2 responses in septic peritonitis. PMID:27335257

  18. Interleukin-2 protects neonatal mice from lethal herpes simplex virus infection: a macrophage-mediated, gamma interferon-induced mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kohl, S; Loo, L S; Drath, D B; Cox, P

    1989-02-01

    Administration of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) protected neonatal mice from a lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Protection was not associated with viral antibody production, enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity, or intrinsic resistance of macrophages to viral infection. Protection was associated with increased macrophage-mediated antiviral antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Spleen cells from IL-2-treated neonatal mice and from neonatal mice that were treated in vitro with IL-2 transferred protection to neonatal mice. These cells, by adherence, silica, and asialo GM 1 antibody treatment, were shown to be macrophages. IL-2 treatment in vitro enhanced the neonatal macrophages' ADCC function and superoxide release. Similar protection was induced by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-treated spleen cells. Antibody to IFN-gamma ablated both IFN-gamma- and IL-2-induced protection by adherent spleen cells. Thus, IL-2-mediated protection against murine neonatal HSV infection was affected by stimulated macrophage activity, via helper T cell-produced IFN-gamma. PMID:2492588

  19. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF−κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  20. Lipophosphoglycan is not required for infection of macrophages or mice by Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Ilg, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Cell surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is commonly regarded as a multifunctional Leishmania virulence factor required for survival and development of these parasites in mammals. In this study, the LPG biosynthesis gene lpg1 was deleted in Leishmania mexicana by targeted gene replacement. The resulting mutants are deficient in LPG synthesis but still display on their surface and secrete phosphoglycan-modified molecules, most likely in the form of proteophosphoglycans, whose expression appears to be up-regulated. LPG-deficient L.mexicana promastigotes show no significant differences to LPG-expressing parasites with respect to attachment to, uptake into and multiplication inside macrophages. Moreover, in Balb/c and C57/BL6 mice, LPG-deficient L.mexicana clones are at least as virulent as the parental wild-type strain and lead to lethal disseminated disease. The results demonstrate that at least L.mexicana does not require LPG for experimental infections of macrophages or mice. Leishmania mexicana LPG is therefore not a virulence factor in the mammalian host. PMID:10790362

  1. Lipophosphoglycan is not required for infection of macrophages or mice by Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Ilg, T

    2000-05-01

    Cell surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is commonly regarded as a multifunctional Leishmania virulence factor required for survival and development of these parasites in mammals. In this study, the LPG biosynthesis gene lpg1 was deleted in Leishmania mexicana by targeted gene replacement. The resulting mutants are deficient in LPG synthesis but still display on their surface and secrete phosphoglycan-modified molecules, most likely in the form of proteophosphoglycans, whose expression appears to be up-regulated. LPG-deficient L.mexicana promastigotes show no significant differences to LPG-expressing parasites with respect to attachment to, uptake into and multiplication inside macrophages. Moreover, in Balb/c and C57/BL6 mice, LPG-deficient L.mexicana clones are at least as virulent as the parental wild-type strain and lead to lethal disseminated disease. The results demonstrate that at least L. mexicana does not require LPG for experimental infections of macrophages or mice. Leishmania mexicana LPG is therefore not a virulence factor in the mammalian host. PMID:10790362

  2. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:27421105

  3. Hepatic lipase- and endothelial lipase-deficiency in mice promotes macrophage-to-feces RCT and HDL antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Chen, Xiangyu; Julve, Josep; Quesada, Helena; Santos, David; Metso, Jari; Tous, Monica; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol (HDLc) levels and presumably could affect two main HDL atheroprotective functions, macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and HDL antioxidant properties. In this study, we assessed the effects of both HL and EL deficiency on macrophage-specific RCT process and HDL ability to protect against LDL oxidation. HL- and EL-deficient and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled mouse macrophages, after which the appearance of [(3)H]cholesterol in plasma, liver, and feces was determined. The degree of HDL oxidation and the protection of oxidative modification of LDL co-incubated with HDL were evaluated by measuring conjugated diene kinetics. Plasma levels of HDLc, HDL phospholipids, apoA-I, and platelet-activated factor acetyl-hydrolase were increased in both HL- and EL-deficient mice. These genetically modified mice displayed increased levels of radiolabeled, HDL-bound [(3)H]cholesterol 48h after the label injection. The magnitude of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol in feces was also increased in both the HL- and EL-deficient mice. HDL from the HL- and EL-deficient mice was less prone to oxidation and had a higher ability to protect LDL from oxidation, compared with the HDL derived from the wild-type mice. These changes were correlated with plasma apoA-I and apoA-I/HDL total protein levels. In conclusion, targeted inactivation of both HL and EL in mice promoted macrophage-to-feces RCT and enhanced HDL antioxidant properties. PMID:23328279

  4. Monocyte/macrophage lineage commitment and distribution are affected by the lack of regulatory T cells in scurfy mice.

    PubMed

    Skuljec, Jelena; Cabanski, Maciej; Surdziel, Ewa; Lachmann, Nico; Brennig, Sebastian; Pul, Refik; Jirmo, Adan C; Habener, Anika; Visic, Julia; Dalüge, Kathleen; Hennig, Christian; Moritz, Thomas; Happle, Christine; Hansen, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immunological tolerance. Loss-of-function mutations in the Foxp3 gene result in multiorgan inflammation known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome in humans and scurfy (Sf) disease in mice. While the impact of missing Treg cells on adaptive immune cells is well documented, their role in regulation of myeloid cells remains unclear. Here we report that Sf mice exhibit an altered composition of stem and progenitor cells, characterized by increased numbers of myeloid precursors and higher efficiency of macrophage generation ex vivo. The proportion of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow, blood, and spleen was significantly elevated in Sf mice, which was accompanied with tissue-specific monocyte expression of homing receptor and phagocytic activity. Sf mice displayed high levels of M-CSF and other inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte-recruiting chemokines. Adoptive transfer of WT CD4(+) cells and in vivo neutralization of M-CSF normalized frequencies of monocyte subsets and their progenitors and reduced high levels of monocyte-related cytokines in Sf mice, while Treg cell transfer to RAG2(-/-) mice had no effect on myelopoiesis and monocyte/macrophage counts. Our findings illustrate that deregulated myelopoiesis in Sf mice is mainly caused by the inflammatory reaction resulting from the lack of Treg cells. PMID:27130185

  5. Innate cellular sources of interleukin-17A regulate macrophage accumulation in cigarette- smoke-induced lung inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovski, Steven; Seow, Huei Jiunn; Chan, Sheau Pyng Jamie; Anthony, Desiree; McQualter, Jonathan; Hansen, Michelle; Jenkins, Brendan J.; Anderson, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pivotal cytokine that regulates lung immunity and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate how IL-17A regulates CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo. IL-17A knockout (KO) mice and neutralization of IL-17A in wild-type (WT) mice reduced macrophage and neutrophil recruitment and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL3 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 mRNA expression in response to acute CS exposure. IL-17A expression was increased in non-obese diabetic (NOD) severe combined immunodeficiency SCID) mice with non-functional B- and T-cells over a 4-week CS exposure period, where macrophages accumulated to the same extent as in WT mice. Gene expression analysis by QPCR (quantitative real-time PCR) of isolated immune cell subsets detected increased levels of IL-17A transcript in macrophages, neutrophils and NK/NKT cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. In order to further explore the relative contribution of innate immune cellular sources, intracellular IL-17A staining was performed. In the present study, we demonstrate that CS exposure primes natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and γδ T-cells to produce more IL-17A protein and CS alone increased the frequency of IL17+ γδ T-cells in the lung, whereas IL-17A protein was not detected in macrophages and neutrophils. Our data suggest that activation of innate cellular sources of IL-17A is an essential mediator of macrophage accumulation in CS-exposed lungs. Targeting non-conventional T-cell sources of IL-17A may offer an alternative strategy to reduce pathogenic macrophages in COPD. PMID:26201093

  6. Innate cellular sources of interleukin-17A regulate macrophage accumulation in cigarette- smoke-induced lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bozinovski, Steven; Seow, Huei Jiunn; Chan, Sheau Pyng Jamie; Anthony, Desiree; McQualter, Jonathan; Hansen, Michelle; Jenkins, Brendan J; Anderson, Gary P; Vlahos, Ross

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pivotal cytokine that regulates lung immunity and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate how IL-17A regulates CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo. IL-17A knockout (KO) mice and neutralization of IL-17A in wild-type (WT) mice reduced macrophage and neutrophil recruitment and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL3 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 mRNA expression in response to acute CS exposure. IL-17A expression was increased in non-obese diabetic (NOD) severe combined immunodeficiency SCID) mice with non-functional B- and T-cells over a 4-week CS exposure period, where macrophages accumulated to the same extent as in WT mice. Gene expression analysis by QPCR (quantitative real-time PCR) of isolated immune cell subsets detected increased levels of IL-17A transcript in macrophages, neutrophils and NK/NKT cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. In order to further explore the relative contribution of innate immune cellular sources, intracellular IL-17A staining was performed. In the present study, we demonstrate that CS exposure primes natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and γδ T-cells to produce more IL-17A protein and CS alone increased the frequency of IL17+ γδ T-cells in the lung, whereas IL-17A protein was not detected in macrophages and neutrophils. Our data suggest that activation of innate cellular sources of IL-17A is an essential mediator of macrophage accumulation in CS-exposed lungs. Targeting non-conventional T-cell sources of IL-17A may offer an alternative strategy to reduce pathogenic macrophages in COPD. PMID:26201093

  7. Regulatory role of PI3K-protein kinase B on the release of interleukin-1β in peritoneal macrophages from the ascites of cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Abellán, A; Ruiz-Alcaraz, A J; Antón, G; Miras-López, M; Francés, R; Such, J; Martínez-Esparza, M; García-Peñarrubia, P

    2014-01-01

    Great effort has been paid to identify novel targets for pharmaceutical intervention to control inflammation associated with different diseases. We have studied the effect of signalling inhibitors in the secretion of the proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in monocyte-derived macrophages (M-DM) obtained from the ascites of cirrhotic patients and compared with those obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Peritoneal M-DM were isolated from non-infected ascites of cirrhotic patients and stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat-killed Candida albicans in the presence or absence of inhibitors for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). The IL1B and CASP1 gene expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). The expression of IL-1β and caspase-1 were determined by Western blot. IL-1β was also assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in cell culture supernatants. Results revealed that MEK1 and JNK inhibition significantly reduced the basal and stimulated IL-1β secretion, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor had no effect on IL-1β levels. On the contrary, inhibition of PI3K increased the secretion of IL-1β from stimulated M-DM. The activating effect of PI3K inhibitor on IL-1β release was mediated mainly by the enhancement of the intracellular IL-1β and caspase-1 content release to the extracellular medium and not by increasing the corresponding mRNA and protein expression levels. These data point towards the role of MEK1 and JNK inhibitors, in contrast to the PI3K-protein kinase B inhibitors, as potential therapeutic tools for pharmaceutical intervention to diminish hepatic damage by reducing the inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β associated with liver failure. PMID:25080058

  8. Effects of Nanosized Lithium Carbonate Particles on the Functional Activity of Macrophages During Development of Hepatocarcinoma 29.

    PubMed

    Konenkov, V I; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, O P; Bgatova, N P; Rachkovskaya, L N

    2015-08-01

    The functional activity of macrophages in response to injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles after initiation of hepatocarcinoma 29 in male CBA mice was evaluated by the production of NO, arginase activity, and absorption of zymosan granules. In intact animals, NO production by peritoneal macrophages increased by 4 times and arginase activity 3.1 times in response to a single injection of nanosized particles into the hip muscle. The level of NO production by macrophages remained high after 4 and 5 injections, while arginase activity returned to normal. The level of phagocytic peritoneal macrophages increased by 1.4 times after 5 injections of the particles. The level of NO production by macrophages gradually increased in animals with hepatocarcinoma developing in the hip muscle: by 1.6 times on day 3, 3.2 times on day 7, and by 2.6 times on day 13 in comparison with the corresponding parameters in intact animals. The increase of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after tumor process initiation was not paralleled by changes in arginase activity and absorption of zymosan granules. The results indicated that injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles after inoculation of hepatocarcinoma 29 cells in the right hip muscle tissue was inessential for the function of peritoneal macrophages by the studied parameters. PMID:26388569

  9. Nod2 sensing of lysozyme-digested peptidoglycan promotes macrophage recruitment and clearance of S. pneumoniae colonization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kimberly M.; Nakamura, Shigeki; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the mucosal surface of the human upper respiratory tract. A colonization event is gradually cleared through phagocytosis by monocytes/macrophages that are recruited to the airway lumen. Here, we sought to define the bacterial and host factors that promote monocyte/macrophage influx and S. pneumoniae clearance using intranasal bacterial challenge in mice. We found that the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages required their expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2 and correlated with expression of the CCR2 ligand CCL2. Production of CCL2 and monocyte/macrophage recruitment were deficient in mice lacking digestion of peptidoglycan by lysozyme (LysM) and cytosolic sensing of the products of digestion by Nod2. Ex vivo macrophages produced CCL2 following bacterial uptake, digestion by LysM, and sensing of peptidoglycan by Nod2. Sensing of digested peptidoglycan by Nod2 also required the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin. The generation of an adaptive immune response, as measured by anti-pneumococcal antibody titers, was also LysM- and Nod2-dependent. Together, our data suggest that bacterial uptake by professional phagocytes is followed by LysM-mediated digestion of S. pneumoniae–derived peptidoglycan, sensing of the resulting products by Nod2, release of the chemokine CCL2, and CCR2-dependent recruitment of the additional monocytes/macrophages required for the clearance of an S. pneumoniae colonization event. PMID:21841315

  10. Myeloid-Specific Blockade of Notch Signaling Attenuates Choroidal Neovascularization through Compromised Macrophage Infiltration and Polarization in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Guo-Rui; Li, Na; Chang, Tian-Fang; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Xian-Chun; Liang, Liang; Han, Hua; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have been recognized as an important inflammatory component in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). However, it is unclear how these cells are activated and polarized, how they affect angiogenesis and what the underlining mechanisms are during CNV. Notch signaling has been implicated in macrophage activation. Previously we have shown that inducible disruption of RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling, in adult mice results in enhanced CNV, but it is unclear what is the role of macrophage-specific Notch signaling in the development of CNV. In the current study, by using the myeloid specific RBP-J knockout mouse model combined with the laser-induced CNV model, we show that disruption of Notch signaling in macrophages displayed attenuated CNV growth, reduced macrophage infiltration and activation, and alleviated angiogenic response after laser induction. The inhibition of CNV occurred with reduced expression of VEGF and TNF-α in infiltrating inflammatory macrophages in myeloid specific RBP-J knockout mice. These changes might result in direct inhibition of EC lumen formation, as shown in an in vitro study. Therefore, clinical intervention of Notch signaling in CNV needs to pinpoint myeloid lineage to avoid the counteractive effects of global inhibition. PMID:27339903

  11. Esculin exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and regulated TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro through MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Xiumei; Mu, Qingli; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Esculin, a coumarinic derivative found in Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse-chestnut), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is designed to investigate the protective effects of esculin on various inflammation models in vivo and in vitro and to clarify the possible mechanism. Induced-animal models of inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mouse peritoneal macrophages were used to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of esculin. In present study, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy were attenuated by esculin. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant were reduced by esculin. Meanwhile, we found that esculin significantly inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro, which may involve the inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Esculin may be a promising preventive agent for inflammatory diseases in human. PMID:26391063

  12. Macrophage TCF-4 co-activates p65 to potentiate chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xia; Hou, Along; Wang, Rui; Liu, Da; Xiang, Wei; Xie, Qingyun; Zhang, Bo; Gan, Lixia; Zheng, Wei; Miao, Hongming

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor 4 (TCF-4) was recently identified as a candidate gene for the cause of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the TCF-4 transgene in macrophages aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, characterized by the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, liver and white adipose tissue, as well as a proinflammatory profile of immune cells in visceral fats in mice. Mechanistically, TCF-4 functioned as a co-activator of p65 to amplify the saturated free fatty acid (FFA)-stimulated promoter activity, mRNA transcription and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in primary macrophages. Blockage of p65 with a specific interfering RNA or inhibitor could prevent TCF-4-enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in FFA/lipopolysaccharide-treated primary macrophages. The p65 inhibitor could abolish macrophage TCF-4 transgene-aggravated systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD-treated mice. In addition, we demonstrated that the mRNA expression of TCF-4 in the peripheral blood monocytes from humans was positively correlated to the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor α, IL-6 and fasting plasma glucose. In summary, we identified TCF-4 as a co-activator of p65 in the potentiation of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and aggravation of HFD-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:27129186

  13. Structural fragility of blood vessels and peritoneum in calponin h1-deficient mice, resulting in an increase in hematogenous metastasis and peritoneal dissemination of malignant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, S; Takeoka, M; Ehara, T; Hashimoto, S; Shibuki, H; Yoshimura, N; Shigematsu, H; Takahashi, K; Katsuki, M

    2001-10-15

    We have observed weak expression of calponin h1, which stabilizes the actin filament system, in blood vessels within human malignant tumors. This observation suggested that because of a deficiency in stabilization by calponin h1, the structure of blood vessels in malignant tumors is fragile compared with blood vessels in normal tissues. We therefore generated calponin h1-deficient (CN(-/-)) mice to examine the effect of calponin h1 on the integrity of the barrier system in blood vessels against cancer metastasis. The CN(-/-) mice exhibited morphological fragility of the tissues, including the uterus and blood vessels. In particular, we frequently observed bleeding into the surrounding tissue from blood vessels of the ocular fundus in CN(-/-) mice. In addition, mesothelial cells, which usually express calponin h1 in normal (CN(+/+)) mice, were retracted in the CN(-/-) mice. When fluorescein was injected i.v. into mice, the CN(-/-) mice exhibited a greater and more rapid leakage of fluorescein from the blood vessels of the ocular fundus compared with the CN(+/+) mice. In the CN(-/-) mice receiving i.v. inoculations of B16 melanoma cells, significantly more metastatic nodules were formed in the lung than in the CN(+/+) mice. When B16 melanoma cells were injected i.p., the severity of peritonitis carcinomatosa was greater in CN(-/-) than in CN(+/+) mice. These results indicate that calponin h1 plays an important role in the regulation of the integrity of the blood vessels and peritoneum, which in turn is an important factor influencing the frequency of cancer metastasis. The CN(-/-) mice, which exhibit fragile blood vessels and peritoneum, could serve as sensitive and useful host models to investigate cancer metastasis. PMID:11606404

  14. INFLUENCE OF SURGICAL TECHNIQUE IN THE PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS SURGICAL WOUND IMPLANT: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Roberto Maranhão; CAIADO, Rafael Coelho; REIS, Paulo Roberto de Melo; LACERDA, Elisângela de Paula Silveira; SUGITA, Denis Masashi; MRUÉ, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of malignancies increased alarmingly. Surgery constitutes one of the most efficient therapeutic modalities for the treatment of solid tumors. The neoplastic implant in surgical wound is a complication whose percentage of occurrence reported in the literature is variable, but sets with high morbidity and therapeutic difficulties. Protecting the wound is one of the recommended principles of oncologic surgery. Aim To evaluate the influence of wound protection in the development of tumor implantation. Methods Sarcoma 180 tumor cells were used, with intraperitoneal inoculation in Swiss mice. After the establishment of neoplastic ascites, animals were randomized into two groups of 10, each group consisting of five males and five females. In both groups, laparotomy and manipulation of intra-abdominal organs was performed. In a group laparotomy was performed using the protection of the abdominal wound and the other group without it. On the 9th postoperative day macroscopic evaluation of the operative scar was performed, which was later removed for microscopic evaluation. Results There was microscopic infiltration of tumor cells in the wound of all animals. However, the group that held the protection, infiltration was less intense when compared to the group without it. The infiltration was also more severe in females than in males of the same group. Conclusion Tumor infiltration into the wound was more intense in the group in which the protection of the surgical site was not performed, and in females when compared to males of the same group. PMID:25861061

  15. Enhanced vascular permeability facilitates entry of plasma HDL and promotes macrophage-reverse cholesterol transport from skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Kareinen, Ilona; Cedó, Lídia; Silvennoinen, Reija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Jauhiainen, Matti; Julve, Josep; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway from macrophage foam cells initiates when HDL particles cross the endothelium, enter the interstitial fluid, and induce cholesterol efflux from these cells. We injected [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages into the dorsal skin of mice and measured the transfer of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol to feces [macrophage-RCT (m-RCT)]. Injection of histamine to the macrophage injection site increased locally vascular permeability, enhanced influx of intravenously administered HDL, and stimulated m-RCT from the histamine-treated site. The stimulatory effect of histamine on m-RCT was abolished by prior administration of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, indicating that the histamine effect was H1R-dependent. Subcutaneous administration of two other vasoactive mediators, serotonin or bradykinin, and activation of skin mast cells to secrete histamine and other vasoactive compounds also stimulated m-RCT. None of the studied vasoactive mediators affected serum HDL levels or the cholesterol-releasing ability of J774 macrophages in culture, indicating that acceleration of m-RCT was solely due to increased availability of cholesterol acceptors in skin. We conclude that disruption of the endothelial barrier by vasoactive compounds enhances the passage of HDL into interstitial fluid and increases the rate of RCT from peripheral macrophage foam cells, which reveals a novel tissue cholesterol-regulating function of these compounds. PMID:25473102

  16. Alendronate inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice by induction of apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Manabu; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ogata, Fusa; Masubuchi, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Aoki, Fumiaki; Suga, Tatsuo; Nagai, Ryozo; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:25757189

