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1

Design, development and reliability evaluation of micro hydro power generation system based on municipal waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new alternative technique for electric power generation based on municipal waste water. A methodology for evaluation of the reliability of the micro-hydro power generation system using Gaussian distribution approach and Simpsonpsilas 1\\/3rd rule have been described in this paper. Annual\\/daily flow duration curve (FDC) of the sewage power generation has been produced for design and development

R. K. Saket

2008-01-01

2

DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF A SUSTAINABLE MICRO-HYDRO POWER PLANT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR A TRIBAL VILLAGE CLUSTER IN RURAL INDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Columbia University Engineers Without Borders (CU-EWB) is developing a sustainable micro-hydro power plant for the Badi Trika Gouda village in the Indian state of Orissa. The community currently relies on firewood and animal waste matter for lighting and cooking. Our ...

3

Unregulated performance of an induction generator in an isolated micro hydro power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unregulated steady-state behaviour of a capacitor-excited three-phase induction generator in a stand-alone micro hydro power plant is predicted. The standard equivalent circuit is converted with only one parallel element to reduce the complexity of the solution process. The computation process for determining the operating parameters to achieve a given operating condition is also presented. Based on the derived processes,

Sumedha Rajakaruna; Naing Naing Maw

2005-01-01

4

An Advanced Control Scheme for Micro Hydro Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro hydropower plants are emerging as a major renewable energy resource today as they do not encounter the problems of population displacement and environmental problems associated with the large hydro power plants. However, they require control systems to limit the huge variation in input flows expected in rivulets over which these are established to produce a constant power supply. This

M. Hanmandlu; H. Goyal; D. P. Kothari

2006-01-01

5

Pumps as turbines for low cost micro hydro power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small centrifugal pumps are suitable for use as hydraulic turbines and have the advantage of being mass produced in many countries throughout the world. When used with an integral induction motor, they can be installed as a combined turbine and generator unit. Recent research and development work carried out at Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with the Intermediate Technology Development

A. A. Williams

1996-01-01

6

Proposing a new advanced control technique for micro hydro power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro hydropower plants are emerging as a major renewable energy resource today as they do not encounter the problems of population displacement and environmental problems associated with the large hydro power plants. However, they require control systems to limit the huge variation in input flows expected in rivulets over which these are established to produce a constant power supply. This

M. Hanmandlu; Himani Goyal

2008-01-01

7

Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).  

SciTech Connect

This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

1984-03-01

8

Experimental optimization of a free vortex propeller runner for micro hydro application  

SciTech Connect

The turbine technology for low head application in the micro hydro range has been vastly neglected despite niche available in scattered regions of valley flows as well as in wastewater canals and other energy recovery schemes, where the available head does not exceed 2 meters. The goal of this study is to develop hydraulically optimized propeller turbines for the micro hydro range with a particular focus on ease of manufacture. This paper presents a wide range of geometrical optimization steps carried out on a propeller runner, whose blades have been designed using the free vortex theory, and operating with a gross head from 1.5 to 2 m and discharge of approximately 75 l/s. It further illustrates 3 stages of geometrical modifications carried out on the runner with an objective of optimizing the runner performance. These modifications comprised of changes to the tip angles (both at the runner inlet and exit) as well as the hub angles (at the runner inlet) of the runner blades. The paper also presents an interesting theoretical methodology to analyze the effects of each optimization stage. This method looks at the relative changes to shaft power and discharge at constant head and speed and gives wonderful insight as to how the internal parameters like Euler shaft work and runner hydraulic losses are behaving with respect to each optimization stage. It was found that the performance of the runner was very sensitive to changes to exit tip angle. At two levels of modification, the discharge increased in the range of 15-30%, while shaft power increased in the range of 12-45%, thus influencing the efficiency characteristics. The results of the runner inlet tip modification were very interesting in that a very significant rise of turbine efficiency was recorded from 55% to 74% at the best efficiency point, which was caused by a reduced discharge consumption as well as a higher power generation. It was also found that the optimization study on a propeller runner has reasonably validated the estimates of the free vortex theory despite small deviations. The final runner configuration demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 74% ({+-}1.8%), which is very encouraging from the perspectives of micro hydro application. The paper concludes with recommendations of a series of optimization steps to increase the efficiency of the runner. It also recommends the attempt of Computational Fluid Dynamics both as a validation and optimization tool for future research on propeller runners. (author)

Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute for Water and River Basin Management (IWG), University of Karlsruhe, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-09-15

9

Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume II, Technical Information, 1983-1984 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study to determine the potential cumulative effects of proposed small hydro development on the fisheries of the Swan River drainage. This report contains technical information and is a support document for the main report (Leathe and Enk, 1985). Consequently, discussion of results was minimized. The sections on fish population monitoring, streambed monitoring, habitat survey comparisons, and water temperature are the only portions that were not discussed in the main report. 5 refs., 55 figs., 44 tabs.

Leathe, Stephen A.

1985-07-01

10

Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

1985-04-01

11

Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

Leathe, Stephen A.

1985-03-01

12

Bio PowerBio Power The City of Gresham WastewaterThe City of Gresham Wastewater  

E-print Network

power=small scale turbinehydro power=small scale turbineMicroMicro--hydro power=small scale turbinehydro Power Micro-Hydro Power #12;Awards League of Oregon Cities 2006 Award of Excellence American PublicBio PowerBio Power The City of Gresham WastewaterThe City of Gresham Wastewater Treatment Plant

Prevedouros, Panos D.

13

Micro-hydropower: status and prospects IT Power Limited, The Manor House, Chineham Court, Luytens Close, Chineham, Hants, UK  

E-print Network

Micro-hydropower: status and prospects O Paish IT Power Limited, The Manor House, Chineham Court, Luytens Close, Chineham, Hants, UK Abstract: Hydropower on a small scale, or micro-hydro, is one, micro-hydro is one of the most environmentally benign energy technologies available. The technology

Kammen, Daniel M.

14

Power Systems Development Facility  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

Southern Company Services

2009-01-31

15

Power Systems Development Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

None

2003-07-01

16

Power Systems Development Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC15 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Power Generation, Inc. (SPG) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC15 began on April 19, 2004, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier startup burner. The Transport Gasifier was shutdown on April 29, 2004, accumulating 200 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. About 91 hours of the test run occurred during oxygen-blown operations. Another 6 hours of the test run was in enriched-air mode. The remainder of the test run, approximately 103 hours, took place during air-blown operations. The highest operating temperature in the gasifier mixing zone mostly varied from 1,800 to 1,850 F. The gasifier exit pressure ran between 200 and 230 psig during air-blown operations and between 110 and 150 psig in oxygen-enhanced air operations.

Southern Company Services

2004-04-30

17

New developments in power semiconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

Sundberg, G. R.

1983-01-01

18

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

19

Direction of automobile power's development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, the automobile sales in China have reached 13.7 million. China has been the oil import country for many years. So, the research about the direction of automobile power's development is related to the safety of Chinese economy. In this paper, we have compared all kinds of electric automobiles' main cost performance and influence on the environment. And we

Jiabin Tong; Yujun Bao

2010-01-01

20

Nanosat Intelligent Power System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a class of satellites called nano-satellites. The technologies developed for these satellites will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections theme and will be of great benefit to other NASA enterprises. A major challenge for these missions is meeting significant scientific- objectives with limited onboard and ground-based resources. Total spacecraft power is limited by the small satellite size. Additionally, it is highly desirable to minimize operational costs by limiting the ground support required to manage the constellation. This paper will describe how these challenges are met in the design of the nanosat power system. We will address the factors considered and tradeoffs made in deriving the nanosat power system architecture. We will discuss how incorporating onboard fault detection and correction capability yields a robust spacecraft power bus without the mass and volume penalties incurred from redundant systems and describe how power system efficiency is maximized throughout the mission duration.

Johnson, Michael A.; Beaman, Robert G.; Mica, Joseph A.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rilee, Michael L.; Simm, David E.

1999-01-01

21

IEEE POWER ENGINEERING SOCIETY ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND POWER GENERATION COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

IEEE POWER ENGINEERING SOCIETY ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND POWER GENERATION COMMITTEE Latin America Sponsored by: International Practices for Energy Development and Power Generation Chairs: Luiz Barroso, PSR utilities (Discos) that buy power supply from generators in both the long term and sport markets. For more

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

22

Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

2011-01-01

23

SOLAR POWER SATELLITES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power is a reality. Today, increasing numbers of photovoltaic and other solar-powered installations are in service around the world and in space. The Solar Power Satellite has been hailed by proponents as the answer to future global energy security and dismissed by detractors as impractical and uneconomic. This paper reviews recent design and feasibility studies, advances made in enabling

Frank E. Little

24

X2000 power system electronics development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for potential use on future deep space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems.

Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

2005-01-01

25

Development of gallium nitride power transistors  

E-print Network

GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

26

Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited in availability or intensity. NASA is maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for an affordable fission surface power system. Because affordability drove the determination of the system concept that this technology will make possible, low development and recurring costs result, while required safety standards are maintained. However, an affordable approach to fission surface power also provides the benefits of simplicity, robustness, and conservatism in design. This paper will illuminate the multiplicity of benefits to an affordable approach to fission surface power, and will describe how the foundation for these benefits is being developed and demonstrated in the Exploration Technology Development Program s Fission Surface Power Project.

Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

2010-01-01

27

Developments in Electric Power Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account of some significant events in the history of electric power transmission related by a past-president of the Institute whose name is closely linked with many of those events and who for many years has been actively engaged in the study of high voltage phenomena.

Harris J. Ryan

1934-01-01

28

U.S. Wind Power Development  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of domestic wind power development which provides an understanding of where the industry stands today, how it got there, and where it is going. The advent of state renewable portfolio standards and the 3-year renewal of the production tax credit have driven wind power to record levels. A key objective of the report is to provide a comprehensive view of what is behind these developments, so that industry participants can take advantage of the opportunity offered by wind power. Topics covered include: overview of U.S. wind power including its history, current status, and future prospects; business drivers of the U.S. wind power market; barriers to the growth of the U.S. wind power market; keys to successful wind power project development; economics of U.S. wind power, including cost, revenue, and government subsidy components; analysis of key state markets for wind power development; and, profiles of major U.S. wind power project developers.

NONE

2007-11-15

29

Development of Power Assisting Suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

30

Multikilowatt power electronics development for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to several multikilowatt power electronic components developed by TRW for the Space Station Power Management and Distribution test bed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These components include a 12.5-kW DC-DC converter, a 6.25-kW battery charge/discharge regulator, an 82-channel sequential shunt unit, a 10-A remote power controllers, and three different types of 1-kW load converters. TRW is also monitoring the development of 120-V fuses for space applications. The authors discuss these developments and provide steady-state and dynamic performance parameters.

Decker, D. K.; Inouye, L. Y.; Rolandelli, D. L.

1991-01-01

31

Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the potential future deployment of a lunar outpost there is expected to be a clear need for a high-power, lunar surface power source to support lunar surface operations independent of the day-night cycle, and Fission Surface Power (FSP) is a very effective solution for power levels above a couple 10 s of kWe. FSP is similarly enabling for the poorly illuminated surface of Mars. The power levels/requirements for a lunar outpost option are currently being studied, but it is known that cost is clearly a predominant concern to decision makers. This paper describes the plans of NASA and the DOE to execute an affordable fission surface power system technology development project to demonstrate sufficient technology readiness of an affordable FSP system so viable and cost-effective FSP system options will be available when high power lunar surface system choices are expected to be made in the early 2010s.

Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Harlow, Scott

2009-01-01

32

Development of a Modular Power Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the most important details of elaboration of a versatile power module that can be utilized as a part of various converters. Two or more modules connected together can form a frequency converter or multilevel converter or 3-phase inverter/rectifier etc. Initially the module was developed for fast prototyping of uninterruptible power supplies and energy systems with alternative energy sources. The module can be used also as a basis for laboratory equipment of the power electronics course.

Stepanov, A.; Biesenieks, L.; Sokolovs, A.; Galkin, I.

2009-01-01

33

Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power conversion unit with electrical controls, and a heat rejection system with a multi-panel radiator assembly. Testing is planned at the Glenn Research Center Vacuum Facility 6 starting in 2012, with vacuum and liquid-nitrogen cold walls to provide simulation of operationally relevant environments. A nominal two-year test campaign is planned including a Phase 1 reactor simulator and power conversion test followed by a Phase 2 integrated system test with radiator panel heat rejection. The testing is expected to demonstrate the readiness and availability of fission surface power as a viable power system option for NASA's exploration needs. In addition to surface power, technology development work within this project is also directly applicable to in-space fission power and propulsion systems.

Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

2011-01-01

34

Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability

R. M. Edwards; C. K. Weng; R. W. Lindsay

1992-01-01

35

Geothermal Power Development in the Phillippines  

SciTech Connect

The generation of electric power to meet the needs of industrial growth and dispersal in the Philippines is aimed at attaining self-reliance through availment of indigenous energy resources. The Philippines by virtue of her position in the high-heat flow region has in abundance a number of exploitable geothermal fields located all over the country. Results indicate that the geothermal areas of the Philippines presently in various stages of exploration and development are of such magnitude that they can be relied on to meet a significant portion of the country's power need. Large scale geothermal energy for electric power generation was put into operation last year with the inauguration of two 55-MW geothermal generating units at Tiwi, Albay in Southern Luzon. Another two 55-MW units were added to the Luzon Grid in the same year from Makiling-Banahaw field about 70 kilometers south of Manila. For 1979 alone, therefore, 220-MW of generating capacity was added to the power supply coming from geothermal energy. This year a total of 220-MW power is programmed for both areas. This will bring to 443-MW of installed generating capacity from geothermal energy with 3-MW contributed by the Tongonan Geothermal pilot plant in Tongonan, Leyte, Central Philippines in operation since July 1977. Financial consideration of Philippine experience showed that electric power derived from geothermal energy is competitive with other sources of energy and is a viable source of baseload electric power. Findings have proven the technical and economic acceptability of geothermal energy resources development. To realize the benefits that stem from the utilization of indigenous geothermal resources and in the light of the country's ever increasing electric power demand and in the absence of large commercial oil discovery in the Philippines, geothermal energy resource development has been accelerated anew. The program includes development of eight fields by 1989 by adding five more fields to the currently developed and producing geothermal areas.

Jovellanos, Jose U.; Alcaraz, Arturo; Datuin, Rogelio

1980-12-01

36

Rethinking development assistance for wind power  

SciTech Connect

Electricity generation from wind turbines is now cost competitive for grid and off-grid applications in many developing regions, and close to competitive in others. Wind resources could generate thousands of megawatts of badly-needed power in Asia, North Africa, and Latin America. Barriers to penetrating power generation markets remain, however, including unequal access to investment capital, energy price and other market distortions, and often weak institutions for commercializing new technologies. Recognizing the potential economic and environmental benefits of wind power, bilateral and multilateral assistance organizations have for several years offered financial and technical assistance to promote its diffusion. Based on this experience and assistance for other renewable electric technologies, lessons and recommendations can be drawn regarding how assistance could more effectively overcome persistent market and policy barriers, especially in light of the ongoing restructuring of developing countries` power sectors.

Kozloff, K.L. [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

37

High-power microwave development in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a survey of Russian research and development in high-power microwave (HPM) sources. It emphasizes those sources of nanoseconds pulse duration time which have potential weapon as well as radar applications. It does not cover the whole range of Russian HPM research and development but concentrates on those aspects which may lead to military applications. Russian investigators have achieved many world firsts in HPM generation; for example, a multiwave Cerenkov generator with a peak output power of 15 gigawatts. Their successes are based on their impressive capability in pulsed power technology which has yielded high-current generators of terawatt peak power. They have transformed the energy of these currents into microwave radiation using tubes of both conventional and novel designs exploiting relativistic electron beams. Recently, the development of high-current mini-accelerators has moved relativistic electron-beam (REB) HPM generation out of the laboratory and enabled the development of deployable military systems with peak powers in the gigawatt range. As a result, they now see development of a REB-based radar systems as one of the most promising directions in radar systems. Details of such a system are described and the implications for HPM weapons are considered.

Gauthier, Sylvain

1995-03-01

38

Pulsed power molten salt battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a program aimed at developing a primary-reserve pulse-power battery design. The program focus at the present time is on developing high-rate chlorine cathodes for the lithium-aluminum\\/chlorine system. A novel activation treatment has been developed to use porous carbon and graphite materials as chlorine cathodes in this battery system. Results obtained with these electrodes in molten-salt cells are

S. D. Argade; D. L. Boos; D. M. Ryan

1990-01-01

39

Pulsed power molten salt battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a program aimed at developing a primary reserve pulse power battery design. The program focus at the present time is on developing high-rate chlorine cathodes for the lithium-aluminum\\/chlorine system. A novel activation treatment has been developed to use porous carbon and graphite materials as chlorine cathodes in this battery system. Results obtained with these electrodes in molten

S. D. Argade; D. L. Boos; D. M. Ryan

1990-01-01

40

Hydroelectric power development using irrigation flows  

SciTech Connect

Utilization and optimization of an environmentally benign hydraulic resource are goals of every hydroelectric power developer and engineer. With the application of economical engineering solutions, partial year flows from irrigation canals can become such a resource for power production. This paper presents the highlights of how the North Side Canal Company and the Ida-West Energy Company used cost-effective site and powerhouse arrangements and pit turbines to develop the Hazelton B and Wilson Lake Hydroelectric Projects on an irrigation canal in south-central Idaho.

Nigus, L.A. [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); [Ida-West Co., Boise, ID (United States)

1995-12-31

41

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-print Network

in the Medium Term 19 ­ 21 May, 2003 #12;Structure of the presentation: I. Introduction II. The Kyoto Protocol facilitate the development and implementation for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol the power sector reform experiences in Chile, the Philippines and Kenya? #12;II. The Kyoto Protocol

42

Low-Power Ion Thruster Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is on-going to examine scaling relationships and design criteria for ion propulsion systems, and to address the need for a light weight, low power, high specific impulse propulsion option for small spacecraft. An element of this activity is the development of a low-power (sub-0.5 kW) ion thruster. This development effort has led to the fabrication and preliminary performance assessment of an 8 cm prototype xenon ion thruster operating over an input power envelope of 0.1-0.3 kW. Efficiencies for the thruster vary from 0.31 at 1750 seconds specific impulse at 0.1 kW, to about 0.48 at 2700 seconds specific impulse and 0.3 kW input power. Discharge losses for the thruster over this power range varied from about 320-380 W/A down to about 220-250 W/A. Ion optics performance compare favorably to that obtained with 30 cm ion optics, when scaled for the difference in beam area. The neutralizer, fabricated using 3 mm hollow cathode technology, operated at keeper currents of about 0.2-0.3 A, at a xenon flow rate of about 0.06 mg/s, over the 0.1-0.3 kW thruster input power envelope.

Patterson, Michael J.

1999-01-01

43

Solar Power and Sustainability in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is not an entirely new concept, but it continues to rapidly emerge as an alternative to fossil fuels and, hopefully, other deleterious energy sources. Products within this industry are being created on an unprecedented scale, and various systems are available for use. However, none are as applicable to the sustainability of developing countries as is solar power. Solar

Saeed D. Foroudastan; Olivia Dees

44

Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t- ramp up space solar power level to over 5.6 TeraWatts by year 50 from project start. Runway-based launch and landing are required to achieve the launch productivity as well as the cost reductions to enable such a large deployment on schedule. Advancements in the certainty of millimeter wave conversion technology and runway-based space access, are seen to be the outstanding issues in proceeding to full-scale Space Solar Power.

Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

45

Status of superconducting power transformer development  

SciTech Connect

Development of the superconducting transformer is arguably the most difficult of the ac power applications of superconductivity - this is because of the need for very low ac losses, adequate fault and surge performance, and the rigors of the application environment. This paper briefly summarizes the history of superconducting transformer projects, reviews the key issues for superconducting transformers, and examines the status of HTS transformer development. Both 630-kVA, three-phase and 1-MVA single phase demonstration units are expected to operate in late 1996. Both efforts will further progress toward the development of economical and performance competitive superconducting transformers.

