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1

Micelles based on amphiphilic PCL-PEO triblock and star-shaped diblock copolymers: Potential in drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

In this work, the potential in drug nanodelivery of micelles made from poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) copolymers with triblock and star-diblock architectures was explored. Linear and 4-arm star-shaped PCL macromers with two or four --OH end groups were prepared by ring-opening polymerization of CL and condensed with alpha-methoxy-omega-carboxy-PEO. The resulting amphiphilic copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, size exclusion chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Separate PCL and PEO crystalline phases were observed for both copolymers. Copolymers self-assembled in water giving critical association concentrations in the range 0.010-0.023 mg/mL. Micelles with a size of 32-45 nm were prepared by dialysis and characterized for hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge. Their potential as nanocarriers in drug delivery applications was evaluated too. Micelles were nontoxic to both Red blood cells and HeLa cells. Complement activation experiments indicated that micelles can escape the reticuloendothelial system once intravenously injected. Finally, a different uptake on HeLa cells was found for micelles obtained from triblock and star-shaped copolymers. PMID:18186051

Quaglia, Fabiana; Ostacolo, Luisanna; Nese, Giuseppe; Canciello, Mariarosaria; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Ungaro, Francesca; Palumbo, Rosario; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Maglio, Giovanni

2008-12-01

2

Hybrid polymeric micelles based on bioactive polypeptides as pH-responsive delivery systems against melanoma.  

PubMed

The bioactive polymer poly(l-glutamic acid)n-b-poly(d, l-lactic acid)m was synthesized and used to form doxorubicin-loaded hybrid polymeric micelles to treat melanoma. These polymers exhibited pH-responsive changes in conformation, which controlled the diverse functionalities of the micelles. During circulation, poly(l-glutamic acid)n-b-poly(d, l-lactic acid)m protected Tat peptides on the micelles from proteolysis. Under tumor-acidic conditions, polymers with shorter poly(l-glutamic acid) blocks underwent a conformational change to form channels that accelerated the release of doxorubicin. The conformational change also exposed the Tat peptides to tumor cells, thereby promoting cellular internalization of the micelles. Enhanced cellular uptake of the micelles induced significant apoptosis of A375 melanoma cells in tumor-acidic conditions. In vivo studies demonstrated that the micelles with shorter poly(l-glutamic acid) blocks could effectively accumulate in tumor tissues, suppress tumor growth and help maintain the body weight of tumor-bearing mice. However, micelles with longer poly(l-glutamic acid) blocks did not undergo a conformational change under acidic conditions and performed poorly in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Our work provides a strategy for applying bioactive polymers to the rational construction of pH-responsive delivery systems for solid tumors and lends insight into possible conformational effects on the bioactivity of drug carriers. PMID:24875757

Wang, Qi-Ming; Gao, Zhonggao; Liu, Shan; Fan, Bo; Kang, Lin; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji

2014-08-01

3

Micelles Based on Biodegradable Poly(L-glutamic acid)-b-Polylactide with Paramagnetic Gd Ions Chelated to the Shell Layer as a Potential Nanoscale MRI-Visible Delivery System  

PubMed Central

There is much interest in the development of nanoscale drug delivery system with MRI visibility to optimize the delivery efficiency and therapeutic efficacy under image guidance. Here we report on the successful fabrication of nanoscale micelles based on biodegradable poly(L-glutamic acid)-b-polylactide (PG-b-PLA) block copolymer with paramagnetic Gd3+ ions chelated to their shell. (PG-b-PLA) was synthesized by sequential polymerization reactions: anionic polymerization of L-lactide followed by ring opening polymerization of benzyl glutamate N-carboxylic anhydride. The metal chelator p-aminobenzyldiethylenetriaminepenta(acetic acid) (DTPA) was readily conjugated to the side chain carboxylic acids of poly(L-glutamic acid). The resulting copolymer formed spherical micelles in aqueous solution with an average diameter of 230 nm at pH 7.4. The size of PG(DTPA)-b-PLA micelles decreased with increasing pH value. DTPA-Gd chelated to the shell layer of the micelles exhibited significantly higher spin-lattice relaxivity (r1) than a small-molecular-weight MRI contrast agent, indicating that water molecules could readily access the Gd ions in the micelles. Because of the presence of multiple carboxylic acid functional groups in the shell layer, polymeric micelles based on biodegradable PG(DTPA-Gd)-b-PLA may be a suitable platform for the development of MRI-visible, targeted nanoscale drug delivery systems.

Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Xiaoxia; Li, Li; Li, Chun

2008-01-01

4

Novel self-assembled micelles based on palmitoyl-trimethyl-chitosan for efficient delivery of harmine to liver cancer.  

PubMed

Backgroud: Polymeric micelles is a safe and effective delivery system, which belong to the targeted delivery system (TDS). An anticancer drug, harmine(HM) is a hydrophobic drug with much adverse effects when used for treatment of liver cancer. Chitosan (CS) is a polysaccharide and can be modified to be an amphiphilic polmer which could self-assemble into micelles and be applied for delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Objectives: To synthesize three kinds of novel biodegradable polymers, designated as palmitoyl-trimethyl-CS (TPCS)1, TPCS2 and Lac-TPCS2, and investigate their efficiency and mechanism of delivery HM to liver tumors in vitro and in viro. Results: The self-assembled micelles presented satisfactory particle size (? 200 nm) and drug release characteristics in vitro. It's proved that Lac-TPCS2/HM may enter HepG2 cell through endocytosis. Antitumor experiments in vivo revealed that Lac-TPCS2/HM could significantly inhibit tumor growth and extend the lifetime of mice bearing H22 tumors after intravenous administration. Subsequently in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging results demonstrated a satisfactory liver tumor-targeting effect of Lac-TPCS2/HM. Conclusion: Three novel polymers hold great potential in the development of nanomedicine for treatment of liver tumors, in particular Lac-TPCS2 exhibits the greatest antitumor potential through active target effect. PMID:24655139

Bei, Yong-Yan; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Wei-Liang; Xia, Peng; Liu, Yang; You, Ben-Gang; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Zhu, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Ge; Zhang, Xue-Nong; Jin, Yong

2014-06-01

5

Colon drug delivery.  

PubMed

Oral drug delivery to the colon has attracted significant attention during the past 20 years. Colon targeting is recognised to have several therapeutic advantages, such as the oral delivery of drugs that are destroyed by the stomach acid and/or metabolised by pancreatic enzymes. Sustained colonic release of drugs can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Local treatment of colonic pathologies, such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer and Crohn's disease, is more effective with the delivery of drugs to the affected area. Likewise, colonic delivery of vermicides and colonic diagnostic agents requires smaller doses. This article aims to provide an insight into the design and manufacturing considerations, and an evaluation of colonic drug delivery systems in order to understand why there are still few delivery technologies that have reached the market, despite intensive research in this field. For this purpose, various approaches to colon-specific drug delivery are discussed. PMID:16370944

Van den Mooter, Guy

2006-01-01

6

Drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

New and emerging drug delivery systems for traditional drugs and the products of biotechnology are discussed, and the role of the pharmacist in ensuring the appropriate use of these systems is outlined. Advantages of advanced drug delivery systems over traditional systems are the ability to deliver a drug more selectively to a specific site; easier, more accurate, less frequent dosing; decreased variability in systemic drug concentrations; absorption that is more consistent with the site and mechanism of action; and reductions in toxic metabolites. Four basic strategies govern the mechanisms of advanced drug delivery: physical, chemical, biological, and mechanical. Oral drug delivery systems use natural and synthetic polymers to deliver the product to a specific region in the gastrointestinal tract in a timely manner that minimizes adverse effects and increases drug efficacy. Innovations in injectable and implantable delivery systems include emulsions, particulate delivery systems, micromolecular products and macromolecular drug adducts, and enzymatic-controlled delivery. Options for noninvasive drug delivery include the transdermal, respiratory, intranasal, ophthalmic, lymphatic, rectal, intravaginal, and intrauterine routes as well as topical application. Rapid growth is projected in the drug delivery systems market worldwide in the next five years. Genetic engineering has mandated the development of new strategies to deliver biotechnologically derived protein and peptide drugs and chemoimmunoconjugates. The role of the pharmacist in the era of advanced drug delivery systems will be broad based, including administering drugs, compounding, calculating dosages based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic monitoring, counseling, and research. The advent of advanced drug delivery systems offers pharmacists a new opportunity to assume an active role in patient care. PMID:1772110

Robinson, D H; Mauger, J W

1991-10-01

7

Microfluidics for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery, i.e. the way a pharmacologically active substance is delivered to the body, has a significant impact on the\\u000a therapeutic value of medication. The paper gives an overview on different drug delivery schemes and describes the limitations\\u000a of the oral route, which is the current gold standard in the market. Following these limitations, plenty of alternative (parenteral)\\u000a drug delivery

S. Haeberle; D. Hradetzky; A. Schumacher; M. Vosseler; S. Messner; R. Zengerle

8

Ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segment. Identification of influx transporters on various ocular tissues and designing a transporter-targeted delivery of a parent drug has gathered momentum in recent years. Parallelly, colloidal dosage forms such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, liposomes, and microemulsions have been widely explored to overcome various static and dynamic barriers. Novel drug delivery strategies such as bioadhesive gels and fibrin sealant-based approaches were developed to sustain drug levels at the target site. Designing noninvasive sustained drug delivery systems and exploring the feasibility of topical application to deliver drugs to the posterior segment may drastically improve drug delivery in the years to come. Current developments in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery promise a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges posed by various anterior and posterior segment diseases. PMID:20437123

Gaudana, Ripal; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Parenky, Ashwin; Mitra, Ashim K

2010-09-01

9

Transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine.

Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

2009-01-01

10

Noninvasive drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biopharmaceutical technology have spawned new drug delivery devices and mechanisms. Noninvasive methods, including\\u000a iontophoresis and transmucosal drug delivery, have improved treatment of certain patient population. Their use is discussed\\u000a in the following paper.

Ruth Zimmer; Michael A. Ashburn

2001-01-01

11

Intracochlear Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases.

Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2011-01-01

12

Doxorubicin loaded singlet-oxygen producible polymeric micelle based on chlorine e6 conjugated pluronic F127 for overcoming drug resistance in cancer.  

PubMed

Drug resistance remains one of the primary obstacles to the success of cancer chemotherapy. In this work, we demonstrate a singlet-oxygen producible polymeric (SOPP) micelle based on photosensitizer (PS, chlorin e6 (Ce6)) conjugated amphiphilic copolymer (pluronic F127(®), PF127) for overcoming drug resistance in cancer by applying photochemical internalization (PCI). The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SOPP micelles were self-assembled from Ce6-PF127 conjugates, which have a spherical shape with a uniform size of ?30 nm. Compared with free Ce6, enhanced singlet-oxygen generation efficiency in the DOX-loaded SOPP micelles have been demonstrated in aqueous environments due to their increased water-dispersibility. Under low dose of laser power and anti-cancer drug (DOX) conditions, in vitro and in vivo studies on drug-resistant cancer cells demonstrated that singlet-oxygen-mediated cellular membrane damage (caused by lipid peroxidation) significantly increased the cellular uptake of drug (DOX), which led to overcoming the drug resistance in cancer cells without undesirable side effects. We believe this approach could represent a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment. PMID:24934645

Park, Hyung; Park, Wooram; Na, Kun

2014-09-01

13

Polymeric micelles based on poly(ethylene glycol) block poly(racemic amino acids) hybrid polypeptides: conformation-facilitated drug-loading behavior and potential application as effective anticancer drug carriers  

PubMed Central

In this work, racemic hybrid polypeptides poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(racemic-leucine) (PRL) copolymers with different leucine residues have been synthesized and characterized. Using docetaxel as a model molecule, the high drug-loaded spherical micelles based on PEG-PRL were prepared successfully using dialysis, with a tunable particle size from 170 nm to 250 nm obtained by changing the length of the hydrophobic blocks. Facilitated drug-loading behavior (higher drug-loading ability and easier drug-loading process) of PEG-PRL compared with their corresponding levo forms (PEG-b-poly[levo leucine]) was observed and clarified for the first time. With this facilitation, the highest drug-loading content and efficiency of PEG-PRL micelles can achieve 11.2% ± 0.4% and 67.2% ± 2.4%, respectively. All drug-loaded PEG-PRL micelles exhibit a similar release behavior with a sustained release up to 72 hours. The PEG-PRL was shown to be nontoxic against MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells up to a concentration of 100 ?g/mL, displaying a good biocompatibility. Also, the docetaxel-loaded PEG-PRL micelles were more toxic than the free drug against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells – both dose and time dependent. Therefore, these high docetaxel-loaded micelles based on racemic hybrid polypeptides appear to be a novel promising nanomedicine for anticancer therapy.

Gu, Peng Fei; Xu, Hui; Sui, Bo Wen; Gou, Jing Xin; Meng, Ling Kuo; Sun, Feng; Wang, Xiu Jun; Qi, Na; Zhang, Yu; He, Hai Bing; Tang, Xing

2012-01-01

14

Microfabricated drug delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review newest developments in the design and fabrication of drug delivery devices based on micropatterned structures. Electronic devices have now reached a stage of dimensions comparable to those of biological macromolecules. This raises exciting possibilities for combining microelectronics and biotechnology to develop new technologies with unprecedented power and versatility. While molecular electronics use the unique self-assembly, switching and dynamic

J. Zachary Hilt; Nicholas A. Peppas

2005-01-01

15

Transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery is a validated technology contributing significantly to global pharmaceutical care. Since 1980, impressive growth in this field has been observed with many commercial successes; importantly, a new chemical entity was recently developed and approved for transdermal administration without having first been given as an injectable or oral dosage form. The progress achieved has been based on the clearer understanding of skin barrier function, and of the physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and physiological factors which underpin the feasibility of transdermal administration. Novel, non-invasive approaches to enhance and control drug transport across the skin are under intensive investigation, and some technologies, e.g. iontophoresis, have reached true maturity. The "local", subcutaneous delivery of drugs (for example, to underlying muscle and other tissues) is gaining increasing acceptance, and new opportunities in this under-subscribed area may be envisaged. PMID:20217537

Guy, Richard H

2010-01-01

16

Photomechanical drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomechanical waves (PW) are generated by Q-switched or mode-locked lasers. Ablation is a reliable method for generating PWs with consistent characteristics. Depending on the laser wavelength and target material, PWs with different parameters can be generated which allows the investigation of PWs with cells and tissue. PWs have been shown to permeabilize the stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and facilitate the transport of drugs into the skin. Once a drug has diffused into the dermis it can enter the vasculature, thus producing a systemic effect. Fluorescence microscopy of biopsies show that 40-kDa molecules can be delivered to a depth of > 300 micrometers into the viable skin of rats. Many important drugs such as insulin, and erythropoietin are smaller or comparable in size, making the PWs attractive for transdermal drug delivery. There are three possible pathways through the SC: Transappendageal via hair follicles or other appendages, transcellular through the corneocytes, and intercellular via the extracellular matrix. The intracellular route appears to be the most likely pathway of drug delivery through the SC.

Doukas, Apostolos G.; Lee, Shun

2000-05-01

17

Drug delivery to damaged brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery to the brain poses unique challenges. Specialized anatomic and physiological features of the cerebrovasculature and cerebral tissue fluids result in barriers which significantly restrict delivery of a wide range of possible therapeutic agents. In addition to these normal restrictions to brain drug delivery, pathophysiological features and sequelae of acute brain injury will also impact upon the efficiency of

Eng H. Lo; Aneesh B. Singhal; Vladimir P. Torchilin; N. Joan Abbott

2001-01-01

18

MRI in ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed.

Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

2008-01-01

19

Cyclodextrins in nasal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Nasal drug delivery is an attractive approach for the systemic delivery of high potency drugs with a low oral bioavailability due to extensive gastrointestinal breakdown and high hepatic first-pass effect. For lipophilic drugs nasal delivery is possible if they can be dissolved in the dosage form. Peptide and protein drugs often have a low nasal bioavailability because of their large size and hydrophilicity, resulting in poor transport properties across the nasal mucosa. Cyclodextrins are used to improve the nasal absorption of these drugs by increasing their aqueous solubility and/or by enhancing their nasal absorption. With several cyclodextrins very efficient nasal drug absorption has been reported, but also large interspecies differences have been found. Studies concerning the safety of cyclodextrins in nasal drug formulations demonstrate the non-toxicity of the cyclodextrins and also clinical data show no adverse effects. Therefore, some cyclodextrins can be expected to become effective and safe excipients in nasal drug delivery. PMID:10837708

Merkus; Verhoef; Marttin; Romeijn; van der Kuy PH; Hermens; Schipper

1999-03-01

20

Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs.

Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

2011-01-01

21

Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger

Jin-Oh You; Dariela Almeda; George JC Ye; Debra T Auguste

2010-01-01

22

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery

Sarabjeet Singh Suri; Hicham Fenniri; Baljit Singh

2007-01-01

23

Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ultrasound-based drug delivery has only seen limited clinical use for transdermal drug delivery, there has been considerable momentum in research aimed at using ultrasound for a wide variety of medical applications. Ultrasound-mediated gene therapy using sonoporation and targeted delivery has progressed from in vitro proof-of-concept studies to produce biological effects in angiogenesis and diabetes studies. These techniques have also

ERIC C. PUA; Pei Zhong

2009-01-01

24

New Methods of Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments (for example, the eye or beneath the skin). These techniques have already led to delivery systems that improve human health, and continued research may revolutionize the way many drugs are delivered.

Langer, Robert

1990-09-01

25

Drug delivery to the ear.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions. PMID:23323784

Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

2013-01-01

26

Liposomes for Pulmonary Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Liposomes have been widely used in pulmonary drug delivery for ­multiple applications including solubilization, sustained\\u000a release, cellular and intracellular ­targeting, minimization of toxicity, and facilitation of absorption. In this chapter,\\u000a formulation aspects, aerosolization, and an extensive overview of the use of pulmonary drug delivery of liposomes for disease\\u000a and drug classes are provided. Specifically, this chapter examines liposomes from in

Janani Swaminathan; Carsten Ehrhardt

27

Microelectronic control of drug delivery.  

PubMed

Microelectronic control of drug delivery devices enables precise management of drug delivery profiles. Iontophoresis patches offer microelectronic control over delivery in a noninvasive manner, but these are limited to the administration of relatively small molecules at small doses. Infusion pumps are widely used for delivery of insulin and other drugs; however, they require an invasive catheter that many patients find inconvenient and can be a site of infection. Implanted pumps avoid these problems, but they require long-term commitment associated with surgical implantation. An alternative is an implanted microchip containing many protected reservoirs filled with drug powder that is selectively released under microelectronic control. This device offers the promise of long-term drug stability in the solid state and precise digital drug dosing. Building on more than 10 years of preclinical studies, this wirelessly controlled microchip technology recently underwent a first-in-human clinical study. The microchip was implanted subcutaneously in the abdomen of eight female patients with osteoporosis. A remote operator was able to establish a wireless link with the microchip to program the schedule of human parathyroid hormone dosing from the device. This study showed that the wireless microchips produced pharmacokinetics similar to those from subcutaneous injections of the drug and produced less variable drug levels in the blood. There were also no toxic or adverse events due to the microchip or drug. This study represents an important step towards more widespread use of microelectronic control of drug delivery to improve pharmaceutical therapies. PMID:22905837

Guo, Xin Dong; Prausnitz, Mark R

2012-07-01

28

COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon targeted drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver drugs for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. In recent years, various pharmaceutical approaches have been developed for targeting the drugs to the colon include, formation of prodrugs, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon

Ceyda Tuba

29

Drug Delivery Systems for Platinum Drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of cisplatin, drugs based on platinum, have made a significant impact on the treatment of various cancers. The administration of platinum drugs is however accompanied by significant side effects. This chapter discusses the types of drug delivery systems that have been developed in order to enable the targeted delivery while maintaining controlled temporal supply of the drug. The sizes of carriers range from nanometer to micrometer sized particles. The most common types of drug carriers are micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers, but also a few microspheres have been developed. Most striking aspect of the delivery of platinum drugs is the possibility of physical encapsulation but also the binding of the drug to the polymer carrier coordinate covalent bond. Since platinum drugs have typically two permanent and two leaving ligands, the polymer can be part of either ligand. As the leaving ligand, the platinum drug is released often as cisplatin. If the polymer provides the functionality for the permanent ligand, a new macromolecular drug has been formed. In addition to the attachment of pt(II) drugs, recent offorts are devoted to the conjugation via the Pt((IV) prodrug.

Huynh, Vien T.; Scarano, Wei; Stenzel, Martina H.

2013-09-01

30

Cellulose esters in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose esters have played a vital role in the development of modern drug delivery technology. They possess properties that\\u000a are not only well-suited to the needs of pharmaceutical applications, but that enable construction of drug delivery systems\\u000a that address critical patient needs. These properties include very low toxicity, endogenous and\\/or dietary decomposition products,\\u000a stability, high water permeability, high T\\u000a g,

Kevin J. Edgar

2007-01-01

31

Nanosuspensions in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable, leading to abandoned development efforts. These so-called 'brickdust' candidates can now be rescued by formulating them into crystalline nanosuspensions. In the process of overcoming issues involving solubility, additional pharmacokinetic benefits of the drugs so formulated have come to be appreciated.

Barrett E. Rabinow

2004-01-01

32

Intranasal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the nasal route has received a great deal of attention as a convenient and reliable method for the systemic administration of drugs. Although this route is currently being marketed for the systemic administration of several drugs, it has only recently been studied. This chapter deals with animal techniques to study nasal absorption and the effect of physico-chemical

Anwar A Hussain

1998-01-01

33

Transmucosal macromolecular drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces are the most common and convenient routes for delivering drugs to the body. However, macromolecular drugs such as peptides and proteins are unable to overcome the mucosal barriers and\\/or are degraded before reaching the blood stream. Among the approaches explored so far in order to optimize the transport of these macromolecules across mucosal barriers, the use of nanoparticulate

C. Prego; M. García; D. Torres; M. J. Alonso

2005-01-01

34

Mathematical modeling of drug delivery.  

PubMed

Due to the significant advances in information technology mathematical modeling of drug delivery is a field of steadily increasing academic and industrial importance with an enormous future potential. The in silico optimization of novel drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in accuracy and easiness of application. Analogous to other scientific disciplines, computer simulations are likely to become an integral part of future research and development in pharmaceutical technology. Mathematical programs can be expected to be routinely used to help optimizing the design of novel dosage forms. Good estimates for the required composition, geometry, dimensions and preparation procedure of various types of delivery systems will be available, taking into account the desired administration route, drug dose and release profile. Thus, the number of required experimental studies during product development can be significantly reduced, saving time and reducing costs. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the physical, chemical and potentially biological phenomena, which are involved in the control of drug release, offers another fundamental advantage: The underlying drug release mechanisms can be elucidated, which is not only of academic interest, but a pre-requisite for an efficient improvement of the safety of the pharmaco-treatments and for effective trouble-shooting during production. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug delivery, including empirical/semi-empirical and mechanistic realistic models. Analytical as well as numerical solutions are described and various practical examples are given. One of the major challenges to be addressed in the future is the combination of mechanistic theories describing drug release out of the delivery systems with mathematical models quantifying the subsequent drug transport within the human body in a realistic way. Ideally, the effects of the design parameters of the dosage form on the resulting drug concentration time profiles at the site of action and the pharmacodynamic effects will become predictable. PMID:18822362

Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

2008-12-01

35

Redox-responsive drug delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of most modern drug delivery strategies is to maximize the effectiveness of drug molecules at diseased tissue and to minimize their effects in healthy ones. This is most often achieved using (bio-)synthetic carrier systems that release the drug at the target location. One emerging strategy to achieve this is to destabilize carriers and release therapeutics using natural redox gradients in the body or associated with disease. The body, however, is composed of numerous microenvironments whose redox homeostasis, as well as its dysregulation due to disease, is complex. The original article and authoritative reviews that constitute this Forum discuss some of the particular redox features associated with diseases and present an overview of how, chemically, redox-responsive drug delivery carriers can be designed to respond to these opportunities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 705-706. PMID:24797814

Gauthier, Marc A

2014-08-10

36

Nasal drug delivery: new developments and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the nasal route for the delivery of challenging drugs has created much interest in recent years in the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, drug delivery companies are actively pursuing the development of novel nasal drug-delivery systems and the exploitation of these for administration of conventional generic drugs and peptides, both in-house and with partners in the pharmaceutical industry. This

Lisbeth Illum

2002-01-01

37

Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based

Mehrdad Hamidi; Amir Azadi; Pedram Rafiei

2008-01-01

38

Gelatin Used for Drug Delivery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how gelatin can be used as a medium for drug delivery. Learners create colored gelatin and then cut out pieces of the gelatin to simulate medicine (pills). Learners then put their simulated pills in a pan of hot water. Since gelatin is a thermoreversible or cold-setting polymer, gelatin will convert back to a liquid if put in a hot environment. As the gelatin returns to its liquid form, it releases its embedded dye. The dye eventually diffuses completely out of the gelatin which simulates the slow release of a drug from a pill. From this activity, learners learn more about diffusion and drug delivery. Adult supervision recommended.

Mississippi, University O.

2003-01-01

39

Construction of serum resistant micelles based on heparosan for targeted cancer therapy.  

PubMed

A novel micelle based on heparosan and deoxycholic acid (DOCA) conjugate (HD) as drug carrier was reported here. As the surface was negatively charged, this micelle could resist serum adsorption, showing favorable stability. Moreover, fluorescence observation confirmed that it was able to deliver model hydrophobic drug doxorubicin (DOX) into HeLa cells efficiently. The DOX-loaded micelles showed sustained release behavior at pH 7.4, and accelerated release behavior at pH 5.0 or in the presence of ?-glucuronidase, which over-expressed in tumor cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DOX-loaded micelles against HeLa cells was much lower than that of COS7 cells, showing significant therapeutic distinction between tumor cells and normal cells. Combining with the good biocompatibility and biodegradability of heparosan, this micelle may be promising in clinical application for targeted drug delivery. PMID:24906739

Chen, Jing-Xiao; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Wen; Lu, Guo-Zhong; Chen, Jing-Hua

2014-09-22

40

Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; Wang, Amy W. (Oakland, CA) [Oakland, CA

2002-01-01

41

Advances in oral transmucosal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful delivery of drugs across the oral mucosa represents a continuing challenge, as well as a great opportunity. Oral transmucosal delivery, especially buccal and sublingual delivery, has progressed far beyond the use of traditional dosage forms with novel approaches emerging continuously. This review highlights the physiological challenges as well as the advances and opportunities for buccal\\/sublingual drug delivery. Particular

Viralkumar F. Patel; Fang Liu; Marc B. Brown

2011-01-01

42

MEMS based polymeric drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, MEMS based polymeric drug delivery system for the treatment of cardiovascular disorder such as hypertension is presented. The major components of proposed system are drug delivery device, blood pressure sensor, flow sensor, electronic module, and power supply. Drug delivery device consists of piezoelectric actuator and reservoir integrated with side open polymeric microneedles. The in-depth theoretical and numerical

M. W. Ashraf; S. Tayyaba; N. Afzulpurkar

2010-01-01

43

Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery. PMID:23662604

Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

2013-01-01

44

Technique for Drug and Chemical Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates generally to a technique for delivering drugs and/or chemicals, and, more particularly, to effecting such delivery by means of microwave-stimulation of drug containing liposomes. By subjecting liposome encapsulated drugs to microwave...

R. P. Liburdy

1986-01-01

45

Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (?) and beta (?) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by ? irradiation.

Abuhanoglu, Gurhan

2014-01-01

46

The rise and rise of drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery has typically focused on optimizing marketed compounds, improving their effectiveness or tolerability, and simplifying their administration. This role now includes the first biopharmaceuticals as well as more conventional drugs. As drug-delivery technologies come into play earlier in the development cycle, however, they can also enhance the screening and evaluation of new compounds and 'rescue' failed compounds, such as

Howard Rosen; Thierry Abribat

2005-01-01

47

BioMEMS devices for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful therapeutic outcomes following the administration of drugs, including small molecules and large biomolecules, require not only the selection of a proper drug but also its delivery to the proper site of action, with proper temporal presentation. Drug delivery is an extremely broad area of research, as each molecule presents its own absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology (ADMET) profile.

ERIC E. NUXOLL; RONALD A. SIEGEL

2009-01-01

48

Polymeric conjugates for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The field of polymer therapeutics has evolved over the past decade and has resulted in the development of polymer-drug conjugates with a wide variety of architectures and chemical properties. Whereas traditional non-degradable polymeric carriers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (HPMA) copolymers have been translated to use in the clinic, functionalized polymer-drug conjugates are increasingly being utilized to obtain biodegradable, stimuli-sensitive, and targeted systems in an attempt to further enhance localized drug delivery and ease of elimination. In addition, the study of conjugates bearing both therapeutic and diagnostic agents has resulted in multifunctional carriers with the potential to both “see and treat” patients. In this paper, the rational design of polymer-drug conjugates will be discussed followed by a review of different classes of conjugates currently under investigation. The design and chemistry used for the synthesis of various conjugates will be presented with additional comments on their potential applications and current developmental status.

Larson, Nate; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

49

Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases. PMID:24325540

Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2014-05-01

50

Polymers for colon targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Bhandari, A

2010-11-01

51

Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems.

Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

2010-01-01

52

Drug delivery systems: An updated review  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.

Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Sriwastawa, Birendra; Bhati, L; Pandey, S; Pandey, P; Bannerjee, Saurabh K

2012-01-01

53

pH-responsive micelles based on (PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2 miktoarm polymer: controlled synthesis, characterization, and application as anticancer drug carrier  

PubMed Central

Amphiphilic A2(BC)2 miktoarm star polymers [poly(?-caprolactone)]2-[poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b- poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)]2 [(PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2] were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were extremely low (0.0024 to 0.0043 mg/mL), depending on the architecture of the polymers. The self-assembled empty and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were spherical in morphologies, and the average sizes were about 63 and 110 nm. The release of DOX at pH 5.0 was much faster than that at pH 6.5 and pH 7.4. Moreover, DOX-loaded micelles could effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells HepG2 with IC50 of 2.0 ?g/mL. Intracellular uptake demonstrated that DOX was delivered into the cells effectively after the cells were incubated with DOX-loaded micelles. Therefore, the pH-sensitive (PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2 micelles could be a prospective candidate as anticancer drug carrier for hydrophobic drugs with sustained release behavior.

2014-01-01

54

pH-responsive micelles based on (PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2 miktoarm polymer: controlled synthesis, characterization, and application as anticancer drug carrier.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic A2(BC)2 miktoarm star polymers [poly(?-caprolactone)]2-[poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b- poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)]2 [(PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2] were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were extremely low (0.0024 to 0.0043 mg/mL), depending on the architecture of the polymers. The self-assembled empty and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were spherical in morphologies, and the average sizes were about 63 and 110 nm. The release of DOX at pH 5.0 was much faster than that at pH 6.5 and pH 7.4. Moreover, DOX-loaded micelles could effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells HepG2 with IC50 of 2.0 ?g/mL. Intracellular uptake demonstrated that DOX was delivered into the cells effectively after the cells were incubated with DOX-loaded micelles. Therefore, the pH-sensitive (PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2 micelles could be a prospective candidate as anticancer drug carrier for hydrophobic drugs with sustained release behavior. PMID:24936159

Lin, Wenjing; Nie, Shuyu; Xiong, Di; Guo, Xindong; Wang, Jufang; Zhang, Lijuan

2014-01-01

55

Membranes and Barriers: Targeted Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Retrometabolic Approaches to Drug Targeting; Vector-Mediated Delivery of Opioid Peptides to the Brain; Conformationally Constrained Peptide Drugs Targeted at the Blood-Brain Barrier; Passive and Facilitative Transport of Nucleobases, Nucleosides...

R. S. Rapaka

1995-01-01

56

Microfabrication Technologies for Oral Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Micro-/nanoscale technologies such as lithographic techniques and microfluidics offer promising avenues to revolutionalize the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, diagnostics and personalized medicine. Microfabrication techniques are being explored for drug delivery applications due to their ability to combine several features such as precise shape and size into a single drug delivery vehicle. They also offer to create unique asymmetrical features incorporated into single or multiple reservoir systems maximizing contact area with the intestinal lining. Combined with intelligent materials, such microfabricated platforms can be designed to be bioadhesive and stimuli-responsive. Apart from drug delivery devices, microfabrication technologies offer exciting opportunities to create biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models incorporating physiological cell types, flow patterns and brush-border like structures. Here we review the recent developments in this field with a focus on the applications of microfabrication in the development of oral drug delivery devices and biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models that can be used to evaluate the drug delivery efficacy.

Sant, Shilpa; Tao, Sarah L.; Fisher, Omar; Xu, Qiaobing; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-01-01

57

Molecular aptamers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The active targeting of drugs in a cell-, tissue-, or disease-specific manner represents a potentially powerful technology with widespread applications in medicine, including the treatment of cancers. Aptamers, with properties such as high affinity and specificity to their targets, easy chemical synthesis and modification, as well as rapid tissue penetration, have become attractive molecules in diagnostics and therapeutics. They rival and, in some cases, surpass other molecular probes, such as antibodies. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in aptamer-mediated delivery for therapeutics and disease-targeting based on aptamer integration with a variety of nanomaterials, such as gold nanorods, DNA-micelles, DNA-hydrogels and carbon nanotubes.

Tan, Weihong; Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhu, Haizhen; Yang, Chaoyong; Yang, Ronghua

2011-01-01

58

Isolation of drug delivery from drug effect: Problems of optimizing drug delivery parameters1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurring question in the treatment of malignant brain tumors has been whether treatment failure is due to inadequate delivery or ineffective drugs. To isolate these issues, we tested a paradigm in which the \\

Mir J. Ali; Yot Navalitloha; Michael W. Vavra; Y. Kang; Andrea C. Itskovich; Peter Molnar; Robert M. Levy; Dennis R. Groothuis

2006-01-01

59

Preface for buccal drug delivery theme issue.  

