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Sample records for micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors

  1. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    Adaptive optics MEMS deformable mirror, in conjunction with Shack Hartman wave front sensor and real-time controller, is capable of correcting time-varying aberrations in imaging applications through manipulating its mirror surface. Adaptive optics systems in astronomy for next generation large telescopes (30 meter primary mirrors) require a high stroke of 10microm of mechanical displacement. This required stroke would be achieved by MEMS deformable mirrors fabricated with high aspect ratio techniques. This thesis will review the designs of various types of high aspect actuators consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of these designs have shown the ability of each design to achieve a stroke of approximately 9.4 microm. Also, FEA simulations proved that the X-beam actuators provide the best spring support while preventing tilting. In addition, this thesis will discuss device characterization and voltage vs. displacement test results for the high aspect ratio gold MEMS 16 x 16 X-beam actuators deformable mirror that has been bonded and packaged. The results have shown that the device is capable of achieving approximately 5.5 microm in individual actuator testing and 7microm in dual actuator testing.

  2. Design, fabrication and characterization of high-stroke high-aspect ratio micro electro mechanical systems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Rocha, Bautista

    Adaptive optic (AO) systems for next generation of extremely large telescopes (30--50 meter diameter primary mirrors) require high-stroke (10 microns), high-order (100x100) deformable mirrors at lower-cost than current technology. The required specifications are achievable with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices fabricated with high-aspect ratio processing techniques. This dissertation will review simulation results compared with displacement measurements of actuators utilizing a white-light interferometer. It will also review different actuator designs, materials and post-processing procedures fabricated in three different high-aspect ratio processes, Microfabrica's Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB(TM)), HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication Technology (HTPF(TM)), and Innovative Micro Technologies (IMT) fabrication process. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication and their sacrificial layer thicknesses can be specified by the designer, rather than by constraints of the fabrication process. Various types of high-stroke gold actuators for AO consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators supported diagonally by beams were designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested individually and as part of a continuous facesheet DM system. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-in voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke. Vertical parallel plate ganged actuators fabricated with the EFAB(TM) process have a calculated pull-in voltage of 95V for a 600mum size device. In contrast, the pull-in voltages for the comb-drive actuators ranged from 55V for the large actuator, to 203V for the smallest actuator. Simulations and interferometer scans of actuator designs fabricated with HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication (HTPF(TM)) two wafer bonded process with different spring supports have shown the ability of

  3. An Investigation into the Response of a Micro Electro Mechanical Compound Pivot Mirror Using Finite Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    GASS, FAWN R.; DOHNER, JEFFREY L.

    2002-01-01

    This report is a presentation of modeling and simulation work for analyzing three designs of Micro Electro Mechanical (MEM) Compound Pivot Mirrors (CPM). These CPMs were made at Sandia National Laboratories using the SUMMiT{trademark} process. At 75 volts and above, initial experimental analysis of fabricated mirrors showed tilt angles of up to 7.5 degrees for one design, and 5 degrees for the other two. Nevertheless, geometric design models predicted higher tilt angles. Therefore, a detailed study was conducted to explain why lower tilt angles occurred and if design modifications could be made to produce higher tilt angles at lower voltages. This study showed that the spring stiffnesses of the CPMs were too great to allow for desired levels of rotation at lower levels of voltage. To produce these lower stiffnesses, a redesign is needed.

  4. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  5. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  6. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  7. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    DOEpatents

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  8. Integrated micro-electro-mechanical sensor development for inertial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Kinney, R.D.; Sarsfield, J.

    1998-04-01

    Electronic sensing circuitry and micro electro mechanical sense elements can be integrated to produce inertial instruments for applications unheard of a few years ago. This paper will describe the Sandia M3EMS fabrication process, inertial instruments that have been fabricated, and the results of initial characterization tests of micro-machined accelerometers.

  9. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  10. Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Chengkuo; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Huang, Chia-Yi

    2014-04-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optical performance by increasing the number of movable cantilevers in the symmetrical split ring resonator metamaterial unit cell. Simulations were carried out to understand the interaction of the incident terahertz radiation with out-of-plane deforming metamaterial resonator. In order to improve the overall device performance, the number of released cantilever in a unit cell was increased from one to two, and it was seen that the tunable range was doubled and the switching contrast improved by a factor of around five at 0.7 THz. This simple design approach can be adopted for a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches to enable future photonic circuit applications.

  11. Controlling Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, D.; Schneider, W.; Osiander, R.; Champion, J. L.; Darrin, A. G.; Douglas, D.; Swanson, T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Small spacecraft, including micro and nanosats, as they are envisioned for future missions, will require an alternative means to achieve thermal control due to their small power and mass budgets. One of the proposed alternatives is Variable Emittance (Vari-E) Coatings for spacecraft radiators. Space Technology-5 (ST-5) is a technology demonstration mission through NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) that will utilize Vari-E Coatings. This mission involves a constellation of three (3) satellites in a highly elliptical orbit with a perigee altitude of ~200 km and an apogee of ~38,000 km. Such an environment will expose the spacecraft to a wide swing in the thermal and radiation environment of the earth's atmosphere. There are three (3) different technologies associated with this mission. The three technologies are electrophoretic, electrochromic, and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). The ultimate goal is to make use of Vari-E coatings, in order to achieve various levels of thermal control. The focus of this paper is to highlight the Vari-E Coating MEMS instrument, with an emphasis on the Electronic Control Unit responsible for operating the MEMS device. The Test & Evaluation approach, along with the results, is specific for application on ST-5, yet the information provides a guideline for future experiments and/or thermal applications on the exterior structure of a spacecraft.

  12. Initial performance results for high-aspect ratio gold MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Bautista; Kubby, Joel

    2009-02-01

    The fabrication and initial performance results of high-aspect ratio 3-dimensional Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Deformable Mirrors (DM) for Adaptive Optics (AO) will be discussed. The DM systems were fabricated out of gold, and consist of actuators bonded to a continuous face sheet, with different boundary conditions. DM mirror displacements vs. voltage have been measured with a white light interferometer and the corresponding results compared to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations. Interferometer scans of a DM have shown that ~9.4um of stroke can be achieved with low voltage, thus showing that this fabrication process holds promise in the manufacturing of future MEMS DM's for the next generation of extremely large telescopes.

  13. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  14. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  15. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  16. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  17. Design and development of microswitches for micro-electro-mechanical relay matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Mark W.

    1995-06-01

    Many different micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switches were designed in the Multi-User MEM's Processes (MUMP's) and deep x-ray lithography and electroforming (LIGA) processes. The switches were composed of actuators that operated based upon either electrostatic forces or thermal forces. A thermally activated beam flexure actuator that operated based upon differential heating was used extensively. This actuator, which was fabricated in the MUMP's process, was able to deflect up to 12 microns with a total input power of less than 25 mW. The thermal resistance, which was needed to model this actuator, was determined from a material constant, 1.9 +/- 0.08 m(exp 1.5) C/W for the POLY1 layer in MUMP's and 7.4 +/- 0.88 m(exp 1.5) C/W for the POLY2 layer in MUMP's, which was extracted from 1020 actuator test cases. A switch using a hinge mechanism that allowed metal-to-metal contacts to be formed was also developed in the MUMP's process. The contact resistance of these devices was determined to be 9.91 +/- 6.22 kohms. An electrostatically deformable microbridge structure (2 microns thick, 40 microns wide, 332 microns long, and with a capacitive gap of 2 microns) was also employed as a switch. A voltage of 53.3 volts applied between the microbridge and two drive electrodes was able to force the center of the microbridge to touch a sense electrode. The observed contact resistance for this connection was 300 +/- 89.7 ohms.

  18. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  19. Detection of Dynabeads using a micro-electro-mechanical-systems fluxgate sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jian; Wang, Tao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to detect the presence of Dynabeads with a system based on a micro fluxgate sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. Due to the excellent performance of the micro fluxgate sensor, the detection system exhibited many advantages, such as lower minimum detectable limit, small weight, and low power consumption. Experimental results show that, applied an external magnetic field in a range of 430 μT to 600 μT, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/ml can be detected by this system. Moreover, the detection system could give an approximate quantitation to the magnetic beads.

  20. Characteristics of semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma generated in a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Uk; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Myung-Il; Kim, Sun-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Bok

    2002-12-01

    Plasma ignition method has been applied in various fields particularly to the rocket propulsion, pyrotechnics, explosives, and to the automotive air-bag system. Ignition method for those applications should be safe and also operate reliably in hostile environments such as; electromagnetic noise, drift voltage, electrostatic background and so on. In the present Letter, a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma ignition device was fabricated and its plasma characteristics including the propagation speed of the plasma, plasma size, and plasma temperature were investigated with the aid of the visualization of micro scale plasma (i.e., ⩽350 μm), which generated from a micro-electro-mechanical poly-silicon semiconductor bridge (SCB).

  1. Stroke amplifier for deformable mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Robert H.; Albanese, Marc J.; Zhou, Yaopeng; Bifano, Thomas; Burns, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical configuration that amplifies the usable stroke of a deformable mirror. By arranging for the wavefront to traverse the deformable mirror more than once, we correct it more than once. The experimental implementation of the idea demonstrates a doubling of 2.0 and 2.04 by two different means. PMID:15495423

  2. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  3. A Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based Cryogenic Deformable Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Kataza, H.; Bierden, P.

    2009-03-01

    We present our first results on the development and evaluation of a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. A MEMS silicon-based DM chip with 32 channels, in which each channel is 300 μm × 300 μm in size, was mounted on a silicon substrate in order to minimize distortion and prevent it from being permanently damaged by thermal stresses introduced by cooling. The silicon substrate was oxidized to obtain electric insulation and had a metal fan-out pattern on the surface. For cryogenic tests, we constructed a measurement system consisting of a Fizeau interferometer, a cryostat cooled by liquid N2, zooming optics, electric drivers. The surface of the mirror at 95 K deformed in response to the application of a voltage, and no significant difference was found between the deformation at 95 K and that at room temperature. The power dissipation by the cryogenic DM was also measured, and we suggest that this is small enough for it to be used in a space cryogenic telescope. The properties of the DM remained unchanged after five cycles of vacuum pumping, cooling, warming, and venting. We conclude that fabricating cryogenic DMs employing MEMS technology is a promising approach. Therefore, we intend to develop a more sophisticated device for actual use, and to look for potential applications including the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics (SPICA), and other missions.

  4. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Panos G. Datskos; Michael J. Sepaniak; Nickolay Lavrik; Pampa Dutta; Mustafa Culha

    2005-12-28

    The main objective of this research program is to develop robust and reliable micro-electro-mechanical sensing systems, based on microcantilevers (MCs), that can operate in liquid environments with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. The chemical responses of MCs result from analyte-induced differential stress at the cantilever surfaces. We aim to employ various surface nanostructuring strategies that enhance these stresses and hence the degree of static bending of the cantilevers. Receptor phases as self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thin films are being synthesized and tested to provide selectivity. Selectivity is chemically enhanced by using different phases on individual MCs in arrays and by adding a spectroscopic component, surface enhanced Raman spectrometry (SERS), in hybrid approaches to sensing. Significant progress was made in tasks that were listed in the work plan for DOE EMSP project ''Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste''. Several project areas are listed below and discussed and referenced to our literature on the topics.

  5. Development and control of kilo-pixel MEMS deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, Julie Ann

    This dissertation describes the development of kilo-pixel micro-electro-mechanical optical-quality surface-micromachined deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators along with scalable control electronics. These silicon-based deformable mirrors have the potential to modulate spatial and temporal features of an optical wavefront with applications in imaging, beam-forming, and optical communication systems. Techniques to improve the manufacturing, quality, and capability of these mirrors are detailed. The new mirror system was characterized and a scalable control system was developed to coordinate and control a large array of mirrors. Three types of kilo-pixel deformable mirrors were created: continuous membrane, segmented membrane, and a hybrid stress-relieved membrane mirrors. This new class of mirrors, deformed using electrostatically actuated surface-normal actuators, have an aperature of 10 mm, a stroke of 2 mum, position repeatability of 3 nm, surface roughness of 12 nm, reflectivity of 91%, and a bandwidth in air of 7 kHz. A custom fabrication process was developed in tandem with a new mirror design to address design and layout issues including packaging, residual stress, reliability, yield, fill factor, and surface topography. A chemo-mechanical polishing process improved the surface quality of the mirrors by decreasing surface roughness from an RMS value of 46nm to 12nm. A gold coating process increased reflectivity from 42% to greater than 91% without introducing a significant amount of stress in the mirror membrane. An alternative actuator design and layout was also developed that achieved an increased stroke of 6 mum, with the potential for even longer stroke with stress reduction. The long stroke capability was realized through introduction of split electrodes, actuation membrane cuts, and a double stacked anchor architecture. A computer-driven electronic system was developed to aid in the electro-mechanical testing of these deformable mirrors. Quasi

  6. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  7. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  8. Application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensors Contactless NDT of Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) for application in air-coupled (contactless or noncontact) sensing to concrete nondestructive testing (NDT) is studied in this paper. The fundamental operation and characteristics of MEMS are first described. Then application of MEMS sensors toward established concrete test methods, including vibration resonance, impact-echo, ultrasonic surface wave, and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW), is demonstrated. In each test application, the performance of MEMS is compared with conventional contactless and contact sensing technology. Favorable performance of the MEMS sensors demonstrates the potential of the technology for applied contactless NDT efforts. Objective: To illustrate the utility of air-coupled MEMS sensors for concrete NDT, as compared with conventional sensor technology. PMID:25897497

  9. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems-Based Micro-Ro-Boat Utilizing Steam as Propulsion Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ju Chan; Choi, Young Chan; Kyoo Lee, June; Kong, Seong Ho

    2012-06-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-based microactuator, that floats on the surface of water and is driven by steam. We named the actuator “micro-Ro-boat”, a compound word created from the words “robot” and “boat”. The MEMS-based micro-Ro-boat utilizes steam as the propulsion power, giving it a high speed and long lifetime. A hydrophobic surface has been utilized for the wing of the actuator to enhance the buoyancy. Instead of using gas or fuel, the proposed micro-Ro-boat utilizes steam form electrically heated water. The velocity of the micro-Ro-boat is in the range of 0.5-2 cm/s and the maximum loading capability for a device size of 10 ×10 mm2 is 0.4 g.

  10. Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Robust approaches for joining silicon carbide (SiC) to silicon carbide sub-elements have been developed for a micro-electro-mechanical systems lean direct injector (MEMS LDI) application. The objective is to join SiC sub-elements to form a leak-free injector that has complex internal passages for the flow and mixing of fuel and air. Previous bonding technology relied upon silicate glass interlayers that were not uniform or leak free. In a newly developed joining approach, titanium foils and physically vapor deposited titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC materials during hot pressing. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. Initial tests show that the bond strength is much higher than required for the component system. Benefits of the joining technology are fabrication of leak free joints with high temperature and mechanical capability.

  11. Effect of materials for micro-electro-mechanical systems on PCR yield.

    PubMed

    Potrich, Cristina; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Forti, Stefania; Vozzi, Diego; Pasquardini, Laura; Vanzetti, Lia; Panciatichi, Cristina; Anderle, Mariano; Pederzolli, Cecilia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we analyzed the surface properties of different silicon-based materials used for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) production, such as thermally grown silicon oxide, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)-treated silicon oxide, reactive-ion etch (RIE)-treated silicon oxide, and Pyrex. Substrates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to define the surface chemical and morphological properties, and by fluorescence microscopy to directly assess the absorption of the different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) components. By using microchips fabricated with the same materials we investigated their compatibility with PCR reactions, exploiting the use of different enzymes and reagents or proper surface treatments. We established the best conditions for DNA amplification in silicon/Pyrex microdevices depending on the type of device and fabrication method used and the quality of reagents, rather than on the passivation treatment or increment in standard Taq polymerase concentration. PMID:19455320

  12. On-Chip Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Fourier Transform Infrared (MEMS FT-IR) Spectrometer-Based Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M; Sakr, Mohammad; Mortada, Bassem; Medhat, Mostafa; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we study the detection of acetylene (C2H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) gases in the near-infrared (NIR) range using an on-chip silicon micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer in the wavelength range 1300-2500 nm (4000-7692 cm(-1)). The spectrometer core engine is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using a deep-etching technology producing self-aligned components. The light is free-space propagating in-plane with respect to the silicon chip substrate. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator corresponding to about 30 cm(-1) resolution. Multi-mode optical fibers are used to connect light between the wideband light source, the interferometer, the 10 cm gas cell, and the optical detector. A wide dynamic range of gas concentration down to 2000 parts per million (ppm) in only 10 cm length gas cell is demonstrated. Extending the wavelength range to the mid-infrared (MIR) range up to 4200 nm (2380 cm(-1)) is also experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, using a bulk micro-machined on-chip MEMS FT-IR spectrometer. The obtained results open the door for an on-chip optical gas sensor for many applications including environmental sensing and industrial process control in the NIR/MIR spectral ranges. PMID:27044847

  13. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  14. Microwave Tomography Using Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2008-09-01

    Microwave tomography aims to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the electrical property of penetrable objects using field measurements acquired from multiple views at single or multiple frequencies. This paper presents a novel microwave tomography technique to image penetrable scatterers using deformable mirrors. The deformable mirror consists of a continuum of radiating elements that yields multi-view field measurements for noninvasive characterization of the spatial dielectric property of the scatterer in the microwave regime. Computational feasibility of the proposed technique is presented for heterogeneous two dimensional dielectric scatterers.

  15. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Comb-drive micro-electro-mechanical systems oscillators for low temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    González, M; Zheng, P; Garcell, E; Lee, Y; Chan, H B

    2013-02-01

    We have designed and characterized micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for applications at low temperatures. The mechanical resonators were fabricated using a surface micromachining process. The devices consist of a pair of parallel plates with a well defined gap. The top plate can be actuated for shear motion relative to the bottom fixed plate through a set of comb-drive electrodes. Details on the operation and fabrication of the devices are discussed. The geometry was chosen to study the transport properties of the fluid entrained in the gap. An atomic force microscopy study was performed in order to characterize the surface. A full characterization of their resonance properties in air and at room temperature was conducted as a function of pressure, from 10 mTorr to 760 Torr, ranging from a highly rarefied gas to a hydrodynamic regime. We demonstrate the operation of our resonator at low temperatures immersed in superfluid (4)He and in the normal and superfluid states of (3)He down to 0.3 mK. These MEMS oscillators show potential for use in a wide range of low temperature experiments, in particular, to probe novel phenomena in quantum fluids. PMID:23464242

  17. RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Capacitive Switches Using Ultra Thin Hafnium Oxide Dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Onodera, Kazumasa; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    A π-type RF capacitive switch using about 45-nm-thick HfO2 dielectric layer was fabricated. High isolation performance was obtained in wide-band range when the switch was down-state. The isolation was better than -40 dB at the frequency range of 4-35 GHz. Particularly, the isolation was better than -50 dB in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz, i.e., X band. HfO2 showed excellent process compatibility with conventional microfabrication procedure. The 45-nm-thick HfO2 film was prepared using sputtering at room temperature so that it was feasible to be integrated into RF switch and other microwave circuits. The results of constant bias stressing showed that the ultra thin HfO2 had excellent reliability. The electric breakdown of HfO2 was observed, which had no apparent negative effects on the reliability of the dielectric. HfO2 dielectrics were attractive in the application of RF micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switch for new generation of low-loss high-linearity microwave circuits.

  18. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    PubMed

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Steri, Gary; Dimc, Franc; Giuliani, Raimondo; Kamnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario) using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable. PMID:27271630

  19. Mechatronic Scanning System with Integrated Micro Electro Mechanical System Position Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Chakarov, Dimitar; Shulev, Assen; Tsveov, Mihail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a study of a mechatronic scanning system for application in the microbiology, microelectronics research, chemistry, etc. is presented. Integrated silicon micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) position sensor is used for monitoring the displacement of the scanning system. The utilized silicon MEMS sensors with sidewall embedded piezoresistors possess a number of key advantages such as high sensitivity, low noise and extremely low temperature dependence. Design of 2D scanning system with a travel range of 22 × 22 μm2 has been presented in present work. This system includes a Compliant Transmission Mechanism, (CTM) designed as a complex elastic mechanism, comprising four parallelograms. Computer aided desigh (CAD) model and finite element analysis (FEA) of the Compliant Transmission Mechanism mechanisms have been carried out. A prototype of the scanning system is fabricated, based on CAD model. An experimental set-up of an optical system and a correlation technique for digital image processing have been used for testing the scanning system prototype. Results of the experimental investigations of the prototyped scanning system are also presented.

  20. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Steri, Gary; Dimc, Franc; Giuliani, Raimondo; Kamnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario) using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable. PMID:27271630

  1. Softening and Hardening of a Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) Oscillator in a Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sarah; Edmonds, Terrence

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems or MEMS are used in a variety of today's technology and can be modeled using equations for nonlinear damped harmonic oscillators. Mathematical expressions have been formulated to determine resonance frequency shifts as a result of hardening and softening effects in MEMS devices. In this work we experimentally test the previous theoretical analysis of MEMS resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Devices were put under low pressure at room temperature and swept through a range of frequencies with varying AC and DC excitation voltages to detect shifts in the resonant frequency. The MEMS device studied in this work exhibits a dominating spring softening effect due to the device's physical make-up. The softening effect becomes very dominant as the AC excitation is increased and the frequency shift of the resonance peak becomes quite significant at these larger excitations. Hardening effects are heavily dependent on mechanical factors that make up the MEMS devices. But they are not present in these MEMS devices. I will present our results along with the theoretical analysis of the Duffing oscillator model. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR-1461019 (REU) and DMR-1205891 (YL).

  2. The potential of micro-electro-mechanical accelerometers in human vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarabini, Marco; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Moschioni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the advantages and the drawbacks deriving from the use of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) accelerometers for hand-arm and whole-body vibration measurements. Metrological performances of different transducers were assessed through the identification of their frequency response function, linearity, floor noise and sensitivity to thermal and electromagnetic disturbances. Experimental results highlighted a standard instrumental uncertainty (including the nonlinearity) lower than 5% with the single frequency calibration procedure, such a value was reduced to 2%. The temperature effect was negligible and the electromagnetic disturbances sensitivity was comparable to that of the piezoelectric accelerometers. The compatibility of measurements obtained with MEMS accelerometers with those of piezoelectric-based measurement chains was verified for two specific applications. An example of direct transducer fixation on the skin for vibration transmissibility measurements is also presented. Thanks to the MEMS peculiarities - mainly small sizes and low cost - since novel approaches in the vibration monitoring could be pursued. For instance, it is possible to include by design MEMS accelerometers in any hand-held tool at the operator interface, or inside the seats structures of cars, tractors and trucks. This could be a viable solution to easily obtain repeatable exposure measurements and could also provide diagnostic signals for the tools or seats of functional monitoring.

  3. Hard quasiamorphous carbon -- A prospective construction material for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, B.F. |; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Zhu, Q.; Pollak, F.H.; Wan, J.Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new form of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} carbon has been fabricated which exhibits a large number of valuable properties. This material combines low density ({le} 1.65 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress ({le} 0.05 GPa), low thermal expansion(1.6 x 10{sup {minus}6} K{sup {minus}1}) with high hardness ({approximately} 30 GPa), modulus ({approximately} 200 GPa), cracking threshold ({ge} 3 N), fracture toughness ({ge} 10 MPa-m{sup 1/2}), long-term thermal stability ({ge} 450 C in air and {ge} 600 C without oxygen), extremely high thermal shock resistance, excellent interface and adhesion to silicon, metals, and ceramics and an absolute resistance to the silicon etching acids. Mot of its properties are actually constant up to 700 K. The material combines a basically amorphous structure with one-axis anisotropy and a graphite-like layered arrangement with a length scale of the modulation about 14 {angstrom}. The authors refer to this quasi-amorphous material as QUASAM. This paper describes QUASAM synthesis conditions, growth front planarity and material characterization with high-resolution x-ray diffraction, positron annihilation spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. In addition the mechanical and thermal examination of QUASAM and QUASAM/Si will be presented in terms of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and the technology prospective requirements of MEMS.