Johnson, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Mehta, S.P. [and others

1996-03-01

46

Professional development for nuclear power programs in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries entering nuclear power programs for the first time find that inadequate planning for the development of trained manpower is a critical factor in the success of their programs. This requires the early training of a team for the planning and acquisition effort to be followed by training for the supervision of construction. In addition, there is the more readily

Kanter

1983-01-01

47

Development of high power capacitor charging power supply for pulsed power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) using a series resonant converter technology has been developed. The CCPS adopted a 33 kHz IGBT series resonant inverter and a high-efficiency, high-voltage transformer. The performance test of the CCPS was carried out with a 33 nF load capacitor at 40 kV output voltage and 1 kpps repetition rate. Peak power rate of

M. Souda; F. Endo; C. Yamazaki; K. Okamura; K. Fukushima

1999-01-01

48

Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing. The advantages of this scheme are: 1) Because only a fraction of the power is processed through the dc-dc converter, the single- stage conversion efficiency is 94 to 98 percent; 2) Costly, high-efficiency dc-dc converters are not necessary for high end-to-end system efficiency; 3) The system is highly fault tolerant because the bypass connection will still deliver power if the dc-dc converter fails; and 4) The converters can easily be connected in parallel, allowing higher power systems to be built from a common building block. This new technology will be spaceflight tested in the Photovoltaic Regulator Kit Experiment (PRKE) on TRW's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) satellite scheduled for launch in 1996. This experiment uses commercial dc-dc converters (28 to 15 Vdc) and additional control circuitry to regulate current to a battery load. The 60-W, 87- percent efficiency converters can control 180 W of power at an efficiency of 94 percent in the new configuration. The power density of the Photovoltaic Regulator Kit Experiment is about 200 W/kg.

2005-01-01

49

Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing.

1996-01-01

50

Development of a novel power system for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will describe the power ASICs, module and slices, the key performance capabilities, and the power system architecture of a sample system. In addition the current development status of the X2000 Power System components will be presented.

Deligiannis, F.; Carr, G.; Jones, L.; Lam, B.; Nelson, R.; Pantaleon, J.; Ruiz, I.; Treicler, J.; Wester, G.; Sauers, J.; Giampoli, P.; Haskell, R.; Mulvey, J.; Repp, J.

2003-01-01

51

Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development  

SciTech Connect

This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected C?dv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is positive. As a result, the turn-on loss at low current is quite low, and the turn-off loss at low current is relatively high. The phenomenon was verified with junction capacitance measurement along with the dv/dt calculation. Under 2-kV test condition, the turn-on and turn-off losses at 25-A is about 3 and 9 mJ, respectively. As compared to a 4.5-kV, 60-A rated IGBT, which has turn-on and turn-off losses about 25 and 20 mJ under similar test condition, the SGTO shows significant switching loss reduction. The switching loss depends on the switching frequency, but under hard-switching condition, the SGTO is favored to the IGBT device. The only concern is during low current turn-on condition, there is a voltage bump that can translate to significant power loss and associated heat. The reason for such a current bump is not known from this study. It is necessary that the device manufacturer perform though test and provide the answer so the user can properly apply SGTO in pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converter and inverter applications.

MAITRA, ARINDAM [EPRI] [EPRI; LITWIN, RAY [EPRI] [EPRI; lai, Jason [Enertronics] [Enertronics; Syracuse, David [Silicon Power] [Silicon Power

2012-12-30

52

Power Planning and Fish and Wildlife Program Development  

E-print Network

Power Planning and Fish and Wildlife Program Development RELATIONSHIP OF THE POWER PLAN TO THE FISH AND WILDLIFE The Power Act requires that the Council's power plan and Bonneville's resource acquisition program and to accommodate system operations to benefit fish and wildlife. The central purpose of this chapter of the power

53

Power Systems Development Facility. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell.

Not Available

1993-06-01

54

Development of bismuth self-powered detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-powered detectors have been developed with bismuth (2 mm diameter×6.4 mm) and platinum (2 mm diameter ×5 mm) emitters. Tests at a 60Co irradiation facility in 0.125 MR/h (484.5 MC/kg/h) gamma field showed that the gamma sensitivity of the two detectors is 0.121 fA/R/h (0.468 pA/C/kg/h) and 0.17 fA/R/h (0.658 pA/C/kg/h). When tested in the core location in Apsara Swimming Pool reactor the current from Bi detector was assumed to be totally gamma-induced. This information was used to derive the neutron-induced component of the Pt detector in which 55% of the total signal was gamma-induced. The neutron sensitivity was found to be 0.54×10 -21 A/nv.

Alex, Mary; Prasad, K. R.; Kataria, S. K.

2004-05-01

55

Kilovolt dc solid state remote power controller development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experience gained in developing and applying solid state power controller (SSPC) technology at high voltage dc (HVDC) potentials and power levels of up to 25 kilowatts is summarized. The HVDC switching devices, power switching concepts, drive circuits, and very fast acting overcurrent protection circuits were analyzed. A 25A bipolar breadboard with Darlington connected switching transistor was built. Fault testing at 900 volts was included. A bipolar transistor packaged breadboard design was developed. Power MOSFET remote power controller (RPC) was designed.

Mitchell, J. T.

1982-01-01

56

Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single streams, efforts are underway to generate a data bank and algorithm applicable to dual-stream jets. Shock-associated noise in high-powered jets such as military aircraft can benefit from these predictions.

Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

2011-01-01

57

Broadband over Power Lines (BPL): Developments and Policy Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of developments in broadband power line technologies and related policy issues. The electric power grid is a hostile environment for high-speed data transmission, but after years of development, the technology to deliver high-speed data over the existing electric power delivery network has emerged, somewhat tentatively, in the marketplace. This technology,

Byung-Wook Kwon

2009-01-01

58

Development of Automated Power Systems Management for planetary spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Power Systems Management is a technology being developed at JPL to provide the capability for onboard monitoring, computation, and control of planetary-spacecraft electrical power systems without the need for ground intervention. The technology uses microcomputers to provide the control and flexibility necessary to achieve rapid and decisive control of power system functions in the event of electrical power failures or unplanned events requiring power system responses. The current program at JPL includes the design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a breadboard spacecraft power system, modified to incorporate automated power system functions which are implemented by means of a distributed microcomputer system.

Bridgeforth, A. O.

1980-01-01

59

ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

2005-01-20

60

Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2003-01-01

61

Novel Development of Power Transformation Technology Supporting Electric Power and Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power transformation technology which is the key point of electric power transmission supports our life base in the electric power energy field. Especially, the static apparatus which is used as the electric power conversion and control has an important role at the substation. In this review, the novel development of power transformation technology supporting electric power and energy is described with the maintenance diagnostic technology of sustainability and safety transformer, condenser and its applied technology for variation of power supply and load under the electric power system, high current technology under the power and electric filed and surge analysis technology at the substation. The power transformation technology and static apparatus have been developed in a high level in our country. The problem in this review will be expected to overcome soon.

Okubo, Kenji; Nishimura, Shoji; Goda, Yutaka; Baba, Yoshihiro

62

A Technology Overview of the PowerChip Development Program  

E-print Network

The PowerChip research program is developing technologies to radically improve the size, integration, and performance of power electronics operating at up to grid-scale voltages (e.g., up to 200V) and low-to-moderate power ...

Araghchini, Mohammad

63

Technology development for high power induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

1985-06-11

64

Development of the NEXT Power Processing Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, Inc. (EDD) has designed and fabricated a breadboard version of a 6 kW power processing unit (PPU) for gridded ion thrusters. This breadboard PPU will be integrated with an engineering model 40 cm ion engine designed and tested at NASA Glenn. The results of our tests using resistive loads are reported in this paper. The PPU demonstrated efficiencies to date are higher than 95 percent for the beam supply and higher than 92 percent for the discharge supply at full power. Overall PPU efficiency is greater than 94 percent at full throttle settings.

Phelps, Thomas K.; Wiseman, Steve; Komm, David S.; Bond, Thomas; Pinero, Luis R.

2005-01-01

65

Development of High Power Lasers for Materials Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of developing high power lasers for use in basic science and applications. The Laser Science and Technology Program (LS&T) at LLNL supports advanced lasers and optics development both for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as well as for high power lasers and optics technology for a broader range of government,

Hackel

2003-01-01

66

DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

67

JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

1978-01-01

68

Curriculum Reform, Professional Development, and Powerful Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors consider the important relationship between standards-based curriculum implementation and professional development. They begin by looking at the key recommendations about student learning and then discuss how curriculum materials can embody these recommendations. Because the result is nontraditional curriculum materials, they then consider the role of professional development for increasing the effectiveness of those materials. Finally, they discuss a professional development strategy that begins with selecting materials for curriculum reform.

James B. Short

2002-01-01

69

Economic prerequisites for the development of nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

The development of nuclear power, as no other field of human endeavor, has revealed the need for predicting the consequences of nuclear power not only in the production of energy itself, but also in the ecology, economics, and even politics. On the one hand, the future of nuclear power is determined by a society`s attitude toward nuclear power and depends on economic possibilities. On the other hand, the future society and the economic situation that will develop in the world will largely depend on the amount of energy accessible to mankind and the method used to obtain it, and therefore also the relative contribution of atomic energy to the total balance of energy production. In declaring its attitude toward nuclear power, society is now determining to a definite extent not only the future of nuclear power but also nuclear power itself. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

Chernilin, Y.F.

1995-10-01

70

Development of cosmic ray hardened power MOSFET's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental power DMOS (double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor) FETs were thoroughly characterized in a simulated cosmic-ray environment using heavy ions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility. The primary failure mode encountered on FETs in this environment was susceptibility to single-event burnout. Burnout of the power DMOS FET was catastrophic. Another failure mode was single-event gate rupture. Although gate rupture is not as severe as burnout, its long-term effects are not known. Single-event gate rupture causes performance degradation due to increased gate leakage current. An increase in current can pose serious problems for applications that cannot compensate for the added performance degradation. Long-term reliability of the gate oxide may be affected, resulting in premature device failure. Numerous processing lots were fabricated to verify experimentally that each failure mode could be successfully minimized. Test results have shown that an n-channel, 150-V DMOS FET survived exposures to ions with linear energy transfers up to 80 MeV-sq cm/mg. Hardening approaches are discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages in relation to the FET's performance.

Titus, Jeffrey L.; Jamiolkowski, Linda S.; Wheatley, C. Frank

1989-12-01

71

Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a vigorous program within the US Army to produce fieldable electric gun systems for both tactical and strategic defense missions. Princeton Combustion Research Laboratories proposes to develop its concept for a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns, both electromagnetic (EM rail and EM coil) guns and electrothermal (ET) guns, now under development. The pulse-power

Martin Summerfield

1993-01-01

72

NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) project is developing the next generation of radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Requirements of advanced RPSs include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet future mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications, including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. Advanced RPS development goals also include long-life, reliability, and scalability. This paper provides an update on the contractual efforts under the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for research and development of Stirling, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic power conversion technologies. The paper summarizes the current RPCT NRA efforts with a brief description of the effort, a status and/or summary of the contractor's key accomplishments, a discussion of upcoming plans, and a discussion of relevant system-level benefits and implications. The paper also provides a general discussion of the benefits from the development of these advanced power conversion technologies and the eventual payoffs to future missions (discussing system benefits due to overall improvements in efficiency, specific power, etc.).

Anderson, David J.; Sankovic, John; Wilt, David; Abelson, Robert D.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

73

Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

1981-01-01

74

Practical superconductor development for electrical power applications  

SciTech Connect

Development of useful high-critical-temperature (high-{Tc}) superconductors requires synthesis of superconducting compounds; fabrication of wires, tapes, and films from these compounds; production of composite structures that incorporate stabilizers or insulators; and design and testing of efficient components. This report describes technical progress of research and development efforts aimed at producing superconducting components based on the Y-Ba-Cu, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu, Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu, and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu oxides systems. Topics discussed are synthesis and heat treatment of high-{Tc} superconductors, formation of monolithic and composite wires and tapes, superconductor/metal connectors, characterization of structures and superconducting and mechanical properties, and fabrication and properties of thin films. Collaborations with industry and academia are also documented. 10 figs.

Goretta, K.C. (comp.)

1991-10-01

75

Power Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1813.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This model instructional unit was developed to aid trade and industrial education teachers in Louisiana in preparing students for careers in the field of power mechanics. Students are provided experiences related to the design, theory, construction, and appropriate uses of the power systems, as well as the maintenance and repair of the more common…

Territo, Peter A., Jr.; McMurry, James G.

76

Power Systems Development Facility: Design, Construction, and Commissioning Status  

SciTech Connect

This paper will provide an introduction to the Power Systems Development Facility, a Department of Energy sponsored, engineering scale demonstration of two advanced coal-fired power technologies; and discuss current status of design, construction and commissioning of this facility. 28 viewgraphs, including 2 figs.

Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand; Hendrix, H.L.; Honeycut, P.M.

1996-12-31

77

PFBC perspectives at the Power Systems Development Facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal for power generation has come under increasing environmental scrutiny over the past five years. Advances in coal-based power generation technology will develop systems that have high efficiency, environmental superiority and lower cost of electricity compared to current coal-based technology. Advanced pressurized-fluidized-bed combustion (APFBC) is one `of the promising emerging power generation technologies striving to achieve these goals. One method of improving the efficiency and lowering the capital cost further for advanced power plants utilizing coal is by employing hot gas cleanup. Although hot gas cleanup has the potential for improving the viability of coal-based power generation, the removal of hot particulates from the gas stream has proven to be a challenging task. The demonstration of APFBC technology and the particulate control devices (PCDs) under realistic conditions for advanced power generation remain important areas for development. The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is being designed to be a flexible facility that will address the development of the PCDs and an advanced second-generation PFBC technology. With the progress made in the last decade, the basic concepts of PFBC technology can be achieved through a number of different flowsheets and reactor configurations. The choices made in developing the flowsheets and the choices made in designing the equipment in order to improve the reliability of operation may well dictate, along with the actual data from operation, the process efficiencies and the capital costs that can be achieved.

Moore, D.L.; Vimalchand, P.; Haq, Z.U. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); McClung, J.D. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Quandt, M.T. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States)

1994-06-01

78

High-Power, High-Temperature Superconductor Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) 10 years ago, the most promising areas for their applications in microwave systems have been as passive components for communication systems. Soon after the discovery, experiments showed that passive microwave circuits made from HTS material exceeded the performance of conventional devices for low-power applications and could be 10 times as small or smaller. However, for superconducting microwave components, high-power microwave applications have remained elusive until now. In 1996, DuPont and Com Dev Ltd. developed high-power superconducting materials and components for communication applications under a NASA Lewis Research Center cooperative agreement, NCC3-344 "High Power High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Technology Development." The agreement was cost shared between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program Office and the two industrial partners. It has the following objectives: 1) Material development and characterization for high-power HTS applications; 2) Development and validation of generic high-power microwave components; 3) Development of a proof-of-concept model for a high-power six-channel HTS output multiplexer.

Bhasin, Kul B.

2005-01-01

79

Development of Thin-Film Battery Powered Transdermal Medical Devices  

SciTech Connect

Research carried out at ORNL has led to the development of solid state thin-film rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. These unique devices can be fabricated in a variety of shapes and to any required size, large or small, on virtually any type of substrate. Because they have high energies per unit of volume and mass and because they are rechargeable, thin-film lithium batteries have potentially many applications as small power supplies in consumer and special electronic products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered transdermal electrodes for recording electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms. These ''active'' electrode would eliminate the effect of interference and improve the reliability in diagnosing heart or brain malfunctions. Work in the second phase of this project was directed at the development of thin-film battery powered implantable defibrillators.

Bates, J.B.; Sein, T.

1999-07-06

80

Bicycle-powered attachments : designing for developing countries  

E-print Network

There are 550 million smallholder farmers around the world who earn less than $1/day who could benefit from pedal-powered attachments. This project discusses factors to consider in designing for developing countries and ...

Wu, Jodie (Jodie Z.)

2009-01-01

81

Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

82

Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

83

Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top-down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100-kW power system. The SP-100 system requirements implicitly recognize the challenge of achieving a high system reliability for a ten-year lifetime, while at the same time using technologies that require very significant development efforts. A low-cost method for assessing reliability, based on an understanding of fundamental failure mechanisms and design margins for specific failure mechanisms, is being developed as part of the SP-100 Program.

Mondt, Jack F.; Shinbrot, Charles H.

1991-01-01

84

Development and Utilization of Space Fission Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space fission power systems could enable advanced civilian space missions. Terrestrially, thousands of fission systems have been operated since 1942. In addition, the US flew a space fission system in 1965, and the former Soviet Union flew 33 such systems prior to the end of the Cold War. Modern design and development practices, coupled with 65 years of experience with terrestrial reactors, could enable the affordable development of space fission power systems for near-term planetary surface applications.

Houts, Michael G.; Mason, Lee S.; Palac, Donald T.; Harlow, Scott E.

2009-01-01

85

Development and Utilization of Space Fission Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space fission power systems could enable advanced civilian space missions. Terrestrially, thousands of fission systems have been operated since 1942. In addition, the US flew a space fission system in 1965, and the former Soviet Union flew 33 such systems prior to the end of the Cold War. Modern design and development practices, coupled with 65 years of experience with terrestrial reactors, could enable the affordable development of space fission power systems for near-term planetary surface applications.

Houts, Michael; Mason, Lee S.; Palac, Donald T.; Harlow, Scott E.

2008-01-01

86

Development of a General Purpose Power System Control Board  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to control modern solid state power modules, a general purpose, multi function power system control board (PSCB) has been under development as a collaboration project between Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea, and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), USA. The PSCB is an embedded, interlock supervisory, diagnostic, timing, and set-point control board. It is designed to use in various power systems such as sequenced kicker pulsers, solid state RF modulators, simple DC magnet power supplies, etc. The PSCB has the Ethernet communication with the TCP/IP Modbus protocol.

Nam, S.H.; Jeong, S.H.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, S.C.; Park, S.S.; Suh, J.H.; /Pohang Accelerator Lab.; Bellomo, P.; Cassel, R.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

2007-07-23

87

High power target developments at ISAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRIUMF, Canada's national research facility for particle and nuclear physics is currently operating the ISAC facility. A high-energy proton beam from the H - TRIUMF cyclotron is used to generate short-lived radioactive species in a thick target. An ion source at the target creates a radioactive beam, which is then injected into the ISAC beam lines and accelerator system. The ISAC facility is designed to accept proton beam intensity up to 100 ?A at 500 MeV. At present our target design can only sustains 40 ?A at maximum. Beyond this point the target has to be cooled. A new target equipped with fins has been developed that may sustain proton beam up to 100 ?A. The fined target has been tested off-line and a thermal simulation using ANSYS ® has been conducted and the results are reported here.

Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Dowling, A.; Lane, M.

2003-05-01

88

On applicability of reciprocating flow turbines developed for wave power to tidal power conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal power generation with reciprocating turbines in a simple system is investigated on a performance simulation in order to enlarge the capability of practical use of tidal power with extra-low head and time-varying energy density characteristics. Four reciprocating turbines, which are two types of impulse and a Wells developed for wave power conversion systems, and a cross-flow type of Darrieus

K. Takenouchi; K. Okuma; A. Furukawa; T. Setoguchi

2006-01-01

89

Development of Electric Power Units Driven by Waste Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the development of a simple and compact power generator driven by waste heat, working fluids and an expander were studied, then a practical electric power unit was put to test. Many working fluids were calculated with the low temperature power cycle (evaporated at 77°C, condensed at 42°C),and TFE,R123,R245fa were selected to be suitable for the cycle. TFE(Trifluoroethanol CF3CH2OH) was adopted to the actual power generator which was tested. A radial turbine was adopted as an expander, and was newly designed and manufactured for working fluid TFE. The equipment was driven by hot water as heat source and cooling water as cooling source, and generated power was connected with electric utility. Characteristics of the power generating cycle and characteristics of the turbine were obtained experimentally.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Takao; Kaneko, Atsushi; Uchimura, Tomoyuki; Irie, Kiichi; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

90

Development of ceramic superconductors for electric power applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy supports an applied superconductivity program entitled {open_quotes}Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems.{close_quotes} Activities under this program are designed to help develop the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) technology that is needed for industry to proceed with the commercial development of electric power applications. Research is conducted in three categories: wire development, systems technology development, and Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI). Wire development activities are devoted to improving the critical current density (J{sub c}) of short-length HTS wire, whereas activities in systems technology development focus on fabrication of long-length wires, coils, and magnets. Finally, SPI activities focus on the development of prototypes that consist of a generator coil, a fault current limiter, a transmission cable, and a motor. A current overview and recent progress in the development of HTSs are outlined in this paper. 48 refs., 6 figs.

Balachandran, U.

1997-03-01

91

Development status of the small community solar power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development status and test results for the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment are presented. Activities on the phase 2 power module development effort are presented with emphasis on the receiver, the plant control subsystem, and the energy transport subsystem. The components include a single prototype power module consisting of a parabolic dish concentrator, a power conversion assembly (PCA), and a multiple-module plant control subsystem. The PCA consists of a cavity receiver coupled to an organic Rankine cycle engine-alternator unit defined as the power conversion subsystem; the PCA is mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. At a solar insolation of 100 W/sq m and ambient temperature of 28 C (82 F), the power module produces approximately 20 kW of 3-phase, 3 kHz ac power, depending on the concentrator employed. A ground-mounted rectifier to the central collection site where it is supplied directly to the common dc bus which collects the power from all modules in the plant.