PubMed

During the past years, buccal drug delivery has attracted the attention of researchers looking for alternative delivery routes of administration. As an alternative to oral drug delivery, the buccal mucosal route avoids the passage through the acidic gastric environment, intestinal and bacterial enzymatic activity, absorption issues associated with the intestinal epithelium (e.g. P-glycoprotein efflux), and the first pass metabolism of the liver. Therefore, the buccal route could be a good delivery route for macromolecules and other drugs not compatible with the gastrointestinal tract environment. This "Buccal Drug Delivery" special edition of Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy aims to bring together a range of different aspects relevant to the growing field of buccal drug delivery. The special edition includes thorough reviews of the literature, as well as original research articles touching on most prominent features related to buccal drug delivery systems, such as the move toward the use of nanotechnology in different ways to facilitate buccal drug delivery with the potential to prompt future product developments. PMID:24576264

Morales, Javier Octavio; McConville, Jason Thomas

2014-05-01

60

Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

2011-12-01

61

CNS drug delivery systems: novel approaches.  

PubMed

The brain is a delicate organ, and nature has very efficiently protected it. The brain is shielded against potentially toxic substances by the presence of two barrier systems: the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Unfortunately, the same mechanisms that protect it against intrusive chemicals can also frustrate therapeutic interventions. Despite aggressive research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as brain tumours, HIV encephalopathy, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders, far outnumber those dying of all types of systemic cancers or heart diseases. The abysmally low number of potential therapeutics reaching commercial success is primarily due to the complexity of the CNS drug development. The clinical failure of many probable candidates is often, ascribable to poor delivery methods which do not pervade the unyielding BBB. It restricts the passive diffusion of many drugs into the brain and constitutes a significant obstacle in the pharmacological treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. General methods that can enhance drug delivery to the brain are, therefore, of great pharmaceutical interest. Various strategies like non-invasive methods, including drug manipulation encompassing transformation into lipophilic analogues, prodrugs, chemical drug delivery, carrier-mediated drug delivery, receptor/vector mediated drug delivery and intranasal drug delivery, which exploits the olfactory and trigeminal neuronal pathways to deliver drugs to the brain, are widely used. On the other hand the invasive methods which primarily rely on disruption of the BBB integrity by osmotic or biochemical means, or direct intracranial drug delivery by intracerebroventricular, intracerebral or intrathecal administration after creating reversible openings in the head, are recognised. Extensive review pertaining specifically, to the patents relating to drug delivery across the CNS is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US63722506, US2002183683 etc., have been mentioned in a few articles. It is the objective of this article to expansively review drug delivery systems for CNS by discussing the recent patents available. PMID:19149731

Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Zaidi, Syed M A; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Vohra, Divya; Jain, Gaurav K; Azeem, Adnan; Jain, Nitin; Lalani, Jigar R; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

2009-01-01

62

Recent advances in ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Recent research has focused on the characteristic advantages and limitations of the various drug delivery systems, and further research will be required before the ideal system can be developed. Administration of drugs to the ocular region with conventional delivery systems leads to short contact time of the formulations on the epithelium and fast elimination of drugs. This transient residence time involves poor bioavailability of drugs which can be explained by the tear production, non-productive absorption and impermeability of corneal epithelium. Anatomy of the eye is shortly presented and is connected with ophthalmic delivery and bioavailability of drugs. In the present update on ocular dosage forms, chemical delivery systems such as prodrugs, the use of cyclodextrins to increase solubility of various drugs, the concept of penetration enhancers and other ocular drug delivery systems such as polymeric gels, bioadhesive hydrogels, in-situ forming gels with temperature-, pH-, or osmotically induced gelation, combination of polymers and colloidal systems such as liposomes, niosomes, cubosomes, microemulsions, nanoemulsions and nanoparticles are discussed. Novel ophthalmic delivery systems propose the use of many excipients to increase the viscosity or the bioadhesion of the product. New formulations like gels or colloidal systems have been tested with numerous active substances by in vitro and in vivo studies. Sustained drug release and increase in drug bioavailability have been obtained, offering the promise of innovation in drug delivery systems for ocular administration. Combining different properties of pharmaceutical formulations appears to offer a genuine synergy in bioavailability and sustained release. Promising results are obtained with colloidal systems which present very comfortable conditions of use and prolonged action. PMID:23153114

Achouri, Djamila; Alhanout, Kamel; Piccerelle, Philippe; Andrieu, Véronique

2013-11-01

63

Ultrasound-mediated micellar drug delivery.  

PubMed

During the last decade, nanomedicine has emerged as a new field of medicine that utilises nanoscale materials for delivery of drugs, genes and imaging agents. The efficiency of drug delivery may be enhanced by the application of directed energy, which provides for drug targeting and enhanced intracellular uptake. In this paper, we present a review of recent advances in the ultrasound-mediated drug delivery with the emphasis on polymeric micelles as tumour-targeted drug carriers. This new modality of drug targeting to tumours is based on the drug encapsulation in polymeric micelles followed by a localised release at the tumour site triggered by focused ultrasound. The rationale behind this approach is that drug encapsulation in micelles decreases systemic concentration of free drug and provides for a passive drug targeting to tumours via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, therefore reducing unwanted drug interactions with healthy tissues. Ultrasound affects micellar drug delivery on various levels. Mild hyperthermia induced by ultrasound may enhance micelle extravasation into tumour tissue; mechanical action of ultrasound results in drug release from micelles and enhances the intracellular uptake of both released and encapsulated drug. In addition, polymeric micelles sensitise multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to the action of drugs. PMID:22621738

Rapoport, Natalya

2012-01-01

64

Patented pulsatile drug delivery technologies for chronotherapy.  

PubMed

Introduction: Oral-controlled and modified-release drug delivery systems with zero-order sustained-release kinetics have been developed and proven suitable for meeting increasingly sophisticated therapeutic needs. Nevertheless, the impact of basic chronobiology concepts on the practice of medicine is still ongoing and to address chronotherapy needs, various types of pulsatile drug delivery systems have been innovated. The purpose of this review is to highlight these innovations in the field of chronotherapy. Areas covered: The present review discusses in depth on recent patents and developments related to pulsatile drug delivery systems with eroding, soluble or rupturable barrier coatings, and systems with capsular structures. Besides focusing on all recent innovations, the review addresses the novelty and feasibility of all upcoming technologies being exploited considering pulsatile drug delivery systems. Expert opinion: There has been a growing interest in pulsatile delivery, which generally refers to the liberation of drugs following a programmable and well-defined lag phase from the time of administration. From 1981 until the present date, patent publications related to pulsatile drug delivery have shown more promising systems with numerous developments in arena of drug delivery. Future development of chronotherapeutic medications requires proper assessment and integration with other emerging disciplines such as hydrogel and transdermal delivery systems. The selection of the appropriate chronopharmaceutical technology should take into considerations with the ease of manufacturing and the cost-effectiveness. PMID:24810112

Patil, Sumit S; Shahiwala, Aliasgar

2014-08-01

65

Intravenous drug delivery in neonates: lessons learnt.  

PubMed

Intravenous drug administration presents a series of challenges that relate to the pathophysiology of the neonate and intravenous infusion systems in neonates. These challenges arise from slow intravenous flow rates, small drug volume, dead space volume and limitations on the flush volume in neonates. While there is a reasonable understanding of newborn pharmacokinetics, an appreciation of the substantial delay and variability in the rate of drug delivery from the intravenous line is often lacking. This can lead to difficulties in accurately determining the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship of drugs in the smallest patients. The physical variables that affect the passage of drugs through neonatal lines need to be further explored in order to improve our understanding of their impact on the delivery of drugs by this route in neonates. Through careful investigation, the underlying causes of delayed drug delivery may be identified and administration protocols can then be modified to ensure predictable, appropriate drug input kinetics. PMID:24482352

Sherwin, Catherine M T; Medlicott, Natalie J; Reith, David M; Broadbent, Roland S

2014-06-01

66

Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting.

McBain, Stuart C; Yiu, Humphrey HP; Dobson, Jon

2008-01-01

67

Nanomedicine and drug delivery: a mini review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of nanotechnology now has pivotal roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery systems.

Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

2014-02-01

68

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit

2007-01-01

69

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression. PMID:18053152

Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit

2007-01-01

70

Strategies for improving mucosal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Within this review we will provide a comprehensive understanding in order to improve existing strategies and to develop new systems to lower the barrier for improving mucosal drug delivery. Mucosal administration of drugs achieves a therapeutical effect as the permeation of significant amounts of a drug is permitted through the absorption membrane. The absorption membrane relies on the mucosal layer and the epithelial tissue. In order to overcome barriers, drug delivery systems have to exhibit various functions and features, such as mucoadhesive and protective activity, solubility improving, permeation and uptake enhancing, and drug release controlling properties. This review also aims to provide an insight of well-distinguished strategies to date, as well as provide a focus on the enhancement of membrane permeability. Furthermore, since the development and functions of drug delivery systems exert a high influence on the ability of drug permeation through membrane, these considerations will also be discussed in this review. PMID:24279493

Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2013-12-01

71

Pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Although oral delivery has become a widely accepted route of administration of therapeutic drugs, the gastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins

M. K. Chourasia; S. K. Jain

72

Modeling of diffusion controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

Mathematical modeling of drug release can be very helpful to speed up product development and to better understand the mechanisms controlling drug release from advanced delivery systems. Ideally, in silico simulations can quantitatively predict the impact of formulation and processing parameters on the resulting drug release kinetics. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of modeling drug release from delivery systems, which are predominantly controlled by diffusional mass transport. The inner structure of the device, the ratio "initial drug concentration:drug solubility" as well as the device geometry determine which type of mathematical equation must be applied. A straightforward "road map" is given, explaining how to identify the appropriate equation for a particular type of drug delivery system. The respective equations for a broad range of devices are indicated, including reservoir and matrix systems, exhibiting or not an initial excess of drug and the geometry of slabs, spheres and cylinders. The assumptions the models are based on as well as their limitations are pointed out. Practical examples illustrate the usefulness of mathematical modeling of diffusion controlled drug delivery. Due to the advances in information technology the importance of in silico optimization of advanced drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in the future. PMID:22019555

Siepmann, Juergen; Siepmann, Florence

2012-07-20

73

Noncovalent intracellular drug delivery of hydrophobic drugs on Au NPs.  

PubMed

The successful delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cellular targets continues to present challenges to the pharmaceutical industry. The advances made by nanotechnology have generated new avenues for selectively loading, delivering, and targeting these drugs to their biological targets without compromising efficacy. Here, we describe how gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be evaluated for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs in aqueous systems. Specifically, we describe Au NP synthesis, ligand exchange, and delivery evaluation at-the-bench for screening of potential drug candidates. PMID:23918343

Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens

2013-01-01

74

Brain Mitochondrial Drug Delivery: Influence of Drug Physicochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the influence of drug physicochemical properties on brain mitochondrial delivery of 20 drugs at physiological\\u000a pH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The delivery of 8 cationic drugs (beta-blockers), 6 neutral drugs (corticosteroids), and 6 anionic drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory\\u000a drugs, NSAIDs) to isolated rat brain mitochondria was determined with and without membrane depolarization. Multiple linear\\u000a regression was used to determine whether lipophilicity (Log D),

Shelley A. Durazo; Rajendra S. Kadam; Derek Drechsel; Manisha Patel; Uday B. Kompella

75

Liposomes in drug delivery: Progress and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liposomes are microparticulate lipoidal vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to new developments in liposome technology, several liposome- based drug formulations are currently in clinical trial, and recently some of them have been approved for clinical use. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the

Amarnath Sharma; Uma S. Sharma

1997-01-01

76

Chitosan microspheres in novel drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817

Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

2011-07-01

77

Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications  

PubMed Central

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored.

Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2008-01-01

78

Drug delivery: One nanoparticle, one kill  

PubMed Central

By wrapping a ligand-functionalized lipid membrane around a silica core, nanoparticles with a fluid surface are created. These combine unprecedented specificity in binding to cancer cells with the combinatorial delivery of drug cocktails.

Irvine, Darrell J.

2013-01-01

79

Microsystems for drug and gene delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microneedles and other structures have been developed for introducing therapeutic agents into tissues and cells. Microstructures for transdermal delivery hold the promise of pain-free drug injection. Electrodes integrated with microneedles can sense and monitor the effects of injected materials on tissues. Microprobes have been shown to be effective in transfecting cells through the delivery of DNA in experiments with both

MICHAEL L. REED; WHYE-KEI LYE

2004-01-01

80

Inner ear drug delivery for auditory applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the

Erin E. Leary Swan; Mark J. Mescher; William F. Sewell; Sarah L. Tao; Jeffrey T. Borenstein

2008-01-01

81

NCI Image Guided Drug Delivery Summit  

PubMed Central

On April 17th 2010 scientists from academia, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assembled at “The NCI Image Guided Drug Delivery Summit,” in Washington DC, to discuss recent advances, barriers, opportunities and regulatory issues related to the field. The meeting included a scientific session and an NCI/FDA session, followed by a panel discussion of speakers from both sessions. Image guided drug delivery (IGDD) in cancer is a form of individualized therapy where imaging methods are used in guidance and monitoring of localized and targeted delivery of therapeutics to the tumor. So a systematic approach to IGDD requires mechanisms for targeting, delivery, activation and monitoring of the process. While the goal in IGDD is to optimize the therapeutic ratio through personalized image-guided treatments, a major challenge is in overcoming the biological barriers to the delivery of therapeutics into tumors and cells. Speakers discussed potential challenges to clinical translation of nano-based drug delivery systems including in-vivo characterization of nanocarriers, pre-clinical validation of targeting and delivery, studies of biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity as well as scale-up manufacturing of delivery systems. Physiological and quantitative imaging techniques may serve as enabling tools that could potentially transform many existing challenges into opportunities for advancement of the field.

Tandon, Pushpa

2010-01-01

82

Photomedicine with laser drug delivery technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new technology, which consists in utilizing laser drug delivery methods for the purposes of photodrug therapy. According to this technology, photosensitizer is applied onto the treated surface and then the solution is either impregnated or injected into the medium, with it being suggested to employ laser drug delivery techniques for the impregnation and injection of the photosensitizer. After introducing the photosensitizer, the area is illuminated by a matrix of light-emission diodes.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Latyshev, Alexei S.; Leviev, Dmitry O.

1999-07-01

83

Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatment and prevention of this disease, the use of nanocarriers to achieve more efficient delivery of antiretroviral drugs has been studied. Various forms of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (polymeric, inorganic, and solid lipid), liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, and cell-based nanoformulations have been studied for delivery of drugs intended for HIV prevention or therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the application of nanocarrier systems to the delivery of anti-HIV drugs, specifically antiretrovirals. For anti-HIV drugs to be effective, adequate distribution to specific sites in the body must be achieved, and effective drug concentrations must be maintained at those sites for the required period of time. Nanocarriers provide a means to overcome cellular and anatomical barriers to drug delivery. Their application in the area of HIV prevention and therapy may lead to the development of more effective drug products for combating this pandemic disease.

Mallipeddi, Rama; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

2010-01-01

84

Microneedles for drug and vaccine delivery  

PubMed Central

Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, but only became the subject of significant research starting in the mid-1990’s when microfabrication technology enabled their manufacture as (i) solid microneedles for skin pretreatment to increase skin permeability, (ii) microneedles coated with drug that dissolves off in the skin, (iii) polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug and fully dissolve in the skin and (iv) hollow microneedles for drug infusion into the skin. As shown in more than 350 papers now published in the field, microneedles have been used to deliver a broad range of different low molecular weight drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccines, including published human studies with a number of small-molecule and protein drugs and vaccines. Influenza vaccination using a hollow microneedle is in widespread clinical use and a number of solid microneedle products are sold for cosmetic purposes. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications.

Kim, Yeu-Chun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2012-01-01

85

Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2011-04-01

86

Intelligent, self-powered, drug delivery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-propelled nano/micromotors and pumps are considered to be next generation drug delivery systems since the carriers can either propel themselves (``motor''-based drug delivery) or be delivered (``pump''-based drug delivery) to the target in response to specific biomarkers. Recently, there has been significant advancement towards developing nano/microtransporters into proof-of-concept tools for biomedical applications. This review encompasses the progress made to date on the design of synthetic nano/micromotors and pumps with respect to transportation and delivery of cargo at specific locations. Looking ahead, it is possible to imagine a day when intelligent machines navigate through the human body and perform challenging tasks.

Patra, Debabrata; Sengupta, Samudra; Duan, Wentao; Zhang, Hua; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

2013-01-01

87

Novel drug delivery systems for glaucoma.  

PubMed

Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by pharmaceutical or surgical means has long been the standard treatment for glaucoma. A number of excellent drugs are available that are effective in reducing IOP. These drugs are typically applied as eye drops. However, patient adherence can be poor, thus reducing the clinical efficacy of the drugs. Several novel delivery systems designed to address the issue of adherence and to ensure consistent reduction of IOP are currently under development. These delivery systems include contact lenses-releasing glaucoma medications, injectables such as biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles, and surgically implanted systems. These new technologies are aimed at increasing clinical efficacy by offering multiple delivery options and are capable of managing IOP for several months. There is also a desire to have complementary neuroprotective approaches for those who continue to show progression, despite IOP reduction. Many potential neuroprotective agents are not suitable for traditional oral or drop formulations. Their potential is dependent on developing suitable delivery systems that can provide the drugs in a sustained, local manner to the retina and optic nerve. Drug delivery systems have the potential to improve patient adherence, reduce side effects, increase efficacy, and ultimately, preserve sight for glaucoma patients. In this review, we discuss benefits and limitations of the current systems of delivery and application, as well as those on the horizon. PMID:21475311

Lavik, E; Kuehn, M H; Kwon, Y H

2011-05-01

88

Liposomes for drug delivery to mitochondria.  

PubMed

Efficacy of therapeutically active drugs known to act on intracellular targets can be enhanced by specific delivery to the site of action. Triphenylphosphonium cations can be used to create subcellular targeted liposomes that efficiently deliver drugs to mitochondria, thus enhancing their therapeutic action. PMID:20072889

Boddapati, Sarathi V; D'Souza, Gerard G M; Weissig, Volkmar

2010-01-01

89

Microfabrication technologies for oral drug delivery.  

PubMed

Micro-/nanoscale technologies such as lithographic techniques and microfluidics offer promising avenues to revolutionalize the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, diagnostics and personalized medicine. Microfabrication techniques are being explored for drug delivery applications due to their ability to combine several features such as precise shape and size into a single drug delivery vehicle. They also offer to create unique asymmetrical features incorporated into single or multiple reservoir systems maximizing contact area with the intestinal lining. Combined with intelligent materials, such microfabricated platforms can be designed to be bioadhesive and stimuli-responsive. Apart from drug delivery devices, microfabrication technologies offer exciting opportunities to create biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models incorporating physiological cell types, flow patterns and brush-border like structures. Here we review the recent developments in this field with a focus on the applications of microfabrication in the development of oral drug delivery devices and biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models that can be used to evaluate the drug delivery efficacy. PMID:22166590

Sant, Shilpa; Tao, Sarah L; Fisher, Omar Z; Xu, Qiaobing; Peppas, Nicholas A; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-05-01

90

Polymethacrylate Microparticles Gel for Topical Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Evaluating the potentials of particulate delivery systems in topical drug delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Polymethacrylate microparticles (MPs) incorporating verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model hydrophilic drug with potential\\u000a topical clinical uses, using Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit L100 were prepared for the formulation of a composite topical gel.\\u000a The effect of initial drug loading, polymer composition, particularly the proportion of Eudragit L100 as an

Hagar Ibrahim Labouta; Labiba K. El-Khordagui

2010-01-01

91

Mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract Raising the concept of mucoadhesion in the 1980s, the use of mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery has been the subject of interest. Buccal route is one of the non-invasive routes comprising several advantages such as targeting the specific tissue (I), bypassing the first-pass effect (II) as well as higher patient compliance (III) and higher bioavailability (IV) have rendered administration route feasible for a variety of drugs. This review highlights the use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery. An overview of the oral mucosa's anatomy, theories of mucoadhesion as well as mucoadhesive polymers is given within this review. Furthermore, recent advantages in mucoadhesive polymers according to the variety of drug delivery forms are presented. PMID:24576266

Laffleur, Flavia

2014-05-01

92

Prospects of iontophoresis in cardiovascular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Clinical benefits, industry interest, regulatory precedence, and strong market potential have made transdermal research the fastest growth area in drug delivery. As most drugs permeate poorly through skin, a major challenge is achieving the therapeutic level by enhancement of permeation rate. Iontophoresis, utilizing a minimal amount of current, is found to affect the skin permeation process drastically. Ideally suited for protein drugs, attempts have been made to utilize the technology for accelerating the low-molecular-weight drugs for chronic administration. However, because of the difficulty associated with the energy supply, commercialization was not feasible until recent times. Fortunately, the unprecedented growth of microelectronics has bridged this lacuna and brought the technology right into limelight. This article analyses the advantages of electrically assisted drug delivery in relation to passive permeation, with special reference to some cardiovascular drugs, for which there is already a demand in the market.

Ghosh, Bijaya; Iyer, Dhanalakshmi; Nair, Anroop B.; Sree, Harsha N.

2012-01-01

93

Advances in Biodegradable Ocular Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The limitations of existing medical therapies for ocular disorders include low drug bioavailability, nonspecificity, side\\u000a effects, and poor treatment adherence to therapy. These limitations may be overcome through the use of sustained-release intraocular\\u000a drug delivery systems. Critical to the development of such systems has been the introduction of biocompatible polymers (biodegradable\\u000a and nonbiodegradable) that allow for drug release kinetics to

Susan S. Lee; Patrick Hughes; Aron D. Ross; Michael R. Robinson

94

Ultrasonic Drug Delivery - A General Review  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) has an ever-increasing role in the delivery of therapeutic agents including genetic material, proteins, and chemotherapeutic agents. Cavitating gas bodies such as microbubbles are the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is concentrated to produce forces that permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry drugs. Thus the presence of microbubbles enormously enhances delivery of genetic material, proteins and smaller chemical agents. Delivery of genetic material is greatly enhanced by ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles. Attaching the DNA directly to the microbubbles or to gas-containing liposomes enhances gene uptake even further. US-enhanced gene delivery has been studied in various tissues including cardiac, vascular, skeletal muscle, tumor and even fetal tissue. US-enhanced delivery of proteins has found most application in transdermal delivery of insulin. Cavitation events reversibly disrupt the structure of the stratus corneum to allow transport of these large molecules. Other hormones and small proteins could also be delivered transdermally. Small chemotherapeutic molecules are delivered in research settings from micelles and liposomes exposed to ultrasound. Cavitation appears to play two roles: it disrupts the structure of the carrier vesicle and releases the drug; it also makes the cell membranes and capillaries more permeable to drugs. There remains a need to better understand the physics of cavitation of microbubbles and the impact that such cavitation has upon cells and drug-carrying vesicles.

Pitt, William G.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Staples, Bryant J.

2006-01-01

95

Drug delivery to the small intestine.  

PubMed

Oral delivery of drugs to the small intestine is an important topic in the research and development of more effective oral dose forms. This review highlights several important developments in this area. An overriding theme in drug delivery to the small intestine is how to increase the efficiency (ie, how to increase bioavailability) of absorption. The role of P-glycoprotein and intestinal transporters is discussed in this regard. These systems are normally studied under defined in vitro conditions; recent data suggest that this approach, though useful, may not fully represent the in vivo situation. Recent advances and issues in the characterization and prediction of drug absorption from the small intestine are reviewed. These efforts, if successful, will shorten development timelines by eliminating compounds with poor absorption characteristics early in the process. Nanoparticulate delivery systems and those prepared by microfabrication technology are being used to improve bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. A relatively new technique (electroporation) has been proposed to enhance oral delivery of macromolecules, still an unrealized objective in drug delivery. PMID:15341712

Friend, David R

2004-10-01

96

Functional Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxanes for Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of cyclodextrins (CDs) threaded onto a linear polymeric chain and the dethreading of the CDs from the chain are the most fascinating features seen in polyrotaxanes. These structural characteristics are very promising for their possible applications in drug delivery. Enhanced multivalent interaction between ligand-receptor systems by using ligand-conjugated polyrotaxanes would be just one of the excellent properties related to the CD mobility. Gene delivery using cytocleavable polyrotaxanes is a more practical but highly crucial issue in drug delivery. Complexation of the polyrotaxanes with DNA and its intracellular DNA release ingeniously utilizes both CD mobility and polyrotaxane dissociation to achieve effective gene delivery. Such a supramolecular approach using CD-containing polyrotaxanes is expected to exploit a new paradigm of biomaterials.

Yui, Nobuhiko; Katoono, Ryo; Yamashita, Atsushi

97

Microdialysis and drug delivery to the eye.  

PubMed

The eye presents unique challenges in both the development of tools for elucidating drug disposition as well as for the development of modes of drug delivery for treatment of ocular diseases. In this paper, we present a discussion of the anatomical and physiological characteristics and limitations present in the eye for microdialysis sampling of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. To date, over twenty papers describing microdialysis approaches for assessment of ocular drug delivery and endogenous substrate characterization have been published. Although the majority of papers describe sampling of vitreous humor, recent efforts have been directed towards ocular anterior segment sampling using microdialysis. With this approach, an appreciable reduction in animal use has been realized. In addition, simultaneous examination of administered drug and endogenous substrates modulated by the drug is possible with this approach, facilitating construction of ocular pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships through use of relevant surrogate markers. PMID:11108976

Rittenhouse, K D; Pollack, G M

2000-12-15

98

Advanced trans-epithelial drug delivery devices.  

PubMed

The presented paper describes the drug delivery devices which can be considered as advanced or potentially "intelligent". Due to the current development state and the legal problems of implantable drug releasing electronic devices the review is limited to the systems which delivers drugs through the skin or mucosa. The article shows the principle of operation and some construction details of such devices. It also discusses the possible methods of sampling body fluids across the drug delivery barriers to introduce a feedback loop which is necessary to react on the metabolic process in the human body and their malfunctioning. In the near future presented devices will evolve towards the highly sophisticated systems which will monitor our metabolism and deliver necessary drugs and hormones in the precisely calculated doses to regulate our body functions without absorbing our attention. PMID:21902629

Ciach, Tomasz; Moscicka-Studzinska, Aleksandra

2011-11-01

99

Imaging Drug Delivery and Drug Responses in the Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional single pho- ton emission computed tomography and positron emission tomog- raphy imaging tools and specific inhaled radiotracers allow accurate and reliable measurements of drug delivery to the lung. Pharmaco- kinetics and patterns of drug distribution can be monitored over time. In addition, physiologic measurements of ventilation, perfu- sion, mucociliary clearance, inflammation, and respiratory absorp- tion can

Myrna Dolovich; Renee Labiris

2004-01-01

100

Nanoparticles in the ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug transport barriers pose a challenge for drug delivery comprising the ocular surface epithelium, the tear film and internal barriers of the blood-aqueous and blood-retina barriers. Ocular drug delivery efficiency depends on the barriers and the clearance from the choroidal, conjunctival vessels and lymphatic. Traditional drug administration reduces the clinical efficacy especially for poor water soluble molecules and for the posterior segment of the eye. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to overcome the barriers, increase the drug penetration at the target site and prolong the drug levels by few internals of drug administrations in lower doses without any toxicity compared to the conventional eye drops. With the aid of high specificity and multifunctionality, DNA NPs can be resulted in higher transfection efficiency for gene therapy. NPs could target at cornea, retina and choroid by surficial applications and intravitreal injection. This review is concerned with recent findings and applications of NPs drug delivery systems for the treatment of different eye diseases.

Zhou, Hong-Yan; Hao, Ji-Long; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Song

2013-01-01

101

Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.

Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

2014-01-01

102

Particle Engineering Technologies for Pulmonary Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Particle engineering has seen many applications in the field of ­pulmonary drug delivery due to the intimate relationship\\u000a between particle physicochemistry and aerosol product performance. In this chapter, the science behind established and emerging\\u000a particle engineering technologies is reviewed. Fundamental principles of particle engineering will be introduced. Following\\u000a a discussion of how aerosol delivery technologies integrate with particle engineering, a

Nashwa El-Gendy; Mark M. Bailey; Cory Berkland

103

Barriers to drug delivery in solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the field of drug delivery. The advent of engineered nanoparticles has allowed us to circumvent the initial limitations to drug delivery such as pharmacokinetics and solubility. However, in spite of significant advances to tumor targeting, an effective treatment strategy for malignant tumors still remains elusive. Tumors possess distinct physiological features which allow them to resist traditional treatment approaches. This combined with the complexity of the biological system presents significant hurdles to the site-specific delivery of therapeutic drugs. One of the key features of engineered nanoparticles is that these can be tailored to execute specific functions. With this review, we hope to provide the reader with a clear understanding and knowledge of biological barriers and the methods to exploit these characteristics to design multifunctional nanocarriers, effect useful dosing regimens and subsequently improve therapeutic outcomes in the clinic.

Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Aryasomayajula, Bhawani; Torchilin, Vladimir P

2014-01-01

104

Recent technologies in pulsatile drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) have attracted attraction because of their multiple benefits over conventional dosage forms. They deliver the drug at the right time, at the right site of action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body, and the drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These products follow the sigmoid release profile characterized by a time period. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chronopharmacological behavior, where nocturnal dosing is required, and for drugs that show the first-pass effect. This review covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Marketed technologies, such as PulsincapTM, Diffucaps®, CODAS®, OROS® and PULSYSTM, follow the above mechanism to render a sigmoidal drug release profile. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery systems have the potential to bring new developments in the therapy of many diseases.

Jain, Deepika; Raturi, Richa; Jain, Vikas; Bansal, Praveen; Singh, Ranjit

2011-01-01

105

Biodegradable scleral plugs for vitreoretinal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Intraocular controlled drug release is one way to facilitate drug efficacy and decrease side effects that occur with systemic administration. Vitreoretinal drug delivery with the biodegradable scleral plug has been investigated. The scleral plug, which is made of biodegradable polymers and drugs, can be implanted at the pars plana using a simple procedure, and it gradually releases effective doses of drugs with polymer biodegradation for several months. The release profiles of the drugs were dependent on the kind of polymers used, their molecular weights, and the amount of drug in the plug. The plugs are effective for treating vitreoretinal diseases such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The implantation site was replaced with connective tissue. Electroretinography and histologic studies revealed little retinal toxicity. This implantable scleral plug was supposed to be advantageous for diseases such as cytomegalovirus retinitis that respond to repeated intravitreal injections and for vitreoretinal disorders that require vitrectomy. PMID:11672873

Yasukawa, T; Kimura, H; Tabata, Y; Ogura, Y

2001-10-31

106

Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.

du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul

2006-01-01

107

Porous polysulfone coatings for enhanced drug delivery.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a porous polysulfone (PSU) coating for use in drug delivery applications is presented. PSU can serve as a functional surface coating for drug delivery vehicles, such as intraocular biomicrorobots. The coatings can be applied using spin coating or dip coating. The porosity is introduced by selectively dissolving calcium carbonate nanoparticles embedded in the bulk polymer. The network of pores thus formed increases by a factor of thirty the amount of Rhodamine B (model drug) that can be loaded and by a factor of fifteen the amount that can be released. The films do not affect cell viability and exhibit poor cell adhesion. The straightforward synthesis and predictability of porosity enables the tuning of the amount of drug that can be loaded. PMID:22391877

Sivaraman, Kartik M; Kellenberger, Christoph; Pané, Salvador; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Lühmann, Tessa; Luechinger, Norman A; Hall, Heike; Stark, Wendelin J; Nelson, Bradley J

2012-06-01

108

Nanofibrillar cellulose films for controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gotten recent and wide attention in various research areas. Here, we report the application of nanofibrillar cellulose as a matrix-former material for long-lasting (up to three months) sustained drug delivery. Film-like matrix systems with drug loadings between 20% and 40% were produced by a filtration method. This simple production method had an entrapment efficacy>90% and offers a possibility for the film thickness adjustment as well as applicability in the incorporation of heat sensitive compounds. The films had excellent mechanical properties suitable for easy handling and shape tailoring of the drug release systems. They were characterized in terms of the internal morphology, and the physical state of the encapsulated drug. The drug release was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the releasing kinetics. The drug release was sustained for a three month period with very close to zero-order kinetics. It is assumed that the nanofibrillar cellulose film sustains the drug release by forming a tight fiber network around the incorporated drug entities. The results indicate that the nanofibrillar cellulose is a highly promising new material for sustained release drug delivery applications. PMID:22750440

Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

2012-10-01

109

Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

Ray, Partha; White, Rebekah R.

2010-01-01

110

Nano-Sized Carriers for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery is an important issue, especially with a new generation of therapeutics, which are either unstable in the biological\\u000a environment, have poor transport properties across biological membranes, are insoluble in water, or have very low bioavailability.\\u000a Nano-sized drug carriers can address some of the above issues and enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Different types of nano-sized\\u000a carriers, such as nanoparticles,

Sanjeeb K. Sahoo; Tapan K. Jain; Maram K. Reddy; Vinod Labhasetwar

111

Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical prodrug design often represents a nonspecific chemical approach to mask undesirable drug properties such as limited\\u000a bioavailability, lack of site specificity, and chemical instability. On the other hand, targeted prodrug design represents\\u000a a new strategy for directed and efficient drug delivery. Particularly, targeting the prodrugs to a specific enzyme or a specific\\u000a membrane transporter, or both, has potential as

Hyo-Kyung Han; Gordon L. Amidon

2000-01-01

112

Silicon dioxide microneedles for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fabrication of a silicon chip for transdermal drug delivery is reported. The chip consists of: 1) an array of high-aspect ratio (up to 50), high density (1 times 106 needles\\/cm2), silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles to be inserted into the outermost part of the skin for a depth of about 100 micron (front-side); 2) some independent drug reservoirs

G. Barillaro; A. Diligenti; L. M. Strambini

2008-01-01

113

Kinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocating drug delivery is a means of delivering soluble drugs directly to closed fluid spaces in the body via a single cannula without an accompanying fluid volume change. It is ideally suited for drug delivery into small, sensitive and unique fluid spaces such as the cochlea. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the scala tympani within the

Erin E. Leary Pararas; Zhiqiang Chen; Jason Fiering; Mark J. Mescher; Ernest S. Kim; Michael J. McKenna; Sharon G. Kujawa; Jeffrey T. Borenstein; William F. Sewell

2011-01-01

114

Novel drug-delivery systems for hypertension.  