  4. Micromachining of an SU-8 flapping-wing flying micro-electro-mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargent, T.; Bao, X. Q.; Grondel, S.; Brun, G. Le; Paquet, J. B.; Soyer, C.; Cattan, E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a feasibility step in the development of an ultra-small biomimetic flying machine. Advanced engineering technologies available for applications such as the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technologies are used. To achieve this goal, a flapping-wing flying MEMS concept and design inspired from insects is first described. Actuators and an actuation way for the control over the wing kinematics are proposed. The initial concepts are subsequently analyzed and presented using multi-body and finite element models. An overview of SU-8 photoresist structures and their functions in the future micro-robot insect is then presented. Consequently, micromachining enables the implementation of a flying MEMS. It is also demonstrated that the structure can be made at insect sizes and actuated at low power inputs. Moreover, the flapping frequency obtained is within the flapping frequency range of wings of many common insects of millimetric dimensions. Such prototypes are of interest as tools to artificially recreate and study insect flight with characteristics, similar to those of insects, that are able to produce lift and hover. Finally, if a micro-battery, wireless receivers, microcontrollers, sensors and actuators can all be fitted onto chips only a few millimeters square, with a mass in the order of milligrams, then we believe that an insect-size flying MEMS can be realized. All these requirements can now be achieved due to advanced engineering methods.

  5. Fabrication processes for MEMS deformable mirrors in the next generation telescope instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Alioune

    This dissertation advances three critical technology areas at the frontier of research for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable minors (DMs) needed for next generation telescopes (NGTs). High actuator-count MEMS deformable minors are needed for future ground-based large astronomical telescopes. Scaling up the current MEMS DMs to unprecedented numbers of independent actuators---up to 10,000 on a single DM---will require new electrical connection architecture for the actuators in order to replace the wire-bonded scheme that has been used to date. A through-wafer via interconnection fabrication process for MEMS DMs is developed to offer a path to transform the frontier of high actuator count MEMS micromirrors. In a class of NGTs instrument known as the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO), the correction made by the DM of the wavefront phase error over the entire telescope field view is not accessible to the sensing unit. To achieve compensation, precise, single step "open-loop" commands must be developed for the DM. Due to the nonlinear relationship between applied voltage and actuation displacement at each actuator, and the mechanical coupling among actuators through the mirror membrane, such open-loop control is a formidable task. A combination of mirror surface modeling and sparse actuator empirical calibration is used to demonstrate open-loop control of MEMS deformable minors to the accuracy of closed-loop control over the entire available DM stroke. Shapes at the limit of achievable minor spatial frequencies with up to 2.5microm amplitudes have been achieved within 20nm RMS error accuracy of closed-loop control. The calibration of a single actuator to be used for predicting shapes results in an additional 14nm RMS surface error compared to parallel calibration of all actuators in the deformable minor. The ubiquitous reflective coatings for MEMS deformable minors are gold and aluminum. Emerging adaptive optics application require broadband optical

  6. Analysis of the "Push-pull" Capacitance Bridge Circuit for Comb-Drive Micro-electro-mechanical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P.; Jiang, W. G.; Barquist, C. S.; Lee, Y.; Chan, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed an improved actuation/detection scheme for a comb-drive micro-electro-mechanical oscillator as a probe to study quantum fluids. This symmetric scheme has many advantages over the asymmetric scheme used previously. In this report, we provide a full description and analysis of the method so that researchers interested can readily implement the method in their experiments involving similar devices.

  7. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Gómez, Udo-Martin

    MEMS sensors gained over the last two decades an impressive width of applications: (a) ESP: A car is skidding and stabilizes itself without driver intervention (b) Free-fall detection: A laptop falls to the floor and protects the hard drive by parking the read/write drive head automatically before impact. (c) Airbag: An airbag fires before the driver/occupant involved in an impending automotive crash impacts the steering wheel, thereby significantly reducing physical injury risk. MEMS sensors are sensing the environmental conditions and are giving input to electronic control systems. These crucial MEMS sensors are making system reactions to human needs more intelligent, precise, and at much faster reaction rates than humanly possible. Important prerequisites for the success of sensors are their size, functionality, power consumption, and costs. This technical progress in sensor development is realized by micro-machining. The development of these processes was the breakthrough to industrial mass-production for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Besides leading-edge micromechanical processes, innovative and robust ASIC designs, thorough simulations of the electrical and mechanical behaviour, a deep understanding of the interactions (mainly over temperature and lifetime) of the package and the mechanical structures are needed. This was achieved over the last 20 years by intense and successful development activities combined with the experience of volume production of billions of sensors. This chapter gives an overview of current MEMS technology, its applications and the market share. The MEMS processes are described, and the challenges of MEMS, compared to standard IC fabrication, are discussed. The evolution of MEMS requirements is presented, and a short survey of MEMS applications is shown. Concepts of newest inertial sensors for ESP-systems are given with an emphasis on the design concepts of the sensing element and the evaluation circuit for achieving

  8. Open-loop control of SCExAO's MEMS deformable mirror using the Fast Iterative Algorithm: speckle control performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Célia; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Bradley, Colin; Clergeon, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors (DMs) are widely utilized in astronomical Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. High precision open-loop control of MEMS DMs has been achieved by developing a high accuracy DM model, the Fast Iterative Algorithm (FIA), a physics-based model allowing precise control of the DM shape. Accurate open-loop control is particularly critical for the wavefront control of High- Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments to create a dark hole area free of most slow and quasi-static speckles which remain the limiting factor for direct detection and imaging of exoplanets. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is one of these high contrast imaging instruments and uses a 1024-actuator MEMS deformable mirror (DM) both in closed-loop and open-loop. The DM is used to modulate speckles in order to distinguish (i) speckles due to static and slow-varying residual aberrations from (ii) speckles due to genuine structures, such as exoplanets. The FIA has been fully integrated into the SCExAO wavefront control software and we report the FIA’s performance for the control of speckles in the focal plane.

  9. Shape memory composite deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the critical aspects regarding Shape Memory Composite (SMC) design: firstly some technological aspects concerning embedding technique and their efficiency secondarily the lack of useful numerical tools for this peculiar design. It has been taken into account as a possible application a deformable panel which is devoted to act as a substrate for a deformable mirror. The activity has been mainly focused to the study of embedding technologies, activation and authority. In detail it will be presented the "how to" manufacturing of some smart panels with embedded NiTiNol wires in order to show the technology developed for SMC structures. The first part of the work compares non conventional pull-out tests on wires embedded in composites laminates (real condition of application), with standard pull-out in pure epoxy resin blocks. Considering the numerical approach some different modeling techniques to be implemented in commercial codes (ABAQUS) have been investigated. The Turner's thermo-mechanical model has been adopted for the modeling of the benchmark: A spherical panel devoted to work as an active substrate for a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) deformable mirror has been considered as a significant technological demonstrator and possible future application (f=240mm, r.o.c.=1996mm).

  10. Parametric resonance voltage response of electrostatically actuated Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems cantilever resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Martinez, Israel; W. Knecht, Martin

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the parametric resonance voltage response of nonlinear parametrically actuated Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) cantilever resonators. A soft AC voltage of frequency near natural frequency is applied between the resonator and a parallel ground plate. This produces an electrostatic force that leads the structure into parametric resonance. The model consists of an Euler-Bernoulli thin cantilever under the actuation of electrostatic force to include fringe effect, and damping force. Two methods of investigation are used, namely the Method of Multiple Scales (MMS) and Reduced Order Model (ROM) method. ROM convergence of the voltage response and the limitation of MMS to small to moderate amplitudes with respect to the gap (gap-amplitudes) are reported. MMS predicts accurately both Hopf supercritical and supercritical bifurcation voltages. However, MMS overestimates the large gap-amplitudes of the resonator, and. misses completely or overestimates the saddle-node bifurcation occurring at large gap-amplitudes. ROM produces valid results for small and/or large gap-amplitudes for a sufficient number of terms (vibration modes). As the voltage is swept up at constant frequency, the resonator maintains zero amplitude until reaches the subcritical Hopf bifurcation voltage where it loses stability and jumps up to large gap-amplitudes, next the gap-amplitude decreases until it reaches the supercritical Hopf bifurcation point, and after that the gap-amplitude remains zero, for the voltage range considered in this work. As the voltage is swept down at constant frequency, the zero gap-amplitude of the resonator starts increasing continuously after reaching the supercritical Hopf bifurcation voltage until it reaches the saddle-node bifurcation voltage when a sudden jump to zero gap-amplitude occurs. Effects of frequency, damping and fringe parameters on the voltage response show that (1) the supercritical Hopf bifurcation is shifted to lower voltage

  11. Optical Spatial Heterodyned Interferometry for Inspection of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Bingham, Philip R; Price, Jeffery R

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric imaging has the potential to extend the usefulness of optical microscopes by encoding small phase shifts that reveal information about topology and materials. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an optical Spatial Heterodyne Interferometry (SHI) method that captures reflection images containing both phase and amplitude information at a high rate of speed. By measuring the phase of a wavefront reflected off or transmitted through a surface, the relative surface heights and some materials properties can be measured. In this paper we briefly review our historical application of SHI in the semiconductor industry, but the focus is on new research to adapt this technology to the inspection of MEMS devices, in particular to the characterization of motion elements such as microcantilevers and deformable mirror arrays.

  12. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  13. Control model for a continuous face sheet, MEMS based deformable membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras, R. A.; Marker, D. K.; Wilkes, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Small Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology is of great interest to the adaptive optics (AO) community. These MEMS-DM's are being considered for many conventional AO applications since they posses some advantages over conventional DM's. The MEMS-DM technology is driven by the expectation of achieving improved performance with lower costs, low electrical power, high number of actuators, high production rates, and large reductions in structural mass and volume. In addition to the imaging community, the directed energy community is also interested in taking advantage of the characteristics which MEMS-DM's offer. Unlike imaging, the optical fill-factor of a high-energy laser DM, has to be essentially 100 percent! Many modern MEMS-DM designs consist of small, lightweight, segmented mirrors that can be precisely controlled. For high-energy laser applications, the MEMS DM's should have a continuous reflective face-sheet with no gaps. This continuous reflective face-sheet must include high-energy laser coatings, which render the face sheet very stiff. This is a new challenge for MEMS-DM's, which has not previously been addressed. The Air Force Research Laboratory has proposed to meet this challenge with several continuous face-sheet high-energy laser MEMS-DM's designs. This paper will give a generic description of a MEMS-DM computer model. The research goal is to develop a MEMS-DM model for closed loop control of a high-energy laser, MEMS-DM adaptive optics application.

  14. Stressed mirror polishing: finite element simulation of mirror blank deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Lu, Lihong

    2014-08-01

    The theoretical principle of Stressed Mirror Polishing (SMP) is introduced, including the representation method of elastic deformation, the formulations of discrete bending moment and shearing force. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation model of has been set up by ANSYS software. The warping facility in this model is consisted of 36 aluminum alloy arms equally distribute on the ambit of mirror blank. Two forces are applied on each arm to provide bending moment and shearing force. Taking type 82 segment of Thirty Meters Telescope (TMT) primary mirror for example, a FEA simulation of mirror blank deformation has been performed. Simulation result shows that, the deformation error is 33μm PV. The theoretical deformation PV value is 205μm and the simulation deformation PV value is 172μm, converging rate reaches to 0.84 in a single warping cycle. After three or four warping cycles, the residue error may converge into 1μm.

  15. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shaohua; Sun, Quanping; Cheng, Wei

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the `explosion of complexity' of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  16. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  17. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  18. Integrated dual-stage deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Mike; Laycock, Leslie; Archer, Nick; Myers, Richard; Kirby, Andrew; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David

    2010-07-01

    We present the results of a study on Dual-Stage Deformable Mirrors using Zonal Bimorph Deformable Mirror (ZBDM) technology. A high density 'tweeter' DM has been assembled onto a lower density, high dynamic range 'woofer' DM to generate an integrated mirror which offers both high resolution and dynamic range simultaneously. Such a device has the potential to significantly simplify the design of astronomical Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. The latest developments are presented, including the fabrication of a small scale demonstrator.

  19. CubeSat deformable mirror demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri; Marinan, Anne; Kerr, Caitlin; Cheng, Kezi; Jamil, Sara

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration (DeMi) is to characterize the performance of a small deformable mirror over a year in low-Earth orbit. Small form factor deformable mirrors are a key technology needed to correct optical system aberrations in high contrast, high dynamic range space telescope applications such as space-based coronagraphic direct imaging of exoplanets. They can also improve distortions and reduce bit error rates for space-based laser communication systems. While follow-on missions can take advantage of this general 3U CubeSat platform to test the on-orbit performance of several different types of deformable mirrors, this first design accommodates a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror.

  20. Deformable Mirror Materials Issue Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E

    2008-05-27

    It was a pleasure to speak with you and Dr. Olivier Guyon about your project to develop a coronagraph and in particular about materials science considerations in the development of the deformable mirror (DM) for the coronagraph. The coronagraph application will demand more of a DM than previous applications with regard to precision, and since the characterization and modeling tools are currently under development, you asked me to comment on materials issues that might impact the DM design and testing. I have not conducted research on this question, and my own research on modeling MEMS has not included DM systems. I am only in a position to discuss some general considerations that may help in developing a research plan for the DM system. As I understand it, the relevant points about the DM system are as follows. The DM surface needs to be positioned to less than 1 {angstrom} RMS of the desired shape, and be stable to 0.3 {angstrom} RMS for an hour. In the ultimate application in space the stability requirements may be greater. For example, the DM shape can be set using a bright star and then allow the coronagraph to be turned to a dim star to collect data for several hours, counting on the mirror shape to be stable. The DM is made of a polysilicon membrane coated with one or more metal layers for the reflective surface and actuated by 32x32 or 64x64 electrostatic actuators on the back side. The uncertainty in the position of any one actuator should be at the few-picometer level or less averaged over the 300-{micro}m region of the actuator. Currently, experiments are conducted that can characterize the surface shape to the 1 nm level, and it is anticipated that the experiments will be able to characterize the shape at the sub-Angstrom level but not in the immediate future. Regarding stability, under relatively large deformations (10's of nm), the DM mirror surface shows no hysteresis at the measurable nm level. Let me begin by saying that I am not aware of any

  1. A ferrofluidic deformable mirror for ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, J. B.; Thibault, S.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A. M.; Carufel, N.; Asselin, D.; Jerominek, H.; Campbell, M. C. W.

    2005-09-01

    Optical aberrations reduce the imaging quality of the human eye. In addition to degrading vision, this limits our ability to illuminate small points of the retina for therapeutic, surgical or diagnostic purposes. When viewing the rear of the eye, aberrations cause structures in the fundus to appear blurred, limiting the resolution of ophthalmoscopes (diagnostic instruments used to image the eye). Adaptive optics, such as deformable mirrors may be used to compensate for aberrations, allowing the eye to work as a diffraction-limited optical element. Unfortunately, this type of correction has not been widely available for ophthalmic applications because of the expense and technical limitations of current deformable mirrors. We present preliminary design and characterisation of a deformable mirror suitable for ophthalmology. In this ferrofluidic mirror, wavefronts are reflected from a fluid whose surface shape is controlled by a magnetic field. Challenges in design are outlined, as are advantages over traditional deformable mirrors.

  2. Modelling MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Celia

    As of July 2012, 777 exoplanets have been discovered utilizing mainly indirect detection techniques. The direct imaging of exoplanets is the next goal for astronomers, because it will reveal the diversity of planets and planetary systems, and will give access to the exoplanet's chemical composition via spectroscopy. With this spectroscopic knowledge, astronomers will be able to know, if a planet is terrestrial and, possibly, even find evidence of life. With so much potential, this branch of astronomy has also captivated the general public attention. The direct imaging of exoplanets remains a challenging task, due to (i) the extremely high contrast between the parent star and the orbiting exoplanet and (ii) their small angular separation. For ground-based observatories, this task is made even more difficult, due to the presence of atmospheric turbulence. High Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments have been designed to meet this challenge. HCI instruments are usually composed of a coronagraph coupled with the full onaxis corrective capability of an Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) system. An efficient coronagraph separates the faint planet's light from the much brighter starlight, but the dynamic boiling speckles, created by the stellar image, make exoplanet detection impossible without the help of a wavefront correction device. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is a high performance HCI instrument developed at Subaru Telescope. The wavefront control system of SCExAO consists of three wavefront sensors (WFS) coupled with a 1024- actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). MEMS DMs offer a large actuator density, allowing high count DMs to be deployed in small size beams. Therefore, MEMS DMs are an attractive technology for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems and are particularly well suited for HCI instruments employing ExAO technologies. SCExAO uses coherent light modulation in the focal plane introduced by the DM, for

  3. Bias Dependence of Gallium Nitride Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuation Using a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Achraf Ben; Faucher, Marc; Grimbert, Bertrand; Cordier, Yvon; Fran\\{c}ois, Marc; Tilmant, Pascal; Werquin, Matthieu; Zhang, Victor; Ducatteau, Damien; Gaquière, Christophe; Buchaillot, Lionel; Théron, Didier

    2012-06-01

    The piezoelectric actuation of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator based on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied under various bias conditions. Using an actuator electrode that is also a transistor gate, we correlate the mechanical behaviour to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) presence. The measured amplitude of the actuated resonator is maximum at moderate negative biases and drops near the pinch-off voltage in concordance with the 2DEG becoming depleted. Below the pinch-off voltage, residual actuation is still present, which is attributed to a more complex electric field pattern supported by quantitative modelling. The results confirm that epitaxial AlGaN barriers are fully adapted to the piezoelectric actuation of MEMS.

  4. Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.

  5. Micro-electro-mechanical systems/near-infrared validation of different sampling modes and sample sets coupled with multiple models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Wan, Guang; Xu, Manfei; Zhan, Xueyan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the reliability of micro-electro-mechanical systems/near-infrared technology by investigating analytical models of two modes of sampling (integrating sphere and fiber optic probe modes) and different sample sets. Baicalin in Yinhuang tablets was used as an example, and the experimental procedure included the optimization of spectral pretreatments, selection of wavelength regions using interval partial least squares, moving window partial least squares, and validation of the method using an accuracy profile. The results demonstrated that models that use the integrating sphere mode are better than those that use fiber optic probe modes. Spectra that use fiber optic probe modes tend to be more susceptible to interference information because the intensity of the incident light on a fiber optic probe mode is significantly weaker than that on an integrating sphere mode. According to the test set validation result of the method parameters, such as accuracy, precision, risk, and linearity, the selection of variables was found to make no significant difference to the performance of the full spectral model. The performance of the models whose sample sets ranged widely in concentration (i.e., 1-4 %) was found to be better than that of models whose samples had relatively narrow ranges (i.e., 1-2 %). The establishment and validation of this method can be used to clarify the analytical guideline in Chinese herbal medicine about two sampling modes and different sample sets in the micro-electro-mechanical systems/near-infrared technique. PMID:25626144

  6. Novel technologies for small deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Mel; Myers, Richard; Cooke, Kevin; Hampshire, Joanne; Hough, Jim; Rowan, Sheila; van Veggel, Marielle; Kirk, Katherine; Hutson, David; Uzgur, Erman; Kim, Shin-Sung

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive optic requirements for instrumentation such as EAGLE for the European extremely large telescope present an enormous challenge to deformable mirror technology. We have developed a unique approach using fabricated arrays of multilayer actuator technology to address the requirements of actuator density and deflection. Our programme of work has uncovered a novel approach which has led to a built in test capability. We will present the outcomes of our work which we believe will lead to a compact deformable mirror.

  7. Smart materials fabrication and materials for micro-electro-mechanical systems; Symposium Proceedings, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 28-30, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, A. Peter (Editor); Johnson, George C. (Editor); Crowson, Andrew (Editor); Allen, Mark (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A conference on the rapidly developing fields of `smart materials' and micro-electro-mechanical systems produced papers in the areas of fabrication and characterization of ferroelectric thin films; polycrystalline silicon; optical, chemical, and biological sensors; thin film shape memory alloys; materials characterization; and alternative materials and applications.

  8. Infrastructure, Technology and Applications of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Jakubczak, J.F.; Krygowski, T.W.; Miller, S.L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-07-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range of micromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro-engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEMS/CMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  9. Evaluation of performance of portable respiratory monitoring system based on micro-electro-mechanical-system for respiratory gated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sun Young; Sung, Jiwon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Mijoo; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-08-01

    In respiratory-gated radiotherapy of patients with lung or liver cancer, the patient's respiratory pattern and repeatability are important factors affecting therapy accuracy; it has been reported that these factors can be controlled if patients undergo respiration training. As such, this study evaluates the feasibility of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) in radiotherapy by investigating the effect of radiation on a miniature portable respiratory monitoring system based on the MEMS system, which is currently under development. Using a patient respiration simulation phantom, the time-acceleration graph measured by a normal sensor according to the phantom's respiratory movement before irradiation and the change in this graph with accumulated dose were compared using the baseline slope and the change in amplitude and period of the sine wave. The results showed that with a 400Gy accumulated dose in the sensor, a baseline shift occurred and both the amplitude and period changed. As a result, if the MEMS is applied in respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the sensor should be replaced after use with roughly 6-10 patients so as to ensure continued therapy accuracy, based on the characteristics of the sensor itself. In the future, a more diverse range of sensors should be similarly evaluated.

  10. Utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micro-shutter designs for adaptive coded aperture imaging (ACAI) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledet, Mary M.; Starman, LaVern A.; Coutu, Ronald A., Jr.; Rogers, Stanley

    2009-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging (CAI) has been used in both the astronomical and medical communities for years due to its ability to image light at short wavelengths and thus replacing conventional lenses. Where CAI is limited, adaptive coded aperture imaging (ACAI) can recover what is lost. The use of photonic micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) for creating adaptive coded apertures has been gaining momentum since 2007. Successful implementation of micro-shutter technologies would potentially enable the use of adaptive coded aperture imaging and non-imaging systems in current and future military surveillance and intelligence programs. In this effort, a prototype of MEMS microshutters has been designed and fabricated onto a 3 mm x 3 mm square of silicon substrate using the PolyMUMPSTM process. This prototype is a line-drivable array using thin flaps of polysilicon to cover and uncover an 8 x 8 array of 20 μm apertures. A characterization of the micro-shutters to include mechanical, electrical and optical properties is provided. This prototype, its actuation scheme, and other designs for individual microshutters have been modeled and studied for feasibility purposes. In addition, microshutters fabricated from an Al-Au alloy on a quartz wafer were optically tested and characterized with a 632 nm HeNe laser.

  11. Development of High Precision Metal Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Column for Portable Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Takamitsu; Akao, Shingo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Nakaso, Noritaka; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    In the field of environmental measurement and security, a portable gas chromatograph (GC) is required for the on-site analysis of multiple hazardous gases. Although the gas separation column has been downsized using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology, an MEMS column made of silicon and glass still does not have sufficient robustness and a sufficiently low fabrication cost for a portable GC. In this study, we fabricated a robust and inexpensive high-precision metal MEMS column by combining diffusion-bonded etched stainless-steel plates with alignment evaluation using acoustic microscopy. The separation performance was evaluated using a desktop GC with a flame ionization detector and we achieved the high separation performance comparable to the best silicon MEMS column fabricated using a dynamic coating method. As an application, we fabricated a palm-size surface acoustic wave (SAW) GC combining this column with a ball SAW sensor and succeeded in separating and detecting a mixture of volatile organic compounds.