  17. Mast cell–macrophage dynamics in modulation of dengue virus infection in skin

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ya-Ting; Wan, Shu-Wen; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, or dengue shock syndrome. Mast cells have been speculated to play a role in DENV disease although their precise roles are unclear. In this study, we used mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice to investigate the involvement of mast cells after intradermal DENV infection. An approximately two- to three-fold higher level of DENV NS3 antigen was detected at the skin inoculation site in DENV-infected KitW-sh/W-sh mice than in DENV-infected wild-type (WT) mice (using a dose of 1 × 109 plaque-forming units/mouse). Moreover, as an indicator of heightened pathogenesis, a more prolonged bleeding time was observed in DENV-infected KitW-sh/W-sh mice than in WT mice. Monocytes/macrophages are considered to be important targets for DENV infection, so we investigated the susceptibility and chemokine response of DENV-infected peritoneal macrophages from KitW-sh/W-sh and WT mice both ex vivo and in vivo. There was a tendency for higher DENV infection and higher secretion of CCL2 (MCP-1) from peritoneal macrophages isolated from KitW-sh/W-sh mice than those from WT mice. In vivo studies using intradermal inoculation of DENV showed about twofold higher levels of infiltrating macrophages and CCL2 (MCP-1) at the inoculation site in both mock control and DENV-inoculated KitW-sh/W-sh mice than in corresponding WT mice. In summary, compared with WT mice, KitW-sh/W-sh mice show enhanced DENV infection and macrophage infiltration at the skin inoculation site as well as increased DENV-associated bleeding time. The results indicate an intriguing interplay between mast cells and tissue macrophages to restrict DENV replication in the skin. PMID:26059780

  18. Mice Deficient in Sfrp1 Exhibit Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism, and Enhanced Macrophage Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Henchey, Elizabeth M.; Wyman, Josephine; Bentley, Brooke; Brown, Melissa; Shimono, Akihiko; Schneider, Sallie S.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain, glucose homeostasis and inflammation in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO). Sfrp1-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body fat percentage, visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, and adipocyte size. Moreover, Sfrp1 deficiency increases the mRNA levels of key de novo lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Acaca, Acly, Elovl, Scd1) and the transcription factors that regulate their expression (Lxr-α, Srebp1, Chreb, and Nr1h3) in WAT. Fasting glucose levels are elevated, glucose clearance is impaired, hepatic gluconeogenesis regulators are aberrantly upregulated (G6pc and Pck1), and glucose transporters are repressed (Slc2a2 and Slc2a4) in Sfrp1-/- mice fed a HFD. Additionally, we observed increased steatosis in the livers of Sfrp1-/- mice. When there is an expansion of adipose tissue there is a sustained inflammatory response accompanied by adipokine dysregulation, which leads to chronic subclinical inflammation. Thus, we assessed the inflammatory state of different tissues and revealed that Sfrp1-/- mice fed a HFD exhibited increased macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory markers including IL-6, Nmnat, Tgf-β2, and SerpinE1. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of Sfrp1 is a critical factor required for maintaining appropriate cellular signaling in response to the onset of obesity. PMID:24339864

  19. Differential Transcriptome Networks between IDO1-Knockout and Wild-Type Mice in Brain Microglia and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Nixon, Scott E.; Southey, Bruce R.; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia in the brain and macrophages in peripheral organs are cell types responsible for immune response to challenges. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunomodulatory enzyme of the tryptophan pathway that is expressed in the brain. The higher activity of IDO1 in response to immune challenge has been implicated in behavioral disorders. The impact of IDO1 depletion on the microglia transcriptome has not been studied. An investigation of the transcript networks in the brain microglia from IDO1-knockout (IDO1-KO) mice was undertaken, relative to peripheral macrophages and to wild-type (WT) mice under unchallenged conditions. Over 105 transcript isoforms were differentially expressed between WT and IDO1-KO within cell type. Within microglia, Saa3 and Irg1 were over-expressed in IDO1-KO relative to WT. Within macrophages, Csf3 and Sele were over-expressed in IDO1-KO relative to WT. Among the genes differentially expressed between strains, enriched biological processes included ion homeostasis and ensheathment of neurons within microglia, and cytokine and chemokine expression within macrophages. Over 11,110 transcript isoforms were differentially expressed between microglia and macrophages and of these, over 10,800 transcripts overlapped between strains. Enriched biological processes among the genes over- and under-expressed in microglia relative to macrophages included cell adhesion and apoptosis, respectively. Detected only in microglia or macrophages were 421 and 43 transcript isoforms, respectively. Alternative splicing between cell types based on differential transcript isoform abundance was detected in 210 genes including Phf11d, H2afy, and Abr. Across strains, networks depicted a predominance of genes under-expressed in microglia relative to macrophages that may be a precursor for the different response of both cell types to challenges. The detected transcriptome differences enhance the understanding of the role of IDO1 in the microglia transcriptome

  20. C9orf72 is required for proper macrophage and microglial function in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, J G; Bogdanik, L; Yáñez, A; Lall, D; Wolf, A J; Muhammad, A K M G; Ho, R; Carmona, S; Vit, J P; Zarrow, J; Kim, K J; Bell, S; Harms, M B; Miller, T M; Dangler, C A; Underhill, D M; Goodridge, H S; Lutz, C M; Baloh, R H

    2016-03-18

    Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Decreased expression of C9orf72 is seen in expansion carriers, suggesting that loss of function may play a role in disease. We found that two independent mouse lines lacking the C9orf72 ortholog (3110043O21Rik) in all tissues developed normally and aged without motor neuron disease. Instead, C9orf72 null mice developed progressive splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy with accumulation of engorged macrophage-like cells. C9orf72 expression was highest in myeloid cells, and the loss of C9orf72 led to lysosomal accumulation and altered immune responses in macrophages and microglia, with age-related neuroinflammation similar to C9orf72 ALS but not sporadic ALS human patient tissue. Thus, C9orf72 is required for the normal function of myeloid cells, and altered microglial function may contribute to neurodegeneration in C9orf72 expansion carriers. PMID:26989253

  1. Lysophosphatidylcholine Triggers TLR2- and TLR4-Mediated Signaling Pathways but Counteracts LPS-Induced NO Synthesis in Peritoneal Macrophages by Inhibiting NF-κB Translocation and MAPK/ERK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Alan Brito; Iaciura, Bruna Maria Ferreira; Nohara, Lilian Lie; Lopes, Carla Duque; Veas, Esteban Mauricio Cordero; Mariano, Vania Sammartino; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Atella, Georgia Correa; Almeida, Igor Correia; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the main phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is usually noted as a marker of several human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes. Some studies suggest that oxLDL modulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, effector molecules that are present in oxLDL particles and can trigger TLR signaling are not yet clear. LPC was previously described as an attenuator of sepsis and as an immune suppressor. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of LPC as a dual modulator of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings HEK 293A cells were transfected with TLR expression constructs and stimulated with LPC molecules with different fatty acid chain lengths and saturation levels. All LPC molecules activated both TLR4 and TLR2-1 signaling, as evaluated by NF-қB activation and IL-8 production. These data were confirmed by Western blot analysis of NF-қB translocation in isolated nuclei of peritoneal murine macrophages. However, LPC counteracted the TLR4 signaling induced by LPS. In this case, NF-қB translocation, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were blocked. Moreover, LPC activated the MAP Kinases p38 and JNK, but not ERK, in murine macrophages. Interestingly, LPC blocked LPS-induced ERK activation in peritoneal macrophages but not in TLR-transfected cells. Conclusions/Significance The above results indicate that LPC is a dual-activity ligand molecule. It is able to trigger a classical proinflammatory phenotype by activating TLR4- and TLR2-1-mediated signaling. However, in the presence of classical TLR ligands, LPC counteracts some of the TLR-mediated intracellular responses, ultimately inducing an anti-inflammatory phenotype; LPC may thus play a role in the regulation of cell immune responses and disease progression. PMID:24312681

  2. Regulation of Macrophage Motility by the Water Channel Aquaporin-1: Crucial Role of M0/M2 Phenotype Switch

    PubMed Central

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2–3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  3. Regulation of macrophage motility by the water channel aquaporin-1: crucial role of M0/M2 phenotype switch.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2-3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  4. Modulation of Macrophage Functional Polarity towards Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype with Plasmid DNA Delivery in CD44 Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Rastogi, Ruchir; Shelke, Juili; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to modulate macrophage polarity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype using plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing interleukin-4 (IL4) or interleukin-10 (IL10)-encapsulated in hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) (HA-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs). The HA-PEI/pDNA NPs with spherical shape, average size of 186 nm were efficiently internalized by J774A.1 macrophages. Transfection of HA-PEI/pDNA-IL4 and HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 NPs increased IL4 and IL10 gene expression in J774 macrophages which could re-program the macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype as evidenced by a significant increase in the Arg/iNOS level, and upregulation of CD206 and CD163 compared to untreated macrophages. Following intraperitoneal (IP) injection to C57BL/6 mice, HA-PEI NPs effectively targeted peritoneal macrophages over-expressing CD44 receptor. In an in vivo model of stimulated peritoneal macrophages, IP administration of HA-PEI/pDNA-IL4 and HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 to C57BL/6 mice significantly increased the Arg/iNOS ratio and CD163 expression in the cells. Furthermore, HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 NPs significantly increased peritoneal and serum IL10 levels which effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammation by reducing level of TNF-α and IL-1β in peritoneal macrophages and in the peritoneal fluid. The results demonstrated that pDNA-IL10-encapsulate HA-PEI NPs skewed macrophage functional polarity from M1 toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype which may be a promising platform for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26577684

  5. Modulation of Macrophage Functional Polarity towards Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype with Plasmid DNA Delivery in CD44 Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Rastogi, Ruchir; Shelke, Juili; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to modulate macrophage polarity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype using plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing interleukin-4 (IL4) or interleukin-10 (IL10)-encapsulated in hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) (HA-PEI) nanoparticles (NPs). The HA-PEI/pDNA NPs with spherical shape, average size of 186 nm were efficiently internalized by J774A.1 macrophages. Transfection of HA-PEI/pDNA-IL4 and HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 NPs increased IL4 and IL10 gene expression in J774 macrophages which could re-program the macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype as evidenced by a significant increase in the Arg/iNOS level, and upregulation of CD206 and CD163 compared to untreated macrophages. Following intraperitoneal (IP) injection to C57BL/6 mice, HA-PEI NPs effectively targeted peritoneal macrophages over-expressing CD44 receptor. In an in vivo model of stimulated peritoneal macrophages, IP administration of HA-PEI/pDNA-IL4 and HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 to C57BL/6 mice significantly increased the Arg/iNOS ratio and CD163 expression in the cells. Furthermore, HA-PEI/pDNA-IL10 NPs significantly increased peritoneal and serum IL10 levels which effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammation by reducing level of TNF-α and IL-1β in peritoneal macrophages and in the peritoneal fluid. The results demonstrated that pDNA-IL10-encapsulate HA-PEI NPs skewed macrophage functional polarity from M1 toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype which may be a promising platform for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26577684

  6. SKAP2 Promotes Podosome Formation to Facilitate Tumor-Associated Macrophage Infiltration and Metastatic Progression.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Shimamura, Shintaro; Kuriyama, Sei; Maeda, Daichi; Goto, Akiteru; Aiba, Namiko

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play complex and pivotal roles during cancer progression. A subset of metastasis-associated macrophages accumulates within metastatic sites to promote the invasion and growth of tumor cells. Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2 (SKAP2), a substrate of Src family kinases, is highly expressed in macrophages from various tumors, but its contribution to the tumor-promoting behavior of TAMs is unknown. Here, we report that SKAP2 regulates podosome formation in macrophages to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. SKAP2 physically interacted with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and localized to podosomes, which were rarely observed in SKAP2-null macrophages. The invasion of peritoneal macrophages derived from SKAP2-null mice was significantly reduced compared with wild-type macrophages, but could be rescued by the restoration of functional SKAP2 containing an intact tyrosine phosphorylation site and the ability to interact with WASP. Furthermore, SKAP2-null mice inoculated with lung cancer cells exhibited markedly decreased lung metastases characterized by reduced macrophage infiltration compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, intravenously injected SKAP2-null macrophages failed to efficiently infiltrate established tumors and promote their growth. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel mechanism by which macrophages assemble the appropriate motile machinery to infiltrate tumors and promote disease progression, and implicate SKAP2 as an attractive candidate for therapeutically targeting TAMs. PMID:26577701

  7. Microbiological aspects of peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    von Graevenitz, A; Amsterdam, D

    1992-01-01

    The process of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has provided a useful, relatively inexpensive, and safe alternative for patients with end-stage renal disease. Infectious peritonitis, however, has limited a more widespread acceptance of this technique. The definition of peritonitis in this patient population is not universally accepted and does not always include the laboratory support of a positive culture (or Gram stain). In part, the omission of clinical microbiological findings stems from the lack of sensitivity of earlier microbiological efforts. Peritonitis results from decreased host phagocytic efficiency with depressed phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages. During episodes of peritonitis, fluid movement is reversed, away from the lymphatics and peritoneal membrane and toward the cavity. As a result, bloodstream infections are rare. Most peritonitis episodes are caused by bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most frequently isolated organisms, usually originating from the skin flora, but a wide array of microbial species have been documented as agents of peritonitis. Clinical microbiology laboratories need to be cognizant of the diverse agents so that appropriate primary media can be used. The quantity of dialysate fluid that is prepared for culture is critical and should constitute at least 10 ml. The sensitivity of the cultural approach depends on the volume of dialysate, its pretreatment (lysis or centrifugation), the media used, and the mode of incubation. The low concentration of microorganisms in dialysate fluids accounts for negative Gram stain results. Prevention of infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with the socioeconomic status of the patient, advances in equipment (catheter) technology, and, probably least important, the application of prophylactic antimicrobial agents. PMID:1735094

  8. Deletion of Macrophage Vitamin D Receptor Promotes Insulin Resistance and Monocyte Cholesterol Transport to Accelerate Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Darwech, Isra; Funai, Katsuhiko; Shao, JianSu; Chin, Kathleen; Sierra, Oscar L.; Carmeliet, Geert; Ostlund, Richard E.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intense effort has been devoted to understanding predisposition to chronic systemic inflammation as this contributes to cardiometabolic disease. We demonstrate that deletion of the macrophage vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mice (KODMAC) is sufficient to induce insulin resistance by promoting M2 macrophage accumulation in the liver, as well as increase cytokine secretion and hepatic glucose production. Moreover, VDR deletion increases atherosclerosis by enabling lipid-laden M2 monocytes to adhere, migrate, and carry cholesterol into the atherosclerotic plaque, and by increasing macrophage cholesterol uptake and esterification. Increased foam cell formation results from lack of VDR-SERCA2b interaction, causing SERCA dysfunction, activation of ER stress-CaMKII-JNKp-PPARγ signaling, and induction of the scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-A1. BM transplant of VDR-expressing cells into KODMAC mice improved insulin sensitivity, suppressed atherosclerosis, and decreased foam cell formation. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in macrophages are thus critical in diet-induced insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in mice. Graphical Abstract PMID:25801026

  9. Cellular immunity of mice to Leishmania donovani in vitro: lymphokine-mediated killing of intracellular parasites in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, K P; Chiao, J W

    1981-01-01

    Leishmania donovani, an intracellular protozoan, causes kala-azar by parasitizing the macrophages of its mammalian host. Outbred NCS and CD-1 mice develop immunity to this parasite. This immunity was demonstrable when supernatant fluids from cultured splenic lymphocytes were added to infected macrophages. Only the lymphokine preparations from infected mice showed significant leishmanicidal activity. Mice receiving multiple inocula were more potent producers of leishmanicidal lymphokines than were those receiving single inocula. The expression of leishmanicidal activity in our system required continuous presence of the lymphokine preparation and was independent of trypsin- or neuraminidase-sensitive receptors of the macrophages. Light and electron microscopy revealed that, in the presence of lymphokines, macrophages appeared to be "activated," and intracellular leishmanias developed specific subcellular lesions in the kinetoplast-mitochondria. A time-course study showed that cultivation of the lymphocytes for 1 1/2 days completed the release of their leishmanicidal lymphokines which were heat-labile molecules larger than 50,000 daltons. Images PMID:6947274

  10. Targeting arginase-II protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis through suppression of macrophage inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Rajapakse, Angana G; Riedo, Erwin; Fellay, Benoit; Bernhard, Marie-Claire; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypoactive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and macrophage-mediated inflammation are mechanistically linked to NAFLD. Studies investigating roles of arginase particularly the extrahepatic isoform arginase-II (Arg-II) in obesity-associated NAFLD showed contradictory results. Here we demonstrate that Arg-II(-/-) mice reveal decreased hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to the wild type (WT) littermates fed high fat diet (HFD). A higher AMPK activation (no difference in mTOR signaling), lower levels of lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and activity/expression of lipogenic enzymes were observed in the Arg-II(-/-) mice liver. Moreover, release of TNF-α and IL-6 from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) of Arg-II(-/-) mice is decreased as compared to WT-BMM. Conditioned medium from Arg-II(-/-)-BMM exhibits weaker activity to facilitate triglyceride synthesis paralleled with lower expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 and higher AMPK activation in hepatocytes as compared to that from WT-BMM. These effects of BMM conditioned medium can be neutralized by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6. Thus, Arg-II-expressing macrophages facilitate diet-induced NAFLD through TNF-α and IL-6 in obesity. PMID:26846206

  11. Targeting arginase-II protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis through suppression of macrophage inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Rajapakse, Angana G.; Riedo, Erwin; Fellay, Benoit; Bernhard, Marie-Claire; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypoactive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and macrophage-mediated inflammation are mechanistically linked to NAFLD. Studies investigating roles of arginase particularly the extrahepatic isoform arginase-II (Arg-II) in obesity-associated NAFLD showed contradictory results. Here we demonstrate that Arg-II−/− mice reveal decreased hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to the wild type (WT) littermates fed high fat diet (HFD). A higher AMPK activation (no difference in mTOR signaling), lower levels of lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and activity/expression of lipogenic enzymes were observed in the Arg-II−/− mice liver. Moreover, release of TNF-α and IL-6 from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) of Arg-II−/− mice is decreased as compared to WT-BMM. Conditioned medium from Arg-II−/−-BMM exhibits weaker activity to facilitate triglyceride synthesis paralleled with lower expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 and higher AMPK activation in hepatocytes as compared to that from WT-BMM. These effects of BMM conditioned medium can be neutralized by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6. Thus, Arg-II-expressing macrophages facilitate diet-induced NAFLD through TNF-α and IL-6 in obesity. PMID:26846206

  12. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production by activating cAMP-response element-binding protein in rat peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xueyuan; Li, Junying; Yang, Wenxiu

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important inducer of inflammation, which is also closely linked to the progress of tumours. In macrophages, PGE2 production is regulated by arachidonic acid release and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In the present study, we found that COX-2 expression can be achieved by activating Ca2+/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Our results indicated that lipopolysaccharide and PMA could elicit the transient increase of the concentration of intracellular free calcium ions ([Ca2+]i), which induced activation of CaMKs with the presence of CaM. The subtype of CaMKs, CaMKII, then triggered the activation of CREB, which elevated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in a chronological order. These results suggested that Ca2+/CaM-dependent CaMKII plays an important role in mediating COX-2 expression and PGE2 production by activating CREB in macrophages. The study also provides more useful information to clarify the mechanism of calcium regulation of PGE2 production, which plays an essential role in inflammation and cancers. PMID:24773364

  13. Peritonitis - spontaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... a catheter used in peritoneal dialysis. Antibiotics may control infection in cases of spontaneous peritonitis with liver or kidney disease. Intravenous therapy can treat dehydration . You may need to stay in the hospital so health care providers can rule out conditions ...