PubMed

Although novel controlled-release drug-delivery systems have been used in other areas of medicine, their application in the treatment of hypertension has been relatively recent. Biotechnical use of chemical-dispensing systems has been applied to propranolol, clonidine (the transdermal therapeutic system), nifedipine (the gastrointestinal therapeutic system), verapamil (the sodium alginate and spheroidal oral-delivery absorption system), felodipine (the hydrophilic gel principle), metoprolol succinate (the multiple-unit pellet system), and diltiazem (one system comprising sustained-release beads and the other utilizing the patented Geomatrix extended-release system). Oral drug-delivery systems allow antihypertensive agents that previously had to be administered two to four times daily to be administered once each day. Potential disadvantages of the oral controlled-release products include delayed attainment of pharmacodynamic effect, unpredictable or reduced bioavailability, enhanced first-pass hepatic metabolism, dose dumping, sustained toxicity, dosing inflexibility, and increased cost. Potential advantages include reduced dosing frequency, enhanced compliance and convenience, reduced toxicity, stable drug levels, uniform drug effect, and decreased total dose. Although skin reactions are common, the transdermal drug delivery of clonidine provides another innovative approach to supplying transcutaneous, controlled, continuous delivery of drug for 7 days. It is possible that future research will prove that the agents that provide complete 24-hour control may reduce the cardiovascular events associated with the early-morning blood pressure surge. This evolution in antihypertensive therapy to achieve once-daily dosing may prove to be of great value to both physicians and patients in the 1990s. PMID:1519636

Prisant, L M; Bottini, B; DiPiro, J T; Carr, A A

1992-08-31

115

Thermosensitive polymeric hydrogels as drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Thermosensitive hydrogels are very important biomaterials used in drug delivery systems (DDSs), which gained increasing attention of researchers. Thermosensitive hydrogels have great potential in various applications, such as drug delivery, cell encapsulation, tissue engineering, and etc. Especially, injectable thermosensitive hydrogels with lower sol-gel transition temperature around physiological temperature have been extensively studied. By in vivo injection, the hydrogels formed non-flowing gel at body temperature. Upon incorporation of pharmaceutical agents, the hydrogel systems could act as sustained drug release depot in situ. Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel systems have a number of advantages, including simplicity of drug formulation, protective environment for drugs, prolonged and localized drug delivery, and ease of application. The objective of this review is to summarize fundamentals, applications, and recent advances of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel as DDSs, including chitosan and related derivatives, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based (PNIPAAM) copolymers, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) (PEO/PPO) copolymers and its derivatives, and poly(ethylene glycol)/ biodegradable polyester copolymers. PMID:23092130

Gong, C; Qi, T; Wei, X; Qu, Y; Wu, Q; Luo, F; Qian, Z

2013-01-01

116

ENDOCYTIC MECHANISMS FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY  

PubMed Central

Advances in the delivery of targeted drug systems have evolved to enable highly regulated site specific localization to subcellular organelles. Targeting therapeutics to individual intracellular compartments has resulted in benefits to therapies associated with these unique organelles. Endocytosis, a mechanism common to all cells in the body, internalizes macromolecules and retains them in transport vesicles which traffic along the endolysosomal scaffold. An array of vesicular internalization mechanisms exist, therefore understanding the key players specific to each pathway has allowed researchers to bioengineer macromolecular complexes for highly specialized delivery. Membrane specific receptors most frequently enter the cell through endocytosis following the binding of a high affinity ligand. High affinity ligands interact with membrane receptors, internalize in membrane bound vesicles, and traffic through cells in different manners to allow for accumulation in early endosomal fractions or lysosomally associated fractions. Although most drug delivery complexes aim to avoid lysosomal degradation, more recent studies have shown the clinical utility in directed protein delivery to this environment for the enzymatic release of therapeutics. Targeting nanomedicine complexes to the endolysosomal pathway have serious potential for improving drug delivery for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Although several issues remain for receptor specific targeting, current work is investigating a synthetic receptor approach for high affinity binding of targeted macromolecules.

Bareford, Lisa M.; Swaan, Peter W.

2007-01-01

117

Drug delivery applications with ethosomes.  

PubMed

Ethosomes are specially tailored vesicular carriers able to efficiently deliver various molecules with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. This paper reviews the unique characteristics of the ethosomal carriers, focusing on work carried out with drug containing ethosomal systems in animal models and in clinical studies. The paper concludes with a discussion on the safety of the ethosomal system applications. PMID:21329048

Ainbinder, D; Paolino, D; Fresta, M; Touitou, E

2010-10-01

118

Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery  

DOEpatents

High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on the location of routes of access. To enhance the systemic or local delivery of the therapeutic compounds, high frequency acoustic waves are generated locally near the target site, and preferably near the site of compound administration. The acoustic waves are produced via laser radiation interaction with an absorbing media and can be produced via thermoelastic expansion, thermodynamic vaporization, material ablation, or plasma formation. Acoustic waves have the effect of temporarily permeabilizing the membranes of local cells, increasing the diffusion of the therapeutic compound into the cells, allowing for decreased total body dosages, decreased side effects, and enabling new therapies.

Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Campbell, Heather L. (Baltimore, MD); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

119

APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROSPINNING TECHNIQUE IN DRUG DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospinning has proven to be a simple, versatile, and useful technique for fabricating nanofibers from a rich variety of functional materials. In the past few years, we have witnessed tremendous research progress in understanding electrospinning mechanisms and their applications in controlled drug releasing and delivery. In this review, a brief description of the electrospinning process and fiber formation mechanisms is

Bochu Wang; Yazhou Wang; Tieying Yin; Qingsong Yu

2010-01-01

120

Targeted drug delivery via the folate receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The folate receptor is a highly selective tumor marker overexpressed in greater than 90% of ovarian carcinomas. Two general strategies have been developed for the targeted delivery of drugs to folate receptor-positive tumor cells: by coupling to a monoclonal antibody against the receptor and by coupling to a high affinity ligand, folic acid. First, antibodies against the folate receptor, including

Jennifer Sudimack; Robert J Lee

2000-01-01

121

Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.

Boddupalli, Bindu M.; Mohammed, Zulkar N. K.; Nath, Ravinder A.; Banji, David

2010-01-01

122

New Approaches to Targeted Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For targeted drug delivery, one of the primary drawbacks lies with the inability to design a delivery system that can be loaded with a variety of drugs and biomolecules. Motivated by this challenge, we will present data showing 400 nm liposomes loaded via the novel method of lysenin pores. These pores are approximately 3 nm in diameter and can be closed with divalent and trivalent ions in addition to charged polymers. This new method allows for the controllable passage of large biomolecules such as DNA and protein without the inherent problems common to active and passive loading methods. We will show proof-of-concept results of this method using fluorescent calcein as a drug simulator. Furthermore, data demonstrating current attempts at loading DNA will also be presented.

Cooper, James; Oliver, William; Fologea, Daniel

2013-03-01

123

Tight junction modulator and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Recent progress in pharmaceutical technology based on genomic and proteomic research has provided many drug candidates, including not only chemicals but peptides, antibodies and nucleic acids. These candidates do not show pharmaceutical activity without their absorption into systemic flow and movement from the systemic flow into the target tissue. Epithelial and endothelial cell sheets play a pivotal role in the barrier between internal and external body and tissues. Tight junctions (TJs) between adjacent epithelial cells limit the movement of molecules through the intercellular space in epithelial and endothelial cell sheets. Thus, a promising strategy for drug delivery is the modulation of TJ components to allow molecules to pass through the TJ-based cellular barriers. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the development of TJ modulators and the possibility of absorption enhancers and drug-delivery systems based on TJ components. PMID:19413458

Matsuhisa, Koji; Kondoh, Masuo; Takahashi, Azusa; Yagi, Kiyohito

2009-05-01

124

Bioadhesive polymers: Novel tool for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems came into picture in the early 1980s and are one of the most studied novel delivery systems. Several researchers have focused on the investigations of the interfacial phenomena of mucoadhesion with the mucus. Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for an extended period of time by the help of interfacial forces. A number of polymers have shown characteristics of bioadhesion and have been used in the formulation of various conventional and novel drug delivery systems. Studies demonstrated that these carriers not only increase the local therapeutic activity, but also increase the systemic availability of the drugs by increasing the residence time at the site of application. The current review is an attempt to throw some light on the basics of the mucoadhesion: the mechanism of bioadhesion and the polymers that are used in the design of the bioadhesive delivery system with their properties that affect the bioadhesion. PMID:23859698

Kumar, Krishan; Dhawan, Neha; Sharma, Harshita; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

2014-08-01

125

Multiscale modeling of transdermal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the modeling of transdermal diffusion of drugs, to better understand the permeation of molecules through the skin, and especially the stratum corneum, which forms the main permeation barrier of the skin. In transdermal delivery of systemic drugs, the drugs diffuse from a patch placed on the skin through the epidermis to the underlying blood vessels. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and can be further divided into the stratum corneum (SC) and the viable epidermis layers. The SC consists of keratinous cells (corneocytes) embedded in the lipid multi-bilayers of the intercellular space. It is widely accepted that the barrier properties of the skin mostly arises from the ordered structure of the lipid bilayers. The diffusion path, at least for lipophilic molecules, seems to be mainly through the lipid bilayers. Despite the advantages of transdermal drug delivery compared to other drug delivery routes such as oral dosing and injections, the low percutaneous permeability of most compounds is a major difficulty in the wide application of transdermal drug delivery. In fact, many transdermal drug formulations include one or more permeation enhancers that increase the permeation of the drug significantly. During the last two decades, many researchers have studied percutaneous absorption of drugs both experimentally and theoretically. However, many are based on pharmacokinetic compartmental models, in which steady or pseudo-steady state conditions are assumed, with constant diffusivity and partitioning for single component systems. This study presents a framework for studying the multi-component diffusion of drugs coupled with enhancers through the skin by considering the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC). A multiscale framework of modeling the transdermal diffusion of molecules is presented, by first calculating the microscopic diffusion coefficient in the lipid bilayers of the SC using molecular dynamics (MD). Then a homogenization procedure is performed over a model unit cell of the heterogeneous SC, resulting in effective diffusion parameters. These effective parameters are the macroscopic diffusion coefficients for the homogeneous medium that is "equivalent" to the heterogeneous SC, and thus can be used in finite element simulations of the macroscopic diffusion process.

Rim, Jee Eun

126

Organic–Inorganic Composites for Bone Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper attempts to provide an overview in the fabrication and application of organic–inorganic based composites\\u000a in the field of local drug delivery for bone. The concept of local drug delivery exists for a few decades. However, local\\u000a drug delivery in bone and specially application of composites for delivery of drugs to bone is an area for potential research

Chidambaram Soundrapandian; Biswanath Sa; Someswar Datta

2009-01-01

127

Continuous drug delivery in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Development of motor and non-motor complications during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major challenge for therapeutic management. At advanced disease stages, patients frequently fluctuate between PD symptoms-such as bradykinesia-and dyskinesias, in response to fluctuations in drug concentrations. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of the dopamine agonist apomorphine or intestinal infusion of levodopa reduce such fluctuations in both pharmacokinetics and motor function. This is the basis for the concept of continuous drug delivery in PD, and the more theoretical concept of continuous dopaminergic stimulation. These expressions are sometimes used to describe a treatment that is more continuous in its pharmacokinetic profile or that produces more sustained effects, compared with immediate-release levodopa, i.e. not only pump treatments. For example, sustained-release formulations of levodopa or dopamine agonists, transdermal delivery of rotigotine, and addition of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors or monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors have been developed with the aim to provide more continuous drug concentrations, sustained benefits and minimized side effects. Progress has been made, but there are still knowledge gaps regarding how these treatment alternatives can be optimally used. New treatments are currently being developed to provide the continuous drug delivery that is known to successfully alleviate motor and non-motor complications. Hopefully, although not yet proven, these new methods may also prevent or postpone some of the late-stage complications. PMID:24323838

Senek, Marina; Nyholm, Dag

2014-01-01

128

Intracarotid Delivery of Drugs: The Potential and the Pitfalls  

PubMed Central

The major efforts to selectively deliver drugs to the brain in the last decade have relied on smart molecular techniques to penetrate the blood brain barrier while intraarterial drug delivery has drawn relatively little attention. In the last decade there have been rapid advances in endovascular techniques. Modern endovascular procedures can permit highly targeted drug delivery by intracarotid route. Intracarotid drug delivery can be the primary route of drug delivery or it could be used to facilitate the delivery of smart-neuropharmaceuticals. There have been few attempts to systematically understand the kinetics of intracarotid drugs. Anecdotal data suggests that intracarotid drug delivery is effective in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, thromboembolic strokes, and neoplasms. Neuroanesthesiologists are frequently involved in the care of such high-risk patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the applications of intracarotid drug delivery and the unusual kinetics of intracarotid drugs.

Joshi, Shailendra; Meyers, Phillip M.; Ornstein, Eugene

2014-01-01

129

Nanobiotechnology-Based Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Several approaches are being investigated to improve drug delivery across the BBB. Objective\\/Methods: This review deals with the role of nanobiotechnology in CNS drug delivery. The small size of the nanoparticles enables them to penetrate the BBB and facilitate

K. K. Jain

2007-01-01

130

Bharatbook.com - Drug Delivery Systems forecasts for 2012 & 2017  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral drug delivery systems will remain the largest method used for drug delivery. Orally disintegrating tablets and transmucosal drugs will generate strong growth opportunities in the delivery of pain control and other critical care medication. Ease of administration advantages will promote the widening use of chewable tablet dosages for nutritional, respiratory and central nervous system agents, especially pediatric preparations. Better

2008-01-01

131

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

132

Nanotechnology Approaches for Ocular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.

Xu, Qingguo; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2013-01-01

133

Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

134

Porous ceramic bodies for drug delivery.  

PubMed

An approach to the production of ceramic drug delivery devices is proposed. Two examples of possible ceramics are dealt with: hydroxyapatite weakly modifiable by living tissue and the bioinert alumina. The possibility to control the formed porosity was taken into consideration for both materials. The ratio between the acquired porosity and the quantity and quality of the agents inducing porosity is also described and discussed. A test on the role of porosity was performed on the obtained porous ceramic bodies and a study was made on the release of a substance with pharmacological activity from previously impregnated porous ceramic bodies. This paper is preliminary to a planned work targeted to the preparation of ceramic drug delivery systems. PMID:15348058

Krajewski, A; Ravaglioli, A; Roncari, E; Pinasco, P; Montanari, L

2000-12-01

135

PEGylation, successful approach to drug delivery.  

PubMed

PEGylation defines the modification of a protein, peptide or non-peptide molecule by the linking of one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. This polymer is non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-antigenic, highly soluble in water and FDA approved. The PEG-drug conjugates have several advantages: a prolonged residence in body, a decreased degradation by metabolic enzymes and a reduction or elimination of protein immunogenicity. Thanks to these favorable properties, PEGylation now plays an important role in drug delivery, enhancing the potentials of peptides and proteins as therapeutic agents. PMID:16243265

Veronese, Francesco M; Pasut, Gianfranco

2005-11-01

136

Nanotechnology for drug delivery: the perfect partnership.  

PubMed

The pipelines of pharmaceutical companies are in many cases believed to be drying up and many blockbuster drugs are expected to be coming off patent in the near term. The application of nanotechnology to drug delivery is widely expected to create novel therapeutics capable of changing the landscape for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. This editorial highlights the nanotechnology platforms that are under development or in clinical use today, and points to exciting areas of opportunity where nanotechnology may enable the development of more effective and safer targeted therapeutics for a myriad of clinical applications. PMID:18754745

Farokhzad, Omid C

2008-09-01

137

Floating drug delivery systems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special\\u000a focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the\\u000a physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating\\u000a systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are

Shweta Arora; Javed Ali; Alka Ahuja; Roop K. Khar; Sanjula Baboota

2005-01-01

138

Drug Delivery Systems Based On Mucoadhesive Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Transmucosal delivery of therapeutic agents is a non-invasive approach that utilizes human entry paths such as the nasal,\\u000a buccal, rectal and vaginal routs. Mucoadhesive polymers have the ability to adhere to the mucus layer covering those surfaces\\u000a and by that promote drug release, targeting and absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers commonly interact with mucus through non-covalent\\u000a bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic

Maya Davidovich-Pinhas; Havazelet Bianco-Peled

139

MICROFABRICATED MICRONEEDLES FOR GENE AND DRUG DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract By incorporating techniques adapted from the microelectronics,indus- try, the field of microfabrication has allowed the creation of microneedles, which have the potential to improve,existing biological-laboratory and medical,devices and to en- able novel devices for gene and drug delivery. Dense arrays of microneedles,have been used to deliver DNA into cells. Many cells are treated at once, which is much

Devin V. McAllister; Mark G. Allen; Mark R. Prausnitz

2000-01-01

140

Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches  

PubMed Central

Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery.

Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.

2008-01-01

141

Biocompatibility of engineered nanoparticles for drug delivery.  

PubMed

The rapid advancement of nanotechnology has raised the possibility of using engineered nanoparticles that interact within biological environments for treatment of diseases. Nanoparticles interacting with cells and the extracellular environment can trigger a sequence of biological effects. These effects largely depend on the dynamic physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles, which determine the biocompatibility and efficacy of the intended outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms behind these different outcomes will allow prediction of the relationship between nanostructures and their interactions with the biological milieu. At present, almost no standard biocompatibility evaluation criteria have been established, in particular for nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems. Therefore, an appropriate safety guideline of nanoparticles on human health with assessable endpoints is needed. In this review, we discuss the data existing in the literature regarding biocompatibility of nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. We also review the various types of nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems while addressing new challenges and research directions. Presenting the aforementioned information will aid in getting one step closer to formulating compatibility criteria for biological systems under exposure to different nanoparticles. PMID:23262199

Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Edalat, Faramarz; Raymond, Kevin; Khademhosseini, Ali; Chen, P

2013-03-10

142

A model of axonal transport drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a model of targeted drug delivery by means of active (motor-driven) axonal transport is developed. The model is motivated by recent experimental research by Filler et al. (A.G. Filler, G.T. Whiteside, M. Bacon, M. Frederickson, F.A. Howe, M.D. Rabinowitz, A.J. Sokoloff, T.W. Deacon, C. Abell, R. Munglani, J.R. Griffiths, B.A. Bell, A.M.L. Lever, Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect, Bmc Neuroscience 11 (2010) 8) that reported synthesis and pharmacological efficiency tests of a tri-partite complex designed for axonal transport drug delivery. The developed model accounts for two populations of pharmaceutical agent complexes (PACs): PACs that are transported retrogradely by dynein motors and PACs that are accumulated in the axon at the Nodes of Ranvier. The transitions between these two populations of PACs are described by first-order reactions. An analytical solution of the coupled system of transient equations describing conservations of these two populations of PACs is obtained by using Laplace transform. Numerical results for various combinations of parameter values are presented and their physical significance is discussed.

Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

2012-04-01

143

Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.  

PubMed

A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

2011-12-01

144

Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

2012-01-01

145

Ultrasound triggered, image guided, local drug delivery.  

PubMed

Ultrasound allows the deposition of thermal and mechanical energies deep inside the human body in a non-invasive way. Ultrasound can be focused within a region with a diameter of about 1mm. The bio-effects of ultrasound can lead to local tissue heating, cavitation, and radiation force, which can be used for 1) local drug release from nanocarriers circulating in the blood, 2) increased extravasation of drugs and/or carriers, and 3) enhanced diffusivity of drugs. When using nanocarriers sensitive to mechanical forces (the oscillating ultrasound pressure waves) and/or sensitive to temperature, the content of the nanocarriers can be released locally. Thermo-sensitive liposomes have been suggested for local drug release in combination with local hyperthermia more than 25 years ago. Microbubbles may be designed specifically to enhance cavitation effects. Real-time imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance, optical and ultrasound imaging have led to novel insights and methods for ultrasound triggered drug delivery. Image guidance of ultrasound can be used for: 1) target identification and characterization; 2) spatio-temporal guidance of actions to release or activate the drugs and/or permeabilize membranes; 3) evaluation of bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and 4) physiological read-outs to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20709123

Deckers, Roel; Moonen, Chrit T W

2010-11-20

146

Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

147

Polymeric micelles based on poly(methacrylic acid) block-containing copolymers with different membrane destabilizing properties for cellular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Poly(methacrylic acid)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) are double hydrophilic block copolymers, which are able to form micelles by complexation with a counter-polycation, such as poly-l-lysine. A study was carried out on the ability of the copolymers to interact with model membranes as a function of their molecular weights and as a function of pH. Different behaviors were observed: high molecular weight copolymers respect the membrane integrity, whereas low molecular weight copolymers with a well-chosen asymmetry degree can induce a membrane alteration. Hence by choosing the appropriate molecular weight, micelles with distinct membrane interaction behaviors can be obtained leading to different intracellular traffics with or without endosomal escape, making them interesting tools for cell engineering. Especially micelles constituted of low molecular weight copolymers could exhibit the endosomal escape property, which opens vast therapeutic applications. Moreover micelles possess a homogeneous nanometric size and show variable properties of disassembly at acidic pH, of stability in physiological conditions, and finally of cyto-tolerance. PMID:23792466

Mebarek, Naila; Aubert-Pouëssel, Anne; Gérardin, Corine; Vicente, Rita; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Bégu, Sylvie

2013-10-01

148

Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed.

Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

149

Advances in the Use of Tocols as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their\\u000a biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery\\u000a vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using tocols, although\\u000a other routes of delivery such as pulmonary

Panayiotis P. Constantinides; Jihong Han; Stanley S. Davis

2006-01-01

150

Recent advances in nanotechnology based drug delivery to the brain  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery into the brain was difficult due to the existence of blood brain barrier, which only permits some molecules to pass through freely. In past decades, nanotechnology has enabled many technical advances including drug delivery into the brain with high efficiency and accuracy. In the present paper, we summarize recent important advances in employing nanotechnology for drug delivery to the brain as well as controlled drug release.

Lin, Li-Na; Song, Lei; Liu, Fang-Fang; Sha, Jin-Xiu

2010-01-01

151

Thiomers: promising platform for macromolecular drug delivery.  

PubMed

The application of macromolecules as therapeutic agents holds great promise for several major disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, their use is limited by the lack of efficient, safe and specific delivery strategies. A promising strategy to overcome these challenges might be the use of thiolated polymers or designated thiomers. Thiomers are synthesized by immobilization of sulfhydryl bearing ligands on a polymeric backbone of well-established polymers. These multifunctional polymeric excipients show advantages in mucoadhesion, enzyme and efflux pump inhibition in comparison to unmodified polymers. One obstacle in the use of thiomers is that they are prone to oxidation at lower pH but this could be solved by introducing a completely new generation of thiomers, namely, the preactivated thiomer generation. Preactivated thiomers are mixed disulfides, which exhibit oxidation resistance and, beyond that, improved thiomer features. This review summarizes recent findings of polymeric excipients for macromolecular drug delivery as well as their synthesis and distinctive features. PMID:23190108

Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2012-11-01

152

Drug delivery to solid tumors by elastin-like polypeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a promising class of recombinant biopolymers for the delivery of drugs and imaging agents to solid tumors via systemic or local administration. This article reviews four applications of ELPs to drug delivery, with each delivery mechanism designed to best exploit the relationship between the characteristic transition temperature (Tt) of the ELP and body temperature

Jonathan R. McDaniel; Daniel J. Callahan; Ashutosh Chilkoti

2010-01-01

153

In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

2009-01-01

154

Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer nanotherapeutics are rapidly progressing and are being implemented to solve several limitations of conventional drug delivery systems such as nonspecific biodistribution and targeting, lack of water solubility, poor oral bioavailability, and low therapeutic indices. To improve the biodistribution of cancer drugs, nanoparticles have been designed for optimal size and surface characteristics to increase their circulation time in the bloodstream. They are also able to carry their loaded active drugs to cancer cells by selectively using the unique pathophysiology of tumors, such as their enhanced permeability and retention effect and the tumor microenvironment. In addition to this passive targeting mechanism, active targeting strategies using ligands or antibodies directed against selected tumor targets amplify the specificity of these therapeutic nanoparticles. Drug resistance, another obstacle that impedes the efficacy of both molecularly targeted and conventional chemotherapeutic agents, might also be overcome, or at least reduced, using nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have the ability to accumulate in cells without being recognized by P-glycoprotein, one of the main mediators of multidrug resistance, resulting in the increased intracellular concentration of drugs. Multifunctional and multiplex nanoparticles are now being actively investigated and are on the horizon as the next generation of nanoparticles, facilitating personalized and tailored cancer treatment. PMID:18316549

Cho, Kwangjae; Wang, Xu; Nie, Shuming; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M

2008-03-01

155

CCMR: Controlled Drug Delivery from New Biomaterials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fabrication of new biomaterials for drug delivery has a great impact on todayâs industries and developments. The improvement of efficiency and control of this process can benefit every human being, thus requires a complete understanding of all behavior related to these processes. Our main objective was to synthesize biodegradable polyesters based on dihydroxyacetone dimer and sebacic acid. It was also of our concern to characterize this polymer through different methods such as 1H-NMR and GPC to establish the material properties. Optimization of this synthesis was based on variations of different parameters in order to obtain the most desirable properties for the material.

Pelet, Jeisa

2005-08-17

156

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

157

Antibody Drug Conjugate Bioinformatics: Drug Delivery through the Letterbox  

PubMed Central

Antibodies appear to be the first line of defence in the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and thereby are involved in a multitude of biochemical mechanisms, such as regulation of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. It goes without saying that a full understanding of antibody function is required for the development of novel antibody-interacting drugs. These drugs are the Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), which are a new type of targeted therapy, used for example for cancer. They consist of an antibody (or antibody fragment such as a single-chain variable fragment [scFv]) linked to a payload drug (often cytotoxic). Because of the targeting, the side effects should be lower and give a wider therapeutic window. Overall, the underlying principle of ADCs is to discern the delivery of a drug that is cytotoxic to a target that is cancerous, hoping to increase the antitumoural potency of the original drug by reducing adverse effects and side effects, such as toxicity of the cancer target. This is a pioneering field that employs state-of-the-art computational and molecular biology methods in the fight against cancer using ADCs.

Vlachakis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

158

The development of polyanhydrides for drug delivery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of the polyanhydrides as bioerodible polymers for drug delivery applications. The topics include design and synthesis of the polymer, physical properties, techniques to fabricate the polymer into drug delivery devices, evaluation of biocompatibility, and example applications of the polyanhydrides. Discussion of the interrelationship between the physical-chemical properties of the polyanhydrides, fabrication methods, and drug release

J. Tamada; R. Langer

1992-01-01

159

Micromachined needles for the transdermal delivery of drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modern biotechnology has produced extremely sophisticated and potent drugs, many of these compounds cannot be effectively delivered using current drug delivery techniques (e.g., pills and injections). Administration across skin by transdermal drug delivery is an attractive alternative, but it is limited by the remarkably poor permeability of the skin. Because the primary barrier to transport is located in the

S. Henry; D. V. McAllister; M. G. Allen; M. R. Prausnitz

1998-01-01

160

Vascular Permeability and Drug Delivery in Cancers  

PubMed Central

The endothelial barrier strictly maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic exchanges throughout organs. Consequently, alteration of this finely tuned function may have devastating consequences for the organism. This is particularly obvious in cancers, where a disorganized and leaky blood vessel network irrigates solid tumors. In this context, vascular permeability drives tumor-induced angiogenesis, blood flow disturbances, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tumor cell extravasation. This can directly restrain the efficacy of conventional therapies by limiting intravenous drug delivery. Indeed, for more effective anti-angiogenic therapies, it is now accepted that not only should excessive angiogenesis be alleviated, but also that the tumor vasculature needs to be normalized. Recovery of normal state vasculature requires diminishing hyperpermeability, increasing pericyte coverage, and restoring the basement membrane, to subsequently reduce hypoxia, and interstitial fluid pressure. In this review, we will introduce how vascular permeability accompanies tumor progression and, as a collateral damage, impacts on efficient drug delivery. The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-driven vascular permeability will next be detailed, with a particular focus on the main factors produced by tumor cells, especially the emblematic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, new perspectives in cancer therapy will be presented, centered on the use of anti-permeability factors and normalization agents.

Azzi, Sandy; Hebda, Jagoda K.; Gavard, Julie

2013-01-01

161

A microneedle roller for transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Microneedle rollers have been used to treat large areas of skin for cosmetic purposes and to increase skin permeability for drug delivery. In this study, we introduce a polymer microneedle roller fabricated by inclined rotational UV lithography, replicated by micromolding hydrophobic polylactic acid and hydrophilic carboxy-methyl-cellulose. These microneedles created micron-scale holes in human and porcine cadaver skin that permitted entry of acetylsalicylic acid, Trypan blue and nanoparticles measuring 50nm and 200nm in diameter. The amount of acetylsalicylic acid delivered increased with the number of holes made in the skin and was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than in untreated skin. Lateral diffusion in the skin between holes made by microneedles followed expected diffusional kinetics, with effective diffusivity values that were 23-160 times smaller than in water. Compared to inserting microneedles on a flat patch, the sequential insertion of microneedles row by row on a roller required less insertion force in full-thickness porcine skin. Overall, polymer microneedle rollers, prepared from replicated polymer films, offer a simple way to increase skin permeability for drug delivery. PMID:20624460

Park, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Seong-O; Seo, Soonmin; Choy, Young Bin; Prausnitz, Mark R

2010-10-01

162

Diatomite silica nanoparticles for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Diatomite is a natural fossil material of sedimentary origin, constituted by fragments of diatom siliceous skeletons. In this preliminary work, the properties of diatomite nanoparticles as potential system for the delivery of drugs in cancer cells were exploited. A purification procedure, based on thermal treatments in strong acid solutions, was used to remove inorganic and organic impurities from diatomite and to make them a safe material for medical applications. The micrometric diatomite powder was reduced in nanoparticles by mechanical crushing, sonication, and filtering. Morphological analysis performed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy reveals a particles size included between 100 and 300 nm. Diatomite nanoparticles were functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and labeled by tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate. Different concentrations of chemically modified nanoparticles were incubated with cancer cells and confocal microscopy was performed. Imaging analysis showed an efficient cellular uptake and homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in cytoplasm and nucleus, thus suggesting their potentiality as nanocarriers for drug delivery. PACS 87.85.J81.05.Rm; 61.46. + w

2014-01-01

163

Towards more effective advanced drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

This position paper discusses progress made and to be made with so-called advanced drug delivery systems, particularly but not exclusively those in the nanometre domain. The paper has resulted from discussions with a number of international experts in the field who shared their views on aspects of the subject, from the nomenclature used for such systems, the sometimes overwrought claims made in the era of nanotechnology, the complex nature of targeting delivery systems to specific destinations in vivo, the need for setting standards for the choice and characterisation of cell lines used in in vitro studies, to attention to the manufacturability, stability and analytical profiling of systems and more relevant studies on toxicology. The historical background to the development of many systems is emphasised. So too is the stochastic nature of many of the steps to successful access to and action in targets. A lacuna in the field is the lack of availability of data on a variety of carrier systems using the same models in vitro and in vivo using standard controls. The paper asserts that greater emphasis must also be paid to the effective levels of active attained in target organs, for without such crucial data it will be difficult for many experimental systems to enter the clinic. This means the use of diagnostic/imaging technologies to monitor targeted drug delivery and stratify patient groups, identifying patients with optimum chances for successful therapy. Last, but not least, the critical importance of the development of science bases for regulatory policies, scientific platforms overseeing the field and new paradigms of financing are discussed. PMID:23415662

Crommelin, Daan J A; Florence, Alexander T

2013-09-15

164

Functionalization of protein-based nanocages for drug delivery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional drug delivery strategies involve drugs which are not targeted towards the desired tissue. This can lead to undesired side effects, as normal cells are affected by the drugs as well. Therefore, new systems are now being developed which combine targeting functionalities with encapsulation of drug cargo. Protein nanocages are highly promising drug delivery platforms due to their perfectly defined structures, biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity. A variety of protein nanocages have been modified and functionalized for these types of applications. In this review, we aim to give an overview of different types of modifications of protein-based nanocontainers for drug delivery applications.

Schoonen, Lise; van Hest, Jan C. M.

2014-06-01

165

Nanoscale coordination polymers for anticancer drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was synthesized and incorporated in different NCPs using various binding metals. A moderate drug loading of 44.9 wt% was determined for Zr-based NCPs. This drug loading, along with a diameter less than 200 nm, make these particles promising candidates for further stabilization via lipid encapsulation.

Phillips, Rachel Huxford

166

Recent advances in nanotechnology based drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery into the brain was difficult due to the existence of blood brain barrier, which only permits some molecules\\u000a to pass through freely. In past decades, nanotechnology has enabled many technical advances including drug delivery into the\\u000a brain with high efficiency and accuracy. In the present paper, we summarize recent important advances in employing nanotechnology\\u000a for drug delivery to

Li-Na Lin; Qun Liu; Lei Song; Fang-Fang Liu; Jin-Xiu Sha

2010-01-01

167

Lipoidal Soft Hybrid Biocarriers of Supramolecular Construction for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Lipid-based innovations have achieved new heights during the last few years as an essential component of drug development. The current challenge of drug delivery is liberation of drug agents at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target site. A number of novel drug delivery systems has emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery. Microparticulate lipoidal vesicular system represents a unique technology platform suitable for the oral and systemic administration of a wide variety of molecules with important therapeutic biological activities, including drugs, genes, and vaccine antigens. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. Also, novel lipid carrier-mediated vesicular systems are originated. This paper has focused on the lipid-based supramolecular vesicular carriers that are used in various drug delivery and drug targeting systems.

Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Mankaran; Rathore, Mahendra Singh

2012-01-01

168

Polymeric carriers: role of geometry in drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The unique properties of synthetic nanostructures promise a diverse set of applications as carriers for drug delivery, which are advantageous in terms of biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, targeting and controlled drug release. Historically, more traditional drug delivery systems have focused on spherical carriers. However, there is a growing interest in pursuing non-spherical carriers, such as elongated or filamentous morphologies, now available due to novel formulation strategies. Unique physiochemical properties of these supramolecular structures offer distinct advantages as drug delivery systems. In particular, results of recent studies in cell cultures and lab animals indicate that rational design of carriers of a given geometry (size and shape) offers an unprecedented control of their longevity in circulation and targeting to selected cellular and subcellular locations. This article reviews drug delivery aspects of non-spherical drug delivery systems, including material selection and formulation, drug loading and release, biocompatibility, circulation behavior, targeting and subcellular addressing.

Simone, Eric A; Dziubla, Thomas D; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

2009-01-01

169

Engineering bioceramic microstructure for customized drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most efficient approaches to treat cancer and infection is to use biomaterials as a drug delivery system (DDS). The goal is for the material to provide a sustained release of therapeutic drug dose locally to target the ill tissue without affecting other organs. Silica Calcium Phosphate nano composite (SCPC) is a drug delivery platform that successfully demonstrated the ability to bind and release several therapeutics including antibiotics, anticancer drugs, and growth factors. The aim of the present work is to analyze the role of SCPC microstructure on drug binding and release kinetics. The main crystalline phases of SCPC are alpha-cristobalite (SiO2, Cris) and beta-rhenanite (NaCaPO4, Rhe); therefore, these two phases were prepared and characterized separately. Structural and compositional features of Cris, Rhe and SCPC bioceramics demonstrated a significant influence on the loading capacity and release kinetics profile of Vancomycin (Vanc) and Cisplatin (Cis). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the P-O functional group in Rhe and SCPC has high affinity to the (C=O and N-H) of Vanc and (N-H and O-H) of Cis. By contrast, a weak chemical interaction between the Si-O functional group in Cris and SCPC and the two drugs was observed. Vanc loading per unit surface area increased in the order 8.00 microg Vanc/m2 for Rhe > 4.49 microg Vanc /m2 for SCPC>3.01 microg Vanc /m2 for Cris (p<0.05). Cis loading capacity increased in the order 8.59 microg Vanc /m2 for Cris, 17.8 microg Vanc/m2 for Rhe and 6.03 microg Vanc /m2 for SCPC (p<0.05). Drug release kinetics was dependent on the carrier as well as on the kind of drug. Different burst release and sustained release rates were measured for Vanc and Cis from the same carrier. The percentages of drug amount released from Cris, Rhe and SCPC during the burst stage (the first 2h) were: 50%, 50%, and 46% of Vanc; and 53.4%, 36.6%, and 30.6 % of Cis, respectively. Burst release was found to correlate with the pore size distribution and surface area. Furthermore, the average rates of sustained release in the period 8-216h from Cris, Rhe and SCPC were: 9.8, 7.2 and 3.5 mug/h of Vanc and 4.5, 5.3 and 3.5 mug/h of Cis, respectively. Nearly inert Cris ceramic showed release kinetics controlled by its hierarchical nano porous structure. On the other hand, the phase composition and surface chemistry of bioactive Rhe or SCPC ceramics overruled the effect of surface area. The relatively low rate of drug release from SCPC was due to the dissolution-back precipitation reaction taking place on the material surface as confirmed by FTIR bands of surface hydroxyapatite layer at 576.5, 596.7 and 620.7 cm-1. Moreover, the solid solution of crystalline phases of SCPC enhanced the bioactivity of the composite. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and cell culture analyses demonstrated that the interactions between the SCPC dissolution products and the released drug did not cause measurable negative effects on the bioactivity of the tested drugs. The therapeutic effects of the SCPC-Cis hybrid were evaluated using a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Animals were treated by either systemic cisplatin injection (sCis), or with SCPC-Cis hybrid placed adjacent (ADJ) to, or within (IT), the tumor. Five days after implantation 50-55% of the total cisplatin loaded was released from the SCPC-Cis hybrids resulting in an approximately 50% decrease in tumor volume compared to sCis treatment. Severe side effects were observed in animals treated with sCis including rapid weight loss and decreased liver and kidney function, effects not observed in SCPC-Cis treated animals. Analysis of cisplatin distribution demonstrated drug concentrations in the tumor were 21 and 1.5-times higher in IT and ADJ groups, respectively, as compared to sCis treated animals. These data demonstrate the SCPC drug delivery system can provide an effective localized treatment for HCC with significantly reduced toxicity compared to systemic drug administration. Moreover, it is pos

Pacheco Gomez, Hernando Jose

170

Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on the use of various nanoparticulate and polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Forrest, M. Laird

2011-01-01

171

Advances in lymphatic imaging and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on the use of various nanoparticulate and polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed. PMID:21718728

Nune, Satish K; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K; Thallapally, Praveen K; Forrest, M Laird

2011-09-10

172

Current trends in microsponge drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Microsponge is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Conventional topical preparations have various disadvantages due to irritancy, odour, greasiness and patient compliance. In many topical dosage forms fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. These problems overcome by the usage of formulation as microsponge in the areas of research. Drug release in microsponge is done by the external stimuli like pH, temperature and rubbing. It has several advantageous over the other topical preparations in being non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-irritant and non- mutagenic. These microsponges are used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over-the-counter skin care preparations, recently nanosponge were reported in literature used in delivery of drug by the use of cyclodextrins to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, which are meant for topical application. PMID:22974222

Gangadharappa, H V; Gupta, N Vishal; Prasad M, Sarat Chandra; Shivakumar, H G

2013-08-01

173

Nanomicellar formulations for sustained drug delivery: strategies and underlying principles  

PubMed Central

Micellar delivery systems smaller than 100 nm can be readily prepared. While micelles allow a great depth of tissue penetration for targeted drug delivery, they usually disintegrate rapidly in the body. Thus, sustained drug delivery from micellar nanocarriers is a challenge. This article summarizes various key strategies and underlying principles for sustained drug delivery using micellar nanocarriers. Comparisons are made with other competing delivery systems such as polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles. Amphiphilic molecules self-assemble in appropriate liquid media to form nanoscale micelles. Strategies for sustained release nanomicellar carriers include use of prodrugs, drug polymer conjugates, novel polymers with low critical micellar concentration or of a reverse thermoresponsive nature, reverse micelles, multi-layer micelles with layer by layer assembly, polymeric films capable of forming micelles in vivo and micelle coats on a solid support. These new micellar systems are promising for sustained drug delivery.

Trivedi, Ruchit; Kompella, Uday B

2010-01-01

174

Advanced techniques for penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Transdermal route has been recognized as a promising drug delivery system for systemic delivery of drugs and provides the advantage of avoidance of first-pass effect, ease of use, better patient compliance, maintaining constant blood level for longer period of time and decrease side effects. The major pitfalls of this route lie with difficulty in permeation of drugs through the skin. Several literatures have been published for enhancing the permeation of drugs by chemical approaches. However the present review highlighted about the advanced physical techniques used for enhancing delivery of drugs such as structure-based, electrically based, velocity based and several other miscellaneous physical techniques for enhancing the permeation of drugs. In addition to these, the present review also gives an exhaustive account on clinical data about these techniques and regulatory considerations for new drugs as well as generic product approval in transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21453254

Swain, Suryakanta; Beg, Sarwar; Singh, Astha; Patro, Ch Niranjan; Rao, M E Bhanoji

2011-07-01

175

Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

176

Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

2008-01-01

177

Kontrollierte therapeutische Systeme (Controlled drug delivery systems)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Es gibt eine grosse Anzahl von Arzneistoffen, die nicht mit der höchsten Effizienz eingesetzt werden können, weil das geeignete therapeutische System (drug delivery system) für die optimale Applikation fehlt. Viele Arzneistoffe setzen eine häufige Anwendung voraus und sind oft mit mehr oder weniger starken Nebenwirkungen oder aber mit Beeinträchtigungen von Arbeits- und Lebensrhythmus der Patienten verbunden. Der therapeutische Erfolg einer medikamentösen Behandlung setzt eine korrekte Diagnose, die Wahl der richtigen Wirksubstanz sowie ihr Vorliegen in geeigneter Darreichungsform voraus. Zudem muss ein genauer Verabreichungsplan erstellt werden, dessen Einhaltung seitens der Patienten eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die optimale Wirkung des Arzneistoffes ist. Das Mass, mit dem eine Wirksubstanz therapeutisch voll genutzt werden kann, korreliert direkt mit der Darreichungsform, in der sie angewandt wird. Da viele hochwirksame Arzneimittel bereits existieren, hat sich, neben Neuentwicklungen, das Interesse im vergangenen Jahrzehnt der Optimierung von Arzneimittelwirkungen durch neue Darreichungsformen zugewandt.

Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich

178

Ocular Drug Delivery for Glaucoma Management  

PubMed Central

Current glaucoma management modalities are hindered by low patient compliance and adherence. This can be due to highly complex treatment strategies or poor patient understanding. Treatments focus on the management or reduction of intraocular pressure. This is most commonly done through the use of daily topical eye drops. Unfortunately, despite effective therapies, glaucoma continues to progress, possibly due to patients not adhering to their treatments. In order to mitigate these patient compliance issues, many sustained release treatments are being researched and are entering the clinic. Conjunctival, subconjunctival, and intravitreal inserts, punctal plugs, and drug depots are currently in clinical development. Each delivery system has hurdles, yet shows promise and could potentially mitigate the current problems associated with poor patient compliance.

Gooch, Nathan; Molokhia, Sarah A.; Condie, Russell; Burr, Randon Michael; Archer, Bonnie; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Wirostko, Barbara

2012-01-01

179

Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Posterior Segment Ocular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of drugs to the eye, particularly for the treatment of posterior segment diseases, is a challenging task that requires\\u000a drug transport across barriers in the eye, which are present for the purpose of limiting the entry of drugs and xenobiotics.\\u000a The common methods of drug delivery to the eye—eyedrops, direct injection, and systemic administration—all have problems that\\u000a limit their

Heather Sheardown; W. Mark Saltzman

180

Preactivated thiomers for vaginal drug delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

It was the purpose of this study to design and evaluate a chitosan derivative as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery systems. The chemical modification of chitosan was achieved by conjugation of thioglycolic acid (TGA) resulting in 1594 ?mol thiol groups per gram of polymer followed by the linkage of mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) to the immobilized thiol groups via disulfide bonding leading to 702 ?mol ligand per gram of preactivated polymer. The mucoadhesive properties of these polymers within newly designed vaginal formulations (Chitosan-TGA and Chitosan-TGA-MNA) and commercially available vaginal formulations (Candibene®, Daktarin®, Dalacin®, GynoPevaryl®) were tested over a time period of 24 h via a mucoadhesion test system simulating vaginal conditions, tensile studies and mucus polymer interaction studies via viscosity measurements. Within the vaginal test system simulating vaginal in situ conditions, a 1.5-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be observed for preactivated thiomer formulations after 24 h in comparison to commercially available formulations. Similar results were achieved for tensile studies, as the chitosan-TGA-MNA containing formulation resulted in a 4.9-fold increase in total work of adhesion (TWA) in comparison to Candibene which showed the highest TWA value of all tested commercial formulations. Also in terms of rheology investigations of mucus/formulation mixtures, a 5.8-fold increase in dynamic viscosity for chitosan-TGA-MNA containing mixtures could be observed in comparison to the mucus-free control. In contrast, commercially available formulations achieved a maximum enhancement of 1.9-fold. These outcomes confirm that the newly developed polymer is a promising tool for vaginal drug delivery likely providing a prolonged vaginal residence time due to its comparatively high mucoadhesive properties. PMID:23886732

Friedl, Heike E; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Waldner, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2013-10-01

181

Biocompatibility and biofouling of MEMS drug delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocompatibility and biofouling of the microfabrication materials for a MEMS drug delivery device have been evaluated. The in vivo inflammatory and wound healing response of MEMS drug delivery component materials, metallic gold, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon, and SU-8TM photoresist, were evaluated using the cage implant system. Materials, placed into stainless-steel cages, were implanted subcutaneously in a rodent model.

Gabriela Voskerician; Matthew S. Shive; Rebecca S. Shawgo; Horst von Recum; James M. Anderson; Michael J. Cima; Robert Langer

2003-01-01

182

Characterizing particulate drug-delivery carriers with atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the benefits of employing an atomic force microscope (AFM) in the characterization of the particulate-type drug-delivery carriers. AFM can provide invaluable information about the physicochemical characteristics of the carriers that play an important role in determining the performance of the drug delivery systems (DDS). A lot of this information cannot be obtained from other characterization techniques due

Ashish Garg; Efrosini Kokkoli

2005-01-01

183

Polymeric Micelles - The Future of Oral Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines current advancements in polymeric micelles as a method for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The oral route presents several barriers to drug delivery that the chosen vesicle must overcome. Polymeric micelles have several physical properties, including molecular weight and copolymer block composition, which can be tailored to alter the vesicle structure and overcome these barriers. Examination

Isaac Godfroy

184

Analysis of a simulation algorithm for direct brain drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convection enhanced delivery (CED) achieves targeted delivery of drugs with a pressure-driven infusion through a cannula placed stereotactically in the brain. This technique bypasses the blood brain barrier and gives precise distributions of drugs, minimizing off-target effects of compounds such as viral vectors for gene therapy or toxic chemotherapy agents. The exact distribution is affected by the cannula positioning, flow

Kathryn Hammond Rosenbluth; Jan Felix Eschermann; Gabriele Mittermeyer; Rowena Thomson; Stephan Mittermeyer; Krystof S. Bankiewicz

185

Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past twenty five years have seen an explosion in the creation and discovery of new medicinal agents. Related innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of transdermal delivery systems has been one of

Mark R. Prausnitz; Samir Mitragotri; Robert Langer

2004-01-01

186

Nano- and microfabrication for overcoming drug delivery challenges  

PubMed Central

This highlight article describes current nano- and microfabrication techniques for creating drug delivery devices. We first review the main physiological barriers to delivering therapeutic agents. Then, we describe how novel fabrication methods can be utilized to combine many features into a single physiologically relevant device to overcome drug delivery challenges.

Kam, Kimberly R.

2013-01-01

187

Synergistic Effect of Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Various enhancers including iontophoresis, chemicals, ultrasound, and electroporation have been shown to enhance transdermal drug transport. Although all these methods have been individually shown to enhance transdermal drug transport, their combinations have often been found to enhance transdermal transport more effectively

Samir Mitragotri

2000-01-01

188

Synergistic Effect of Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Various enhancers including iontophoresis, chemicals, ultrasound, and electroporation have been shown to enhance transdermal drug transport. Although all these meth- ods have been individually shown to enhance transdermal drug transport, their combinations have often been found to enhance transdermal transport more

Samir Mitragotri

2000-01-01

189

Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials point of view, both the drug-delivery vehicles and tissue-engineering scaffolds need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The biological functions of encapsulated drugs and cells can be dramatically enhanced by designing biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale. This review summarizes the most recent development in utilizing nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

GOLDBERG, MICHAEL; LANGER, ROBERT; JIA, XINQIAO

2010-01-01

190

Nanostructured porous silicon-mediated drug delivery.  

PubMed

Introduction: The particular properties of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) make it an attractive material for controlled and localized release of therapeutics within the body, aiming at increased efficacy and reduced risks of potential side effects. Since this is a rapidly evolving field as a consequence of the number of research groups involved, a critical review of the state of the art is necessary. Areas covered: In this work, the most promising and successful applications of nanoPS in the field of drug delivery are reviewed and discussed. Two key issues such as drug loading and release are also analyzed in detail. The development of multifunctional (hybrid) systems, aiming at imparting additional functionalities to the nanoPS particles such as luminescence, magnetic response and/or plasmonic effects (allowing simultaneous tracking and guiding), is also examined. Expert opinion: Nanostructured materials based on silicon are promising platforms for pharmaceutical applications given their ability to degrade and low toxicity. However, a very limited number of clinical applications have been demonstrated so far. PMID:24941438

Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Manso-Silván, Miguel; Muñoz-Noval, Alvaro

2014-08-01

191

Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs  

PubMed Central

In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system.

2013-01-01

192

Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer cells drug resistance mechanisms are the major factors to reduce the cytotoxic effects and even the chemotherapeutic efficacy of anti- cancer drugs. Nanocarriers for drug delivery based on the EPR effect targeted to cell cytosol subject to v...

M. Radosz W. J. Murdoch Y. Shen

2013-01-01

193

Application of Plant Viruses as Nano Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-sized drug delivery systems based on virus-derived platforms have promising delivery and targeting efficiencies. To date,\\u000a much of our understanding of these systems is obtained from studies of animal viruses. Application of plant viruses for drug\\u000a delivery is in the nascent stage, but it is becoming apparent that plant viral particles can be engineered to possess novel\\u000a properties to meet

Yupeng Ren; Sek Man Wong; Lee Yong Lim

2010-01-01

194

Biodegradable polymer droplet for efficient drug delivery using flagellated bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a biodegradable polymer droplet for efficient drug delivery using flagellated bacteria. The biodegradability and the localized delivery are the most important features for determining the efficiency of drug delivery. The proposed droplet is made of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) for the biodegradability. It is fabricated using a microfluidic device which has a Y-junction microchannel. The fabricated biodegradable droplet

Seok-jun Hong; Kyo-in Koo; Sang-min Lee; Ho-soo Park; Hyung-jung Yoo; Joonhwuy Kim

2010-01-01

195

Novel Strategies for Anterior Segment Ocular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research advancements in pharmaceutical sciences have led to the development of new strategies in drug delivery to anterior segment. Designing a new delivery system that can efficiently target the diseased anterior ocular tissue, generate high drug levels, and maintain prolonged and effective concentrations with no or minimal side effects is the major focus of current research. Drug delivery by traditional method of administration via topical dosing is impeded by ocular static and dynamic barriers. Various products have been introduced into the market that prolong drug retention in the precorneal pocket and to improve bioavailability. However, there is a need of a delivery system that can provide controlled release to treat chronic ocular diseases with a reduced dosing frequency without causing any visual disturbances. This review provides an overview of anterior ocular barriers along with strategies to overcome these ocular barriers and deliver therapeutic agents to the affected anterior ocular tissue with a special emphasis on nanotechnology-based drug delivery approaches.

Cholkar, Kishore; Patel, Sulabh P.; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt

2013-01-01

196

Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses  

PubMed Central

The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drug delivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading, controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device

Singh, Kishan; Nair, Anroop B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumria, Rachna

2011-01-01

197

Microemulsion: New Insights into the Ocular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs. Further, both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier. This review will provide an insight into previous studies on microemulsions for ocular delivery of drugs using various nonionic surfactants, cosurfactants, and associated irritation potential on the ocular surface. The reported in vivo experiments have shown a delayed effect of drug incorporated in microemulsion and an increase in the corneal permeation of the drug.

Hegde, Rahul Rama; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava

2013-01-01

198

Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to tumor vasculature suppresses metastasis  

PubMed Central

Integrin ???3 is found on a subset of tumor blood vessels where it is associated with angiogenesis and malignant tumor growth. We designed an ???3-targeted nanoparticle (NP) encapsulating the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin (Dox) for targeted drug delivery to the ???3-expressing tumor vasculature. We observed real-time targeting of this NP to tumor vessels and noted selective apoptosis in regions of the ???3-expressing tumor vasculature. In clinically relevant pancreatic and renal cell orthotopic models of spontaneous metastasis, targeted delivery of Dox produced an antimetastatic effect. In fact, ???3-mediated delivery of this drug to the tumor vasculature resulted in a 15-fold increase in antimetastatic activity without producing drug-associated weight loss as observed with systemic administration of the free drug. These findings reveal that NP-based delivery of cytotoxic drugs to the ???3-positive tumor vasculature represents an approach for treating metastatic disease.

Murphy, Eric A.; Majeti, Bharat K.; Barnes, Leo A.; Makale, Milan; Weis, Sara M.; Lutu-Fuga, Kimberly; Wrasidlo, Wolfgang; Cheresh, David A.

2008-01-01

199

NanoART, neuroAIDS and CNS drug delivery  

PubMed Central

A broad range of nanomedicines is being developed to improve drug delivery for CNS disorders. The structure of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), the presence of efflux pumps and the expression of metabolic enzymes pose hurdles for drug-brain entry. Nanoformulations can circumvent the BBB to improve CNS-directed drug delivery by affecting such pumps and enzymes. Alternatively, they can be optimized to affect their size, shape, and protein and lipid coatings to facilitate drug uptake, release and ingress across the barrier. This is important as the brain is a sanctuary for a broad range of pathogens including HIV-1. Improved drug delivery to the CNS would affect pharmacokinetic and drug biodistribution properties. This article focuses on how nanotechnology can serve to improve the delivery of antiretroviral medicines, termed nanoART, across the BBB and affect the biodistribution and clinical benefit for HIV-1 disease.

Nowacek, Ari; Gendelman, Howard E

2009-01-01

200

Chitosan nanoparticles for oral drug and gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Chitosan is a widely available, mucoadhesive polymer that is able to increase cellular permeability and improve the bioavailability of orally administered protein drugs. It can also be readily formed into nanoparticles able to entrap drugs or condense plasmid DNA. Studies on the formulation and oral delivery of such chitosan nanoparticles have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing drug uptake and promoting gene expression. This review summarizes some of these findings and highlights the potential of chitosan as a component of oral delivery systems.

Bowman, Katherine; Leong, Kam W

2006-01-01

201

Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.

Nair, Sreeja C.; Anoop, K. R.

2012-01-01

202

Polymer nanogels: a versatile nanoscopic drug delivery platform  

PubMed Central

In this review we put the spotlight on crosslinked polymer nanogels, a promising platform that has the characteristics of an “ideal” drug delivery vehicle. Some of the key aspects of drug delivery vehicle design like stability, response to biologically relevant stimuli, passive targeting, active targeting, toxicity and ease of synthesis are discussed. We discuss several delivery systems in this light and highlight some examples of systems, which satisfy some or all of these design requirements. In particular, we point to the advantages that crosslinked polymeric systems bring to drug delivery. We review some of the synthetic methods of nanogel synthesis and conclude with the diverse applications in drug delivery where nanogels have been fruitfully employed.

Chacko, Reuben T.; Ventura, Judy; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

2012-01-01

203

Reservoir-Based Drug Delivery Systems Utilizing Microtechnology  

PubMed Central

This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy.

Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert

2012-01-01

204

Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell.

Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Mackenzie, Grahame

2014-01-01

205

Giant Fullerenes for Target Specific Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nano-structures, such as giant fullerenes, have a great potential for biological and medical applications. Most of the previous research is dedicated to investigate the use of fullerenes as vehicles for carrying medication which is chemisorbed on the outside surface of the fullerenes. In contrast, using fullerenes as an enclosure was largely abandoned due to the high strength of the carbon-carbon bonds which has been perceived to prevent the rupturing of the fullerene to release their cargo. We performed atomistic computations based on classical force fields that will address this perception. Specifically we explore the physics and chemistry of OH functionalized carbon based giant fullerenes with diameters from 0.72 nm (60 atoms) to 5.7 nm (3840 atoms). The preliminary results show that OH functionalization on these fullerenes is not only viable but also provides a pH sensitive release mechanism. Furthermore our current results show that carbon-carbon bonds can be broken in low energy biological environments in the presence of a flow induced strain field. These insights may have implications for target specific drug delivery in general and cancer treatment in particular.

Courtney, Robert; Kiefer, Boris

2013-03-01

206

Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery.  

PubMed

Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T; Atkin, Stephen L; Mackenzie, Grahame

2014-01-01

207

Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed.

Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

2014-01-01

208

Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery. PMID:23869879

Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

2013-08-01

209

Osmotic drug delivery using swellable-core technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swellable-core technology (SCT) formulations that used osmotic pressure and polymer swelling to deliver drugs to the GI tract in a reliable and reproducible manner were studied. The SCT formulations consisted of a core tablet containing the drug and a water-swellable component, and one or more delivery ports. The in vitro and in vivo performance of two model drugs, tenidap and

A. G. Thombre; L. E. Appel; M. B. Chidlaw; P. D. Daugherity; F. Dumont; L. A. F. Evans; S. C. Sutton

2004-01-01

210

Development of colon targeted drug delivery systems for mebendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for mebendazole using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for drug content uniformity, and were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The

Y. S. R Krishnaiah; P Veer Raju; B Dinesh Kumar; P Bhaskar; V Satyanarayana

2001-01-01

211

Inorganic Nanoporous Membranes for Immunoisolated Cell-Based Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Materials advances enabled by nanotechnology have brought about promising approaches to improve the encapsulation mechanism for immunoisolated cell-based drug delivery. Cell-based drug delivery is a promising treatment for many diseases but has thus far achieved only limited clinical success. Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by transplantation of pancreatic ?-cells represents the most anticipated application of cell-based drug delivery technology. This review outlines the challenges involved with maintaining transplanted cell viability and discusses how inorganic nanoporous membranes may be useful in achieving clinical success.

Mendelsohn, Adam; Desai, Tejal

2014-01-01

212

Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical scientist because of their considerable potential to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating a wide range of drug molecules. In order to appreciate the potential of microemulsions as delivery vehicles, this review gives an overview of the formation and phase behaviour and characterization of microemulsions. The use of microemulsions and closely related microemulsion-based systems as drug delivery vehicles is reviewed, with particular emphasis being placed on recent developments and future directions. PMID:11104900

Lawrence, M J; Rees, G D

2000-12-01

213

An oral-controlled release drug delivery system for liquid and semisolid drug formulations.  

PubMed

A novel oral drug delivery system for the controlled release of liquid drugs, drug solutions, and semisolid drug preparations is presented that is utilizing the constant vapor pressure of liquefied gas. The system is equipped with a capillary as an element determining the drug delivery rate and contains a liquefied propellant with a suitable boiling point below human body temperature. In the dissolution studies, polyacrylate gels of different viscosities containing paracetamol as model drug were used. Zero-order release kinetics was obtained. The release rates were dependent on the gel viscosity. Besides, by gel viscosity, the drug release rates could also be modified by changing the propellant type and the capillary parameters such as length or diameter. Accordingly, the new system enables a wide range of drug delivery kinetics which can be modified in a case-by-case basis in order to match the desired drug delivery characteristics. PMID:21918919

Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner

2011-12-01

214

Emerging pressure-release materials for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Drug delivery systems for non-specialist uses and application under field conditions are required for medical action in disaster situations and in developing countries. A possible solution for drug delivery under those conditions might be provided by mechanical manipulation of host-guest interactions that could allow drug release control by simple human actions such as hand motion. This editorial article presents recent research developments on control of molecular recognition, capture and release involving macroscopic mechanical motions. In particular, pressure-induced drug release from a cyclodextrin-linked gel has been used to realize controlled release of entrapped drugs upon applying an easy-to-perform mechanical procedure. These easy-action-based drug delivery systems can be applied at will by unskilled staff or patients and are expected to be used to assist medically patients in less-favorable environments anywhere in the world. PMID:23834331

Ariga, Katsuhiko; Kawakami, Kohsaku; Hill, Jonathan P

2013-11-01

215

Targeted drug delivery and penetration into solid tumors.  

PubMed

Delivery and penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors are limited by a number of factors related to abnormal vasculature and altered stroma composition in neoplastic tissues. Coupling of chemotherapeutic drugs with tumor vasculature-homing peptides or administration of drugs in combination with biological agents that affect the integrity of the endothelial lining of tumor vasculature is an appealing strategy to improve drug delivery to tumor cells. Promising approaches to achieve this goal are based on the use of Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR)-containing peptides as ligands for drug delivery and of NGR-TNF, a peptide-tumor necrosis factor-? fusion protein that selectively alters drug penetration barriers and that is currently tested in a randomized Phase III trial in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:21287572

Corti, Angelo; Pastorino, Fabio; Curnis, Flavio; Arap, Wadih; Ponzoni, Mirco; Pasqualini, Renata

2012-09-01

216

Local drug and gene delivery through microbubbles and ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Although gene therapy has great potential as a treatment for diseases, clinical trials are slowed down by the development of a safe and efficient gene delivery system. In this review, we will give an overview of the viral and nonviral vehicles used for drug and gene delivery, and the different nonviral delivery techniques, thereby focusing on delivery through ultrasound contrast agents. The development of ultrasound contrast agents containing encapsulated microbubbles has increased the possibilities not only for diagnostic imaging, but for therapy as well. Microbubbles have been shown to be able to carry drugs and genes, and destruction of the bubbles by ultrasound will result in local release of their contents. Furthermore, ligands can be attached so that they can be targeted to a specific target tissue. The recent advances of microbubbles as vehicles for delivery of drugs and genes will be highlighted. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Juffermans, L.J.M.; Dijkmans, P.A.; Musters, R.J.P.; van Wamel, A.; Bouakaz, A.; ten Cate, F.J.; Deelman, L.; Visser, C.A.; de Jong, N.; Kamp, O.

2004-01-01

217

Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ultrasound (US) has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. These effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or US contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. Areas covered The present review summarizes investigations that have provided evidence for US-mediated drug delivery as a potent method to deliver therapeutics to diseased tissue for cardiovascular treatment. In particular, the focus will be on investigations of specific aspects relating to US-mediated drug delivery, such as delivery vehicles, drug transport routes, biochemical mechanisms and molecular targeting strategies. Expert opinion These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery and new US technologies. Successful implementation of US-mediated drug delivery has the potential to change the way many drugs are administered systemically, resulting in more effective and economical therapeutics, and less-invasive treatments.

Sutton, Jonathan T; Haworth, Kevin J; Pyne-Geithman, Gail; Holland, Christy K

2014-01-01

218

Dissolving polymeric microneedle arrays for electrically assisted transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

It has recently been proposed that the combination of skin barrier impairment using microneedles (MNs) coupled with iontophoresis (ITP) may broaden the range of drugs suitable for transdermal delivery, as well as enabling the rate of delivery to be achieved with precise electronic control. However, no reports exist on the combination of ITP with in situ drug loaded polymeric MN delivery systems. Furthermore, although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of MN design for transdermal drug delivery enhancement, to date, there has been no systematic investigation of the influence of MN geometry on the performance of polymeric MN arrays which are designed to remain in contact with the skin during the period of drug delivery. As such, for the first time, this study reports on the effect of MN heigth and MN density upon the transdermal delivery of small hydrophilic compounds (theophylline, methylene blue, and fluorescein sodium) across neonatal porcine skin in vitro, with the optimised MN array design evaluated for its potential in the electrically faciliatated delivery of peptide (bovine insulin) and protein (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled bovine serum albumin (FTIC-BSA)) macromolecules. The results of the in vitro drug release investigations revealed that the extent of transdermal delivery was dependent upon the design of the MN array employed, whereby an increase in MN height and an increase in MN density led to an increase in the extent of transdermal drug delivery achieved 6h after MN application. Overall, the in vitro permeation studies revealed that the MN design containing 361 MNs/cm(2) of 600 ?m height resulted in the greatest extent of transdermal drug delivery. As such, this design was evaluated for its potential in the MN mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery. Whilst the combination of MN and ITP did not further enhance the extent of small molecular weight solute delivery, the extent of peptide/protein release was significantly enhanced when ITP was used in combination of the soluble PMVE/MA MN arrays. For example, the cumulative amount of insulin permeated across neonatal porcine skin at 6h was found to be approximately 150 ?g (3.25%), 227 ?g (4.85%) and 462 ?g (9.87%) for ITP, MN, and MN/ITP delivery strategies, respectively. Similarly, the cumulative amount of FTIC-BSA delivered across neonatal porcine skin after a 6h period was found to be approximately 110 ?g (4.53%) for MN alone and 326 ?g (13.40%) for MN in combination with anodal ITP (p<0.001). As such, drug loaded soluble PMVE/MA MN arrays show promise for the electrically controlled transdermal delivery of biomacromolecules in a simple, one-step approach. PMID:22265694

Garland, Martin J; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Migalska, Katarzyna; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

2012-04-10

219

Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for oral delivery of protein drugs: I. Formulation development.  

PubMed

The global aim of this research project was to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for non-invasive delivery of protein drugs. The specific aim of this study was to develop SNEDDS formulations. An experimental design was adopted to develop SNEDDS. Fluorescent labeled beta-lactamase (FITC-BLM), a model protein, was loaded into SNEDDS through solid dispersion technique. The experimental design provided 720 compositions of different oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant at various ratios, of which 33 SNEDDS prototypes were obtained. Solid dispersion of FITC-BLM in SoyPC prepared was able to dissolve in 16 SNEDDS prototypes (approximately 2200 mU BLM in 1g SNEDDS). SNEDDS NE-12-7 (composition: Lauroglycol FCC, Cremophor EL and Transcutol; ratio: 5:4:3) formed O/W nanoemulsion with mean droplet size in the range of 22-50 nm when diluted with various pH media and different dilution factor with PBS (pH 7.4). The phase diagram of NE-12-7 indicated a broad region of nanoemulsion. BLM-loaded SNEDDS (NE-12-7) stored at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks indicated 10% loss of BLM activity. A SNEDDS was developed to load FITC-BLM into the oil phase which can spontaneously form O/W nanoemulsion upon the addition of water. PMID:18650038

Rao, Sripriya Venkata Ramana; Shao, Jun

2008-10-01

220

Microneedle-based drug delivery systems: Microfabrication, drug delivery, and safety  

PubMed Central

Many promising therapeutic agents are limited by their inability to reach the systemic circulation, due to the excellent barrier properties of biological membranes, such as the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin or the sclera/cornea of the eye and others. The outermost layer of the skin, the SC, is the principal barrier to topically-applied medications. The intact SC thus provides the main barrier to exogenous substances, including drugs. Only drugs with very specific physicochemical properties (molecular weight < 500 Da, adequate lipophilicity, and low melting point) can be successfully administered transdermally. Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecular agents of interest, including peptides, DNA, and small interfering RNA is problematic. Therefore, facilitation of drug penetration through the SC may involve by-pass or reversible disruption of SC molecular architecture. Microneedles (MNs), when used to puncture skin, will by-pass the SC and create transient aqueous transport pathways of micron dimensions and enhance the transdermal permeability. These micropores are orders of magnitude larger than molecular dimensions, and, therefore, should readily permit the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules. Various strategies have been employed by many research groups and pharmaceutical companies worldwide, for the fabrication of MNs. This review details various types of MNs, fabrication methods and, importantly, investigations of clinical safety of MN.