  12. An adaptive compensation algorithm for temperature drift of micro-electro-mechanical systems gyroscopes using a strong tracking Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to -2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation. PMID:25985165

  13. An Adaptive Compensation Algorithm for Temperature Drift of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Gyroscopes Using a Strong Tracking Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to −2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation. PMID:25985165

  14. MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, S. A.; Hartzell, A. L.; Stewart, J. B.; Bifano, T. G.; Bierden, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the development of high actuator count, micro-electromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirrors designed for high order wavefront correction in ground and space-based astronomical adaptive optics instruments. The design of these polysilicon, surface-micromachined MEMS deformable mirrors builds on technology that has been used extensively to correct for ocular aberrations in retinal imaging systems and for compensation of atmospheric turbulence in free-space laser communication. These light-weight, low power deformable mirrors have an active aperture of up to 25.2mm consisting of a thin silicon membrane mirror supported by an array of 140 to 4092 electrostatic actuators which exhibit no hysteresis and have sub-nanometer repeatability making them well suited for open-loop control applications such as Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO). The continuous membrane deformable mirrors, coated with a highly reflective metal film, are capable of up to 6μm of stroke, have a surface finish of <10nm RMS with a fill factor of 99.8%. Presented in this paper are device characteristics and performance test results, as well as reliability test data and device lifetime predictions that show that trillions of actuator cycles can be achieved without failures.

  15. Nine toes; Mirror Foot Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Vlahovic, Aleksandar M; Pistignjat, Boris S; Vlahovic, Natasa S

    2015-01-01

    Mirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, with only a few papers presenting definitive treatment for this entity. There are limited management recommendations. Most cases are treated before walking age. In our case, there were no associated developmental defects of the leg. The child underwent complex rays resection with medial foot reconstruction. After 7.5 years of followup, definitive surgical treatment was performed with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:26229172

  16. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  17. Evaluation of microfabricated deformable mirror systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, William D.; Lee, Max K.; Bright, Victor M.; Welsh, Byron M.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents recent result for aberration correction and beam steering experiments using polysilicon surface micromachined piston micromirror arrays. Microfabricated deformable mirrors offer a substantial cost reduction for adaptive optic systems. In addition to the reduced mirror cost, microfabricated mirrors typically require low control voltages, thus eliminating high voltage amplifiers. The greatly reduced cost per channel of adaptive optic systems employing microfabricated deformable mirrors promise high order aberration correction at low cost. Arrays of piston micromirrors with 128 active elements were tested. Mirror elements are on a 203 micrometers 12 by 12 square grid. The overall array size is 2.4 mm square. The arrays were fabricated in the commercially available DARPA supported MUMPs surface micromachining foundry process. The cost per mirror array in this prototyping process is less than 200 dollars. Experimental results are presented for a hybrid correcting element comprised of a lenslet array and piston micromirror array, and for a piston micromirror array only. Also presented is a novel digital deflection micromirror which requires no digital to analog converters, further reducing the cost of adaptive optics system.

  18. Deformable mirror design of Subaru LGSAO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shin; Guyon, Olivier; Watanabe, Makoto; Hayano, Yutaka; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Arimoto, Nobuo; Colley, Stephen; Eldred, Michael; Kane, Thomas; Hattori, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Minowa, Yosuke; Goto, Miwa; Takato, Naruhisa

    2004-10-01

    As an upgrade plan of Subaru adaptive optics facility, laser-guide-star adaptive-optics (LGSAO) project is on going. One of key components of the project is a deformable mirror (DM). The DM for LGSAO is a bimorph type of PZT with 188 control elements. The specification of design is presented together with the analysis of stroke and vibration properties by FEM.

  19. Deformable Mirrors Capture Exoplanet Data, Reflect Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    To image and characterize exoplanets, Goddard Space Flight Center turned to deformable mirrors (DMs). Berkeley, California-based Iris AO, Inc. worked with Goddard through the SBIR program to improve the company’s microelectromechanical DMs, which are now being evaluated and used for biological research, industrial applications, and could even be used by drug manufacturers.

  20. Deformable mirror for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrň; a, Libor; Sarbort, Martin; Hola, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    The modern trend in high power laser applications such as welding, cutting and surface hardening lies in the use of solid-state lasers. The output beam of these lasers is characterized by a Gaussian intensity distribution. However, the laser beams with different intensity distributions, e.g. top-hat, are preferable in various applications. In this paper we present a new type of deformable mirror suitable for the corresponding laser beam shaping. The deformation of the mirror is achieved by an underlying array of actuators and a pressurized coolant that also provides the necessary cooling. We describe the results of the surface shape measurement using a 3D scanner for different settings of actuators. Further, we show the achieved intensity distributions measured by a beam profiler for a low power laser beam reflected from the mirror.

  1. Lightweight deformable mirrors for future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Keith

    This thesis presents a concept for ultra-lightweight deformable mirrors based on a thin substrate of optical surface quality coated with continuous active piezopolymer layers that provide modes of actuation and shape correction. This concept eliminates any kind of stiff backing structure for the mirror surface and exploits micro-fabrication technologies to provide a tight integration of the active materials into the mirror structure, to avoid actuator print-through effects. Proof-of-concept, 10-cm-diameter mirrors with a low areal density of about 0.5 kg/m2 have been designed, built and tested to measure their shape-correction performance and verify the models used for design. The low cost manufacturing scheme uses replication techniques, and strives for minimizing residual stresses that deviate the optical figure from the master mandrel. It does not require precision tolerancing, is lightweight, and is therefore potentially scalable to larger diameters for use in large, modular space telescopes. Other potential applications for such a laminate could include ground-based mirrors for solar energy collection, adaptive optics for atmospheric turbulence, laser communications, and other shape control applications. The immediate application for these mirrors is for the Autonomous Assembly and Reconfiguration of a Space Telescope (AAReST) mission, which is a university mission under development by Caltech, the University of Surrey, and JPL. The design concept, fabrication methodology, material behaviors and measurements, mirror modeling, mounting and control electronics design, shape control experiments, predictive performance analysis, and remaining challenges are presented herein. The experiments have validated numerical models of the mirror, and the mirror models have been used within a model of the telescope in order to predict the optical performance. A demonstration of this mirror concept, along with other new telescope technologies, is planned to take place during

  2. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-10-10

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C.

  3. Dual-use bimorph deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, M. S.; Laycock, L. C.; Bagshaw, J. M.; Rowe, D.

    2005-11-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a critical underpinning technology for future optical countermeasures, laser delivery, target illumination and imaging systems. It measures and compensates for optical distortion caused by transmission through the atmosphere, resulting in the ability to deploy smaller lasers and identify targets at greater ranges. AO is also well established in ground based astronomy, and is finding applications in free space optical communications and ophthalmology. One of the key components in an AO system is the wavefront modifier, which acts on the incoming or outgoing beam to counter the effects of the atmosphere. BAE SYSTEMS ATC is developing multi-element Deformable Bimorph Mirrors (DBMs) for such applications. A traditional bimorph deformable mirror uses a set of edge electrodes outside the active area in order to meet the required boundary conditions for the active aperture. This inflicts a significant penalty in terms of bandwidth, which is inversely proportional to the square of the full mirror diameter. We have devised a number of novel mounting arrangements that reduce dead space and thus provide a much improved trade-off between bandwidth and stroke. These schemes include a novel method for providing vertical displacement at the periphery of the aperture, a method for providing a continuous compliant support underneath the bimorph mirror, and a method for providing a three point support underneath the bimorph. In all three cases, there is no requirement for edge electrodes to provide the boundary conditions, resulting in devices of much higher bandwidth. The target is to broaden the use of these types of mirror beyond the current limits of either low order/low bandwidth, to address the high order, high bandwidth systems required by long range, horizontal path applications. This paper will discuss the different mirror designs, and present experimental results for the most recently assembled mirrors.

  4. Fabrication Methods for Adaptive Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; White, Victor E.; Manohara, Harish; Patterson, Keith D.; Yamamoto, Namiko; Gdoutos, Eleftherios; Steeves, John B.; Daraio, Chiara; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it was difficult to fabricate deformable mirrors made by piezoelectric actuators. This is because numerous actuators need to be precisely assembled to control the surface shape of the mirror. Two approaches have been developed. Both approaches begin by depositing a stack of piezoelectric films and electrodes over a silicon wafer substrate. In the first approach, the silicon wafer is removed initially by plasmabased reactive ion etching (RIE), and non-plasma dry etching with xenon difluoride (XeF2). In the second approach, the actuator film stack is immersed in a liquid such as deionized water. The adhesion between the actuator film stack and the substrate is relatively weak. Simply by seeping liquid between the film and the substrate, the actuator film stack is gently released from the substrate. The deformable mirror contains multiple piezoelectric membrane layers as well as multiple electrode layers (some are patterned and some are unpatterned). At the piezolectric layer, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), or its co-polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) is used. The surface of the mirror is coated with a reflective coating. The actuator film stack is fabricated on silicon, or silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate, by repeatedly spin-coating the PVDF or P(VDFTrFE) solution and patterned metal (electrode) deposition. In the first approach, the actuator film stack is prepared on SOI substrate. Then, the thick silicon (typically 500-micron thick and called handle silicon) of the SOI wafer is etched by a deep reactive ion etching process tool (SF6-based plasma etching). This deep RIE stops at the middle SiO2 layer. The middle SiO2 layer is etched by either HF-based wet etching or dry plasma etch. The thin silicon layer (generally called a device layer) of SOI is removed by XeF2 dry etch. This XeF2 etch is very gentle and extremely selective, so the released mirror membrane is not damaged. It is possible to replace SOI with silicon

  5. Electrostatic membrane deformable mirror characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Keith; Marrs, Anthony; Schoen, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Electrostatic Membrane Deformable Mirror (MDM) technology developed using silicon bulk micro-machining techniques offers the potential of providing low-cost, compact wavefront control systems for diverse optical system applications. Electrostatic mirror construction using bulk micro-machining allows for custom designs to satisfy wavefront control requirements for most optical systems. An electrostatic MDM consists of a thin membrane, generally with a thin metal or multi-layer high-reflectivity coating, suspended over an actuator pad array that is connected to a high-voltage driver. Voltages applied to the array elements deflect the membrane to provide an optical surface capable of correcting for measured optical aberrations in a given system. Electrostatic membrane DM designs are derived from well-known principles of membrane mechanics and electrostatics, the desired optical wavefront control requirements, and the current limitations of mirror fabrication and actuator drive electronics. MDM performance is strongly dependent on mirror diameter and air damping in meeting desired spatial and temporal frequency requirements. In this paper, we discuss characterization measurements and modeling of MDM spatial and temporal performance for different mirror designs and present application results illustrating the diverse uses of MDM technology in optical wavefront compensation systems.

  6. Crack growth phenomena in micro-machined single crystal silicon and design implications for micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Alissa Mirella

    The creation of micron-sized mechanisms using semiconductor processing technology is known collectively as MEMS, or Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Many MEMS devices, such as accelerometers and switches, have mechanical structures fabricated from single crystal silicon, a brittle material. The reliability and longevity of these devices depends on minimizing the probability of fracture, and therefore requires a thorough understanding of crack growth phenomena in silicon. In this study, a special micro-machined fracture specimen, the compression-loaded double cantilever beam, was developed to study fracture phenomena in single crystal silicon on a size scale relevant to MEMS. The decreasing stress intensity geometry of this sample provided stable, controllable crack propagation in test sections as thin as 100 mum. Several common MEMS fabrication methods (plasma and chemical etch) were used to achieve a range of surface finishes. A 650 A thick titanium crack gage was used to directly measure crack extension as a function of time using the potential drop technique. High speed (100 MHz) data acquisition techniques were employed to capture fracture events on the sub-microsecond time scale. The stability of the sample design and the micron-scale resolution of the crack gage facilitated investigation into the existence of a stress corrosion effect in silicon. No evidence of sub-critical crack growth due to exposure to humid air was found in carefully controlled tests lasting up to 24 hours. Rapid crack propagation velocities (>1 km/s) during quasi-static loading were recorded using high speed data acquisition techniques. Unique evidence was found of reflected stress waves causing multiple, momentary arrests during rapid fracture events. These measurements, along with atomic force microscope scans of the fracture surfaces, offer new insight into the kinetics of the fracture process in silicon. Over 100 micro-machined samples were fractured in this research. Weibull

  7. High resolution lithography-compatible micro-electro-discharge machining of bulk metal foils for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark Thomas

    The application of batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining (microEDM) to the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems has opened the door to lithographically compatible precision machining of all bulk metals. High volume applications in biomedical, communications, and consumer electronics devices are enabled by this technology. This dissertation explores the capabilities, limitations, and further improvement of high density batch mode microEDM. There are four parts to this effort described below. A machining resolution study of high density features in stainless steel identifies the design space. Lithographically fabricated copper tools with single cross, parallel line, and circle/square array features of 5--100microm width and 5--75microm spacing were used. The observed discharge gap varies with shape, spacing, and feature location from 3.8--8microm. As tool feature density is increased, debris accumulation effects begin to dominate, eventually degrading both tool and workpiece. Two new techniques for mitigating this debris build-up are separately investigated. The first is a silicon passivation coating which suppresses spurious discharges triggered from the sidewalls of the machining tool. By this method, for high density batch machining, mean tool wear rate decreases from a typical rate of about 34% to 1.7% and machining non-uniformity reduces from 4.9microm to 1.1microm across the workpiece. The second involves a two-step machining process that enhances the hydraulic removal of machining debris and therefore throughput. Wireless RF signals are inherently emitted by the micro-discharge process. This thesis describes the first reported wireless detection of debris accumulation during microEDM, enabling direct monitoring of machining quality in real time with 5dBm signal drop. The first wireless detection of the interface between two stacked metals during microEDM is also reported giving a 10dBm signal change. The technique enables direct monitoring of

  8. Analysis of a combined tip-tilt and deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Christopher C; Andrews, Jonathan R; Restaino, Sergio R; Teare, Scott W; Payne, Don M; Krishna, Sanjay

    2006-03-15

    A deformable mirror mounted on a two-axis tilt platform can provide wavefront compensation at a single location in an adaptive optics system, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of optical components in the system and in a simplification of the alignment. However, the moment of inertia of a deformable mirror is significantly different from that of the monolithic mirror commonly mounted on a tilt platform. We report on what are to our knowledge the first experimental results of mounting a microelectromechanical deformable mirror onto a fast steering platform and the first observation that at low operating frequencies high-order deformation of the deformable mirror membrane was not recorded. PMID:16544588

  9. Dynamic deformation analysis of light-weight mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Cao, Xuedong; Kuang, Long; Yang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    In the process of optical dynamic target work, under the effort of the arm of dynamic target, the mirror needs to do circular motion, additional accelerated motion and uniform motion. The maximum acceleration is 10°/s2 and the maximum velocity is 30°/s. In this paper, we mostly analyze the dynamic deformation of a 600 mm honeycomb light-weight mirror of a certain dynamic target. Using the FEA (finite element analysis) method, first of all, we analyze the deformation of the light-weight mirror induced in gravity at different position; later, the dynamic deformation of light-weight mirror is analyzed in detailed. The analysis results indicate that, when the maximum acceleration is 10°/s2 and the maximum velocity is 30°/s, the centripetal force is 5% of the gravity at the equal mass, and the dynamic deformation of the mirror is 6.1% of the deformation induced by gravity.

  10. A large stroke magnetic fluid deformable mirror for focus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Ling-kun; Wu, Zhi-zheng; Huang, Ming-shuang; Kong, Xiang-hui

    2016-03-01

    A liquid deformable mirror, which can provide a large stroke deflection more than 100 μm, is proposed for focus control. The deformable mirror utilizes the concept of magnetic fluid deformation shaped with electromagnetic fields to achieve concave or convex surface and to change the optical focus depth of the mirrors. The free surface of the magnetic fluid is coated with a thin layer of metal-liquid-like film (MELLF) prepared from densely packed silver nanoparticles to enhance the reflectance of the deformable mirror. The experimental results on the fabricated prototype magnetic fluid deformable mirror (MFDM) show that the desired concave/convex surface shape can be controlled precisely with a closed-loop adaptive optical system.

  11. Multi-physics simulation and fabrication of a compact 128 × 128 micro-electro-mechanical system Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter array for infrared hyperspectral imager.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinghua; Chen, Sihai; Lai, Jianjun; Huang, Ying; Sun, Zhenjun

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and fabrication of a 128×128 micro-electro-mechanical systems Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity filter array, which can be applied for the hyperspectral imager. To obtain better mechanical performance of the filters, F-P cavity supporting structures are analyzed by multi-physics finite element modeling. The simulation results indicate that Z-arm is the key component of the structure. The F-P cavity array with Z-arm structures was also fabricated. The experimental results show excellent parallelism of the bridge deck, which agree with the simulation results. A conclusion is drawn that Z-arm supporting structures are important to hyperspectral imaging system, which can achieve a large tuning range and high fill factor compared to straight arm structures. The filter arrays have the potential to replace the traditional dispersive element. PMID:26368101

  12. Biological application of micro-electro mechanical systems microelectrode array sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in the enhanced biological phosphorous removal process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyoung; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Bishop, Paul L; Papautsky, Ian

    2009-08-01

    The determination of phosphate has been of great importance in the fields of clinical, environmental, and horticultural analysis for over three decades. New cobalt-based micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microelectrode array (MEA) sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in small environmental samples, such as microbial aggregates, has been introduced and applied here for in situ measurement of phosphate within activated sludge flocs in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The MEMS technologies offer the advantages of accurate fabrication methods, reduced complexity of the fabrication process, mass production, low cost, and increased reliability. Well-defined phosphate profiles across the flocs were observed under anaerobic conditions, during which, phosphate was released from the flocs, using the MEMS MEA sensor. The microprofiles were compared with the microprofiles measured using conventional phosphate microelectrodes. The developed MEMS MEA sensors were useful tools for the in situ measurement of phosphate in small aggregates. PMID:19774851

  13. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, P.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  14. A deformable secondary mirror for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Biasi, R.; Gallieni, D.; Riccardi, A.; Lazzarini, P.; Hubin, N.; Fedrigo, E.; Donaldson, R.; Oberti, S.; Stroebele, S.; Conzelmann, R.; Duchateau, M.

    2006-06-01

    ESO has initiated in June 2004 a feasibility study to investigate the possibility to retro-fit one of the VLT 8 m telescope with a deformable secondary mirror (DSM). The scope of this effort has been broadened to a concept of Adaptive Optics Facility (adaptive telescope with adapted instrument park). The feasibility study, conducted by MicroGate, ADS Intl and the INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, has been successful (no show stopper identified) and has provided an elegant design of an alternate M2-Unit for the VLT. It features a 1170 actuators DSM based on the voice coil force actuators coupled with capacitive sensors. An 80 kHz internal control loop allows implementing of electronic damping. The simulations performed have shown a fitting error of 62.5 nm rms (r ° = 12.1 cm @ 30 deg. zenith) with a 2mm thin shell and 1.5 kW of heat dissipation. The design shall provide a full stroke of ~50 μm and a rise time of < 1 msec. The DSM will be focused and "centered" by a Hexapod and a bi-positions electro-mechanism will allow switching from Nasmyth to Cassegrain focus configuration. Several features are planned to ease maintenance and diagnostic.

  15. Structure modulated electrostatic deformable mirror for focus and geometry control.

    PubMed

    Nam, Saekwang; Park, Suntak; Yun, Sungryul; Park, Bongje; Park, Seung Koo; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2016-01-11

    We suggest a way to electrostatically control deformed geometry of an electrostatic deformable mirror (EDM) based on geometric modulation of a basement. The EDM is composed of a metal coated elastomeric membrane (active mirror) and a polymeric basement with electrode (ground). When an electrical voltage is applied across the components, the active mirror deforms toward the stationary basement responding to electrostatic attraction force in an air gap. Since the differentiated gap distance can induce change in electrostatic force distribution between the active mirror and the basement, the EDMs are capable of controlling deformed geometry of the active mirror with different basement structures (concave, flat, and protrusive). The modulation of the deformed geometry leads to significant change in the range of the focal length of the EDMs. Even under dynamic operations, the EDM shows fairly consistent and large deformation enough to change focal length in a wide frequency range (1~175 Hz). The geometric modulation of the active mirror with dynamic focus tunability can allow the EDM to be an active mirror lens for optical zoom devices as well as an optical component controlling field of view. PMID:26832237

  16. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a gradient approach and an additional deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2015-09-01

    High development cost is a challenge for space telescopes and imaging satellites. One of the primary reasons for this high cost is the development of the primary mirror, which must meet diffraction limit surface figure requirements. Recent efforts to develop lower cost, lightweight, replicable primary mirrors include development of silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors and carbon fiber mirrors. The silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors at the Naval Postgraduate School do not meet the surface quality required for an optical telescope due to high spatial frequency residual surface errors. A technique under investigation at the Naval Postgraduate School is to correct the residual surface figure error using a deformable mirror in the optical path. We present a closed loop feedback gradient controller to actively control a SMT active segment and an additional deformable mirror to reduce residual wavefront error. The simulations and experimental results show that the gradient controller reduces the residual wavefront error more than an integral controller.

  17. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  18. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  19. Functional Micro-Dispensers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) integrated with fabrics as functional materials to protect humans from mosquito feeding.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Ulrich R; Gurman, Pablo; Clark, Gary G; Elman, Noel

    2015-12-28

    Functional Micro-Dispensers (FMDs) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) were designed to deliver spatial repellents that reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. FMDs were integrated with fabrics as functional materials for protection against mosquito bites. The use of MEMS devices provides an unprecedented control over the release kinetics by means of integration with electronics for selective and timely activation of each device to perform controlled release of pesticides in air. In addition, because MEMS manufacturing techniques evolved from the microelectronic industry, FMDs can be mass produced at very low cost. Trials using FMDs that contained transfluthrin improved protection against mosquito feeding in human subjects above that of permethrin-treated uniform fabric worn on the arm of the volunteer. The overall reduction in feeding was approximately 90% compared to the untreated fabric control, and about 50% reduction compared to the permethrin-treated fabric control. The devices were efficacious over course of 32 days. FMDs have the potential for a simple and cost-effective implementation for mass adoption as wearable devices integrated in fabrics as active functional materials. PMID:26415856

  20. In-situ Iberian pig carcass classification using a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based near infrared (NIR) spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Pérez-Marín, D; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Garrido-Varo, A

    2012-03-01

    Iberian pig (IP) products are gourmet foods highly appreciated at international markets, reaching high prices, because of its exquisite flavors. At present, there aren't practical and affordable analytical methods which can authenticate every single piece put on the market. This paper reports on the performance of a handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based spectrometer (1600-2400nm) for authentication-classification of individual IP carcasses into different commercial categories. Performance (accuracy and instrumental design) of the instrument was compared with that of high-resolution NIRS monochromators (400-2500nm). A total of 300 carcasses of IPs raised under different feeding regimes ("Acorn", "Recebo" and "Feed") were analyzed in three modes (intact fat in the carcass, skin-free subcutaneous fat samples and melted fat samples). The best classification results for the MEMS instrument were: 93.9% "Acorn" carcasses correctly classified, 96.4% "Feed" and 60.6% "Recebo", respectively. Evaluation of model performance confirmed the suitability of the handheld device for individual, fast, non-destructive, low-cost analysis of IP carcasses on the slaughterhouse line. PMID:22075264

  1. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2015-07-27

    Large space telescopes made of deployable and lightweight structures suffer from aberrations caused by thermal deformations, gravitational release, and alignment errors which occur during the deployment procedure. An active optics system would allow on-site correction of wave-front errors, and ease the requirements on thermal and mechanical stability of the optical train. In the course of a project funded by the European Space Agency we have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror is able to work in space environment and is designed to correct for large aberrations of low order with high surface fidelity. This paper discusses design, manufacturing and performance results of the deformable mirror. PMID:26367605

  2. MEMS Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics in Astronomical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, S.; Bierden, P. A.; Bifano, T.