  14. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  15. The acute inflammatory response induced in mice by the venom of the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps involves macrophage and interleukin-1β.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Paloma L; Quinet, Yves P; Cavalcante Brizeno, Luiz André; Sampaio, Tiago Lima; Torres, Alba Fabíola C; Martins, Alice Maria C; Assreuy, Ana Maria S

    2016-07-01

    Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae) is a primitive and endemic ant of Northeastern Brazil, that uses its sting and associated venom gland to capture preys and for defense. Venom of Dinoponera is of potential clinical importance, since it causes intense local pain, accompanied by erythema and edema, when injected by the sting. With other hymenopteran venoms, inflammatory effects are also reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory activity of D. quadriceps venom (DqV) in mice. Acrylamide electrophoresis of DqV revealed five main protein bands varying between 15 and 100 kDa, confirming the proteinous nature of DqV. DqV subplantar injection elicited edema at 5 μg/kg (3 fold), 50 μg/kg (4 fold) or 500 μg/kg (7 fold) from zero to 360 min compared to saline. DqV (50 μg/kg) increased vascular permeability (4 fold) in the first hour after induction. The paw tissue histology showed moderate inflammatory focus caused by DqV (50 μg/kg) in the first hour of paw edema, but severe tissue changes (edema, inflammatory infiltrate and focal areas of hemorrhage) in the third hour. Intraperitoneal injection of DqV (50 μg/kg) stimulated neutrophil (7 fold) and mononuclear (1.4 fold) migration vs saline. DqV edematogenic effect was inhibited by dexamethasone (92%), thalidomide (82%), cyproheptadine (62%), AA861 (58%), celecoxib (34%) or l-NAME (34%), but the neutrophil migration was only by dexamethasone (57%). DqV-elicited neutrophil migration at 50 μg/kg was potentiated 1.7 fold by the animals pre-treatment with 3% thioglycolate. DqV injection increased the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in peritoneal cavities. DqV (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) increased phospholipase activity (A425nm) from 10 min to 40 min. Raw 267 macrophages incubated with DqV (from 3.12 to 50 mg/mL) showed no significant decrease in cell viability or LDH measurements and at 35 μg/mL induced increase in IL-1β (from 3 to 6 h). This study

  16. LOX-1 in macrophage migration in response to ox-LDL and the involvement of calpains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwei; Ding, Zufeng; Lin, Juntang; Guo, Zhikun; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) inhibits macrophage migration, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor that is expressed in macrophages and binds ox-LDL. Calpains, a family of calcium-dependent proteases, influence several aspects of cell migration. In this study, we investigated the role of LOX-1 in macrophage migration in response to ox-LDL and the involvement of calpains in this process. Peritoneal macrophages from wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to different concentrations of ox-LDL (1-20 μg/mL), and expression of LOX-1 and calpain-1 and -2, cell migration and intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)in) were measured. Our results showed that ox-LDL stimulated LOX-1 and calpain-2 expression, and inhibited calpain-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further, ox-LDL inhibited macrophage migration and increased Ca(2+)in concentration in macrophages. To further elucidate the role of LOX-1 in ox-LDL-impaired macrophage migration, we isolated peritoneal macrophages from LOX-1 knockout mice, and treated them with ox-LDL. Interestingly, calpain-1 expression was much higher, and calpain-2 expression was lower in LOX-1 knockout macrophages than in wild-type macrophages following exposure to ox-LDL. LOX-1 deletion significantly improved macrophage migration and decreased Ca(2+)in concentration. These data indicate that LOX-1 is, at least in part, responsible for the inhibitory effect of ox-LDL on macrophage migration and this process involves calpain-1 and -2. PMID:26393906

  17. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9051584

  18. BMP-7 Treatment Increases M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Reduces Inflammation and Plaque Formation in Apo E-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Dinender K.; Singla, Reetu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a fundamental role in the inception and development of atherosclerosis (ATH). Mechanisms of inflammation include the infiltration of monocytes into the injured area and subsequent differentiation into either pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have previously published data suggesting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) enhances M2 macrophage differentiation and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro. In this regard, we hypothesized BMP-7 would inhibit plaque formation in an animal model of ATH through monocytic plasticity mediation. ATH was generated in male and female Apo E-/- mice via partial left carotid artery (PLCA) ligation and mice were divided into 3 groups: Sham, PLCA, and PLCA+BMP-7 (200ug/kg; i.v.). Our data suggest that BMP-7 inhibits plaque formation and increases arterial systolic velocity. Furthermore, we report inhibition of monocyte infiltration and a decrease in associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the PLCA+BMP-7 mice. In contrast, our data suggest a significant (p<0.05) increase in M2 macrophage populations with consequential enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1RA, IL-10, and Arginase 1) expression following BMP-7 treatment. We have also observed that mechanisms promoting monocyte into M2 macrophage differentiation by BMP-7 involve the upregulation and activation of the BMP-7 receptor (BMP-7RII). In conclusion, we report that BMP-7 has the potential to mediate cellular plasticity and mitigate the inflammatory immune response, which results in decreased plaque formation and improved blood velocity. PMID:26824441

  19. BMP-7 Treatment Increases M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Reduces Inflammation and Plaque Formation in Apo E-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Singla, Dinender K; Singla, Reetu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a fundamental role in the inception and development of atherosclerosis (ATH). Mechanisms of inflammation include the infiltration of monocytes into the injured area and subsequent differentiation into either pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have previously published data suggesting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) enhances M2 macrophage differentiation and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vitro. In this regard, we hypothesized BMP-7 would inhibit plaque formation in an animal model of ATH through monocytic plasticity mediation. ATH was generated in male and female Apo E(-/-) mice via partial left carotid artery (PLCA) ligation and mice were divided into 3 groups: Sham, PLCA, and PLCA+BMP-7 (200 ug/kg; i.v.). Our data suggest that BMP-7 inhibits plaque formation and increases arterial systolic velocity. Furthermore, we report inhibition of monocyte infiltration and a decrease in associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the PLCA+BMP-7 mice. In contrast, our data suggest a significant (p<0.05) increase in M2 macrophage populations with consequential enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1RA, IL-10, and Arginase 1) expression following BMP-7 treatment. We have also observed that mechanisms promoting monocyte into M2 macrophage differentiation by BMP-7 involve the upregulation and activation of the BMP-7 receptor (BMP-7RII). In conclusion, we report that BMP-7 has the potential to mediate cellular plasticity and mitigate the inflammatory immune response, which results in decreased plaque formation and improved blood velocity. PMID:26824441

  20. PER1 prevents excessive innate immune response during endotoxin-induced liver injury through regulation of macrophage recruitment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T; Wang, Z; Yang, P; Xia, L; Zhou, M; Wang, S; Du, Jie; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    The severity of acute liver failure (ALF) induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with the hepatic innate immune response. The core circadian molecular clock modulates the innate immune response by controlling rhythmic pathogen recognition by the innate immune system and daily variations in cytokine gene expression. However, the molecular link between circadian genes and the innate immune system has remained unclear. Here, we showed that mice lacking the clock gene Per1 (Period1) are more susceptible to LPS/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-induced macrophage-dependent ALF compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Per1 deletion caused a remarkable increase in the number of Kupffer cells (KCs) in the liver, resulting in an elevation of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines after LPS treatment. Loss of Per1 had no effect on the proliferation or apoptosis of macrophages; however, it enhanced the recruitment of macrophages, which was associated with an increase in CC chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2) expression levels in monocytes/macrophages. Deletion of Ccr2 rescued d-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in Per1−/− mice. We demonstrated that the upregulation of Ccr2 expression by Per1 deletion could be reversed by the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) antagonist GW9662. Further analysis indicated that PER1 binds to PPAR-γ on the Ccr2 promoter and enhanced the inhibitory effect of PPAR-γ on Ccr2 expression. These results reveal that Per1 reduces hepatic macrophage recruitment through interaction with PPAR-γ and prevents an excessive innate immune response in endotoxin-induced liver injury. PMID:27054331

  1. Elimination of Leishmania donovani amastigotes by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Haidaris, C G; Bonventre, P F

    1981-01-01

    Tissue macrophages are the obligatory host cells for Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. In this study we sought to determine whether activated macrophages, as defined by the functional criterion of tumor cell cytotoxicity, were also able to exert a microbicidal effect on ingested L. donovani amastigotes. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by a variety of means exerted a cytotoxic effect on tumor cell targets but were not able to kill L. donovani amastigotes unless the infected macrophages were exposed continually to an activating stimulus. Corynebacterium parvum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, and lymphokine-activated peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice were cytotoxic for EMT6 tumor cell targets. However, L. donovani Sudan strain 1S amastigotes were not killed by these macrophages unless the activated state was maintained by daily addition of lymphokine to the infected monolayers for several days postinfection. The killing of amastigotes was dependent on the time of exposure to lymphokine, as well as on the concentration of lymphokine added to the culture. Images PMID:7287190

  2. virB-Mediated Survival of Brucella abortus in Mice and Macrophages Is Independent of a Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase or NADPH Oxidase in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; de Lima Santos, Renato; Adams, L. Garry; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2002-01-01

    The Brucella abortus virB locus is required for establishing chronic infection in the mouse. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated whether virB is involved in evasion of the bactericidal activity of NADPH oxidase and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Elimination of NADPH oxidase or iNOS activity in macrophages in vitro increased recovery of wild-type B. abortus but not recovery of a virB mutant. In mice lacking either NADPH oxidase or iNOS, however, B. abortus infected and persisted to the same extent as it did in congenic C57BL/6 mice up until 60 days postinfection, suggesting that these host defense mechanisms are not critical for limiting bacterial growth in the mouse. A virB mutant did not exhibit increased survival in either of the knockout mouse strains, indicating that this locus does not contribute to evasion of nitrosative or oxidative killing mechanisms in vivo. PMID:12183526

  3. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bellner, Lars; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; van Rooijen, Nico; Dunn, Michael W.; Abraham, Nader G.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-2 deficiency impairs wound healing and exacerbates inflammation following injury. We examine the impact of HO-2 deficiency on macrophage function and the contribution of macrophage HO-2 to inflammatory and repair responses to injury. Corneal epithelial debridement was performed in control and macrophage-depleted HO-2−/− and wild-type (WT) mice and in bone marrow chimeras. Peritoneal macrophages were collected for determination of phagocytic activity and classically activated macrophage (M1)-alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization. Depletion of macrophages delayed corneal healing (13.2%) and increased neutrophil infiltration (54.1%) by day 4 in WT mice, whereas in HO-2−/− mice, it did not worsen the already impaired wound healing and exacerbated inflammation. HO-2−/− macrophages displayed an altered M1 phenotype with no significant expression of M2 or M2-like activated cells and a 31.3% reduction in phagocytic capacity that was restored by inducing HO-1 activity or supplementing biliverdin. Macrophage depletion had no effect, whereas adoptive transfer of WT bone marrow improved wound healing (34% on day 4) but did not resolve the exaggerated inflammatory response in HO-2−/− mice. These findings indicate that HO-2–deficient macrophages are dysfunctional and that macrophage HO-2 is required for proper macrophage function but is insufficient to correct the impaired healing of the HO-2−/− cornea, suggesting that corneal epithelial expression of HO-2 is a key to resolution and repair in wound healing.—Bellner, L., Marrazzo, G., van Rooijen, N., Dunn, M. W., Abraham, N. G., Schwartzman, M. L. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing. PMID:25342128

  4. Gpr97 is dispensable for metabolic syndrome but is involved in macrophage inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jueping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Shaoying; Wang, Jinjin; Du, Bing; Wang, Zhugang; Liu, Mingyao; Jiang, Wenzheng; Qian, Min; Ren, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local inflammation in tissues is one of primary causes in development of metabolic disorder in obesity. The accumulation of macrophages in some tissues can induce inflammatory reactions in obesity. Gpr97 is highly expressed in some immunocytes, but its potential role in inflammatory regulation has not been revealed clearly. In our research, we investigated Gpr97 in regulating macrophage inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The major metabolic phenotyping were not different after Gpr97 knockout in HFD-fed mice. Similar pathological alterations in adipose tissue, liver, and kidney were observed in Gpr97−/− HFD mice compared with WT-HFD mice. In white adipose tissue, loss of Gpr97 reduced the ratio of M1-macrophages and increased the M2-macrophage ratio, which was opposite to that seen in the wild-type HFD mice. More macrophages invaded in the liver and kidney after Gpr97 knockout in HFD mice. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α were higher in the liver and kidney of Gpr97−/− HFD mice compared to those in wild-type HFD mice. The data indicate that Gpr97 might be required for local inflammation development in obesity-relative tissues, but does not play a role in metabolic disorder in HFD-induced obesity. PMID:27089991

  5. Endotoxin Disrupts Circadian Rhythms in Macrophages via Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yusi; Pati, Paramita; Xu, Yiming; Chen, Feng; Stepp, David W.; Huo, Yuqing; Rudic, R. Daniel; Fulton, David J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a transcriptional network that functions to regulate the expression of genes important in the anticipation of changes in cellular and organ function. Recent studies have revealed that the recognition of pathogens and subsequent initiation of inflammatory responses are strongly regulated by a macrophage-intrinsic circadian clock. We hypothesized that the circadian pattern of gene expression might be influenced by inflammatory stimuli and that loss of circadian function in immune cells can promote pro-inflammatory behavior. To investigate circadian rhythms in inflammatory cells, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from mPer2luciferase transgenic mice and circadian oscillations were studied in response to stimuli. Using Cosinor analysis, we found that LPS significantly altered the circadian period in peritoneal macrophages from mPer2luciferase mice while qPCR data suggested that the pattern of expression of the core circadian gene (Bmal1) was disrupted. Inhibition of TLR4 offered protection from the LPS-induced impairment in rhythm, suggesting a role for toll-like receptor signaling. To explore the mechanisms involved, we inhibited LPS-stimulated NO and superoxide. Inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME had no effect on circadian rhythms. In contrast, inhibition of superoxide with Tempol or PEG-SOD ameliorated the LPS-induced changes in circadian periodicity. In gain of function experiments, we found that overexpression of NOX5, a source of ROS, could significantly disrupt circadian function in a circadian reporter cell line (U2OS) whereas iNOS overexpression, a source of NO, was ineffective. To assess whether alteration of circadian rhythms influences macrophage function, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from Bmal1-KO and Per-TKO mice. Compared to WT macrophages, macrophages from circadian knockout mice exhibited altered balance between NO and ROS release, increased uptake of oxLDL and increased adhesion and migration. These results

  6. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your peritoneum is the tissue that lines your abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in your abdomen. ... the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation ...

  7. Peritonitis - secondary

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure. Tests may include: Blood culture Blood chemistry, including pancreatic enzymes Complete blood count Liver and kidney function tests X-rays or CT scan Peritoneal fluid culture Urinalysis

  8. Monocyte/macrophage androgen receptor suppresses cutaneous wound healing in mice by enhancing local TNF-alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Chang, Philip; Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Wen-Jye; Chang, Chawnshang

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal more slowly in elderly males than in elderly females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the healing process. Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing. AR is expressed in several cell types in healing skin, including keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and infiltrating macrophages, but the exact role of androgen/AR signaling in these different cell types remains unclear. To address this question, we generated and studied cutaneous wound healing in cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) mice. General and myeloid-specific ARKO mice exhibited accelerated wound healing compared with WT mice, whereas keratinocyte- and fibroblast-specific ARKO mice did not. Importantly, the rate of wound healing in the general ARKO mice was dependent on AR and not serum androgen levels. Interestingly, although dispensable for wound closure, keratinocyte AR promoted re-epithelialization, while fibroblast AR suppressed it. Further analysis indicated that AR suppressed wound healing by enhancing the inflammatory response through a localized increase in TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, AR enhanced local TNF-alpha expression via multiple mechanisms, including increasing the inflammatory monocyte population, enhancing monocyte chemotaxis by upregulating CCR2 expression, and enhancing TNF-alpha expression in macrophages. Finally, targeting AR by topical application of a compound (ASC-J9) that degrades AR protein resulted in accelerated healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic approach that may lead to better treatment of wound healing. PMID:19907077

  9. Reduction of eotaxin production and eosinophil recruitment by pulmonary autologous macrophage transfer in a cockroach allergen-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    Beal, Dominic R; Stepien, David M; Natarajan, Sudha; Kim, Jiyoun; Remick, Daniel G

    2013-12-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of cockroach allergen (CRA) exposure on the lung macrophage population to determine how different macrophage phenotypes influence exacerbation of disease. CRA exposure caused significantly reduced expression of CD86 on lung macrophages. These effects were not systemic, as peritoneal macrophage CD86 expression was not altered. To investigate whether naïve macrophages could reduce asthma-like pulmonary inflammation, autologous peritoneal macrophages were instilled into the airways 24 h before the final CRA challenge. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by measurement of airway hyperresponsiveness, mucin production, inflammatory cell recruitment, and cytokine production. Cell transfer did not have significant effects in control mice, nor did it affect pulmonary mucin production or airway hyperresponsiveness in control or CRA-exposed mice. However, there was significant reduction in the number of eosinophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (5.8 × 10⁵ vs. 0.88 × 10⁵), and total cell recruitment to the airways of CRA-exposed mice was markedly reduced (1.1 × 10⁶ vs. 0.57 × 10⁶). The reduced eosinophil recruitment was reflected by substantially lower levels of eosinophil peroxidase in the lung and significantly lower concentrations of eotaxins in BAL (eotaxin 1: 3 pg/ml vs. undetectable; eotaxin 2: 2,383 vs. 131 pg/ml) and lung homogenate (eotaxin 1: 1,043 vs. 218 pg/ml; eotaxin 2: 10 vs. 1.5 ng/ml). We conclude that CRA decreases lung macrophage CD86 expression. Furthermore, supplementation of the lung cell population with peritoneal macrophages inhibits eosinophil recruitment, achieved through reduction of eotaxin production. These data demonstrate that transfer of naïve macrophages will reduce some aspects of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation in response to CRA. PMID:24077949

  10. Glucocorticoid-Augmented Efferocytosis Inhibits Pulmonary Pneumococcal Clearance in Mice by Reducing Alveolar Macrophage Bactericidal Function.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Valerie R; McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Freeman, Christine M; Brown, Jeanette P; Crudgington, Sean W; Taitano, Sophina H; Saxton, Bridget L; Mancuso, Peter; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) increase community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by unknown mechanisms. Apoptosis is increased in the lungs of COPD patients. Uptake of apoptotic cells (ACs) ("efferocytosis") by alveolar macrophages (AMøs) reduces their ability to combat microbes, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of CAP in COPD patients. Having shown that ICS significantly increase AMø efferocytosis, we hypothesized that this process, termed glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis, might explain the association of CAP with ICS therapy in COPD. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of fluticasone, AC, or both on AMøs of C57BL/6 mice in vitro and in an established model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced TLR4-stimulated AMø IL-12 production, relative to either treatment alone, and decreased TNF-α, CCL3, CCL5, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant/CXCL1, relative to AC. Mice treated with fluticasone plus AC before infection with viable pneumococci developed significantly more lung CFUs at 48 h. However, none of the pretreatments altered inflammatory cell recruitment to the lungs at 48 h postinfection, and fluticasone plus AC less markedly reduced in vitro mediator production to heat-killed pneumococci. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced in vitro AMø killing of pneumococci, relative to other conditions, in part by delaying phagolysosome acidification without affecting production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. These results support glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis as a potential explanation for the epidemiological association of ICS therapy of COPD patients with increased risk for CAP, and establish murine experimental models to dissect underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25987742

  11. Hepatic Localization of Macrophage Phenotypes during Fibrogenesis and Resolution of Fibrosis in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beljaars, Leonie; Schippers, Marlies; Reker-Smit, Catharina; Martinez, Fernando O.; Helming, Laura; Poelstra, Klaas; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages have been found to both promote liver fibrosis and contribute to its resolution by acquiring different phenotypes based on signals from the micro-environment. The best-characterized phenotypes in the macrophage spectrum are labeled M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Until now the in situ localization of these phenotypes in diseased livers is poorly described. In this study, we therefore aimed to localize and quantify M1- and M2-dominant macrophages in diseased mouse and human livers. The scarred collagen-rich areas in cirrhotic human livers and in CCl4-damaged mouse livers contained many macrophages. Though total numbers of macrophages were higher in fibrotic livers, the number of parenchymal CD68-positive macrophages was significantly lower as compared to normal. Scar-associated macrophages were further characterized as either M1-dominant (IRF-5 and interleukin-12) or M2-dominant (CD206, transglutaminase-2, and YM-1) and significantly higher numbers of both of these were detected in diseased livers as compared to healthy human and mouse livers. Interestingly, in mouse, livers undergoing resolution of fibrosis, the total number of CD68+ macrophages was significantly lower compared to their fibrotic counterparts. M2-dominant (YM-1) macrophages were almost completely gone in livers undergoing resolution, while numbers of M1-dominant (IRF-5) macrophages were almost unchanged and the proteolytic activity (MMP9) increased. In conclusion, this study shows the distribution of macrophage subsets in livers of both human and murine origin. The presence of M1- and M2-dominant macrophages side by side in fibrotic lesions suggests that both are involved in fibrotic responses, while the persistence of M1-dominant macrophages during resolution may indicate their importance in regression of fibrosis. This study emphasizes that immunohistochemical detection of M1/M2-dominant macrophages provides valuable information in addition to widely used

  12. Icariin inhibits atherosclerosis progress in Apoe null mice by downregulating CX3CR1 in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Wang, Yun-Shan; Song, Shu-Liang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Ai-Guo

    2016-02-19

    Horny Goat Weed is a commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. And it is used in multiple kinds of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Icariin is the major component isolated from Horny Goat Weed. It is reported to have lipid-lowering effect. In atherosclerosis, icariin attenuate the enhanced prothrombotic state independently of its lipid-lowering effects. However, its detail mechanism is remaining unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of icariin on atherosclerosis. We performed gene expression profiling on icariin treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and its control cells. Microarray analyses identified a list of genes significantly differentially expressed after icariin treated including downregulation of CX3CR1. Apoe null mice were assigned into 3 groups: control group, diet with 30 mg/kg/d icariin and diet with 60 mg/kg/d icariin. The results showed that icariin treatment significantly reduced lesion area and macrophage infiltration. Also icariin reduced CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 protein levels in the artery wall. In conclusion, icariin could be a potential anti-atherosclerosis agent by downregulating the expression of CX3CR1. PMID:26802470

  13. Pathogenic role of macrophages in intradermal infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in thermally injured mice.