Pons, R. L.

1982-01-01

92

Ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development. Power consumption of microwave circuits has been reduced by factors of 50--1,000 over commercially available circuits. Positive threshold field effect transistors (nJFETs and PHEMTs) have been used to design and fabricate microwave circuits with power levels of 1 milliwatt or less. 0.7 {micro}m gate nJFETs are suitable for both digital CHFET integrated circuits as well as low power microwave circuits. Both hybrid amplifiers and MMICs were demonstrated at the 1 mW level at 2.4 GHz. Advanced devices were also developed and characterized for even lower power levels. Amplifiers with 0.3 {micro}m JFETs were simulated with 8--10 dB gain down to power levels of 250 microwatts ({mu}W). However 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs proved superior to the JFETs with amplifier gain of 8 dB at 217 MHz and 50 {mu}W power levels but they are not integrable with the digital CHFET technology.

Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Sloan, L.R.; Shul, R.J.; Muyshondt, G.P.; Dubbert, D.F.

1998-04-01

93

Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of AC power systems for large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of the Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three phase, balanced, AC system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, AC systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20 kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

1991-01-01

94

Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of ac power systems for large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three-phase, balanced, ac system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, ac systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20-kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of the present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

Kraft, L. A.; Kankam, M. D.

1991-01-01

95

Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

1989-01-01

96

Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

Neumeyer, C. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Princeton, NJ (United States). EBASCO Div.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

1995-04-01

97

Development of a multikilowatt ion thruster power processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study was made of the application of silicon-controlled, rectifier series, resonant inverter, power conditioning technology to electric propulsion power processing operating from a 200 to 400 Vdc solar array bus. A power system block diagram was generated to meet the electrical requirements of a 20 CM hollow cathode, mercury bombardment, ion engine. The SCR series resonant inverter was developed as a primary means of power switching and conversion, and the analog signal-to-discrete-time-interval converter control system was applied to achieve good regulation. A complete breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested with a resistive load bank, and critical power processor areas relating to efficiency, weight, and part count were identified.

Schoenfeld, A. D.; Goldin, D. S.; Biess, J. J.

1972-01-01

98

Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

Lee, Dasheng

2008-01-01

99

Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.

Doherty, Michael P.

1993-01-01

100

Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.

Doherty, Michael P.

1993-11-01

101

Development Status of the NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 0.5-2.3 kW xenon ion propulsion system is presently being developed under the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program. This propulsion system includes a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster, a Digital Control Interface Unit, a xenon feed system, and a power processing unit (PPU). The PPU consists of the power supply assemblies which operate the thruster neutralizer, main discharge chamber, and ion optics. Also included are recycle logic and a digital microcontroller. The neutralizer and discharge power supplies employ a dual use configuration which combines the functions of two power supplies into one, significantly simplifying the PPU. Further simplification was realized by implementing a single thruster control loop which regulates the beam current via the discharge current. Continuous throttling is possible over a 0.5-2.3 kW output power range. All three power supplies have been fabricated and tested with resistive loads, and have been combined into a single breadboard unit with the recycle logic and microcontroller. All line and load regulation test results show the power supplies to be within the NSTAR flight PPU specified power output of 1.98 kW. The overall efficiency of the PPU, calculated as the combined efficiencies of the power supplies and controller, at 2.3 kW delivered to resistive loads was 0.90. The component was 6.16 kg. Integration testing of the neutralizer and discharge power supplies with a functional model thruster revealed no issues with discharge ignition or steady state operation.

Hamley, John A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Miller, John R.; Cartier, Kevin C.; Bowers, Glen E.

1995-01-01

102

Development of the SCRF Power Coupler for the APT Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The team responsible for the design of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) superconducting (SC) radio frequency (RF) power coupler has developed two 700-MHz, helium gas-cooled power couplers. One has a fixed inner conductor and the other has an adjustable inner conductor (gamma prototype and alpha prototype). The power couplers will be performance tested in the near future. This paper discusses the mechanical design and fabrication techniques employed in the development of each power coupler. This includes material selection, copper coating, assembly sequences, and metal joining procedures, as well as the engineering analyses performed to determine the dynamic response of the inner conductors due to environmental excitations. A bellows is used in both prototype inner conductors in the area near the ceramic RF window, to compensate for thermal expansion and mechanical tolerance build-up. In addition, a bellows is used near the tip of the inner conductor of the alpha prototype for running the power coupler after it is installed on the accelerator. Extensive analytical work has been performed to determine the static loads transmitted by the bellows due to thermally induced expansion on the inner conductor and on the RF window. This paper also discusses this analysis, as well as the mechanical analysis performed to determine the final geometric shape of the bellows. Finally, a discussion of the electromagnetic analysis used to optimize the performance of the power couplers is included.

Schmierer, E.N.; Lujan, R.E.; Rusnak, B.; Smith, B.; Haynes, W.B.; Gautier, C.; Waynert, J.A.; Krawczyk, F.; Gioia, J.

1999-03-01

103

A Practical Approach to Starting Fission Surface Power Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prometheus Power and Propulsion Program has been reformulated to address NASA needs relative to lunar and Mars exploration. Emphasis has switched from the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) flight system development to more generalized technology development addressing Fission Surface Power (FSP) and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Current NASA budget priorities and the deferred mission need date for nuclear systems prohibit a fully funded reactor Flight Development Program. However, a modestly funded Advanced Technology Program can and should be conducted to reduce the risk and cost of future flight systems. A potential roadmap for FSP technology development leading to possible flight applications could include three elements: 1) Conceptual Design Studies, 2) Advanced Component Technology, and 3) Non-Nuclear System Testing. The Conceptual Design Studies would expand on recent NASA and DOE analyses while increasing the depth of study in areas of greatest uncertainty such as reactor integration and human-rated shielding. The Advanced Component Technology element would address the major technology risks through development and testing of reactor fuels, structural materials, primary loop components, shielding, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). The Non-Nuclear System Testing would provide a modular, technology testbed to investigate and resolve system integration issues.

Mason, Lee S.

2006-01-01

104

D3-D power supply, design, and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the D3-D power supply system with information details concerning the configuration, power ratings, acquisition costs, and cost scaling relevant to the design of ITER and other tokamaks is presented. The power supplies for the D3-D tokamak were installed and commissioned during the late 1970's and the beginning of the 1980's. Several upgrades have been implemented during the last two years to solve increasing reliability problems encountered as the equipment aged, to provide enhanced operational flexibilities, and to enable operation at the higher power levels needed to provide experimental data relevant to the ITER and TPX design activities. These upgrades ranged from redesign of the power supply control systems to the replacement of vacuum circuit breakers which had become unreliable in service. A new interlock and protection system has also been implemented using the latest programmable logic controllers (PLC) and computer technology. These upgrades have been highly successful and are described to provide insight to many issues in the specification of high power converters. Power supply models used in the design of the D3-D Plasma Control System are also described along with model verification test data. These models are being used in the development of a new advanced plasma control system for the D3-D tokamak. Recent operational experience and results are presented.

Nerem, A.

1995-02-01

105

The electric power system of the International Space Station-a platform for power technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160 V DC primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120 V DC secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28 V

Eric B. Gietl; Edward W. Gholdston; Bruce A. Manners; Rex A. Delventhal

2000-01-01

106

Development of a dual-field heteropoplar power converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and testing of a 400 watt, dual phase, dual rotor, field modulated inductor alternator is described. The system is designed for use as a flywheel to ac utility line or flywheel to dc bus (electric vehicle) power converter. The machine is unique in that it uses dual rotors and separately controlled fields to produce output current and voltage which are in phase with each other. Having the voltage and current in phase allows the power electronics to be made of simple low cost components. Based on analytical predictions and experimental results, development of a complete 22 kilowatt (30 Hp) power conversion system is recommended. This system would include power electronics and controls and would replace the inductor alternator with an improved electromagnetic conversion system.

Eisenhaure, D. B.; Johnson, B.; Bliamptis, T.; St. George, E.

1981-01-01

107

Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments  

SciTech Connect

Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

Not Available

1992-06-01

108

The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

2000-01-01

109

Recent Developments in Single-Phase Power Factor Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-phase power factor correction (PFC) technologies was traditionally driven by the need for computers, telecommunication, lighting, and other electronic devices and systems to meet harmonic current limits defined by IEC 61000-3-2 and other regulatory standards. Recently, several new applications have emerged as additional drivers for the development of the technologies. One such application is commercial transport airplanes

Zhonghui BingI; Min Chen; S. K. T. Miller; Y. Nishida; Jian Sun

2007-01-01

110

System Planning for Bay of Fundy Tidal Power Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses attention on the markets that could be served by potential tidal projects in the Bay of Fundy, describes the system considerations and computer models used to analyze the technical and economic viability of such developments and outlines the transmission requirements necessary for their integration into the power system networks. It also details the results of a study

A. N. Karas

1978-01-01

111

Developments in Spousal Power Relations: Are We Moving Toward Equality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of developments in perceptions of spousal power relations, as reflected in decision-making and division of household labor. Based on research conducted from as early as the 1960s to the present, we analyzed theoretical approaches ranging from the classic resource theories and gender role ideology to more complex approaches. We also examined contextual factors that may impact

Liat Kulik

2011-01-01

112

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

1975-01-01

113

Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'.

K. Kataoka; S. Shiga; K. Moriya; Y. Oka; S. Yoshida; H. Takahashi

2002-01-01

114

The Hazards Posed by the Global Development of Nuclear Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the growth in the demand for energy on a world-wide basis. Reviews the development of nuclear power and points out the many hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle. Describes the nature of nuclear wastes and explains the quantities involved and the current techniques for waste disposal. (GS)

O'Reilly, S. A.

1976-01-01

115

The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

Harris, Frank

2014-01-01

116

Status of Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Development at NASA GRC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is pursuing the development of Brayton cycle power conversion for various NASA initiatives. Brayton cycle power systems offer numerous advantages for space power generation including high efficiency, long life, high maturity, and broad scalability. Candidate mission applications include surface rovers and bases, advanced propulsion vehicles, and earth orbiting satellites. A key advantage is the ability for Brayton converters to span the wide range of power demands of future missions from several kilowatts to multi-megawatts using either solar, isotope, or reactor heat sources. Brayton technology has been under development by NASA since the early 1960's resulting in engine prototypes in the 2 to 15 kW-class that have demonstrated conversion efficiency of almost 30% and cumulative operation in excess of 40,000 hours. Present efforts at GRC are focusing on a 2 kW testbed as a proving ground for future component advances and operational strategies, and a 25 kW engine design as a modular building block for 100 kW-class electric propulsion and Mars surface power applications.

Mason, Lee S.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Dolce, James L.; Cataldo, Robert L.

2002-01-01

117

Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical status of three heat engines (Stirling, high-temperature Brayton, and Combined cycle) for use in solar thermal power systems is presented. Performance goals necessary to develop a system competitive with conventional power requirements include an external heated engine output less than 40 kW, and efficiency power conversion subsystem at least 40% at rated output, and a half-power efficiency of at least 37%. Results show that the Stirling engine can offer a 39% efficiency with 100 hours of life, and a 20% efficiency with 10,000 hours of life, but problems with seals and heater heads exist. With a demonstrated efficiency near 31% at 1500 F and a minimum lifetime of 100,000 hours, the Brayton engine does not offer sufficient engine lifetime, efficiency, and maintenance for solar thermal power systems. Examination of the Rankine bottoming cycle of the Combined cycle engine reveals a 30 year lifetime, but a low efficiency. Additional development of engines for solar use is primarily in the areas of components to provide a long lifetime, high reliability, and low maintenance (no more than $0.001/kW-hr).

Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

1981-01-01

118

Development of a field test for upper-body power.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a field test capable of measuring upper-body power through the use of a common weight-training apparatus, a Smith machine (SM), set up for bench press (BP) movement. A small, battery-operated digital timing device was designed and constructed to allow a precise calculation of power (in conjunction with measures of distance and force) for this specific movement, which involved an explosive press from the chest to a position just short of full arm extension. In pilot work, 1 repetition maximums (1RM) were determined on the SM BP for 3 male subjects, and by subsequently testing power on the same subjects at varying resistances, an average relative percentage of the 1RM-producing peak power values was found by power curve analysis for test standardization. Reliability was assessed (using 11 men) by SM power measurements taken over 3 days on the SM fitted with the timer. An intraclass R (0.998) indicated a high correlation between the 3 separate field-test trials. Finally, 8 male subjects were used to compare SM scores with a criterion measure, the Linea Isokinetic BP station (Loredan Biomedical, Inc., Sacramento CA). A Pearson product moment coefficient found a high correlation between the field test (SM) and Linea power scores (r = 0.987). A 2-tailed dependent t-test between the field and criterion scores was not significant, suggesting that no consistent error variable was present. It can be concluded that this is a valid field test of power for this movement. PMID:11710404

Shim, A L; Bailey, M L; Westings, S H

2001-05-01

119

Development of large wind energy power generation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

1985-01-01

120

Development and fabrication of an augmented power transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of device design and processing techniques for the fabrication of an augmented power transistor capable of fast switching and high voltage power conversion is discussed. The major device goals sustaining voltages in the range of 800 to 1000 V at 80 A and 50 A, respectively, at a gain of 14. The transistor switching rise and fall times were both to have been less than 0.5 microseconds. The development of a passivating glass technique to shield the device high voltage junction from moisture and ionic contaminants is discussed as well as the development of an isolated package that separates the thermal and electrical interfaces. A new method was found to alloy the transistors to the molybdenum disc at a relatively low temperature. The measured electrical performance compares well with the predicted optimum design specified in the original proposed design. A 40 mm diameter transistor was fabricated with seven times the emitter area of the earlier 23 mm diameter device.

Geisler, M. J.; Hill, F. E.; Ostop, J. A.

1983-01-01

121

Solar dynamic power system development for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the concentrated solar energy and transfers this energy to a gas; a Brayton turbine, alternator, and compressor unit, which generates electric power; and a radiator, which rejects waste heat. Solar dynamic systems have greater efficiency and lower maintenance costs than photovoltaic systems and are being considered for future growth of Space Station Freedom. Solar dynamic development managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1986 to Feb. 1991 is covered. It summarizes technology and hardware development, describes 'lessons learned', and, through an extensive bibliography, serves as a source list of documents that provide details of the design and analytic results achieved. It was prepared by the staff of the Solar Dynamic Power System Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The report includes results from the prime contractor as well as from in-house efforts, university grants, and other contracts. Also included are the writers' opinions on the best way to proceed technically and programmatically with solar dynamic efforts in the future, on the basis of their experiences in this program.

1993-01-01

122

Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

2010-01-01

123

High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have also to be mentioned. The objective of this paper is to review some recent developments in ultrasonic processing to show the present situation and the prospective progresses of high-power ultrasonics as an innovative technology in many industrial sectors.

Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

2010-01-01

124

Power console development for NASA's electric propulsion outreach program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA LeRC is developing a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster for auxiliary and primary propulsion applications. To maximize expectations for user-acceptance of ion propulsion technology, NASA LeRC, through their Electric Propulsion Outreach Program, is providing sectors of industry with portable power consoles for operation of 5 KW-class xenon ion thrusters. This power console provides all necessary functions to permit thruster operations over a 0.5-5 KW envelope under both manual and automated control. These functions include the following: discharge, cathode heater, neutralizer keeper, and neutralizer heater currents, screen and accelerator voltages, and a gas feed system to regulate and control propellant flow to the thruster. An electronic circuit monitors screen and accelerator currents and controls arcing events. The power console was successfully integrated with the NASA 30 cm thruster.

Pinero, Luis R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Satterwhite, Vincent E.

1993-01-01

125

Development of high-power holmium-doped fibre amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonantly pumped holmium fibre lasers present a range of opportunities for the development of novel fibre laser and amplifier devices due to the availability of mature, efficient high power thulium fibre pump lasers. In this paper we describe the operation of a large mode area holmium-doped fibre amplifier. The master-oscillator is an all-fibre linearly polarised, core pumped single mode laser operating at 27 W at 2.11 ?m. This laser was amplified in a large mode area fibre producing up to 265 W of output power. This system is the first demonstration of a resonantly pumped holmiumdoped fibre amplifier. It is also the highest power fibre amplifier that is capable of operating in an atmospheric transmission window <2.05 ?m. This monolithic all-fibre system is able to address a wide range of remote sensing, scientific, medical and defence applications.

Hemming, Alexander; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Oermann, Michael; Corena, Len; Stepanov, Dmitrii; Carmody, Neil; Haub, John; Swain, Robert; Carter, Adrian

2014-03-01

126

Technology Development for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions.

Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

2000-01-01

127

Power Electronics Development for the SPT-100 Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russian electric propulsion technologies have recently become available on the world market. Of significant interest is the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) which has a significant flight heritage in the former Soviet space program. The SPT has performance levels of up to 1600 seconds of specific impulse at a thrust efficiency of 0.50. Studies have shown that this level of performance is well suited for stationkeeping applications, and the SPT-100, with a 1.35 kW input power level, is presently being evaluated for use on Western commercial satellites. Under a program sponsored by the Innovative Science and Technology Division of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, a team of U.S. electric propulsion specialists observed the operation of the SPT-100 in Russia. Under this same program, power electronics were developed to operate the SPT-100 to characterize thruster performance and operation in the U.S. The power electronics consisted of a discharge, cathode heater, and pulse igniter power supplies to operate the thruster with manual flow control. A Russian designed matching network was incorporated in the discharge supply to ensure proper operation with the thruster. The cathode heater power supply and igniter were derived from ongoing development projects. No attempts were made to augment thruster electromagnet current in this effort. The power electronics successfully started and operated the SPT-100 thruster in performance tests at NASA Lewis, with minimal oscillations in the discharge current. The efficiency of the main discharge supply was measured at 0.92, and straightforward modifications were identified which could increase the efficiency to 0.94.

Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Sankovic, John M.

1994-01-01

128

Development Status: Automation Advanced Development Space Station Freedom Electric Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric power system automation for Space Station Freedom is intended to operate in a loop. Data from the power system is used for diagnosis and security analysis to generate Operations Management System (OMS) requests, which are sent to an arbiter, which sends a plan to a commander generator connected to the electric power system. This viewgraph presentation profiles automation software for diagnosis, scheduling, and constraint interfaces, and simulation to support automation development. The automation development process is diagrammed, and the process of creating Ada and ART versions of the automation software is described.

Dolce, James L.; Kish, James A.; Mellor, Pamela A.

1990-01-01

129

Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes have been developed for tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide, and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering under reverse bias have been measured, permitting the accurate prediction of forward and reverse diode characteristics. Processing procedures have been developed that permit the fabrication of large area (about 1 sq cm) mesageometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values. A theoretical analysis of the operation of bridge rectifier circuits has been performed, which indicates the ranges of frequency and voltage for which Schottky rectifiers are preferred to p-n junctions. Power Schottky rectifiers have been fabricated and tested for voltage ratings up to 140 volts.

Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkel, M.; Taft, E. A.

1975-01-01

130

The solar power satellite - A programme for development aid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that there are essentially four types of foreign aid. These types include the transfer of knowledge, the transfer of materials, the transfer of funds, and the provision of preferential agreements. A great number of studies have been conducted to assess the pros and cons of a Solar Power Satellite System (SPSS). According to many, the most difficult problems which have to be solved in connection with such a project are related to environmental, societal, political, and institutional aspects. The present investigation is concerned with the initiation of a gradual, phased approach toward a Solar Power Satellite (SPS). Phase I of such an approach would involve the set-up of an organization and the allocation of studies. The building of photovoltaic farms and of an SPS pilot project would occur during the second phase, while development and deployment of a full SPSS would take place during the third phase. The developments are to be financed under foreign aid.

Meiner, R. C.

131

High-Power Krypton Hall Thruster Technology Being Developed for Nuclear-Powered Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has been performing research and development of moderate specific impulse, xenon-fueled, high-power Hall thrusters for potential solar electric propulsion applications. These applications include Mars missions, reusable tugs for low-Earth-orbit to geosynchronous-Earth-orbit transportation, and missions that require transportation to libration points. This research and development effort resulted in the design and fabrication of the NASA-457M Hall thruster that has been tested at input powers up to 95 kW. During project year 2003, NASA established Project Prometheus to develop technology in the areas of nuclear power and propulsion, which are enabling for deep-space science missions. One of the Project-Prometheus-sponsored Nuclear Propulsion Research tasks is to investigate alternate propellants for high-power Hall thruster electric propulsion. The motivation for alternate propellants includes the disadvantageous cost and availability of xenon propellant for extremely large scale, xenon-fueled propulsion systems and the potential system performance benefits of using alternate propellants. The alternate propellant krypton was investigated because of its low cost relative to xenon. Krypton propellant also has potential performance benefits for deep-space missions because the theoretical specific impulse for a given voltage is 20 percent higher than for xenon because of krypton's lower molecular weight. During project year 2003, the performance of the high-power NASA-457M Hall thruster was measured using krypton as the propellant at power levels ranging from 6.4 to 72.5 kW. The thrust produced ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 N at a discharge specific impulse up to 4500 sec.

Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.

2004-01-01

132

Development of Power-head based Fan Airflow Station  

E-print Network

without any branches, the airflow is measured based on the pressure drop through the main duct and then the stack damper is controlled by the measured airflow. During the measurement the airflow was obtained by the measured duct pressure drop...Development of Power-head Based Fan Airflow Station Gang Wang Research associate University of Nebraska, Lincoln Mingsheng Liu Professor University of Nebraska, Lincoln Abstract Fan airflow measurement is critical for heating...

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01

133

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.; Jo, Sung B.; Kim, Jinwoo.; Logan, Jeffrey.; Oh, Jin-Gyu.; Roh, Dong-Seok.

1999-01-01

134

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

Southern Company Services

2006-09-30

135

Development of high temperature superconductors for electric power applications  

SciTech Connect

The Nobel Prize-winning discovery in 1986 of a new family of superconductors that exhibited the property of no resistance at temperatures more than ten times greater than the traditional low temperature superconductors (LTS) currently used in MRI and high field magnets, made it possible to foresee a new era for the production, transmission and distribution of electrical power. Smaller, more efficient motors, generators, power cables, transformers, inductors, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power quality were applications immediately envisioned for these high temperature superconductors (HTS), promising enhanced capabilities and lower costs. Work also began on new product concepts, such as more effective fault current limiters for both transmission and distribution systems that could protect expensive hardware and avoid the cost of upgrading circuit breakers as system capacity is increased. The interest of industry and utilities has been increased by successful demonstrations of small-scale prototypes. Recent demonstrations include a one meter conductor for an underground transmission cable produced by American Superconductor which carried over 4,200 amps, a 5 hp synchronous motor produced by Reliance Electric Company, magnet systems which generated over 2 Tesla at temperatures over 20 Kelvin (K) by both American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) and Sumitomo Electric Industries. The Department of Energy, under the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative Program (SPI), recently funded four application development projects: a 100 hp HTS motor demonstration, design of a generator rotor, a fault current limiter for distribution systems, and a 30 meter HTS power transmission cable. This paper will review the progress in application development of HTS products. The specific benefits and costs associated with this technology in power applications will be examined.

Schiff, N. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1995-09-01

136

Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams  

SciTech Connect

The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

Rehder, J.B.

1983-01-01

137

Development of Power Assisting Suit for Assisting Nurse Labor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize a power assisting suit for assisting a nurse caring a patient in her arm, a hardness sensor of muscle using load cell and a pneumatic rotary actuator utilizing pressure cuffs have been developed. The power assisting suit consists of shoulders, arms, waist and legs made of aluminum, and is fitted on the nurse body. The power assisting suit is originated with the concept of a master and slave system in one body. The arms, waist and legs have the pneumatic rotary actuators. The pneumatic rotary actuators are constructed with pressure cuffs sandwiched between thin plates. The action of the arms, waist and legs of the nurse are sensed with the muscle hardness sensor utilizing load cell with diaphragm mounted on a sensing tip. The dent of the sensing tip corresponds to the hardness of the muscle so that exerting muscle force produces electric signal. This paper gives the design and characteristics of the power assisting suit using the cuff type pneumatic rotary actuators and the muscle hardness sensor verifying its practicability.

Yamamoto, Keijiro; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Ishii, Mineo; Matsuo, Takashi

138

Wind power in Russia Today: Development, resources, and technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wind power development in Russia and technology transfer from the West are discussed from an integrated perspective, including institutional and economic conditions, technologies, geography, and technology transfer experience. Commercialization has only begun in the last few years. Domestic technology development programs for 100-kW to 1000-kW turbines and wind farm projects are described. Good wind resources exist in at least 17 regions (out of 89) in the Far East, Far North, Northwest, North Caucasus, and Lower Volga. To Russians, wind power means jobs and autonomy. Joint ventures are an important form of technology transfer because of existing idle industrial capacity with skilled workers. Equipment imports to-date have been minimal. The only example of a production joint venture so far is Windenergo in Ukraine, which has begun to produce 110-kW turbines under a Kenetech Windpower license. Barriers to technology transfer are described and appear formidable. Russia remains a combination of technology transfer perspectives for developed, developing, and former Communist countries

Martinot, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Perminov, E.M. [Russian National Electric Utility RAO, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

139

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

Southern Company Services

2008-11-01

140

Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

Strebkov, D. S.

2015-01-01

141

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

Southern Company Services

2007-01-30

142

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

Southern Company Services

2005-08-31

143

Organic Rankine power conversion subsystem development for the small community solar thermal power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and preliminary test results for an air-cooled, hermetically sealed 20 kW sub E organic Rankine cycle engine/alternator unit for use with point focussing distributed receiver solar thermal power system. A 750 F toluene is the working fluid and the system features a high speed, single-stage axial flow turbine direct-coupled to a permanent magnet alternator. Good performance was achieved with the unit in preliminary tests.

Barber, R. E.; Boda, F. P.

1982-01-01

144

Organic Rankine power conversion subsystem development for the small community solar thermal power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and preliminary test results for an air-cooled, hermetically sealed 20 kW sub E organic Rankine cycle engine\\/alternator unit for use with point focussing distributed receiver solar thermal power system. A 750 F toluene is the working fluid and the system features a high speed, single-stage axial flow turbine direct-coupled to a permanent magnet alternator. Good performance was achieved

R. E. Barber; F. P. Boda

1982-01-01

145

Development of 3 kW at 325 MHz solid-state RF power amplifier using four power amplifier modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power solid-state RF power amplifier of 3 kW at 325 MHz has been developed using only four RF power amplifier modules of 850 W power output each. The design and characterization of RF power modules have been presented. A four way Wilkinson power combiner adds the output of four power amplifier modules with a total transmission loss of less than 6%. The combined power amplifier has a power gain of 20.2 dB at 1-dB compression point, and the corresponding output power is 2.8 kW at 325 MHz. The drain efficiency of the power amplifier is 65.3% at 3 kW. All the harmonics of this amplifier are below -40 dBc. The amplifier has better characteristics like fewer numbers of active devices per kilo watt, high efficiency, high gain, and ruggedness etc for RF accelerator applications.

Ramarao, B. V.; Sonal, S.; Mishra, J. K.; Pande, M.; Singh, P.; Kumar, G.; Mukherjee, J.

2014-01-01

146

Development of power supply system for aircraft warning lights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Kyushu Electric's developmental approach to establish an independent power supply system to supply electric power for aircraft warning lights by combining renewable energy (i.e. photovoltaic power, wind power) and a power storage system using lithiumion (Li-ion) batteries. As a result of a field test using a real power transmission tower, the validity of the system could be

K. Adachi; H. Fujita; S. Taniguchi; T. Noguchi

2010-01-01

147

Expansion Planning Procedures and Development Mechanisms for Power Systems in a Market Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational structure of electric power industry and subjects of relations at its development are discussed. The structure of electric power industry development is suggested. The development problems and techniques of their solution are structurized. The examples of solved development problems are explained. The system of electric power industry development management is suggested and discussed.

Nikolai I. Voropai; Ekaterina Yu. Ivanova; Viktor V. Trufanov; Galina I. Sheveleva

2007-01-01

148

Risks and decision making in development of new power plant projects  

E-print Network

Power plant development projects are typically capital intensive and subject to a complex network of interconnected risks that impact development's performance. Failure to develop a power plant to meet performance constraints ...

Kristinsdottir, Asbjorg

2012-01-01

149

Power Systems Development Facility. First quarterly report, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project, herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal derived gas streams. This project entails the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device (PCD) issues to be addressed include the integration of the PCDs into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

NONE

1997-07-01

150

Continuing Development for Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-life radioisotope power generators based on free-piston Stirling engines are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been developing free-piston Stirling machines for over 30 years, and its family of Stirling generators is ideally suited for reliable, maintenance-free operation. This paper describes recent progress and status of the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generator (RG-55), presents an overview of recent testing, and discusses how the technology demonstration design has evolved toward space-qualified hardware.

Peterson, Allen A.; Qiu, Songgang; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.; Petersen, Stephen L.

2004-02-01

151

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS program. The CETF design effort continued through this quarter with the completion of the following systems: 1. Char Storage and Transport System 2. Reheat Burner The char storage system is required for the HIPPS program because the ball mill needs to be de-coupled from the burner. This de-coupling of the mill and the burner allows greater flexibility in changing char particle size distribution ? one of the main test variables under the HIPPS program. The reheat burner is employed to prevent condensation of the flue gas in the baghouse.

NONE

1998-10-01

152

Private power development and environmental protection in India  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

1997-12-01

153

Advanced on-site power plant development technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cell, full area short stack containing advanced cell features was tested for 2900 hours. A stack acid addition approach was selected and will be evaluated on the stack at 5000 hours test time. A brassboard inverter was designed and fabrication was initiated. Evaluation of this brassboard inverter will take place in 1984. A Teflon coated commercial heat exchanger was selected as the preferred approach for the acid condenser. A reformer catalyst with significantly less pressure drop and equivalent performance relative to the 40-K baseline catalyst was selected for the development reformer. The early 40-kW field power plant history was reviewed and adjustments were made to the On-Site Technology Development Program to address critical component issues.

1984-01-01

154

Duke Power Company's development of a biofouling monitoring program  

SciTech Connect

Biofouling programs at Duke Power Company (DPC) can be traced to the invasion of the Catawba River system by Corbicula in 1968. Raw water systems at Plant Allen, a coal-fired station on Lake Wylie, became heavily infested by clams during the 1970s. Development of programs was accelerated as a result of the shutdown of Catawba nuclear station (CNS) on lake Wylie in 1986 due to clam infestations in safety-related systems, increased biofouling problems at McGuire nuclear station (MNS) on lake Norman, and by the issuance of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Generic Letter (GL) 89-13 (issued in 1989). Historical data were reviewed to identify pertinent questions, and a refined, multifaceted Corbicula monitoring plan was developed. This plan was implemented at CNS and MNS in 1989.

Derwort, J.E.; Gnilka, A. (Duke Power Co., Huntersville, NC (United States))

1991-11-01

155

Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3, 4). The LSP System may be the only reasonable method for establishing sustainable global energy prosperity within two generations. Commercial power prosperity requires at least 2 kWe/person. For ten billion people this implies 20 TWe and 2,000 TWe-y of electric energy or ~6,000 TWt-y of thermal energy per century (5, 6, 7, 8). A brief overview is presented of a reference LSP System that supplies 20 TWe by 2050. The engineering scales and the cost and benefits of this system are described. In order to provide low cost commercial electric energy, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth (1, 2, 3). In addition, lunar production machinery can be made primarily from lunar materials. Advantages of this approach, versus the reference LSP System, are discussed. Full-scale production of a LSP System will certainly be proceeded by terrestrial and lunar operation of the production machinery and a small-scale demonstration of the operational system (1). Using government funds to establishing a permanent lunar base and the associated transportation system would significantly reduce the upfront cost for the demonstration of a commercial LSP System (2). The government program would provide a legal framework for commercial development of the LSP System (3, 9). The LSP System offers the opportunity to establish a materials industry on the Moon that can produce a growing mass and variety of goods and enable new services of benefit on the Earth and the Moon (10). New priorities are suggested for civilian space programs that can accelerate the establishment of a demonstration LSP System and growing commercialization of the Moon and cis-lunar space. 1. Criswell, David R. (2001) Lunar Solar Power System: Industrial Research, Development, and Demonstration, Session 1.2.2: Hydroelectricity, Nuclear Energy and New Renewables, 18th World Energy Congress. [http://www.wec.co.ukin the Congress Papers, Discussion Sessions] 2. Criswell, D. R. and Waldron, R. D. 1993. International Lunar Base and Lunar-based Power System to Supply Earth with Electric Power, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 469-480. Pergamon Press Ltd. 3. NASA TASK FORCE. 1989 (July) Report of NASA Lunar Energy Enterprise Case Study Task Force. NASA Technical Memo 101652. 163pp. NASA Headquarters, Office of Exploration (Code Z), Washington, D.C. 20546. 4. Moore, T. (2000, Spring) "Renewed interest in space solar power," EPRI Journal, pp. 6-17. 5. World Energy Council (2000) Energy for Tomorrow's World - Acting Now!, 175pp., Atalink Projects Ltd, London. 6. Criswell, David R. (2002) Energy Prosperity within the 21st Century and Beyond: Options and the Unique Roles of the Sun and the Moon. Chapter 9: Innovative Solutions To CO2 Stabilization, R. Watts (editor), Cambridge Un. Press 7. Strong, Maurice (2001) Where on Earth are We Going?, (See p. 351-352), 419pp., Random House (forward by Kofi Annan) 8. Criswell, D. R. and Thompson, R. G. (1996), "Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrial-based large scale commercial power systems for Earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages," Solar Energy, 56, No. 1: 119-131. 9 ILEWG (1997), Proc. 2nd International Lunar Workshop, organized by: International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Inst. Space and Astronautical Science, and National Space Development Agency of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, (October 14 - 17), 89pp. 10. Criswell, D.R. 2000 (October) Commercial power for Earth and lunar industrial development, 7pp., 51st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Paper #IAA-00-IAA.13.2.06.

Criswell, D. R.

2002-01-01

156

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

Southern Company Services

2008-03-30

157

Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at NASA GRC.

Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfroy, Thomas

2012-01-01

158

VGA 17 ?m development for compact, low-power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon has enabled ULIS to develop VGA IRFPA formats with 17 ?m pixel-pitch, hence building up the currently available product catalog. This detector keeps all the innovations developed on the 25 ?m pixel-pitch ROIC (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption and wide electrical dynamic range). The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high spatial resolution it provides. The pixel-pitch reduction turns this TEC-less VGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution and compact systems. Electro-optical performances of this IRFPA are presented hereafter as well as recent performance improvement. We will focus on NETD trade-off with wide thermal dynamic range, as well as the high characteristics uniformity and pixel operability, achieved thanks to the mastering of amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design. Solar exposure is also taken into account and shows that ULIS amorphous silicon is perfectly well suited to sustain high intensity exposure. This technology node associated with advanced packaging technique paves the way to compact low power system.

Durand, A.; Tissot, J. L.; Robert, P.; Cortial, S.; Roman, C.; Vilain, M.; Legras, O.

2011-06-01

159

Development of high power ion sources for fusion (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress and development activities regarding high power ion sources for fusion researches are reviewed. High power positive ion sources, which have progressed in the 1980s, played important roles in fusion research. Most of the ion sources developed for major neutral beam injection (NBI) systems are a large area magnetic multipole type with tungsten cathode, and produce tens of amperes of positive hydrogen/deuterium/tritium ion beams at the energy around 100 keV. The NBI systems based on these ion sources delivered tens of MW neutral beams to the plasmas, and contributed to produce high temperature plasmas in the break-even condition in the tokamak type fusion devices. Meanwhile, R and D of high current negative ion sources were carried out for a high energy NBI system to be utilized not only for plasma heating, but also for the steady state operation and stable plasma control in the fusion burning plasmas. In the 1990s, rapid progress of high current negative ion sources has been made. Particularly, a cesiated magnetic filter source with high plasma confinement has, for the first time, produced a multi-ampere negative ion beam stably in the conditions required for the negative-ion-based NBI systems, namely high negative ion current density, low operating pressure, low extracted electron current, and good beamlet optics. Based on this progress, a 500 keV 10 MW NBI system has been developed for JT-60U at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and construction of a 180 keV 15 MW NBI system is carried on at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The same type of negative ion source is applied to the design of a 1 MeV NBI system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

Ohara, Y.

1998-02-01

160

Development of high-performance gan-based power transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a comprehensive study on the development of GaN-based high-power transistors. First, selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, a technology developed by our group for Ohmic contact improvement, is utilized to fabricate large-periphery AlGaN / GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for high current operation. A novel Ti / Al multi-layered contact scheme is then introduced to further reduce the contact resistance by inhibiting the Al diffusion during Ohmic contact annealing. Second, to reduce the gate leakage current and enhance the breakdown voltage, gate-SiO 2 deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. The routinely occurring degradation of the two-dimensional electron gas properties due to the sputtering-induced surface damage is effectively removed by a buffer layer protection or a post-annealing treatment. A metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-HEMT with sputtered-gate-SiO2 is demonstrated for the first time, which exhibits a record high breakdown voltage density. Furthermore, the sputtered-SiO2, together with the atomic-layer-deposited-Al 2O3, forms a bimodal-gate-oxide scheme, which is combined with the fluoride-plasma treatment to realize high-performance enhancement-mode MOSHEMT. Finally, a new transfer printing approach is developed to fabricate flexible hybrid inductorcapacitor (LC) filters via the pre-etched silicon-on-insulator wafer. The selectively patterned semi-stable Si-supporting membranes are sufficiently robust to support the entire device fabrication process, yet flexible enough to facilitate the subsequent transfer printing via adhesive stamp. The flexible hybrid LC filter has the potential to be incorporated into GaN-MOSHEMTbased high power DC-DC converters.

Pang, Liang

161

The challenge of developing structural materials for fusion power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Central in the goal of designing a safe, environmentally benign, and economically competitive fusion power system is the requirement for high performance, low activation materials. The general performance requirements for such materials have been defined and it is clear that materials developed for other applications (e.g. aerospace, nuclear fission, fossil energy systems) will not fully meet the needs of fusion. Advanced materials, with composition and microstructure tailored to yield properties that will satisfy the specific requirements of fusion must be developed. The international fusion programs have made significant progress towards this goal. Compositional requirements for low activation lead to a focus of development efforts on silicon carbide composites, vanadium alloys, and advanced martensitic steels as candidate structural material systems. Control of impurities will be critically important in actually achieving low activation but this appears possible. Neutron irradiation produces significant changes in the mechanical and physical properties of each of these material systems raising feasibility questions and design limitations. A focus of the research and development effort is to understand these effects, and through the development of specific compositions and microstructures, produce materials with improved and adequate performance. Other areas of research that are synergistic with the development of radiation resistant materials include fabrication, joining technology, chemical compatibility with coolants and tritium breeders and specific questions relating to the unique characteristics of a given material (e.g. coatings to reduce gas permeation in SiC composites) or design concept (e.g. electrical insulator coatings for liquid metal concepts).

Bloom, Everett E.

1998-10-01

162

Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particular control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the Foster Wheeler portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter.

NONE

1996-05-01

163

Power systems development facility. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. (2) Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. (3) Combustion Gas Turbine. (4) Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs.

NONE

1995-05-01

164

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

Southern Company Services

2003-04-30

165

Development of a naturally aspired thermosyphon for power amplifier cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the early development steps of a two-phase thermosyphon thermal management solution for power amplifiers (PA) in the telecommunication industry. These components, attached to a vertical PCB within an enclosure between the RF filter and a natural or forced convection heat sink, dissipate a large amount of heat with a high heat flux density. Currently cooled by direct contact to a shared heat sink, they tend to spread heat towards other components of their board, affecting their reliability. A thermosyphon thus appear as an ideal thermal management solution to transport the heat from the power amplifiers in order to dissipate it to a remote and dedicated natural convection heat sink. In the present study, the performance and the heat spreading of a forced convection unit is measured. A thermosyphon solution is then designed with a flat vertical evaporator and a radial natural convection heat sink and condenser. The performance of the thermosyphon thermal management solution is measured and compared to the initial solution. The limits and improvement needs of the thermosyphon solution are then discussed.

Siedel, S.; Robinson, A. J.; Kempers, R.; Kerslake, S.

2014-07-01

166

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC09  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC09 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC09 in air- and oxygen-blown modes. Test Run TC09 was started on September 3, 2002, and completed on September 26, 2002. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run, with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen was smooth. The gasifier temperature varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 125 to 270 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC09, 414 hours of solid circulation and over 300 hours of coal feed were attained with almost 80 hours of pure oxygen feed.

Southern Company Services

2002-09-30

167

Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory, the University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University will perform a 6-month study that will result in the design of a 25-kW ion thruster, a propellant feed system, and a power processing architecture. The following 2 years will involve hardware development, wear tests, single-string tests of the thruster-power circuits and the xenon feed system, and subsystem service life analyses. The 2-kW-class ion propulsion technology developed for the Deep Space 1 mission will be used for NASA's discovery mission Dawn, which involves maneuvering a spacecraft to survey the asteroids Ceres and Vesta. The 6-kW-class ion thruster subsystem technology under NEXT is scheduled to be flight ready by calendar year 2006. The less mature 25- kW ion thruster system under HiPEP is expected to be ready for a flight advanced development program in calendar year 2006.

Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

2003-01-01

168

Power Electronics Being Developed for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space missions need to operate reliably and efficiently in harsh environments that include very low temperatures. Spacecraft that operate in such cold environments carry a large number of heaters so that the ambient temperature for the onboard electronics remains near 20 C. Electronics that can operate at cryogenic temperatures will simplify system design and reduce system size and weight by eliminating the heaters and their associated structures. As a result, system development and launch cost will be reduced. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, an ongoing program is focusing on the development of power electronics geared for deep space low-temperature environments. The research and development efforts include electrical components design, circuit design and construction, and system integration and demonstration at cryogenic temperatures. Investigations are being carried out on circuits and systems that are targeted for use in NASA missions where low temperatures will be encountered: devices such as ceramic and tantalum capacitors, metal film resistors, semiconductor switches, magnetics, and integrated circuits including dc/dc converters, operational amplifiers, voltage references, and motor controllers. Test activities cover a wide range of device and circuit performance under simple as well as complex test conditions, such as multistress and thermal cycling. The effect of low-temperature conditions on the switching characteristics of an advanced silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor is shown. For gate voltages (VGS) below 2.6 V, drain currents at -190 C are lower than drain currents at room temperature (20 C).

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

2003-01-01

169

Development of radiometers for high power thermal radiation  

SciTech Connect

The development of instrumentation to measure high heat-flux levels (greater than or equal to 1.0 MW/sq m) is described. The progress has followed the provision of arc-image thermal irradiation facilities of power inputs between 2.30 kW. Fast response radiometers have been constructed and - after calibration against an absolute calorimetric measurement - used to indicate incident radiant intensity. Constantan-foil disc radiometers can confer a high degree of spatial as well as temporal resolution with a high degree of precision. Delicate disc-centre thermocouple joints were necessary as well as robust peripheral welding to a cold solderless junction. About ten different coating blacks have been assessed for burn-off tendency over the linear region of response, up to thermal intensities of 5.9 MW/sq m.

Balderston, J.; King, P.W.

1980-01-01

170

Power Systems Development Facility: Filter element evaluation during combustion testing  

SciTech Connect

The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored engineering scale demonstration of two advanced coal-fired power systems. Particulate cleanup is achieved by utilizing High Temperature, High Pressure (HTHP) gas filtration systems. The PSDF was designed at sufficient scale so that advanced power systems and components could be tested in an integrated fashion to provide confidence and data for commercial scale-up. Since August 1996, almost 5000 hours of combustion testing has been completed at the PSDF. All of the hot combustion gas produced by the Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) transport reactor has been filtered by a Siemens-Westinghouse Power Company (SWPC) Particulate Control Device (PCD). The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier. The PCD is designed to filter nominally 1000 acfm of HTHP gas at temperatures up to 1550 F (840 C) and pressures up to 280 psig (19 bar, g). The PCD can hold up to 91 filter elements. To date, 16 different types of filter elements have been tested in the PCD at operating temperatures up to 1450 F (785 C). The elements tested include filter elements from 3M Ceramic Fiber Products, Albany International Techniweave, AlliedSignal Composites (formerly DuPont Lanxide), Blasch Precision Ceramics, Coors Ceramics, Ensto Ceramics Oy, Industrial Filter and Pump, McDermott, Pall Advanced Separations, Specific Surface and U.S. Filter/Schumacher. Filter elements have been installed in the PCD thirteen different times since August 1996. Typically, a variety of elements from several manufacturers have been simultaneously installed. While this has presented its own set of challenges, this ``side-by-side'' comparison has provided valuable insight into how the filter elements perform under a variety of conditions. The filter elements tested at the PSDF can be divided into four different groups: monolithic oxide filter elements, monolithic silicon carbide filter elements, composite filter elements and metal filter elements. Testing of the filter elements in the PCD as well as destructive material testing at Southern Research Institute has shown that each group of elements has advantages and disadvantages due to the material type and method of construction. Overall, the filter elements have worked well at the PSDF, with some performing better than others. Understanding the nature of each material and its shortcomings is key to the successful operation of a HTHP gas filter system.

Davidson, M.; Guan, X.; Hendrix, H.; Shirley, B.

1999-07-01

171

Preliminary design development of 100 KW rotary power transfer device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contactless power transfer devices for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface were studied. A power level of 100 KW was of primary interest and the study was limited to alternating current devices. Rotary transformers and rotary capacitors together with the required dc to ac power conditioning electronics were examined. Microwave devices were addressed. The rotary transformer with resonant circuit power conditioning was selected as the most feasible approach. The rotary capacitor would be larger while microwave devices would be less efficient. A design analysis was made of a 100 KW, 20 kHz power transfer device consisting of a rotary transformer, power conditioning electronics, drive mechanism and heat rejection system. The size, weight and efficiency of the device were determined. The characteristics of a baseline slip ring were presented. Aspects of testing the 100 KW power transfer device were examined. The power transfer device is a feasible concept which can be implemented using presently available technologies.

Weinberger, S. M.

1981-01-01

172

How to develop renewable power in China? A cost-effective perspective.  

PubMed

To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM) to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1) the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000?MW in 2020; (2) the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3) the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700?Yuan/KW in 2020; (4) the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5) the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power. PMID:24578672

Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

2014-01-01

173

High power KrF laser development at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the high power laser development program at Los Alamos is to appraise the potential of the KrF laser as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), ultimately at energy levels that will produce high target gain (gain of order 100). A KrF laser system prototype, the 10-kJ Aurora laser, which is nearing initial system operation, will serve as a feasibility demonstration of KrF technology and system design concepts appropriate to large scale ICF driver systems. The issues of affordable cost, which is a major concern for all ICF drivers now under development, and technology scaling are also being examined. It is found that, through technology advances and component cost reductions, the potential exists for a KrF driver to achieve a cost goal in the neighborhood of $100 per joule. The authors suggest that the next step toward a multimegajoule laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is an ''Intermediate Driver'' facility in the few hundred kilojoule to one megajoule range, which will help verify the scaling of driver technology and cost to an LMF size. An Intermediate Driver facility would also increase the confidence in the estimates of energy needed for an LMF and would reduce the risk in target performance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

McDonald, T.; Cartwright, D.; Fenstermacher, C.; Figueira, J.; Goldstone, P.; Harris, D.; Mead, W.; Rosocha, L.

1988-01-01

174

Bi-directional four quadrant (BDQ4) power converter development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility for implementation of a concept for direct ac/dc multikilowatt power conversion with bidirectional transfer of energy was investigated. A 10 kHz current carrier was derived directly from a common 60 Hz three phase power system. This carrier was modulated to remove the 360 Hz ripple, inherent in the three phase power supply and then demodulated and processed by a high frequency filter. The resulting dc power was then supplied to a load. The process was implemented without the use of low frequency transformers and filters. This power conversion processes was reversible and can operate in the four quadrants as viewed from any of the two of the converter's ports. Areas of application include: power systems on air and spacecraft; terrestrial traction; integration of solar and wind powered systems with utility networks; HVDC; asynchronous coupling of polyphase networks; heat treatment; industrial machine drives; and power supplies for any use including instrumentation.

Schwarz, F. C.

1979-01-01

175

Courseware development for a laboratory class in power electronics  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces a new lab kit that is uniquely suited to teach power electronics: the Power NerdKit. The Power NerdKit is a self-contained prototyping system, which is easily incorporated into other systems such as ...

Alvira, Mariano

2005-01-01

176

Development of an externally powered prosthetic hook for amputees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered hook with trigger finger appears to be a useful adaptation of a terminal device for an amputee when performing vocational activities involving the use of a powered tool requiring a trigger control. The proportional control system includes transducers and amplifiers and appears to have widespread application for control of any external power, whether it be in the orthotic or prosthetic field.

Karchak, A., Jr.; Allen, J. R.; Bontrager, E. L.

1973-01-01

177

Optimal power flow: Research and code development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new computer algorithm solves optimum power flow problems by coordinating the scheduling of generators and associated equipment to select the most economical alternatives. Use of this new algorithm can help utilities optimize power generation, power flows in the bulk transmission network, and bus voltages.

Tinney, W.F.; Sun, D.I.

1987-02-01

178

Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3,

D. R. Criswell

2002-01-01

179

Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a fimction of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and hot gas cleanup units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is nearing completion. Nearly all equipment are set in its place and the FW equipment and the PCDs are being set in the structure.

NONE

1995-11-01

180

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC07  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC07 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC07. Prior to TC07, the Transport Reactor was modified to allow operations as an oxygen-blown gasifier. Test Run TC07 was started on December 11, 2001, and the sand circulation tests (TC07A) were completed on December 14, 2001. The coal-feed tests (TC07B-D) were started on January 17, 2002 and completed on April 5, 2002. Due to operational difficulties with the reactor, the unit was taken offline several times. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,700 and 1,780 F at pressures from 200 to 240 psig. In TC07, 679 hours of solid circulation and 442 hours of coal feed, 398 hours with PRB coal and 44 hours with coal from the Calumet mine, and 33 hours of coke breeze feed were attained. Reactor operations were problematic due to instrumentation problems in the LMZ resulting in much higher than desired operating temperatures in the reactor. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable and the modifications to the lower part of the gasifier performed well while testing the gasifier with PRB coal feed.

Southern Company Services

2002-04-05

181

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

Southern Company Services

2002-06-30

182

The introduction of space technology power systems into developing countries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between 1978 and 1984, NASA-Lewis was responsible for the design, fabrication, installation and operational support of 57 photovoltaic power systems in 27 countries. These systems were installed in locations not served by a central power system and ranged in size from 40 W for powering street lights to 29 kW for providing power to a complete village. Several of the system projects had socio/economic studies components that provided for an assessment of how the introduction of both electricity and a novel high technology power system affected the users and their society.

Roberts, Allen F.; Ratajczak, Anthony F.

1989-01-01

183

DEVELOPMENT AND CAPABILITIES OF SPECIAL ABSORBERS FOR HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the power handling tests on a selection of Emerson & Cumings Microwave Products pyramidal high power absorbers. Especially the latest developed high power absorber ECCOSORB HFX-HC is discussed. The hollow concept of this absorber as well as the open-cell structure and high temperature resistance of the absorber panels result in an optimal power handling capability. Steady state

Nancy Laeveren; Jan Dauwen; Peter Van Roy

184

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC10  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC10 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC10 in air- (mainly for transitions and problematic operations) and oxygen-blown mode. Test Run TC10 was started on November 16, 2002, and completed on December 18, 2002. During oxygen-blown operations, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,825 F at pressures from 150 to 180 psig. After initial adjustments were made to reduce the feed rate, operations with the new fluidized coal feeder were stable with about half of the total coalfeed rate through the new feeder. However, the new fluidized-bed coal feeder proved to be difficult to control at low feed rates. Later the coal mills and original coal feeder experienced difficulties due to a high moisture content in the coal from heavy rains. Additional operational difficulties were experienced when several of the pressure sensing taps in the gasifier plugged. As the run progressed, modifications to the mills (to address processing the wet coal) resulted in a much larger feed size. This eventually resulted in the accumulation of large particles in the circulating solids causing operational instabilities in the standpipe and loop seal. Despite problems with the coal mills, coal feeder, pressure tap nozzles and the standpipe, the gasifier did experience short periods of stability during oxygenblown operations. During these periods, the syngas quality was high. During TC10, the gasifier gasified over 609 tons of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and accumulated a total of 416 hours of coal feed, over 293 hours of which were in oxygen-blown operation. No sorbent was used during the run.

Southern Company Services

2002-12-30

185

Development of thermodynamic cycles for concentrated solar power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal power is a promising ‘green’ technology that could contribute significantly – in countries where it may be applicable due to available resources – towards meeting the 2020 and 2050 targets for the free energy production of emissions [Viebahn, P., Lechon, Y., and Trieb, F., 2011. The potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) in Africa and Europe –

A. J. Kolios; S. Paganini; S. Proia

2012-01-01

186

Silicon carbide power devices - current developments and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide power devices are believed to revolutionize key sectors of the power semiconductor business in the next decade. At the moment, their cost positions have to be improved in order to enlarge their market potential. A first step in this direction is the availability of a high quality 3\\

P. Friedrichs; R. Rupp

2005-01-01

187

Possible developments in large scale electrical power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the basic principles of electrical power generation have remained unchanged over the years there have been great improvements in detail. Power station efficiencies are now in the region of 35% and their capital cost has steadily reduced in real terms as the size of the station and steam pressures have increased. With the growing realization of the importance of

J. K. Wright

1975-01-01

188

The Development of Power Technologies for Low-Grade Coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beneficiation of Indian coal and operation of power plants with imported coal will improve the efficiency of power generation to some extent but they will not satisfy overall future requirements of pollution control and conservation of energy. Therefore, there is a need to adopt new clean coal technologies.

Basu, K.

189

Development of 26GHz dielectric-based wakefield power extractor.  

SciTech Connect

High frequency, high power rf sources are needed for many applications in particle accelerators, communications, radar, etc. In this article we present a design of a 26 GHz high power rf source based on the extraction of wakefields from a relativistic electron beam. The extractor is designed to couple out rf power generated from a high charge electron bunch train traversing a dielectric loaded waveguide. Using a 20 nC bunch train (bunch length of 1.5 mm) at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility, we can obtain a steady 26 GHz output power of 148 MW. The extractor has been fabricated and bench tested, with the first high power beam experiments to be performed in the coming year.

Jing, C.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Gao, F.; Kazakov, S.; Kustov, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs; KEK; Dynamics Software

2009-01-01

190

Development of 26 GHz Dielectric-Based Wakefield Power Extractor  

SciTech Connect

High frequency, high power rf sources are needed for many applications in particle accelerators, communications, radar, etc. In this article we present a design of a 26 GHz high power rf source based on the extraction of wakefields from a relativistic electron beam. The extractor is designed to couple out rf power generated from a high charge electron bunch train traversing a dielectric loaded waveguide. Using a 20 nC bunch train (bunch length of 1.5 mm) at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility, we can obtain a steady 26 GHz output power of 148 MW. The extractor has been fabricated and bench tested, with the first high power beam experiments to be performed in the coming year.

Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States); Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Gao, F. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States); Kazakov, S. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Kustov, A. [Dynamics Software, Helsinki (Finland)

2009-01-22

191

Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: State of the art and development opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic systems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and host utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are considered; these include: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. Theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

1984-01-01

192

Development of Voltage Reactive Power Control Considering Load Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern power system has become large and complex networks, which require more flexible system operation. Voltage and reactive power control (VQC) that transports more electric powers especially maintaining voltages within range of constraints is expected to become more important for a high-performance system operation. In this paper, we propose a new technique of VQC considering load change with a short-term load forecasting and an optimal control by a new Meta-heuristics technique with combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search (TS).

Shimone, Takaaki; Yatsubo, Osamu; Ishigame, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tsuguto

193

Development of three-dimensional passive components for power electronics  

E-print Network

As component and power densities have increased, printed circuit boards (PCBs) have taken on additional functionality including heatsinking and forming constituent parts of electrical components. PCBs are not well suited ...

Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig J

2005-01-01

194

New Developments in High-Frequency Power Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating industry has recently introduced a new high-frequency power source, the static frequency converter. The converter uses solid-state low-loss thyristors to guide currents to the induction heating load generating high-frequency power at high efficiency. Unlike the conventional motor generator, the output frequency of the static converter is variable, being self-controlled from the induction heating load. It follows the

William E. Frank

1970-01-01

195

Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

Reddi, Ram Mohan

196

Development of a Low Cost 3-10kW Tubular SOFC Power System  

E-print Network

Acumentrics Corporation #12;Uninterruptible Power Supplies for Harsh Environments Features: · SealedDevelopment of a Low Cost 3-10kW Tubular SOFC Power System Norman Bessette Acumentrics Corporation electronics · Able to withstand vibration · Unity power factor input · Wide input 80VAC - 265VAC · Isolated

197

Airworthiness criteria development for powered-lift aircraft: A program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four-year simulation program to develop airworthiness criteria for powered-lift aircraft is summarized. All flight phases affected by use of powered lift (approach, landing, takeoff) are treated with regard to airworthiness problem areas (limiting flight conditions and safety margins: stability, control, and performance; and systems failure). The general features of powered-lift aircraft are compared to conventional aircraft.

Heffley, R. K.; Stapleford, R. L.; Rumold, R. C.

1977-01-01

198

Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-03-01

199

Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.  

SciTech Connect

Wind power forecasting (WPF) provides important inputs to power system operators and electricity market participants. It is therefore not surprising that WPF has attracted increasing interest within the electric power industry. In this report, we document our research on improving statistical WPF algorithms for point, uncertainty, and ramp forecasting. Below, we provide a brief introduction to the research presented in the following chapters. For a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting, we refer to [1]. Our related work on the application of WPF in operational decisions is documented in [2]. Point forecasts of wind power are highly dependent on the training criteria used in the statistical algorithms that are used to convert weather forecasts and observational data to a power forecast. In Chapter 2, we explore the application of information theoretic learning (ITL) as opposed to the classical minimum square error (MSE) criterion for point forecasting. In contrast to the MSE criterion, ITL criteria do not assume a Gaussian distribution of the forecasting errors. We investigate to what extent ITL criteria yield better results. In addition, we analyze time-adaptive training algorithms and how they enable WPF algorithms to cope with non-stationary data and, thus, to adapt to new situations without requiring additional offline training of the model. We test the new point forecasting algorithms on two wind farms located in the U.S. Midwest. Although there have been advancements in deterministic WPF, a single-valued forecast cannot provide information on the dispersion of observations around the predicted value. We argue that it is essential to generate, together with (or as an alternative to) point forecasts, a representation of the wind power uncertainty. Wind power uncertainty representation can take the form of probabilistic forecasts (e.g., probability density function, quantiles), risk indices (e.g., prediction risk index) or scenarios (with spatial and/or temporal dependence). Statistical approaches to uncertainty forecasting basically consist of estimating the uncertainty based on observed forecasting errors. Quantile regression (QR) is currently a commonly used approach in uncertainty forecasting. In Chapter 3, we propose new statistical approaches to the uncertainty estimation problem by employing kernel density forecast (KDF) methods. We use two estimators in both offline and time-adaptive modes, namely, the Nadaraya-Watson (NW) and Quantilecopula (QC) estimators. We conduct detailed tests of the new approaches using QR as a benchmark. One of the major issues in wind power generation are sudden and large changes of wind power output over a short period of time, namely ramping events. In Chapter 4, we perform a comparative study of existing definitions and methodologies for ramp forecasting. We also introduce a new probabilistic method for ramp event detection. The method starts with a stochastic algorithm that generates wind power scenarios, which are passed through a high-pass filter for ramp detection and estimation of the likelihood of ramp events to happen. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the results of the application of ITL training criteria to deterministic WPF; Chapter 3 reports the study on probabilistic WPF, including new contributions to wind power uncertainty forecasting; Chapter 4 presents a new method to predict and visualize ramp events, comparing it with state-of-the-art methodologies; Chapter 5 briefly summarizes the main findings and contributions of this report.

Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

2011-12-06

200

Development of a lithium hydride powered hydrogen generator for use in long life, low power PEM fuel cell power supplies  

E-print Network

This thesis studies a hybrid PEM fuel cell system for use in low power, long life sensor networks. PEM fuel cells offer high efficiency and environmental friendliness but have not been widely adopted due to cost, reliability, ...

Strawser, Daniel DeWitt

2012-01-01

201

Biomass power for rural development. Revised design report.  

SciTech Connect

The retrofit of Dunkirk Steam Station to fire biomass fuels is an important part of the Consortium's goal--demonstrating the viability of commercial scale willow energy crop production and conversion to power. The goal for th biomass facilities at Dunkirk is to reliably cofire a combination of wood wastes and willow biomass with coal at approximately 20% by heat input.

Neuhauser, Edward

1999-10-03

202

Using Powers of 10 to Help Students Develop Temporal Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the greatest challenges for middle school Earth science teachers is helping our students get a feel for the magnitude of the long spans that make up Earth's history. The intent of the strategy presented here is to help middle school students get a feel for the real sizes of powers of 10, and then help them use that understanding by…

Schwartz, Mette Elisabeth

2009-01-01

203

Development of a photovoltaic power supply for wireless sensor networks.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the design process of a photovoltaic (solar) based power supply for wireless sensor networks. Such a system stores the energy produced by an array of photovoltaic cells in a secondary (rechargeable) battery that in turn provides power to the individual node of the sensor network. The goal of such a power supply is to enable a wireless sensor network to have an autonomous operation on the order of years. Ideally, such a system is as small as possible physically while transferring the maximum amount of available solar energy to the load (the node). Within this report, there is first an overview of current solar and battery technologies, including characteristics of different technologies and their impact on overall system design. Second is a general discussion of modeling, predicting, and analyzing the extended operation of a small photovoltaic power supply and setting design parameters. This is followed by results and conclusions from the testing of a few basic systems. Lastly, some advanced concepts that may be considered in order to optimize future systems will be discussed.