    We report on the development of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirrors designed for ground and space-based astronomical instruments intended for imaging extra-solar planets. Three different deformable mirror designs, a 1024 element continuous membrane (32x32), a 4096 element continuous membrane (64x64), and a 331 hexagonal segmented tip-tilt-piston are being produced for the Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) program, the Gemini Planet Imaging Instrument, and the visible nulling coronograph developed at JPL for NASA's TPF mission, respectively. The design of these polysilicon, surface-micromachined MEMS deformable mirrors builds on technology that was pioneered at Boston University and has been used extensively to correct for ocular aberrations in retinal imaging systems and for compensation of atmospheric turbulence in free-space laser communication. These light-weight, low power deformable mirrors will have an active aperture of up to 25.2mm consisting of thin silicon membrane mirror supported by an array of 1024 to 4096 electrostatic actuators exhibiting no hysteresis and sub-nanometer repeatability. The continuous membrane deformable mirrors, coated with a highly reflective metal film, will be capable of up to 4μm of stroke, have a surface finish of <10nm RMS with a fill factor of 99.8%. The segmented device will have a range of motion of 1um of piston and a 600 arc-seconds of tip/tilt simultaneously and a surface finish of 1nm RMS. The individual mirror elements in this unique device, are designed such that they will maintain their flatness throughout the range of travel. New design features and fabrication processes are combined with a proven device architecture to achieve the desired performance and high reliability. Presented in this paper are device characteristic and performance results of these devices.

  3. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: environmental testing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-01-25

    We have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror features 44 actuators, has an aperture of 50 mm, and is designed to reproduce low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of μm. We assessed the space compliance by operating the mirror in thermal vacuum, and exposing it to random and sinusoidal vibrations, as well as to ionizing irradiation. Additionally, the operational life time and the laser power handling capability were tested. The mirror was successfully operated in thermal vacuum at 100 K. We report on the conducted tests and the methods used to evaluate the mirror's performance, and discuss the compliance with the demanded requirements. PMID:26832532

  4. Plastic deformation in profile-coated elliptical KB mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J; Kewish, C. M.; Liu, Wenjun; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.; Ice, Gene E; Tischler, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now precision elliptical KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron x-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film-stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.

  5. Plastic Deformation in Profile-Coated Elliptical KB Mirrors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A. T.; Ice, G. E.; Tischler, J. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now, precision elliptical KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si-, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron X-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.

  6. Actuation of Deformable Mirrors Using Laser Controlled Pistons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Current deformable mirrors used for adaptive optics employ many actuators to adjust the mirror in order to compensate for optical irregularities. These mechanical actuators, which can number in the hundreds for a given mirror, require a significant amount of electrical wires in order to be controlled. The objective of this research is to implement a different type of actuator that can be controlled without the use of wires. The actuator developed employs a laser to quickly heat and expand the air in a closed "cell." When the air expands, it pushes a membrane that causes the mirror to move. Creating an array of these cells, and scanning them with a laser can control a deformable mirror. Testing showed that a single cell with a 5-mm diameter and 10-mm length can deflect a membrane of aluminized mylar in excess of our minimum requirement of 20 microns. These cells can now be assembled in a 5x5 matrix and attached to many small Mirrors. An electro-mechanical scanning assembly can be used to aim the laser directly onto individual cells causing the mirror at that location to move.

  7. Actuation of Deformable Mirrors Using Laser Controlled Pistons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Current deformable mirrors used for adaptive optics employ many actuators to adjust the mirror in order to compensate for optical irregularities. These mechanical actuators, which can number in the hundreds for a given mirror, require a significant amount of electrical wires in order to be controlled. The objective of this research is to implement a different type of actuator that can be controlled without the use of wires. The actuator developed employs a laser to quickly heat and expand the air in a closed 'cell'. When the air expands, it pushes a membrane that causes the mirror to move. Creating an array of these cells, and scanning them with a laser can control a deformable mirror. Testing showed that a single cell with a 5 mm diameter and 10 mm in length can deflect a membrane of aluminized Mylar in excess of our minimum requirement of 20 microns. These cells can now be assembled in a 5 x 5 matrix and attached to many small mirrors. An electro-mechanical scanning assembly can be used to aim the laser directly onto individual cells causing the mirror at that location to move.

  8. Adaptive optics ophthalmologic systems using dual deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S; Olivier, S; Chen, D; Sadda, S; Joeres, S; Zawadzki, R; Werner, J S; Miller, D

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) have been increasingly combined with a variety of ophthalmic instruments over the last decade to provide cellular-level, in-vivo images of the eye. The use of MEMS deformable mirrors in these instruments has recently been demonstrated to reduce system size and cost while improving performance. However, currently available MEMS mirrors lack the required range of motion for correcting large ocular aberrations, such as defocus and astigmatism. In order to address this problem, we have developed an AO system architecture that uses two deformable mirrors, in a woofer/tweeter arrangement, with a bimorph mirror as the woofer and a MEMS mirror as the tweeter. This setup provides several advantages, including extended aberration correction range, due to the large stroke of the bimorph mirror, high order aberration correction using the MEMS mirror, and additionally, the ability to ''focus'' through the retina. This AO system architecture is currently being used in four instruments, including an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and a retinal flood-illuminated imaging system at the UC Davis Medical Center, a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) at the Doheny Eye Institute, and an OCT system at Indiana University. The design, operation and evaluation of this type of AO system architecture will be presented.

  9. Ferrofluid based deformable mirrors: a new approach to adaptive optics using liquid mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Phil R.; Bergamasco, R.; Bérubé, Vincent; Borra, Ermanno F.; Gingras, Julie; Ritcey, Anna-Marie R.; Rioux, Myriam; Robitaille, Nathalie; Thibault, Simon; Vieira da Silva, L., Jr.; Yockell-Lelièvre, Helene

    2003-02-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.

  10. Numerical simulation of deformation and figure quality of precise mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vit, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Sandri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper shows results and a comparison of FEM numerical simulations and optical tests of the assembly of a precise Zerodur mirror with a mounting structure for space applications. It also shows how the curing of adhesive film can impact the optical surface, especially as regards deformations. Finally, the paper shows the results of the figure quality analysis, which are based on data from FEM simulation of optical surface deformations.

  11. Experimental and simulation study of undesirable short-period deformation in piezoelectric deformable x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Imai, Shota; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-05-01

    To construct adaptive x-ray focusing optics whose optical parameters can be varied while performing wavefront correction, ultraprecise piezoelectric deformable mirrors have been developed. We computationally and experimentally investigated undesirable short-period deformation caused by piezoelectric actuators adhered to the substrate during mirror deformation. Based on the results of finite element method analysis, shape measurements, and the observation of x-ray reflection images, a guideline is developed for designing deformable mirrors that do not have short-period deformation errors.

  12. Deformable mirror interferometric analysis for the direct imagery of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Galicher, Raphaël.; Baudoz, Pierre; Lanzoni, Patrick; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Rousset, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanet systems requires the use of coronagraphs to reach high contrast levels (10-8 to 10-11) at small angular separations (0.100). However, the performance of these devices is drastically limited by aberrations (in phase or in amplitude, introduced either by atmosphere or by the optics). Coronagraphs must therefore be combined with extreme adaptive optic systems, composed of a focal plane wavefront sensor and of a high order deformable mirror. These adaptive optic systems must reach a residual error in the corrected wavefront of less than 0.1 nm (RMS) with a rate of 1 kHz. In addition, the surface defects of the deformable mirror, inherent from the fabrication process, must be limited in order to avoid the introduction of amplitude aberrations. An experimental high contrast bench has been developed at the Paris Observatory (LESIA). This bench includes a Boston Micromachine deformable mirror composed of 1024 actuators. For a precise analysis of its surface and performance, we characterized this mirror on the interferometric bench developed since 2004 at the Marseille Observatory (LAM). In this paper, we present this interferometric bench as well as the results of the analysis. This will include a precise surface characterization and a description of the behavior of the actuators, on a 10 by 10 actuator range (behavior of a single actuator, study of the cross-talk between neighbor actuators, influence of a stuck actuator) and on full mirror scale (general surface shape).

  13. Progress on the development of a zonal bimorph deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Mike S.; Laycock, Leslie C.; Archer, Nick; Myers, Richard; Doel, Peter; Birch, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    The Zonal Bimorph Deformable Mirror (ZBDM) is a new concept of adaptive mirror. It exploits the benefits normally associated with bimorph mirrors, namely simple rugged construction, low capacitance, and cost effectiveness, but in a significant departure from classical, edge supported bimorphs each element is supported from underneath. This results in a localised (zonal) response and enables the device to be scalable up to large aperture, multi-1000 element devices. Crucially, the combination of continuous support coupled with the use of flexi-circuit interconnect promotes the assembly of a high density 'tweeter' deformable mirror (DM) onto a lower density, high dynamic range 'woofer' DM to generate an integrated, dual-stage deformable mirror which can deliver both high resolution and high dynamic range simultaneously. Such a device has the potential to significantly simplify the design of astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems. We present the progress made on the development of the ZBDM as part of a collaborative project funded by the newly formed UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  14. Polymer-based micro deformable mirror for adaptive optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Conedera, Veronique; Liotard, Arnaud; Schroeder, Andreas; Fabre, Norbert; Camon, Henri; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Next generation giant telescopes as well as next generation instrumentation for 10m-class telescopes relies on the availability of highly performing adaptive optical systems, for studying new fields like circumstellar disks and extrasolar planets. These systems require deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters, including number of actuators up to 250 000 and inter-actuator spacing around 500μm. MOEMS-based devices are promising for future deformable mirrors. However, only limited strokes for large driving voltages have been demonstrated. In order to overcome these limitations, we are currently developing a micro-deformable mirror based on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachment posts to a continuous mirror on top. The originality of our approach lies in the elaboration of a sacrificial layer and of a structural layer made of polymer materials, using low-temperature process. This process allows the realization of high optical quality mirrors on top of an actuator array made with various techniques. We have developed the first polymer piston-motion actuator in order to reach high strokes for low driving voltages: a 10μm thick mobile plate with four springs attached to the substrate, and with an air gap of 10μm exhibits a piston motion of 2μm for 30V. Preliminary comparison with FEM models show very good agreement and design of a complete polymer-based MDM looks possible.

  15. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  16. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  17. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  18. Simple unimorph deformable mirrors fabricated from piezo buzzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribošek, Jaka; Diaci, Janez; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This study shows how unimorph deformable mirrors can be effectively fabricated out of commercially available piezo-buzzers without any high-tech equipment. Our design involves a quad-channel mirror with monolithically integrated flexures. The mirror is controlled by a custom quad-channel high-voltage driver unit, capable of 93 Vp-p and 75 kpps performance. The system exhibits 16-bit resolution over the angular working range of  ±1.85 mrad, with 0.04 mrad V‑1 angular sensitivity and 14% hysteresis. We demonstrate the mirror performance for focus control in microscopy and high-precision laser beam steering, opening a wide variety of applications in computational imaging, confocal microscopy, optical tweezing and laser lithography.

  19. Contactless Large Deformable Mirrors: ELT AO corrector technology available now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele

    2011-09-01

    We present our design of ESO E-ELT M4 deformable mirror and GMT Adaptive Secondary Mirrors unit. Both systems are based on our consolidated design of large deformable mirrors for 8-m class telescopes, successfully implemented on MMT and LBT and currently in advanced construction and testing phase for VLT and Magellan telescopes respectively. We describe the main features of the technology adopted: thin Zerodur mirror shell with contactless voice coil motors, co-located capacitive sensors to close a local position loop at each actuator, centralized control by force feedforward, embedded real time control and communication electronics. We then highlight how the same concept has been scaled up on the E-ELT M4AU and the GMT-ASM cases, adapting the technology to deal with thousands of actuators, while maintaining its intrinsic advantages: tolerance to actuators' failures, mechanical de-coupling and relaxed tolerances between correcting mirror and reference structure, large stroke, hysteresis-free behavior. For the next generation systems, we report the predicted performances based on the actual results attained on our 1-m class DMs currently in use: the LBT adaptive secondary for the GMT-ASM and the 330 actuators Demonstration Prototype for the E-ELT M4AU.

  20. HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING VIA MODAL CONVERGENCE OF DEFORMABLE MIRROR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Feiling

    2012-06-01

    For extremely high contrast imaging, such as direct observation of faint stellar companions, an adaptive optics system is required to produce low-halo and low-speckle regions in the focal plane. A method for deformable mirror control is proposed to achieve this goal. The method relies on a modal convergence of the deformable mirror driven by a focal-plane metric. The modal sets are derived from the Walsh functions. The Walsh-function modes serve two purposes: the expansion of the actuator displacements and the expansion of the phase functions. Taking advantage of the unique properties of the modal functions, a universal control algorithm is devised for the realization of high-contrast focal planes with and without the help of conventional coronagraphy. Numerical modeling is conducted to simulate complete imaging systems under various scenarios. It is shown that the proposed method reliably produces high-contrast focal planes using either a segmented or a membrane mirror. In the presence of random aberration the method is shown to be able to maintain high-contrast focal planes. Requiring neither retrieval of electric fields nor detailed knowledge of the deformable mirrors, this technique may allow high-contrast imaging in real time.

  1. Effects of alloying and local order in AuNi contacts for Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switches via multi-scale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Kingon, Angus I.; Irving, Douglas L.

    2013-05-01

    Ohmic RF-MEMS switches hold much promise for low power wireless communication, but long-term degradation currently plagues their reliable use. Failure in these devices occurs at the contact and is complicated by the fact that the same asperities that bear the mechanical load are also important to the flow of electrical current needed for signal processing. Materials selection holds the key to overcoming the barriers that prevent widespread use. Current efforts in materials selection have been based on the material's (or alloy's) ability to resist oxidation as well as its room-temperature properties, such as hardness and electrical conductivity. No ideal solution has yet been found via this route. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the in-use changes to the local environment of the asperity are not included in the selection criteria. For example, Joule heating would be expected to raise the local temperature of the asperity and impose a non-equilibrium thermal gradient in the same region expected to respond to mechanical actuation. We propose that these conditions should be considered in the selection process, as they would be expected to alter mechanical, electrical, and chemical mechanisms in the vicinity of the surface. To this end, we simulate the actuation of an Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switch by using a multi-scale method to model a current-carrying asperity in contact with a polycrystalline substrate. Our method couples continuum solutions of electrical and thermal transport equations to an underlying molecular dynamics simulation. We present simulations of gold-nickel asperities and substrates in order to evaluate the influence of alloying and local order on the early stages of contact actuation. The room temperature response of these materials is compared to the response of the material when a voltage is applied. Au-Ni interactions are accounted for through modification of the existing Zhou embedded atom method

  2. Lightweight in-plane actuated deformable mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Michael J.

    This research focused on lightweight, in-plane actuated, deformable mirrors, with the ultimate goal of developing a 20-meter or larger diameter light gathering aperture for space telescopes. Membrane optics is the study of these structures which may be stowed compactly and unfurled in orbit. This effort comprised four research areas: modelling, analytical solutions, surface control strategy, and scaling. Initially, experimental results were compared to theory using a 0.127 meter diameter deformable mirror testbed. The mirror was modelled using finite elements with MSC.Nastran software, where a boundary tension field was determined using laser vibrometer data. A non-linear solution technique was used to incorporate the membrane stiffening from the applied tension. Statically obtained actuator influence functions were compared to experimentally achieved data, and then a least squares approach was used as the basis for creating a quasi-static control algorithm. Experimental simultaneous tracking of Zernike tip, tilt, and defocus modes was successfully demonstrated. The analytical solutions to plate-membrane and beam-string ordinary differential equation representing the deformable mirror equations were developed. A simplified approach to modelling the axisymmetric cases was also presented. Significantly, it was shown both analytically and through numerical analysis that static actuation for a mirror with a discrete electrode pattern and a high tension-to-stiffness ratio was simply a localized piston displacement in the region of the actuator. Next, a novel static control strategy, the Modal Transformation Method, was developed for membrane mirrors. The method was implemented in finite element simulation, and shows the capability of the in-plane actuated mirror to form Zernike surfaces within an interior, or clear aperture, region using a number of statically-actuated structural modes. Lastly, the scaling problem for membrane optics was addressed. Linear modelling was

  3. A technique for the optical analysis of deformed telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, John F.

    1986-01-01

    The NASTRAN-ACCOS V programs' interface merges structural and optical analysis capabilities in order to characterize the performance of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar Optical Telescope primary mirror, which has a large diameter/thickness ratio. The first step in the optical analysis is to use NASTRAN's FEM to model the primary mirror, simulating any distortions due to gravitation, thermal gradients, and coefficient of thermal expansion nonuniformities. NASTRAN outputs are then converted into an ACCOS V-acceptable form; ACCOS V generates the deformed optical surface on the basis of these inputs, and imaging qualities can be determined.

  4. Modal dynamics of magnetic-liquid deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Denis; Thibault, Simon; Borra, Ermanno F; Boivin, Simon F

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic-liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) were introduced by our group in 2004 and numerous developments have been made since then. The usefulness of this type of mirror in various applications has already been shown, but experimental data on their dynamics are still lacking. A complete theoretical modeling of MLDM dynamics is a complex task because it requires an approach based on magnetohydrodynamics. A purpose of this paper is to present and analyze new experimental data of the dynamics of these mirrors from open-loop step response measurements and show that a basic transfer function modeling is adequate to achieve closed-loop control. Also, experimental data on the eigenmodes dynamic is presented and a modal-based control approach is suggested. PMID:25090320

  5. Deformable mirror with combined piezoelectric and electrostatic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, F.; Freischlad, K.; Reischmann, H.-L.

    1982-10-01

    An adaptive optics system with modal phase correction for reconstituting astronomical images passing through the atmosphere is described. An active mirror in a gimbal mount houses an electrostatic deformable membrane for the modal corrections. Piezoelectric actuators are attached behind the mirror for tilt correction. Wavefronts triggering the electrode detectors in the mirror also result in generation of a map of the wave-front errors. Compensating phase distributions for successive waves are calculated automatically by an expansion of the phase distortions into modes of a set of basis functions. Turbulence compensation is accomplished with Zernike polynomials if only a small number of modes is present, while Karhunen-Loeve functions serve for any number of modes. Phase aberrations are detected by diode arrays connected to amplifier tubes. Actual measurement of the wavefront phase is performed by a shearing interferometer and by use of an iterative algorithm to assay the intensity distribution of the image.

  6. Flextensional Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators for Membrane Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Large aperture and light weight space telescopes requires adaptive optics with deformable mirrors capable of large amplitude aberration corrections at a broad temperature range for space applications including NASA missions such as SAFIR, TPF, Con-X, etc. The single crystal piezoelectric actuators produced at TRS offer large stroke, low hysteresis, and an excellent cryogenic strain response. Specifically, the recently developed low profile, low voltage flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with dimensions of 18 x 5 x 1 mm showed stroke larger than 95 microns under 300 V. Furthermore, flextensional actuator retained approx. 40-50% of its room temperature strain at liquid Nitrogen environment. In this paper, ATILA FEM design of flextensional actuators, actuator fabrication, and characterization results will be presented for the future work on membrane deformable mirror.

  7. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-03-18

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language.

  8. Performance analysis of two high actuator count MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Peter J.; Cornelissen, Steven A.; Lam, Charlie V.; Bierden, Paul A.

    2013-03-01

    Two new MEMS deformable mirrors have been designed and fabricated, one having a continuous facesheet with an active aperture of 20mm and 2040 actuators and the other, a similarly sized segmented tip tilt piston DM containing 1021 elements and 3063 actuators. The surface figures, electro mechanical performances, and actuator yield of these devices, with statistical information, are reported here. The statistical distributions of these measurements directly illustrate the surface variance of Boston Micromachines deformable mirrors. Measurements of the surface figure were also performed with the elements at different actuation states. Also presented here are deviations of the surface figure under actuation versus at its rest state, the electromechanical distribution, and a dynamic analysis.

  9. Smart structures for deformable mirrors actuated by piezocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Di Sanzo, D.; Airoldi, A.; Sala, G.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Deformable mirrors actuated by smart structures are promising devices for next generation astronomical instrumentation. The piezo technology and in particular piezoceramics is currently among the most investigated structural materials. Fragility makes Ceramic materials extremely vulnerable to accidental breakage during bonding and embedding processes and limits the ability to comply to curved surfaces (typical of mirrors). Moreover lead-based piezoceramics typically have relevant additional masses. To overcome these limitations, we studied the applicability of composites piezoceramics actuators to smart structures with these purposes. We developed a combined Finite Element and Raytracing analysis devoted to a parametric performance predictions of a smart Piezocomposites based substrate applicable to deformable mirrors. We took in detail into account the possibility to change the focal length of the mirror keeping a satisfactory image quality. In this paper we present a specific type of Piezocomposite actuators and numerical/experimental techniques purposely developed to integrate them into smart structures. We evaluated numerical and experimental results comparing bonding and embedding of these devices.

  10. Miniature non-mechanical zoom camera using deformable MOEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaylor, Brant M.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Greenfield, Nathan J.; Roos, Peter A.; Seger, Eric M.; Moghimi, Mohammad J.; Dickensheets, David L.

    2012-03-01

    We present a miniature non-mechanical zoom camera using deformable MOEMS mirrors. Bridger Photonics, Inc. (Bridger) in collaboration with Montana State University (MSU), has developed electrostatically actuated deformable MEMS mirrors for use in compact focus control and zoom imaging systems. Applications including microscopy, endomicroscopy, robotic surgery and cell-phone cameras. In comparison to conventional systems, our MEMS-based designs require no mechanically moving parts. Both circular and elliptical membranes are now being manufactured at the wafer level and possess excellent optical surface quality (membrane flatness < λ/4). The mirror diameters range from 1 - 4 mm. For membranes with a 25 μm air gap, the membrane stroke is 10 μm. In terms of the optical design, the mirrors are considered variable power optical elements. A device with 2 mm diameter and 10 μm stroke can vary its optical power over 40 diopters or 0.04mm∧(-1). Equivalently, this corresponds to a focal length ranging from infinity to 25 mm. We have designed and demonstrated a zoom system using two MOEMS elements and exclusively commercial off-the-shelf optical components to achieve an optical zoom of 1.9x with a 15° full field of view. The total optical track length of the system is 36 mm. The design is approximately 30 mm x 30 mm x 20 mm including the optomechanical housing and image sensor. With custom optics, we anticipate achieving form factors that are compatible with incorporation into cell phones.

  11. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  12. On-Chip High-Resolution Beam Scanner Based on Bragg Reflector Slow-Light Waveguide Amplifier and Tunable Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahama, Masanori; Gu, Xiaodong; Shimada, Toshikazu; Koyama, Fumio

    2012-04-01

    We propose a monolithic beam scanner consisting of a Bragg reflector slow-light waveguide amplifier and a tunable micro-electro-mechanical vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Continuous beam steering of over 30° and a narrow divergence angle of below 0.1° are predicted, which gives us a number of resolution points over 300. In addition, the modeling on saturation characteristics of a slow light amplifier shows a possibility of the maximum output power of over 10 mW.

  13. Deformable mirrors: design fundamentals for force actuation of continuous facesheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravensbergen, S. K.; Hamelinck, R. F. H. M.; Rosielle, P. C. J. N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2009-08-01

    Adaptive Optics is established as essential technology in current and future ground based (extremely) large telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Deformable mirrors for astronomic purposes have a high number of actuators (> 10k), a relatively large stroke (> 10μm) on a small spacing (< 10mm) and a high control bandwidth (> 100Hz). The availability of piezoelectric ceramics as an actuator principle has driven the development of many adaptive deformable mirrors towards inappropriately stiff displacement actuation. This, while the use of force actuation supersedes piezos in performance and longevity while being less costly per channel by a factor of 10-20. This paper presents a model which is independent of the actuator type used for actuation of continuous facesheet deformable mirrors, to study the design parameters such as: actuator spacing & coupling, influence function, peak-valley stroke, dynamical behavior: global & local, etc. The model is validated using finite element simulations and its parameters are used to derive design fundamentals for optimization.