    PubMed

    Asai, Akira; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Makiko; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Herndon, David N; Suzuki, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    Intradermal infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in burned mice was pathogenically analyzed. An abscess was formed in normal mice intradermally infected with 10(8) CFU/mouse of MRSA, and all of these mice survived after the infection; however, abscess formation was not demonstrated to occur in burned mice similarly exposed to the pathogen, and all of these mice died within 5 days of infection. In burned mice, MRSA infected at the burn site intradermal tissues spread quickly throughout the whole body, while in normal mice, the pathogen remained localized at the infection site. Macrophages (Mφ) isolated from the infection site tissues of normal mice produced interleukin-12 (IL-12) but not IL-10 and were characterized as M1Mφ. These M1Mφ were not isolated from the infection site tissues of burned mice. When normal-mouse infection site tissue Mφ were adoptively transferred to burned mice at the MRSA infection site, an abscess formed, and the infection did not develop into sepsis. In contrast, an abscess did not form and sepsis developed in normal mice that were inoculated with burned-mouse infection site tissue Mφ. These Mφ produced IL-10 but not IL-12 and were characterized as M2Mφ. These results indicate that abscess formation is a major mechanism of host resistance against intradermal MRSA infection. M1Mφ in the tissues surrounding the infection site play a pivotal role in abscess formation; however, the abscess is not formed in burned mice where M2Mφ predominate. M2Mφ have been described as inhibitor cells for Mφ conversion from resident Mφ to M1Mφ. PMID:20679444

  14. Lentiviral Small Hairpin RNA Knockdown of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1γ Ameliorates Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Po-Chuan; Lu, Chia-Sing; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lee, Che-Hsin; Jou, I-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA and induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of MIP-1γ in a mouse OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. The mouse macrophage cell lines and osteoclast-like cells generated from immature hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage progenitors of murine bone marrow were cocultured with either receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) or CD4+ T cells. The levels of MIP-1γ and RANKL in cells and mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K staining. OA was induced in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. Lentiviral vector encoding MIP-1γ small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and control vector were individually injected intra-articularly into the knee joints, which were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The expression of MIP-1γ and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and osteoclastogenesis in tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. CD4+ T cells were involved in OA by inducing MIP-1γ expression in osteoclast progenitors and the subsequent osteoclast formation. Neutralizing MIP-1γ with a specific antibody abolishes RANKL-stimulated and CD4+ T-cell-stimulated osteoclast formation. MIP-1γ levels were significantly higher in synovium and the chondro-osseous junction of joints 90 days postsurgery. The number of infiltrated CD4+ T cells and macrophages and IL-1β expression were reduced in the synovial tissues of mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA. Histopathological examinations revealed that mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA had less severe OA than control mice had, as well as decreased osteoclast formation and MMP-13 expression. Locally inhibiting MIP-1

  15. Nrf2 regulates ferroportin 1-mediated iron efflux and counteracts lipopolysaccharide-induced ferroportin 1 mRNA suppression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Harada, Nobuhiko; Kanayama, Masaya; Maruyama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Aruto; Tazumi, Kyoko; Hosoya, Tomonori; Mimura, Junsei; Toki, Tsutomu; Maher, Jonathan M; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Itoh, Ken

    2011-04-01

    Iron is an essential element of hemoglobin, and efficient iron recycling from senescent erythrocytes by splenic macrophages is required for erythrocyte hemoglobin synthesis during erythropoiesis. Ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) is the sole iron exporter in mammals, and it also regulates iron reutilization. In this study, we demonstrated genetically that a redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2, regulates Fpn1 mRNA expression in macrophages. Nrf2 activation by several electrophilic compounds commonly resulted in the upregulation of Fpn1 mRNA in bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type mice but not from Nrf2 knockout mice. Further, Nrf2 activation enhanced iron release from the J774.1 murine macrophage cell line. Previous studies showed that inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS, downregulates macrophage Fpn1 by transcriptional and hepcidin-mediated post-translational mechanisms leading to iron sequestration by macrophages. We showed that two Nrf2 activators, diethyl maleate and sulforaphane (SFN; a natural Nrf2 activator found in broccoli), restored the LPS-induced suppression of Fpn1 mRNA in human and mouse macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, SFN counteracted the LPS-induced increase of Hepcidin mRNA by an Nrf2-independent mechanism in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 regulates iron efflux from macrophages through Fpn1 gene transcription and suggest that Nrf2 may control iron metabolism during inflammation. PMID:21303654

  16. Expression of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B in macrophages infiltrating injured mucosa is associated with the severity of experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Fumisato; Kumagai, Kotaro; Uto, Hirofumi; Takami, Yoichiro; Kure, Takeshi; Tabu, Kazuaki; Nasu, Yuichro; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Kanmura, Shuji; Numata, Masatsugu; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (Gpnmb) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which negatively regulates the inflammatory responses of macrophages. However, the role of Gpnmb in intestinal macrophages remains to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of Gpnmb and its effects on colonic mucosal injuries associated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‑induced colitis in BALB/c mice, DBA/2J (D2) mice lacking Gpnmb and Gpnmb‑transgenic DBA/2J mice (D2‑gpnmb+). The colonic expression of Gpnmb increased with the severity of DSS‑induced colitis in BALB/c mice, and macrophages infiltrating the inflamed mucosa were found to express Gpnmb. The D2 mice lacking Gpnmb exhibited more severe DSS‑induced colitis, which was accompanied by higher levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6, compared with the D2‑gpnmb+ mice. Following lipopolysaccharide stimulation, macrophages from the D2 mice expressed higher levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of IL‑10, compared with the D2‑gpnmb+mice. In addition, in the RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line, knockdown of Gpnmb by small interfering RNA was associated with increased production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, which were potentially mediated by the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways. The results of the present study indicated that macrophages infiltrating injured mucosa express Gpnmb, and that Gpnmb‑positive macrophages may ameliorate inflammation in the intestinal mucosa by decreasing pro‑inflammatory cytokine production via the ERK and p38 signaling pathways. PMID:26458492

  17. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1) Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Muratoglu, Selen Catania; Au, Dianaly T.; Migliorini, Mary; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K.; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2015-01-01

    Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to this process is not known. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient background (macLRP1-/-). After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:26061292

  18. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ping; Shao, Bo-Zong; Xu, Zhe-Qi; Wei, Wei; Han, Bin-Ze; Chen, Xiong-Wen; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) ameliorates inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether activation of CB2R could suppress the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice, LPS/DSS challenge for 24 h increased the expression of the components of NLRP3 inflammasome NLRP3, Casp-1 p20/Casp-1 p45 ratio, proIL-1β and IL-1β and also enhanced autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and SQSTM1). Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with HU 308, a selective CB2R agonist, attenuated LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but further enhanced autophagy. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control, peritoneal macrophages from CB2R knockout (KO) mice had more robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated autophagy upon LPS/DSS challenge. Knockdown autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) with a siRNA in peritoneal macrophages attenuated the inhibitory effects of HU 308 on LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vitro. In vivo, HU308 treatment attenuated DSS-induced colitis mice associated with reduced colon inflammation and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in wild-type mice. In CB2R KO mice, DSS-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were more pronounced than those in WT control. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway was involved in this CB2R-mediated process. We conclude that activation of CB2R ameliorates DSS-induced colitis through enhancing autophagy that may inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:27611972

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves glucose tolerance through alleviating ER stress and suppressing macrophage activation in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Bobae; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2015-05-01

    Although recent studies have reported that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), the most extensively studied probiotic strain, exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect on several rodent models, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, twenty male C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice were divided into 2 groups, LGG-treated and control group, which received a daily dose of LGG (1 × 10(8) CFU per mouse) and PBS orally for 4 weeks, respectively. We observed that glucose tolerance was significantly improved in LGG-treated db/db mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation were higher in skeletal muscle of LGG-treated mice relative to their controls. It was also observed that LGG treatment caused significant reductions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in skeletal muscle and M1-like macrophage activation in white adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the anti-diabetic effect of LGG in db/db mice is associated with alleviated ER stress and suppressed macrophage activation, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of probiotics for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26060355

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves glucose tolerance through alleviating ER stress and suppressing macrophage activation in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Bobae; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2015-01-01

    Although recent studies have reported that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), the most extensively studied probiotic strain, exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect on several rodent models, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, twenty male C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice were divided into 2 groups, LGG-treated and control group, which received a daily dose of LGG (1 × 108 CFU per mouse) and PBS orally for 4 weeks, respectively. We observed that glucose tolerance was significantly improved in LGG-treated db/db mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation were higher in skeletal muscle of LGG-treated mice relative to their controls. It was also observed that LGG treatment caused significant reductions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in skeletal muscle and M1-like macrophage activation in white adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the anti-diabetic effect of LGG in db/db mice is associated with alleviated ER stress and suppressed macrophage activation, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of probiotics for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26060355

  1. Comparison of the response of primary murine peritoneal macrophages and the U937 human histiocytic cell line to challenge with in vitro generated clinically relevant UHMWPE particles.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J B; Green, T R; Stone, M H; Wroblewski, B M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2000-01-01

    The response of primary murine macrophages and the U937 human histiocytic cell line to challenge with clinically relevant UHMWPE wear debris of known particle size and dose was evaluated. Particles with mean sizes of 0.24, 0.45, 1.71, 7.62 and 88 microm were co-cultured with cells for 24 hours prior to assessment of cell viability and production of the osteolytic mediators IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha and, in supernatants from murine phagocytes, PGE2 and GM-CSF. All particle fractions were evaluated at particle volume (microm3) to cell number ratios of 10 : 1 and 100 : 1 (and, additionally, 0.1 : 1 and 1 : 1 for U937 cells). These ratios had previously been identified as the most stimulatory and clinically relevant. Although the results for the cell line were highly variable, stimulation with phagocytosable particles (range 0.1 to 15 microm) resulted in enhanced levels of cytokine secretion by both murine macrophages and U937 histiocytes. The most biologically active particles were sub-micrometre in size. However, U937 cells responded to wear debris at much lower particle volume to cell number ratios (>0.1 microm3 per cell) than the murine cells (> 10 microm3 per cell). No GM-CSF was produced by particle or LPS stimulated murine macrophages. Similarly, U937 histiocytes failed to secrete any IL-1beta. Neither macrophage population responded to stimulation with the largest (88 microm) particles. These results confirm earlier findings and suggest that the size of UHMWPE wear particles is a critical factor in macrophage activation. Moreover, primary murine macrophages have been demonstrated to be a suitable model for studying cell-particle interactions in vitro. PMID:11202151

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages Ameliorate LPS-Induced Systemic Response

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaoqin; Qin, Chaojin; Zheng, Guoping; Tao, Huikang; Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Guanguan; Ge, Menghua; Huang, Lanfang; Chen, Lina; Cheng, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Both bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASCs-educated macrophages could directly ameliorate LPS-induced systemic response in a mouse model. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cocultured with ASCs in a Transwell system for 2 days to educate macrophages. Mice were divided into 5 groups: control, LPS, LPS + ASCs, LPS + untreated macrophages, and LPS + educated macrophages. Educated macrophages decreased lung inflammation, weight loss, pulmonary edema, and inflammatory cytokine response. In vitro, ASCs increased expression of M2 macrophages independent of direct cell-to-cell contact when macrophages were treated with LPS or serum from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When macrophages were cultured with serum from ARDS patients who were treated with ASCs or placebo in our previous clinical trial, there was no difference in M2 macrophage levels before and after ASCs treatment indicating a suboptimal response to the treatment protocol. ASCs also reduced the levels of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in vitro which were mimicked by IL-10 and blocked by antibodies for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor supporting the notion that educated macrophages exert their anti-inflammatory effects via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27546994

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages Ameliorate LPS-Induced Systemic Response.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaoqin; Qin, Chaojin; Zheng, Guoping; Lai, Dengming; Tao, Huikang; Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Guanguan; Ge, Menghua; Huang, Lanfang; Chen, Lina; Cheng, Baoli; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Both bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASCs-educated macrophages could directly ameliorate LPS-induced systemic response in a mouse model. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cocultured with ASCs in a Transwell system for 2 days to educate macrophages. Mice were divided into 5 groups: control, LPS, LPS + ASCs, LPS + untreated macrophages, and LPS + educated macrophages. Educated macrophages decreased lung inflammation, weight loss, pulmonary edema, and inflammatory cytokine response. In vitro, ASCs increased expression of M2 macrophages independent of direct cell-to-cell contact when macrophages were treated with LPS or serum from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When macrophages were cultured with serum from ARDS patients who were treated with ASCs or placebo in our previous clinical trial, there was no difference in M2 macrophage levels before and after ASCs treatment indicating a suboptimal response to the treatment protocol. ASCs also reduced the levels of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in vitro which were mimicked by IL-10 and blocked by antibodies for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor supporting the notion that educated macrophages exert their anti-inflammatory effects via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27546994

  4. Kharon1 Null Mutants of Leishmania mexicana Are Avirulent in Mice and Exhibit a Cytokinesis Defect within Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marco A.; Valli, Jessica; Gluenz, Eva; Landfear, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of eukaryotes, flagella play important roles both in motility and as sensory organelles that monitor the extracellular environment. In the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana, one glucose transporter isoform, LmxGT1, is targeted selectively to the flagellar membrane where it appears to play a role in glucose sensing. Trafficking of LmxGT1 to the flagellar membrane is dependent upon interaction with the KHARON1 protein that is located at the base of the flagellar axoneme. Remarkably, while Δkharon1 null mutants are viable as insect stage promastigotes, they are unable to survive as amastigotes inside host macrophages. Although Δkharon1 promastigotes enter macrophages and transform into amastigotes, these intracellular parasites are unable to execute cytokinesis and form multinucleate cells before dying. Notably, extracellular axenic amastigotes of Δkharon1 mutants replicate and divide normally, indicating a defect in the mutants that is only exhibited in the intra-macrophage environment. Although the flagella of Δkharon1 amastigotes adhere to the phagolysomal membrane of host macrophages, the morphology of the mutant flagella is often distorted. Additionally, these null mutants are completely avirulent following injection into BALB/c mice, underscoring the critical role of the KHARON1 protein for viability of intracellular amastigotes and disease in the animal model of leishmaniasis. PMID:26266938

  5. Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus Polymicrobial Peritonitis Modulates Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in medical device fabrication and antimicrobial treatment therapies, fungal-bacterial polymicrobial peritonitis remains a serious complication for surgery patients, those on peritoneal dialysis, and the critically ill. Using a murine model of peritonitis, we have demonstrated that monomicrobial infection with Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus is nonlethal. However, coinfection with these same doses leads to a 40% mortality rate and increased microbial burden in the spleen and kidney by day 1 postinfection. Using a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have also identified a unique subset of innate proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte chemoattractant, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) that are significantly increased during polymicrobial versus monomicrobial peritonitis, leading to increased inflammatory infiltrate into the peritoneum and target organs. Treatment of coinfected mice with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin reduces the infectious burden, proinflammatory cytokine production, and inflammatory infiltrate while simultaneously preventing any mortality. Further experiments demonstrated that the immunomodulatory eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is synergistically increased during coinfection compared to monomicrobial infection; indomethacin treatment also decreased elevated PGE2 levels. Furthermore, addition of exogenous PGE2 into the peritoneal cavity during infection overrode the protection provided by indomethacin and restored the increased mortality and microbial burden. Importantly, these studies highlight the ability of fungal-bacterial coinfection to modulate innate inflammatory events with devastating consequences to the host. PMID:23545303

  6. The role of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 in db/db mice and high glucose-induced macrophage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingxin; Fan, Zhe; Qi, Xiangming; Shao, Yunxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that inflammation plays a vital part in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), little information is available about the TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signal pathway activating inflammatory response in DN. We used bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and db/db mice to investigate the potential protective effects and mechanisms of TAK1 inhibitor (5Z-7-oxozeaenol) on diabetic kidney disease. The study showed that pretreatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol not only remarkably decreased high glucose (HG) stimulated excessive release of MCP-1 and TNF-α, but also significantly down-regulated ERK1/2, p38MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation in macrophages. In consistent, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol markedly reduced diabetes-induced albuminuria, histological changes, macrophage infiltration, and renal inflammatory cytokines expression and exerted its function through down-regulating ERK1/2, p38MAPK, NF-κB activation in the kidneys of db/db mice. Our findings may provide a novel direction to study the molecular mechanism and a perspective intervention to halt the progression of DN. PMID:27268284

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Regulation by TNF-α and IL-1β in Synovial Macrophages and Fibroblasts in Osteoarthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shotaro; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Iwase, Dai; Minatani, Atsushi; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Takaso, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of macrophages as a regulator and producer of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the synovial tissue (ST) of osteoarthritis (OA) joints, the gene expression profiles of several inflammatory cytokines in the ST, including synovial macrophages and fibroblasts, of OA mice (STR/Ort) were characterized. Specifically, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to evaluate the expression of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and NGF in CD11b+ and CD11b– cells isolated from the ST of a murine OA model. The effects of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on the expression of NGF in cultured synovial cells were also examined. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NGF in the ST of STR/Ort was higher than that in C57/BL6J mice. Compared to the CD11b– cell fraction, higher expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were detected in the CD11b+ cell fraction, whereas no differences in the expression of NGF were detected between the two cell fractions. Notably, TNF-α upregulated NGF expression in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages and IL-1β upregulated NGF expression in synovial fibroblasts. IL-1β and TNF-α may regulate NGF signaling in OA joints and be suitable therapeutic targets for treating OA pain.

  8. Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin

    2016-03-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the "Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative," dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420

  9. Role of cellular prion proteins in the function of macrophages and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Kayako; Sakudo, Akikazu; Masuyama, Jun; Xue, Guangai; Sugiura, Katsuaki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The cellular isoform of prion proteins (PrPC) is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, granulocytes, T and B lymphocyte natural killer cells, platelets, monocytes, dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells, which may act as carrier cells for the spread of its abnormal isoform (PrPSc) before manifesting transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In particular, macrophages and dendritic cells seem to be involved in the replication of PrPSc after ingestion. In addition, information on the role of PrPC during phagocytotic activity in these cells has been obtained. A recent study showed that resident macrophages from ZrchI PrP gene (Prnp)-deficient (Prnp-/-) mice show augmented phagocytotic activity compared to Prnp+/+ counterparts. In contrast, our study suggests that Rikn Prnp-/- peritoneal macrophages show pseudopodium extension arrest and up-regulation of phagocytotic activity compared to Prnp+/+ cells. Although reports regarding phagocytotic activity in resident and peritoneal macrophages are inconsistent between ZrchI and Rikn Prnp-/- mice, it seems plausible that PrPC in macrophages could contribute to maintain the immunological environment. This review will introduce the recent progress in understanding the functions of PrPC in macrophages and dendritic cells under physiological conditions and its involvement in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:19275736

  10. The essential role of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in protection of mice against a peritoneal Salmonella infection involves the rapid induction of an inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J M; Bernheiden, M; Minigo, G; Yang, K K; Schütt, C; Männel, D N; Jack, R S

    2001-08-01

    Acute and chronic hyperinflammation are of major clinical concern, and many treatment strategies are therefore directed to inactivating parts of the inflammatory system. However, survival depends on responding quickly to pathogen attack, and since the adaptive immune system requires several days to adequately react, we rely initially on a range of innate defenses, many of which operate by activating parts of the inflammatory network. For example, LPS-binding protein (LBP) can transfer the LPS of Gram-negative bacteria to CD14 on the surface of macrophages, and this initiates an inflammatory reaction. However, the importance of this chain of events in infection is unclear. First, the innate system is redundant, and bacteria have many components that may serve as targets for it. Second, LBP can transfer LPS to other acceptors that do not induce inflammation. In this study, we show that innate defense against a lethal peritoneal infection with Salmonella requires a direct proinflammatory involvement of LBP, and that this is a major nonredundant function of LBP in this infection model. This emphasizes that blocking the LBP-initiated inflammatory cascade disables an essential defense pathway. Any anti-inflammatory protection that may be achieved must be balanced against the risks inherent in blinding the innate system to the presence of Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:11466385

  11. [Immunomodulative effects of Chinese herbs in mice treated with anti-tumor agent cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Wan, L L; Mitsuishi, T; Kodama, K; Kurashige, S

    1994-07-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbs were administered with antitumor agent, cyclophosphamide (CY), and their effects on macrophages and lymphocytes were studied. Number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased and their chemotactic activity was suppressed by treatment with CY. Blastogenic responsiveness to Concanavalin A and NK cell activity of spleen lymphocytes were suppressed significantly in CY-treated mice. Extracts of Lithospermi radix, Astragali radix and Glycyrrhizae radix showed protective effects on immunosuppressive mice. The number of macrophages, chemotactic activity of macrophages and blastogenic response of lymphocytes were recovered to the same or more than that of normal levels. An extract of Ginseng radix showed protective effects on the number and functions of macrophages by treatment with CY but did not show any effects on the lymphocytic blastogenesis. On the contrary it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the NK cell activity. These results suggest that Chinese herbs could modulate cellular immune response, especially in the activation of macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. PMID:7932098

  12. Attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice using gene silencing of macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, XianJun; Zhao, Lei; Zhen, Xi; Huang, ShanYing; Wang, ShaSha; He, Hong; Liu, ZiMo; Xu, NaNa; Yang, FaLin; Qu, ZhongHua; Ma, ZhiYong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) involves the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) and increased plasma MIF levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with AS. Here, we have been suggested that MIF could be a critical contributor for the pathological process of diabetes-associated AS by using adenovirus-mediated RNA interference. First, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal model was constructed in 114 apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/− mice) fed on a regular chow diet. Then, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: Adenovirus-mediated MIF interference (Ad-MIFi), Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and normal saline (NS) group (n ≈ 33/group). Non-diabetic apoE−/− mice (n = 35) were served as controls. Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS were, respectively, injected into the tail vein of mice from Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS group, which were injected repeatedly 4 weeks later. Physical, biochemical, morphological and molecular parameters were measured. The results showed that diabetic apoE−/− mice had significantly aggravated atherosclerotic lesions. MIF gene interference attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and stabilized atheromatous plaque, accompanied by the decreased macrophages and lipids deposition and inflammatory cytokines production, improved glucose intolerance and plasma cholesterol level, the decreased ratio of matrix matalloproteinase-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plaque instability index. An increased expression of MIF and its ligand CD74 was also detected in the diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The results suggest that MIF gene interference is able to inhibit atherosclerotic lesions and increase plaque stability in diabetic apoE−/−mice. MIF inhibition could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of DM-associated AS. PMID:25661015

  13. Depletion of macrophages in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor mice induces brain inflammation and enhances inflammatory signaling during traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frieler, Ryan A; Nadimpalli, Sameera; Boland, Lauren K; Xie, Angela; Kooistra, Laura J; Song, Jianrui; Chung, Yutein; Cho, Kae W; Lumeng, Carey N; Wang, Michael M; Mortensen, Richard M

    2015-10-22

    Immune cells have important roles during disease and are known to contribute to secondary, inflammation-induced injury after traumatic brain injury. To delineate the functional role of macrophages during traumatic brain injury, we depleted macrophages using transgenic CD11b-DTR mice and subjected them to controlled cortical impact. We found that macrophage depletion had no effect on lesion size assessed by T2-weighted MRI scans 28 days after injury. Macrophage depletion resulted in a robust increase in proinflammatory gene expression in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres after controlled cortical impact. Interestingly, this sizeable increase in inflammation did not affect lesion development. We also showed that macrophage depletion resulted in increased proinflammatory gene expression in the brain and kidney in the absence of injury. These data demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in CD11b-DTR mice can significantly modulate the inflammatory response during brain injury without affecting lesion formation. These data also reveal a potentially confounding inflammatory effect in CD11b-DTR mice that must be considered when interpreting the effects of macrophage depletion in disease models. PMID:26208897