Donnelly, Ryan F.; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Woolfson, A. David

2010-01-01

221

Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The endocytic trafficking pathway is the site of action for receptor- targeted drug-delivery strategies, including Antibody-Drug- Conjugates (ADCs) and nanoparticle drug-delivery systems. Effective drug-release requires trafficking of the endocytosed rece...

H. Band S. Raja T. Bronich

2013-01-01

222

Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections.

Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

2014-01-01

223

Micelles and Nanoparticles for Ultrasonic Drug and Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery research employing micelles and nanoparticles has expanded in recent years. Of particular interest is the use of these nanovehicles that deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic drugs to diseased tissues selectively, thus reducing the agent’s side effects on the rest of the body. Ultrasound, traditionally used in diagnostic medicine, is finding a place in drug delivery in connection with these nanoparticles. In addition to their non-invasive nature and the fact that they can be focused on targeted tissues, acoustic waves have been credited with releasing pharmacological agents from nanocarriers, as well as rendering cell membranes more permeable. In this article, we summarize new technologies that combine the use of nanoparticles with acoustic power both in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasonic drug delivery from micelles usually employs polyether block copolymers, and has been found effective in vivo for treating tumors. Ultrasound releases drug from micelles, most probably via shear stress and shock waves from collapse of cavitation bubbles. Liquid emulsions and solid nanoparticles are used with ultrasound to deliver genes in vitro and in vivo. The small packaging allows nanoparticles to extravasate into tumor tissues. Ultrasonic drug and gene delivery from nano-carriers has tremendous potential because of the wide variety of drugs and genes that could be delivered to targeted tissues by fairly non-invasive means.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

2008-01-01

224

Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation.  

PubMed

Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V P Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T

2011-07-01

225

Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation  

PubMed Central

Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

2011-01-01

226

Adenovirus Dodecahedron, as a Drug Delivery Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer antibiotic used in many cancer regimens. Its utility is limited by systemic toxicity and dose-dependent pneumonitis able to progress to lung fibrosis. The latter can affect up to nearly 50% of the total patient population, out of which 3% will die. We propose to improve BLM delivery by tethering it to an efficient delivery vector.

Monika Zochowska; Agnieszka Paca; Guy Schoehn; Jean-Pierre Andrieu; Jadwiga Chroboczek; Bernard Dublet; Ewa Szolajska; Ganesh Chandra Jagetia

2009-01-01

227

Local drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled local delivery of antineoplastic agents by biodegradable polymers is a technique that allows for exposure of tumor cells to therapeutic doses of an active agent for prolonged periods of time while avoiding high systemic doses associated with debilitating toxicities. The use of polymers for chemotherapy delivery expands the spectrum of available treatment of neoplasms in the central nervous

Paul P Wang; James Frazier; Henry Brem

2002-01-01

228

NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol\\/Plurol Isostearique\\/isostearylic isostearate\\/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T1 relaxation times were

Mads Kreilgaard; Erik J Pedersen; Jerzy W Jaroszewski

2000-01-01

229

Brain Tumors: Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Drugs (Method)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain has been an ongoing challenge for many years. The poor prognosis for patient\\u000a with primary malignant brain tumors treated with conventional techniques (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) has motivated\\u000a the development of new strategies to deliver drugs into the brain. Local intracranial delivery of antineoplastic agents has\\u000a appeared to be the most effective drug

Anne-Laure Laine; Emilie Allard; Philippe Menei; Catherine Passirani

230

Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:23457960

Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2012-01-01

231

Drug delivery systems for treatment of systemic hypertension.  

PubMed

Novel drug delivery systems are available in many areas of medicine. Their application in the treatment of hypertension continues to widen. Oral drug delivery systems permit antihypertensive agents that were previously administered two to four times daily to be administered once daily. Biotechnical use of chemical-dispensing systems has been applied to propranolol (polymer coated beads), clonidine (transdermal therapeutic system), nifedipine (osmotic pump and coat-core), isradipine (osmotic pump), verapamil (sodium alginate and spheroidal oral delivery absorption system), felodipine (coat-core), nisoldipine (coat-core) and diltiazem (polymer coated beads and Geomatrix. The initial goal was to lower blood pressure by a uniform amount throughout the entire day. Now, new drug delivery systems are being developed to target blood pressure in the early morning hours when most cardiovascular events occur. Two chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems are now available for verapamil (chronotherapeutic oral delivery absorption system and delayed coat osmotic pump). Disadvantages of sustained-release products include delayed achievement of pharmacodynamic effect, unpredictable bioavailability, enhanced first-pass hepatic metabolism, dose dumping, sustained toxicity, dosage inflexibility and increased cost. Potential advantages include reduced administration frequency, enhanced adherence and convenience, reduced toxicity, stable drug concentrations, uniform drug effect, decreased cost (occasionally) and decreased daily dosage. PMID:12908851

Prisant, L Michael; Elliott, William J

2003-01-01

232

Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

2012-01-01

233

Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro.

Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Som Yang, Da; Park, Yong-il; Ryu, WonHyoung

2013-03-01

234

Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning and electrospraying are facile electrohydrodynamic fabrication methods that can generate drug delivery systems (DDS) through a one-step process. The nano-structured fiber and particle morphologies produced by these techniques offer tunable release kinetics applicable to diverse biomedical applications. Coaxial-electrospinning/electrospraying, a relatively new technique of fabricating core-shell fibers/particles have added to the versatility of these DDS by affording a near zero-order drug release kinetics, dampening of burst release, and applicability to a wider range of bioactive agents. Controllable electrospinning/spraying of fibers and particles and subsequent drug release from these chiefly polymeric vehicles depends on well-defined solution and process parameters. The additional drug delivery capability from electrospun fibers can further enhance the material’s functionality in tissue engineering applications. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of using electrohydrodynamic technique to generate nano-fiber/particles as drug delivery devices.

Chakraborty, Syandan; Liao, I-Chien; Adler, Andrew; Leong, Kam W.

2009-01-01

235

Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected

Ensign-Hodges, Laura

236

Microsystems Technologies for Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear  

PubMed Central

The inner ear represents one of the most technologically challenging targets for local drug delivery, but its clinical significance is rapidly increasing. The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss and other auditory diseases, along with balance disorders and tinnitus, has spurred broad efforts to develop therapeutic compounds and regenerative approaches to treat these conditions, necessitating advances in systems capable of targeted and sustained drug delivery. The delicate nature of hearing structures combined with the relative inaccessibility of the cochlea by means of conventional delivery routes together necessitate significant advancements in both the precision and miniaturization of delivery systems, and the nature of the molecular and cellular targets for these therapies suggests that multiple compounds may need to be delivered in a time-sequenced fashion over an extended duration. Here we address the various approaches being developed for inner ear drug delivery, including micropump-based devices, reciprocating systems, and cochlear prosthesis-mediated delivery, concluding with an analysis of emerging challenges and opportunities for the first generation of technologies suitable for human clinical use. These developments represent exciting advances that have the potential to repair and regenerate hearing structures in millions of patients for whom no currently available medical treatments exist, a situation that requires them to function with electronic hearing augmentation devices or to live with severely impaired auditory function. These advances also have the potential for broader clinical applications that share similar requirements and challenges with the inner ear, such as drug delivery to the central nervous system.

Leary Pararas, Erin E.; Borkholder, David A.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2012-01-01

237

Biomedical materials, devices and drug delivery systems by radiation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of radiation polymerization in a super-cooled state started in 1966 and has been applied to the immobilization of biofunctional materials since 1973. In the last twenty years, application has been concentrated to the immobilization of drugs and hormones for the purpose of drug delivery systems. Very recently, the author has proposed a concept of environmental signal responsive chemical delivery system, as a new generation of controlled release and delivery systems. The study and development of materials, devices and systems is described. The signal responsive delivery system consists of a sensor part and a controlled delivery part. Therefore, the use of immobilization techniques for the biochip sensor and the hydrogel actuator has been investigated. As a future goal, systems for the brain research are to be designed and studied.

Kaetsu, Isao

1996-03-01

238

Recent Applications of Liposomes in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Liposomal formulations were significantly explored over the last decade for the ophthalmic drug delivery applications. These formulations are mainly composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other constituents such as cholesterol and lipid-conjugated hydrophilic polymers. Liposomes are biodegradable and biocompatible in nature. Current approaches for topical delivery of liposomes are focused on improving the corneal adhesion and permeation by incorporating various bioadhesive and penetration enhancing polymers. In the case of posterior segment disorders improvement in intravitreal half life and targeted drug delivery to the retina is achieved by liposomes. In this paper we have attempted to summarize the applications of liposomes in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery by citing numerous investigators over the last decade.

Mishra, Gyan P.; Bagui, Mahuya; Tamboli, Viral; Mitra, Ashim K.

2011-01-01

239

Bio-inspired, bioengineered and biomimetic drug delivery carriers.  

PubMed

Synthetic carriers such as polymer and lipid particles often struggle to meet clinical expectations. Natural particulates - that range from pathogens to mammalian cells - are therefore worth examining in more depth, as they are highly optimized for their specific functions in vivo and possess features that are often desired in drug delivery carriers. With a better understanding of these biological systems, in conjunction with the availability of advanced biotechnology tools that are useful for re-engineering the various natural systems, researchers have started to exploit natural particulates for multiple applications in the delivery of proteins, small interfering RNA and other therapeutic agents. Here, we review the natural drug delivery carriers that have provided the basis and inspiration for new drug delivery systems. PMID:21720407

Yoo, Jin-Wook; Irvine, Darrell J; Discher, Dennis E; Mitragotri, Samir

2011-07-01

240

Strategies for combination of aptamer and targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Cell-specific delivery of active agents for treatment of human disease is a long cherished object for scientific researchers. Nanoscience generated nanosized carriers, such as liposome, micelle and nanoparticle, provides potential to realize such purpose based on the nanometer size effect (< 1000 nm), however, the sole nanocarrier with no specific ligands are not sufficient to deliver drugs to target sites. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides which can specifically recognize and bind to target cells by distinct secondary and tertiary structures even without knowledge of characteristic protein profiles on cell surface. Thus, aptamer, as a target moiety, provides a potential approach to realize pathological site-specific delivery of active agents. This review highlighted the strategies for combination of aptamer and targeted drug delivery, further summarized their preparation methods, strengths and weaknesses to facilitate the development of targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24730278

Wang, Cheng; Liu, Biao; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping

2014-01-01

241

Recent patents and advances in ophthalmic drug delivery.  

PubMed

Ophthalmic drug delivery has long been a challenging task for pharmaceutical scientists seeking to alleviate various ocular diseases affecting the anterior and posterior segments. In order to deliver therapeutic agents to target tissues, the unique anatomical barriers of the eye must be circumvented effectively, without causing any patient discomfort or alteration in protective physiological mechanisms. This challenge is currently being met with the development of novel non-invasive delivery methods as well as improvements over existing techniques. Over the past decade many advanced technologies have been patented. Nevertheless a need for additional research and continuous innovation is still warranted. Patent literature is often essential for promoting new directions in research as well as for elucidating possibilities for future technologies. Hence, the aim of this review article is to discuss several recently filed patents on non-invasive modes of drug delivery to the ocular tissues. This review will also focus on the role of colloidal/particulate systems in ocular drug delivery and formulation. Recent patents filed on prodrugs as an efficient ophthalmic drug delivery mechanism also have been discussed. As a whole, this article is intended to provide a valuable insight into current trends in the field of ocular drug delivery and highlights advances made in patent literature. PMID:19075883

Janoria, Kumar G; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Dasari, Chanukya R; Mitra, Ashim K

2007-01-01

242

An Intravaginal Ring for the Simultaneous Delivery of Multiple Drugs  

PubMed Central

Intravaginal delivery of microbicide combinations is a promising approach for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, but requires a method of providing simultaneous, independent release of multiple agents into the vaginal compartment. A novel intravaginal ring (IVR) platform has been developed for simultaneous delivery of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) and the guanosine analogue antiviral acyclovir (ACV) with independent control of release rate for each drug. The IVR is based on a pod design, with up to 10 individual polymer-coated drug cores embedded in the ring releasing through preformed delivery channels. The release rate from each pod is controlled independently of the others by the drug properties, polymer coating, and size and number of delivery channels. Pseudo-zero-order in vitro release of TFV (144 ± 10 µg day) and ACV (120 ± 19 µg day?1) from an IVR containing both drugs was sustained for 28 days. The mechanical properties of the pod IVR were evaluated and compared with the commercially available Estring® (Pfizer, NY, NY). The pod-IVR design enables the vaginal delivery of multiple microbicides with differing physicochemical properties, and is an attractive approach for the sustained intravaginal delivery of relatively hydrophilic drugs that are difficult to deliver using conventional matrix IVR technology.

Baum, Marc M.; Butkyavichene, Irina; Gilman, Joshua; Kennedy, Sean; Kopin, Etana; Malone, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Cali; Smith, Thomas J.; Friend, David R.; Clark, Meredith R.; Moss, John A.

2013-01-01

243

An intravaginal ring for the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs.  

PubMed

Intravaginal delivery of microbicide combinations is a promising approach for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, but requires a method of providing simultaneous, independent release of multiple agents into the vaginal compartment. A novel intravaginal ring (IVR) platform has been developed for simultaneous delivery of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) and the guanosine analogue antiviral acyclovir (ACV) with independent control of release rate for each drug. The IVR is based on a pod design, with up to 10 individual polymer-coated drug cores embedded in the ring releasing through preformed delivery channels. The release rate from each pod is controlled independently of the others by the drug properties, polymer coating, and size and number of delivery channels. Pseudo-zero-order in vitro release of TFV (144 ± 10 µg day) and ACV (120 ± 19 µg day?¹) from an IVR containing both drugs was sustained for 28 days. The mechanical properties of the pod IVR were evaluated and compared with the commercially available Estring® (Pfizer, NY, NY). The pod-IVR design enables the vaginal delivery of multiple microbicides with differing physicochemical properties, and is an attractive approach for the sustained intravaginal delivery of relatively hydrophilic drugs that are difficult to deliver using conventional matrix IVR technology. PMID:22619076

Baum, Marc M; Butkyavichene, Irina; Gilman, Joshua; Kennedy, Sean; Kopin, Etana; Malone, Amanda M; Nguyen, Cali; Smith, Thomas J; Friend, David R; Clark, Meredith R; Moss, John A

2012-08-01

244

Ultrasonic-Activated Micellar Drug Delivery for Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

The use of nanoparticles and ultrasound in medicine continues to evolve. Great strides have been made in the areas of producing micelles, nanoemulsions and solid nanoparticles that can be used in drug delivery. An effective nanocarrier allows for the delivery of a high concentration of potent medications to targeted tissue while minimizing the side effect of the agent to the rest of the body. Polymeric micelles have been shown to encapsulate therapeutic agents and maintain their structural integrity at lower concentrations. Ultrasound is currently being used in drug delivery as well as diagnostics, and has many advantages that elevate its importance in drug delivery. The technique is non-invasive, thus no surgery is needed; the ultrasonic waves can be easily controlled by advanced electronic technology so that they can be focused on the desired target volume. Additionally, the physics of ultrasound are widely used and well understood; thus ultrasonic application can be tailored towards a particular drug delivery system. In this article, we review the recent progress made in research that utilizes both polymeric micelles and ultrasonic power in drug delivery.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

2008-01-01

245

68 FR 24010 - Prospective Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Convection Enhanced Drug Delivery for Transforming...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prospective Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Convection Enhanced Drug Delivery for Transforming...issued February 24, 1998, entitled ``Convection-enhanced drug delivery'' (Laske...the fields that include the use of the Convection Enhanced Delivery (CED)...

2003-05-06

246

Laser-ablation-assisted microparticle acceleration for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localized drug delivery with minimal tissue damage is desired in some of the clinical procedures such as gene therapy, treatment of cancer cells, treatment of thrombosis, etc. We present an effective method for delivering drug-coated microparticles using laser ablation on a thin metal foil containing particles. A thin metal foil, with a deposition of a layer of microparticles is subjected

V. Menezes; K. Takayama; T. Ohki; J. Gopalan

2005-01-01

247

Porous carriers for controlled/modulated drug delivery.  

PubMed

Considerable research efforts have been directed in recent years towards the development of porous carriers as controlled drug delivery matrices because of possessing several features such as stable uniform porous structure, high surface area, tunable pore size and well-defined surface properties. Owing to wide range of useful properties porous carriers have been used in pharmaceuticals for many purposes including development of floating drug delivery systems, sustained drug delivery systems. Various types of pores like open, closed, transport and blind pores in the porous solid allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. Pharmaceutically exploited porous adsorbents includes, silica (mesoporous), ethylene vinyl acetate (macroporous), polypropylene foam powder (microporous), titanium dioxide (nanoporous). When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. The porous carriers are used to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, to increase the dissolution of relatively insoluble powders and conversion of crystalline state to amorphous state. PMID:20376211

Ahuja, G; Pathak, K

2009-11-01

248

Innovative strategies for the oral delivery of drugs and peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional forms of administration for nonabsorbable drugs and peptides often rely on parenteral injection, because the intestinal epithelium represents a major barrier to the oral absorption of these therapeutic agents. Recently, a number of innovative drug-delivery approaches have been developed, including entrapment within small vesicles and passage through the space between adjacent intestinal cells. This article reviews some of the

Alessio Fasano

1998-01-01

249

Approaches to neural tissue engineering using scaffolds for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review seeks to give an overview of the current approaches to drug delivery from scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications. The challenges presented by attempting to replicate the three types of nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve) are summarized. Potential scaffold materials (both synthetic and natural) and target drugs are discussed with the benefits and drawbacks given.

Stephanie M. Willerth; Shelly E. Sakiyama-Elbert

2007-01-01

250

The use of microdialysis in CNS drug delivery studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microdialysis can give simultaneous information on unbound drug concentration–time profiles in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and blood, separating the information on blood–brain barrier (BBB) processes from confounding factors such as binding to brain tissue or proteins in blood. This makes microdialysis suitable for studies on CNS drug delivery. It is possible to quantify influx and efflux processes at the BBB

Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

2000-01-01

251

Nasal drug delivery—possibilities, problems and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problems associated with nasal drug delivery and how it is possible, sometimes by means of quite simple concepts, to improve transport across the nasal membrane. In this way it is feasible to deliver efficiently challenging drugs such as small polar molecules, peptides and proteins and even the large proteins and polysaccharides used in vaccines or DNA

Lisbeth Illum

2003-01-01

252

Generation of Multiphase Pulsed Voltages for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first reviews the mechanism of transdermal drug delivery (TDD) and then presents the method for generating multiphase pulsed voltages (MPPVs) for TDD applications. In TDD applications, it offers many potential advantages over conventional methods, such as oral and injection treatments, and it avoids drug degradation through the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Due to the energy stored in an

Sheng-Yu Tseng; Tsai-Fu Wu; Shu-Yuan Fan

2008-01-01

253

Iontophoresis - an approach for controlled drug delivery: a review.  

PubMed

The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:17269912

Dixit, Nitin; Bali, Vikas; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed

2007-01-01

254

Novel nano drug delivery systems for hepatic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adriamycin and galactose was grafted to dextran. The novel nanopartcile drug delivery system (DDS) was prepared from the chemical modified polysaccharide by the dialysis. The content of the ADR moiety in the polymeric-drug conjugate was about 2 mol%. The size and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that

Yu Cao; Jing Liu; Hong Ma; Jing Bai; Chao Qi

2009-01-01

255

Aptamer-Gated Nanoparticles for Smart Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are functional nucleic acid sequences which can bind specific targets. An artificial combinatorial methodology can identify aptamer sequences for any target molecule, from ions to whole cells. Drug delivery systems seek to increase efficacy and reduce side-effects by concentrating the therapeutic agents at specific disease sites in the body. This is generally achieved by specific targeting of inactivated drug molecules. Aptamers which can bind to various cancer cell types selectively and with high affinity have been exploited in a variety of drug delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Recent progress in selection of cell-specific aptamers has provided new opportunities in targeted drug delivery. Especially functionalization of nanoparticles with such aptamers has drawn major attention in the biosensor and biomedical areas. Moreover, nucleic acids are recognized as an attractive building materials in nanomachines because of their unique molecular recognition properties and structural features. A active controlled delivery of drugs once targeted to a disease site is a major research challenge. Stimuli-responsive gating is one way of achieving controlled release of nanoparticle cargoes. Recent reports incorporate the structural properties of aptamers in controlled release systems of drug delivering nanoparticles. In this review, the strategies for using functional nucleic acids in creating smart drug delivery devices will be explained. The main focus will be on aptamer-incorporated nanoparticle systems for drug delivery purposes in order to assess the future potential of aptamers in the therapeutic area. Special emphasis will be given to the very recent progress in controlled drug release based on molecular gating achieved with aptamers.

Ozalp, Veli Cengiz; Eyidogan, Fusun; Oktem, Huseyin Avni

2011-01-01

256

Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Unique microneedle arrays prepared from crosslinked polymers, which contain no drug themselves, are described. They rapidly take up skin interstitial fluid upon skin insertion to form continuous, unblockable, hydrogel conduits from attached patch-type drug reservoirs to the dermal microcirculation. Importantly, such microneedles, which can be fabricated in a wide range of patch sizes and microneedle geometries, can be easily sterilized, resist hole closure while in place, and are removed completely intact from the skin. Delivery of macromolecules is no longer limited to what can be loaded into the microneedles themselves and transdermal drug delivery is now controlled by the crosslink density of the hydrogel system rather than the stratum corneum, while electrically modulated delivery is also a unique feature. This technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional microneedle designs and greatly increase the range of the type of drug that is deliverable transdermally, with ensuing benefits for industry, healthcare providers and, ultimately, patients.

Donnelly, Ryan F; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Garland, Martin J; Migalska, Katarzyna; Majithiya, Rita; McCrudden, Cian M; Kole, Prashant Laxman; Mahmood, Tuan Mazlelaa Tuan; McCarthy, Helen O; Woolfson, A David

2012-01-01

257

Polymer nanoparticle-based controlled pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

The development of novel formulations for controlled pulmonary drug delivery purposes has gained remarkable interest in medicine. Although nanomedicine represents attractive concepts for the treatment of numerous systemic diseases, scant information is available on the controlled drug release characteristics of colloidal formulations following lung administration, which might be attributed to the lack of methods to follow their absorption and distribution behavior in the pulmonary environment.In this chapter, we describe the methods of preparation and characterization of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable charge-modified branched polyesters, aerosolization of the nanosuspensions using a vibrating-mesh nebulizer, and evaluation of the pulmonary pharmacokinetics (i.e., absorption and distribution characteristics) of the nanoscale drug delivery vehicles following aerosol delivery to the airspace of an isolated lung model. The disclosed methodology may contribute to the design of advanced colloids for the treatment of respiratory disorders. PMID:24567136

Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Dalla-Bona, Alexandra C; Kissel, Thomas; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

2014-01-01

258

Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery for efficient cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor penetration of anti-cancer drugs through tumor vasculature and cancer cell membrane as well as slow diffusion of the drugs in the interstitium limit efficacy of cancer chemo- and biotherapy. Recently we proposed to use ultrasound-induced cavitation (formation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles) to enhance anti-cancer drug delivery through these barriers. Cavitation can be selectively induced in tumors by using

I. V. Larina; B. M. Evers; C. Bartels; T. V. Ashitkov; K. V. Larin; R. O. Esenaliev

2002-01-01

259

Vector-mediated drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-mediated drug delivery to the brain employs the chimeric peptide technology, wherein a non-transportable drug is conjugated to a blood–brain barrier (BBB) transport vector. The latter is a modified protein or receptor-specific monoclonal antibody that undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB in vivo. Conjugation of drug to transport vector is facilitated with either chemical linkers, avidin–biotin technology, polyethylene glycol linkers,

William M. Pardridge

1999-01-01

260

Polymeric micelles: nanocarriers for cancer-targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Polymeric micelles represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. With small size (10-100 nm) and hydrophilic shell of PEG, polymeric micelles exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood and enhanced tumor accumulation. In this review, the importance of rational design was highlighted by summarizing the recent progress on the development of micellar formulations. Emphasis is placed on the new strategies to enhance the drug/carrier interaction for improved drug-loading capacity. In addition, the micelle-forming drug-polymer conjugates are also discussed which have both drug-loading function and antitumor activity. PMID:24700296

Zhang, Yifei; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

2014-08-01

261

The Role of Cavitation in Acoustically Activated Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Pluronic P105 micelles are potential candidates as chemotherapy drug delivery vehicles using ultrasonic stimulation as a release trigger. Acoustic power has been previously shown to release two anthracycline agents from these polymeric carriers. In this study, an ultrasonic exposure chamber with fluorescence detection was used to examine the mechanism of doxorubicin release from P105 micelles. Acoustic spectra were collected and analyzed, at the same spatial position as fluorescence data, to probe the role of cavitation in drug release. Our study showed a strong correlation between percent drug release and subharmonic acoustic emissions, and we attribute the drug release to collapse cavitation that perturbs the structure of the micelle and releases drug.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Diaz de la Rosa, Mario A.; Richardson, Eric S.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Pitt, William G.

2006-01-01

262

An emerging platform for drug delivery: aerogel based systems.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation. PMID:24394377

Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can

2014-03-10

263

Development of a Microfluidics-Based Intracochlear Drug Delivery Device  

PubMed Central

Background Direct delivery of drugs and other agents into the inner ear will be important for many emerging therapies, including the treatment of degenerative disorders and guiding regeneration. Methods We have taken a microfluidics/MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) technology approach to develop a fully implantable reciprocating inner-ear drug-delivery system capable of timed and sequenced delivery of agents directly into perilymph of the cochlea. Iterations of the device were tested in guinea pigs to determine the flow characteristics required for safe and effective delivery. For these tests, we used the glutamate receptor blocker DNQX, which alters auditory nerve responses but not cochlear distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Results We have demonstrated safe and effective delivery of agents into the scala tympani. Equilibration of the drug in the basal turn occurs rapidly (within tens of minutes) and is dependent on reciprocating flow parameters. Conclusion We have described a prototype system for the direct delivery of drugs to the inner ear that has the potential to be a fully implantable means for safe and effective treatment of hearing loss and other diseases.

Sewell, William F.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Fiering, Jason; Handzel, Ophir; Holmboe, Maria; Kim, Ernest S.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.; Mescher, Mark M.; Murphy, Brian; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Peppi, Marcello; Tao, Sarah

2009-01-01

264

A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.  

PubMed

The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

2011-01-01

265

TAT-based drug delivery system--new directions in protein delivery for new hopes?  

PubMed

There has been great progress in the use of TAT-based drug delivery systems for the delivery of different macromolecules into cells in vitro and in vivo, thus circumventing the bioavailability barrier that is a problem for so many drugs. There are many advantages to using this system, such as the ability to deliver these cargoes into all types of cells in culture and into all organs in vivo. This system can even deliver cargoes into the brain across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, the ability to target specific intracellular sub-localizations such as the nuclei, the mitochondria and lysosomes further expands the possibilities of this drug delivery system to the development of sub-cellular organelle-targeted therapy. The therapeutic applications seem almost unlimited, and the use of the TAT-based delivery system has extended from proteins to a large variety of cargoes such as oligonucleotides, imaging agents, low molecular mass drugs, nanoparticles, micelles and liposomes. In this review the most recent advances in the use of the TAT-based drug delivery system will be described, mainly discussing TAT-mediated protein delivery and the use of the TAT system for enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:19413454

Rapoport, Matan; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

2009-05-01

266

Conundrum and therapeutic potential of curcumin in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Turmeric, the source of the polyphenolic active compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane), has been used extensively in traditional medicine since ancient times as a household remedy against various diseases, including hepatic disorders, cough, sinusitis, rheumatism, and biliary disorders. In the past few decades, a number of studies have been done on curcumin showing its potential role in treating inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, AIDS, and neurological disorders. However, the main drawback associated with curcumin is its poor aqueous solubility and stability in gastrointestinal fluids, which leads to poor bioavailability. Multifarious novel drug-delivery approaches, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, microspheres, solid dispersion, polymeric nanoparticles, and self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems have been used to enhance the bioavailability and tissue-targeting ability of curcumin. These attempts have revealed promising results for enhanced bioavailability and targeting to disease such as cancer, but more extensive research on tissue-targeting and stability-related issues is needed. Tissue targeting and enhanced bioavailability of curcumin using novel drug-delivery methods with minimum side effects will in the near future bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapy for the treatment of human diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular ailments. We provide a detailed analysis of prominent research in the field of curcumin drug delivery with special emphasis on bioavailability-enhancement approaches and novel drug-delivery system approaches. PMID:20932240

Kumar, Anil; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

2010-01-01

267

Emerging microtechnologies for the development of oral drug delivery devices.  

PubMed

The development of oral drug delivery platforms for administering therapeutics in a safe and effective manner across the gastrointestinal epithelium is of much importance. A variety of delivery systems such as enterically coated tablets, capsules, particles, and liposomes have been developed to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. However, orally administered drugs suffer from poor localization and therapeutic efficacy due to various physiological conditions such as low pH, and high shear intestinal fluid flow. Novel platforms combining controlled release, improved adhesion, tissue penetration, and selective intestinal targeting may overcome these issues and potentially diminish the toxicity and high frequency of administration associated with conventional oral delivery. Microfabrication along with appropriate surface chemistry, provide a means to fabricate these platforms en masse with flexibility in tailoring the shape, size, reservoir volume, and surface characteristics of microdevices. Moreover, the same technology can be used to include integrated circuit technology and sensors for designing sophisticated autonomous drug delivery devices that promise to significantly improve point of care diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. This review sheds light on some of the fabrication techniques and addresses a few of the microfabricated devices that can be effectively used for controlled oral drug delivery applications. PMID:22981755

Chirra, Hariharasudhan D; Desai, Tejal A

2012-11-01

268

Intestinal lymphatic transport for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal lymphatic transport has been shown to be an absorptive pathway following oral administration of lipids and an increasing number of lipophilic drugs, which once absorbed, diffuse across the intestinal enterocyte and while in transit associate with secretable enterocyte lipoproteins. The chylomicron-associated drug is then secreted from the enterocyte into the lymphatic circulation, rather than the portal circulation, thus avoiding

Jaime A. Yáñez; Stephen W. J. Wang; Ian W. Knemeyer; Mark A. Wirth; Kevin B. Alton

2011-01-01

269

BioMEMS for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research into methods of using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology for medical and biological applications has developed several interesting devices. This paper reviews various approaches to the use of MEMS for drug therapy, including devices based on microporous silicon, microneedles, micropumps, and microreservoirs. Microdevices can improve drug therapy because they allow precise and complex dosing, induce less pain, or increase

Rebecca S Shawgo; Amy C Richards Grayson; Yawen Li; Michael J Cima

2002-01-01

270

Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in very different fields, including medicine and pharmacy. Transfer of materials into the nanodimension changes their physical properties which were used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production technologies, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed. The physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed. The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects of nanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product. Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

Junghanns, Jens-Uwe A H; Muller, Rainer H

2008-01-01

271

Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs.

Som, Iti; Bhatia, Kashish; Yasir, Mohd.

2012-01-01

272

Which drug or drug delivery system can change clinical practice for brain tumor therapy?  

PubMed Central

The prognosis and treatment outcome for primary brain tumors have remained unchanged despite advances in anticancer drug discovery and development. In clinical trials, the majority of promising experimental agents for brain tumors have had limited impact on survival or time to recurrence. These disappointing results are partially explained by the inadequacy of effective drug delivery to the CNS. The impediments posed by the various specialized physiological barriers and active efflux mechanisms lead to drug failure because of inability to reach the desired target at a sufficient concentration. This perspective reviews the leading strategies that aim to improve drug delivery to brain tumors and their likelihood to change clinical practice. The English literature was searched for defined search items. Strategies that use systemic delivery and those that use local delivery are critically reviewed. In addition, challenges posed for drug delivery by combined treatment with anti-angiogenic therapy are outlined. To impact clinical practice and to achieve more than just a limited local control, new drugs and delivery systems must adhere to basic clinical expectations. These include, in addition to an antitumor effect, a verified favorable adverse effects profile, easy introduction into clinical practice, feasibility of repeated or continuous administration, and compatibility of the drug or delivery system with any tumor size and brain location.