  14. Smart structures for deformable mirrors actuated by shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Deformable mirrors actuated by smart structures are promising devices for next generation astronomical instrumentation. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. This paper will show the technological processes developed for an efficient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation. In particular the analysis of the interface with the host material. Some possible modeling approaches to the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade-offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. We developed a combined Finite Element and Raytracing analysis devoted to a parametric performance predictions of a SMA based substrate applicable to deformable mirrors. We took in detail into account the possibility to change the focal length of the mirror keeping a satisfactory image quality. Finally a possible approach with some preliminary results for an efficient control system for the strongly non-linear SMA actuators will be presented.

  15. Polymer-based micro-deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Conedera, Veronique; Fabre, Norbert; Lanzoni, Patrick; Camon, Henri; Chazallet, Frederic

    2006-01-01

    Highly performing adaptive optical (AO) systems are mandatory for next generation giant telescopes as well as next generation instrumentation for 10m-class telescopes, for studying new fields like circumstellar disks and extra-solar planets. These systems require deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters, including number of actuators up to 250 000 and inter-actuator spacing around 500μm. MOEMS-based devices are promising for future deformable mirrors. We are currently developing a micro-deformable mirror (MDM) based on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachment posts to a continuous mirror on top. In order to reach large stroke for low driving voltage, the originality of our approach lies in the elaboration of a sacrificial layer and of a structural layer made of polymer materials. We have developed the first polymer piston-motion actuator: a 10μm thick mobile plate with four springs attached to the substrate, and with an air gap of 10μm exhibits a piston motion of 2μm for 30V, and measured resonance frequency of 6.5kHz is well suited for AO systems. The electrostatic force provides a non-linear actuation, while AO systems are based on linear matrices operations. We have successfully developed a dedicated 14-bit electronics in order to "linearize" the actuation. Actual location of the actuator versus expected location of the actuator is obtained with a standard deviation of 21 nm. Comparison with FEM models shows very good agreement, and design of a complete polymer-based MDM has been done.

  16. Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Peter J.; Conan, Rodolphe; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the control of two deformable mirrors (DM) and a tip tilt mirror for adaptive optics. The purpose of this experimental adaptive optics system at the University of Victoria is to prove the Woofer Tweeter concept for use in instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) which is currently under development. The first deformable mirror is a large stroke DM (Woofer) capable of lower frequency correction in both the temporal and spatial domains. The other DM (Tweeter) is capable of the high temporal and spatial frequency corrections of the turbulence. The response speed of the Woofer is incorporated into the Tweeter controller in order to allow for appropriate offloading from the Tweeter to the Woofer. In order to determine which Tweeter shapes must compensate for the slower Woofer and which are not coupled to the Woofer, the cross correlation of the devices is determined. The method of converting the wave front sensor (WFS) measurements to control signal error is given. The transfer functions of the controller are provided, along with rejection ratio plots, bandwidths and amplitude response to system noise.

  17. MEMS deformable mirror embedded wavefront sensing and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Donald; Schoen, Michael; Bush, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic Membrane Deformable Mirror (MDM) technology developed using silicon bulk micro-machining techniques offers the potential of providing low-cost, compact wavefront control systems for diverse optical system applications. Electrostatic mirror construction using bulk micro-machining allows for custom designs to satisfy wavefront control requirements for most optical systems. An electrostatic MDM consists of a thin membrane, generally with a thin metal or multi-layer high-reflectivity coating, suspended over an actuator pad array that is connected to a high-voltage driver. Voltages applied to the array elements deflect the membrane to provide an optical surface capable of correcting for measured optical aberrations in a given system. Electrostatic membrane DM designs are derived from well-known principles of membrane mechanics and electrostatics, the desired optical wavefront control requirements, and the current limitations of mirror fabrication and actuator drive electronics. MDM performance is strongly dependent on mirror diameter and air damping in meeting desired spatial and temporal frequency requirements. In this paper, we present wavefront control results from an embedded wavefront control system developed around a commercially available high-speed camera and an AgilOptics Unifi MDM driver using USB 2.0 communications and the Linux development environment. This new product, ClariFast TM, combines our previous Clarifi TM product offering into a faster more streamlined version dedicated strictly to Hartmann Wavefront sensing.

  18. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a deformable mirror in a woofer-tweeter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2016-04-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's segmented mirror telescope (SMT) was developed using prototype silicon carbide active hybrid mirror technology to demonstrate lower cost and rapid manufacture of primary mirror segments for a space telescope. The developmental mirror segments used too few actuators limiting the ability to adequately correct the surface figure error. To address the unintended shortfall of the developmental mirrors, a deformable mirror is added to the SMT and control techniques are developed. The control techniques are similar to woofer-tweeter adaptive optics, where the SMT segment represents the woofer and the deformable mirror represents the tweeter. The optical design of an SMT woofer-tweeter system is presented, and the impacts of field angle magnification on the placement and size of the deformable mirror are analyzed. A space telescope woofer-tweeter wavefront control technique is proposed using a global influence matrix and closed-loop constrained minimization controller. The control technique simultaneously manipulates the woofer and tweeter mirrors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant improvement in wavefront error of the primary mirror and the control technique shows significant wavefront error improvement compared to sequentially controlling the woofer and tweeter mirrors.

  19. Experimental investigation of the deformable mirror with bidirectional thermal actuators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ma, Xingkun; Gong, Mali; Bian, Qi

    2015-06-29

    A deformable mirror with actuators of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) is introduced in this paper. Due to the bidirectional thermal actuation property of the TEC, both upward and downward surface control is available for the DM. The response functions of the actuators are investigated. A close-loop wavefront control experiment is performed too, where the defocus and the astigmatism were corrected. The results reveal that there is a promising prospect for the novel design to be used in corrections of static aberrations, such as in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). PMID:26191759

  20. Shaping light: MOEMS deformable mirrors for microscopes and telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs) have enabled rapid advances in applications ranging from large telescope astronomy and free space laser communication to biological microscopy and retinal imaging over the past decade. In this talk I describe our efforts at Boston University and at Boston Micromachines Corporation to design, fabricate, and control MOEMS DMs for adaptive optics (AO) applications. Integration of the DMs in AO systems is described, along with results demonstrating unprecedented advances in resolution and contrast in microscopes and telescopes challenged by unavoidable wavefront aberrations. MEMS-DM research offers the rare opportunity to introduce technology that is both more economical and more capable than the state-of-the-art.

  1. Optimal mirror deformation for multi conjugate adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffetseder, S.; Ramlau, R.; Yudytskiy, M.

    2016-02-01

    Multi conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is a system planned for all future extremely large telescopes to compensate in real-time for the optical distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence over a wide field of view. The principles of MCAO are based on two inverse problems: a stable tomographic reconstruction of the turbulence profile followed by the optimal alignment of multiple deformable mirrors (DMs), conjugated to different altitudes in the atmosphere. We present a novel method to treat the optimal mirror deformation problem for MCAO. Contrary to the standard approach where the problem is formulated over a discrete set of optimization directions we focus on the solution of the continuous optimization problem. In the paper we study the existence and uniqueness of the solution and present a Tikhonov based regularization method. This approach gives us the flexibility to apply quadrature rules for a more sophisticated discretization scheme. Using numerical simulations in the context of the European extremely large telescope we show that our method leads to a significant improvement in the reconstruction quality over the standard approach and allows to reduce the numerical burden on the computer performing the computations.

  2. Computation of Static Shapes and Voltages for Micromachined Deformable Mirrors with Nonlinear Electrostatic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    In modeling micromachined deformable mirrors with electrostatic actuators whose gap spacings are of the same order of magnitude as those of the surface deformations, it is necessary to use nonlinear models for the actuators. In this paper, we consider micromachined deformable mirrors modeled by a membrane or plate equation with nonlinear electrostatic actuator characteristics. Numerical methods for computing the mirror deformation due to given actuator voltages and the actuator voltages required for producing the desired deformations at the actuator locations are presented. The application of the proposed methods to circular deformable mirrors whose surfaces are modeled by elastic membranes is discussed in detail. Numerical results are obtained for a typical circular micromachined mirror with electrostatic actuators.

  3. Optical joint correlation using the deformable mirror device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the Deformable Mirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments at Dallas for use in object identification was completed. The DMD was tested as a joint correlator. The DMD was used as a spatial light modulator on which the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of test object pairs was written. The squared modulus was phase encoded on the DMD after it had been thresholded and rewritten as a binary phase function. The thresholding was found to produce a sharp peak in the autocorrelation when the test objects were matched and no significant peak in the case of distinct objects. It was concluded that the use of the DMD as a joint correlator looks promising and further studies should be carried out.

  4. Deformable mirrors for x-ray astronomy and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Graham, M. E.; Vaynman, S.; Cao, J.; Takacs, P. Z.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled (~; 100-400 micron thickness) electroformed replicated optics or slumped glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the mid-frequency ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a permanently magnetic material. The MSM material exhibits strains about 400 times stronger than ordinary ferromagnetic materials. The deformation process involves a magnetic write head which traverses the surface, and under the guidance of active metrology feedback,locally magnetizes the surface to impart strain where needed. Designs and basic concepts as applied to space borne X-ray optics will be described.

  5. Actuating the deformable mirror: a multiphysics design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vecchio, Ciro; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Riccardi, Armando; Spairani, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    The crucial component of an Adaptive Optics unit is the actuation system of the deformable mirror. One possible implementation comprehends a linear force motor and a capacitive sensor providing the feedback measure signal. Due to the extreme accuracy required by the optics, a proper design of the actuator is essential in order to fulfill the specifications. In the device, mechanics, electrostatics, electromagnetism and thermal effects are mutually related, and they have to be properly considered in the design phase. This paper analyzes such a multiphysics behavior of the actuation system, providing an inter-disciplinary approach able to define the optimized device: a capacitive sensor measuring the displacements at the nanometer accuracy and a closed loop linear motor delivering the requested force with the lowest possible power dissipation, in order to minimize the degrading of the optical waves propagation.

  6. Control of a deformable mirror subject to structural disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij

    2008-04-01

    Future space based deployable telescopes will be subject to non-atmospheric disturbances. Jitter and optical misalignment on a spacecraft can be caused by mechanical noise of the spacecraft, and settling after maneuvers. The introduction of optical misalignment and jitter can reduce the performance of an optical system resulting in pointing error and contributing to higher order aberrations. Adaptive optics can be used to control jitter and higher order aberrations in an optical system. In this paper, wavefront control methods for the Naval Postgraduate School adaptive optics testbed are developed. The focus is on removing structural noise from the flexible optical surface using discrete time proportional integral control with second order filters. Experiments using the adaptive optics testbed successfully demonstrate wavefront control methods, including a combined iterative feedback and gradient control technique. This control technique results in a three time improvement in RMS wavefront error over the individual controllers correcting from a biased mirror position. Second order discrete time notch filters are also used to remove induced low frequency actuator and sensor noise at 2Hz. Additionally a 2 Hz structural disturbance is simulated on a Micromachined Membrane Deformable Mirror and removed using discrete time notch filters combined with an iterative closed loop feedback controller, showing a 36 time improvement in RMS wavefront error over the iterative closed loop feedback alone.

  7. Silicon carbide deformable mirror with 37 actuators for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyohoon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Yang, Ho-Soon; Kihm, Hagyong

    2015-11-01

    We present a prototype of a silicon carbide (SiC) deformable mirror (DM) for high power laser applications. The DM has a continuous SiC faceplate, the diameter and the thickness of which are 100 mm and 2 mm, respectively, and 37 stack-type piezoelectric actuators arranged in a rectangular grid. Compared with the glass faceplates used for conventional DMs, SiC has a high thermal diffusivity that effectively minimizes mirror distortions due to thermal gradients. The faceplate is thick enough for possible integration with monolithic cooling channels inside the faceplate. The faceplate without cooling channels presented in this paper has a high bending stiffness compared with glass DMs, but the proposed actuator configuration has flexure supports to reduce the shear stress at the adhesive while preserving optical performances. To examine the characteristics of the SiC DM, we simulated influence functions (IFs) by using a finite element analysis and then compared these results with the IF measured by using an optical interferometer. The optical performance of the DM was verified by generating Zernike polynomial modes based on the measured IF.

  8. Piezoelectric deformable mirror technologies for astronomy at IOE, CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chunlin; Fan, Xinlong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Hong; Mu, Jinbo; Xue, Lixia; Wei, Kai; Xian, Hao; Rao, Changhui; Zhang, Yudong; Ling, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Institute of Optics & Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has more than 30 years' experience on piezoelectric deformable mirror (DM) technologies research and developing since early 1980s. Several DMs of IOE have been used in many different application systems. A brief history of piezoelectric DMs development in IOE and several recently achievements, and the main characters, performance and test results of the DMs for astronomy will be presented in this paper. 1) High-order DM. DM prototype with 913-element for 4m telescope has been fabricated and tested in laboratory. 2) Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM). A 73-element ASM prototype with 12 microns stroke for 1.8m telescope has been fabricated. It will be installed onto the 1.8m telescope with a compact adaptive optics (AO) system. 3) Small spacing DM. A 6mm spacing 127-element DM based on the same construction with the High-order DM has been used in AO system of 1m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) in Yunnan Observatories. Higher density (3mm spacing) DM based on a novel construction has being developed. In 2012, the novel DM prototype with 100-element was fabricated and tested carefully in laboratory. Beside, a 6mm spacing 151-element DM based on the novel construction has being fabricated for the solar AO system.

  9. Path Length Control in a Nulling Coronagraph with a MEMS Deformable Mirror and a Calibration Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Stewart, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.

  10. High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope with Dual Deformable Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D C; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S

    2006-08-11

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO SLO) has demonstrated superior optical quality of non-invasive view of the living retina, but with limited capability of aberration compensation. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina. We used a bimorph mirror to correct large-stroke, low-order aberrations and a MEMS mirror to correct low-stroke, high-order aberration. The measured ocular RMS wavefront error of a test subject was 240 nm without AO compensation. We were able to reduce the RMS wavefront error to 90 nm in clinical settings using one deformable mirror for the phase compensation and further reduced the wavefront error to 48 nm using two deformable mirrors. Compared with that of a single-deformable-mirror SLO system, dual AO SLO offers much improved dynamic range and better correction of the wavefront aberrations. The use of large-stroke deformable mirrors provided the system with the capability of axial sectioning different layers of the retina. We have achieved diffraction-limited in-vivo retinal images of targeted retinal layers such as photoreceptor layer, blood vessel layer and nerve fiber layers with the combined phase compensation of the two deformable mirrors in the AO SLO.

  11. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  12. Wavefront correction with a ferrofluid deformable mirror: experimental results and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Borra, Ermanno F.; Thibault, Simon; Ritcey, Anna M.; Parent, Jocelyn; Seddiki, Omar; Déry, Jean-Philippe; Faucher, Luc; Vassallo, Julien; Naderian, Azadeh

    2008-07-01

    We present the research status of a deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid whose surface is actuated by a triangular array of small current carrying coils. We demonstrate that the mirror can correct a 11 μm low order aberrated wavefront to a residual RMS wavefront error 0.05 μm. Recent developments show that these deformable mirrors can reach a frequency response of several hundred hertz. A new method for linearizing the response of these mirrors is also presented.

  13. An RF Therapy System for Breast Cancer Using Dual Deformable Mirrors — Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Udpa, Satish S.; Udpa, Lalita

    2007-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths amongst women in the United States. In the past two decades, the potential of non-ionizing high power RF waves to destroy cancerous biological tissues is actively investigated for cancer therapy. This paper presents the computational feasibility study of an alternative mode of electromagnetic radiation therapy that employs dual source and deformable mirror. The adaptive focusing capability of the deformable mirror is exploited for preferential energy deposition at the tumor site in the breast irradiated by electromagnetic radiation. The outcome of the computational study for the proposed deformable mirror-based thermal therapy for breast cancer is presented in this paper.

  14. Prototype Small Footprint Amplifier for Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Kris; Herriot, Glen; Niebergal, Joel; Zielinski, Adam

    2011-09-01

    AO subsystems of the ELT observatories will incorporate deformable mirrors with an order of magnitude larger number of piezoelectric actuators than the AO systems currently deployed. Simply scaling up the drive electronics that are presently available commercially would substantially drive up the AO cost, pose unacceptably high demands for the supply power and heat dissipation, and occupy large physical volume. We have set out to prototype a high voltage amplifier that is compact enough to allow packaging 100 amplifier channels on a single 6U Eurocard with the goal to have a DM drive channel density of 1200 per 6U VME crate. Individual amplifier circuits should be driven by a multichannel A/D converter, consume no more than 0.5W from the +/-400V power supply, be slew rate limited in hardware, and be short-circuit protected. The component cost should be an order of magnitude less than the integrated circuit high voltage amplifiers currently on the market. We started out with modeling candidate circuits in SPICE, then built physical prototypes using inexpensive off the shelf components. In this paper we present experimental results of exposing several prototype circuits to both normal operating conditions and foreseeable fault conditions. The performance is evaluated against the AO requirements for the output range and bandwidth and the DM actuator safety requirements.

  15. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  16. Imaging performance of elliptical-boundary varifocal mirrors in active optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, Sarah Jane

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems deformable-membrane mirrors provide a means of focus control and attendant spherical aberration correction for miniaturized imaging systems. The technology has greatly advanced in the last decade, thereby extending their focal range capabilities. This dissertation describes a novel SU-8 2002 silicon-on-insulator wafer deformable mirror. A 4.000 mm x 5.657 mm mirror for 45o incident light rays achieves 22 mum stroke or 65 diopters, limited by snapdown. The mirrors show excellent optical quality while flat. Most have peak-to-valley difference of less than 150 nm and root-mean-square less than 25 nm. The process proves simple, only requiring a silicon-on-insulator wafer, SU-8 2002, and a metal layer. Xenon difluoride etches the silicon to release the mirrors. Greater than 90% of the devices survive fabrication and release. While current literature includes several aberration analyses on static mirrors, analyses that incorporate the dynamic nature of these mirrors do not exist. Optical designers may have a choice between deformable mirrors and other types of varifocal mirrors or lenses. Furthermore, a dynamic mirror at an incidence angle other than normal may be desired due to space limitations or for higher throughput (normal incidence requires a beam splitter). This dissertation presents an analysis based on the characteristic function of the system. It provides 2nd and 3rd order aberration coefficients in terms of dynamic focus range and base ray incidence angle. These afford an understanding of the significance of different types of aberrations. Root-mean-square and Strehl calculations provide insight into overall imaging performance for various conditions. I present general guidelines for maximum incidence angle and field of fiew that provide near diffraction-limited performance. Experimental verification of the MEMS mirrors at 5o and 45o incidence angles validates the analytical results. A Blu-ray optical pick-up imaging

  17. Active control of a large deformable mirror for future E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasmi, R.; Le Bihan, D.; Dournaux, J. L.; Sinquin, J. C.; Jagourel, P.

    2010-07-01

    Increasing dimensions of ground based telescopes and adaptive optics needs for these instruments require wide deformable mirrors with a high number of actuators to compensate the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the wave fronts. The new dimensions and characteristics of these deformable mirrors lead to the apparition of structural vibrations, which may reduce the rejection band width of the adaptive optics control loop. The aim of this paper is the study of the dynamic behavior of a 1-meter prototype of E-ELT's deformable mirror in order to identify its eigenmodes and to propose some ways to control its vibrations. We first present the first eigenmodes of the structure determined by both finite element analysis and experimental modal analysis. Then we present the frequency response of the prototype to a tilt excitation to estimate the effects of its vibrations on the adaptive optics loop. Finally we suggest a method to control the dynamics of the deformable mirror.

  18. A monolithic deformable mirror with latchable mechanical actuation (LATCHAMAN) for space-borne telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, Keigo; Kataza, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Kenji; Okada, Norio; Iwashita, Hikaru; Haze, Kanae; Takahashi, Aoi; Kotani, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Kobayashi, Hitomi

    2014-09-01

    We present the concept, design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new deformable mirror (DM), which is latchable, compact, and designed to be applicable for cryogenic environments. The main body of a prototype DM was fabricated from a monolithic cuboid of aluminum using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). A flexible structure was constructed inside the block by 3-dimensionally crossed hollowing using the EDM. The prototype has 6 × 6 channels, and its volume is 27 mm × 27 mm × 30 mm. The mirror was formed on the surface of the aluminum block using a highprecision NC lathe. The surface figure of the mirror was evaluated and 34 nm rms was obtained. The evaluated surface roughness for the center and off-center areas of the mirror was 9.2 nm rms and 7.6 nm rms, respectively Screws set at the back of the block deform the mirror via springs and the internal flexible structure. We present our first demonstration of deformation of the mirror carried out at ambient temperature. The relationship between the displacement of the screws and the deformation of the mirror was evaluated. Consequently, a linear relationship was confirmed, and no significant hysteresis was found. The application of such mirrors to telescopes used for various different objectives is discussed. We conclude that a DM based on our concept can be used for wavefront correction of space-borne telescopes, especially in the infrared wavelength region.

  19. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S

    2007-01-25

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  20. A Piezoelectric Unimorph Deformable Mirror Concept by Wafer Transfer for Ultra Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2002-01-01

    Future concepts of ultra large space telescopes include segmented silicon mirrors and inflatable polymer mirrors. Primary mirrors for these systems cannot meet optical surface figure requirements and are likely to generate over several microns of wavefront errors. In order to correct for these large wavefront errors, high stroke optical quality deformable mirrors are required. JPL has recently developed a new technology for transferring an entire wafer-level mirror membrane from one substrate to another. A thin membrane, 100 mm in diameter, has been successfully transferred without using adhesives or polymers. The measured peak-to-valley surface error of a transferred and patterned membrane (1 mm x 1 mm x 0.016 mm) is only 9 nm. The mirror element actuation principle is based on a piezoelectric unimorph. A voltage applied to the piezoelectric layer induces stress in the longitudinal direction causing the film to deform and pull on the mirror connected to it. The advantage of this approach is that the small longitudinal strains obtainable from a piezoelectric material at modest voltages are thus translated into large vertical displacements. Modeling is performed for a unimorph membrane consisting of clamped rectangular membrane with a PZT layer with variable dimensions. The membrane transfer technology is combined with the piezoelectric bimorph actuator concept to constitute a compact deformable mirror device with a large stroke actuation of a continuous mirror membrane, resulting in a compact A0 systems for use in ultra large space telescopes.

  1. Out-of-plane actuation with a sub-micron initial gap for reconfigurable terahertz micro-electro-mechanical systems metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Akihiro; Kan, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2015-10-01

    We propose a reconfigurable terahertz (THz) metamaterial that can control the transmittance by out-of-plane actuation with changing the sub-micron gap distance between electrically coupled metamaterial elements. By using the out-of-plane actuation, it was possible to avoid contact between the coupled metamaterial elements across the small initial gap during the adjustment of the gap size. THz spectroscopy was performed during actuation, and the transmission dip frequency was confirmed to be tunable from 0.82 to 0.92 THz for one linear polarization state and from 0.80 to 0.91 THz for the other linear polarization; the two polarizations were orthogonal. The proposed approach will contribute to the development of tunable metamaterials based on structural deformations. PMID:26480137

  2. Analysis of the static deformation matching between numerical and experimental data on the voice-coil actuated deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vecchio, Ciro; Briguglio, Runa; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2014-08-01

    As any other modelling of a physical behavior, the numerical simulation of the mechanical response of an adaptive secondary mirror requires that the results match the experimental data. Such an agreement was recently demonstrated for the local mirror stiffness of the LBT and VLT Deformable Mirrors. A reliable modeling is a good tool for the extrapolation of the missing optical data (spider shadowing, edge vignetting, etc.) and a final goal method for simplifying, or even substituting, the complex optical measuring equipment required by the convex shells. In the present paper we compare the whole mirror deformation maps when a single actuator is poked, both in the optical data and in the numerical model. The limiting factors as well as a roadmap for future improvements will be identified.