  14. Amelioration of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in c57bl/6 mice via macrophage polarization by fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samina; Sharma, Yadhu; Elahi, Asif; Khan, Farah

    2016-07-01

    Enormous phenotypic plasticity makes macrophages the target cells in obesity-associated inflammatory diseases. Thus, nutritional components that polarize macrophages toward antiinflammatory phenotype can partially reverse inflammatory diseases like insulin resistance. In the present study, macrophage-polarizing and insulin-sensitizing properties of fish oil (FO) were evaluated in obese insulin-resistant c57bl/6 mice fed high-fat diet (HFD-IR) after oral supplementation with FO (4, 8 or 16mg/kg body weight) and compared to lean and HFD-IR mice. FO-supplemented HFD-IR mice exhibited reduced adiposity index, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increased insulin sensitization and showed improved adipose tissue physiology under light and transmission electron microscopy. NF-κB/P65 expression showed a downward shift on FO supplementation. The surface marker of M1 macrophages (CD-86) and the TLR-4 expression reduced with the increased supplementation of FO. Expression of arginase 1, an important marker of M2 macrophages, increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to FO dosage, which was observed at protein level by the western blotting and at mRNA level by real-time PCR. The cytokine profile of adipose tissue macrophages showed a steep shift toward antiinflammatory ones (IL-4 and IL-10) from the inflammatory TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-1β. Thus, macrophage polarization seems to be the plausible mechanism via which FO alleviates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27260471

  15. Aberrant tissue positioning of metallophilic macrophages in the thymus of XCL1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Novica M; Lalić, Ivana M; Despotović, Sanja Z; Ćirić, Darko N; Westermann, Jűrgen; De Waal Malefyt, Rene; Milićević, Živana

    2014-08-01

    Metallophilic macrophages hold a strategic position within the thymic tissue and play a considerable function in thymic physiology. The development and positioning of these cells within thymic tissue are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms involving different cytokine/chemokine axes. Herein, we studied the role of XCL1 signaling in these processes. We show that in the XCL1-deficient thymus numerous metallophilic macrophages are aberrantly positioned in the thymic cortex, instead of their normal location in the cortico-medullary zone. Still, these cells retain their normal appearance: very large size with prominent, ramifying cytoplasmic prolongations. This shows that XCL1 signaling is not involved in morphological development, but rather in correct positioning of metallophilic macrophages within the thymic tissue. In contrast to thymic metallophilic macrophages, the positioning of splenic marginal metallophilic macrophages is not affected by XCL1-deficiency. PMID:24778093

  16. IL-4Rα-Dependent Alternative Activation of Macrophages Is Not Decisive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathology and Bacterial Burden in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Savvi, Suzana; Logan, Erin; Schwegmann, Anita; Roy, Sugata; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E.; Ozturk, Mumin; Schmeier, Sebastian; Suzuki, Harukazu; Brombacher, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Classical activation of macrophages (caMph or M1) is crucial for host protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Evidence suggests that IL-4/IL-13 alternatively activated macrophages (aaMph or M2) are exploited by Mtb to divert microbicidal functions of caMph. To define the functions of M2 macrophages during tuberculosis (TB), we infected mice deficient for IL-4 receptor α on macrophages (LysMcreIL-4Rα-/lox) with Mtb. We show that absence of IL-4Rα on macrophages does not play a major role during infection with Mtb H37Rv, or the clinical Beijing strain HN878. This was demonstrated by similar mortality, bacterial burden, histopathology and T cell proliferation between infected wild-type (WT) and LysMcreIL-4Rα-/lox mice. Interestingly, we observed no differences in the lung expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Arginase 1 (Arg1), well-established markers for M1/M2 macrophages among the Mtb-infected groups. Kinetic expression studies of IL-4/IL-13 activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) infected with HN878, followed by gene set enrichment analysis, revealed that the MyD88 and IL-6, IL-10, G-CSF pathways are significantly enriched, but not the IL-4Rα driven pathway. Together, these results suggest that IL-4Rα-macrophages do not play a central role in TB disease progression. PMID:25790379

  17. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy. PMID:12659668

  18. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor (DBP-maf) Inhibits Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy. PMID:12659668

  19. Inhibition of development of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization with suppression of infiltration of macrophages in Smad3-null mice.

    PubMed

    Iwanishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Norihito; Tomoyose, Katsuo; Okada, Yuka; Yamanaka, Osamu; Flanders, Kathleen C; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of the loss of Smad3 on the development of experimental argon laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. An in vitro angiogenesis model was also used to examine the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad3 signaling in vessel-like tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CNV was induced in eyes of 8-12-week-old B6.129-background Smad3-deficient (KO) mice (n=47) and wild-type (WT) mice (n=47) by argon laser irradiation. Results showed that the size of the CNV induced was significantly smaller in KO mice as compared with WT mice at day 14 as revealed by high-resolution angiography with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of RNA extracted from laser-irradiated choroidal tissues were conducted on specimens at specific timepoints. Invasion of macrophages (F4/80+), but not neutrophils (myeloperoxidase+), and appearance of myofibroblasts (α-smooth muscle actin+) were suppressed in laser-irradiated KO tissues. mRNA expression of inflammation-related factors, that is, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TGFβ1 in choroidal tissues was suppressed by the loss of Smad3. We then examined the effects of adding a Smad3 inhibitor, SIS3, or an ALK5 inhibitor, SB431542, on tube formation promoted by TGFβ1 or VEGF in HUVECs cocultured with fibroblast feeder. Further addition of SIS3 or SB431542 augmented vessel-like tube formation by HUVECs in the presence of TGFβ1 or VEGF. In conclusion, lack of Smad3 attenuated the growth of laser-induced CNV with suppression of inflammation by macrophages in mice. Because blocking TGFβ1/Smad3 signal stimulated the activity of angiogenesis of HUVECs in vitro, the reduction of CNV in vivo in KO mice is attributed to a decrease in growth factor levels in the tissue by the loss of Smad3. PMID:26950486

  20. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) Gene Deletion Promotes Cancer Growth in TRAMP Prostate Cancer Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Husaini, Yasmin; Lockwood, Glen P.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Mohammad, Mohammad G.; Russell, Pamela J.; Brown, David A.; Breit, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The divergent TGF-β superfamily member, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), is overexpressed by most cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Whilst its circulating levels are linked to cancer outcome, the role MIC-1/GDF15 plays in cancer development and progression is incompletely understood. To investigate its effect on PCa development and spread, we have used TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice bearing a germline deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC-/-). On average TRAMPMIC-/- mice died about 5 weeks earlier and had larger prostatic tumors compared with TRAMP mice that were wild type for MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC+/+). Additionally, at the time of death or ethical end point, even when adjusted for lifespan, there were no significant differences in the number of mice with metastases between the TRAMPMIC+/+ and TRAMPMIC-/- groups. However, consistent with our previous data, more than twice as many TRAMP mice overexpressing MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPfmsmic-1) had metastases than TRAMPMIC+/+ mice (p<0.0001). We conclude that germ line gene deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 leads to increased local tumor growth resulting in decreased survival consistent with an overall protective role for MIC-1/GDF15 in early primary tumor development. However, in advancing disease, as we have previously noted, MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression may promote local invasion and metastatic spread. PMID:25695521

  1. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) gene deletion promotes cancer growth in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Yasmin; Lockwood, Glen P; Nguyen, Trung V; Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Mohammad, Mohammad G; Russell, Pamela J; Brown, David A; Breit, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The divergent TGF-β superfamily member, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), is overexpressed by most cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Whilst its circulating levels are linked to cancer outcome, the role MIC-1/GDF15 plays in cancer development and progression is incompletely understood. To investigate its effect on PCa development and spread, we have used TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice bearing a germline deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC-/-). On average TRAMPMIC-/- mice died about 5 weeks earlier and had larger prostatic tumors compared with TRAMP mice that were wild type for MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC+/+). Additionally, at the time of death or ethical end point, even when adjusted for lifespan, there were no significant differences in the number of mice with metastases between the TRAMPMIC+/+ and TRAMPMIC-/- groups. However, consistent with our previous data, more than twice as many TRAMP mice overexpressing MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPfmsmic-1) had metastases than TRAMPMIC+/+ mice (p<0.0001). We conclude that germ line gene deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 leads to increased local tumor growth resulting in decreased survival consistent with an overall protective role for MIC-1/GDF15 in early primary tumor development. However, in advancing disease, as we have previously noted, MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression may promote local invasion and metastatic spread. PMID:25695521

  2. Selectively eliminated blood monocytes and splenic suppressor macrophages in mice depleted of bone marrow by strontium 89

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, W.L.; Morahan, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The contribution of specific activity to the effects of the bone-seeking isotope, /sup 89/Sr on radiosensitive components of mononuclear phagocyte populations was investigated in mice. CBA/J mice received a fixed dose of 2 microcuries/g body weight of /sup 89/Sr with three different specific activities, 6 Ci, 100 microcuries, and 20 /sup 89/Sr microcuries per mg Sr. The estimated radioactivity located in the bone surface was 4200, 3000 and 2400 cpm/mg bone when measured 2 days after the administration of /sup 89/Sr, and was lost with an estimated biological half-life of 27, 25, and 23 days, respectively. Bone marrow suppression was assessed by quantitation of the depletion of macrophage-colony forming cells (M-CFC) grown in vitro. The decline in M-CFC closely paralleled the level of radioactivity in the bone. These effects were clearly reflected by the depletion of monocytes in the blood, which were reduced to 14%, 14%, and 21% of control levels corresponding to SA's of 6 Curies/mg, 100 microcuries/mg and 20 microcuries/mg when counted on day 10. By day 30 the respective monocyte levels were 15%, 31%, and 77%. Furthermore, the induction of prostaglandin E producing suppressor macrophages (marophages) by Corynebacterium parvum administration was found to vary inversely with the effects of radioactivity in the bone, with initial impairment followed by quantitative recorvery. Resident-type macrophages in impairment cavity appear to be unaffected by /sup 89/Sr-treament. These data suggest that the monocytes and suppressor macrophages are dependent on radiosensitive marrow cells.

  3. Ozone-enhanced pulmonary infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus in mice. The role of alveolar macrophage function and capsular virulence factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Ozone exposure has been shown to increase the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary bacterial infection. We report here the differences in susceptibility of two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57Bl/6) to pulmonary challenge with Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and demonstrate an association between O3 exposure, reduced alveolar macrophage (AM) function, and increased mortality to infection. After a 3-h exposure to air or to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm O3, mice received an infection of bacteria by aerosol. Subsequent mortality observed over a 20-day period for any given exposure concentration was greater in the C3H/HeJ mice than in the C57Bl/6 mice. Phagocytosis assays identified the AM from O3-exposed lungs as having an impaired ability to engulf the bacteria. Baseline phagocytic activity in C3H/HeJ mice was lower than that in C57Bl/6 mice. Microbiologic assessment of the lungs at various times after infection revealed that the streptococci proliferated rapidly in the lungs of O3-exposed mice, grew more quickly upon isolation, and displayed a mucoid colony appearance indicative of increased encapsulation. In vitro assays confirmed that the encapsulated isolates prevented binding of the bacteria to AM, and reinfection of nonexposed mice with the encapsulated isolate resulted in increased mortality compared with infection with similar numbers of the original unencapsulated bacteria. We have demonstrated that O3 inhalation impairs AM activity in the lung. The streptococci are then able to proliferate and more fully express virulence factors, in particular, the antiphagocytic capsule, which prohibits the ingestion of bacteria by pulmonary phagocytes and leads to increased severity of infection.

  4. [Peritoneal echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, C; Vara-Thorbeck, R

    1986-01-01

    Secondary peritoneal echinococcosis was recorded from 50 in 312 patients (16 per cent) who had been hospitalised for liver echinococcosis. Hydatido and peritoneal hydatidiosis were recorded from 34 of these patients and thus accounted for the two most common pathological forms of secondary peritoneal echinococcosis, according to Dévè. Peritoneal echinococcosis usually is not diagnosed until conspicuous symptoms grow manifest due to cyst growth or other complications. Positive responses were recorded from all the above cases to laboratory tests (eosinophilia in over five to nine per cent) and were also established on the basis of immune reactions, including the complement fixation reaction according to Weinberg, the intracutaneous test by Casoni, and latex echinococcus reaction. Surgery, at present, is the only promising therapeutic approach to the problem. Surgical intervention could not even be avoided by application of mebendazol. Postoperative lethality amounted to four per cent and morbidity to ten per cent. They were comparatively low, measured by the generally poor prognosis of the disease. PMID:3776378

  5. Dialysis - peritoneal

    MedlinePlus

    ... The number of exchanges and amount of dwell time depends on the method of PD you use and other factors. Your ... PD: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) . For this ... routine until it is time to drain the fluid. You are not hooked ...

  6. Synergistic interaction of catecholamine hormones and Mycobacterium avium results in the induction of interleukin-10 mRNA expression by murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Boomershine, C; Wang, T; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-01-01

    The results of this investigation provides evidence that catecholamine hormones interact with macrophages that are infected with Mycobacterium avium resulting in the induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein. The effect of catecholamine hormones was prevented by treating the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The effect of catecholamine stimulation was mimicked by the addition of beta-2 adrenergic agonists and by the addition of cAMP to the infected macrophage cultures. These observations suggest that sympathetic nervous system activation together with microbial infection results in a synergistic interaction that could result in the control of inflammatory processes. PMID:10378878

  7. Insulin Resistance is Associated with MCP1-Mediated Macrophage Accumulation in Skeletal Muscle in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Patsouris, David; Cao, Jingwei-Ji; Vial, Guillaume; Bravard, Amelie; Lefai, Etienne; Durand, Annie; Durand, Christine; Chauvin, Marie-Agnés; Laugerette, Fabienne; Debard, Cyrille; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laville, Martine; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is now recognized as a major factor contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, while the mechanisms and consequences associated with white adipose tissue inflammation are well described, very little is known concerning the situation in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro and in vivo, how skeletal muscle inflammation develops and how in turn it modulates local and systemic insulin sensitivity in different mice models of T2D and in humans, focusing on the role of the chemokine MCP1. Here, we found that skeletal muscle inflammation and macrophage markers are increased and associated with insulin resistance in mice models and humans. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-muscular TNFα expression is exclusively restricted to the population of intramuscular leukocytes and that the chemokine MCP1 was associated with skeletal muscle inflammatory markers in these models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure of C2C12 myotubes to palmitate elevated the production of the chemokine MCP1 and that the muscle-specific overexpression of MCP1 in transgenic mice induced the local recruitment of macrophages and altered local insulin sensitivity. Overall our study demonstrates that skeletal muscle inflammation is clearly increased in the context of T2D in each one of the models we investigated, which is likely consecutive to the lipotoxic environment generated by peripheral insulin resistance, further increasing MCP1 expression in muscle. Consequently, our results suggest that MCP1-mediated skeletal muscle macrophages recruitment plays a role in the etiology of T2D. PMID:25337938

  8. Spontaneous rejection of intradermally transplanted non-engineered tumor cells by neutrophils and macrophages from syngeneic strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Minenori; Takahashi, Takeshi; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Shogo; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Okada, Masashi; Ueda, Koichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2011-10-01

    It is not surprising that tumors arising spontaneously are rarely rejected by T cells, because in general they lack molecules to elicit a primary T-cell response. In fact, cytokine-engineered tumors can induce granulocyte infiltration leading to tumor rejection. In the present study, we i.d. injected seven kinds of non-engineered tumor cells into syngeneic strains of mice. Three of them (i.e. B16, KLN205, and 3LL cells) continued to grow, whereas four of them (i.e. Meth A, I-10, CL-S1, and FM3A cells) were spontaneously rejected after transient growth or without growth. In contrast to the i.d. injection of B16 cells into C57BL/6 mice, which induces infiltration of TAMs into the tumors, the i.d. injection of Meth A cells into BALB/c mice induced the invasion of cytotoxic inflammatory cells, but not of TAMs, into or around the tumors leading to an IFN-γ-dependent rejection. On day 5, the cytotoxic activity against the tumor cells reached a peak; and the effector cells were found to be neutrophils and macrophages. The i.d. Meth A or I-10 cell-immunized, but not non-immunized, mice rejected i.p.- or i.m.-transplanted Meth A or I-10 cells without growth, respectively. The main effector cells were CTLs; and there was no cross-sensitization between these two kinds of tumor cells, suggesting specific rejection of tumor cells by CTLs from i.d. immunized mice. These results indicate that infiltration of cytotoxic myeloid cells (i.e. neutrophils and macrophages, but not TAMs) into or around tumors is essential for their IFN-γ-dependent spontaneous rejection. PMID:21806674

  9. β-Carotene Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Aneurysm by Alleviating Macrophage Recruitment in Apoe−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Kaliappan; Nagarajan, Perumal; Jedy, Jose; Raj, Avinash T.; Gnanaselvi, S. Kalai; Jahan, Parveen; Sharma, Yogendra; Shankar, Esaki M.; Kumar, Jerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common chronic degenerative disease characterized by progressive aortic dilation and rupture. The mechanisms underlying the role of α-tocopherol and β-carotene on AAA have not been comprehensively assessed. We investigated if α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation could attenuate AAA, and studied the underlying mechanisms utilized by the antioxidants to alleviate AAA. Four-months-old Apoe−/− mice were used in the induction of aneurysm by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), and were orally administered with α-tocopherol and β-carotene enriched diet for 60 days. Significant increase of LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and circulating inflammatory cells was observed in the Ang II-treated animals, and gene expression studies showed that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were upregulated in the aorta of aneurysm-induced mice. Extensive plaques, aneurysm and diffusion of inflammatory cells into the tunica intima were also noticed. The size of aorta was significantly (P = 0.0002) increased (2.24±0.20 mm) in the aneurysm-induced animals as compared to control mice (1.17±0.06 mm). Interestingly, β-carotene dramatically controlled the diffusion of macrophages into the aortic tunica intima, and circulation. It also dissolved the formation of atheromatous plaque. Further, β-carotene significantly decreased the aortic diameter (1.33±0.12 mm) in the aneurysm-induced mice (β-carotene, P = 0.0002). It also downregulated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ following treatment. Hence, dietary supplementation of β-carotene may have a protective function against Ang II-induced AAA by ameliorating macrophage recruitment in Apoe−/− mice. PMID:23826202

  10. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Annabelle . E-mail: arodrig5@jhmi.edu; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-05-27

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 {mu}g protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.04). Cytotoxicity, as measured by the cellular release of [{sup 14}C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1.

  11. Effects of Bothrops asper snake venom on the expression of cyclooxygenases and production of prostaglandins by peritoneal leukocytes in vivo, and by isolated neutrophils and macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José María; Amaral, Rafaela Bacci; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the ability of Bothrops asper snake venom (BaV) to increase the production of prostaglandins PGE(2) and PGD(2) was assessed in a mouse model in vivo and in inflammatory cells in vitro. In addition, the expressions of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed. BaV induced an increment in the in vivo synthesis of PGE(2) and PGD(2), together with an enhanced expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1. However, enzymatic activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were increased. Incubation of isolated macrophages and neutrophils with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of BaV in vitro resulted in increased release of PGE(2) and PGD(2) by macrophages and PGE(2) by neutrophils, concomitantly with an increment in the expression of COX-2, but not of COX-1 by both cell types. Our results demonstrate the ability of BaV to promote the expression of COX-2 and to induce the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins. Macrophages and neutrophils may be important targets for this venom under in vivo situation. PMID:19155166

  12. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. Characterization of immunosuppressive macrophages induced in mice infected with Mycobacterium intracellulare].

    PubMed

    Tomioka, H

    1993-12-01

    Functional changes in T lymphocytes and macrophages (M phi s) in host mice during the course of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection were studied. In both strains of mice, BALB/c or C57BL/6 (susceptible to M. avium complex) and CBA/JN or C3H/He (resistant to M. avium complex), the smooth, opaque and dome-shaped colonial (SmD) variants of M. intracellulare were easily eliminated from the sites after week 2 of infection. In contrast, the smooth, transparent and irregularly shaped colonial (SmT) variants showed steady growth in the former strains of mice and persisted for long time even in the latter strains of mice. No difference was found between persistence of the organisms in euthymic (+/+) and athymic (nu/nu) BALB/c mice during the first 4 weeks after infection. Thereafter, more rapid growth was seen in the spleens and lungs of nu/nu mice. Thus, matured T cells may be important for the prevention of the progression of M. intracellulare infection to the terminal state. Next, the profiles of generation and characteristics of splenic M phi s which suppress the Con A mitogenic response of splenic T cells in host CBA/JN or BALB/c mice during the course of M. intracellulare infection were investigated. In M. intracellulare--infected mice, reduction in some cellular functions of host splenic T cells, such as the Con A mitogenic response and mixed leucocyte reaction, were seen around 2 weeks after infection, and this was accompanied by appearance of immunosuppressive M phi s in spleen cells (SPCs).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8301920

  13. LPS-inducible factor(s) from activated macrophages mediates cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Marciano-Cabral, F.

    1986-03-01

    Soluble cytolytic factors of macrophage origin have previously been described with respect to their tumoricidal activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and possible factor(s) responsible for cytolysis of the amoeba Naegleria fowleri by activated peritoneal macrophages from B6C3F1 mice. Macrophages or conditioned medium (CM) from macrophage cultures were incubated with /sup 3/H-Uridine labeled amoebae. Percent specific release of label served as an index of cytolysis. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum macrophages demonstrated significant cytolysis of amoebae at 24 h with an effector to target ratio of 10:1. Treatment of macrophages with inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis blocked amoebicidal activity. Interposition of a 1 ..mu..m pore membrane between macrophages and amoebae inhibited killing. Inhibition in the presence of the membrane was overcome by stimulating the macrophages with LPS. CM from SPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, cultures of activated macrophages was cytotoxic for amoebae. The activity was heat sensitive and was recovered from ammonium sulfate precipitation of the CM. Results indicate that amoebicidal activity is mediated by a protein(s) of macrophage origin induced by target cell contact or stimulation with LPS.