Harvey, Matthew R.; Kyker, Ronald D.

2005-06-01

204

Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

2000-01-01

205

Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries  

E-print Network

This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

2013-01-01

206

TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

Sato, Masaki

207

Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead

Thomas Johnathan Hill; Cheryl Ann Noble; J. Martinell; S. Borowski

2000-01-01

208

Advanced heat source development for static and dynamic radioisotope space power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced radioisotope heat source development for spacecraft power ; systems using thermoelectric generators or Brayton, Rankine, or Stirling power ; cycles is described. In the past, the majority of heat sources developed and ; launched have been comprised of one or two capsules containing the total fuel ; inventory in a single reentry heat shield. The new technology in

F. A. Schumann; W. E. Osmeyer

1975-01-01

209

DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING TECHNIQUE TO INSPECT CONTAINMENT LINERS EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants. Integrity of containment liners on nuclear power plants can be secured by suitable present operation and maintenance. Furthermore, non-destructive testing technique to inspect embedded liners will ensure the integrity of the containment further. In order to develop the

H. Ishida; Y. Kurozumi; Y. Kaneshima

210

The 40-kw field test power plant modification and development, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progression on the design and development of a 40 KW fuel cell system for on-site installation for providing both thermal and electrical power is reported. Development of the steam reformer fuel processor, power section, inverter, control system, and thermal management and water treatment systems is described.

1980-01-01

211

Prospects of development of the power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the possibilities of developing a power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad (TCR). Two aspects of development are studied in particular: (1) the electric power supply for construction and subsequently for the operating railroad in coordination with simultaneous provision for the needs of adjacent regions; (2) the construction of a transcontinental transmission line

1994-01-01

212

Development of a compact Marx generator for high-power microwave applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of the High-Energy Sources Division of the Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate at the Phillips Laboratory is to develop high-power microwave sources and their related pulsed power. Here, the development of a compact Marx generator to drive loads with impedances on the order of 10 ohms is discussed. It is an 8 stage design, 4 stages

S. E. Calico; M. C. Scott; M. C. Clark

1997-01-01

213

Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing

R. Lutwack

1974-01-01

214

Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

1993-04-01

215

Development of adaptive resonator techniques for high-power lasers  

SciTech Connect

The design of an adaptive wavefront control system for a high-power Nd:Glass laser will be presented. Features of this system include: an unstable resonator in confocal configuration, a multi-module slab amplifier, and real-time intracavity adaptive phase control using deformable mirrors and high-speed wavefront sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the adaptive correction of an aberrated passive resonator (no gain).

An, J; Brase, J; Carrano, C; Dane, C B; Flath, L; Fochs, S; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R

1999-07-12

216

Development of a solar-powered Rankine cycle heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first prototype 18-ton solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump module was successfully designed, built and tested for more than 250 hr. in a specially-designed laboratory facility at UTRC. Operation in both the cooling and heat pump mode was demonstrated over a wide range of building, climatic, and collector\\/storage conditions. The design point performance of the heat pump in both the cooling

F. R. Biancardi; G. Melikian; J. W. Sitler

1982-01-01

217

Further development of high-power pump laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AlGaAs\\/InGaAs based high power pump laser diodes with wavelength of around 980 nm are key products within erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) for today's long haul and metro-communication networks, whereas InGaAsP\\/InP based laser diodes with 14xx nm emission wavelength are relevant for advanced, but not yet widely-used Raman amplifiers. Due to the changing industrial environment cost reduction becomes a crucial

Berthold Schmidt; Norbert Lichtenstein; Boris Sverdlov; Nicolai Matuschek; Stefan Mohrdiek; Tomas Pliska; Juergen Mueller; Susanne Pawlik; Sebastian Arlt; Hans-Ulrich Pfeiffer; Arnaud Fily; Christoph Harder

2003-01-01

218

CCMR: Development of a High Power Membraneless Fuel Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel cells can convert the chemical energy from an electrochemical reaction into electrical energy. Typically, hydrogen gas/oxygen gas fuel cells have a proton exchange membrane (PEM) that keeps the fuel and oxidant from mixing and allows protons to travel from the anode surface to the cathode surface. By establishing laminar flow, the Abruña group has been able to eliminate the need for a PEM in a micro fuel cell. Data obtained by running 150mM NaBH4 in 3M NaOH (fuel) and 0.5 M Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6 in 1M HNO3 (oxidant) through these membraneless micro fuel cells indicate that they have much higher power density than most direct methanol fuel cells and use much less fuel. Recently, a scaled up version of these micro fuel cells was built. If this scaled up membraneless fuel cell can be successfully assembled and run using the same fuel and oxidant, then previously obtained performance data indicates that enough power should be generated to power an iPod Nano. It will also indicate that the design is scalable and is commercially practical.

Watts, David J.

2009-08-15

219

Developments in electric power and district heat in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The subject is approached both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative section gives some background to the use of energy for electric power and district heat production as well a a discussion of the role of the Swedish government in influencing fuel choice and energy demand. Because of data limitations, the quantitative analysis is limited to consideration of trends in thermal efficiency. Thermal efficiency is a simple measure that is affected by many things including technology, the rate of utilization, and the problem of measuring inputs. Results of the quantitative analysis show that thermal efficiency has improved for conventional thermal power generation in Sweden. They also show that this improvement has not occurred in Sweden. They also show that this improvement has not occurred in either the conventional thermal power sectors of several other countries or that of OECD Europe. The improvement in thermal efficiency for Sweden seems to be tied to the substantial reduction in the size of the conventional thermal-generation sector. Both the size and the average utilization rate of conventional thermal plants has decreased. Results for district heating in Sweden show that thermal efficiency has declined. Contributing factors to this reduction in efficiency appear to be the increase in the use of heterogeneous domestic fuels and a rapid increase in the number of plants.

Black, B.B.

1986-01-01

220

Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

221

Concept Developed for an Implanted Stimulated Muscle-Powered Piezoelectric Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implanted electronic devices are typically powered by batteries or transcutaneous power transmission. Batteries must be replaced or recharged, and transcutaneous power sources burden the patient or subject with external equipment prone to failure. A completely self-sustaining implanted power source would alleviate these limitations. Skeletal muscle provides an available autologous power source containing native chemical energy that produces power in excess of the requirements for muscle activation by motor nerve stimulation. A concept has been developed to convert stimulated skeletal muscle power into electrical energy (see the preceding illustration). We propose to connect a piezoelectric generator between a muscle tendon and bone. Electrically stimulated muscle contractions would exert force on the piezoelectric generator, charging a storage circuit that would be used to power the stimulator and other devices.

Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David; Gustafson, Kenneth

2005-01-01

222

Synergistic Catalysis: A Powerful Synthetic Strategy for New Reaction Development  

PubMed Central

Synergistic catalysis is a synthetic strategy wherein both the nucleophile and the electrophile are simultaneously activated by two separate and distinct catalysts to afford a single chemical transformation. This powerful catalysis strategy leads to several benefits, specifically synergistic catalysis can (i) introduce new, previously unattainable chemical transformations, (ii) improve the efficiency of existing transformations, and (iii) create or improve catalytic enantioselectivity where stereocontrol was previously absent or challenging. This perspective aims to highlight these benefits using many of the successful examples of synergistic catalysis found in the literature. PMID:22518271

Allen, Anna E.; MacMillan, David W. C.

2012-01-01

223

Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider  

SciTech Connect

The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system.

Gronberg, Jeff; /LLNL, Livermore; Stuart, Brent; /LLNL, Livermore; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

2012-07-05

224

Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation  

SciTech Connect

High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The PSDF, near Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company, and other industrial participants currently including the Electric Power Research Institute, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR), and Peabody Energy. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems designed at sufficient size to provide data for commercial scale-up.

Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.; Gardner, B.; Hendrix, H.

2002-09-18

225

DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

Goyal, A.; Rupich, M. (American Superconductor Corp.)

2012-10-23

226

SUPPORTING SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN POWER MARKETS Blair Swezey  

E-print Network

are still developing, participation in these programs is supporting a significant amount of new solar energy capacity ­ as of the end of 2002, nearly 5 megawatts (MW) of new photovoltaics development had been funded kW* 1997 17.6¢/kWh Austin Energy GreenChoice 153 kW 1997 1.08¢/kWh Salt River Project Earth

227

Factors driving wind power development in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

2003-05-15

228

Development of Large Current High Precision Pulse Power Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JAEA and KEK are jointly constructing a high intensity proton accelerator project J-PARC. Its main accelerator is 3GeV synchrotron. Its injection bump magnets, especially horizontal paint bump magnets, are excited by large pulse currents. Their rated currents are over 10kA and pulse widths are about 1ms. Tracking errors are required to be less than 1%. Multiple connected two-quadrant IGBT choppers are adopted for their power supplies. Their output currents are controlled by feedback control with minor loop voltage control (m-AVR). When output current of a chopper intermits at small current, its output voltage rises up and current control becomes difficult. In this paper response of m-AVR and output voltage characteristics at current intermittent region are studied and an improved control scheme is proposed. The performance is confirmed by a test.

Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Koseki, Shoichiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Katoh, Shuji; Ogawa, Shinichi

229

Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research  

PubMed Central

Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

2010-01-01

230

Steam turbine development for advanced combined cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

For advanced combined cycle power plants, the proper selection of steam turbine models is required to achieve optimal performance. The advancements in gas turbine technology must be followed by advances in the combined cycle steam turbine design. On the other hand, building low-cost gas turbines and steam turbines is desired which, however, can only be justified if no compromise is made in regard to their performance. The standard design concept of two-casing single-flow turbines seems to be the right choice for most of the present and future applications worldwide. Only for very specific applications it might be justified to select another design concept as a more suitable option.

Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D. [Siemens KWU, Mulheim (Germany); Balling, L. [Siemens KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Termuehlen, H. [Siemens Power Corp., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

231

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

1982-01-01

232

Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider  

SciTech Connect

The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system. We look at the behavior of a simple four mirror cavity as shown in Fig. 1. As a unit input pulse is applied to the coupling mirror a pulse begins to build up in the interior of the cavity. If the drive pulses and the interior pulse arrive at the coupling mirror in phase the interior pulse will build up to a larger value. The achievable enhancement is a strong function of the reflectivity of the cavities. The best performance if attained when the reflectivities of the input coupler is matched to the internal reflectivities of the cavity. In Fig. 2 we show the build up of the internal pulse after a certain number of drive pulses, assuming the input coupler has a reflectivity of 0.996 and the interior mirrors have 0.998 reflectivity. With these parameters the cavity will reach an enhancement factor of 450. Reducing the coupler reflectivity gives a faster cavity loading rate but with a reduced enhancement of the internal pulse. The enhancement as a function of coupler reflectivity and total internal cavity reflectivity is shown in Fig. 3. The best enhancement is achieved when the coupling mirror is matched to the reflectivity of the cavity. A coupler reflectivity just below the internal cavity reflectivity minimizes the required laser power.

Gronberg, J; Stuart, B; Seryi, A

2010-05-17

233

Materials advances to enhance development of geothermal power  

SciTech Connect

In order to assure the continued development of geothermal resources, many advances in materials technology are required so that high costs resulting from the severe environments encountered during drilling, well completion and energy extraction can be reduced. These needs will become more acute as higher temperature and chemically aggressive fluids are encountered. High priority needs are for lost circulation control and lightweight well completion materials, and tools such as drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, blow-out preventers, and downhole drill motors. The lack of suitable hydrolytically stable chemical systems that can bond previously developed elastomers to metal reinforcement is a critical but as yet unaddressed impediment to the development of these tools. In addition, the availability of low cost corrosion and scale-resistant tubular lining materials would greatly enhance transport and energy extraction processes utilizing hypersaline brines. Work to address these materials needs is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and recent accomplishments are summarized in the paper. 15 refs.

Kukacka, L.E.

1989-03-01

234

Materials Advances to Enhance Development of Geothermal Power  

SciTech Connect

In order to assure the continued development of geothermal resources, many advances in materials technology are required so that high costs resulting from the severe environments encountered during drilling, well completion and energy extraction can be reduced. These needs will become more acute as higher temperature and chemically aggressive fluids are encountered. High priority needs are for lost circulation control and lightweight well completion materials, and tools such as drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, blow-out preventers, and downhole drill motors. The lack of suitable hydrolytically stable chemical systems that can bond previously developed elastomers to metal reinforcement is a critical but as yet unaddressed impediment to the development of these tools. In addition, the availability of low cost corrosion and scale-resistant tubular lining materials would greatly enhance transport and energy extraction processes utilizing hypersaline brines. Work to address these materials needs is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and recent accomplishments are summarized in the paper.

Kukacka, Lawrence E.

1989-03-21

235

Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume 1. Review and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topics covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, public utilities commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

1982-06-01

236

Advanced on-site power plant development technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-cell stack was tested for 7200 hours. At 6000 hours the stack was successfully refilled with acid with no loss of performance. A second stack containing the advanced Configuration B cell package was fabricated and assembled for testing in 1985. A 200-kW brassboard inverter was successfully evaluated, verifying the design of the two-bridge ASCR circuit design. A fuel processing catalyst train was tested for 2000 hours verifying the catalyst for use in a 200-kW development reformer. The development reformer was fabricated for evaluation in 1985. The initial test plan was prepared for a 200-kW verification test article.

Kemp, F. S.

1985-01-01

237

Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

Smith, J. L.

1981-01-01

238

Development of fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing technology at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two decades, a broad range of research development (R D) programs to establish fast breeder reactor (FBR) system and its associated fuel cycle technology have been pursued by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Developmental activities for FBR fuel reprocessing technology have been primarily conducted at PNC Tokai Works where many important R D

T. Kawata; H. Takeda; A. Togashi; S. Hayashi; J. G. Stradley

1991-01-01

239

Power cables in 21st century energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview is given which identifies and predicts some issues that will impact the use and development of cables over the next decades. Reliability of such cable systems will continue to be extremely important and will moderate the rate at which new technologies are introduced. The architecture of the distribution and transmission networks may change, for example, a wider

R. D. Roservear

2000-01-01

240

DEVELOPMENT OF CORE ELEMENTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI POWER REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various core element binary alloys and configurations have been covered ; in the core element fabrication development program for the Enrico Fermi Reactor. ; Atloys of U-Cr, U-Zr and U-Mo were considered. These with good casting qualities ; were cast into flat plates, corrugated plates, and even large castings with ; integral coolant channels. The U-3.5 wt. % Mo alloy

W. N. McDaniel; O. E. Homeister; D. O. Leeser

1958-01-01

241

Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

242

Commercial Research and Development: Power to Explore, Opportunities from Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and economic goals of commercial use of space are laudable, and are addressed as a high priority by almost every national space program and most major aerospace companies the world over. Yet, the focus of most organizational agendas and discussions tends to focus on one or two very narrow enabling aspects of this potentially large technological and economic opportunity. While government sponsored commercial launch activities and private space platforms are an integral part of efforts to leverage the commercial use of space, these activities are possibly one of the smallest parts of creating, a viable and sustainable market for the commercial use of space. Most of the current programs usually do not appropriately address some of the critical issues of the current, already interested, potential space user communities. Current programs place the focus of the majority of the user requirements on the vehicle payload weight and mass performance considerations as the primary payload economical factor in providing a commercial market with a stimulating price for gaining access to the space environment. The larger user challenges of transformation from Earth-based research and development approaches to space environment approaches are not addressed early enough in programs to impact the new business considerations of potential users. Currently, space-based research and development user activities require a large user investment in time, in development of new areas of support expertise, in development of new systems, in risk of schedule to completion, and in long term capital positioning. The larger opportunities for stimulating a strong market driven interest in commercial use of space that could result from the development of vehicle payload "leap ahead technologies" for users are being missed, and there is a real risk of limiting the potentially broader market base to support a more technologically advanced and economically lucrative outcome. A major driving force for strengthening the commercial space activities is not only the technological advances in launch vehicle, or newer satellites, but the myriad of enabling payloads technologies that could, as a goal, result in an almost transparent facilitation to regular CD a, -n access to space and microgravity environments by the future users from the existing Earth-based research and development organizations market segments. Rather than focusing only on developing high lift performance launch vehicles and then developing payloads to fit them, the real focus from a business model perspective should to be on the customer payloads requirements, and on designing launch vehicles and platforms systems for a space transportation and facility infrastructure to support all aspects of the business model for the user market. To harness the full potential of space commercialization, new efforts need to be made to comprehensively examine all the critical business model areas for commercial research, development, and manufacturing in space so as to identify specific products and efforts; to determine how such operations must be both similar to and different from current Earth-based activities; to evaluate the enabling technological devices, processes and efforts so that like efforts can be addressed in a synergistic fashion for maximum user cost effectiveness; to delineate the services that are both needed and can be provided by such activities; and to use this information to drive design and development of space commercialization efforts and policy.

Casas, Joseph C.; Nall, Mark; Powers, C. Blake; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

243

Review of photovoltaic: powered refrigeration for vaccines for developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The application of photovoltaic systems in immunization programs throughout the world is currently being evaluated, with the promise that photovoltaic systems may permit the extension of vaccine delivery systems by using alternative technologies in those areas where conventional forms of energy have yet to be introduced or are too costly. The cold chain is a system whose elements of logistics, equipment, and methodology are linked together to deliver vaccines in an efficient manner at temperatures between +4/sup 0/C to +8/sup 0/C. Vaccines are delicate substances and to keep them potent they must be kept cold from the time they are manufactured to the time of their administration. The cooling system of the vaccine refrigerator may be either of the conventional compression type or absorption type. The use of a direct current thermoelectric cooling system is also being considered. Either the compression or thermoelectric types may be PV powered, and there are incidental electricity needs with the kerosene powered absorption type. A small 10l size refrigerator should be capable of producing 1l of ice in the (8 hours of) night (in +32/sup 0/C design ambient) and must maintain temperature of +4 to +8/sup 0/C during the day (in +43/sup 0/C ambient). It is desirable that a 40l size produce 4l of ice per 24 h in a night-time ambient of +32/sup 0/C. with a COP (coefficient of performance) of 1.0, photocell net area of 1.3m/sup 2/ is needed for the designed compression of absorption type, and an area of 14.6m/sup 2/ is needed for the thermoelectric refrigerator of this size. An 80l size must be capable of producing 1-2l of ice per day (8l desirable). Costs are estimated at $800 for the 10l size, $1675 for 40l size and $3410 for 80l size, including photocells, batteries and refrigerator.

Field, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station); Carrasco, P.; de Quadros, C.A.

1982-01-01

244

250 degrees C SiC High Density Power Module Development  

SciTech Connect

Taking full advantage of SiC devices, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Tennessee and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University have designed, developed, and tested a phase-leg power module based on a high temperature wirebond package. Details of the layout, gate drive, and cooling system designs are described. Continuous power tests confirmed that our design process produced a high density power module that operated successfully at high junction temperatures.

Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Wang, Fei [ORNL; Ngo, Khai [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2011-01-01

245

Toward the last frontier - A strategy for the evolutionary development of space nuclear power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of exciting mission opportunities are being considered for the 21st century, including advanced robotic science missions to the outer planets and beyond, human exploration of the Moon and Mars, and advanced space transportation systems. All of these missions will require some form of nuclear power; however, it is clear that current budgetary constraints preclude developing many different types of space nuclear power systems. This paper reviews the specific civil space missions which have been identified, the power levels and lifetimes required, and the technologies available. From this an evolutionary space nuclear power program is developed which builds upon the experience of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, dynamic isotope power systems, and space nuclear reactors. It is strongly suggested that not only does this approach make technical and budgetary sense but that it is consistent with the normal development of new technologies.

Bennett, Gary L.

1992-01-01

246

Battery power comparison to charge medical devices in developing countries.  

PubMed

Many people in developing countries cannot afford or rely on certain modes of electricity. We establish the reasonability of relying on lead-acid batteries, 9 V alkaline batteries, and lithium-ion batteries for charging low-voltage medical equipment. Based on the research and tests we conducted, we determined that using these battery types to charge medical devices truly is a reasonable solution. PMID:19964250

Casanova, Alesia M; Bray, Andrew S; Powers, Taylor A; Nimunkar, Amit J; Webster, John G

2009-01-01

247

Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.

Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

1979-01-01

248

Development of high-power DPSSL and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver technology is a key issue for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) development. A diode pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) is expected to be a promising candidate of reactor driver for IFE. The specifications required for the IFE driver are 2-5 MJ output pulse energy, 10-20 Hz repetition rate, 500-200 nm laser wavelength, and >10% electrical efficiency. We have newly designed a

Y. Izawa; M. Yamanaka; S. Nakai

1999-01-01

249

Strengthening and AcceleratingStrengthening and Accelerating the Development of Fusion Powerthe Development of Fusion Power  

E-print Network

raises the questions ­ How much longer will it take? ­ If it's so great, why's it taking so long? ­ How IFMIF) #12;Why so long?Why so long? Cannot demonstrate on a small scale: (power out)/(power to operateProgress in Fusion has been enormous, but even JET (currently the world's leading fusion research facility

250

The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

2010-01-01

251

Programme A. Nuclear Power Subprogramme A.4 Technology Development for Advanced Reactor Lines  

E-print Network

Programme A. Nuclear Power Subprogramme A.4 Technology Development for Advanced Reactor Lines Cycle and Materials Technologies Subprogramme B.2 Nuclear Power Reactor Fuel Engineering Project B.2 Project A.4.01: Technology advances in water cooled reactors for improvements in economics and safety CRP

De Cindio, Fiorella

252

TOPAZ-2'' thermionic space nuclear power system and the perspectives of its development  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes characteristics of the TOPAZ Reactors for space power applications developed in the USSR. TOPAZ-2 has been shown to be useful for satellites and for lunar or Martian bases. It can be coupled with a Stirling engine. TOPAZ-3 reactor provides greater power levels while TOPAZ-4 has an improved multicell thermionic fuel element. (AIP)

Nickitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Luppov, A.N. (Central Design Berau of Mechanical Engineering, Leningrad, USSR (SU)); Usov, V.A. (Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, (USSR)) Nicolaev, Y.V. (Scientific-Industrial Association Luch'', Podolsk, (USSR)) Wetch, J.R. (Space Power Inc., San Jose, CA (USA))

1991-01-05

253

Development of a hybrid type assessment method for power system dynamic reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision of the optimum scheme for preventing fault cascading is one of the most important tasks in power system planning. In order to make the above decision reasonably, it is indispensable to develop effective assessment methods for power system dynamic reliability. If the simulation or analysis method proposed up to this time is singly used, the calculation time becomes

T. Miki; D. Okitsu; M. Kushida; T. Ogino

1999-01-01

254

Power and Poverty: The Dilemma of NGO-Supported Development in Africa from a Danish Perspective  

E-print Network

Power and Poverty: The Dilemma of NGO-Supported Development in Africa from a Danish Perspective of people in Sub-Saharan Africa still lives and dies in poverty. With a public image determined by disasters of the many factors, powers and interests from micro- to mega-level that maintain the poverty and oppression

Sheridan, Jennifer

255

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power development  

E-print Network

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power University wide research, aims to develop a system to promote the exploitation of hydro power in North with regard to hydro schemes Reviewing and re-formulating ill defined requirements for environmental

Meju, Max

256

Innovation on Energy Power Technology (17)Development of EMS/SCADA in TEPCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective Load Dispatching Automatic Controller (ELDAC) is an EMS/SCADA system for Central Load Dispatching Office in Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. This paper introduces the progress of development of ELDAC, which forecasts demand, sets up the most efficient generation schedule, and controls total power from generators.

Suzuki, Mamoru

257

Comparative technology and public policy: The development of the nuclear power reactor in six nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay proposes an analytic framework to compare the development and commercialization of a number of advanced civilian technologies. This framework emphasizes the multiple institutional actors and their objectives that such technology developments manifest and reflect. The construct is then illustrated in the context of the development and diffusion of the nuclear power reactor in six nations. The major policy

Peter DeLeon

1980-01-01

258

Energy system development in Africa : the case of grid and off-grid power in Kenya  

E-print Network

This research used a combination of a grounded theory approach and system dynamics to study the electric power system in Kenya and to model the feedback at work in the development of the system. The ethnographic study ...

Steel, Katherine Deaton

2008-01-01

259

Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means of accomplishing this is currently nonexistent. The goal of this work is to develop a thermoelectric generator to convert a small amount of wasted heat into electricity. Although this concept has been around for decades, previous attempts have failed due to insufficient analysis of the system as a whole, leading to ineffective and costly designs. In this work, a complete design process is undertaken including concept generation, prototype testing, field testing, and redesign/optimization. Detailed component models are constructed and integrated to create a full system model. The model encompasses the stove operation, thermoelectric module, heat sinks, charging system and battery. A 3000 cycle endurance test was also conducted to evaluate the effects of operating temperature, module quality, and thermal interface quality on the generator's reliability, lifetime and cost effectiveness. The results from this testing are integrated into the system model to determine the lowest system cost in $/Watt over a five year period. Through this work the concept of a stove-based thermoelectric generator is shown to be technologically and economically feasible. In addition, a methodology is developed for optimizing the system for specific regional stove usage habits.

Mastbergen, Dan

260

Development and Design Characteristics of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) is Korea's newly developed advanced reactor project. It has been developed since 1992 as one of the government's long-term national R and D projects and successfully finished its standard design licensing review in May 2002; it is now ready for actual construction. The APR1400 is an evolutionary-type nuclear power plant of a 1400 MWe

Kye-Hong

2004-01-01

261

Power for all? Electricity and uneven development in North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many towns in eastern North Carolina face a number of challenges common to the rural South, including high rates of poverty and diminishing employment opportunities. However, some residents of this region also confront a unique hardship---electricity prices that are vastly higher than those of surrounding areas. This dissertation examines the origins of pricing inequalities in the electricity market of eastern North Carolina---namely how such inequalities developed and their role in the production of racial and economic disparities in the South. This dissertation examines the evolving relations between federal and state agencies, corporations, and electric utilities, and asks why these interactions produced varying social outcomes across different places and spatial settings. The research focuses on the origins and subsequent development of electric utilities in eastern North Carolina, and examines how electricity as a material technology interacted with geographies of race and class, as well as the dictates of capital accumulation. This approach enables a rethinking of several concepts that are rarely examined by scholars of electric utilities, most notably the monopoly service territory, which I argue served as a spatial fix to accumulation problems in the industry. Further, examining the way that electric utilities developed in North Carolina during the 20th century brings to the forefront the at times contradictory relationships among systems of electricity provision, Jim Crow segregation, the Progressive Era, and the New Deal. Such a focus highlights the important role that the control of electricity provision played in shaping racial inequalities that continue to persist in the region. With most urban areas were electrified in the 1930s, the research also traces the electricity distribution lines as they moved out of cities through rural electrification programs, a shift that highlights the state as a multi-scalar and variegated actor that both aided and impeded electrification efforts by various institutional and corporate entities. Ultimately, I argue that the historical geography of electricity is a critical factor that must be considered in order to adequately understand and address the issues of inequality and poverty that continue to persist in the region.

Harrison, Conor M.

262

Adult development and the transformative powers of psychotherapy.  

PubMed

This article explores the ways in which receiving, providing, and teaching others to do psychotherapy have influenced my adult development. In my 70s, I arrived at the conviction that at every stage of adulthood, practicing psychotherapy has had a direct and causal influence on my efforts to fill my personal life with meaning, virtue, and maturity. The first section of this article focuses on the ways in which learning to be a particular kind of psychoanalytic therapist facilitated my transition into early adulthood. The middle sections describe how I have used the professional practice of psychotherapy to integrate or dissolve the boundaries between work and play, and science and art, in the everyday conduct of my life. My psychobiographical analysis concludes with some reflections on a professional failure and the compensations of being an aging therapist. PMID:24953767

Geller, Jesse D

2014-08-01

263

Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications  

SciTech Connect

In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880{degrees}C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000{degrees}C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures.

Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

1994-03-01

264

Status of NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is funding the advancement of next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Requirements of advanced radioisotope power systems include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass. Other Advanced RPS development goals include long-life, reliability, and scalability so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. This paper provides an update on the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Project which awarded ten Phase I contracts for research and development of a variety of power conversion technologies consisting of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectrics, and thermophotovoltaics. Three of the contracts continue during the current Phase II in the areas of thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion. The accomplishments to date of the contractors, project plans, and status will be summarized.

Wong, Wayne A.; Anderson, David J.; Tuttle, Karen L.; Tew, Roy C.

2006-01-01

265

Status of NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is funding the advancement of next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Requirements of advanced radioisotope power systems include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass. Other Advanced RPS development goals include long-life, reliability, and scalability so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. This paper provides an update on the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Project which awarded ten Phase I contracts for research and development of a variety of power conversion technologies consisting of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectrics, and thermophotovoltaics. Three of the contracts continue during the current Phase II in the areas of thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion. The accomplishments to date of the contractors, project plans, and status will be summarized.

Wong, Wayne A.; Anderson, David J.; Tuttle, Karen L.; Tew, Roy C.

2006-01-01

266

Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

2002-11-01

267

Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, alternating current (AC) power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can become a serious problem. It can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and, during distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. To address the harmonic distortion issue, work was begun under the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Software, originally developed by EPRI, called HARMFLO, a power flow program capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The modelling was also started under the same fellowship work period. Details of the modifications and models completed during the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program can be found in a project report. As a continuation of the work to develop a complete package necessary for the full analysis of spacecraft AC power system behavior, deployment work has continued through NASA Grant NAG3-1254. This report details the work covered by the above mentioned grant.

Kraft, L. Alan

1991-01-01

268

Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

1989-01-01

269

The Design and Development of the SMEX-Lite Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and development of a 250W orbit average electrical power system electronic Power Node and software for use in Low Earth Orbit missions. The mass of the Power Node is 3.6 Kg (8 lb.). The dimensions of the Power Node are 30cm x 26cm x 7.9cm (11 in. x 10.25 in x 3.1 in.) The design was realized using software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) digital logic and surface mount technology. The design is generic enough to reduce the non-recurring engineering for different mission configurations. The Power Node charges one to five, low cost, 22-cell 4 AH D-cell battery packs independently. The battery charging algorithms are executed in the power software to reduce the mass and size of the power electronic. The Power Node implements a peak-power tracking algorithm using an innovative hardware/software approach. The power software task is hosted on the spacecraft processor. The power software task generates a MIL-STD-1553 command packet to update the Power Node control settings. The settings for the battery voltage and current limits, as well as minimum solar array voltage used to implement peak power tracking are contained in this packet. Several advanced topologies are used in the Power Node. These include synchronous rectification in the bus regulators, average current control in the battery chargers and quasi-resonant converters for the Field Effect Transistor (FET) transistor drive electronics. Lastly, the main bus regulator uses a feed-forward topology with the PWM implemented in an FPGA.

Rakow, Glenn P.; Schnurr, Richard G., Jr.; Solly, Michael A.

1998-01-01

270

Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 2: System definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system level results of the system definition studies performed by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/NASA satellite power system concept development and evaluation program are summarized. System requirements and guidelines are discussed as well as the major elements that comprise the reference system and its design options. Alternative system approaches including different system sizes, solid state amplifier (microwave) concepts, and laser power transmission system cost summaries are reviewed. An overview of the system analysis and planning efforts is included. The overall study led to the conclusion that the reference satellite power system concept is a feasible baseload source of electrical power and, within the assumed guidelines, the minimum cost per kilowatt is achieved at the maximum output of 5 gigawatts to the utility grid. Major unresolved technical issues include maximum allowable microwave power density in the ionosphere and performance/mass characteristics of laser power transmission systems.

1981-01-01

271

Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

272

NASA's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant Development Program for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-center NASA team led by the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio is completing a five-year PEM fuel cell power plant development program for future space applications. The focus of the program has been to adapt commercial PEM fuel cell technology for space applications by addressing the key mission requirements of using pure oxygen as an oxidant and operating in a multi-gravity environment. Competing vendors developed breadboard units in the 1 to 5 kW power range during the first phase of the program, and a single vendor developed a nominal 10-kW engineering model power pant during the second phase of the program. Successful performance and environmental tests conducted by NASA established confidence that PEM fuel cell technology will be ready to meet the electrical power needs of future space missions.

Hoberecht, Mark A.

2008-01-01

273

Develop and test fuel cell powered on site integrated total energy sysems: Phase 3: Full-scale power plant development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 25-cell stack of the 13 inch x 23 inch cell size (about 4kW) remains on test after 8300 hours, using simulated reformate fuel. A similar stack was previously shut down after 7000 hours on load. These tests have been carried out for the purpose of assessing the durability of fuel cell stack components developed through the end of 1983. A 25kW stack containing 175 cells of the same size and utilizing a technology base representative of the 25-cell stacks has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing. A third 4kW stack is being prepared, and this stack will incorporate several new technology features.

Kaufman, A.; Olson, B.; Pudick, S.; Wang, C. L.; Werth, J.; Whelan, J. A.

1986-01-01

274

Update on Development of SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress has been made in a continuing effort to develop multi-chip power modules (SiC MCPMs). This effort at an earlier stage was reported in 'SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks' (LEW-18008-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2007), page 28. The following recapitulation of information from the cited prior article is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the progress made since then: 1) SiC MCPMs are, more specifically, electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power integrated-circuit chips and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking; 2) The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules; and, 3) In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them perform additional power-handling functions as needed for specific applications. Because identical SiC MCPM building blocks could be utilized in such a variety of ways, the cost and difficulty of designing new, highly reliable power systems would be reduced considerably. This concludes the information from the cited prior article. The main activity since the previously reported stage of development was the design, fabrication, and testing a 120- VDC-to-28-VDC modular power-converter system composed of eight SiC MCPMs in a 4 (parallel)-by-2 (series) matrix configuration, with normally-off controllable power switches. The SiC MCPM power modules include closed-loop control subsystems and are capable of operating at high power density or high temperature. The system was tested under various configurations, load conditions, load-transient conditions, and failure-recovery conditions. Planned future work includes refinement of the demonstrated modular system concept and development of a new converter hardware topology that would enable sharing of currents without the need for communication among modules. Toward these ends, it is also planned to develop a new converter control algorithm that would provide for improved sharing of current and power under all conditions, and to implement advanced packaging concepts that would enable operation at higher power density.

Lostetter, Alexander; Cilio, Edgar; Mitchell, Gavin; Schupbach, Roberto

2008-01-01

275

A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable contribution by synthesizing information from research in power market economics, power system reliability, and environmental impact assessment, to develop a comprehensive methodology for analyzing wind power in the context of long-term energy planning.

Kennedy, Scott Warren

276

Innovation on Energy Power Technology (22)Challenge to Development of Expert System stored Knowledge of Expert Power Network Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do you remember an expert system? I think there are various impressions about the system. For example, some might say “It reminds me of old days”. On the other hand, some might say “It was really troublesome”. About 25 years ago, from late 1980s to the middle of 1990s, when the Showa era was about to change into the Heisei Era, artificial intelligence boomed. Research and development for an expert system which was equipped with expertise and worked as smart as expert, was advanced in various fields. Our company also picked up the system as the new system which covered weak point of conventional computer technology. We started research and development in 1984, and installed an expert system in a SCADA system, which started operating in March 1990 in the Fukuoka Integrated Control Center. In this essay, as an electric power engineer who involved in development at that time, I introduce the situation and travail story about developing an expert system which support restorative actions from the outage and overload condition of power networks.

Sakaguchi, Hideharu

277

The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

2014-05-01

278

Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power--Case Studies Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance (O&M). It may also add to the supply of electric power in the area and support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. While there is a growing body of information about the local impacts of wind power, the economic impacts from existing wind power developments have not been thoroughly and consistently analyzed. Northwest Economic Associates, under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a study and produced a report entitled ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power.'' The primary objective of the study was to provide examples of appropriate analyses and documentation of economic impacts from wind power development, using case studies of three existing projects in the United States. The findings from the case studies are summarized here; more detail is available in the report, available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. It should be noted that specific results presented apply only to the respective locales studied and are not meant to be representative of wind power in general. However, qualitative findings, discussed below, are likely to be replicated in most areas where wind development occurs.

NWCC Economic Development Work Group

2003-12-17

279

The 20 GHz GaAs monolithic power amplifier module development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a 20 GHz GaAs FET monlithic power amplifier module for advanced communication applications is described. Four-way power combing of four 0.6 W amplifier modules is used as the baseline approach. For this purpose, a monolithic four-way traveling-wave power divider/combiner was developed. Over a 20 GHz bandwidth (10 to 30 GHz), an insertion loss of no more than 1.2 dB was measured for a pair of back-to-back connected divider/combiners. Isolation between output ports is better than 20 dB, and VSWRs are better than 21:1. A distributed amplifier with six 300 micron gate width FETs and gate and drain transmission line tapers has been designed, fabricated, and evaluated for use as an 0.6 W module. This amplifier has achieved state-of-the-art results of 0.5 W output power with at least 4 dB gain across the entire 2 to 21 GHz frequency range. An output power of 2 W was achieved at a measurement frequency of 18 GHz when four distributed amplifiers were power-combined using a pair of traveling-wave divider/combiners. Another approach is the direct common-source cascading of three power FET stages. An output power of up to 2W with 12 dB gain and 20% power-added efficiency has been achieved with this approach (at 17 GHz). The linear gain was 14 dB at 1 W output. The first two stages of the three-stage amplifier have achieved an output power of 1.6 W with 9 dB gain and 26% power-added efficiency at 16 GHz.

1984-01-01

280

100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project  

SciTech Connect

Project Final Report for "100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project" prepared under DOE grant number DE-FG36-03GO13138. This project relates to the further development and prototype construction/evaluation for the Energy Transfer Multiplexer (ETM) power converter topology concept. The ETM uses a series resonant link to transfer energy from any phase of a multiphase input to any phase of a multiphase output, converting any input voltage and frequency to any output voltage and frequency. The basic form of the ETM converter consists of an eight (8)-switch matrix (six phase power switches and two ground power switches) and a series L-C resonant circuit. Electronic control of the switches allows energy to be transferred in the proper amount from any phase to any other phase. Depending upon the final circuit application, the switches may be either SCRs or IGBTs. The inherent characteristics of the ETM converter include the following: Power processing in either direction (bidirectional); Large voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics; High efficiency independent of output load and frequency; Wide bandwidth with fast transient response and; Operation as a current source. The ETM is able to synthesize true sinusoidal waveforms with low harmonic distortions. For a low power PM wind generation system, the ETM has the following characteristics and advantages: It provides voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics (DC inductors) and; It has constant high efficiency independent of the load. The ETM converter can be implemented into a PM wind power system with smaller size, reduced weight and lower cost. As a result of our analyses, the ETM offers wind power generation technology for the reduction of the cost and size as well as the increase in performance of low power, low wind speed power generation. This project is the further theoretical/analytical exploration of the ETM converter concept in relationship to PM wind power generator applications in the 100kW and under power range. The theoretical/analytical and bench scale work focuses on simplifying the basic ETM converter topology (in terms of parts count and complexity) for the specific application of the low power PM system. The project goals and objectives were for Spellman HV will develop a 100kW prototype ETM power converter based on paralleled lower ratings converters. The proposed configuration of this prototype is a 100kW rated converter comprised of four (4) 34kW rated modules connected in parallel (the fourth converter is included to demonstrate N+1 fault tolerance). This approach is more viable as there is lower technological risk involved in developing a 34kW-rated converter than a single 100kW unit. The modular system approach should have a lower deployment and service cost over a single unit system, because of the economics of scale (smaller units at a higher volume means lower manufacturing cost) and because of improved serviceability (a non-redundant power system with one failed module will still operate at a lower power level). There is also the added benefit that greater commercial application and acceptance should be achieved by having a modular system available in which fault tolerance (N+1 or 2N) is a feature. This modular approach would allow the output power to be increased by adding more paralleled converters. Thus, the maximum output power of the overall power system is a function of the interconnection medium (the hot swap connection subsystem), rather than the ratings of a single module. The project was implemented with Spellman HV acting as the program management and production assembly and test facility; The Baker Company acting as a technical consultant and resource when required; and dtm Associates acting as the design/development resource for the hardware development of the 100kW ETM converter prototype.

S. Merrill Skeist; Richard H. (Dick) Baker; Anthony G.P. Marini; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2006-03-21

281

Development of a uninterrupted power system: ac and dc to dc converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program covered the design, fabrication and testing of an advanced development model uninterrupted power system. The input and output requirements imposed on the power processor were specified such that the unit is electrically interchangeable with existing power systems used by the Federal Aviation Administration in installations which have a history of failure due to electrical transient conditions. Input power is from either of two single-phase ac power sources or batteries with electronic selection and transfer between power sources. Battery reconditioning is automatic when either ac source is present. The output power is rated at 84OW; the nominal output is 24V at 35A. Within the 84OW limit, the regulated output voltage is adjustable from 22V to 30Vdc. Protection against continuous overloading or short circuit is provided. The unit is packaged in a standard 19-inch rack mount configuration with 7-inch panel height. Controls are on the front panel with power input and output through connectors on the rear surface. Cooling is by free convection from fin areas located on the side and rear panels. The packaged unit weighs 52.8 lbs., which can be reduced significantly if a three-phase ac power source is used.