  3. Temperature deformations of the mirror of a radio telescope antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avdeyev, V. I.; Grach, S. A.; Kozhakhmetov, K. K.; Kostenko, F. I.

    1979-01-01

    The stress informed state of the mirror of an antenna, with a diameter of 3 m, for a radio interferometer used in space, and located in a temperature field is examined. The mirror represents a parabolic shell, consisting of 19 identical parts. The problem is based on representations of the thermoelasticity of thin shells.

  4. Space active optics: performance of a deformable mirror for in-situ wave-front correction in space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lopez, Céline; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Chazallet, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    MADRAS (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) project aims at demonstrating the interest of Active Optics for space applications. We present the prototype of a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror to be included in a space telescope's pupil relay to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformation. The mirror design has been optimized with Finite Element Analysis and its experimental performance characterized in representative conditions. The developed deformable mirror provides an efficient wave-front correction with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements.

  5. Largest in the world bimorph deformable mirror for high-power laser beam correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Alexis; Samarkin, Vadim; Aleksandrov, Alex; Borsoni, Giles; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Romanov, Pavel; Sheldakova, Julia

    2016-03-01

    The deformable mirror with the size of 410x468 mm controlled by the bimorph piezoceramic plates and multilayer piezoceramic stacks was developed. The results of the measurements of the response functions of all the actuators and of the surface shape of the deformable mirror are presented in this paper. The study of the mirror with a Fizeau interferometer and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has shown that it was possible to improve the flatness of the surface down to a residual roughness of 0.033 μm (RMS). The possibility of correction of the aberrations in high power lasers was numerically demonstrated.

  6. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2015-04-15

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  7. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Matsuyama, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  8. Micro drilling using deformable mirror for beam shaping of ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarra, Marco; Strube, Anja; Dickmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Using ultra-short laser pulses for micro structuring or drilling applications reduces the thermal influence to the surrounding material. The best achievable beam profile equals a Gaussian beam. Drilling with this beam profile results in cylindrical holes. To vary the shape of the holes, the beam can either be scanned or - for single pulse and percussion drilling - manipulated by masks or lenses. A high flexible method for beam shaping can be realized by using a deformable mirror. This mirror contains a piezo-electric ceramic, which can be deformed by an electric potential. By separating the ceramic into independent controllable segments, the shape of the surface can be varied individually. Due to the closed surface of the mirror, there is no loss of intensity due to diffraction. The mirror deformation is controlled by Zernike polynomials and results e.g. in a lens behavior. In this study a deformable mirror was used to generate e.g. slits in thin steel foils by percussion drilling using ultra-short laser pulses. The influence of the cylindrical deformation to the laser beam and the resulting geometry of the generated holes was studied. It was demonstrated that due to the high update rate up to 150 Hz the mirror surface can be varied in each scan cycle, which results in a high flexible drilling process.

  9. Demonstration Of A Robust Composite Deformable Secondary Mirror With Low Surface Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, Stephen; Coughenour, B.; Hart, M.; Romeo, R.; Martin, R.

    2011-01-01

    I discuss recent improvements in the development of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) as a lightweight substrate for primary and deformable secondary mirrors on ground- and space-based telescopes. Weight reductions for ground-based primary mirrors can significantly affect cost: The weight and material cost of a large ground-based telescope go roughly as the primary mirror mass. CFRP composites provide several advantages as a substrate for thin-shell adaptive secondary mirrors as well, including high stiffness-to-weight ratio, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and robustness. We use an 8 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirror to show that spatial CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators. I present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. The figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is 43 nm RMS, placing it into consideration for use in near-IR astronomy. The low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 15 C and 33 nm RMS at -5 C) suggests that larger mirrors will have a similar figure quality under actuator correction on ground-based Adaptive Optics systems. Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. These experiments demonstrate CFRP's potential as a lightweight, robust substrate for thin-shell deformable secondary mirrors.

  10. Active optics experiments. II - Measurement of mirror deformation by holographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Noboru; Mikami, Izumi; Miyawaki, Keizou; Sasaki, Aki; Tabata, Masao

    An active optics experiment was performed to study the feasibility of using an active correction system for the Japanese National Large Telescope (Wilson, 1986). A thin mirror was deformed with an active support mechanism and the mirror surface was measured by a holographic method. The experiment is performed for several cases of excess force distributions assigned at the supporting points. The results show good agreement with predictions from FEM analysis.

  11. Analysis of a compliant static deformable mirror for wavefront error cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Dugdale, Joel

    2011-10-01

    The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) array, located near Flagstaff, Arizona, transports 12.5 cm diameter stellar radiation simultaneously from six primary collectors through a 9,000 cubic foot vacuum relay system prior to entering a specialized laboratory where further manipulations of each beam occur. The relay system redirects each 12.5 cm beam 10 times. Ground-based optical interferometry requires very high quality, ideally flat, relay mirrors. The mirrors used in the relay system have flatness deviation tolerance 32 nm peak-to-valley over the 18.3 cm clear aperture. Once mounted in the 10-element optical train, errors from each mirror tend to stack up and increase the resultant wavefront distortion for that path. This leads to reduced fringe contrast, fringe tracking, and number of observables. In a previous paper, it was shown that it is possible to mitigate the resultant wavefront distortion by using a phase-shifting interferometer combined with a single compliant static deformable mirror and control system. In that work, the mirrors tested showed a fairly uniform, concentric concavity deformation, which a single, centrally located actuator may significantly improve. In this paper, we extend the previous analysis to consider an off-center actuator acting on a mirror to counteract an asymmetric wavefront distortion resulting from the superposition of several relay mirrors. The shape applied to a single corrector mirror was determined from the resultant wavefront distortion of a 7-reflection optical relay system using phase-shifting interferometer data. Finite element analysis results indicating how resultant wavefront error from a collection of slightly deformed mirrors can be cancelled are presented and discussed.

  12. Deformation of partially pumped active mirrors for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Albach, Daniel; LeTouzé, Geoffroy; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2011-04-25

    We discuss the deformation of a partially pumped active mirror amplifier as a free standing disk, as implemented in several laser systems. We rely on the Lucia laser project to experimentally evaluate the analytical and numerical deformation models. PMID:21643092

  13. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinan, Anne; Cahoy, Kerri; Webber, Matthew; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront control systems yet have not been flown in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance. The MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is a conceptual nanosatellite demonstration of MEMS DM and wavefront sensing technology. The testbed platform is a 3U CubeSat bus. Of the 10 x 10 x 34.05 cm (3U) available volume, a 10 x 10 x 15 cm space is reserved for the optical payload. The main purpose of the payload is to characterize and calibrate the onorbit performance of a MEMS deformable mirror over an extended period of time (months). Its design incorporates both a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (internal laser illumination), and a focal plane sensor (used with an external aperture to image bright stars). We baseline a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines Mini deformable mirror for this mission, though the design is flexible and can be applied to mirrors from other vendors. We present the mission design and payload architecture and discuss experiment design, requirements, and performance simulations.

  14. Deformable mirror based remote focusing for fast three-dimensional microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Frade, Maria; Booth, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We present a deformable mirror based remote focusing method for three-dimensional imaging in high-resolution microscopy systems. The method relies on predefined mirror mode arrays that are obtained during initial mirror training step with a low complexity wavefront-sensing module. The imaging plane can be refocused over distances over a hundred times greater than the original depth of field of the objective lens along the optical axis at millisecond rates. We will demonstrate the combination of the remote focusing method with spatiotemporally focused two-photon excitation applied to three-dimensional imaging of biological samples.

  15. A Novel Concept for a Deformable Membrane Mirror for Correction of Large Amplitude Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jim; Patrick, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Very large, light weight mirrors are being developed for applications in space. Due to launch mass and volume restrictions these mirrors will need to be much more flexible than traditional optics. The use of primary mirrors with these characteristics will lead to requirements for adaptive optics capable of correcting wave front errors with large amplitude relatively low spatial frequency aberrations. The use of low modulus membrane mirrors actuated with electrostatic attraction forces is a potential solution for this application. Several different electrostatic membrane mirrors are now available commercially. However, as the dynamic range requirement of the adaptive mirror is increased the separation distance between the membrane and the electrodes must increase to accommodate the required face sheet deformations. The actuation force applied to the mirror decreases inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance; thus for large dynamic ranges the voltage requirement can rapidly increase into the high voltage regime. Experimentation with mirrors operating in the KV range has shown that at the higher voltages a serious problem with electrostatic field cross coupling between actuators can occur. Voltage changes on individual actuators affect the voltage of other actuators making the system very difficult to control. A novel solution has been proposed that combines high voltage electrodes with mechanical actuation to overcome this problem. In this design an array of electrodes are mounted to a backing structure via light weight large dynamic range flextensional actuators. With this design the control input becomes the separation distance between the electrode and the mirror. The voltage on each of the actuators is set to a uniform relatively high voltage, thus the problem of cross talk between actuators is avoided and the favorable distributed load characteristic of electrostatic actuation is retained. Initial testing and modeling of this concept

  16. Test results for an AOA-Xinetics grazing incidence x-ray deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles; Egan, Richard; Landers, Franklin; Cavaco, Jeffrey; Ezzo, Kevin; Khounsary, Ali

    2014-09-01

    X-ray telescopes use grazing incidence mirrors to focus X-ray photons from celestial objects. To achieve the large collecting areas required to image faint sources, thousands of thin, doubly curved mirrors are arranged in nested cylindrical shells to approximate a filled aperture. These mirrors require extremely smooth surfaces with precise figures to provide well-focused beams and small image spot sizes. The Generation-X telescope proposed by SAO would have a 12-meter aperture, a 50 m2 collecting area and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. This resolution would be obtained by actively controlling the mirror figure with piezoelectric actuators deposited on the back of each 0.4 mm thick mirror segment. To support SAO's Generation-X study, Northrop Grumman used internal funds to look at the feasibility of using Xinetics deformable mirror technologies to meet the Generation-X requirements. We designed and fabricated two 10 x 30 cm Platinum-coated silicon mirrors with 108 surface-parallel electrostrictive Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) actuators bonded to the mirror substrates. These mirrors were tested at optical wavelengths by Xinetics to assess the actuator's performance, but no funds were available for X-ray tests. In 2013, after receiving an invitation to evaluate the mirror's performance at Argonne National Laboratory, the mirrors were taken out of storage, refurbished, retested at Xinetics and transported to ANL for metrology measurements with a Long Trace Profilometer, a Fizeau laser interferometer, and X-ray tests. This paper describes the development and testing of the adaptive x-ray mirrors at AOAXinetics. Marathe, et al, will present the results of the tests at Argonne.

  17. Trans-reflection thermal driven deformable mirror with flexible bonding in high energy laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xingkun; Huang, Lei; Gong, Mali; Xue, Qiao

    2014-09-01

    Deformable mirrors used in high energy laser system suffer from problems like the stress from adhesive solidification or the relatively expensive unit price of piezoceramic actuator. The thermal driven deformable mirror (TDDM) investigated here provided a promising prospect to solve these problems. Four scenarios of TDDM were studied and compared. Results showed that the trans-reflection TDDM with flexible bonding best met the requirement in practical use. The flexible bonding excluded the stress problem in the solidification of adhesives, trans-reflection brought about enough correction range, and the choice of thermo-electric cooler as actuator could greatly bring down the cost of adaptive optics apparatus as well.

  18. Reliability of MEMS deformable mirror technology used in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, Allyson L.; Cornelissen, Steven A.; Bierden, Paul A.; Lam, Charlie V.; Davis, Daniel F.

    2010-02-01

    Deformable mirror (DM) technology based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology produced by Boston Micromachines Corporation has been demonstrated to be an enabling component in a variety of adaptive optics applications such as high contrast imaging in astronomy, multi object adaptive optics, free-space laser communication, and microscopy. Many of these applications require DMs with thousands of actuators operating at frame rates up to 10 kHz for many years requiring sufficient device reliability to avoid device failures. In this paper we present improvements in MEMS deformable mirrors for reliability along with test data and device lifetime prediction that show trillions of actuator-cycles can be achieved without failures.

  19. Zinc selenide-based large aperture photo-controlled deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Quintavalla, Martino; Bonora, Stefano; Natali, Dario; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Realization of large aperture deformable mirrors with a large density of actuators is important in many applications, and photo-controlled deformable mirrors (PCDMs) represent an innovation. Herein we show that PCDMs are scalable realizing a 2-inch aperture device based on a polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) as the photoconductive substrate and a thin polymeric reflective membrane. ZnSe is electrically characterized and analyzed through a model that we previously introduced. The PCDM is then optically tested, demonstrating its capabilities in adaptive optics. PMID:27244417

  20. Secure optical communication system utilizing deformable MEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziph-Schatzberg, Leah; Bifano, Thomas; Cornelissen, Steven; Stewart, Jason; Bleier, Zvi

    2009-02-01

    An optical communication system suitable for voice, data retrieval from remote sensors and identification is described. The system design allows operation at ranges of several hundred meters. The heart of the system is a modulated MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated and changes between a flat reflective state and a corrugated diffractive state. A process for mass producing these mirrors at low cost was developed and is described. The mirror was incorporated as a facet in a hollow retro-reflector, allowing temporal modulation of an interrogating beam and the return of the modulated beam to the interrogator. This system thus consists of a low power, small and light communication node with large (about 60°) angular extent. The system's range and pointing are determined by the interrogator /detector/demodulator (Transceiver) unit. The transceiver is comprised of an optical channel to establish line of sight communication, an interrogating laser at 1550nm, an avalanche photo diode to detect the return signal and electronics to drive the laser and demodulate the detected signal and convert it to an audio signal. A functional prototype system was built using a modified compact optical sight as the transceiver. Voice communication in free space was demonstrated. The design and test of major components and the complete system are discussed.

  1. Structural design and mitigation of mirror deformations in lunar-based telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, P.L.

    1994-11-01

    Structural design and analysis of the optical systems for lunar-based telescopes is a challenging task. A driving concern of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) preliminary design study was the degradation of the LUTE optical figure due to thermal deformations, during a temperature cycle of 65 to 265 K at the reference 40 deg latitude, 0 deg longitude landing site. In addressing this task, temperature effects were characterized, and primary-mirror thermal deformations calculated for use in the optical analyses. Trade studies evaluated the qualitative performance of various design schemes. Results indicated that statically determinate mirror supports with bottom-mounted flexures created less optical disturbance under thermal loading than mirror supports at the inner or outer periphery. Another trade indicated that a telescope`s baseplate must be athermalized with respect to the mirrors by matching thermal distortion coefficients. A comparison of three materials for the primary mirror predicted that silicon carbide would be the best material for resisting thermally induced figure deformations on the moon. 15 refs.

  2. Space active optics: in situ compensation of lightweight primary mirrors' deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.

    2010-12-01

    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. The goal here is to determine how an active optics system could be embarked on a satellite in order to correct the wave front deformations of the optical train. The optical aberrations appearing in a space environment are due to mirrors' deformations, with three main origins: the thermal variations, the weightlessness conditions and the use of large weightlighted primary mirrors. We are developing a model of deformable mirror as minimalist as possible, especially in term of number of actuators, which is able to correct the first Zernike polynomials in a specified range of amplitude and precision. Flight constraints as weight, volume and power consumption are considered. Firstly, such a system is designed according to the equations from the elasticity theory: we determine the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the mirror, the location of the forces to be applied and the way to apply them. Then the concept is validated with a Finite Element Analysis, allowing to optimize the system by taking into account parameters absent from the theory. At the end, the mirror will be realized and characterized in a representative optical configuration.

  3. Simulating wavefront correction via deformable mirrors at x-ray beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Tommaso; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Plinta, Audrey; Cavaco, Jeffrey L.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2012-10-01

    Deformable mirrors (DMs) have been successfully used in astronomical adaptive optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, greatly reducing atmospheric-induced aberrations. Building upon the extensive techniques and methods developed for these applications, we propose to extend this capability to the soft and hard x-ray regime in order to take full advantage of the beam quality characteristic of new facilities such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS-II), and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Achieving this goal challenges both current mirror manufacturing techniques and wavefront propagation modeling. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with Northrop Grumman AOA Xinetics Inc., is currently developing an x-ray deformable mirror to correct for wave-front aberrations introduced along the beam path of a typical x-ray beamline. To model the expected performance of such a mirror, we have developed a simulation based on the wavefront propagation code PROPER. We will present the current implementation of the software, which models actuation of a deformable mirror and evaluates its effect on wavefront correction.

  4. Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Enrique J.; Vabre, Laurent; Hermann, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Povazay, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    A novel deformable mirror using 52 independent magnetic actuators (MIRAO 52, Imagine Eyes) is presented and characterized for ophthalmic applications. The capabilities of the device to reproduce different surfaces, in particular Zernike polynomials up to the fifth order, are investigated in detail. The study of the influence functions of the deformable mirror reveals a significant linear response with the applied voltage. The correcting device also presents a high fidelity in the generation of surfaces. The ranges of production of Zernike polynomials fully cover those typically found in the human eye, even for the cases of highly aberrated eyes. Data from keratoconic eyes are confronted with the obtained ranges, showing that the deformable mirror is able to compensate for these strong aberrations. Ocular aberration correction with polychromatic light, using a near Gaussian spectrum of 130 nm full width at half maximum centered at 800 nm, in five subjects is accomplished by simultaneously using the deformable mirror and an achromatizing lens, in order to compensate for the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations, respectively. Results from living eyes, including one exhibiting 4.66 D of myopia and a near pathologic cornea with notable high order aberrations, show a practically perfect aberration correction. Benefits and applications of simultaneous monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction are finally discussed in the context of retinal imaging and vision.

  5. Optimization of electrode geometry and piezoelectric layer thickness of a deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchenko, Alexey V.; Nováková, Kateřina; Mokrý, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Deformable mirrors are the most commonly used wavefront correctors in adaptive optics systems. Nowadays, many applications of adaptive optics to astronomical telescopes, high power laser systems, and similar fast response optical devices require large diameter deformable mirrors with a fast response time and high actuator stroke. In order to satisfy such requirements, deformable mirrors based on piezoelectric layer composite structures have become a subject of intense scientific research during last two decades. In this paper, we present an optimization of several geometric parameters of a deformable mirror that consists of a nickel reflective layer deposited on top of a thin lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric disk. Honeycomb structure of gold electrodes is deposited on the bottom of the PZT layer. The analysis of the optimal thickness ratio between the PZT and nickel layers is performed to get the maximum actuator stroke using the finite element method. The effect of inter-electrode distance on the actuator stroke and influence function is investigated. Applicability and manufacturing issues are discussed.

  6. Theory and computation of three cosmic origin spectrograph aspheric gratings recorded with a multimode deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Duban, M

    1999-03-01

    The theory of three Cosmic Origin Spectrograph holographic gratings recorded with a deformable plane mirror is presented. Their working conditions are severe, since they have to correct the strong spherical aberration and the field astigmatism of the Hubble Space Telescope. Recorded on aspherized substrates, the gratings produce images that are diffraction limited with regard to spectral resolution. PMID:18305717

  7. Interferometric nulling limits with tip-tilt-piston deformable mirrors and a pinhole spatial filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of hexagonal segment tip-tilt-piston deformable mirrors alone and paired with pinhole spatial filter arrays for high-order wavefront correction of nulling interferometers used for visible light study of exoplanetary systems at 107 to 1010 contrast within regions extending ˜0.1 to 6 arc s from a parent star. A similar system has been proposed using a single-mode fiber array as an alternative to using multiple deformable mirrors to correct both phase aberrations and balance electric field amplitude, the benefit being drastically reduced component and control complexity. Performance is compared using measured deformable mirror data for hexagonal arrays consisting of a number of rings NR=2 to 18, emphasizing the trade between throughput and the additional contrast gained from suppressing wavefront errors introduced by the deformable mirror at spatial frequencies Λ≥NR that are otherwise present in the image at corresponding field locations. Taking into account effects of loss of throughput and vignetting, the nulled signal-to-noise ratio is shown to improve for filtered systems in the outer portion of the field of view. Modeled performance shows no significant change in signal-to-noise in the inner field of view.

  8. Concept and modeling analysis of a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Li, Yun; Wang, Anding; Xing, Tingwen

    2015-06-10

    Conventional deformable mirrors (DM) cannot meet the requirement of aberration controlling for advanced lithography tools. This paper illustrates an approach using the property that deformation of a thin plate is similar to optical modes to realize a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror whose deformation has characteristics of optical aberration modes. The way to arrange actuators is also examined. In this paper, a 36-actuator deformable mirror is taken as an example to generate low-order Zernike modes. The result shows that this DM generates the fourth fringe Zernike mode (Z4) defocus, and primary aberration Z5-Z8 with an error less than 0.5%, generates the fifth-order aberration Z10-Z14, and generates the seventh-order aberration Z17-Z20 with an error less than 1.1%. The high fidelity replication of the Zernike mode indicates that the DM satisfies the demand of controlling aberrations corresponding to the first 20 Zernike modes in an advanced lithography tool. PMID:26192845

  9. Analysis investigation of supporting and restraint conditions on the surface deformation of a collimator primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Yen; You, Zhen-Ting; Huang, Bo-Kai; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2015-09-01

    For meeting the requirements of the high-precision telescopes, the design of collimator is essential. The diameter of the collimator should be larger than that of the target for the using of alignment. Special supporting structures are demanded to reduce the deformation of gravity and to control the surface deformation induced by the mounting force when inspecting large-aperture primary mirrors. By using finite element analysis, a ZERODUR® mirror of a diameter of 620 mm will be analyzed to obtain the deformation induced by the supporting structures. Zernike polynomials will also be adopted to fit the optical surface and separate corresponding aberrations. Through the studies under different boundary conditions and supporting positions of the inner ring, it is concluded that the optical performance will be excellent under a strong enough supporter.

  10. Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Hourtoule, Claire; Singer, Christian; Devilliers, Christophe; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    The need for both high quality images and lightweight structures is one of the main drivers in space telescope design. An efficient wavefront control system will become mandatory in future large observatories, retaining performance while relaxing specifications in the global system's stability. We present the mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space project, which aims to demonstrate the applicability of active optics for future space instrumentation. It has led to the development of a 24-actuator, 90-mm-diameter active mirror, able to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformations in the telescope's exit pupil. The correcting system has been designed for expected wavefront errors from 3-m-class lightweight primary mirrors, while also taking into account constraints for space use. Finite element analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to achieve a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated testbed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated system performance in representative operating conditions. It is composed of: a telescope simulator, an active correction loop, a point spread function imager, and a Fizeau interferometer. All conducted tests demonstrated the correcting mirror performance and has improved this technology maturity to a TRL4.

  11. The thin mirror deformation and stress distribution analysis based on different influence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqiao; Fan, Bin; Wu, Yongqian; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Rong

    2014-08-01

    The active support technique can be applied in the fabrication of large thin meniscus mirror. It can reduce the grinding and polishing difficulty for thin mirror. Compare between two kinds of influence function, we correct the Zernike 5th, 6th, 10th and 11th mode deformation. The low-order Zernike modes which are prone to appearing during large primary mirror processing are revised with active support technology. Influence functions are expressed with Z coordinate value and Zernike coefficient of surface shape. This paper reports that respectively adopting different influence functions to solve correction forces and the correction forces compensates specific Zernike modes of mirror deformation. After comparing the PV and RMS values of amendatory residual of surface shape, we analyze the effect of different correction forces to the biggest stress on the underside of the primary mirror. We compare the two methods based on the PV and RMS values of the residual error and the Max-stress. Gain a conclusion that correction forces obtained from Z coordinate value of surface shape is superior to the one obtained from the Zernike coefficient of surface shape.

  12. Adaptive Optics: Arroyo Simulation Tool and Deformable Mirror Actuation Using Golay Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lint, Adam S.