  14. The role of macrophages in the cytotoxic killing of tumour cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Ptak, W.; Hanczakowska, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Lymph node and spleen cells from normal mice were cultured for 3 days with polyoma virus-induced tumour, Ehrlich's ascites tumour or leukaemia L 1210 cells. This resulted in in vitro immunization of the lymphocytes, which were then transferred to irradiated target cells labelled with 51Cr. Normal, i.e. non-immune thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were also added to some tubes. Non-immune macrophages mixed with immunized lymphocytes showed a significantly increased ability to destroy tumour cells as compared with macrophages in the absence of immunized lymphocytes. The immunized lymphocytes were almost entirely inactive alone. When the number of macrophages was kept constant the cytotoxicity was dependent on the number of viable immunized lymphocytes placed on the target cells. Immunized lymphocytes, in the presence of macrophages, only exhibited strong killing of the target cells against which they had been immunized; some lysis of `bystander' cells was, however, seen provided specific target cells were present. Macrophage monolayers exposed to immunized lymphocytes upon contact with specific antigen became `armed' and showed a significant cytotoxicity for specific target cells. When immunized lymphocytes and normal macrophages were treated with actinomycin D and puromycin, cytotoxicity was inhibited in the immunized lymphocytes but not in the macrophages. The possible mechanism of normal macrophage cooperation with immunized lymphocytes in the cytotoxic killing reaction is discussed. Results presented in this paper favour the view that immunologically specific cytophilic factor (presumptive cytophilic antibody) is involved in the macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in the system studied. PMID:4356674

  15. Mice with a selective impairment of IFN-γ signaling in macrophage lineage cells demonstrate the critical role of IFN-γ activated macrophages for the control of protozoan parasitic infections in vivo1, 2

    PubMed Central

    Lykens, Jennifer E.; Terrell, Catherine E.; Zoller, Erin E.; Divanovic, Senad; Trompette, Aurelien; Karp, Christopher L.; Aliberti, Julio; Flick, Matthew J.; Jordan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    IFN-γ has long been recognized as a cytokine with potent and varied effects in the immune response. While its effects on specific cell types have been well studied in vitro, its in vivo effects are less clearly understood because of its diverse actions on many different cell types. While control of multiple protozoan parasites is thought to depend critically on the direct action of IFN-γ on macrophages, this premise has never been directly proven in vivo. In order to more directly examine the effects of IFN-γ on cells of the macrophage lineage in vivo, we generated mice called the ‘Macrophages Insensitive to Interferon Gamma’ (MIIG) mice, which express a dominant negative mutant IFN-γ receptor in CD68+ cells: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Macrophage lineage cells and mast cells from these mice are unable to respond to IFN-γ while other cells are able to produce and respond to this cytokine normally. When challenged in vitro, macrophages from MIIG mice were unable produce NO or kill Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania major after priming with IFN-γ. Furthermore, MIIG mice demonstrated impaired parasite control and heightened mortality after T. cruzi, L. major, and Toxoplasma gondii infection, despite an appropriate IFN-γ response. In contrast, MIIG mice displayed normal control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, despite persistent insensitivity of macrophages to IFN-γ. Thus, the MIIG mouse formally demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the specific importance of direct, IFN-γ mediated activation of macrophages for controlling infection with multiple protozoan parasites. “This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may

  16. Modulation of Macrophage Polarization and HMGB1-TLR2/TLR4 Cascade Plays a Crucial Role for Cardiac Remodeling in Senescence-Accelerated Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Palaniyandi, Suresh S.; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Quevedo, Joao; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of macrophage polarization in aging heart. Macrophage differentiation is pathogenically linked to many inflammatory and immune disorders. It is often preceded by myocardial inflammation, which is characterized by increased cardiac damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that senescence accelerated-prone (SAMP8) mice cardiac tissue would develop macrophage polarization compared with senescence-resistant control (SAMR1) mice. Both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice were sacrificed when they became six month old. We evaluated, histo-pathological changes and modifications in protein expression by Western blotting and immuno-histochemical staining for M1 and M2 macrophage markers, high mobility group protein (HMG)B1 and its cascade proteins, pro-inflammatory factors and inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue. We observed significant upregulation of HMGB1, toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, nuclear factor (NF)κB p65, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and M1 like macrophage specific marker cluster of differentiation (CD)68 expressions in SAMP8 heart. In contrast, M2 macrophage specific marker CD36, and IL-10 expressions were down-regulated in SAMP8 mice. The results from the study demonstrated that, HMGB1-TLR2/TLR4 signaling cascade and induction of phenotypic switching to M1 macrophage polarization in SAMP8 mice heart would be one of the possible reasons behind the cardiac dysfunction and thus it could become an important therapeutic target to improve the age related cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27070323

  17. Changes of Regulatory T Cells in the Early Stage of Obesity Mice and Their Modulation on Macrophage Subtypes in Visceral Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Tang, Xiao-Han; Tang, Li-Li; Yu, Hai-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Zhou, Zhi-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and whether Tregs can modulate the distribution of macrophage subtypes in visceral adipose tissue in the early stage of obesity.Methods After C57BL/6 mice obesity models were successfully established,metabolic parameters and numbers of Tregs and M1/M2 macrophage were measured at 4,10,and 20 weeks.The changes of metabolic parameters and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity mice after rapamycin intervention were evaluated. Results The early-stage obesity models were successfully established.Compared with normal diet mice,high fat diet mice had significantly higher epididymal adipose tissue mass and serum leptin levels(P<0.05).However,there was no statistical difference in blood glucose and insulin levels between these two groups(All P>0.05). Macrophages infiltration in adipose tissue in high fat diet mice gradually increased with time,coincident with decrease in Treg numbers. Increased numbers of Treg,improved metabolic parameters,and decreased ratio of M1/M2 can be seen after rapamycin intervention in mice.Conclusion The decrease of Tregs in the early stage of obesity may contribute to abnormal distribution of macrophage subtypes in visceral adipose. PMID:27594151

  18. Progression of Alport Kidney Disease in Col4a3 Knock Out Mice Is Independent of Sex or Macrophage Depletion by Clodronate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Munkyung; Piaia, Alessandro; Shenoy, Neeta; Kagan, David; Gapp, Berangere; Kueng, Benjamin; Weber, Delphine; Dietrich, William; Ksiazek, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a genetic disease of collagen IV (α3, 4, 5) resulting in renal failure. This study was designed to investigate sex-phenotype correlations and evaluate the contribution of macrophage infiltration to disease progression using Col4a3 knock out (Col4a3KO) mice, an established genetic model of autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. No sex differences in the evolution of body mass loss, renal pathology, biomarkers of tubular damage KIM-1 and NGAL, or deterioration of kidney function were observed during the life span of Col4a3KO mice. These findings confirm that, similar to human autosomal recessive Alport syndrome, female and male Col4a3KO mice develop renal failure at the same age and with similar severity. The specific contribution of macrophage infiltration to Alport disease, one of the prominent features of the disease in human and Col4a3KO mice, remains unknown. This study shows that depletion of kidney macrophages in Col4a3KO male mice by administration of clodronate liposomes, prior to clinical onset of disease and throughout the study period, does not protect the mice from renal failure and interstitial fibrosis, nor delay disease progression. These results suggest that therapy targeting macrophage recruitment to kidney is unlikely to be effective as treatment of Alport syndrome. PMID:26555339

  19. Paeonol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cells and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Liu, Dianfeng; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Sun, Jingjing; Zhong, Weiting; Guo, Weixiao; Huo, Meixia; Li, Hongyu; Guan, Shuang; Chen, Zhenwen; Feng, Haihua

    2014-06-01

    Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is the main phenolic compound of the radix of Paeonia suffruticosa which has been used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we primarily investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeonol in RAW macrophage cells; and based on these effects, we assessed the protective effects of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. The in vitro study showed that paeonol regulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 via inactivation of IκBα, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are significantly regulated, and thus the survival rates of lipolysaccharide-challenged mice are improved by paeonol (150, 200, or 250 mg/kg). Therefore, paeonol has a beneficial activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell and mouse models. PMID:23413967

  20. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1986-03-05

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of /sup 125/-I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses.

  1. Splenic B cells from Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice ameliorate colitis independent of T cells and via cooperation with macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Wang, Arthur; Fernando, Maria R; Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; van Rooijen, Nico; Sigvardsson, Mikael; McKay, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites provoke multicellular immune responses in their hosts that can suppress concomitant disease. The gut lumen-dwelling tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, unlike other parasites assessed as helminth therapy, causes no host tissue damage while potently suppressing murine colitis. With the goal of harnessing the immunomodulatory capacity of infection with H. diminuta, we assessed the putative generation of anti-colitic regulatory B cells following H. diminuta infection. Splenic CD19(+) B cells isolated from mice infected 7 [HdBc(7(d))] and 14 d (but not 3 d) previously with H. diminuta and transferred to naive mice significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-, oxazolone-, and dextran-sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Mechanistic studies with the DNBS model, revealed the anti-colitic HdBc(7(d)) was within the follicular B cell population and its phenotype was not dependent on IL-4 or IL-10. The HdBc(7(d)) were not characterized by increased expression of CD1d, CD5, CD23, or IL-10 production, but did spontaneously, and upon LPS plus anti-CD40 stimulation, produce more TGF-β than CD19(+) B cells from controls. DNBS-induced colitis in RAG1(-/-) mice was inhibited by administration of HdBc(7(d)), indicating a lack of a requirement for T and B cells in the recipient; however, depletion of macrophages in recipient mice abrogated the anti-colitic effect of HdBc(7(d)). Thus, in response to H. diminuta, a putatively unique splenic CD19(+) B cell with a functional immunoregulatory program is generated that promotes the suppression of colitis dominated by TH1, TH2, or TH1-plus-TH2 events, and may do so via the synthesis of TGF-β and the generation of, or cooperation with, a regulatory macrophage. PMID:25452561

  2. Baicalin ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease through polarization of macrophages to an M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Jin, Zaishun; Yu, Jianbo; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qingdong; Li, Fujuan; Shi, Xuekui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. Baicalin, originally isolated from the root of the Chinese herb Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) and its main active ingredient, has a protective effect against inflammatory responses in several diseases. The present study investigated the effects of baicalin on macrophage polarization and its therapeutic role in IBD. Murine peritoneal macrophages and mice with colitis were treated with baicalin. Macrophage subset distribution, M1 and M2 macrophage-associated mRNA expression, and interferon regulatory factor 4 and 5 (IRF4 and IRF5) expression were analyzed. siRNA transfection into mouse peritoneal macrophages was utilized to suppress IRF4. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, western blot, and real-time PCR analyses were performed. Baicalin (50μM) limited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced M1 macrophage polarization; decreased LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-23, and IRF5 expression; and increased IL-10, arginase-1 (Arg-1), and IRF4 expression. siRNA-mediated IRF4 silencing significantly impaired baicalin activity. Furthermore, pretreatment with baicalin (100mg/kg) in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis ameliorated the severity of colitis and significantly decreased the disease activity index (baicalin group, 3.33±0.52 vs. DSS group, 5.67±1.03). Baicalin (100mg/kg) also repressed IRF5 protein expression and promoted IRF4 protein expression in the lamina propria mononuclear cells, and induced macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype. In summary, our results showed that baicalin upregulates IRF4 protein expression and reverses LPS-induced macrophage subset redistribution. Thus, baicalin alleviates DSS-induced colitis by modulating macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype. PMID:27039210

  3. Recent developments in the assessment of the immune response to malaria, especially as related to vaccination: Lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria: the role of macrophages in normal and immunized mice

    PubMed Central

    Playfair, J. H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Mice were injected with silica or Corynebacterium parvum, which, respectively, inhibit and stimulate macrophages in vivo, in an attempt to study the role of macrophages in lethal Plasmodium yoelii infection and in mice protected by immunization. In the normal infection, macrophages were able to control parasitaemia for up to 1 week, whereas in immunized mice they appeared to inhibit the sterilizing immune response. A model is proposed in which this dual role of activated macrophages may account for the chronic non-sterilizing course of natural malaria infections. PMID:317443

  4. Vaspin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis by inhibiting ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis in apoE‑/‑ mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Zhuang, Jianhui; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Guofu; Zhou, Shunping; Li, Weiming; Peng, Wenhui; Xu, Yawei

    2016-02-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipokine with potential insulin-sensitizing properties, which was initially detected in the visceral adipose tissue of genetically obese rats. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaspin exerts a protective effect on arteries undergoing atherosclerosis in vitro, and it has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antimigratory effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. Vaspin promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells, and decreases proliferation of the arterial intima under diabetic conditions. In addition, macrophage apoptosis is an important characteristic of atherosclerotic plaque development. In vivo experiments were performed by histological analysis, including Oil Red O, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Mice were injected with lentivirus via the tail vein and tissues were obtained for histological analysis. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of Annexin-V/propidium iodide dual staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay. Total proteins were extracted and protein expression levels were detected by western blot analysis. The present study aimed to investigate whether vaspin was able to protect against atherosclerotic development in vivo, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the potential antiatherogenic effects. The results of the current study indicated that vaspin inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic plaques in apoE(‑/‑) mice by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. PMID:26708512

  5. Fluorescent Ly6G antibodies determine macrophage phagocytosis of neutrophils and alter the retrieval of neutrophils in mice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Kirsten; Schmitt, Fee; Autenrieth, Stella E; Dillmann, Inken; Nürnberg, Bernd; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Fluorescently labeled Ly6G antibodies enable the tracking of neutrophils in mice, whereas purified anti-Ly6G rapidly depletes neutrophils from the circulation. The mechanisms underlying neutrophil depletion are still under debate. Here, we examined how identical Ly6G antibodies coupled to different fluorochromes affect neutrophil fate in vivo. BM cells stained with Ly6G antibodies were injected into mice. The number of retrieved anti-Ly6G-FITC(+) cells was reduced significantly in comparison with anti-Ly6G-APC(+) or anti-Ly6G-PE(+) cells. Flow cytometry and multispectral imaging flow cytometry analyses revealed that anti-Ly6G-FITC(+) neutrophils were preferentially phagocytosed by BMMs in vitro and by splenic, hepatic, and BM macrophages in vivo. Direct antibody injection of anti-Ly6G-FITC but not anti-Ly6G-PE depleted neutrophils to the same degree as purified anti-Ly6G, indicating that the FITC-coupled antibody eliminates neutrophils by a similar mechanism as the uncoupled antibody. With the use of a protein G-binding assay, we demonstrated that APC and PE but not FITC coupling inhibited access to interaction sites on the anti-Ly6G antibody. We conclude the following: 1) that neutrophil phagocytosis by macrophages is a central mechanism in anti-Ly6G-induced neutrophil depletion and 2) that fluorochrome-coupling can affect functional properties of anti-Ly6G antibodies, thereby modifying macrophage uptake of Ly6G-labeled neutrophils and neutrophil retrieval following adoptive cell transfer or injection of fluorescent anti-Ly6G. PMID:26019296

  6. Autoimmune Kidney Disease and Impaired Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells in Mice with Macrophage Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ or Retinoid X Receptor α Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rőszer, Tamás; Menéndez-Gutiérrez, María P.; Lefterova, Martina I.; Alameda, Daniel; Núñez, Vanessa; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Fischer, Thierry; Ricote, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune glomerulonephritis is a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we show that mice lacking macrophage expression of the heterodimeric nuclear receptors PPARγ or RXRα develop glomerulonephritis and autoantibodies to nuclear Ags, resembling the nephritis seen in SLE. These mice show deficiencies in phagocytosis and clearance of apoptotic cells, and they are unable to acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype upon feeding of apoptotic cells, which is critical for the maintenance of self-tolerance. These results demonstrate that stimulation of PPARγ and RXRα in macrophages facilitates apoptotic cell engulfment, and they provide a potential strategy to avoid autoimmunity against dying cells and to attenuate SLE. PMID:21135166

  7. Confirmation of destruction of salmonellae within murine peritoneal exudate cells by immunocytochemical technique.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F R; Hsu, H S; Mumaw, V R; Moncure, C W

    1989-01-01

    A procedure was developed with which peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) preparations were fixed in a glutaraldehyde-picric acid mixture, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, embedded in LR White resin and then stained with immunogold probe. It provided tissue sections showing both well-defined ultrastructures as well as specifically labelled Salmonella O antigens by electron microscopy. Inbred, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 2 x 10(7) virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Peritoneal exudate cells were harvested at 16 and 20 hr after infection. Disintegrating intracellular bacteria were identified as salmonellae by the immunogold markers. Deposition of gold particles in the cytoplasm of phagocytes also indicated that intracellular debris contained digested pathogen. This investigation therefore confirms previous findings of the destruction of salmonellae within inflammatory polymorphs and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2668159

  8. Epigenetic Modulation in Periodontitis: Interaction of Adiponectin and JMJD3-IRF4 Axis in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Dongying; Han, Qianqian; Tu, Qisheng; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Liming; Murry, Dana; Tu, Tianchi; Tang, Yin; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Valverde, Paloma; Zhang, Jincai; Chen, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests an important role for epigenetic mechanisms in modulating signals during macrophage polarization and inflammation. JMJD3, a JmjC family histone demethylase necessary for M2 polarization is also required for effective induction of multiple M1 genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the effects of JMJD3 to inflammation in the context of obesity remains unknown. To address this deficiency, we firstly examined the expression of JMJD3 in macrophage isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of diet induced obesity (DIO) mice. The results indicated that JMJD3 was down-regulated in obesity. Adiponectin (APN), a factor secreted by adipose tissue which is down-regulated in obesity, functions to switch macrophage polarization from M1 to M2, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation. Intriguingly, our results indicated that APN contributed to JMJD3 up-regulation, reduced macrophage infiltration in obese adipose tissue, and abolished the up-regulation of JMJD3 in peritoneal macrophages isolated from DIO mice when challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (pg.lps). To elucidate the interaction of APN and JMJD3 involved in macrophage transformation in the context of inflammation, we designed the loss and gain-function experiments of APN in vivo with APN(-/-) mice with experimental periodontitis and in vitro with macrophage isolated from APN(-/-) mice. For the first time, we found that APN can help to reduce periodontitis-related bone loss, modulate JMJD3 and IRF4 expression, and macrophage infiltration. Therefore, it can be inferred that APN may contribute to anti-inflammation macrophage polarization by regulating JMJD3 expression, which provides a basis for macrophage-centered epigenetic therapeutic strategies. PMID:26399931

  9. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  10. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-09-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, /sup 89/Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after /sup 89/Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after /sup 89/Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before /sup 89/Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after /sup 89/Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the /sup 89/Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with /sup 89/Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment.