Siegal, Tali

2013-01-01

273

Light-activatable gold nanoshells for drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

Gold nanoshells (AuNSs) are currently being investigated as nanocarriers for drug delivery systems and have both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including photothermal ablation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, and diagnostic imaging, particularly in oncology. AuNSs are valuable for their localized surface plasmon resonance, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, and facile functionalization. AuNSs used for drug delivery can be spatially and temporally triggered to release controlled quantities of drugs inside the target cells when illuminated with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. Recently, many research groups have demonstrated that these AuNS complexes are able to deliver antitumor drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, paclitaxel, small interfering RNA, and single-stranded DNA) into cancer cells, which enhances the efficacy of treatment. AuNSs can also be functionalized with active targeting ligands such as antibodies, aptamers, and peptides to increase the particles' specific binding to the desired targets. This article reviews the current research on NIR light-activatable AuNSs used as nanocarriers for drug delivery systems and cancer theranostics. PMID:24550102

Singhana, Burapol; Slattery, Patrick; Chen, Aaron; Wallace, Michael; Melancon, Marites P

2014-06-01

274

Pulmonary drug delivery strategies: A concise, systematic review  

PubMed Central

Because of limitations associated with the conventional treatment of various chronic diseases a growing attention has been given to the development of targeted drug delivery systems. Pulmonary route of drug delivery gaining much importance in the present day research field as it enables to target the drug delivery directly to lung both for local and systemic treatment. Over the last 2 decades, the systemic absorption of a broad range of therapeutics after pulmonary application has been demonstrated in animals as well as in humans. This review was prepared with an aim to discuss the technical, physiological, and efficacy aspects of the novel pulmonary route of drug targeting. The review also focuses on the mechanisms of pulmonary drug administration along with compatibility of the excipients employed, devices used, and techniques of particulate dosage production. This review was prepared based on the method of extensive literature survey on the topics covering all the aspects discussed in the present subject. Hence, the better understanding of complexes and challenges facing the development of pulmonary drug delivery system offer an opportunity to the pharmaceutical scientist in minimizing the clinical and technical gaps.

Patil, J. S.; Sarasija, S.

2012-01-01

275

Thiomers for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.  

PubMed

In recent years thiolated polymers (thiomers) have appeared as a promising new tool in oral drug delivery. Thiomers are obtained by the immobilisation of thio-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By the formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of thiomers are up to 130-fold improved compared with the corresponding unmodified polymers. Owing to the formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, matrix tablets and particulate delivery systems show strong cohesive properties, resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled drug release. The permeation of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs through the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa can be improved by the use of thiomers. Furthermore, some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards GI peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in oral drug delivery has been demonstrated by various in vivo studies. A pharmacological efficacy of 1%, for example, was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Furthermore, tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Low-molecular-weight heparin embedded in thiolated polycarbophil led to an absolute bioavailability of > or = 20% after oral administration to rats. In these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. These results indicate drug carrier systems based on thiomers appear to be a promising tool for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs. PMID:16296722

Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Hoffer, Martin H; Kafedjiiski, Krum

2004-11-01

276

Protein Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Carriers for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Wang, Liying; Chen, Yi Charlie

2014-01-01

277

Targeted Nanogels: A Versatile Platform for Drug Delivery to Tumors  

PubMed Central

While nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations can improve the effectiveness and safety of certain anti-cancer drugs, many drugs, due to their chemical composition, are unsuitable for nanoparticle loading. Here, we describe a targeted nanogel drug delivery platform that can 1) encapsulate a wide range of drug chemotypes including: biological, small molecule, and cytotoxic agents 2) display targeting ligands and polymeric coatings on the surface, 3) enhance drug retention within the nanogel core after photo-crosslinking, and 4) retain therapeutic activity after lyophilization allowing for long term storage. For therapeutic studies, we utilized integrin ?v?3-targeted lipid-coated nanogels with crosslinked human serum albumin in the core for carrying therapeutic cargoes. These particles exhibited potent activity in tumor cell viability assays with drugs of distinct chemotype including: paclitaxel, docetaxel, bortezomib, 17-AAG, sorafenib, sunitinib, bosutinib, and dasatinib. Treatment of orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice with taxane-loaded nanogels produced a 15-fold improvement in anti-tumor activity relative to Abraxane by blocking both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. With a modifiable surface and core, the lipid-coated nanogel represents a platform technology that can be easily adapted for specific drug delivery applications to treat a wide range of malignant diseases.

Murphy, Eric A.; Majeti, Bharat K.; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Acevedo, Lisette M.; Barnes, Leo A.; Cheresh, David A.

2011-01-01

278

Stimuli-Sensitive Nanosystems: For Drug and Gene Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its previous history in pharmaceutics, nanotechnology has recently become a major paradigm for the delivery of\\u000a anticancer drugs, imaging agents, and genetic material. Pharmaceutical nanosystems have shown beneficial therapeutic efficacy\\u000a with reduced side effects in treating diseases when compared to traditional dosage forms. For example, delivery of high doses\\u000a of therapeutic and\\/or diagnostic agents to target cancer sites

Han Chang Kang; Eun Seong Lee; Kun Na; You Han Bae

279

A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

2014-01-01

280

Controlled Release of Simvastatin from Biomimetic ?-TCP Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-01-01

281

Continuous on-chip micropumping for microneedle enhanced drug delivery.  

PubMed

Microneedles are promising microfabricated devices for minimally invasive drug delivery applications. Needles can be integrated into a variety of devices. However, any portable drug delivery device with integrated microneedles will need an equally compact means to deliver therapeutics. This work presents microneedles integrated with an on-chip MEMS positive displacement micropump for continuous drug delivery applications. The generation and collapse of thermally generated bubbles with flow rectified by directional check valves are used to achieve net pumping through the device. Visualization methods have observed net flow rates of water out of a microneedle at approximately 2.0 nl/s with a pressure of 3.9 kPa. In addition, continuous pumping was achieved for more than 6 hours with the heaters actuating for over 18 hours (15,000 cycles) without failing. PMID:15377827

Zahn, Jeffrey D; Deshmukh, Ajay; Pisano, Albert P; Liepmann, Dorian

2004-09-01

282

Drug Delivery Implants in the Treatment of Vitreous Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The eye is a model organ for the local delivery of therapeutics. This proves beneficial when treating vitreous inflammation and other ophthalmic pathologies. The chronicity of certain diseases, however, limits the effectiveness of locally administered drugs. To maintain such treatments often requires frequent office visits and can result in increased risk of infection and toxicity to the patient. This paper focuses on the implantable devices and particulate drug delivery systems that are currently being implemented and investigated to overcome these challenges. Implants currently on the market or undergoing clinical trials include those made of nonbiodegradable polymers, containing ganciclovir, fluocinolone acetonide, triamcinolone acetonide, and ranibizumab, and biodegradable polymers, containing dexamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide, and ranibizumab. Investigational intravitreal implants and particulate drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, microparticles, and liposomes, are also explored in this review article.

Wang, Jillian; Jiang, Angela; Joshi, Malav; Christoforidis, John

2013-01-01

283

Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials.

Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

2008-01-01

284

Constructing tunable nanopores and their application in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Inspired by biological cell membranes, various "smart" and efficient gating nanoporous devices have been proposed to imitate and to understand life processes. Nanodevices under development with enhanced gating efficiency could play pivotal roles in biosensing and drug delivery. In this Perspective, we highlight an important development by Willner and colleagues that is detailed in this issue of ACS Nano. They designed a new "smart" nanodevice with both "sense" and "release" functionalities for drug delivery based on a nanoporous material, mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We outline recent progress in designing intelligently gated nanoporous devices in material science and nanotechnology. We also summarize new strategies designed for drug delivery based on mesoporous materials. With continuing efforts, we expect more powerful nanodevices to be developed and used in clinical and other real-word applications. PMID:24143925

Duan, Ruixue; Xia, Fan; Jiang, Lei

2013-10-22

285

Connecting drug delivery reality to smart materials design.  

PubMed

Inflated claims to both design and mechanistic novelty in drug delivery and imaging systems, including most nanotechnologies, are not supported by the generally poor translation of these systems to clinical efficacy. The "form begets function" design paradigm is seductive but perhaps over-simplistic in translation to pharmaceutical efficacy. Most innovations show few clinically important distinctions in their therapeutic benefits in relevant preclinical disease and delivery models, despite frequent claims to the contrary. Long-standing challenges in drug delivery issues must enlist more realistic, back-to-basics approaches to address fundamental materials properties in complex biological systems, preclinical test beds, and analytical methods to more reliably determine fundamental pharmaceutical figures of merit, including drug carrier purity and batch-batch variability, agent biodistribution, therapeutic index (safety), and efficacy. PMID:23624177

Grainger, David W

2013-09-15

286

Synthesis of the KMB-Drug Delivery Carrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purified konjac glucomannan(KGM) was blended with Xanthan gum to prepared gel, which was valued by its viscosity and tenacity. The konjac micro-balls(KMBs) were prepared in drying and wetting method respectively. The diameter of the KMBs was analyzed with laser particle size analyzer. To a carrier of drug deliver, the delivery characteristics of the NMP, which embedded in KMB, was discussed. The results showed that KMB was well dispersed in DMSO, and its diameter was 4.08 ?m. In paraffin, KMB was homogeneous disperse with diameter(2.23 ?m). In the behavior of drug delivery, the characteristics of drug sustained-release were obvious, and the delivery time was more than 24 h.

Wang, Chao; Xu, Mei; Zhu, Yu-peng; Zhang, Wei-hua; Gong, Yuan-yuan; Li, Dong-sheng

287

Ocular Drug Delivery; Impact of in vitro Cell Culture Models  

PubMed Central

Normal vision depends on the optimal function of ocular barriers and intact membranes that selectively regulate the environment of ocular tissues. Novel pharmacotherapeutic modalities have aimed to overcome such biological barriers which impede efficient ocular drug delivery. To determine the impact of ocular barriers on research related to ophthalmic drug delivery and targeting, herein we provide a review of the literature on isolated primary or immortalized cell culture models which can be used for evaluation of ocular barriers. In vitro cell cultures are valuable tools which serve investigations on ocular barriers such as corneal and conjunctival epithelium, retinal pigment epithelium and retinal capillary endothelium, and can provide platforms for further investigations. Ocular barrier-based cell culture systems can be simply set up and used for drug delivery and targeting purposes as well as for pathological and toxicological research.

Barar, Jaleh; Asadi, Masoud; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Omidi, Yadollah

2009-01-01

288

Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Medicines for Inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mankind has inhaled substances for medical and other reasons for thousands of years, notably resulting in the cultural manifestations\\u000a of tobacco and opium smoking. Over the course of time concepts of pulmonary application, including inhalation devices and\\u000a drug formulations, have been and still are being continuously developed. State of the art instruments even allow for individualized\\u000a drug application by adaption

Andreas Henning; Stephanie Hein; Marc Schneider; Michael Bur; Claus-Michael Lehr

289

Microneedles for intradermal and transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of broad range of therapeutic molecules particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle (MN) has been proposed as a strategy to breach the stratum corneum barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves use of micron sized needles fabricated of different materials and geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. MN, alone or with other enhancing strategies, has been demonstrated to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo experiments. This suggested the promising use of MN technology for various possible clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. MN has been proved as minimally invasive and painless in human subjects. This review article focuses on recent and future developments for MN technology including the latest type of MN design, challenges and strategies in MNs development as well as potential safety aspects based on comprehensive literature review pertaining to MN studies to date. PMID:23680534

Tuan-Mahmood, Tuan-Mazlelaa; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Torrisi, Barbara M; McAlister, Emma; Garland, Martin J; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

2013-12-18

290

Localized Cell and Drug Delivery for Auditory Prostheses  

PubMed Central

Localized cell and drug delivery to the cochlea and central auditory pathway can improve the safety and performance of implanted auditory prostheses (APs). While generally successful, these devices have a number of limitations and adverse effects including limited tonal and dynamic ranges, channel interactions, unwanted stimulation of non-auditory nerves, immune rejection, and infections including meningitis. Many of these limitations are associated with the tissue reactions to implanted auditory prosthetic devices and the gradual degeneration of the auditory system following deafness. Strategies to reduce the insertion trauma, degeneration of target neurons, fibrous and bony tissue encapsulation, and immune activation can improve the viability of tissue required for AP function as well as improve the resolution of stimulation for reduced channel interaction and improved place-pitch and level discrimination. Many pharmaceutical compounds have been identified that promote the viability of auditory tissue and prevent inflammation and infection. Cell delivery and gene therapy have provided promising results for treating hearing loss and reversing degeneration. Currently, many clinical and experimental methods can produce extremely localized and sustained drug delivery to address AP limitations. These methods provide better control over drug concentrations while eliminating the adverse effects of systemic delivery. Many of these drug delivery techniques can be integrated into modern auditory prosthetic devices to optimize the tissue response to the implanted device and reduce the risk of infection or rejection. Together, these methods and pharmaceutical agents can be used to optimize the tissue-device interface for improved AP safety and effectiveness.

Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Chikar, Jennifer A.; Crumling, Mark A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, David C.

2011-01-01

291

Novel drug-delivery systems for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic rhinosinusitis, one of the most common chronic medical complaints in the United States, seems to be increasing in incidence and prevalence, and has a significant impact on quality of life. Topical forms of medical therapy represent an attractive alternative for drug delivery to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Topical drug delivery has the advantage of directly acting on the site of inflammation, producing a higher concentration at the target site while avoiding systemic side effects. Although considerable research has been undertaken into improving nasal formulations in order to enhance absorption, little attention has so far been directed to upgrading the delivery devices. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge on the novel drug-delivery devices in use in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis patients, and to present the current available knowledge on topical drug penetration into the sinuses using various delivery devices. Additionally, methods used to enhance fluid sinus deposition are presented and the published clinical studies on the results of nebulized antibiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis patients are discussed.

Albu, Silviu

2012-01-01

292

Hollow copper sulfide nanoparticle-mediated transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

A photothermal ablation-enhanced transdermal drug delivery methodology is developed based on hollow copper sulfide nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) with intense photothermal coupling effects. Application of nanosecond-pulsed near-infrared laser allows rapid heating of the nanoparticles and instantaneous heat conduction. This provides very short periods of time but extremely high temperatures in local regions, with focused thermal ablation of the stratum corneum. The depth of skin perforations can be controlled by adjusting the laser power. Skin disruption by HCuSNP-mediated photothermal ablation significantly increases the permeability of human growth hormone. This technique offers compelling opportunities for macromolecular drug and vaccine delivery. PMID:22829400

Ramadan, Samy; Guo, Liangran; Li, Yajuan; Yan, Bingfang; Lu, Wei

2012-10-22

293

Carbon nanotubes hybrid hydrogels in drug delivery: a perspective review.  

PubMed

The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

Cirillo, Giuseppe; Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

2014-01-01

294

Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review  

PubMed Central

The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review.

Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

2014-01-01

295

Intravesical drug delivery: Challenges, current status, opportunities and novel strategies.  

PubMed

The urinary bladder has certain unique anatomical features which enable it to form an effective barrier to toxic substances diffusing from the urine into the blood. The barrier function is due to the epithelial surface of the urinary bladder, the urothelium, which has characteristic umbrella cells, joined by tight junctions and covered by impenetrable plaques, as well as an anti-adherent mucin layer. Diseases of the urinary bladder, such as bladder carcinomas and interstitial cystitis, cause acute damage to the bladder wall and cannot be effectively treated by systemic administration of drugs. Such conditions may benefit from intravesical drug delivery (IDD), which involves direct instillation of drug into the bladder via a catheter, to attain high local concentrations of the drug with minimal systemic effects. IDD however has its limitations, since the permeability of the urothelial layer is very low and instilled drug solutions become diluted with urine and get washed out of the bladder during voiding, necessitating repeated infusions of the drug. Permeation enhancers serve to overcome these problems to some extent by using electromotive force to enhance diffusion of the drug into the bladder wall or chemical molecules, such as chitosan, dimethylsulphoxide, to temporarily disrupt the tight packing of the urothelium. Nanotechnology can be integrated with IDD to devise drug-encapsulated nanoparticles that can greatly improve chemical interactions with the urothelium and enhance penetration of drugs into the bladder wall. Nanocarriers such as liposomes, gelatin nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and magnetic particles, have been found to enhance local drug concentrations in the bladder as well as target diseased cells. Intravesical drug carriers can be further improved by using mucoadhesive biomaterials which are strongly adhered to the urothelial cell lining, thus preventing the carrier from being washed away during urine voiding. This increases the residence time of the drug at the target site and enables sustained delivery of the drug over a prolonged time span. Polymeric hydrogels, such as the temperature sensitive PEG-PLGA-PEG polymer, have been used to develop in situ gelling systems to deliver drugs into the bladder cavity. Recent advances and future prospects of biodegradable nanocarriers and in situ gels as drug delivery agents for intravesical drug delivery are reviewed in this paper. PMID:20831887

GuhaSarkar, Shruti; Banerjee, R

2010-12-01

296

Stabilized magnetic cerasomes for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)-loaded magnetic cerasomes (DLMCs) were successfully constructed by loading both hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and antitumor drug DOX into the aqueous interior of cerasomes via facile one-step construction. A possible explanation is that the hydrophobic Fe3O4 NPs can be trapped inside the aqueous core of cerasomes through the formation of an intermediate Fe3O4/micelle complex. It was found that the loading content of Fe3O4 in DLMCs could reach the maximum at a Fe3O4/lipid molar ratio of 4:1. Moreover, DLMCs demonstrated high superparamagnetism and responded strongly to magnetic fields. In addition, DLMCs had a high encapsulation efficiency of 43.4 ± 4.7% and a high drug loading content of 3.2 ± 1.3%. In comparison to drug-loaded liposomes, DLMCs exhibited higher storage stability and better sustained release behavior. A cellular uptake study showed that the use of an external magnetic field enables a rapid and efficient uptake of DLMCs by cancer cells, resulting in higher capability to kill tumor cells than non-magnetic drug-loaded cerasomes. This study suggests that magnetic cerasome offers a potential and effective drug carrier for anticancer applications. PMID:24188471

Cao, Zhong; Yue, Xiuli; Li, Xiaoda; Dai, Zhifei

2013-12-01

297

Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

Lohani, Alka; Singh, Garima; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Verma, Anurag

2014-01-01

298

Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures.

Rodrigues, Susana; Dionisio, Marita; Remunan Lopez, Carmen; Grenha, Ana

2012-01-01

299

Revival of the abandoned therapeutic wortmannin by nanoparticle drug delivery  

PubMed Central

One of the promises of nanoparticle (NP) carriers is the reformulation of promising therapeutics that have failed clinical development due to pharmacologic challenges. However, current nanomedicine research has been focused on the delivery of established and novel therapeutics. Here we demonstrate proof of the principle of using NPs to revive the clinical potential of abandoned compounds using wortmannin (Wtmn) as a model drug. Wtmn is a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3? kinase-related kinases but failed clinical translation due to drug-delivery challenges. We engineered a NP formulation of Wtmn and demonstrated that NP Wtmn has higher solubility and lower toxicity compared with Wtmn. To establish the clinical translation potential of NP Wtmn, we evaluated the therapeutic as a radiosensitizer in vitro and in vivo. NP Wtmn was found to be a potent radiosensitizer and was significantly more effective than the commonly used radiosensitizer cisplatin in vitro in three cancer cell lines. The mechanism of action of NP Wtmn radiosensitization was found to be through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation. Finally, NP Wtmn was shown to be an effective radiosensitizer in vivo using two murine xenograft models of cancer. Our results demonstrate that NP drug-delivery systems can promote the readoption of abandoned drugs such as Wtmn by overcoming drug-delivery challenges.

Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E.; Sukumar, Rohit; Cummings, Natalie D.; Copp, Jonathan A.; Li, Chenxi; Sethi, Manish; Chen, Ronald C.; Pacold, Michael E.; Wang, Andrew Z.

2012-01-01

300

Chitosan electrodeposition for microrobotic drug delivery.  

PubMed

A method to functionalize steerable magnetic microdevices through the co-electrodeposition of drug loaded chitosan hydrogels is presented. The characteristics of the polymer matrix have been investigated in terms of fabrication, morphology, drug release and response to different environmental conditions. Modifications of the matrix behavior could be achieved by simple chemical post processing. The system is able to load and deliver 40-80 ?g cm(-2) of a model drug (Brilliant Green) in a sustained manner with different profiles. Chitosan allows a pH responsive behavior with faster and more efficient release under slightly acidic conditions as can be present in tumor or inflamed tissue. A prototype of a microrobot functionalized with the hydrogel is presented and proposed for the treatment of posterior eye diseases. PMID:23355508

Fusco, Stefano; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Sivaraman, Kartik M; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Nelson, Bradley J; Pané, Salvador

2013-07-01

301

Biophysical interactions with model lipid membranes: applications in drug discovery and drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The transport of drugs or drug delivery systems across the cell membrane is a complex biological process, often difficult to understand because of its dynamic nature. In this regard, model lipid membranes, which mimic many aspects of cell-membrane lipids, have been very useful in helping investigators to discern the roles of lipids in cellular interactions. One can use drug-lipid interactions to predict pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as their transport, biodistribution, accumulation, and hence efficacy. These interactions can also be used to study the mechanisms of transport, based on the structure and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of drug molecules. In recent years, model lipid membranes have also been explored to understand their mechanisms of interactions with peptides, polymers, and nanocarriers. These interaction studies can be used to design and develop efficient drug delivery systems. Changes in the lipid composition of cells and tissue in certain disease conditions may alter biophysical interactions, which could be explored to develop target-specific drugs and drug delivery systems. In this review, we discuss different model membranes, drug-lipid interactions and their significance, studies of model membrane interactions with nanocarriers, and how biophysical interaction studies with lipid model membranes could play an important role in drug discovery and drug delivery.

Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Stine, Andrew; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2009-01-01

302

Drug trapping and delivery for Alzheimer's diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this investigation, a new design based on a PANDA ring resonator as an optical trapping tool for tangle protein, molecular motor storage, and delivery is proposed. The optical vortices are generated and the trapping mechanism is controlled in the same way as the conventional optical tweezers. The trapping force is produced by a combination of the gradient field and scattering photons. The required molecular volume is trapped and moved dynamically within the molecular network. The tangle protein and molecular motor can be transported and delivered to the required destinations for Alzheimer's diagnosis by molecular buffer and bus network. PMID:22384850

Jalil, M A; Kamoldilok, Surachart; Saktioto, T; Ong, C T; Yupapin, Preecha P

2012-10-01

303

Intrapulmonary Drug Delivery of Salmon Calcitonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a SUMMARY\\u000a \\u000a   \\u000a Calcitonin (CT) and other bone-active peptides have been restrained in clinical use by the need for parenteral administration.\\u000a Although nasal and other transmucosal routes can be used for CT treatment, bioavailability and bioactivity of the peptide\\u000a thus delivered are limited. We have evaluated the intrapulmonary route (IP) for the delivery of salmon calcitonin (SCT) in\\u000a normal subjects. SCT

L. J. Deftos; J. J. Nolan; B. L. Seely; P. L. Clopton; G. J. Cote; C. L. Whitham; L. J. Florek; T. A. Christensen; M. R. Hill

1997-01-01

304

Hyaluronan nanocapsules as a new vehicle for intracellular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Here we report the development of new drug nanocarriers - named hyaluronan nanocapsules - for the intracellular delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs. These nanocapsules are composed of a lipid core and a shell of hyaluronic acid (HA). Nanocapsules were produced by a modified solvent displacement technique, which allows the formation of the polymer shell around the oily core using a cationic surfactant as an interphase bridge. The resulting nanocapsules have a size of ?200 nm, a negative zeta potential and a spherical shape. The model drug docetaxel could be efficiently encapsulated within their core. The in vitro cell culture studies (NCI-H460 cancer cell line) showed that the cytotoxicity of docetaxel could be significantly enhanced due to its encapsulation within the nanocapsules. Interestingly, the nanocapsules were stable during storage and they could also be transformed into a powder by freeze-drying. These novel nanostructures hold promise as intracellular drug delivery systems. PMID:23684914

Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe A; Rivera-Rodríguez, Gustavo R; Alonso, Maria J; Torres, Dolores

2013-07-16

305

Trojan-Horse Nanotube On-Command Intracellular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

A major challenge to nanomaterial-based medicine is the ability to release drugs on-command. Here, we describe an innovative drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which compounds can be released inside cells from within the nanotube “on-command” by inductive heating with an external alternating current or pulsed magnetic field. Without inductive heating the drug remains safely inside the CNTs, showing no toxicity in cell viability tests. Similar to the “Trojan-Horse” in function, we demonstrate the delivery of a combination of chemotherapeutic agents with low aqueous solubility, paclitaxel (Taxol), and C6-ceramide, to multidrug resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Nanotube encapsulation permitted the drugs to be used at a 100-fold lower concentration compared to exogenous treatment yet achieve a comparable ?70% cancer kill rate.

Wu, Chia-Hsuan; Cao, Cong; Kim, Jin Ho; Hsu, Chih-Hsun; Wanebo, Harold J.; Bowen, Wayne D.; Xu, Jimmy; Marshall, John

2014-01-01

306

Trojan-horse nanotube on-command intracellular drug delivery.  

PubMed

A major challenge to nanomaterial-based medicine is the ability to release drugs on-command. Here, we describe an innovative drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which compounds can be released inside cells from within the nanotube "on-command" by inductive heating with an external alternating current or pulsed magnetic field. Without inductive heating the drug remains safely inside the CNTs, showing no toxicity in cell viability tests. Similar to the "Trojan-Horse" in function, we demonstrate the delivery of a combination of chemotherapeutic agents with low aqueous solubility, paclitaxel (Taxol), and C6-ceramide, to multidrug resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Nanotube encapsulation permitted the drugs to be used at a 100-fold lower concentration compared to exogenous treatment yet achieve a comparable ~70% cancer kill rate. PMID:23030797

Wu, Chia-Hsuan; Cao, Cong; Kim, Jin Ho; Hsu, Chih-Hsun; Wanebo, Harold J; Bowen, Wayne D; Xu, Jimmy; Marshall, John

2012-11-14

307

Advances in topical drug delivery system: micro to nanofibrous structures.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the latest developments in the field of topical drug delivery via which the drug is directly applied onto the skin with high selectivity and efficiency. Advances in microfiber-based medical textiles such as sutures and wound dressings, especially those containing a drug or an antimicrobial agent, have been covered briefly. A special focus is on recent developments in the area of nanofibrous drug delivery systems, which have several advantages due to their large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity and flexibility. The electrospinning technique to produce nanofibers has also been discussed with reference to latest advances such as multiple needles, needleless and coaxial forms of electrospinning. The applications of nanofibers in different areas such as wound dressing, periodontal and anticancer treatment have also been discussed. PMID:24730303

Joshi, Mangala; Butola, B S; Saha, Kasturi

2014-01-01

308

The use of microbubbles to target drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound-mediated microbubbles destruction has been proposed as an innovative method for noninvasive delivering of drugs and genes to different tissues. Microbubbles are used to carry a drug or gene until a specific area of interest is reached, and then ultrasound is used to burst the microbubbles, causing site-specific delivery of the bioactive materials. Furthermore, the ability of albumin-coated microbubbles to adhere to vascular regions with glycocalix damage or endothelial dysfunction is another possible mechanism to deliver drugs even in the absence of ultrasound. This review focuses on the characteristics of microbubbles that give them therapeutic properties and some important aspects of ultrasound parameters that are known to influence microbubble-mediated drug delivery. In addition, current studies involving this novel therapeutical application of microbubbles will be discussed.

Tsutsui, Jeane M; Xie, Feng; Porter, Richard Thomas

2004-01-01

309

"Nanotheranostics" for tumor imaging and targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is a promising tool that improves cancer detection, facilitates diagnosis and monitors therapeutic effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have emerged as MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging and as potential vectors for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery; nevertheless, the application of SPIOs has been hampered due to a lack of specificity to tumor tissues and premature drug release. This project aims at developing multifunctional SPIOs for both cancer imaging and targeted drug delivery via conjugation of tumor specific antibodies with SPIOs. The application of anti-TAG-72 antibodies as tumor targeting modalities was evaluated in cultured colorectal cancer cells and in xenograft models by using fluorescent imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It was demonstrated that antibody-labeled SPIOs were superior imaging agents and drug carriers for increased tumor specificity. The regulation and kinetics of intracellular drug release from SPIOs were explored by means of fluorescence imaging. In vitro and in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging was employed to investigate the mechanisms of premature drug release from nanocarriers. The large volume and high hydrophobicity of cell membranes were found to play an important role in premature drug release. The encapsulation of SPIOs into nanocarriers decreased drug release in a dose-dependent mode. This study provided future opportunities to improve the efficiency of nanocarriers by exploring the mechanism of drug release and disassembly of SPIO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

Zou, Peng

310

Synthetic hydrogels as drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels are widely studied materials for the preparation of sustained release drug dosage forms. Their soft, tissue-like consistency and their high biocompatibility in a number of applications make them promising candidates for this purpose. The water and the polymer in the gel form intricate structures and much research has been devoted to the elucidation of these structures, and of the

W. E. Roorda; H. E. BoddÉ; A. G. de Boer; H. E. Junginger

1986-01-01

311

Strategy for effective brain drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) together with enzymes restricts the entry of substances for maintaining the internal milieu of the brain. Because of the presence of multiple endogenous transporters, BBB allows a selective entry of nutrients and minerals across it and limits the entry of foreign substances like drugs as well as neuropharmaceutical agents. This makes the CNS treatment ineffective. The conventional

M. Intakhab Alam; Sarwar Beg; Abdus Samad; Sanjula Baboota; Kanchan Kohli; Javed Ali; Alka Ahuja; M. Akbar

2010-01-01

312

In vivo Evaluation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery of Nevirapine  

PubMed Central

Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional and anatomical abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract that result in diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. Medium chain triglycerides are readily absorbed from the small bowel under conditions in which the absorption of long chain triglycerides is impaired. Therefore, nevirapine self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing medium chain fatty acid, caprylic acid and a solubilizer, Soluphor® P (2-pyrrolidone) was developed and found to be superior to the marketed conventional suspension with respect to in vitro diffusion and ex vivo intestinal permeability. This self-emulsifying drug delivery system has now been further investigated for in vivo absorption in an animal model. The contribution of caprylic acid and Soluphor® P on in vivo absorption of nevirapine was also studied in the present study. The bioavailability of nevirapine from self-emulsifying drug delivery system, after oral administration, was 2.69 times higher than that of the marketed suspension. The improved bioavailability could be due to absorption of nevirapine via both portal and intestinal lymphatic routes. The study indicates that medium chain or structured triglycerides can be a better option to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system for lipophilic and extensively metabolised drugs like nevirapine for patients with AIDS-associated malabsorption.

Chudasama, A. S.; Patel, V. V.; Nivsarkar, M.; Vasu, Kamala K.; Shishoo, C. J.

2014-01-01

313

Microemulsions as a surrogate carrier for dermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent (or translucent) systems of oil, water, and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant with a droplet size usually in the range of 20-200 nm. Since their discovery, they have attained increasing significance both in basic research and in industry. Due to their distinct advantages such as enhanced drug solubility, thermodynamic stability, facile preparation, and low cost, uses and applications of microemulsions have been numerous. Recently, there is a surge in the exploration of microemulsion for transdermal drug delivery for their ability to incorporate both hydrophilic (5-fluorouracil, apomorphine hydrochloride, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, tetracaine hydrochloride, and methotrexate) and lipophilic drugs (estradiol, finasteride, ketoprofen, meloxicam, felodipine, and triptolide) and enhance their permeation. Very low surface tension in conjunction with enormous increase in the interfacial area due to nanosized droplets of the microemulsion influences the drug permeation across the skin. A large number of oils and surfactants are available, which can be used as components of microemulsion systems for transdermal delivery but their toxicity, irritation potential, and unclear mechanism of action limit their use. Besides surfactants, oils can also act as penetration enhancers (oleic acid, linoleic acid, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, etc.). The transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsions is dependent not only on the applied constituents of the vehicle but also drastically on the composition/internal structure of the phases which may promote or hamper the drug distribution in the vehicles. This article explores microemulsion as transdermal drug delivery vehicles with emphasis on components selection for enhanced drug permeation and skin tolerability of these systems and further future directions. PMID:19016057

Azeem, Adnan; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Aqil, M; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khar, Roop Kishan; Talegaonkar, Sushama

2009-05-01

314

Naproxen drug delivery using periodic mesoporous silica SBA15  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the release of naproxen from hexagonal periodic mesoporous silica SBA-15, which serves as a drug delivery system. Naproxen, the well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), was loaded into the pores of SBA-15 silica modified with aminopropyl groups. The physicochemical properties of the modified sample (A-SBA-15\\/napro) were compared with the unmodified SBA-15 mesoporous silica loaded with the

Dása Halamová; Mária Badanicová; Vladimír Zelenák; Tatána Gondová; Ulla Vainio

2010-01-01

315

Modeling of transdermal drug delivery with a microneedle array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transdermal drug delivery is generally limited by the extraordinary barrier properties of the stratum corneum, the outer 10-15 µm layer of skin. A conventional needle inserted across this barrier and into deeper tissues could effectively deliver drugs. However, it would lead to infection and cause pain, thereby reducing patient compliance. In order to administer a frequent injection of insulin and other therapeutic agents more efficiently, integrated arrays with very short microneedles were recently proposed as very good candidates for painless injection or extraction. A variety of microneedle designs have thus been made available by employing the fabrication tools of the microelectronics industry and using materials such as silicon, metals, polymers and glass with feature sizes ranging from sub-micron to nanometers. At the same time, experiments were also made to test the capability of the microneedles to inject drugs into tissues. However, due to the difficulty encountered in measurement, a detailed understanding of the spatial and transient drug delivery process still remains unclear up to now. To better grasp the mechanisms involved, quantitative theoretical models were developed in this paper to simultaneously characterize the flow and drug transport, and numerical solutions were performed to predict the kinetics of dispersed drugs injected into the skin from a microneedle array. Calculations indicated that increasing the initial injection velocity and accelerating the blood circulation in skin tissue with high porosity are helpful to enhance the transdermal drug delivery. This study provides the first quantitative simulation of fluid injection through a microneedle array and drug species transport inside the skin. The modeling strategy can also possibly be extended to deal with a wider range of clinical issues such as targeted nanoparticle delivery for therapeutics or molecular imaging.