    2005-01-01

    The Arroyo C++ libraries, written by Caltech post-doc student Matthew Britton, have the ability to simulate optical systems and atmospheric signal interference. This program was chosen for use in an end-to-end simulation model of a laser communication system because it is freely distributed and has the ability to be controlled by a remote system or "smart agent." Proposed operation of this program by a smart agent has been demonstrated, and the results show it to be a suitable simulation tool. Deformable mirrors, as a part of modern adaptive optics systems, may contain thousands of tiny, independently controlled actuators used to modify the shape of the mirror. Each actuator is connected to two wires, creating a cumbersome and expensive device. Recently, an alternative actuation method that uses gas-filled tubes known as Golay cells has been explored. Golay cells, operated by infrared lasers instead of electricity, would replace the actuator system thereby creating a more compact deformable mirror. The operation of Golay cells and their ability to move a deformable mirror in excess of the required 20 microns has been demonstrated. Experimentation has shown them to be extremely sensitive to pressure and temperature, making them ideal for use in a controlled environment.

  13. Demonstration of 17 cm robust carbon fiber deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. Mark; Hart, Michael; Coughenour, Blake; Romeo, Robert; Martin, Robert; Rademacher, Matt

    2011-10-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is an attractive material for fabrication of optics due to its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, robustness, zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and the ability to replicate multiple optics from the same mandrel. We use 8 and 17 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirrors to show that residual CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators for a variety of mirror sizes. We present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. For the 8 cm piece, the figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is ~43 nm RMS. The 8 cm mirror has a low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 20°C and 33 nm RMS at -5°C). Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. We present new figure quality measurements of the larger 17 cm mirror, showing that the intra-actuator figure error internal to the outer ring of actuators (38 nm RMS surface with one-third the actuator density of the 8 cm mirror) does not scale sharply with mirror diameter.

  14. Demonstration of a 17 cm robust carbon fiber deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, S M; Hart, M; Coughenour, B; Romeo, R; Martin, R; Rademacher, M

    2011-09-12

    Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is an attractive material for fabrication of optics due to its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, robustness, zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and the ability to replicate multiple optics from the same mandrel. We use 8 and 17 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirrors to show that residual CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators for a variety of mirror sizes. We present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. For the 8 cm piece, the figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is {approx}43 nm RMS. The 8 cm mirror has a low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 20 C and 33 nm RMS at -5 C). Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. We present new figure quality measurements of the larger 17 cm mirror, showing that the intra-actuator figure error internal to the outer ring of actuators (38 nm RMS surface with one-third the actuator density of the 8 cm mirror) does not scale sharply with mirror diameter.

  15. Scalable stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror for astronomy and laser processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L. Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Bryce, Emma; Hutson, David; Kirk, Katherine; Schwartz, Noah; Atkinson, David; Beard, Steven; Baillie, Tom; Parr-Burman, Phil; Strachan, Mel

    2014-02-15

    A prototype of a scalable and potentially low-cost stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror (SA-PDM) with 35 active elements is presented in this paper. This prototype is characterized by a 2 μm maximum actuator stroke, a 1.4 μm mirror sag (measured for a 14 mm × 14 mm area of the unpowered SA-PDM), and a ±200 nm hysteresis error. The initial proof of concept experiments described here show that this mirror can be successfully used for shaping a high power laser beam in order to improve laser machining performance. Various beam shapes have been obtained with the SA-PDM and examples of laser machining with the shaped beams are presented.

  16. High-aspect-ratio line focus for an x-ray laser by a deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, G.; Jitsuno, T.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1997-02-01

    A high-aspect-ratio line focus is required on a plane target in x-ray laser experiments for obtaining a high gain-length product. Inherent wave-front aberrations in line-focusing optics, which consist of a cylindrical lens and a spherical lens, are discussed with respect to beam diameter. The nonuniformity of the linewidth that is due to the aberrations is also calculated by the ABCD matrix method. A deformable mirror of a continuous plate type with a diameter of 185 mm provides an adequate wave-front distribution for compensating for the wave-front aberration. The wave-front control by the deformable mirror realizes a fine linewidth of 25 {mu}m and 18.2 mm long, corresponding to the aspect ratio of 728. The linewidth is three times the diffraction limit. The intensity distribution along the line focus is also improved. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  17. High-aspect-ratio line focus for an x-ray laser by a deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Yoon, G Y; Jitsuno, T; Kato, Y; Nakatsuka, M

    1997-02-01

    A high-aspect-ratio line focus is required on a plane target in x-ray laser experiments for obtaining a high gain-length product. Inherent wave-front aberrations in line-focusing optics, which consist of a cylindrical lens and a spherical lens, are discussed with respect to beam diameter. The nonuniformity of the linewidth that is due to the aberrations is also calculated by the ABCD matrix method. A deformable mirror of a continuous plate type with a diameter of 185 mm provides an adequate wave-front distribution for compensating for the wave-front aberration. The wave-front control by the deformable mirror realizes a fine linewidth of 25 microm and 18.2 mm long, corresponding to the aspect ratio of 728. The linewidth is three times the diffraction limit. The intensity distribution along the line focus is also improved. PMID:18250748

  18. Lightweight deformable mirrors for ground- and space-based imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, Sarah

    2006-08-01

    The next generation of ground- and space-based astronomical observatories will generate an increased requirement for lightweight and robust deformable optics. In space ultra-lightweight actively controlled mirrors will enable a continuing increase of aperture sizes, whilst large adaptive mirrors will become increasingly standard features in the optical design of adaptive optics-optimised Extremely Large Telescopes on the ground. This thesis presents results from a project to design, manufacture and test a prototype active mirror in a nickel-carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), which has been suggested in the literature to be a promising candidate material for such applications. Extensive finite element analysis results from gravitational sag and thermal models, as well as finite element-based predictions of the central actuator influence function profile, are presented. The main problems were encountered as a result of the in-mold nickel coating process, which resulted in residual form errors, and poor design of the support structures, leading to deterioration of the mirror surface quality. No fundamental reason ruling this material out for the use of precision deformable optics was identified. The finite element analysis results show significant promise for increased use of the method in optical design, as well as in integrated optical simulations for Extremely Large Telescopes.

  19. Woofer-tweeter deformable mirror control for closed-loop adaptive optics: theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald; Norton, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Deformable mirrors with very high order correction generally have smaller dynamic range of motion than what is required to correct seeing over large aperture telescopes. As a result, systems will need to have an architecture that employs two deformable mirrors in series, one for the low-order but large excursion parts of the wavefront and one for the finer and smaller excursion components. The closed-loop control challenge is to a) keep the overall system stable, b) avoid the two mirrors using control energy to cancel each others correction, c) resolve actuator saturations stably, d) assure that on average the mirrors are each correcting their assigned region of spatial frequency space. We present the control architecture and techniques for assuring that it is linear and stable according to the above criteria. We derived the analytic forms for stability and performance and show results from simulations and on-sky testing using the new ShaneAO system on the Lick 3-meter telescope.

  20. A 1-metre Ni coated CFRP demonstrator for large deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Samantha J.; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Strangwood, Martin

    We present results from our current project to develop an alternative substrate for large deformable mirrors, particularly with the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) in mind. Our mirror substrate consists of a carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) core encapsulated in a thick (50µm) coating of nickel; the coating entirely covers the CFRP front, back and edges. The benefits of CFRP are: that it has high tensile strength, making it exceptionally resistant to breakage and able to withstand high inter-actuator forces; that it can be fabricated in large sections, allowing the production of a 2.6 m monolithic mirror, simplifying system control and eliminating additional diffraction/scattering introduced by segmented mirror systems; its low density (< 1800 kgm-3 for a Ni coated substrate). By the end of summer this year (2009) we aim to have constructed a 19 cm diameter fully actuated (37 piezo-stack actuators on a 29 mm triangular grid) prototype and a 1.0 m diameter substrate mounted on a static set of points to demonstrate the scalability of the technology. We discuss the processes involved in forming a Ni-CFRP mirror, the results obtained so far and a current status update.

  1. Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christopher; Bradu, Adrian; Rogers, John; Phelan, Pauline; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We present a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1060 nm equipped with a wavefront sensor at 830 nm and a deformable mirror in a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system. Due to the AO correction, the confocal profile of the interface optics becomes narrower than the OCT axial range, restricting the part of the B-scan (cross section) with good contrast. By actuating on the deformable mirror, the depth of the focus is changed and the system is used to demonstrate Gabor filtering in order to produce B-scan OCT images with enhanced sensitivity throughout the axial range from a Drosophila larvae. The focus adjustment is achieved by manipulating the curvature of the deformable mirror between two user-defined limits. Particularities of controlling the focus for Gabor filtering using the deformable mirror are presented. PMID:25588163

  2. Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Christopher; Bradu, Adrian; Rogers, John; Phelan, Pauline; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We present a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1060 nm equipped with a wavefront sensor at 830 nm and a deformable mirror in a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system. Due to the AO correction, the confocal profile of the interface optics becomes narrower than the OCT axial range, restricting the part of the B-scan (cross section) with good contrast. By actuating on the deformable mirror, the depth of the focus is changed and the system is used to demonstrate Gabor filtering in order to produce B-scan OCT images with enhanced sensitivity throughout the axial range from a Drosophila larvae. The focus adjustment is achieved by manipulating the curvature of the deformable mirror between two user-defined limits. Particularities of controlling the focus for Gabor filtering using the deformable mirror are presented.

  3. Variable focal length on-and off-axis deformable concave and convex mirror and its application for thermal lens compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Marc; Smith, Ian C.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Headley, Daniel Ignacio; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Schwarz, Jens

    2005-07-01

    We have improved deformable mirror approach to allow good parabolic deformation for efficient thermal lens compensation. Our design uses an annulus to push onto the back surface of a flat mirror substrate, simply supported at the outer edge, thereby creating a parabolic deformation within the encircled area. We built an assembly using a 25.4 mm diameter, 1 mm thick mirror with a wedge of less than 10 arc seconds that was deformed with a 12 mm diameter annulus at the back of the mirror. Using a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor we performed careful measurements to characterize the performance of the mirrors.

  4. Method of analysis for determining and correcting mirror deformation due to gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Ernesto Penado, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, located near Flagstaff, Arizona, is a ground-based interferometer that collects, transports, and modulates stellar radiation from up to six primary flat collectors, known as siderostats, through a common vacuum relay system to a combiner. In the combiner, the modulated beams are superimposed, fringes obtained, and data recorded for further analysis to produce precise star positions or stellar details. The current number of observable stellar objects for the astrometric interferometer can increase from 6000 to at least 47,000 with the addition of full-aperture 20-deg down-tilting beam compressors in each optical train. Such an aperture increase, from the current 12.5 to 35 cm, opens the sky to many additional and fainter stars. Engineering analysis of our beam compressor primary mirror shows that the maximum allowable sag, 21 nm, occurs prematurely at 2.8-deg down-tilt angle. Furthermore, at the operational down-tilt angle of 20 deg, the wavefront deformation increases to 155 nm. We present a finite element analysis technique and design modification concept to reduce tilt-induced deformation on the mirror surface. This work is a first pass to determine the feasibility for a mechanical solution path forward. From this analysis, we found that four outwardly applied 17.8-N forces on the rear surface of the mirror could reduce sag from 155 to 32 nm at 20-deg down-tilt angle.

  5. Characterization of a bimorph deformable mirror using stroboscopic phase-shifting interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, David A.; Park, Hyunkyu; Laut, Sophie P.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic characteristics of a bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for use in an adaptive optics system are described. The DM is a 35-actuator device composed of two disks of lead magnesium niobate (PMN), an electrostrictive ceramic that produces a mechanical strain in response to an imposed electric field. A custom stroboscopic phase-shifting interferometer was developed to measure the deformation of the mirror in response to applied voltage. The ability of the mirror to replicate optical aberrations described by the Zernike polynomials was tested as a measure of the mirror’s static performance. The natural frequencies of the DM were measured up to 20 kHz using both stroboscopic interferometry as well as a commercial laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Interferometric measurements of the DM surface profile were analyzed by fitting the surface with mode-shapes predicted using classical plate theory for an elastically supported disk. The measured natural frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the theoretical model. PMID:19122798

  6. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  7. Evaluation of control laws and actuator locations for control systems applicable to deformable astronomical telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the major difficulties associated with large orbiting astronomical telescopes are the cost of manufacturing the primary mirror to precise tolerances and the maintaining of diffraction-limited tolerances while in orbit. One successfully demonstrated approach for minimizing these problem areas is the technique of actively deforming the primary mirror by applying discrete forces to the rear of the mirror. A modal control technique, as applied to active optics, has previously been developed and analyzed. The modal control technique represents the plant to be controlled in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions which are estimated via numerical approximation techniques. The report includes an extension of previous work using the modal control technique and also describes an optimal feedback controller. The equations for both control laws are developed in state-space differential form and include such considerations as stability, controllability, and observability. These equations are general and allow the incorporation of various mode-analyzer designs; two design approaches are presented. The report also includes a technique for placing actuator and sensor locations at points on the mirror based upon the flexibility matrix of the uncontrolled or unobserved modes of the structure. The locations selected by this technique are used in the computer runs which are described. The results are based upon three different initial error distributions, two mode-analyzer designs, and both the modal and optimal control laws.

  8. A Novel Microprocessor-Controlled High-Voltage Driver for Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuck, H.-M.; Buske, I.; Buschmann, U.; Krause, H.; Wittrock, U.

    Genetic algorithms have found widespread use in adaptive optics. One important advantage compared to the matrix inversion method is that it is not necessary to measure the wavefront of the optical beam on which the deformable mirror acts. Instead, any signal, that is monotonic increasing with the quality of the desired wavefront, is sufficient as a feedback signal. Often, this signal derives from a power-in-the-bucket measurement in the far-field of the beam. In coherent control of chemical reactions with temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses the signal derives from the rate at which the desired chemical is produced. In our adaptive optics experiments we use micro-machined silicon membrane mirrors with up to 59 electrostatic actuators. We have developed a microprocessor-controlled highvoltage driver for up to 60 channels because we could not find a suitable driver on the market. The driver is a fully self-contained unit that only needs input power and communicates with a personal computer via a USB interface. It is especially suited for controlling adaptive mirrors with a genetic algorithm. The driver can store up to 100 voltage patterns, apply them sequentially to the mirror, store up to 4 feedback signals for each voltage pattern, and relay these feedback signals back to the host computer. We will discuss performance issues and tradeoffs like speed, bit resolution, and number of electrodes in our presentation.

  9. MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

  10. Time-dependent deformation of surface geometry on light weight and thermally stable CFRP mirror in humid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arao, Yoshihiko; Koyanagi, Jun; Utsunomiya, Shin; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Kawada, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-01

    CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) is the ideal material for space based mirror due to its low thermal expansion, and high specific modulus. To expand the use of CFRP, we investigated the long-term stability of CFRP under humid environment. CFRP mirror was made as precise as possible by using special class of material and adopting particular design techniques. Dimensional stability of CFRP mirror was evaluated by nano-scale measurement. The factors which cause out-of-plane deformation of the mirror is discussed.

  11. Real-time open-loop control of a 1024-actuator MEMS deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Célia; Conan, Rodolphe; Bradley, Colin; Guyon, Olivier; Gamroth, Darryl; Nash, Reston

    2010-07-01

    This article reports the progress made at the University of Victoria AO Lab, regarding the realtime open-loop control of a 1024-actuator MEMS deformable mirror (DM). The setup is an hybrid woofer-tweeter/open-loop bench. A tip-tilt mirror and a woofer DM (a 57-actuator CILAS DM) are driven in closed-loop while a 1024-actuator MEMS DM is utilized on a parallel open-loop path. Previous work shows that open-loop control providing low residual error (with frozen Kolmogorov turbulence) can be obtained without the need of DM modelling. A preliminary methodical calibration of the DM is employed instead. The MEMS electronics were upgraded to an update rate of 500 Hz and the experiment lays the groundwork for showing how these performances can also be achieved on the bench with dynamic turbulence (created with custom hot air turbulence generators). The current status of the experiment and the next milestones are presented.

  12. Effect of the particular temperature field on a National Ignition Facility deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qi; Huang, Lei; Ma, Xingkun; Xue, Qiao; Gong, Mali

    2016-09-01

    The changes caused by temperature in the surface shape of a deformable mirror used at the National Ignition Facility has been investigated previously. In this paper the temperature induced surface shape under different temperature fields is further studied. We find that the changes of the peak and valley (PV) or root-mean-square (RMS) value rely on the temperature gradient as well as the difference between the mirror and the environment with a certain rule. This work analyzes these quantitative relationship, using the finite element method. Some experiments were carried out to verify the analysis results. The conclusion provides guidance to minimize the effect of the temperature field on the surface shape. Considerations about how to improve the temperature induced faceplate in actual work are suggested finally.

  13. Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Jens; Ramsey, Marc; Smith, Ian; Headley, Daniel; Porter, John

    2006-08-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser at Sandia National Laboratories can perform a full system shot every 3-4 h. This shot rate is limited by thermal aberrations that result from the flashlamp pumped Nd:phosphate amplifier slabs. The lowest order as well as the strongest aberration is of cylindrical shape. Therefore, a single actuator deformable mirror assembly for correction of cylindrical aberration was developed. Mirror performance was modeled using finite element analysis and showed good agreement with derived analytical expressions. Quantitative measurements were performed with an interferometer and thermal lens compensation was achieved in the Z-Beamlet laser system leading to an increased shot rate of one in every 2 h.

  14. Compensation of Gravity-Induced Structural Deformations on a Beam- Waveguide Antenna Using a Deformable Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Moore, M.; Rochblatt, D. J.; Veruttipong, W.

    1995-01-01

    At the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Complex, a 34-meter- diameter beam-waveguide antenna, DSS-13, was constructed in 1988-1990 and has become an integral part of an advanced systems program and a test bed for technologies being developed to introduce Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the DSN. A method for compensating the gravity- induced structural deformations in this large antenna is presented.

  15. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  16. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics in very strong turbulence using a magnetic-liquid deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Thibault, Simon; Borra, Ermanno F.; F.-Boivin, Simon.

    2012-07-01

    We present progress towards the development of a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (AO) system using the first 37 actuators of a 91-actuator magnetic-liquid deformable mirror (MLDM) and a magnetic 97-actuator DM from ALPAO. The MLDM, which has both very large single-actuator and inter-actuator strokes, but a low bandwidth, is used as woofer, whereas the high bandwidth and lower stroke ALPAO DM is used as tweeter. The ALPAO DM should improve the bandwidth of the MLDM while the MLDM will allow correction of strong aberrations.

  17. Measurement of thermal deformation of an engine piston using a conical mirror and ESPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi, Armando, Jr.; Melao, Iza; Devece, Eugenio

    1998-07-01

    An experimental technique is developed to measure the radial displacement component of cylindrical surfaces using a conical mirror for normal illumination and observation. Single illumination ESPI is used to obtain fringe patterns related to the radial displacement field. Some data processing strategies are presented and discussed to properly extract the measurement data. Data reduction algorithms are developed to quantify and compensate the rigid body displacements: translations and rotations. The displacement component responsible for shape distortion (deformation) can be separated from the total displacement field. The thermal radial deformation of an aluminum engine piston with a steel sash is measured by this technique. A temperature change of about 2 degrees Celsius was applied to the engine piston by means of an electrical wire wrapped up in the first engine piston grove. The fringe patterns are processed and the results are presented as polar graphics and 3D representation. The main advantages and limitations of the developed technique are discussed.

  18. Restraint deformation and corrosion protection of gold deposited aluminum mirrors for cold optics of mid-infrared instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Mizuho; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Okada, Kazushi; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Kataza, Hirokazu; Sarugaku, Yuki; Kirino, Okiharu; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Okada, Norio; Mitsui, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    We report the restraint deformation and the corrosion protection of gold deposited aluminum mirrors for mid-infrared instruments. To evaluate the deformation of the aluminum mirrors by thermal shrinkage, monitoring measurement of the surface of a mirror has been carried out in the cooling cycles from the room temperature to 100 K. The result showed that the effect of the deformation was reduced to one fourth if the mirror was screwed with spring washers. We have explored an effective way to prevent the mirror from being galvanically corroded. A number of samples have been prepared by changing the coating conditions, such as inserting an insulation layer, making a multi-layer and overcoating water blocking layer, or carrying out precision cleaning before coating. Precision cleaning before the deposition and protecting coat with SiO over the gold layer seemed to be effective in blocking corrosion of the aluminum. The SiO over-coated mirror has survived the cooling test for the mid-infrared use and approximately 1 percent decrease in the reflectance has been detected at 6-25 microns compared to gold deposited mirror without coating.

  19. Concept, modeling, and performance prediction of a low-cost, large deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Heimsten, Rikard; MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2012-02-10

    While it is attractive to integrate a deformable mirror (DM) for adaptive optics (AO) into the telescope itself rather than using relay optics within an instrument, the resulting large DM can be expensive, particularly for extremely large telescopes. A low-cost approach for building a large DM is to use voice-coil actuators connected to the back of the DM through suction cups. Use of such inexpensive voice-coil actuators leads to a poorly damped system with many structural modes within the desired bandwidth. Control of the mirror dynamics using electro-mechanical sensors is thus required for integration within an AO system. We introduce a distributed control approach, and we show that the "inner" back sensor control loop does not need to function at low frequencies, leading to significant cost reduction for the sensors. Incorporating realistic models of low-cost actuators and sensors together with an atmospheric seeing model, we demonstrate that the low-cost mirror strategy is feasible within a closed-loop AO system. PMID:22330282

  20. Measurement of a large deformable aspherical mirror using SCOTS (Software Configurable Optical Test System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Horne, Todd; Brusa Zappellini, Guido; Burge, Jim H.

    2013-09-01

    The software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) is an efficient metrology technology based on reflection deflectometry that uses only an LCD screen and a camera to measure surface slope. The surface slope is determined by triangulations using the coordinates of the display screen, camera and test mirror. We present our recent SCOTS test results concentrated on high dynamic range measurements of low order aberrations. The varying astigmatism in the 91 cm diameter aspheric deformable secondary mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) was measured with SCOTS, requiring no null corrector. The SCOTS system was designed on axis with camera and screen aligned on the optical axis of the test mirror with the help of a 6 inch pellicle beam splitter. The on-axis design gives better control of the astigmatism in the test. The high dynamic range of slope provided a measurement of astigmatism with 0.2 μm rms accuracy in the presence of 231 μm peak-to-valley (PV) aspheric departure. The simplicity of the test allowed the measurements to be performed at multiple elevation angles.

  1. Development of Robust, Light-weight, Agile Deformable Mirrors in Carbon Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, M.; Ammons, S. M.; Coughenour, B.; Richardson, L.,; Romeo, R.; Martin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has recently been developed to the point that surfaces of high optical quality can be routinely replicated. Building on this advance, we are developing a new generation of deformable mirrors (DMs) for adaptive optics application that extends long-standing expertise at the University of Arizona in large, optically powered DMs for astronomy. Our existing mirrors, up to 90 cm in diameter and with aspheric deformable facesheets, are deployed on a number of large astronomical telescopes. With actuator stroke of up to 50 microns and no hysteresis, they are delivering the best imaging ever seen from an astronomical AO system. Their Zerodur glass ceramic facesheets though are not well suited to non-astronomical applications. In this paper, we describe developmental work to replace the glass components of the DMs with CFRP, an attractive material for optics fabrication because of its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, strength, and very low coefficient of thermal expansion. Surface roughness arising from fiber print-through in the CFRP facesheets is low, < 3 nm PTV across a range of temperature, and the optical figure after correction of static terms by the DM actuators is on the order of 20 nm rms. After initial investment in an optical quality mandrel, replication costs of identical units in CFRP are very low, making the technology ideal for rapid mass production.