  11. The significance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages against encephalomyocarditis (EMC)-D virus-induced diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Kounoue, Etsushi; Izumi, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Shuichiro; Kondo, Shiori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Mine; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Kurisaki, Hironori; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of protective mechanisms against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced diabetes in mice, we studied the relative importance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages in the prevention of virus-induced diabetes. Neither T cell-deficient athymic nude mice nor B cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice showed an enhanced clinical course of EMC-D virus-induced diabetes, indicating that neither T cells nor B cells played a major role in the protection against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. Transfer of a large amount of antiserum to EMC-D-virus-infected mice protected the development of diabetes only when transferred within 36 h of infection, the timing of which was earlier than that for the production of natural neutralizing antibodied. Since pretreatment of mice with the macrophage-activating immunopotentiator Corynebacterium parvum (CP) completely prevented the development of diabetes, we studied the clinical outcome of EMC-D-virus-infected mice pretreated with CP. Mice treated with CP showed reduced proliferation of EMC-D virus in the affected organs, including the pancreas, while the levels of development of neutralizing antibody and serum interferon were not enhanced compared with the controls. Finally, we studied the macrophages derived from mice pretreated with CP and found that they inhibited the growth of EMC-D virus in vitro more than those derived from non-treated and thioglycolate-treated mice. Taken together, it can be suggested that neither T cells nor B cells, which have to do with adaptive immunity, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes, while innate immunity, which is dependent on activated macrophages, contributes to in vivo resistance against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. PMID:18500429

  12. Intra- and extracellular activities of dicloxacillin and linezolid against a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain with a small-colony-variant phenotype in an in vitro model of THP-1 macrophages and an in vivo mouse peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Anne; Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Hughes, Diarmaid; von Eiff, Christof; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-04-01

    The small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with difficult-to-treat infections, reduced antimicrobial susceptibility, and intracellular persistence. This study represents a detailed intra- and extracellular investigation of a clinical wild-type (WT) S. aureus strain and its counterpart with an SCV phenotype both in vitro and in vivo, using the THP-1 cell line model and the mouse peritonitis model, respectively. Bacteria of both phenotypes infected the mouse peritoneum intra- and extracellularly. The SCV phenotype was less virulent and showed distinct bacterial clearance, a reduced multiplication capacity, and a reduced internalization ability. However, some of the SCV-infected mice were still culture positive up to 96 h postinfection, and bacteria of this phenotype could spread to the mouse kidney and furthermore revert to the more virulent WT phenotype in both the mouse peritoneum and kidney. The SCV phenotype is therefore, despite reduced virulence, an important player in S. aureus pathogenesis. In the THP-1 cell line model, both dicloxacillin (DCX) and linezolid (LZD) reduced the intracellular inocula of bacteria of both phenotypes by approximately 1 to 1.5 log(10) in vitro, while DCX was considerably more effective against extracellular bacteria. In the mouse peritonitis model, DCX and LZD were also able to control both intra- and extracellular infections caused by either phenotype. Treatment with a single dose of DCX and LZD was, however, insufficient to clear the SCVs in the kidneys, and the risk of recurrent infection remained. This stresses the importance of an optimal dosing of the antibiotic when SCVs are present. PMID:21282430

  13. Neonatal lead exposure changes quality of sperm and number of macrophages in testes of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pace, Beata M; Lawrence, David A; Behr, Melissa J; Parsons, Patrick J; Dias, James A

    2005-06-01

    BALB/c mice were exposed to 0.1 ppm lead acetate in the drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 1 for 6 weeks. Until PND21, lead exposure was from mother's milk; thereafter, it was directly from the drinking water. The blood lead levels were the highest in pups before weaning (59.5+/-0.9 microg/dL) and significantly lower between PND21 and PND42 (20.3+/-4.7 microg/dL). At PND42, lead-exposed male mice were tested for fertility, sperm DNA, and macrophage number. Mating of lead-treated males with non-treated females confirmed the reduction of fertility in the exposed males. Flow cytometric studies of testicular preparations indicated that the sperm count was not different between lead-exposed and control males; however, the lead-treated mice had a significant increase in the number of testicular cells having a < 1n amount of DNA, which coincided with a decrease in the number of testicular cells with a 2n and 4n amount of DNA. The number of testicular macrophages also was decreased in lead-exposed males, which could reflect altered levels of CSF-1 or response to CSF-1, as previously reported [Kowolenko, M., Tracy, L., Lawrence, D.A., 1989. Lead-induced alterations of in vitro bone marrow cell responses to colony stimulating factor-1. J. Leukoc. Biol. 45, 198-206]. Our study showed that exposure to 0.1 ppm of lead during the neonatal and adolescent period is sufficient to reduce fertility in adult male mice; however, it did not affect sperm count on PND42. The presence of an increased number of apoptotic (< 1n amount of DNA) testicular cells may be diagnostic of defective sperm function. Thus, an administered dose of 0.1 ppm via drinking water ingestion by neonatal male BALB/c mice sufficient to produce PbB of 20-60 mg/dL compromised reproductive function in these mice as adults. PMID:15840438

  14. Proliferation and colony-forming ability of peritoneal exudate cells in liquid culture.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C C; Lin, H S; Adles, C

    1975-05-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells, obtained from mice injected with thioglycollate medium and cultured in medium containing L-cell-conditioned medium, will proliferate in an exponential fashion for 18 days with a doubling time of 68 h. After a 2 h pulse of tritiated thymidine, labeled adherent cells increased to a maximum of 22-34% during the 1st and 2nd wk of culture. Increasing the cell concentration from 2 times 10-3 to 2 times 10-5 cells/culture reduced exponential growth to 10 days and the doubling time was increased to 81.6 h. Under these culture conditions, peritoneal exudate cells were shown to form colonies on the surface of culture dishes when plated at low density. The cells within the colony were shown to be macrophages using yeast and antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes as a test for phagocytic function. The plating efficiolonies arose from a single precursor cell. The adherent cell population contains the colony-forming precursors. These precursors can be stimulated to form colonies for at least 2 wk by the addition of conditioned medium to cultures at various times after plating. While very few colony-forming cells could be demonstrated in the unstimulated peritoneal lavage, their numbers begin to increase in the exudate 4 h after injection of thioglycollate medium and reach a maximum by day 3 and then decrease. Isolated colonies may be useful in studying the function of macrophages. PMID:1092793

  15. Role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Mbawuike, I N; Herscowitz, H B

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. Comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the PFC response, resident AM or AM activated as a result of intravenous injection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were equally suppressive at the doses examined. Although there was a similar dose-dependent suppression with peritoneal macrophages, BCG-activated cells were more suppressive of the PFC response than were resident cells. In contrast, splenic macrophages at comparable concentrations were not at all suppressive. Resident AM exhibited significantly lower levels of 5'-nucleotidase activity than did resident peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-mediated suppression of the in vitro PFC response could not be attributed to the release of toxic oxygen metabolites (H2O2, O2- ,and .OH) or prostaglandins, since the addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2-mercaptoethanol, or indomethacin did not completely reverse suppression. These results suggest that the lung microenvironment may maintain AM in an activated state which contributes to their potential immunoregulatory functions. PMID:2830191

  16. Resveratrol attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced macrophage migration to visceral white adipose tissue and insulin resistance in male mice.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Alba; Zhang, Shelley X L; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Peris, Eduard; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David

    2015-02-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), as occurs in sleep apnea, promotes systemic insulin resistance. Resveratrol (Resv) has been reported to ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of Resv on IH-induced metabolic dysfunction, male mice were subjected to IH or room air conditions for 8 weeks and treated with either Resv or vehicle (Veh). Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin were obtained, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index levels were calculated, and insulin sensitivity tests (phosphorylated AKT [also known as protein kinase B]/total AKT) were performed in 2 visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) depots (epididymal [Epi] and mesenteric [Mes]) along with flow cytometry assessments for VWAT macrophages and phenotypes (M1 and M2). IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice showed initial reductions in food intake with later recovery, with resultant lower body weights after 8 weeks but with IH-Resv showing better increases in body weight vs IH-Veh. IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, but only IH-Veh had increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index vs all 3 other groups. Leptin levels were preserved in IH-Veh but were significantly lower in IH-Resv. Reduced VWAT phosphorylated-AKT/AKT responses to insulin emerged in both Mes and Epi in IH-Veh but normalized in IH-Resv. Increases total macrophage counts and in M1 to M2 ratios occurred in IH-Veh Mes and Epi compared all other 3 groups. Thus, Resv ameliorates food intake and weight gain during IH exposures and markedly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance, thereby providing a potentially useful adjunctive therapy for metabolic morbidity in the context of sleep apnea. PMID:25406018

  17. 3AE8: monoclonal antibody defining inflammatory macrophages in three species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Yen, S E; Walker, W S

    1984-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb 3AE8) of the IgG1 isotype was prepared against rabbit splenocytes and was found by indirect immunofluorescence and direct binding assays to react, in the rabbit, primarily with oil-induced peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM phi). This MAb did not bind to rabbit T cells, B cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or resident alveolar or peritoneal M phi but it did bind to a subpopulation of rabbit splenocytes with surface characteristics of null cells. The antibody also recognized mouse and rat PEM phi as well as the murine M phi cell lines P388D1 and IC-21. Consistent with findings in the rabbit, it did not bind to M phi obtained from the peritoneal cavities of rats or mice. The addition of MAb 3AE8 to mouse PEM phi caused a marked enhancement in the phagocytic uptake of erythrocyte target cells sensitized with a mouse antierythrocyte antiserum. PMID:6480022

  18. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-03-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast.

  19. Participation of the Salmonella OmpD Porin in the Infection of RAW264.7 Macrophages and BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Monsalva, Debbie; Bustamante, Victor H.; Luraschi, Roberto; Alegría-Arcos, Melissa; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Aguayo, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L.; Gil, Fernando; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Morales, Eduardo H.; Calva, Edmundo; Saavedra, Claudia P.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is the etiological agent of gastroenteritis in humans and enteric fever in mice. Inside these hosts, Salmonella must overcome hostile conditions to develop a successful infection, a process in which the levels of porins may be critical. Herein, the role of the Salmonella Typhimurium porin OmpD in the infection process was assessed for adherence, invasion and proliferation in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages and in BALB/c mice. In cultured macrophages, a ΔompD strain exhibited increased invasion and proliferation phenotypes as compared to its parental strain. In contrast, overexpression of ompD caused a reduction in bacterial proliferation but did not affect adherence or invasion. In the murine model, the ΔompD strain showed increased ability to survive and replicate in target organs of infection. The ompD transcript levels showed a down-regulation when Salmonella resided within cultured macrophages and when it colonized target organs in infected mice. Additionally, cultured macrophages infected with the ΔompD strain produced lower levels of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that down-regulation of ompD could favor replication of Salmonella inside macrophages and the subsequent systemic dissemination, by limiting the reactive oxygen species response of the host. PMID:25360745

  20. IL-3/GM-CSF receptor promotes stem cell expansion, monocytosis, and atheroma macrophage burden in mice with hematopoietic Apoe deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mi; Subramanian, Manikandan; Abramowicz, Sandra; Murphy, Andrew J.; Gonen, Ayelet; Witztum, Joseph; Welch, Carrie; Tabas, Ira; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Coronary heart disease is associated with monocytosis. Studies using animal models of monocytosis and atherosclerosis such as Apoe-/- mice have shown bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and multi-potential progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion, associated with increased cell surface expression of the common β subunit of the GM-CSF/IL-3 receptor (CBS) on HSPCs. Apoe-/- mice also display increased GM-CSF-dependent monocyte production in the spleen. We investigated the role of the CBS in cholesterol-driven HSPC expansion, monocytosis and atherosclerosis. Approach and Results Ldlr-/- mice were transplanted with Apoe-/-Cbs-/- or Apoe-/- BM followed by Western-type diet (WTD) feeding. Compared to Apoe-/- BM transplanted controls, Apoe-/-Cbs-/- BM transplanted mice had reduced BM and splenic HSPC proliferation, fewer blood monocytes and neutrophils, and reduced macrophage content and area of early atherosclerotic lesions. More advanced lesions showed diminished macrophage and collagen content; however, lesion size was unchanged reflecting an increase in necrotic core area, associated with a marked decrease in Abcg1 expression and increased macrophage apoptosis. Compared with wild-type mice, WTD-fed Apoe-/- mice showed increased CBS expression on GM-CSF-producing innate response activator (IRA) B cells and expansion of this population. Apoe-/-Cbs-/- BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice showed a marked decrease in IRA B cells compared to Apoe-/- BM transplanted Ldlr-/- controls. Conclusions Increased levels of CBS on HSPCs and splenic IRA B cells leads to expansion of these populations in Apoe-/- BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice, contributing to monocytosis and increased lesional macrophage content. However, in more advanced lesions, the CBS also has a role in atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. PMID:24651678

  1. M2 macrophage accumulation in the aortic wall during angiotensin II infusion in mice is associated with fibrosis, elastin loss, and elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey P; Vinh, Antony; Tuck, Kellie L; Sakkal, Samy; Krishnan, Shalini M; Chan, Christopher T; Lieu, Maggie; Samuel, Chrishan S; Diep, Henry; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Tare, Marianne; Ricardo, Sharon D; Guzik, Tomasz J; Sobey, Christopher G; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in blood vessels during hypertension. However, their contribution to vessel remodeling is unknown. In the present study, we examined the polarization state of macrophages (M1/M2) in aortas of mice during hypertension and investigated whether antagonism of chemokine receptors involved in macrophage accumulation reduces vessel remodeling and blood pressure (BP). Mice treated with ANG II (0.7 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 14 days) had elevated systolic BP (158 ± 3 mmHg) compared with saline-treated animals (122 ± 3 mmHg). Flow cytometry revealed that ANG II infusion increased numbers of CD45(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes and CD45(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) macrophages by 10- and 2-fold, respectively. The majority of macrophages were positive for the M2 marker CD206 but negative for the M1 marker inducible nitric oxide synthase. Expression of other M2 genes (arginase-1, Fc receptor-like S scavenger receptor, and receptor-1) was elevated in aortas from ANG II-treated mice, whereas M1 genes [TNF and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2] were unaltered. A PCR array to identify chemokine receptor targets for intervention revealed chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) to be upregulated in aortas from ANG II-treated mice, while flow cytometry identified Ly6C(hi) monocytes as the main CCR2-expressing cell type. Intervention with a CCR2 antagonist (INCB3344; 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), 7 days after the commencement of ANG II infusion, reduced aortic macrophage numbers. INCB334 also reduced aortic collagen deposition, elastin loss, and BP in ANG II-treated mice. Thus, ANG II-dependent hypertension in mice is associated with Ly6C(hi) monocyte and M2 macrophage accumulation in the aorta. Inhibition of macrophage accumulation with a CCR2 antagonist prevents ANG II-induced vessel fibrosis and elevated BP, highlighting this as a promising approach for the future treatment of vessel remodeling/stiffening in hypertension. PMID:26071547

  2. Cell-Surface and Secreted Isoforms of CSF-1 Exert Opposing Roles in Macrophage-Mediated Neural Damage in Cx32-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ranu; Stanley, E. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in myelin-mutant mouse models of the inherited and incurable nerve disorder, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, have demonstrated that low-grade secondary inflammation implicating phagocytosing macrophages amplifies demyelination, Schwann cell dedifferentiation and perturbation of axons. The cytokine colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) acts as an important regulator of these macrophage-related disease mechanisms, as genetic and pharmacologic approaches to block the CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling result in a significant alleviation of pathological alterations in mutant peripheral nerves. In mouse models of CMT1A and CMT1X, as well as in human biopsies, CSF-1 is predominantly expressed by endoneurial fibroblasts, which are closely associated with macrophages, suggesting local stimulatory mechanisms. Here we investigated the impact of cell-surface and secreted isoforms of CSF-1 on macrophage-related disease in connexin32-deficient (Cx32def) mice, a mouse model of CMT1X. Our present observations suggest that the secreted proteoglycan isoform (spCSF-1) is predominantly expressed by fibroblasts, whereas the membrane-spanning cell-surface isoform (csCSF-1) is expressed by macrophages. Using crossbreeding approaches to selectively restore or overexpress distinct isoforms in CSF-1-deficient (osteopetrotic) Cx32def mice, we demonstrate that both isoforms equally regulate macrophage numbers dose-dependently. However, spCSF-1 mediates macrophage activation and macrophage-related neural damage, whereas csCSF-1 inhibits macrophage activation and attenuates neuropathy. These results further corroborate the important role of secondary inflammation in mouse models of CMT1 and might identify specific targets for therapeutic approaches to modulate innate immune reactions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mouse models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy have indicated that low-grade secondary inflammation involving phagocytosing macrophages amplifies demyelination, Schwann cell

  3. Notch-Hes-1 axis controls TLR7-mediated autophagic death of macrophage via induction of P62 in mice with lupus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xuefang; Shi, Guoping; Ren, Jing; Ji, Jianjian; Ding, Liang; Fan, Hongye; Dou, Huan; Hou, Yayi

    2016-01-01

    The increased death of macrophages has been considered as a pathogenic factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and dysfunction of autophagy may contribute to improper cell death. However, the effect of autophagy on macrophage during the pathogenesis of SLE is still unclear. Here we found that the death rate and autophagy level of macrophages significantly increased in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. Activation of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) triggered macrophage death in an autophagy-dependent but caspase-independent way in vitro. Moreover, P62/SQSTM1 is thought to have an essential role in selective autophagy. We also demonstrated that P62/SQSTM1 was required for TLR7-induced autophagy, and knockdown of P62 suppressed R848-induced cell death and LC3II protein accumulation. As an important mediator for cell-cell communication, Notch signaling is responsible for cell-fate decisions. Our results showed that activation of TLR7 also upregulated the expression of Notch1, especially its downstream target gene Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) in macrophages. Of note, we found that Hes-1, as a transcriptional factor, controlled TLR7-induced autophagy by regulating P62 expression. Furthermore, to confirm the above results in vivo, TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ)-induced lupus mouse model was prepared. Splenic macrophages from IMQ-treated mice exhibited increased autophagy and cell death as well as enhanced expressions of Notch1 and Hes-1. Our results indicate that Notch1-Hes-1 signaling controls TLR7-induced autophagic death of macrophage via regulation of P62 in mice with lupus. PMID:27537524

  4. Activation of mouse macrophages causes no change in expression and function of phorbol diesters' receptors, but is accompanied by alterations in the activity and kinetic parameters of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Berton, G; Cassatella, M; Cabrini, G; Rossi, F

    1985-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages activated in vivo by the injection of Corynebacterium parvum release larger amounts of superoxide anion (O2-) than macrophages from control mice when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The biochemical bases for this enhanced response of activated macrophages have been investigated by studying the expression and function of receptors for the stimulant, and the activity of the enzyme NADPH oxidase which is responsible for the production of O2- in leucocytes. Studies of binding of phorbol dibutyrate, an agent closely related to PMA, showed that the affinity constants (Kds) and the number of binding sites were the same in resident and activated peritoneal macrophages. The activity of the NADPH oxidase was, however, different in the two macrophage populations which differ in their capacity to release O2-. NADPH oxidase activity was studied in macrophage monolayers after lysis with deoxycholate. The main features of this activity were as follows: stimulation of macrophages with PMA or zymosan caused an increase in NADPH-dependent O2- production; NADPH oxidase activity in the lysates followed the same dose-response curve for different concentrations of PMA as O2- release by intact macrophages; O2- release by intact macrophages could be fully accounted for by NADPH-dependent O2- production by macrophage lysates; activity was strictly substrate-specific, in that NADH could not substitute for NADPH; after stimulation with PMA or zymosan, NADPH oxidase activity was higher in lysates of C. parvum-activated macrophages than in lysates of resident macrophages; NADPH oxidase activities of activated and resident macrophages differed markedly in their kinetic parameters. The NADPH oxidase of macrophages activated by C. parvum or trehalose dimycolate of mycobacterial origin displayed a five to seven times lower Km compared to the enzyme in resident macrophages. PMID:2981767

  5. Restoration of prostaglandin releasing macrophage populations in lethally irradiated mice with spleen cells from bone marrow-depleted donors

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Volkman, A. )

    1991-04-01

    Previous studies in mice severely depleted of bone marrow cells by 89Sr showed persistent monocytopenia and impaired expression of prostaglandin E2-releasing splenic macrophages (PGSM) despite the occurrence in the spleen of more than 10-fold increases in pluripotential stem cells and M phi colony-forming cells. To determine whether the observed deficits were due to a lack of precursors of blood monocytes and PGSM in the spleens of 89Sr-treated mice, radiation chimeras were established by i.v. infusion of 2 x 10(6) spleen cells from 89Sr donor CBA/J or semisyngeneic B6CB F1 hybrid mice into lethally gamma-irradiated CBA/J recipients. Blood monocyte levels were greater than normal by day 14 and PGSM induced by Corynebacterium parvum were demonstrated by day 28. These restored M phi populations expressed the donor haplotype detected in vitro with haplotype-specific monoclonal anti-H-2K plus complement. 89Sr treatment of the chimeras resulted in profound depletion of monocytes and PGSM. The data indicate that the spleen of the 89Sr-treated mouse, which is an ineffective source of circulating monocytes and PGSM, contains cells which can generate both of these populations following infusion into lethally irradiated recipients. Since the bone marrow of such recipients was capable of being repopulated, the aggregate observations suggest that functional bone marrow is obligatory for the generation of blood monocytes and PGSM populations.

  6. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment results in recovery of motor function after white matter damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jennifer K; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Zhang, Min; Smith, Patrice D

    2016-01-01

    Clinical stroke usually results from a cerebral ischaemic event, and is frequently a debilitating condition with limited treatment options. A significant proportion of clinical strokes result from specific damage to the subcortical white matter (SWM), but currently there are few animal models available to investigate the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies to promote recovery. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that has been previously shown to promote neuroprotective effects after brain damage; however, the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Here, it is reported that GM-CSF treatment results in dramatic functional improvement in a white matter model of stroke in mice. SWM stroke was induced in mice by unilateral injections of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). The results reveal that ET-1-induced stroke impairs skilled motor function on the single pellet-reaching task and results in forelimb asymmetry, in adult mice. Treatment with GM-CSF, after stroke, restores motor function and abolishes forelimb asymmetry. The results also indicate that GM-CSF promotes its effects by activating mammalian target of rapamycin signalling mechanisms in the brain following stroke injury. Additionally, a significant increase in GM-CSF receptor expression was found in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the ET-1-injected brain. Taken together, the present study highlights the use of an under-utilized mouse model of stroke (using ET-1) and suggests that GM-CSF treatment can attenuate ET-1-induced functional deficits. PMID:26474338

  7. Calcitriol inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhu-Xia; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, Shen; Qin, Hou-Ying; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang; Zhao, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury is a common complication of sepsis in intensive care unit patients with an extremely high mortality. The present study investigated the effects of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.0mg/kg) to establish the animal model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Some mice were i.p. injected with calcitriol (1.0μg/kg) before LPS injection. An obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs was observed beginning at 1h after LPS injection. Correspondingly, TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates were markedly elevated in LPS-treated mice. Interestingly, calcitriol obviously alleviated LPS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs. Moreover, calcitriol markedly attenuated LPS-induced elevation of TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates. Further analysis showed that calcitriol repressed LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. In addition, calcitriol blocked LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50 subunit in the lungs. Taken together, these results suggest that calcitriol inhibits inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-induced acute lung injury. PMID:27216047

  8. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Buras, Eric Dale; Yang, Lina; Saha, Pradip; Kim, Jongoh; Mehta, Pooja; Yang, Yisheng; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Kojima, Hideto; Chen, Wenhao; Smith, C Wayne; Chan, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to lead to ATM accumulation in rodents; however, the impact of hyperglycemia on ATM dynamics in HFD-fed type 2 diabetic models has not been studied. We previously showed that hyperglycemia induces the appearance of proinsulin (PI)-producing proinflammatory bone marrow (BM)-derived cells (PI-BMDCs) in rodents. We fed a 60% HFD to C57BL6/J mice to produce an obese type 2 diabetes model. Absent in chow-fed animals, PI-BMDCs account for 60% of the ATMs in the type 2 diabetic mice. The PI-ATM subset expresses TNF-α and other inflammatory markers, and is highly enriched within crownlike structures (CLSs). We found that amelioration of hyperglycemia by different hypoglycemic agents forestalled PI-producing ATM accumulation and adipose inflammation in these animals. We developed a diphtheria toxin receptor-based strategy to selectively ablate PI-BMDCs among ATMs. Application of the maneuver in HFD-fed type 2 diabetic mice was found to lead to near total disappearance of complex CLSs and reversal of insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis in these animals. In sum, we have identified a novel ATM subset in type 2 diabetic rodents that underlies systemic insulin resistance. PMID:25953849