Lv, Y.-G.; Liu, J.; Gao, Y.-H.; Xu, B.

2006-11-01

316

Diphtheria toxin receptor-targeted brain drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain drug delivery is limited by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We have newly identified the membrane-bound precursor of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), which is also known as the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR), as a well characterized internalizing transport receptor on the BBB for the targeting of drugs to the brain. This transport receptor has several unique advantages. It makes

Pieter J. Gaillard; Arjen Brink; Albertus G. de Boer

2005-01-01

317

Design of microencapsulated chitosan microspheres for colonic drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the different approaches to achieve colon-selective drug delivery, the use of polymers, specifically biodegraded by colonic bacteria, holds great promise. In this work a new system which combines specific biodegradability and pH-dependent release is presented. The system consists of chitosan (CS) microcores entrapped within acrylic microspheres. Sodium diclofenac (SD), used as a model drug, was efficiently entrapped within CS

M. L Lorenzo-Lamosa; C Remuñán-López; J. L Vila-Jato; M. J Alonso

1998-01-01

318

Polyplex Nanogel formulations for drug delivery of cytotoxic nucleoside analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophilic nanosized particles consisting of the cross-linked cationic polymer network (Nanogels) are suggested as a drug delivery system for nucleoside analog 5?-triphosphates, an active form of cytotoxic anticancer drugs. Preparation, properties, and cellular effects of several polyplex Nanogel formulations with the 5?-triphosphate of cytotoxic 5-fluoroadenine arabinoside (fludarabine) (FATP) were examined and discussed here. The polyplexes have formed spontaneously by mixing

Serguei V. Vinogradov; Arin D. Zeman; Elena V. Batrakova; Alexander V. Kabanov

2005-01-01

319

New developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of drugs to treat oral and systemic diseases. When treating oral diseases, these advances

Vanessa Hearnden; Vidya Sankar; Katrusha Hull; Danica Vidovi? Juras; Martin Greenberg; A. Ross Kerr; Peter B. Lockhart; Lauren L. Patton; Stephen Porter; Martin H. Thornhill

320

The capsule drug device: novel approach for drug delivery to the eye.  

PubMed

Treatment of age-macular degeneration requires monthly intravitreal injections, which are costly and have serious risks. The objective of this study was to develop a novel intraocular implant for drug delivery. The capsule drug ring is a reservoir inserted in the lens capsule during cataract surgery, refillable and capable of delivering multiple drugs. Avastin was the drug of interest in this study. Prototypes were manufactured using polymethylmethacrylate sheets as the reservoir material, a semi-permeable membrane for controlled delivery and silicone check valves for refilling. The device showed near zero-order release kinetics and Avastin stability was investigated with accelerated temperature studies. PMID:19854210

Molokhia, Sarah A; Sant, Himanshu; Simonis, Jacquelyn; Bishop, C J; Burr, R M; Gale, Bruce K; Ambati, Balamurali K

2010-03-31

321

Potential of transdermal drug delivery in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

There has been a growing recognition that pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors may be an important mechanism in the generation of the motor fluctuations that often develop and compromise the effectiveness of long-term levodopa administration in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). This has prompted investigation of treatment approaches that might provide more constant, and therefore physiological, dopamine receptor stimulation. Frequent levodopa administration, controlled-release levodopa preparations, inhibitors of levodopa metabolism, and duodenal, subcutaneous and even intravenous infusions of levodopa or dopamine agonists have all been employed with this goal in mind, but all have limitations. Transdermal drug delivery is a treatment approach that is not only capable of providing a constant rate of drug delivery, but is also non-invasive and relatively simple to use. However, developing a drug to be delivered transdermally for the treatment of PD has been anything but easy. Levodopa and many dopamine agonists are not sufficiently soluble to be administered via the transdermal route, and blind alleys have been encountered thus far in the investigation of suitably soluble drugs. Nevertheless, investigation continues and yet another candidate drug, rotigotine (N-0923), is currently under active investigation. Techniques designed to enhance skin permeation and thus improve the effectiveness of transdermal drug delivery are also potential sources for future treatment advances. PMID:12207550

Pfeiffer, Ronald F

2002-01-01

322

NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through rat skin was determined in vitro using Franz-type diffusion cells. The formulation constituents enabled a broad variety of microemulsion compositions, which ranged from water-continuous to oil-continuous aggregates over possible bicontinuous structures, with excellent solubility properties for both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The microemulsions increased transdermal flux of lidocaine up to four times compared to a conventional oil-in-water emulsion, and that of prilocaine hydrochloride almost 10 times compared to a hydrogel. A correlation between self-diffusion of the drugs in the vehicles and transdermal flux was indicated. The increased transdermal drug delivery from microemulsion formulations was found to be due mainly to the increased solubility of drugs and appeared to be dependent on the drug mobility in the individual vehicle. The microemulsions did not perturb the skin barrier, indicating a low skin irritancy. PMID:11102682

Kreilgaard, M; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

2000-12-01

323

Photosensitizer Drug Delivery via an Optical Fiber  

PubMed Central

An optical fiber has been developed with a maneuverable mini-probe tip that sparges O2 gas and photo-detaches pheophorbide (sensitizer) molecules. Singlet oxygen is produced at the probe tip surface which reacts with an alkene spacer group releasing sensitizer upon fragmentation of a dioxetane intermediate. Optimal sensitizer photorelease occurred when the probe tip was loaded with 60 nmol sensitizer, where crowding of the pheophorbide molecules and self-quenching were kept to a minimum. The fiber optic tip delivered pheophorbide molecules and singlet oxygen to discrete locations. 60 nmol sensitizer was delivered into petrolatum; however, sensitizer release was less efficient in toluene-d8 (3.6 nmol) where most had remained adsorbed on the probe tip, even after the covalent alkene spacer bond had been broken. The results open the door to a new area of fiber optic-guided sensitizer delivery for the potential photodynamic therapy of hypoxic structures requiring cytotoxic control.

Zamadar, Matibur; Ghosh, Goutam; Mahendran, Adaickapillai; Minnis, Mihaela; Kruft, Bonnie I.; Ghogare, Ashwini; Aebisher, David; Greer, Alexander

2012-01-01

324

Targeted Delivery of Drugs to Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering anticancer drugs to brain tumors, particularly glioblastoma multiforme. This is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Her research team found that the synthetic LDL particles can target and kill such tumors cells in vitro. The nanoparticles are composed of a lipid core surrounded by a peptide. The peptide contains an amino acid sequence that recognizes the LDL receptor, and the lipid core has the ability to accumulate anti-cancer drugs. Her talk was presented June 27, 2007.

Trudy Forte

2008-03-03

325

Targeted Delivery of Drugs to Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering... Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering anticancer drugs to brain tumors, particularly glioblastoma multiforme. This is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Her research team found that the synthetic LDL particles can target and kill such tumors cells in vitro. The nanoparticles are composed of a lipid core surrounded by a peptide. The peptide contains an amino acid sequence that recognizes the LDL receptor, and the lipid core has the ability to accumulate anti-cancer drugs. Her talk was presented June 27, 2007.

LBNL

2008-03-03

326

Drug delivery to the inner ear.  

PubMed

Bionic devices electrically activate neural populations to partially restore lost function. Of fundamental importance is the functional integrity of the targeted neurons. However, in many conditions the ongoing pathology can lead to continued neural degeneration and death that may compromise the effectiveness of the device and limit future strategies to improve performance. The use of drugs that can prevent nerve cell degeneration and promote their regeneration may improve clinical outcomes. In this paper we focus on strategies of delivering neuroprotective drugs to the auditory system in a way that is safe and clinically relevant for use in combination with a cochlear implant. The aim of this approach is to prevent neural degeneration and promote nerve regrowth in order to improve outcomes for cochlear implant recipients using techniques that can be translated to the clinic. PMID:23186937

Wise, Andrew K; Gillespie, Lisa N

2012-12-01

327

Targeted Delivery of Drugs to Brain Tumors  

ScienceCinema

Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering... Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering anticancer drugs to brain tumors, particularly glioblastoma multiforme. This is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Her research team found that the synthetic LDL particles can target and kill such tumors cells in vitro. The nanoparticles are composed of a lipid core surrounded by a peptide. The peptide contains an amino acid sequence that recognizes the LDL receptor, and the lipid core has the ability to accumulate anti-cancer drugs. Her talk was presented June 27, 2007.

LBNL

2009-09-01

328

Targeted Delivery of Drugs to Brain Tumors  

ScienceCinema

Trudy Forte of Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division will discuss her work developing nano-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that can be used as a safe and effective means of delivering anticancer drugs to brain tumors, particularly glioblastoma multiforme. This is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Her research team found that the synthetic LDL particles can target and kill such tumors cells in vitro. The nanoparticles are composed of a lipid core surrounded by a peptide. The peptide contains an amino acid sequence that recognizes the LDL receptor, and the lipid core has the ability to accumulate anti-cancer drugs. Her talk was presented June 27, 2007.

Trudy Forte

2013-06-10

329

Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic.  

PubMed

The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B) remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, Fungisome) drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India. We have therefore devoted a section of our review to the relative costs of our product and those of other commercially available products. This patient-worthy formulation is safe, efficacious and cheaper than the commercially available formulation of liposomal amphotericin B. The product has been patented and technology transferred to a pharmaceutical company for marketing. Results of postmarketing study also document safety and efficacy as observed in premarketing studies. A brief review of this work is provided here. PMID:16519249

Kshirsagar, N A; Pandya, S K; Kirodian, G B; Sanath, S

2005-01-01

330

Protein Drug Delivery and Formulation Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several therapeutic agents including low and high molecular weight drugs intended for treating back of the eye disorders are\\u000a routinely administered as intravitreal injections. Intravitreal injection of Lucentis®, a therapeutic protein, was approved in 2006 for treating the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. This chapter\\u000a summarizes the challenges and opportunities in delivering therapeutic proteins to the eye. Specifically, barriers

Rinku Baid; Puneet Tyagi; Shelley A. Durazo; Uday B. Kompella

331

Brian Barry: innovative contributions to transdermal and topical drug delivery.  

PubMed

Brian Barry published over 300 research articles across topics ranging from colloid science, vasoconstriction and the importance of thermodynamics in dermal drug delivery to exploring the structure and organisation of the stratum corneum barrier lipids and numerous strategies for improving topical and transdermal drug delivery, including penetration enhancers, supersaturation, coacervation, eutectic formation and the use of varied liposomes. As research in the area blossomed in the early 1980s, Brian wrote the book that became essential reading for both new and established dermal delivery scientists, explaining the background mathematics and principles through to formulation design. Brian also worked with numerous scientists, as collaborators and students, who have themselves taken his rigorous approach to scientific investigation into their own research groups. This paper can only describe a small fraction of the many significant contributions that Brian made to the field during his 40-year academic career. PMID:23921110

Williams, A C

2013-01-01

332

Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a new interdisciplinary course on pharmaceuticals to address needs of undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and other departments. This course introduces drug design, development, and delivery in an integrated fashion that provides scientific depth in context with broader impacts in business, policy, and ethics.…

Prausnitz, Mark R.; Bommarius, Andreas S.

2011-01-01

333

Fabricaction of nanoparticle-based microneedle for potential drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly Dimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) microneedle mold having tapered cone tips for a potential nanoparticle-based drug delivery was introduced and investigated. The fabrication of PDMS mold was performed with laser writer, which has great efficiency in repeatability and simplicity. Nanoparticles, such as polystyrene, was drop-casted at the tip of biocompatible polymers of carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) and agarose microneedle. The results demonstrated

Sun Ho Lee; Yoon-Jung Cha; Shin Sik Choi; Sang-Hyub Ha; Hyun Ho Lee

2010-01-01

334

Molecularly imprinted materials as advanced excipients for drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the molecular imprinting technology in the design of new drug delivery systems (DDS) and devices useful in closely related fields, such as diagnostic sensors or biological traps, is receiving increasing attention. Molecular imprinting technology can provide polymeric materials with the ability to recognize specific bioactive molecules and with a sorption\\/release behaviour that can be made sensitive to

Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; Angel Concheiro

2006-01-01

335

Novel periodontal drug delivery system for treatment of periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptually novel periodontal drug delivery system (DDS) is described that is intended for treatment of microbial infections associated with periodontitis. The DDS is a composite wafer with surface layers possessing adhesive properties, while the bulk layer consists of antimicrobial agents, biodegradable polymers, and matrix polymers. The wafers contain poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as the main bioerodible component used in the bulk

Lev E Bromberg; Debra K Buxton; Phillip M Friden

2001-01-01

336

Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as vehicles for rectal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of thermoreversible gels formed by a xyloglucan polysaccharide derived from tamarind seed for rectal drug delivery. Xyloglucan that had been partially degraded by ?-galactosidase to eliminate 44% of galactose residues formed gels at concentrations of between 1 to 2% w\\/w at gelation temperatures decreasing over the range 27 to

Shozo Miyazaki; Fumie Suisha; Naoko Kawasaki; Mayumi Shirakawa; Kazuhiko Yamatoya; David Attwood

1998-01-01

337

Vector-mediated peptide drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides are potential new CNS pharmaceuticals should these highly water soluble compounds be made transportable through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. One strategy for peptide drug delivery to the brain is the use of chimeric peptides. The latter are formed when a transportable vector, such as cationized albumin or a receptor-specific

William M. Pardridge

1995-01-01

338

Heuristic modeling of drug delivery to malignant brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is apparent that chemotherapy against malignant brain tumors is generally ineffective. While some agents are more effective than others, none appreciably alters the clinical course of and the poor prognosis for patients with brain tumors. Even though new and more effective agents are being or will be developed, chemotherapy depends as much on the delivery of drug as it

Victor A. Levin; Clifford S. Patlak; Herbert D. Landahl

1980-01-01

339

Brain drug delivery technologies: novel approaches for transporting therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) denies many therapeutic agents access to brain tumours and other diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the brain diseases and the actions of neuroactive agents, drug delivery to the brain remains a challenge. For more than 20 years, extensive efforts have

Jamal Temsamani; Jean-Michel Scherrmann; Anthony R Rees; Michel Kaczorek

2000-01-01

340

Self-tuning controller for drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptive control algorithm, the Control Advance Moving Average Controller (CAMAC), was implemented in a drug delivery system to control mean arterial pressure by the infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The CAMAC, which is designed to control non-minimum-phase systems with unknown or varying dead times, is presented here. The control law minimizes a cost function at a time advance which

G. I. Voss; H. J. CHIZECK; P. G. KATONA

1988-01-01

341

Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.  

PubMed

Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety. PMID:24144208

Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

2014-03-01

342

Magnetic nanoparticles in MR imaging and drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique magnetic properties and the ability to function at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions making them an attractive platform as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as carriers for drug delivery. Recent advances in nanotechnology have improved the ability to specifically tailor the features and properties of MNPs for these biomedical

Conroy Sun; Jerry S. H. Lee; Miqin Zhang

2008-01-01

343

Drug delivery of hydroxyurea to breast cancer using liposomes.  

PubMed

It is clear that cancer is one of the most mortal diseases in the world and the most prevalent among women is breast cancer. As hydroxyurea (HU)-a drug which is used in chemotherapy-has many adverse effects in long-term despite of its therapeutic properties, we made use of nano drug delivery technology in order to reduce adverse effects and increase therapeutic index. Thus, liposomation is a novel way in drug delivery systems. In this study a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol was mixed and HU was added to the resultant mixture. The mean diameter of the nanoliposomal HU measured with the Zeta Sizer device (equal to 402.5 nm) and its encapsulation efficiency was 70.8 %. Besides, using dialysis, the pattern of drug release from nanoliposomes has been studied and the results showed that the drug release of nanoliposomal drug within 28 h was equal to 25.85 %. This study showed that the cytotoxicity effect of nanoliposomal drug is more than that of the standard drug. PMID:24426227

Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Esfahani, Maedeh Koohi Moftakhari; Alavi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

2013-07-01

344

Recent advances in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS).  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges confronting the contemporary drug delivery science today is to improve on the oral bioavailability of a vast number of drugs exhibiting poor and inconsistent gastrointestinal absorption. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been proved as highly useful technological innovations to surmount such bioavailability hiccups by virtue of their diminutive globule size, higher solubilization tendency for hydro-phobic drugs, robust formulation advantages, and easier scalability in the industrial milieu. Besides, these systems are also known to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, reduce metabolism by gut Cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and circumnavigate the hepatic first-pass effect, facilitating absorption of drugs via intestinal lymphatic pathways. In the last two decades, the phenomenal success of SEDDS as a potential tool for oral delivery of drugs has extrapolated their applications to non-oral delivery also. Various innovative approaches and patented techniques have been reported on formulation of diverse oral and non-oral self-emulsifying (SE) systems not only of various synthetic and semisynthetic drugs, but also of several phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and biological macromolecules. Of late, an escalating number of reports have been pouring in on special types of SE systems, mostly nanosized, employing functional excipients such as polar lipids, phospholipids, cellulosic polymer, diblock polymers, etc. This review paper provides an updated bird's-eye view account on the publications and patents of such novel SE approaches for use in both oral and non-oral therapeutics. Providing a relatively pithy overview, this paper thus endeavors to act as a repertoire of knowledge and know-how to guide the product development scientist in formulating variegated SE systems. PMID:24940626

Singh, Bhupinder; Beg, Sarwar; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Kaur, Ravinder; Katare, Om Parkash

2014-01-01

345

Enhanced drug delivery capabilities from stents coated with absorbable polymer and crystalline drug.  

PubMed

Current drug eluting stent (DES) technology is not optimized with regard to the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery. A novel, absorbable-coating sirolimus-eluting stent (AC-SES) was evaluated for its capacity to deliver drug more evenly within the intimal area rather than concentrating drug around the stent struts and for its ability to match coating erosion with drug release. The coating consisted of absorbable poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and crystalline sirolimus deposited by a dry-powder electrostatic process. The AC-SES demonstrated enhanced drug stability under simulated use conditions and consistent drug delivery balanced with coating erosion in a porcine coronary implant model. The initial drug burst was eliminated and drug release was sustained after implantation. The coating was absorbed within 90 days. Following implantation into porcine coronary arteries the AC-SES coating is distributed in the surrounding intimal tissue over the course of several weeks. Computational modeling of drug delivery characteristics demonstrates how distributed coating optimizes the load of drug immediately around each stent strut and extends drug delivery between stent struts. The result was a highly efficient arterial uptake of drug with superior performance to a clinical bare metal stent (BMS). Neointimal thickness (0.17±0.07 mm vs. 0.28±0.11 mm) and area percent stenosis (22±9% vs. 35±12%) were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by the AC-SES compared to the BMS 30 days after stent implantation in an overlap configuration in porcine coronary arteries. Inflammation was significantly reduced in the AC-SES compared to the BMS at both 30 and 90 days after implantation. Biocompatible, rapidly absorbable stent coatings enable the matching of drug release with coating erosion and provide for the controlled migration of coating material into tissue to reduce vicissitudes in drug tissue levels, optimizing efficacy and reducing potential toxicity. PMID:22800575

Carlyle, Wenda C; McClain, James B; Tzafriri, Abraham R; Bailey, Lynn; Zani, Brett G; Markham, Peter M; Stanley, James R L; Edelman, Elazer R

2012-09-28

346

Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process.

Moghadam, S. H.; Wang, H. W.; Saddar El-Leithy, E.; Chebli, C.; Cartilier, L.

2007-03-01

347

Imaging and drug delivery using theranostic nanoparticles?  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle technologies are significantly impacting the development of both therapeutic and diagnostic agents. At the intersection between treatment and diagnosis, interest has grown in combining both paradigms into clinically effective formulations. This concept, recently coined as theranostics, is highly relevant to agents that target molecular biomarkers of disease and is expected to contribute to personalized medicine. Here we review state-of-the-art nanoparticles from a therapeutic and a diagnostic perspective and discuss challenges in bringing these fields together. Major classes of nanoparticles include, drug conjugates and complexes, dendrimers, vesicles, micelles, core–shell particles, microbubbles, and carbon nanotubes. Most of these formulations have been described as carriers of either drugs or contrast agents. To observe these formulations and their interactions with disease, a variety of contrast agents have been used, including optically active small molecules, metals and metal oxides, ultrasonic contrast agents, and radionuclides. The opportunity to rapidly assess and adjust treatment to the needs of the individual offers potential advantages that will spur the development of theranostic agents.

MacKay, J. Andrew

2013-01-01

348

Nanoparticle-mediated pulmonary drug delivery: a review.  

PubMed

Colloidal drug delivery systems have been extensively investigated as drug carriers for the application of different drugs via different routes of administration. Systems, such as solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes, have been investigated for a long time for the treatment of various lung diseases. The pulmonary route, owing to a noninvasive method of drug administration, for both local and systemic delivery of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) forms an ideal environment for APIs acting on pulmonary diseases and disorders. Additionally, this route offers many advantages, such as a high surface area with rapid absorption due to high vascularization and circumvention of the first pass effect. Aerosolization or inhalation of colloidal systems is currently being extensively studied and has huge potential for targeted drug delivery in the treatment of various diseases. Furthermore, the surfactant-associated proteins present at the interface enhance the effect of these formulations by decreasing the surface tension and allowing the maximum effect. The most challenging part of developing a colloidal system for nebulization is to maintain the critical physicochemical parameters for successful inhalation. The following review focuses on the current status of different colloidal systems available for the treatment of various lung disorders along with their characterization. Additionally, different in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo cell models developed for the testing of these systems with studies involving cell culture analysis are also discussed. PMID:24717409

Paranjpe, Mukta; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

2014-01-01

349

Assessing the barriers to image-guided drug delivery.  

PubMed

Imaging has become a cornerstone for medical diagnosis and the guidance of patient management. A new field called image-guided drug delivery (IGDD) now combines the vast potential of the radiological sciences with the delivery of treatment and promises to fulfill the vision of personalized medicine. Whether imaging is used to deliver focused energy to drug-laden particles for enhanced, local drug release around tumors, or it is invoked in the context of nanoparticle-based agents to quantify distinctive biomarkers that could risk stratify patients for improved targeted drug delivery efficiency, the overarching goal of IGDD is to use imaging to maximize effective therapy in diseased tissues and to minimize systemic drug exposure in order to reduce toxicities. Over the last several years, innumerable reports and reviews covering the gamut of IGDD technologies have been published, but inadequate attention has been directed toward identifying and addressing the barriers limiting clinical translation. In this consensus opinion, the opportunities and challenges impacting the clinical realization of IGDD-based personalized medicine were discussed as a panel and recommendations were proffered to accelerate the field forward. PMID:24339356

Lanza, Gregory M; Moonen, Chrit; Baker, James R; Chang, Esther; Cheng, Zheng; Grodzinski, Piotr; Ferrara, Katherine; Hynynen, Kullervo; Kelloff, Gary; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Patri, Anil K; Sept, David; Schnitzer, Jan E; Wood, Bradford J; Zhang, Miqin; Zheng, Gang; Farahani, Keyvan

2014-01-01

350

Imaging Drug Delivery to Skin with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Efficient drug delivery to the skin is essential for the treatment of major dermatologic diseases, such as eczema, psoriasis and acne. However, many compounds penetrate the skin barrier poorly and require optimized formulations to ensure their bioavailability. Here, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a recently-developed, label-free chemical imaging tool, is used to acquire high resolution images of multiple chemical components of a topical formulation as it penetrates into mammalian skin. This technique uniquely provides label-free, non-destructive, three-dimensional images with high spatiotemporal resolution. It reveals novel features of (trans)dermal drug delivery in the tissue environment: different rates of drug penetration via hair follicles as compared to the intercellular pathway across the stratum corneum are directly observed, and the precipitation of drug crystals on the skin surface is visualized after the percutaneous penetration of the co-solvent excipient in the formulation. The high speed three-dimensional imaging capability of SRS thus reveals features that cannot be seen with other techniques, providing both kinetic information and mechanistic insight into the (trans)dermal drug delivery process.

Saar, Brian G.; Contreras-Rojas, L. Rodrigo; Xie, X. Sunney; Guy, Richard H.

2011-01-01

351

pH-responsive Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

First-generation nanoparticles (NPs) have been clinically translated as pharmaceutical drug delivery carriers for their ability to improve on drug tolerability, circulation half-life, and efficacy. Towards the development of the next-generation NPs, researchers have designed novel multifunctional platforms for sustained release, molecular targeting, and environmental responsiveness. This review focuses on environmentally-responsive mechanisms used in NP designs, and highlights the use of pH-responsive NPs in drug delivery. Different organs, tissues, and subcellular compartments – as well as their pathophysiological states – can be characterized by their pH levels and gradients. When exposed to these pH stimuli, pH-responsive NPs respond with physicochemical changes to their material structure and surface characteristics. These include swelling, dissociating or surface charge switching, in a manner that favors drug release at the target site over surrounding tissues. The novel developments described here may revise the classical outlook that NPs are passive delivery vehicles, in favor of responsive, sensing vehicles that use environmental cues to achieve maximal drug potency.

Gao, Weiwei; Chan, Juliana; Farokhzad, Omid C.

2010-01-01

352

Novel drug delivery approaches on antiviral and antiretroviral agents.  

PubMed

Viruses have the property to replicate very fast in host cell. It can attack any part of host cell. Therefore, the clinical efficacy of antiviral drugs and its bioavailability is more important concern taken into account to treat viral infections. The oral and parenteral routes of drug administration have several shortcomings, however, which could lead to the search for formulating better delivery systems. Now, a day's novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) proved to be a better approach to enhance the effectiveness of the antivirals and improve the patient compliance and decrease the adverse effect. The NDDS have reduced the dosing frequency and shorten the duration of treatment, thus, which could lead the treatment more cost-effective. The development of NDDS for antiviral and antiretroviral therapy aims to deliver the drug devoid of toxicity, with high compatibility and biodegradability, targeting the drug to specific sites for viral infection and in some instances it also avoid the first pass metabolism effect. This article aims to discuss the usefulness of novel delivery approaches of antiviral agents such as niosomes, microspheres, microemulsions, nanoparticles that are used in the treatment of various Herpes viruses and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:23057001

Sharma, Pooja; Chawla, Anuj; Arora, Sandeep; Pawar, Pravin

2012-07-01

353

Biodegradable block copolymers as injectable drug-delivery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 °C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs.

Jeong, Byeongmoon; Bae, You Han; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan

1997-08-01

354

Biodegradable block copolymers as injectable drug-delivery systems.  

PubMed

Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 degrees C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs. PMID:9278046

Jeong, B; Bae, Y H; Lee, D S; Kim, S W

1997-08-28

355

Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown promise in tumor targeted accumulation in mice and exhibit biocompatibility, excretion and little toxicity. Here, we demonstrate in-vivo SWNT drug delivery for tumor suppression in mice. We conjugate paclitaxel (PTX), a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug to branched polyethylene-glycol (PEG) chains on SWNTs via a cleavable ester bond to obtain a water soluble SWNT-paclitaxel conjugate (SWNT-PTX). SWNT-PTX affords higher efficacy in suppressing tumor growth than clinical Taxol® in a murine 4T1 breast-cancer model, owing to prolonged blood circulation and 10-fold higher tumor PTX uptake by SWNT delivery likely through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR). Drug molecules carried into the reticuloendothelial system are released from SWNTs and excreted via biliary pathway without causing obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Thus, nanotube drug delivery is promising for high treatment efficacy and minimum side effects for future cancer therapy with low drug doses.

Liu, Zhuang; Chen, Kai; Davis, Corrine; Sherlock, Sarah; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Hongjie

2008-01-01

356

Nanoparticle-Mediated Pulmonary Drug Delivery: A Review  

PubMed Central

Colloidal drug delivery systems have been extensively investigated as drug carriers for the application of different drugs via different routes of administration. Systems, such as solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes, have been investigated for a long time for the treatment of various lung diseases. The pulmonary route, owing to a noninvasive method of drug administration, for both local and systemic delivery of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) forms an ideal environment for APIs acting on pulmonary diseases and disorders. Additionally, this route offers many advantages, such as a high surface area with rapid absorption due to high vascularization and circumvention of the first pass effect. Aerosolization or inhalation of colloidal systems is currently being extensively studied and has huge potential for targeted drug delivery in the treatment of various diseases. Furthermore, the surfactant-associated proteins present at the interface enhance the effect of these formulations by decreasing the surface tension and allowing the maximum effect. The most challenging part of developing a colloidal system for nebulization is to maintain the critical physicochemical parameters for successful inhalation. The following review focuses on the current status of different colloidal systems available for the treatment of various lung disorders along with their characterization. Additionally, different in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo cell models developed for the testing of these systems with studies involving cell culture analysis are also discussed.

Paranjpe, Mukta; Muller-Goymann, Christel C.

2014-01-01

357

Microsponges: A novel strategy for drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release. PMID:22247859

Kaity, Santanu; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Ghosh, Animesh; Banerjee, Subham

2010-07-01

358

Microsponges: A novel strategy for drug delivery system  

PubMed Central

Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release.

Kaity, Santanu; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Ghosh, Animesh; Banerjee, Subham

2010-01-01

359

New Technologies for Drug Delivery across the Blood Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently restricts penetration of therapeutic agents to the brain from the periphery. Therefore, discovery of new modalities allowing for effective delivery of drugs and biomacromolecules to the central nervous system (CNS) is of great need and importance for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This manuscript focuses on three relatively new strategies. The first strategy involves inhibition of the drug efflux transporters expressed in BBB by Pluronic® block copolymers, which allows for the increased transport of the substrates of these transporters to the brain. The second strategy involves the design of nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands that can target receptors in the brain microvasculature and carry the drugs to the brain through the receptor mediated transcytosis. The third strategy involves artificial hydrophobization of peptides and proteins that facilitates the delivery of these peptides and proteins across BBB. This review discusses the current state, advantages and limitations of each of the three technologies and outlines their future prospects.

Kabanov, A.V.; Batrakova, E.V.

2009-01-01

360

Magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems for targeting tumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.

Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish

2014-04-01

361

Applications of nanodiamonds in drug delivery and catalysis.  

PubMed

The interest of researchers in utilizing nanomaterials as carriers for a wide spectrum of molecules has exploded in the last two decades. Nanodiamonds are one class of carbon-based nanomaterials that have emerged as promising drug delivery vehicles and imaging probes. Their ease of functionalization also led to the generation of stimuli-responsive nanodiamonds that deliver drugs on demand in a controlled manner. The ample surface area of NDs allowed for a higher loading of not only small molecules but also macromolecules like genes and proteins. Recently, the unique surface of NDs has attracted more attention as catalyst support in a huge range of organic modification and C-C bond formation reactions. Herein, recent advances in the utilization of nanodiamonds as a drug delivery vehicle and catalytical support are highlighted and summarized to illustrate the potential and versatility of this cheap and commercially available nanomaterial. PMID:24730266

Moosa, Basem; Fhayli, Karim; Li, Song; Julfakyan, Khatchatur; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Khashab, Niveen M

2014-01-01

362

Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

2003-04-01

363

Diffusion of Macromolecules in the Brain: Implications for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Therapeutics must diffuse through the brain extracellular space (ECS) in order to distribute within the central nervous system (CNS) compartment; this requirement holds both for drugs that are directly placed within the CNS (i.e. central input) and for drugs that cross the barriers separating blood and brain following systemic administration. The diffusion of any substance within the CNS may be affected by a number of properties associated with the brain microenvironment, e.g. the volume fraction, geometry, width, and local viscosity of the ECS, as well as interactions with cell surfaces, the extracellular matrix, and components of the interstitial fluid. Here, we discuss ECS properties important in governing the distribution of macromolecules (e.g. antibodies and other protein therapeutics), nanoparticles and viral vectors within the CNS. We also provide an introduction to some of the methods commonly applied to measure diffusion of molecules in the brain ECS, with a particular emphasis on those used for determining the diffusion properties of macromolecules. Finally, we discuss how quantitative diffusion measurements can be used to better understand and potentially even improve upon CNS drug delivery by modeling delivery within and across species, screening drugs and drug conjugates, evaluating methods for altering drug distribution, and appreciating important changes in drug distribution that may occur with CNS disease or injury.

Wolak, Daniel J.; Thorne, Robert G.

2013-01-01

364

Drug delivery to solid tumors by elastin-like polypeptides  

PubMed Central

Thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a promising class of recombinant biopolymers for the delivery of drugs and imaging agents to solid tumors via systemic or local administration. This article reviews four applications of ELPs to drug delivery, with each delivery mechanism designed to best exploit the relationship between the characteristic transition temperature (Tt) of the ELP and body temperature (Tb). First, when Tt >> Tb, small hydrophobic drugs can be conjugated to the C-terminus of the ELP to impart the amphiphilicity needed to mediate the self-assembly of nanoparticles. These systemically delivered ELP-drug nanoparticles preferentially localize to the tumor site via the EPR effect, resulting in reduced toxicity and enhanced treatment efficacy. The remaining three approaches take direct advantage of the thermal responsiveness of ELPs. In the second strategy, where Tb < Tt < 42 °C, an ELP-drug conjugate can be injected in conjunction with external application of mild hyperthermia to the tumor to induce ELP coacervation and an increase in concentration within the tumor vasculature. The third approach utilizes hydrophilic-hydrophobic ELP block copolymers that have been designed to assemble into nanoparticles in response to hyperthermai due to the independent thermal transition of the hydrophobic block, thus resulting in multivalent ligand display of a ligand for spatially enhanced vascular targeting. In the final strategy, ELPs with Tt < Tb are conjugated with radiotherapeutics, injtect intioa tumor where they undergo coacervation to form an injectable drug depot for intratumoral delivery. These injectable coacervate ELP-radionuclide depots display a long residence in the tumor and result in inhibition of tumor growth.

McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Callahan, Daniel J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

2010-01-01

365

Nanoparticles: Emerging carriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The core objective of nanoparticles is to control and manipulate biomacromolecular constructs and supramolecular assemblies that are critical to living cells in order to improve the quality of human health. By definition, these constructs and assemblies are nanoscale and include entities such as drugs, proteins, DNA/RNA, viruses, cellular lipid bilayers, cellular receptor sites and antibody variable regions critical for immunology and are involved in events of nanoscale proportions. The emergence of such nanotherapeutics/diagnostics will allow a deeper understanding of human longevity and human ills that include cancer, cardiovascular disease and genetic disorders. A technology platform that provides a wide range of synthetic nanostructures that may be controlled as a function of size, shape and surface chemistry and scale to these nanotechnical dimensions will be a critical first step in developing appropriate tools and a scientific basis for understanding nanoparticles.

Mudshinge, Sagar R.; Deore, Amol B.; Patil, Sachin; Bhalgat, Chetan M.

2011-01-01

366

Novel drug delivery strategies for porphyrins and porphyrin precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

superficial lesions, such as actinic keratosis. In addition, photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is attracting increasing interest for the treatment of infection. However, delivery strategies for topical PDT and PACT are still based on application of rather simplistic cream and solution formulations, with little consideration given to thermodynamics, targeting or the physicochemical properties of the active agent. Purpose-designed dosage forms for topical delivery of aminolevulinic acid or its esters include creams containing penetration enhancers and/or iron chelators, pressure sensitive patches and bioadhesive patches. Such systems aim to enhance drug delivery across the stratum corneum and keratinised debris overlying neoplastic lesions and improve subsequent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production. The alternative to using porphyrin precursors is the use of pre-formed photosensitisers. However, owing to their relatively high molecular weights, conventional topical application is not appropriate. Innovative strategies, such as the use of needle-free injections and microneedle arrays, bypass the stratum corneum, enabling rapid and targeted delivery not only porphyrin precursors but also pre-formed photosensitisers. This presentation will review drug delivery work published to date in the fields of PDT and PACT. In addition, the benefits of employing the latest advances in pharmaceutical technology will be highlighted.

Morrow, D. I. J.; Donnelly, R. F.

2009-06-01

367

Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future  

PubMed Central

Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

2012-01-01

368

Design and development of diltiazem hydrochloride transmucosal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Diltiazem hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. Diltiazem mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using HPMC, chitosan, PVP, PVA and carbopol. The physicochemical interactions between diltiazem and the polymers were investigated by FTIR and DSC, results revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. The patches were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, in vitro release studies and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa. Residual solvent content in patches was determined by gas chromatography and are largely below the tolerated limits. The formulations showed an extended release of the drug upto a period of 12 hours during ex vivo permeation and showed non Fickian drug release. Stability of the optimized formulation was investigated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be stable with respect to drug content and ex vivo permeation. Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride buccal patches residual solvents mucoadhesion in vitro drug release ex vivo permeation. PMID:23578264

Penjuri, Subhash Chandra Bose; Damineni, Saritha; Ravouru, Nagaraju

2013-01-01

369

Laser-acoustic transcutaneous drug delivery: A new trend in administration of drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the principles of transcutaneous drug delivery technique which uses optoacoustic (OA) effect. Laser OA impregnation, enhanced laser OA impregnation, simple laser and laser OA injections are presented. Drug impregnation mathematical model and preliminary experiments on laser injection are described.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Latyshev, Alexei S.

1999-03-01

370

Buccal bioadhesive drug delivery — A promising option for orally less efficient drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive

Yajaman Sudhakar; Ketousetuo Kuotsu; A. K. Bandyopadhyay

2006-01-01

371

Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.

Kooijmans, Sander AA; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

2012-01-01

372

Drug delivery from holding chambers with attached facemask.  

PubMed

There is much interest in the use of holding chambers with an attached facemask to deliver aerosols from metered dose inhalers to infants. In order to study the influence of various design factors on the dose inhaled at different tidal volumes, a model was constructed in which a Starling ventilator was used to generate an inspiratory/expiratory cycle across a filter. Sodium cromoglycate was administered via a Nebuhaler and mask, Aerochamber and mask, and a coffee cup using tidal volumes of 25, 50, and 150 ml and the dose deposited upon the filter after six breaths was assayed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometric method. At the lowest tidal volume the high aerosol concentration in the smaller chamber enhanced drug delivery while at the highest tidal volume delivery was greatest from the larger chamber reflecting the larger dose available. Multiple breaths ensured that the dose inhaled per kilogram from each chamber was relatively large and also permitted significant drug delivery despite the introduction of a relatively large dead space between valve and filter. The dose delivered was increased by increasing the dose introduced into the chamber though not proportionately. These devices appear likely to deliver significant quantities of aerosol to infants, though drug delivery may be enhanced by the use of an appropriate valve. PMID:1599292

Everard, M L; Clark, A R; Milner, A D

1992-05-01

373

Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne  

PubMed Central

Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system.

Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

2014-01-01

374

Novel Drug Delivery System Shows Early Promise for Treating Lupus in Mice  

MedlinePLUS

... Drug Delivery System Shows Early Promise for Treating Lupus in Mice A drug delivery system using nanoparticle ... cells can potentially improve treatment approaches for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to research partially funded by ...

375

Synthetic Polymers as Drug-Delivery Vehicles in Medicine  

PubMed Central

Cancerous diseases present a formidable health problem worldwide. While the chemotherapy of cancer, in conjunction with other treatment modalities, has reached a significant level of maturity, efficacious use of such agents is still restricted by numerous pharmacological deficiencies, such as poor water solubility, short serum circulation lifetimes, and low bioavailability resulting from lack of affinity to cancer tissue and inadequate mechanisms of cell entry. More critically still, most drugs suffer from toxic side effects and a risk of drug resistance. The class of platinum anticancer drugs, although outstandingly potent, is particularly notorious in that respect. Among the countless methods developed in recent years in an effort to overcome these deficiencies, the technology of polymer-drug conjugation stands out as a particularly advanced treatment modality. The strategy involves the bioreversible binding, conjugating, of a medicinal agent to a water-soluble macromolecular carrier. Following pharmacokinetic pathways distinctly different from those of the common, nonpolymeric drugs, the conjugate so obtained will act as a prodrug providing safe transport of the bioactive agent to and into the affected, that is, cancerous cell for its ultimate cell-killing activity. The present treatise will acquaint us with the pharmacological fundamentals of this drug delivery approach, applied here specifically to the metalorganic platinum-type drug systems and the organometallic ferrocene drug model. We will see just how this technology leads to conjugates distinctly superior in antiproliferative activity to cisplatin, a clinically used antitumor agent used here as a standard. Polymer-drug conjugation involving metal-based and other medicinal agents has unquestionably matured to a practical tool to the pharmaceutical scientist, and all indications point to an illustrious career for this nascent drug delivery approach in the fight against cancer and other human maladies.

Neuse, Eberhard W.

2008-01-01

376

Cell-Specific Aptamer-Mediated Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid aptamers are in vitro-selected small, single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can specifically recognize their target on the basis of their unique 3-dimensional structures. Recent advances in the development of escort aptamers to deliver and enhance the efficacy of other therapeutic agents have drawn enthusiasm in exploiting cell-type-specific aptamers as drug delivery vehicles. This review mainly focuses on the recent developments of aptamer-mediated targeted delivery systems. We also place particular emphasis on aptamers evolved against cell membrane receptors and possibilities for translation to clinical applications.

Zhou, Jiehua

2011-01-01

377

Discovery of synergistic permeation enhancers for oral drug delivery.  

PubMed

Oral drug delivery offers an attractive method of needle-free drug administration. Unfortunately, oral delivery is often hampered by the poor permeability of drugs across the intestinal epithelium. Although several single chemical permeation enhancers have been shown to alleviate permeability difficulties, this often occurs at the expense of safety. This in vitro study demonstrates the use of binary and ternary combinations of permeation enhancers to create synergistic enhancer formulations (SEFs) that offer a high level of potency while inducing very little toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Although relatively rare in the explored formulation space, SEFs were abundant enough to significantly increase the repertoire of permeation enhancers that are safe and effective in vitro. The most promising enhancers from the binary study led to easily identifiable ternary SEFs, thus increasing the efficiency of the discovery process. Some of the best performers of the study included binary combinations of hexylamine and chembetaine and ternary combinations of sodium laureth sulfate, decyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, and chembetaine, all at a total concentration of 0.1% (w/v). Furthermore, several SEFs were shown to be capable of increasing mannitol and 70 kDa dextran permeability across Caco-2 monolayers 15- and 8-fold, respectively. These results encourage further exploration of several leading formulations for in vivo applications in oral drug delivery. PMID:18433909

Whitehead, Kathryn; Karr, Natalie; Mitragotri, Samir

2008-06-01

378

Advances in drug delivery via electrospun and electrosprayed nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques refer to procedures that utilize electrostatic forces to fabricate fibers or particles of different shapes with sizes in the nano-range to a few microns through electrically charged fluid jet. Employing different techniques, such as blending, surface modification, and coaxial process, there is a great possibility of incorporating bioactive such molecules as drugs, DNA, and growth factors into the nanostructures fabricated via EHD techniques. By careful selection of materials and processing conditions, desired encapsulation efficiency as well as preserved bioactivity of the therapeutic agents can be achieved. The drug-loaded nanostructures produced can be applied via different routes, such as implantation, injection, and topical or oral administration for a wide range of disease treatment. Taking advantage of the recent developments in EHD techniques like the coaxial process or multilayered structures, individually controlled delivery of multiple drugs is achievable, which is of great demand in cancer therapy and growth-factor delivery. This review summarizes the most recent techniques and postmodification methods to fabricate electrospun nanofibers and electrosprayed particles for drug-delivery applications. PMID:23976851

Zamani, Maedeh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2013-01-01

379

Transdermal drug delivery enhanced by low voltage electropulsation (LVE).  

PubMed

The efficiency of low voltage electropulsation (LVE) technique for delivery of drugs and macromolecules across the skin was investigated. The in vitro studies were carried out across the porcine epidermis in Franz diffusion cells using salicylic acid and fluorescein labeled Dextran of molecular weight 10,000 Da (FD10K). LVE enhanced the transport of salicylic acid and FD10K by approximately 4-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively over the control. The potential application of LVE in transdermal drug delivery was studied in the case of lidocaine hydrochloride. The transport of lidocaine hydrochloride was enhanced by approximately 8-fold over the control. The transport enhancement by LVE was compared with that of 1 min and 20 min constant DC iontophoresis at 0.5 mA/cm(2). Iontophoresis applied for 1 min delivers equivalent electrical dose as that of LVE (50 ms pulses for 20 min at 1 Hz) in the current set up. The transport by application of iontophoresis for 1 min was significantly less than the control (passive diffusion for 20 min). However, the application of iontophoresis for 20 min (electrical dose approximately 20-fold more than that of LVE) resulted in comparable drug transport as that of LVE. It is evident from the results of this experiment that the transdermal delivery of drugs could be enhanced by LVE which is a rather mild technique than electroporation or iontophoresis. PMID:19519188

Sammeta, S M; Vaka, Siva Ram K; Murthy, S Narasimha

2009-01-01

380

Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are gaining increasing attention as components of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, particularly since they can be obtained in a well characterized and reproducible way from the natural sources. Ionic polysaccharides can be readily crosslinked to render hydrogel networks sensitive to a variety of internal and external variables, and thus suitable for switching drug release on-off through diverse mechanisms. Hybrids, composites and grafted polymers can reinforce the responsiveness and widen the range of stimuli to which polysaccharide-based systems can respond. This review analyzes the state of the art of crosslinked ionic polysaccharides as components of delivery systems that can regulate drug release as a function of changes in pH, ion nature and concentration, electric and magnetic field intensity, light wavelength, temperature, redox potential, and certain molecules (enzymes, illness markers, and so on). Examples of specific applications are provided. The information compiled demonstrates that crosslinked networks of ionic polysaccharides are suitable building blocks for developing advanced externally activated and feed-back modulated drug delivery systems. PMID:23639519

Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Puga, Ana M; Concheiro, Angel

2013-08-01

381

Microneedles array with biodegradable tips for transdermal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presented an enhancement solution for transdermal drug delivery using microneedles array with biodegradable tips. The microneedles array was fabricated by using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the biodegradable tips were made to be porous by electrochemical etching process. The porous silicon microneedle tips can greatly enhance the transdermal drug delivery in a minimum invasion, painless, and convenient manner, at the same time; they are breakable and biodegradable. Basically, the main problem of the silicon microneedles consists of broken microneedles tips during the insertion. The solution proposed is to fabricate the microneedle tip from a biodegradable material - porous silicon. The silicon microneedles are fabricated using DRIE notching effect of reflected charges on mask. The process overcomes the difficulty in the undercut control of the tips during the classical isotropic silicon etching process. When the silicon tips were formed, the porous tips were then generated using a classical electrochemical anodization process in MeCN/HF/H2O solution. The paper presents the experimental results of in vitro release of calcein and BSA with animal skins using a microneedle array with biodegradable tips. Compared to the transdermal drug delivery without any enhancer, the microneedle array had presented significant enhancement of drug release.

Iliescu, Ciprian; Chen, Bangtao; Wei, Jiashen; Tay, Francis E. H.

2008-12-01

382

Branched biodegradable polyesters for parenteral drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Continuous, 'infusion-like' drug release profiles from biodegradable parenteral delivery systems are difficult to achieve for proteins and other hydrophilic macromolecular drugs with commonly used linear polyesters from lactic acid (PLA) and its random copolymers with glycolic acid (PLG). Drug release rates can be modified either by increasing the hydrophilicity of polyesters or by manipulating the polymer architecture to adjust polymer degradation rates and thus drug release. Therefore, we investigated different branching concepts for biodegradable polyesters of PLA and PLG. For one four- and eight-arm poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) were grafted with shorter polyester chains leading to star-branched structures. Secondly we obtained comb-like polyesters using both charged and uncharged dextrans or poly(vinyl alcohol)s (PVA) as hydrophilic backbones. The star-shaped and brush-like grafted polymers were intensively characterized by methods, such as NMR, IR, SEC-SLS, DSC and viscosity measurements. Tailor-made properties make these novel biodegradable polyesters promising candidates for parenteral protein delivery systems. While the star-branched polyesters have shown some interesting properties with respect to their degradation behavior, retaining the PEO blocks longer than ABA triblock copolymers, their release properties need further optimization. Brush-like branched polyesters on the other hand seem to possess both degradation and release properties meriting further investigations for parenteral protein delivery systems. PMID:10640655

Breitenbach, A; Li, Y X; Kissel, T

2000-02-14

383

Gastro-retentive Floating Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System: A Review.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimizing side effects. Well designed controlled drug delivery system can over come some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. To obtain maximum therapeutic efficacy, it becomes necessary to deliver the agent to the target tissue in the optimal amount in the right period of time there by causing little toxicity and minimal side effects. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to target site in a sustained controlled release fashion. One such approach is using multiparticulate as carriers for drugs. Such systems have more advantages over the single-unit dosage forms. The development of gastroretentive floating multiparticulate systems overcomes several physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence time, unpredictable gastric emptying time etc. This system can be retaining in the stomach for prolonged period of time in a predetermined manner. This technology is one of the promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability and controlled delivery of drugs that exhibit narrow absorption window. The development of floating multiparticulate involves different solvent evaporation techniques to create the hollow inner core. This review includes various advantages, limitation, biological aspects, development approaches, formulation aspects, factors, polymer used, characterization aspects, mechanism, and application of floating microspheres. PMID:22452407

Gurnany, Ekta; Manwani, Reshma; Singhai, Priyanka; Jain, Rahul; Jain, Abhishek; Jain, Aviral

2012-03-26

384

Novel biomimetic polymersomes as polymer therapeutics for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Novel amphiphilic diblock copolymers, cholesterol-end-capped poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (CMPC), which have poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)) as hydrophilic segment and cholesterol as hydrophobic segment, was specially designed as drug delivery systems. Fluorescence probe technique and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations indicated that this novel amphiphilic copolymer formed micelles structure in water and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined to be 1.57 x 10(-7) mol/l. A commercial obtained polymeric amphiphiles, Cholesterol end capped PEO (CPEO), which had a similar structure with CMPC, was used as a control in the cytotoxicity test. While CPEO showed obvious cytotoxicity, cytotoxicity of this novel amphiphiles was not observed as indicated by cell culture. Anti-cancer drug adriamycin (ADR) was incorporated into the micelles by oil-in-water method. The size of the drug-containing micelles was less than 200 nm, and the size distribution of the drug-containing micelles showed a narrow and monodisperse unimodal pattern. The release rate of ADR from the nanosphere was slow and the release continued over 7 days and the release rate decreased with the increase of molecular weights of the copolymer and the amount of the drug entrapped. These experimental results suggested that the nanoparticles prepared from CMPC block copolymers could be a good candidate for injectable drug delivery carrier. PMID:16154659

Xu, Jian-Ping; Ji, Jian; Chen, Wei-Dong; Shen, Jia-Cong

2005-10-20

385

Microfluidics: a focus on improved cancer targeted drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical science aims to localize the pharmacological activity of the drug at the site of action. Targeted drug delivery systems can directly deliver the payload to the desired site of action without undesired interaction with normal cells. This is especially important for anticancer drugs to avoid side effects and improve therapeutic response and patient compliance. Number of targeted drug delivery systems for anticancer drugs are in market and many more are in research phase. Most of the methods so far used suffer from poor drug loading, variation in composition, attachment of targeting ligands to carriers, and in vivo and in vitro cellular uptake in cancer cell. Recently microfluidic techniques are gaining attention from researchers and formulation scientists due to the ability of having a better control over the above said parameters not to mention saving cost, material, time and the possibility offered to synthesize different system morphologies from nano to microscale. This article reviews the recent advances in the design of various targeted systems obtained through microfluidics and to some extent addresses challenges and hurdles faced during cancer cell treatment. PMID:23933524

Khan, Ikram Ullah; Serra, Christophe A; Anton, Nicolas; Vandamme, Thierry

2013-12-28

386

Pharmaceutical nanotechnology for oral delivery of anticancer drugs.  

PubMed

Oral chemotherapy is an important topic in the 21st century medicine, which may radically change the current regimen of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. Unfortunately, most anticancer drugs, especially those of high therapeutic efficacy such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are not orally bioavailable due to the gastrointestinal (GI) drug barrier. The molecular basis of the GI barrier has been found mainly due to the multidrug efflux proteins, i.e. P-type glycoproteins (P-gp), which are rich in the epithelial cell membranes in the GI tract. Medical solution for oral chemotherapy is to apply P-gp inhibitors such as cyclosporine A, which, however, suppress the body's immune system either, thus causing medical complication. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology, which is to apply and further develop nanotechnology to solve the problems in drug delivery, may provide a better solution and thus change the way we make drug and the way we take drug. This review is focused on the problems encountered in oral chemotherapy and the pharmaceutical nanotechnology solutions such as prodrugs, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers. Proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo results for oral delivery of anticancer drugs by the various nanocarriers, which can be found so far from the literature, are provided. PMID:23220325

Mei, Lin; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhao, Lingyun; Huang, Laiqiang; Yang, Xiang-Liang; Tang, Jintian; Feng, Si-Shen

2013-06-15

387

Trends in translational medicine and drug targeting and delivery: new insights on an old concept-targeted drug delivery with antibody-drug conjugates for cancers.  

PubMed

According to the JPS Drug Delivery Clinical Trials Database (jpharmscidatabase.org), 37,738, 14,104, and 8060 clinical trials are registered to evaluate (1) drug delivery technology, (2) biomolecule platform, and (3) drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions. These numbers represent a 19%-29% increase since 2012. Within biomolecules in clinical testing, antibodies constitute the majority and approximately 6% carry drug conjugates. Paul Ehrlich introduced the antibody-drug conjugate or "magic bullet" concept about a century ago. A monoclonal antibody (mAb)-drug conjugate Mylotarg was licensed for treating cancer in 2000 and exhibits significant liver toxicity and immune hypersensitivity. Plasma drug instability and a bacterial-derived drug may be partly to blame. Progress in antibody-drug conjugation chemistry, understanding how biologic systems respond to antibody-drug conjugates, and unwavering efforts of scientists have enabled successful development of highly potent and effective second-generation antibody-drug conjugates. With the approval of Adcetris for lymphoma in 2011 and Kadcyla in 2013, about a twofold to fourfold gain in cancer response rate is attributed to drug conjugates. With a demonstrated higher safety profile, many more antibody-drug conjugates are in development. The clinical success of Adcetris and Kadcyla has raised hope that antibody-guided "drug bullets" may be truly "magical" in leading to a cure for cancer. PMID:24186148

Ho, Rodney J Y; Chien, Jenny

2014-01-01

388

Application of In Situ Polymerization for Design and Development of Oral Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although preformed polymers are commercially available for use in the design and development of drug delivery systems, in situ polymerization has also been employed. In situ polymerization affords the platform to tailor and optimize the drug delivery properties of polymers. This review brings to\\u000a light the benefits of in situ polymerization for oral drug delivery and the possibilities it provides

Ndidi Ngwuluka; Joseph Reo; Linda Felton; Stephen Howard

2010-01-01

389

A novel liquefied gas based oral controlled release drug delivery system for liquid drug formulations.  

PubMed

A novel liquefied gas based drug delivery system for the oral delivery of liquid and semi-solid drug formulations is presented. The capsule-shaped system is equipped with a capillary as an element controlling the release rate. The delivery mechanism is based on a constant vapor pressure produced by isopentane as a low-boiling liquefied gas. The liquid drug valproic acid (VA) was used as a model compound. The viscosity was increased by the addition of povidone (PVP). The VA-PVP gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheological properties, the shear rate was above 0.1s(-1), similar to a Newtonian liquid. The gels tested in the gas based delivery system provided near-zero-order release kinetics. The longest delivery time was up to ca. 8h. The system is characterized by high flexibility of the delivery rate, which can be achieved by adjusting system parameters such as the diameter and length of the capillary, the vapor pressure of the propellant and the viscosity of the drug formulation. PMID:22426133

Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner

2012-06-01

390

Expand classical drug administration ways by emerging routes using dendrimer drug delivery systems: a concise overview.  

PubMed

Drugs are introduced into the body by numerous routes such as enteral (oral, sublingual and rectum administration), parenteral (intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous and inhalation administration), or topical (skin and mucosal membranes). Each route has specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages. Today, the oral route remains the preferred one for different reasons such as ease and compliance by patients. Several nanoformulated drugs have been already approved by the FDA, such as Abelcet®, Doxil®, Abraxane® or Vivagel®(Starpharma) which is an anionic G4-poly(L-lysine)-type dendrimer showing potent topical vaginal microbicide activity. Numerous biochemical studies, as well as biological and pharmacological applications of both dendrimer based products (dendrimers as therapeutic compounds per se, like Vivagel®) and dendrimers as drug carriers (covalent conjugation or noncovalent encapsulation of drugs) were described. It is widely known that due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, dendrimers afforded improvement of corresponding carried-drugs as dendrimer-drug complexes or conjugates (versus plain drug) such as biodistribution and pharmacokinetic behaviors. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent progresses of dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery systems for the delivery of drugs using enteral, parenteral and topical routes. In particular, we focus our attention on the emerging and promising routes such as oral, transdermal, ocular and transmucosal routes using dendrimers as delivery systems. PMID:23415951

Mignani, Serge; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

391

Potential applications of boron nitride nanotubes as drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an explosion of research in the 'bio-nano' field, with the discovery and introduction of ever more fascinating materials for applications as drug delivery systems, sensors, transducers, and so on. The author's group, for the first time in the literature, proposed boron nitride nanotubes as a valid alternative to carbon nanotubes and other kinds of inorganic materials, because of their improved chemical properties that theoretically guarantee better stability and compatibility in a biological context. In this paper, the bio-applications of boron nitride nanotubes that have emerged in the literature are summarized, with special attention given to their exploitation as safe drug delivery and targeting carriers. Finally, the possibility of combining their physical and chemical properties is approached, highlighting the features that render these innovative nanovectors unique and exceptional candidates for many bio-applications. PMID:20632897

Ciofani, Gianni

2010-08-01

392

Analysis of a simulation algorithm for direct brain drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Convection enhanced delivery (CED) achieves targeted delivery of drugs with a pressure-driven infusion through a cannula placed stereotactically in the brain. This technique bypasses the blood brain barrier and gives precise distributions of drugs, minimizing off-target effects of compounds such as viral vectors for gene therapy or toxic chemotherapy agents. The exact distribution is affected by the cannula positioning, flow rate and underlying tissue structure. This study presents an analysis of a simulation algorithm for predicting the distribution using baseline MRI images acquired prior to inserting the cannula. The MRI images included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to estimate the tissue properties. The algorithm was adapted for the devices and protocols identified for upcoming trials and validated with direct MRI visualization of Gadolinium in 20 infusions in non-human primates. We found strong agreement between the size and location of the simulated and gadolinium volumes, demonstrating the clinical utility of this surgical planning algorithm.

Rosenbluth, Kathryn Hammond; Eschermann, Jan Felix; Mittermeyer, Gabriele; Thomson, Rowena; Mittermeyer, Stephan; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

2011-01-01

393

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Multi-Imaging and Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Various bio-medical applications of magnetic nanoparticles have been explored during the past few decades. As tools that hold great potential for advancing biological sciences, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as platform materials for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, biological separation and magnetic drug delivery systems, and magnetic hyperthermia treatment. Furthermore, approaches that integrate various imaging and bioactive moieties have been used in the design of multi-modality systems, which possess synergistically enhanced properties such as better imaging resolution and sensitivity, molecular recognition capabilities, stimulus responsive drug delivery with on-demand control, and spatio-temporally controlled cell signal activation. Below, recent studies that focus on the design and synthesis of multi-mode magnetic nanoparticles will be briefly reviewed and their potential applications in the imaging and therapy areas will be also discussed.

Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji-wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

2013-01-01

394

Magnetic nanoparticles for multi-imaging and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Various bio-medical applications of magnetic nanoparticles have been explored during the past few decades. As tools that hold great potential for advancing biological sciences, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as platform materials for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, biological separation and magnetic drug delivery systems, and magnetic hyperthermia treatment. Furthermore, approaches that integrate various imaging and bioactive moieties have been used in the design of multi-modality systems, which possess synergistically enhanced properties such as better imaging resolution and sensitivity, molecular recognition capabilities, stimulus responsive drug delivery with on-demand control, and spatio-temporally controlled cell signal activation. Below, recent studies that focus on the design and synthesis of multi-mode magnetic nanoparticles will be briefly reviewed and their potential applications in the imaging and therapy areas will be also discussed. PMID:23579479

Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

2013-04-01

395

Low-cost metal micropump for drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabrication and characterization of a micro-pump for drug delivery are presented in this paper. A low cost metallic micro-pump capable of handling low fluid volumes and having the potential for application in drug delivery is described. The pump is of the reciprocating displacement type and is driven by a piezoelectric diaphragm actuator. The main parts of the pump are made of stainless steel and can be readily fabricated using precision casting technology. The check valves are made form a polyamide membrane using photolithography. Equations presented in this report are useful for predicting the behavior of the actuation unit as well as the valve unit. Based on the analysis, a prototype of the micro-pump is designed and fabricated, from which a maximum pump rate of 255ul/min for water was achieved.

Tay, Francis E.; Xu, G. L.; Choong, W. O.; Xue, H.

1999-10-01

396

Cyclodextrin containing biodegradable particles: from preparation to drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

Cyclodextrins (CDs) offer a very broad spectrum of applications in diverse fields of drug delivery. They are a family of cyclic ?-(1-4)-linked oligosaccharides of ?-d-glucopyranose subunits forming a more hydrophobic central cavity and a hydrophilic outer shell. CDs bear cage like supramolecular structures, similar to calixarenes, cyclophanes and crown ethers. No covalent bonds are required to host a guest molecule in the central cavity. The aim of this review is to throw light on some of the applications and formulation techniques for the novel multifunctional CD based nanocarriers used in diverse areas of drug delivery. Furthermore, this article highlights the molecular structure, chemical, complexation properties and the use of CDs in nanosystems like liposomes, magnetic nanoparticles, biodegradable polymers, micro and nanospheres and capsules. PMID:24342710

Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

2014-01-30

397

Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

2011-10-01

398

Smart drug delivery nanocarriers with self-assembled DNA nanostructures.  

PubMed

Self-assembled DNA nanostructures have emerged as a type of nano-biomaterials with precise structures, versatile functions and numerous applications. One particularly promising application of these DNA nanostructures is to develop universal nanocarriers for smart and targeted drug delivery. DNA is the genetic material in nature, and inherently biocompatible. Nevertheless, cell membranes are barely permeable to naked DNA molecules, either single- or double- stranded; transport across the cell membrane is only possible with the assistance of transfection agents. Interestingly, recent studies revealed that many DNA nanostructures could readily go into cells with high cell uptake efficiency. In this Progress Report, we will review recent advances on using various DNA nanostructures, e.g., DNA nanotubes, DNA tetrahedra, and DNA origami nanorobot, as drug delivery nanocarriers, and demonstrate several examples aiming at therapeutic applications with CpG-based immunostimulatory and siRNA-based gene silencing oligonucleotides. PMID:23765613

Li, Jiang; Fan, Chunhai; Pei, Hao; Shi, Jiye; Huang, Qing

2013-08-27

399

Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the current leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for approximately one quarter of all deaths in the USA and UK. Nanotechnologies provide tremendous opportunities for multimodal, site-specific drug delivery to these disease sites and Au nanoparticles further offer a particularly unique set of physical, chemical and photonic properties with which to do so. This review will highlight some recent advances, by our laboratory and others, in the use of Au nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery to these malignancies and will also provide insights into their rational design, synthesis, physiological properties and clinical/preclinical applications, as well as strategies and challenges toward the clinical implementation of these constructs moving forward.

Dreaden, Erik C; Austin, Lauren A; Mackey, Megan A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

2013-01-01

400

Application of Ultrasound Energy as a New Drug Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound has been in use for the last three decades as amodality for diagnostic imaging in medicine. Recently, there have beennumerous reports on the application of nonthermal ultrasound energyfor targeting or controlling drug release. This new concept oftherapeutic ultrasound combined with drugs has led to much excitementin various medical fields. Ultrasound energy can enhance the effectsof thrombolytic agents such as urokinase. Therapeutic ultrasoundcatheters are currently being developed for treatment ofcardiovascular diseases. Devices with ultrasound transducers implantedin transdermal drug patches are also being evaluated for possibledelivery of insulin through the skin. Chemical activation of drugs byultrasound energy for treatment of cancers is another new fieldrecently termed “Sonodynamic Therapy”. Various examples of ultrasoundapplication are under investigation which could lead to revolutionarydrug delivery systems in the future.

Tachibana, Katsuro; Tachibana, Shunro

1999-05-01

401

Drug Delivery-mediated Control of RNA Immunostimulation  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has generated significant interest as a strategy to suppress viral infection, but in some cases antiviral activity of unmodified short-interfering RNA (siRNA) has been attributed to activation of innate immune responses. We hypothesized that immunostimulation by unmodified siRNA could mediate both RNAi as well as innate immune stimulation depending on the mode of drug delivery. We investigated the potential of immunostimulatory RNAs (isRNAs) to suppress influenza A virus in vivo in the mouse lung. Lipidoid 98N12-5(1) formulated with unmodified siRNA targeting the influenza nucleoprotein gene exhibited antiviral activity. Formulations were optimized to increase antiviral activity, but the antiviral activity of lipidoid-delivered siRNA did not depend on sequence homology to the influenza genome as siRNA directed against unrelated targets also suppressed influenza replication in vivo. This activity was primarily attributed to enhancement of innate immune stimulation by lipidoid-mediated delivery, which indicates increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation by siRNA. Certain chemical modifications to the siRNA backbone, which block TLR7/8 activation but retain in vitro RNAi activity, prevented siRNA-mediated antiviral activity despite enhanced lipidoid-mediated delivery. Here, we demonstrate that innate immune activation caused by unmodified siRNA can have therapeutically relevant effects, and that these non-RNAi effects can be controlled through chemical modifications and drug delivery.

Nguyen, David N.; Chen, Steve C-Y; Lu, James; Goldberg, Michael; Kim, Phillip; Sprague, Andrew; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Sherman, Jennifer; Shulga-Morskaya, Svetlana; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Chen, Jianzhu; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

2009-01-01

402

Programmable transdermal drug delivery of nicotine using carbon nanotube membranes  

PubMed Central

Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes were employed as the active element of a switchable transdermal drug delivery device that can facilitate more effective treatments of drug abuse and addiction. Due to the dramatically fast flow through CNT cores, high charge density, and small pore dimensions, highly efficient electrophoretic pumping through functionalized CNT membrane was achieved. These membranes were integrated with a nicotine formulation to obtain switchable transdermal nicotine delivery rates on human skin (in vitro) and are consistent with a Fickian diffusion in series model. The transdermal nicotine delivery device was able to successfully switch between high (1.3 ± 0.65 ?mol/hr-cm2) and low (0.33 ± 0.22 ?mol/hr-cm2) fluxes that coincide with therapeutic demand levels for nicotine cessation treatment. These highly energy efficient programmable devices with minimal skin irritation and no skin barrier disruption would open an avenue for single application long-wear patches for therapies that require variable or programmable delivery rates.

Wu, Ji; Paudel, Kalpana S.; Strasinger, Caroline; Hammell, Dana; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Hinds, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

403

A review on novel vesicular drug delivery: proniosomes.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology has brought a revolution in the field of science, which has subsequently lead to development of novel dosage forms such as niosomes, liposomes and proniosomes. Proniosomes overcome the demerits involved with niosomal and liposomal drug delivery systems. Proniosomes are liquid crystalline compact niosome hybrids which upon hydration form niosomes. They help in reducing physical stability problems involved with niosomes such as leaking, fusion, aggregation and provide convenience in dosing, distribution, transportation and storage showing improved results than conventional niosomes. This review focuses on different aspects of pronios