  2. Control of the unilluminated deformable mirror actuators in an altitude-conjugated adaptive optics system

    PubMed

    Veran

    2000-07-01

    Off-axis observations made with adaptive optics are severely limited by anisoplanatism errors. However, conjugating the deformable mirror to an optimal altitude can reduce these errors; it is then necessary to control, through extrapolation, actuators that are not measured by the wave-front sensor (unilluminated actuators). In this study various common extrapolation schemes are investigated, and an optimal method that achieves a significantly better performance is proposed. This extrapolation method involves a simple matrix multiplication and will be implemented in ALTAIR, the Gemini North Telescope adaptive optics system located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. With this optimal method, the relative H-band Strehl reduction due to extrapolation errors is only 5%, 16%, and 30% when the angular distance between the guide source and the science target is 20, 40 and 60 arc sec, respectively. For a site such as Mauna Kea, these errors are largely outweighed by the increase in the size of the isoplanatic field. PMID:10883986

  3. Adaptive optics vision simulator based on 35 element bimorph deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Dai, Yun; Xiao, Fei; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Haoxin; Bao, Hua; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-09-01

    A novel adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS) is presented and characterized for several design features, including automated measuring and compensating eye's aberrations up to the fifth order, which fully cover aberrations typically found in the human eye, even for the cases of highly aberrated eyes. Especially, it is equipped with 35 elements bimorph deformable mirror with bigger stroke and smaller size, which could help establish near-diffraction-limited ocular optics condition. To investigate the validity of this apparatus, pilot data under different aberration correction pattern from one subjects are collected, and contrast sensitivity function (CSF), an important psychophysical function in vision, is obtained also. Results from living eyes show a practically perfect aberration correction and demonstrate the utility of this system.

  4. Large-aperture deformable mirror correction of tiled-grating wavefront error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, B. E.; Jungquist, R.; Qiao, J.; Abbey, S.; Dean, S. E.; Maywar, D. N.; Moore, M. D.; Waxer, L. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    2006-06-01

    When tiling three gratings, with each individually exhibiting astigmatism and power due to holographic errors and coating stress, the resulting wavefront aberrations contain high-frequency components as well as the fundamental frequency, which is nearly three cycles across the aperture in the tiling direction. A deformable mirror (DM) that was designed to compensate for much slower errors (e.g., those arising from distortion in amplifier disks) is being used to compensate for this tiling-induced error. This investigation studies the effectiveness of compensating only the fundamental frequency of the tiled aberration, and shows that this provides a significant improvement that is adequate for a range of expected aberrations. Limitations of the DM correction technique are also studied.

  5. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Brejnholt, Nicolai F; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experiment at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector. PMID:27250383

  6. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-20

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experimentmore » at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Lastly, direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.« less

  7. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  8. Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed: Performance and Characterization of a 1024 Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Morzinski, K; Severson, S; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Dillon, D; REza, L; Gavel, D; Palmer, D

    2005-10-30

    We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.

  9. Application of modern-control-design methodologies to a multi-segmented deformable-mirror system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, E.M.

    1991-05-23

    The multi-segmented deformable mirror system is proposed as an element for a portion of a ballistic missile defense system. The size of the mirror required for this defense function requires that the mirror be developed in segments, and then these segments should be phased together to produce one continuous, large optic. The application of multivariable control system synthesis techniques to provide closed-loop wavefront control of the deformable mirror system is the problem discussed in this thesis. The method of H at infinity control system synthesis using loop-shaping techniques was used to develop a controller that meets a robust performance specification. The number and location of sensors was treated as a design variable, and the structured singular value (mu) was used to determine the performance robustness of the deformable mirror system. Decentralized control issues are also addressed through the use of necessary conditions in an effort to determine a suitable decentralized control structure with performance similar to that of the centralized controller.

  10. Active deformation and engineering analysis of CFRP mirror of various lay-up sequences within quasi-isotropic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunmei; Yu, Xia; Guo, Peiji

    2014-08-01

    A regularization stiffness coefficient method was verified further to optimize lay-up sequences of quasi-isotropic laminates for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite mirrors. Firstly, the deformation due to gravity of 1G and temperature difference of 20-100°C and the modal were analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Secondly, the influence of angle error of ply stacking on quasi-isotropic of bending stiffness was evaluated. Finally, an active support system of 49 actuators in circular arrangement is designed for a 500mm CFRP mirror, and its goal is to deform the spherical CFRP mirror to a parabolic. Therefore, the response functions of the actuators were gotten, and the surface form errors and stresses were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the CFRP mirrors designed by the method have a better symmetrical bending deformation under gravity and thermal load and a higher fundamental frequency, and the larger n the better symmetry (for π/n quasi-isotropic laminates); the method reduces the sensitivity to misalignment of ply orientation for symmetric bending, and the mirror's maximum von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are less compared to those laminates not optimized in lay-up sequence.

  11. Temperature sensor and display researched based on micro-deformation of beam splitting mirror in holographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Delong; Chen, Xiuyan; Gao, Peng; Yu, Ji; Sun, Xue; Wang, Xin

    2015-04-01

    The 45° beam splitting mirror plays a vital role on image quality in the Holographic system, in order to study the influence of environment temperature variation on the 45° beam splitting mirror in the Holographic system, finite element analysis method is used to simulate the anti-three through seven mirror deformation at 27°C, 28°C and 29°C temperature in theory. A new real-time monitoring and displaying photoelectric system for ambient temperature and beam splitting mirror distortion detection is designed to provide real-time temperature change and deformation detection , which is made up of laser speckle interferometer, chip temperature sensor, two-operational amplifier, MCU and LED indicator. And the out-plane displacement value measured in the experiment under the condition of temperature correspondingly are 406nm, 420nm and 427 nm. Finally, the relation equation of temperature and mirror deformation is established by the method of exponential equation fitting, which will provide preliminary theoretical and experimental reference for further research.

  12. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films. PMID:25322105

  13. Image-based calibration of a deformable mirror in wide-field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Turaga, Diwakar

    2014-01-01

    Optical aberrations limit resolution in biological tissues, and their influence is particularly large for promising techniques like light-sheet microscopy. In principle, image quality might be improved by adaptive optics (AO), in which aberrations are corrected using a deformable mirror (DM). To implement AO in microscopy, one requires a method to measure wavefront aberrations, but the most commonly used methods have limitations for samples lacking point-source emitters. Here we implement an image-based wavefront-sensing technique, a variant of generalized phase-diverse imaging called multi-frame blind deconvolution, and exploit it to calibrate a DM in a light-sheet microscope. We describe two methods of parameterizing the influence of the DM on aberrations: a traditional Zernike expansion requiring 1,040 parameters, and a direct physical model of the DM requiring just 8 or 110 parameters. By randomizing voltages on all actuators, we show that the Zernike expansion successfully predicts wavefronts to an accuracy of approximately 30 nm (rms) even for large aberrations. We thus show that image-based wavefront sensing, which requires no additional optical equipment, allows for a simple but powerful method to calibrate a deformable optical element in a microscope setting. PMID:20390001

  14. Stroke saturation on a MEMS deformable mirror for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie; Macintosh, Bruce; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren

    2009-03-01

    High-contrast imaging of extrasolar planet candidates around a main-sequence star has recently been realized from the ground using current adaptive optics (AO) systems. Advancing such observations will be a task for the Gemini Planet Imager, an upcoming "extreme" AO instrument. High-order "tweeter" and low-order "woofer" deformable mirrors (DMs) will supply a >90%-Strehl correction, a specialized coronagraph will suppress the stellar flux, and any planets can then be imaged in the "dark hole" region. Residual wavefront error scatters light into the DM-controlled dark hole, making planets difficult to image above the noise. It is crucial in this regard that the high-density tweeter, a micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) DM, have sufficient stroke to deform to the shapes required by atmospheric turbulence. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the rate and circumstance of saturation, i.e. stroke insufficiency. A 1024-actuator 1.5-um-stroke MEMS device was empirically tested with software Kolmogorov-turbulence screens of r_0=10-15cm. The MEMS when solitary suffered saturation ~4% of the time. Simulating a woofer DM with ~5-10 actuators across a 5-m primary mitigated MEMS saturation occurrence to a fraction of a percent. While no adjacent actuators were saturated at opposing positions, mid-to-high-spatial-frequency stroke did saturate more frequently than expected, implying that correlations through the influence functions are important. Analytical models underpredict the stroke requirements, so empirical studies are important.

  15. Simultaneous correction of large low-order and high-order aberrations with a new deformable mirror technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooms, F.; Camet, S.; Curis, J. F.

    2010-02-01

    A new technology of deformable mirror will be presented. Based on magnetic actuators, these deformable mirrors feature record strokes (more than +/- 45μm of astigmatism and focus correction) with an optimized temporal behavior. Furthermore, the development has been made in order to have a large density of actuators within a small clear aperture (typically 52 actuators within a diameter of 9.0mm). We will present the key benefits of this technology for vision science: simultaneous correction of low and high order aberrations, AO-SLO image without artifacts due to the membrane vibration, optimized control, etc. Using recent papers published by Doble, Thibos and Miller, we show the performances that can be achieved by various configurations using statistical approach. The typical distribution of wavefront aberrations (both the low order aberration (LOA) and high order aberration (HOA)) have been computed and the correction applied by the mirror. We compare two configurations of deformable mirrors (52 and 97 actuators) and highlight the influence of the number of actuators on the fitting error, the photon noise error and the effective bandwidth of correction.

  16. Application of a new high-speed magnetic deformable mirror for in-vivo retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Mata, Sandra E.; Jones, Steven M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays in ophthalmologic practice several commercial instruments are available to image patient retinas in vivo. Many modern fundus cameras and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes allow acquisition of two dimensional en face images of the retina with both back reflected as well as fluorescent light. Additionally, optical coherence tomography systems allow non-invasive probing of three-dimensional retinal morphology. For all of these instruments the available lateral resolution is limited by optical quality of the human eye used as the imaging objective. To improve lateral resolution and achieve diffraction-limited imaging, adaptive optics (AO) can be implemented with any of these imaging systems to correct both static and dynamic aberrations inherent in human eyes. Most of the wavefront correctors used previously in AO systems have limited dynamic range and an insufficient number of actuators to achieve diffraction-limited correction of most human eyes. Thus, additional corrections were necessary, either by trial lenses or additional deformable mirrors (DMs). The UC Davis AO flood-illuminated fundus camera system described in this paper has been previously used to acquire in vivo images of the photoreceptor mosaic and for psychophysical studies on normal and diseased retinas. These results were acquired using a DM manufactured by Litton ITEK (DM109), which has 109 actuators arranged in a hexagonal array below a continuous front-surface mirror. It has an approximate surface actuator stroke of +/-2μm. Here we present results with a new hi-speed magnetic DM manufactured by ALPAO (DM97, voice coil technology), which has 97 actuators and similar inter-actuator stroke (>3μm, mirror surface) but much higher low-order aberration correction (defocus stroke of at least +/-30μm) than the previous one. In this paper we report results of testing performance of the ALPAO DM for the correction of human eye aberrations. Additionally changes made to our AO flood

  17. Characterization of a MEMS deformable mirror by far field intensity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Cherry; Finn, Susanna; Choi, Stacey; Doble, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    The performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system is typically measured using the wavefront sensor (WFS). However, another method is to use the point spread function (PSF), which is sensitive to scatter, does not act as a low pass filter and is not dependent on the WFS calibration. We decided to examine the performance of an AO system built for vision science that employed a micromechanical systems (MEMS) based deformable mirror (DM). Specifically, the MEMS DM consists of 489 actuators, resulting in 163 segments each with individual piston/tip/tilt control. Initial evaluation of the DM with a model eye included determining the ability of the DM to generate individual Zernike polynomials and evaluating the far field PSF to measure wavefront correction performance. For individual Zernike polynomial terms, the DM was found to be capable of correcting the aberration magnitudes expected from previously published human population studies.1, 2 Finally, the DM was used in an AO fundus camera to successfully acquire images of cone photoreceptors in a living human eye. This is part of ongoing work which will incorporate the MEMS DM into both an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and an AO optical coherence tomography (OCT) system where the form of the PSF at the confocal pinhole/optical fiber is important for optimal imaging.

  18. Optical zoom lens module using MEMS deformable mirrors for portable device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia-Shiun; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2012-10-01

    The thickness of the smart phones in today's market is usually below than 10 mm, and with the shrinking of the phone volume, the difficulty of its production of the camera lens has been increasing. Therefore, how to give the imaging device more functionality in the smaller space is one of the interesting research topics for today's mobile phone companies. In this paper, we proposed a thin optical zoom system which is combined of micro-electromechanical components and reflective optical architecture. By the adopting of the MEMS deformable mirrors, we can change their radius of curvature to reach the optical zoom in and zoom out. And because we used the all-reflective architecture, so this system has eliminated the considerable chromatic aberrations in the absence of lenses. In our system, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal length) is 4.61 mm at a diagonal field angle of 52° and f/# of 5.24. The longest EFL of the module is 9.22 mm at a diagonal field angle of 27.4 with f/# of 5.03.°

  19. Achieving Sub-Design Level Contrast for Coronagraphs with Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Carlotti, A.; Kasdin, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Coronagraphs for space-based detection of earth-like exoplanets are normally designed assuming perfect optics. One or more deformable mirrors (DMs) are then utilized to correct for these aberrations and recover the lost contrast. We demonstrate a new, unified approach in which the coronagraph needs a design contrast only on the order of the errors in the optics. The DMs can then be used to achieve higher contrast by treating small areas of the coronagraph as amplitude errors in the system. This approach eases design and manufacturing constraints on coronagraphs and yields higher throughput designs. Our initial simulations show that a single DM conjugate to a shaped pupil coronagraph can achieve a single-sided dark hole higher in contrast than the shaped pupil is designed for. Future work will focus on simulating double-sided dark holes with two DMs non-conjugate to the pupil plane. This will enable experiments performed in the Princeton High Contrast Imaging (HCIL) Lab with our two Boston Micromachines Corp. kilo-DMs. Symmetric dark holes have already been generated at the HCIL using the Stroke Minimization algorithm and a high contrast shaped pupil in monochromatic and broadband light. Experiments with the unified shaped pupil-DM system will utilize the Kalman filter estimator recently developed in the HCIL for focal plane wavefront correction.

  20. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  1. A novel deformable mirror with curvature and tip/tilt control based on the spider actuator concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Button, Tim; Meggs, Carl; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William

    2012-06-01

    The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a UK-based consortium developing active/adaptive micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs). MOA devices are designed to focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Adaptability is achieved using a combination of piezoelectric actuators, which bend the edges of the silicon chip, and a spider structure, which forms a series of levers connecting the edges of the chip with the active area at the centre, effectively amplifying the bend radius. The spider actuation concept, in combination with deep silicon etching stopped close to the surface, can also be used to create deformable mirrors where the curvature and tip/tilt angles of the mirror can be controlled. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling, carried out for the optimization of the spider MOA device, indicates that deformable mirrors with curvature varying from flat to 5cm ROC and control over the tip/tilt angles of the mirror of +/-3mrad could be achieved. Test spider structures, manufactured using a Viscous Plastic Processing Process for the PZT piezoelectric actuators and a single wet etch step using <111> planes in a (110) silicon wafer for both the silicon channels and the spider structure, have been bent to a radius of curvature smaller than 5 cm. This paper evaluates the spider MOA's concept as a means to achieve deformable mirrors with controllable ROC and control over the tip/tilt angles. FEA modelling results are compared with obtained characterization data of prototype structures. Finally, manufacturing and integration methods and design characteristics of the device, such its scalability, are also discussed.

  2. Long-Wavelength Beam Steerer Based on a Micro-Electromechanical Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Anthony B; Gerecht, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available mirrors for scanning long-wavelength beams are too large for high-speed imaging. There is a need for a smaller, more agile pointing apparatus to provide images in seconds, not minutes or hours. A fast long-wavelength beam steerer uses a commercial micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) mirror controlled by a high-performance digital signal processor (DSP). The DSP allows high-speed raster scanning of the incident radiation, which is focused to a small waist onto the 9mm2, gold-coated, MEMS mirror surface, while simultaneously acquiring an undistorted, high spatial-resolution image of an object. The beam steerer hardware, software and performance are described. The system can also serve as a miniaturized, high-performance long-wavelength beam chopper for lock-in detection. PMID:26401426

  3. Adaptive temporal and wavefront aberration correction for ultrafast lasers with a membrane deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Leah Bruner

    Two adaptive optic systems for correction of either temporal phase error and wavefront errors for ultrafast pulses are demonstrated. These systems consists of a computer controlled micromachined membrane deformable mirror (MMDM) and a genetic learning algorithm (GA). Nonlinear excitation such as two-photon fluorescence or second harmonic generation are used as feedback to the GA to determine the appropriate correction to apply to the mirror. Two MMDMs are used, a 30 x 8 mm, 39 actuator linear MMDM for pulse-shaping applications and a 15 mm diameter, 37 actuator wavefront MMDM. Linear pre-compensation of self-phase modulation (SPM) was experimentally demonstrated utilizing the linear MMDM in a linear pulse-shaper for ultrafast pulses. The nonlinear nature of SPM makes arbitrary polynomial compensation necessary. Pre-compensation of SPM generated in an optical fiber by a 10 fs pulse reduced the pulse from 30fs to 20fs. We demonstrates adaptive correction with the wavefront MMDM by corrected for coma and astigmatism in a reflective multiphoton scanning microscope. An f1, parabola produces a very tight focus with no aberration when it is perfectly aligned. However, when beam scanning is used for two-dimensional imaging the image is severely aberrated. The MMDM and the GA are able to find the best possible wavefront for aberration correction for each scanning position. The horizontal scanning range was increased from 60 mum without the adaptive correction to 170 mum, ≈3 times the uncorrected scanning range, and the vertical scanning range was increased by a comparable amount. This resulted in an increase in scanning area of 9 times. The wavefront MMDM was also used for adaptive correction of spherical aberration from focusing from air, deep into a water-based sample. This depth-based aberration results from an index of refraction mismatch between the sample and the immersion medium of the objective and occurs regardless of beam scanning or sample scanning. By

  4. Universal method for holographic grating recording: multimode deformable mirrors generating Clebsch-Zernike polynomials.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, G R; Duban, M

    2001-02-01

    Recording methods for making aberration-corrected holographic gratings are greatly simplified by use of a plane multimode deformable mirror (MDM) upon one of the two recording beams. It is shown that MDM compensators easily provide the superposition of many interesting active optics modes, which we have named Clebsch-Zernike modes. When we apply only a uniform loading or no loading at all onto the rear side of the MDM clear aperture, the available Clebsch-Zernike modes are made to belong to a subclass of the Zernike modes that includes the three modes of the third-order aberration theory as well as a well-defined part of the Zernike higher-order modes. Such a recording method is considered to be universal, since it does not require the use of a sophisticated optical system such as a compensator. Active optics 12-arm MDM's in the vase form have been designed from the elasticity theory. The design of six-arm MDM's is currently carried out with theoretical results. As an example of the method, the recording of three holographic gratings of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph has been investigated. Substantial improvements in image quality have been found by use of a six-arm MDM as recording compensator. The result is that aberrations of much higher order can simultaneously be corrected so that the residual blur images of the spectra occupy areas approximately 10 (direction of dispersion) x 3 (cross dispersion) = 30 times smaller--also in terms of pixel number--than those obtained by our American colleagues. Therefore the active optics recording method appears to provide substantial gains in resolving power and in sensitivity: (i) For all three gratings the spectral resolution would be increased by a factor of 10, and (ii), in addition, for the two higher dispersion gratings, the limiting magnitude on the sky appears to be increased by a magnitude of approximately 1-1.2. PMID:18357020

  5. Dynamic performance of MEMS deformable mirrors for use in an active/adaptive two-photon microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Christian C.; Foster, Warren B.; Downey, Ryan D.; Arrasmith, Christopher L.; Dickensheets, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Active optics can facilitate two-photon microscopic imaging deep in tissue. We are investigating fast focus control mirrors used in concert with an aberration correction mirror to control the axial position of focus and system aberrations dynamically during scanning. With an adaptive training step, sample-induced aberrations may be compensated as well. If sufficiently fast and precise, active optics may be able to compensate under-corrected imaging optics as well as sample aberrations to maintain diffraction-limited performance throughout the field of view. Toward this end we have measured a Boston Micromachines Corporation Multi-DM 140 element deformable mirror, and a Revibro Optics electrostatic 4-zone focus control mirror to characterize dynamic performance. Tests for the Multi-DM included both step response and sinusoidal frequency sweeps of specific Zernike modes. For the step response we measured 10%-90% rise times for the target Zernike amplitude, and wavefront rms error settling times. Frequency sweeps identified the 3dB bandwidth of the mirror when attempting to follow a sinusoidal amplitude trajectory for a specific Zernike mode. For five tested Zernike modes (defocus, spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and trefoil) we find error settling times for mode amplitudes up to 400nm to be less than 52 us, and 3 dB frequencies range from 6.5 kHz to 10 kHz. The Revibro Optics mirror was tested for step response only, with error settling time of 80 μs for a large 3 um defocus step, and settling time of only 18 μs for a 400nm spherical aberration step. These response speeds are sufficient for intra-scan correction at scan rates typical of two-photon microscopy.

  6. Characterising x-ray mirror deformations with a phase measuring deflectometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.; Winter, A.

    2014-07-01

    MPE is developing modular x-ray mirrors for the next generation of high-energy astronomy missions. The mirror segments are based on thermally formed (a.k.a. slumped) glass sheets, with a typical thickness of 400µm. One of the major challenges is the alignment and integration of the mirror segments and the associated metrology. The optical performance of the mirror can be significantly compromised by adhesive shrinkage, gravity sag or residual stresses influenced by the properties of the mirror mounting and the integration procedure. In parallel with classic coordinate measurement techniques we utilize a deflectometry based metrology system to characterization shape errors of the mirror surfaces. A typical deflectometry setup uses a TFT display to project a sinusoidal pattern onto a specular test surface (SUT) and a camera that observes the reflected image. This reflected image contains slope information of the SUT in the form of distortions of the original displayed pattern. A phase shifting technique can be used to recover this slope information with only very few exposures and reasonable computational effort. The deflectometry system enables us to characterize bonding interfaces of slumped glass mirrors, as well as influence of temporary mounting points, handling and thermal distortions. It is also well suited to measure transient effects.

  7. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for enzymatic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeetender, Amritsar; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Stiharu, Ion G.; Balagopal, Ganesharam

    2004-08-01

    Early enzymatic identification and confirmation is essential for diagnosis and prevention as in the case of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Biochemical markers continue to be an important clinical tool for the enzymatic detection. The advent of MEMS devices can enable the use of various microstructures for the detection of enzymes. In this study, the concept of MEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which microcantilevers undergo changes in mechanical behavior that can be optically detected when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the static behavior of microcantilevers under Horse Radish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of MEMS sensors for enzymatic detection. The surface stress produced due to enzyme reactions results in the bending of cantilevers as similar to the influencing of thermal stress in the cantilevers. This paper also reports the influence of thermal gradient on the microcantilevers.

  8. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  9. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  10. A laser-scanning endoscope based on polysilicon micromachined mirrors with enhanced attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Markus; Albrecht, Hansjoerg; Schurr, Marc O.; Papageorgas, Panagiotis G.; Hofmann, Ulrich; Maroulis, Dimitris; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Iakkovidis, Dimitris; Theofanous, Nikiforos; Menciassi, Arianna

    2003-10-01

    A miniaturized laser scanning endoscope is presented which makes use of three lasers to illuminate a sample with a red, a green and a blue wavelength simultaneously. Scattered light from the sample is descanned and chromatically separated into the three channels for detection and postprocessing to compose a color image. The scanning subsystem consists of two micro-electro-mechanical mirrors suitable for mass production. The endoscope head can be assembled fast and at low cost. A resolution of the order of 16 lines per mm is achieved for a working distance common in endoscopy. Considerations of the system design include the operation of the mico mirrors, the filtering of reflected light by using polarization effects and a strategy to cope with color metamery. An expert system based on a neural network was found able to analyze endoscopic images to identify suspicious lesions.