  9. The Macrophage-depleting Agent Clodronate Promotes Durable Hematopoietic Chimerism and Donor-specific Skin Allograft Tolerance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanzhuo; Xu, Xin; Feng, Xingmin; Murphy, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism is known to promote donor-specific organ allograft tolerance; however, clinical translation has been impeded by the requirement for toxic immunosuppression and large doses of donor bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we investigated in mice whether durable chimerism might be enhanced by pre-treatment of the recipient with liposomal clodronate, a macrophage depleting agent, with the goal of vacating BM niches for preferential reoccupation by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We found that liposomal clodronate pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice permitted establishment of durable hematopoietic chimerism when the mice were given a low dose of donor BM cells and transient immunosuppression. Moreover, clodronate pre-treatment increased durable donor-specific BALB/c skin allograft tolerance. These results provide proof-of-principle that clodronate is effective at sparing the number of donor BM cells required to achieve durable hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific skin allograft tolerance and justify further development of a tolerance protocol based on this principle. PMID:26917238

  10. The role of toll-like receptor 9 in chronic stress-induced apoptosis in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yanxiao; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Qi; Hanley, Gregory; Caudle, Yi; LeSage, Gene; Zhang, Xiumei; Yin, Deling

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence implied that chronic stress has been exerting detrimental impact on immune system functions in both humans and animals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to play an essential role in modulating immune responses and cell survival. We have recently shown that TLR9 deficiency protects against lymphocyte apoptosis induced by chronic stress. However, the exact role of TLR9 in stress-mediated change of macrophage function remains unclear. The results of the current study showed that when BALB/c mice were treated with restraint stress (12 h daily for 2 days), the number of macrophages recruited to the peritoneal cavity was obviously increased. Results also demonstrated that the sustained effects of stress elevated cytokine IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 production yet diminished IFN-γ production from macrophage, which led to apoptotic cell death. However, TLR9 deficiency prevented the chronic stress-mediated accumulation of macrophages. In addition, knocking out TLR9 significantly abolished the chronic stress-induced imbalance of cytokine levels and apoptosis in macrophage. TLR9 deficiency was also found to reverse elevation of plasma IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17 levels and decrease of plasma IFN-γ level under the condition of chronic stress. These results indicated that TLR9-mediated macrophage responses were required for chronic stress-induced immunosuppression. Further exploration showed that TLR9 deficiency prevented the increment of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and reduction of Akt/Gsk-3β phosphorylation; TLR9 deficiency also attenuated the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm, caused upregulation of Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, downregulation of cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, as well as decreased TUNEL-positive cells in macrophage of stressed mice. Collectively, our studies demonstrated that deficiency of TLR9 maintained macrophage function by modulating macrophage accumulation and attenuating macrophage apoptosis, thus preventing

  11. Macrophage cell lines P388D1 and IC-21 stimulated with gamma interferon fail to inhibit the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Wu-Hsieh, B; Howard, D H

    1989-09-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum, a facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages, grows within mononuclear cells of the P388D1 and IC-21 cell lines with a generation time comparable to that with which it grows in normal resident peritoneal macrophages (10 +/- 2 h). Recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) activates P388D1 cells to express la antigens but not to inhibit the intracellular growth of H. capsulatum, alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide. IC-21 cells also could not be activated to fungistasis with rMuIFN-gamma. Explanted resident peritoneal macrophages of the C57BL/6 (from which the IC-21 cell line derives), C3H/HeJ, DBA/2 (from which the P388D1 cell line derives), A/J, and SJL/J strains of mice were all stimulated by rMuIFN-gamma to inhibit the fungus. PMID:2503448

  12. Macrophage cell lines P388D1 and IC-21 stimulated with gamma interferon fail to inhibit the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, B; Howard, D H

    1989-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum, a facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages, grows within mononuclear cells of the P388D1 and IC-21 cell lines with a generation time comparable to that with which it grows in normal resident peritoneal macrophages (10 +/- 2 h). Recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) activates P388D1 cells to express la antigens but not to inhibit the intracellular growth of H. capsulatum, alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide. IC-21 cells also could not be activated to fungistasis with rMuIFN-gamma. Explanted resident peritoneal macrophages of the C57BL/6 (from which the IC-21 cell line derives), C3H/HeJ, DBA/2 (from which the P388D1 cell line derives), A/J, and SJL/J strains of mice were all stimulated by rMuIFN-gamma to inhibit the fungus. PMID:2503448

  13. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Abigail F.; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B.; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA4P-treated tumors either by interfering pharmacologically with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis or by genetically depleting TEMs in tumor-bearing mice markedly increased the efficacy of CA4P treatment. These data suggest that TEMs limit VDA-induced tumor injury and represent a potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of VDA-based therapies. PMID:21490397

  14. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice.

    PubMed

    Welford, Abigail F; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M; Lewis, Claire E

    2011-05-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA4P-treated tumors either by interfering pharmacologically with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis or by genetically depleting TEMs in tumor-bearing mice markedly increased the efficacy of CA4P treatment. These data suggest that TEMs limit VDA-induced tumor injury and represent a potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of VDA-based therapies. PMID:21490397

  15. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4+ T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  16. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  17. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Black on Brain Perivascular Macrophages and Surrounding Astrocytes in Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Atsuto; Umezawa, Masakazu; Takeda, Ken; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular macrophages (PVMs) constitute a subpopulation of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). They are located at the blood-brain barrier and can contribute to maintenance of brain functions in both health and disease conditions. PVMs have been shown to respond to particle substances administered during the prenatal period, which may alter their phenotype over a long period. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to ultrafine carbon black (UfCB) on PVMs and astrocytes close to the blood vessels in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to UfCB suspension by intranasal instillation on gestational days 5 and 9. Brains were collected from their offspring at 6 and 12 weeks after birth. PVM and astrocyte phenotypes were examined by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, transmission electron microscopy and PAS-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double staining. PVM granules were found to be enlarged and the number of PAS-positive PVMs was decreased in UfCB-exposed offspring. These results suggested that in offspring, “normal” PVMs decreased in a wide area of the CNS through maternal UfCB exposure. The increase in astrocytic GFAP expression level was closely related to the enlargement of granules in the attached PVMs in offspring. Honeycomb-like structures in some PVM granules and swelling of astrocytic end-foot were observed under electron microscopy in the UfCB group. The phenotypic changes in PVMs and astrocytes indicate that maternal UfCB exposure may result in changes to brain blood vessels and be associated with increased risk of dysfunction and disorder in the offspring brain. PMID:24722459

  18. Safrole suppresses murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo, and stimulates macrophage phagocytosis and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in leukemic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Yu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Chih-Chung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-11-01

    Many anticancer drugs are obtained from phytochemicals and natural products. However, some phytochemicals have mutagenic effects. Safrole, a component of Piper betle inflorescence, has been reported to be a carcinogen. We have previously reported that safrole induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells in vitro and inhibited the human oral tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Until now, there is no information addressing if safrole promotes immune responses in vivo. To evaluate whether safrole modulated immune function, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with murine myelomonocytic WEHI-3 leukemia cells to establish leukemia and then were treated with or without safrole at 4 and 16 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks post-treatment with safrole for examining the immune cell populations, phagocytosis of macrophages and the natural killer (NK) cells' cytotoxicity. Results indicated that safrole increased the body weight, and decreased the weights of spleen and liver in leukemic mice. Furthermore, safrole promoted the activities of macrophages phagocytosis and NK cells' cytotoxicity in leukemic mice when compared with untreated leukemic mice. After determining the cell marker population, we found that safrole promoted the levels of CD3 (T cells), CD19 (B cells) and Mac-3 (macrophages), but it did not affect CD11b (monocytes) in leukemic mice. In conclusion, safrole altered the immune modulation and inhibited the leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo. PMID:24150866

  19. Effect of hemopoietic microenvironment on splenic suppressor macrophages in congenitally anemic mice of genotype Sl/Sld

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Volkman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying mononuclear phagocyte specialization are being probed by studying suppressor macrophages (M phi) as a reference population in mouse models with impaired blood monocyte formation. Splenic suppressor M phi, defined by PGE-mediated inhibition of Con A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation are induced by the i.p. administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Mice severely depleted of bone marrow and blood monocytes by treatment with 89Sr fail to show this suppressor M phi response to CP, although M phi-forming stem cells, assessed as splenic M-CFC in vitro, are increased 20-fold. These observations suggest that radiosensitive bone marrow stem cells are necessary for the generation of both suppressor M phi and monocytes and that one such stem cell may be common to both types of mononuclear phagocytes. This notion was explored further by employing congenitally anemic mice of the genotype S1/S1d in which the hemopoietic microenvironment is genetically defective and thus unable to support the proliferation, differentiation, and function of stem cells. The congenital defect was found to be additionally expressed in the S1/S1d mouse by a monocytopenia of less than 10% of the values in normal congenic littermate controls and by the failure of splenic M-CFC to increase in response to CP. PGE-producing suppressor M phi expressing Fc gamma 2b receptors, however, were induced by CP in S1/S1d mice with no significant diminution of suppressor activity. These data establish the fact that significant impairment of the formation of monocytes is part of the overall hemopoietic defect in S1/S1d mice. PGE-producing suppressor M phi, however, were inducible at normal functional levels in the presence of a profound monocytopenia, and therefore appear to be independent of the mechanisms that regulate blood monocyte formation.

  20. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/macrophages protects mice against acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Badiei, A; Chambers, S T; Gaddam, R R; Fraser, R; Bhatia, M

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in monocytes/macrophages. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in inflammation, we used small interference RNA (siRNA) to target the CSE gene and investigated its effect in a mouse model of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is characterised by increased levels of plasma amylase, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the pancreas and lung. SiRNA treatment attenuated inflammation in the pancreas and lungs of mice following caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. MPO activity increased in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (16.21 ± 3.571 SD fold increase over control) and treatment with siRNA significantly reduced this (mean 3.555 ± 2.522 SD fold increase over control) (p < 0.0001). Similarly, lung MPO activity increased following treatment with caerulein (3.56 ± 0.941 SD fold increase over control) while siRNA treatment significantly reduced MPO activity (0.8243 ± 0.4353 SD fold increase over control) (p < 0.0001). Caerulein treatment increased plasma amylase activity (7094 ± 207 U/l) and this significantly decreased following siRNA administration (5895 ± 115 U/l) (p < 0.0001). Cytokine and chemokine levels in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis reduced following treatment with siRNA. For example, siRNA treatment significantly decreased pancreatic and lung monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (169.8 ± 59.75 SD; 90.01 ± 46.97 SD pg/ml, respectively) compared to caerulein-treated mice (324.7 ± 103.9 SD; 222.8 ± 85.37 SD pg/ml, pancreas and lun,g respectively) (p < 0.0001). These findings show a crucial pro-inflammatory role for H2S synthesised by CSE in macrophages in acute pancreatitis and suggest CSE gene silencing with siRNA as a potential therapeutic approach for this condition. PMID:26411454

  1. Chronic Inhibition of PDE5 Limits Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Polarization in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Venneri, Mary Anna; Giannetta, Elisa; Panio, Giuseppe; De Gaetano, Rita; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Masciarelli, Silvia; Fazi, Francesco; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by changes in endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment, increase classic (M1-type) tissue macrophage infiltration and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Our and other groups recently showed that chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5i) affects circulating cytokine levels in patients with diabetes; whether PDE5i also affects circulating monocytes and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration remains to be established. Using murine streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in human vitro cell-cell adhesion models we show that chronic hyperglycemia induces changes in myeloid and endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Continuous PDE5i with sildenafil (SILD) expanded tissue anti-inflammatory TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs), which are known to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Specifically, SILD: 1) normalizes the frequency of circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes triggered by hyperglycemia (53.7 ± 7.9% of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in STZ vs. 30.4 ± 8.3% in STZ+SILD and 27.1 ± 1.6% in CTRL, P<0.01); 2) prevents STZ-induced tissue inflammatory infiltration (4-fold increase in F4/80+ macrophages in diabetic vs. control mice) by increasing renal and heart anti-inflammatory TEMs (30.9 ± 3.6% in STZ+SILD vs. 6.9 ± 2.7% in STZ, P <0.01, and 11.6 ± 2.9% in CTRL mice); 3) reduces vascular inflammatory proteins (iNOS, COX2, VCAM-1) promoting tissue protection; 4) lowers monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells in vitro through the TIE2 receptor. All these changes occurred independently from changes of glycemic status. In summary, we demonstrate that circulating renal and cardiac TEMs are defective in chronic hyperglycemia and that SILD normalizes their levels by facilitating the shift from classic (M1-like) to alternative (M2-like)/TEM macrophage polarization. Restoration of tissue TEMs with PDE5i could represent an additional pharmacological tool to prevent end

  2. The drusen-like phenotype in aging Ccl2 knockout mice is caused by an accelerated accumulation of swollen autofluorescent subretinal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Ulrich F.O.; Robbie, Scott; Munro, Peter M.G.; Barker, Susie E.; Duran, Yanai; Luong, Vy; Fitzke, Frederick W.; Bainbridge, James W.B.; Ali, Robin R.; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Drusen, which can be defined clinically as yellowish white spots in the outer retina, are cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ccl2 knockout (Ccl2-/-) mice have been reported to develop drusen and phenotypic features similar to AMD including an increased susceptibility to choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). Here we investigate the nature of the drusen-like lesions in vivo and further evaluate the Ccl2-/- mouse as a model for AMD. Methods We examined eyes of 2-25 month old Ccl2-/- and C57Bl/6 mice in vivo by autofluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO), electroretinography, and measured the extent of laser- induced CNV by fluorescein fundus angiography. We also assessed retinal morphology using immunohistochemistry and quantitative histological and ultrastructural morphometry. Results The drusen-like lesions of Ccl2-/- mice comprise accelerated accumulation of swollen CD68+, F4/80+ macrophages in the subretinal space that are apparent as autofluorescent foci on AF-SLO. These macrophages contain pigment granules and phagosomes with outer segment and lipofuscin inclusions that might account for their autofluorescence. We only observed age-related RPE damage, photoreceptor loss and sub-RPE deposits but, despite the accelerated accumulation of macrophages, we identified no spontaneous CNV development in senescent mice and found a reduced susceptibility to laser-induced CNV in Ccl2-/- mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that the lack of Ccl2 leads to a monocyte/macrophage trafficking defect during aging and to an impaired recruitment of these cells to sites of laser injury. Other, previously described features of Ccl2-/- mice that are similar to AMD may be the result of aging alone. PMID:19578022

  3. Protection against lethal bacterial infection in mice by monocyte-chemotactic and -activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Y; Kasahara, T; Mukaida, N; Ko, Y C; Nakano, M; Matsushima, K

    1994-01-01

    Chemotactic factors regulate the recruitment of neutrophils, lymphocytes, or monocytes-macrophages to infectious and inflammatory sites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether monocyte-chemotactic and -activating factor (MCAF [MCP-1], a JE gene product) also influences the host defense mechanism against microbial infection. We evaluated the effect of recombinant human MCAF on the survival rate of mice systemically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella typhimurium. The administration of 2.5 micrograms of MCAF 6 h before infection completely protected the mice from lethal infection. Mice with cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia exhibiting increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa were also endowed with resistance by the same dose of MCAF. Administration of MCAF at -6 h was critical, since MCAF given either earlier or later than -6 h failed to rescue mice from lethal infection. The in vivo effect on the survival of mice paralleled the reduced recovery of viable P. aeruginosa or S. typhimurium from the peritoneal cavity, i.e., the number of recovered bacteria from the MCAF (2.5 micrograms per mouse)-treated mice was reduced to less than 2% of control mice for P. aeruginosa and 4% of control mice for S. typhimurium at 24 h. Since MCAF exhibited chemotaxis on murine macrophages as well as enhanced phagocytosis and killing of bacteria in vitro, the activation of macrophages, followed by the recruitment into the peritoneal cavity, is responsible for eliminating bacteria and thus enhancing the survival rate. PMID:8300198

  4. Peritoneal cavity regulatory B cells (B10 cells) modulate IFN-γ+CD4+ T cell numbers during colitis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Damian; Candando, Kathleen M; Smith, Susan H; Kalampokis, Ioannis; Weaver, Casey T; Plevy, Scott E; Poe, Jonathan C; Tedder, Thomas F

    2013-09-01

    The spleen regulatory B cell subset with the functional capacity to express IL-10 (B10 cells) modulates both immune responses and autoimmune disease severity. However, the peritoneal cavity also contains relatively high frequencies of functionally defined IL-10-competent B10 cells. In this study, peritoneal cavity B10 cells shared similar cell surface phenotypes with their spleen counterparts. However, peritoneal cavity B10 cells were 10-fold more frequent among B cells than occurred within the spleen, intestinal tract, or mesenteric lymph nodes and were present at higher proportions among the phenotypically defined peritoneal B1a > B1b > B2 cell subpopulations. The development or localization of B10 cells within the peritoneal cavity was not dependent on the presence of commensal microbiota, T cells, IL-10 or B10 cell IL-10 production, or differences between their fetal liver or adult bone marrow progenitor cell origins. The BCR repertoire of peritoneal cavity B10 cells was diverse, as occurs in the spleen, and predominantly included germline-encoded VH and VL regions commonly found in either the conventional or B1 B cell compartments. Thereby, the capacity to produce IL-10 appears to be an intrinsic functional property acquired by clonally diverse B cells. Importantly, IL-10 production by peritoneal cavity B cells significantly reduced disease severity in spontaneous and induced models of colitis by regulating neutrophil infiltration, colitogenic CD4(+) T cell activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production during colitis onset. Thus, the numerically small B10 cell subset within the peritoneal cavity has regulatory function and is important for maintaining homeostasis within gastrointestinal tissues and the immune system. PMID:23918988

  5. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity. PMID:15019190

  6. Radioprotection of mice with interleukin-1: Relationship to the number of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, G.N.; Patchen, M.L.; Neta, R.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of changes in the number of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (GM-CFC) that had occurred in tissues of normal B6D2F1 mice 20 h after administration of a radioprotective dose (150 ng) of human recombinant interleukin-1 (rIL-1). Neutrophilia in the peripheral blood and changes in the tissue distribution of GM-CFC demonstrated that cells were mobilized from the bone marrow in response to rIL-1 injection. For example, 20 h after rIL-1 injection marrow GM-CFC numbers were 80% of the numbers in bone marrow from saline-injected mice. Associated with this decrease there was a twofold increase in the number of peripheral blood and splenic GM-CFC. Also, as determined by hydroxyurea injection, there was an increase in the number of GM-CFC in S phase of the cell cycle in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow. Data in this report suggest that when compared to the spleen, stimulation of granulopoiesis after rIL-1 injection is delayed in the bone marrow.

  7. Mfge8 diminishes the severity of tissue fibrosis in mice by binding and targeting collagen for uptake by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Atabai, Kamran; Jame, Sina; Azhar, Nabil; Kuo, Alex; Lam, Michael; McKleroy, William; Dehart, Greg; Rahman, Salman; Xia, Dee Dee; Melton, Andrew C; Wolters, Paul; Emson, Claire L; Turner, Scott M; Werb, Zena; Sheppard, Dean

    2009-12-01

    Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (Mfge8) is a soluble glycoprotein known to regulate inflammation and immunity by mediating apoptotic cell clearance. Since fibrosis can occur as a result of exaggerated apoptosis and inflammation, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that Mfge8 might negatively regulate tissue fibrosis. We report here that Mfge8 does decrease the severity of tissue fibrosis in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis; however, it does so not through effects on inflammation and apoptotic cell clearance, but by binding and targeting collagen for cellular uptake through its discoidin domains. Initial analysis revealed that Mfge8-/- mice exhibited enhanced pulmonary fibrosis after bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, they did not have increased inflammation or impaired apoptotic cell clearance after lung injury compared with Mfge8+/+ mice; rather, they had a defect in collagen turnover. Further experiments indicated that Mfge8 directly bound collagen and that Mfge8-/- macrophages exhibited defective collagen uptake that could be rescued by recombinant Mfge8 containing at least one discoidin domain. These data demonstrate a critical role for Mfge8 in decreasing the severity of murine tissue fibrosis by facilitating the removal of accumulated collagen. PMID:19884654

  8. Mfge8 diminishes the severity of tissue fibrosis in mice by binding and targeting collagen for uptake by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Atabai, Kamran; Jame, Sina; Azhar, Nabil; Kuo, Alex; Lam, Michael; McKleroy, William; DeHart, Greg; Rahman, Salman; Xia, Dee Dee; Melton, Andrew C.; Wolters, Paul; Emson, Claire L.; Turner, Scott M.; Werb, Zena; Sheppard, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (Mfge8) is a soluble glycoprotein known to regulate inflammation and immunity by mediating apoptotic cell clearance. Since fibrosis can occur as a result of exaggerated apoptosis and inflammation, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that Mfge8 might negatively regulate tissue fibrosis. We report here that Mfge8 does decrease the severity of tissue fibrosis in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis; however, it does so not through effects on inflammation and apoptotic cell clearance, but by binding and targeting collagen for cellular uptake through its discoidin domains. Initial analysis revealed that Mfge8–/– mice exhibited enhanced pulmonary fibrosis after bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, they did not have increased inflammation or impaired apoptotic cell clearance after lung injury compared with Mfge8+/+ mice; rather, they had a defect in collagen turnover. Further experiments indicated that Mfge8 directly bound collagen and that Mfge8–/– macrophages exhibited defective collagen uptake that could be rescued by recombinant Mfge8 containing at least one discoidin domain. These data demonstrate a critical role for Mfge8 in decreasing the severity of murine tissue fibrosis by facilitating the removal of accumulated collagen. PMID:19884654

  9. TLR-mediated secretion of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikuni; Ogawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Macrophages play an important role in host defense under several immunological, inflammatory, and/or infectious conditions. In our previous work, we demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) was secreted from macrophages in respon