Cronin, D. L.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

1973-01-01

282

Development of long life three phase uninterruptible power supply using flywheel energy storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the development of computer applications, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are indispensable to the industrial field. But the cost of maintaining a conventional UPS is very high, because frequent replacement of parts which have short lifetime is necessary. This paper describes the research and development of a new UPS which has long life parts for maintenance free operation. To

Isao Takahashi; Yoshihisa Okita; Itaru Andoh

1996-01-01

283

New challenges to power system planning and operation of smart grid development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future development trend of electric power grid is smart grid, which includes such features as secure and reliable, efficient and economical, clean and green, flexible and compatible, open and interactive, integrated and so on. The concept and characteristics of smart grid are introduced in this paper. On the basis of practical national situation, the development plans of smart grid

Zhang Ruihua; Du Yumei; Yuhong Liu

2010-01-01

284

Recent technical developments in high-voltage and high-power vacuum circuit breakers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum circuit breakers (VCB's) have been applied extensively in recent years to various power distribution systems. This paper describes the following latest topics pertaining to the technical development of such VCB's: voltage increases resulting from improvement of contact materials; capability of large current interruption by applying magnetic fields; and surge reduction achieved through conducting effective surge analysis and the development of contact materials.

Yanabu, S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Yokokura, K.; Kaneko, E. (Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab., Toshiba Corp., 2-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210 (JP))

1989-10-01

285

Development of LNG-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Commercial Hauling  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development, deployment, and evaluation of alternative fuels, NREL and the Trucking Research Institute contracted with Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) to develop and operate a liquid natural gas fueled tractor powered by a DDC Series 50 prototype natural gas engine. This is the final report on the project.

Detroit Diesel Corporation; Trucking Research Institute

1998-12-03

286

Development of a Publications and Conferences Data Base in the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development by the Mexican Electric Power Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas or IIE) over a 10-year period of a publications and conferences database (PCDB) of research and development output of the institute. The paper begins by listing the objectives of the database and describing data coverage…

Ripoll, C. Lopez Cerdan; And Others

287

Career Adaptability Development in Adolescence: Multiple Predictors and Effect on Sense of Power and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal panel study investigated predictors of career adaptability development and its effect on development of sense of power and experience of life satisfaction among 330 Swiss eighth graders. A multivariate measure of career adaptability consisting of career choice readiness, planning, exploration, and confidence was applied. Based on…

Hirschi, Andreas

2009-01-01

288

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO sorption process due to economic constraints.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-01-01

289

Solar Power Generation for ICT and Sustainable Development in Emerging Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine and draw attention to the potential benefits of solar power generation for access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) aimed at sustainable development in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach: Electricity plays a crucial role in the development and…

Paul, Damasen I.; Uhomoibhi, James

2012-01-01

290

Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ongoing smart grid initiative, there is a considerable need for developing new algorithmic solutions and validating at laboratory level before they can be successfully applied in the power grid. This research work addresses the development of a real time test bed by integrating several hardware's including the Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), National Instruments PXI (NI-PXI) controller, Real

Ram Mohan Reddi; Anurag K Srivastava

2010-01-01

291

Development of gallium arsenide high-speed, low-power serial parallel interface modules: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final report to NASA LeRC on the development of gallium arsenide (GaAS) high-speed, low power serial/parallel interface modules. The report discusses the development and test of a family of 16, 32 and 64 bit parallel to serial and serial to parallel integrated circuits using a self aligned gate MESFET technology developed at the Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory. Lab testing demonstrated 1.3 GHz clock rates at a power of 300 mW. This work was accomplished under contract number NAS3-24676.

1988-01-01

292

Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

Davis, H. S.

1984-01-01

293

Modelling, developing and implementing sub-sea power-line communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of suitable communication systems and the planning of power-line communication networks require models of the transfer characteristics of the mains network for that particular environment. Power-line communications (PLC) presents itself as an economical solution to the sub-sea and marine environment in comparison to fibre optics and others. This paper offers results of calculation, measurement and near real time

Javad Yazdani; Kevin Glanville; Preston Clarke

2005-01-01

294

Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance

Steven Ross Kurtz; David Martin Follstaedt; Alan Francis Wright; Albert G. Baca; Ronald D. Briggs; Paula Polyak Provencio; Nancy A. Missert; Andrew Alan Allerman; Phil F. Marsh; Daniel David Koleske; Stephen Roger Lee; Randy John Shul; Carleton Hoover Seager; Christopher P. Tigges

2005-01-01

295

Development of an Optimal Fuzzy Controller for Novel Power Architectures in Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of synchronous multiphase DC-DC converters allows improvements of the characteristics of high power systems. The automotive industry forecast that future power demands inside a car oscillates between 2.5 kW and 3.5 kW, keeping a dual system of 42\\/14 V batteries. In this paper, an optimal fuzzy controller has been developed to control a synchronous multiphase converter of 1.6

A. Nogueiras; O. Lopez; L. J. Alvarez; A. Lago; J. Doval; J. Marcos; C. Martinez-Penalver

2006-01-01

296

Development of CAPE-OPEN unit operations for advanced power systems modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction Engineering International (REI) is developing a suite of CORBA CAPE-OPEN compliant unit operations to support the Department of Energy NETL Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power systems. One of these components will provide an interface to the GateCycle software, which is widely used in the power generation industry for process modeling. Additional CAPE-OPEN components will provide

D. Swensen; S. Zitney; M. Bockelie

2007-01-01

297

Gallium nitride based high power heterojunction field effect transistors: process development and present status at UCSB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of GaN based devices for microwave power electronics at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), is reviewed. From 1995 to 2000, the power performance of AlGaN\\/GaN-on-sapphire heterojunction field effect transistors improved from 1.1 W\\/mm to 6.6 W\\/mm, respectively. Compensating the disadvantages of the low thermal conductivity of the sapphire substrate through heat management via flip chip bonding

Stacia Keller; Yi-Feng Wu; Giacinta Parish; Naiqian Ziang; Jane J. Xu; Bernd P. Keller; Steven P. DenBaars; Umesh K. Mishra

2001-01-01

298

Development status of the NASA 30-cm ion thruster and power processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xenon ion propulsion systems are being developed by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide flight qualification and validation for planetary and earth-orbital missions. In the ground-test element of this program, light-weight (less than 7 kg), 30 cm diameter ion thrusters have been fabricated, and preliminary design verification tests have been conducted. At 2.3 kW, the thrust, specific impulse, and efficiency were 91 mN, 3300 s, and 0.65, respectively. An engineering model thruster is now undergoing a 2000 h wear-test. A breadboard power processor is being developed to operate from an 80 V to 120 V power bus with inverter switching frequencies of 50 kHz. The power processor design is a pathfinder and uses only three power supplies. The projected specific mass of a flight unit is about 5 kg/kW with an efficiency of 0.92 at the full-power of 2.5 kW. Preliminary integration tests of the neutralizer power supply and the ion thruster have been completed. Fabrication and test of the discharge and beam/accelerator power stages are underway.

Sovey, James S.; Haag, Thomas W.; Hamley, John A.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.; Manzella, David H.; Myers, Roger M.

1994-09-01

299

Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared to the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programmes aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force-plate, as well as 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of box-squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. A significant main effect for load was observed [Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F (4, 13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial eta squared = 0.88]. Results of the Bonferroni adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10-20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10-20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players. PMID:25486301

Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

2014-12-01

300

Development Status of the NASA 30-cm Ion Thruster and Power Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Xenon ion propulsion systems are being developed by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide flight qualification and validation for planetary and earth-orbital missions. In the ground-test element of this program, light-weight (less than 7 kg), 30 cm diameter ion thrusters have been fabricated, and preliminary design verification tests have been conducted. At 2.3 kW, the thrust, specific impulse, and efficiency were 91 mN, 3300 s, and 0.65, respectively. An engineering model thruster is now undergoing a 2000 h wear-test. A breadboard power processor is being developed to operate from an 80 V to 120 V power bus with inverter switching frequencies of 50 kHz. The power processor design is a pathfinder and uses only three power supplies. The projected specific mass of a flight unit is about 5 kg/kW with an efficiency of 0.92 at the full-power of 2.5 kW. Preliminary integration tests of the neutralizer power supply and the ion thruster have been completed. Fabrication and test of the discharge and beam/accelerator power stages are underway.

Sovey, James S.; Haag, Thomas W.; Hamley, John A.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.; Manzella, David H.; Myers, Roger M.

1994-01-01

301

Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

1984-01-01

302

Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems  

SciTech Connect

Isolated electrical power generating units can be used as an economically viable alternative to electrify remote villages where grid extension is not feasible. One of the options for building isolated power systems is by hybridizing renewable power sources like wind, solar, micro-hydro, etc. along with appropriate energy storage. A method to optimally size and to evaluate the cost of energy produced by a renewable hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method, which is based on the design space approach, can be used to determine the conditions for which hybridization of the system is cost effective. The simple and novel methodology, proposed in this paper, is based on the principles of process integration. It finds the minimum battery capacity when the availability and ratings of various renewable resources as well as load demand are known. The battery sizing methodology is used to determine the sizing curve and thereby the feasible design space for the entire system. Chance constrained programming approach is used to account for the stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources and to arrive at the design space. The optimal system configuration in the entire design space is selected based on the lowest cost of energy, subject to a specified reliability criterion. The effects of variation of the specified system reliability and the coefficient of correlation between renewable sources on the design space, as well as the optimum configuration are also studied in this paper. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing an isolated power system for an Indian village utilizing wind-solar photovoltaic-battery system. (author)

Sreeraj, E.S.; Chatterjee, Kishore [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Santanu [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2010-07-15

303

Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

NWCC Economic Development Work Group

2003-12-17

304

Progress in High Power Density SOFC Material Development for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for aircraft applications require order of magnitude increase in specific power density and long life under aircraft operating conditions. Advanced SOFC materials and fabrication processes are being developed at NASA GRC to increase specific power density and durability of SOFC cell and stack. Initial research efforts for increasing specific power density are directed toward increasing the operating temperature for the SOFC system and reducing the weight of the stack. While significant research is underway to develop anode supported SOFC system operating at temperatures in the range of 650 - 850 C for ground power generation applications, such temperatures may not yield the power densities required for aircraft applications. For electrode-supported cells, SOFC stacks with power densities greater than 1.0 W/sq cm are favorable at temperatures in excess of 900 C. The performance of various commercial and developmental anode supported cells is currently being evaluated in the temperature range of 900 to 1000 C to assess the performance gains and materials reliability. The results from these studies will be presented. Since metal interconnects developed for lower temperature operation are not practical at these high temperatures, advanced perovskite based ceramic interconnects with high electronic conductivity and lower sintering temperatures are being developed. Another option for increasing specific power density of SOFC stacks is to decrease the stack weight. Since the interconnect contributes to a significant portion of the stack weight, considerable weight benefits can be derived by decreasing its thickness. Eliminating the gas channels in the interconnect by engineering the pore structure in both anode and cathode can offer significant reduction in thickness of the ceramic interconnect material. New solid oxide fuel cells are being developed with porous engineered electrode supported structures with a 10 - 20 micron thin electrolyte. The performance data for advanced SOFC cells with engineered porosity in both electrodes will be presented.

Cable, Thomas L.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Setlock, John A.; Misra, Ajay K.

2004-01-01

305

Development of a model of on-board PEMFC powered locomotive with a metal hydride cylinder  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a phase-zero evaluation case of installing on-off-board hybrid powered Electric Motor Vehicle (EMV) in existing and new local line and reports development of a model fuel cell powered locomotive. EMV such as electric car and locomotive are a new conceptual EMV using hybrid power between off-board substation and on-board Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) power system with Metal Hydride (MH) stored hydrogen generated with water electrolyzer by off-board surplus power. In this study, it is estimated a possibility to close power gap over 30% in placing the new conceptual vehicle. The Locomotive is a 110 cm long locomotive powered by a 20 W PEMFC configured with 20 cells and supplies with about 2 g hydrogen, from a cylinder of 100 g metal hydride, and natural convection air (O{sub 2}). Measuring 50 cm (W), 50 cm (H), and weighting 25.8 kgf, the locomotive has a permanent magnet motor with a rated power 38 W (12 V, 3 A) and ran on railway that has a gauge of 126 mm (3 feet 6 inches/8.5 = 4.94 inches), a length of 100 m. The performance of this train was acceleration of 0.5 m/s, cruising speed of 4.1 m/s at traction force of 15.8 N (1.6 kgf), average rolling friction of 5 N (460 gf).

Hasegawa, H.; Ohki, Y. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan). Prototype Manufacturing Center

1995-12-31

306

Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, AC power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and during extreme distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. HARMFLO, a power flow computer program, which was capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz, AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The results are that (1) the harmonic power now has a model of a single phase, voltage controlled, full wave rectifier; and (2) HARMFLO was ported to the SUN workstation platform.

Kraft, L. Alan

1991-01-01

307

Development of a rotary power transformer and inverter drive for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many future satellites and spacecraft with spun and despun configurations will require the transfer of power across rotating interfaces in lieu of slip-rings and/or flexures. This is particularly true of spacecraft that have to demonstrate a long life expectancy. The rotary transformer has the desirable characteristics of high reliability and low noise, which qualify it as a potential replacement for slip rings. Development of a rotary power transformer follows the successful completion of a task to develop rotary signal-level transformers for the Galileo Spacecraft Project. The physical configuration of a rotary power transformer has a significant effect on its magnetic and electrical characteristics and therefore impacts the design of the dc/ac inverter driver. Important characteristics addressed during this development effort include: operating frequency, efficiency, transformer gap size, leakage inductance, and leakage flux. A breadboard inverter and rotary transformer were designed, fabricated and tested.

Mclyman, W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

1983-01-01

308

The value of materials R&D in the fast track development of fusion power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the international fusion program is the creation of power plants with attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. There is a range of possible plants that can meet these objectives, as studied for instance in the recent EU studies of power plant concepts. All of the concepts satisfy safety and environmental objectives but the economic performance is interpreted differently in different world regions according to the perception of future energy markets. This leads to different materials performance targets and the direction and timescales of the materials development programme needed to meet those targets. In this paper, the implications for materials requirements of a fast track approach to fusion development are investigated. This includes a quantification of the overall benefits of more advanced materials: including the effect of trading off an extended development time against a reduced cost of electricity for resulting power plants.

Ward, D. J.; Taylor, N. P.; Cook, I.

2007-08-01

309

High-Power Hall Propulsion Development at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of the Chief Technologist Game Changing Division is sponsoring the development and testing of enabling technologies to achieve efficient and reliable human space exploration. High-power solar electric propulsion has been proposed by NASA's Human Exploration Framework Team as an option to achieve these ambitious missions to near Earth objects. NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn) is leading the development of mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion Technical Demonstration Mission. The mission concepts are highlighted in this paper but are detailed in a companion paper. There are also multiple projects that are developing technologies to support a demonstration mission and are also extensible to NASA's goals of human space exploration. Specifically, the In-Space Propulsion technology development project at NASA Glenn has a number of tasks related to high-power Hall thrusters including performance evaluation of existing Hall thrusters; performing detailed internal discharge chamber, near-field, and far-field plasma measurements; performing detailed physics-based modeling with the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Hall2De code; performing thermal and structural modeling; and developing high-power efficient discharge modules for power processing. This paper summarizes the various technology development tasks and progress made to date

Kamhawi, Hani; Manzella, David H.; Smith, Timothy D.; Schmidt, George R.

2014-01-01

310

NASA's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant Development Program for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA embarked on a PEM fuel cell power plant development program beginning in 2001. This five-year program was conducted by a three-center NASA team of Glenn Research Center (lead), Johnson Space Center, and Kennedy Space Center. The program initially was aimed at developing hardware for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) application, but more recently had shifted to applications supporting the NASA Exploration Program. The first phase of the development effort, to develop breadboard hardware in the 1-5 kW power range, was conducted by two competing vendors. The second phase of the effort, to develop Engineering Model hardware at the 10 kW power level, was conducted by the winning vendor from the first phase of the effort. Both breadboard units and the single engineering model power plant were delivered to NASA for independent testing. This poster presentation will present a summary of both phases of the development effort, along with a discussion of test results of the PEM fuel cell engineering model under simulated mission conditions.

Hoberecht, Mark

2006-01-01

311

Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of our solar system has brought great knowledge to our nation's scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (greater than 1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue, assuming its availability, to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named "Kilopower" that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee; Bowman, Cheryl; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

2014-01-01

312

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASAs current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond Low Earth Orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan

2014-01-01

313

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASA's current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond Low Earth Orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan D.

2014-01-01

314

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASA's current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low Earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond low Earth orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan D.

2014-01-01

315

Development of Power Electronics for a 0.2kW-Class Ion Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications that might benefit from low power ion propulsion systems include Earth-orbit magnetospheric mapping satellite constellations, low Earth-orbit satellites, geosynchronous Earth-orbit satellite north-south stationkeeping, and asteroid orbiters. These spacecraft are likely to have masses on the order of 50 to 500 kg with up to 0.5 kW of electrical power available. A power processing unit for a 0.2 kW-class ion thruster is currently under development for these applications. The first step in this effort is the development and testing of a 0.24 kW beam power supply. The design incorporates a 20 kHz full bridge topology with multiple secondaries connected in series to obtain outputs of up to 1200 V(sub DC). A current-mode control pulse width modulation circuit built using discrete components was selected for this application. An input voltage of 28 +/- 4 V(sub DC) was assumed, since the small spacecraft for which this system is targeted are anticipated to have unregulated low voltage busses. Efficiencies in excess of 91 percent were obtained at maximum output power. The total mass of the breadboard was less than 1.0 kg and the component mass was 0.53 kg. It is anticipated that a complete flight power processor could weigh about 2.0 kg.

Pinero, Luis R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Bowers, Glen E.

1997-01-01

316

Development of a Multi-bus, Multi-source Reconfigurable Stirling Radioisotope Power System Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has typically used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) as their source of electric power for deep space missions. A more efficient and potentially more cost effective alternative to the RTG, the high efficiency 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator 110 (SRG110) is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company (STC) and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The SRG110 consists of two Stirling convertors (Stirling Engine and Linear Alternator) in a dual-opposed configuration, and two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Although Stirling convertors have been successfully operated as a power source for the utility grid and as a stand-alone portable generator, demonstration of the technology required to interconnect two Stirling convertors for a spacecraft power system has not been attempted. NASA GRC is developing a Power System Test Bed (PSTB) to evaluate the performance of a Stirling convertor in an integrated electrical power system application. This paper will describe the status of the PSTB and on-going activities pertaining to the PSTB in the NASA Thermal-Energy Conversion Branch of the Power and On-Board Propulsion Technology Division.

Coleman, Anthony S.

2004-01-01

317

Development of high-power all-solid-state lasers in the Japanese MITI project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'Advanced Photon Processing and Measurement Technology' project was started in Aug. 1997 as part of the Industrial Science and Technology Frontier Program of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), MITI in Japan. In the project, 13 private companies and 1 university, which are the member of RIPE, and 4 national research institutes under MITI are developing new technologies using high-quality photon beams, by challenging 6 key themes in the 3 technology fields, 'Photon generation technology,' 'Photon-applied processing technology,' and 'Photon-applied measurement technology.' In the 'Photon generation technology,' we are developing 'High- power all-solid-state laser technology,' and 'Tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology.' The objective of the former theme is to develop LD-pumped all-solid-state laser devices of high power (greater than or equal to 10 kW), high efficiency (greater than or equal to 20%), and compact size (laser head less than or equal to 0.05m3). Recently, we obtained 3.3 kW output power from both rod-type and slab-type Nd:YAG laser oscillators. The objective of the latter theme is to develop compact all-solid-state laser devices of high power (greater than or equal to 1 kW), high efficiency (greater than or equal to 20%), for focusing the beam on a very small area of 50 micrometer in diameter of the processing object. In this theme we are developing two types of lasers, 'a disk or cylindrical shaped fiber laser pumped by LD from surroundings' and 'a high-brightness and high-rep-rate UV all-solid-state laser with CLBO crystal.' Recently, we obtained 10 W output power from the fiber laser and 20 W UV output power using CLBO crystal.

Matsuno, Ken-ichi; Sato, Toshio

2000-04-01

318

Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

Feld, L.; Fimmers, C.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Rittich, D.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

2014-01-01

319

A review of SiC static induction transistor development for high-frequency power amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of silicon carbide (SiC) static induction transistor (SIT) development is presented. Basic conduction mechanisms are introduced and discussed, including ohmic, exponential, and space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanisms. Additionally, the impact of velocity saturation and temperature effects on SCLC are reviewed. The small signal model, breakdown voltage, power density, and different gate structures are also discussed, before a final review of published SiC SIT results. Published S-band (3-4 GHz) results include 9.5 dB of gain and output power of 120 W, and L-band (1.3 GHz) results include 400 W output power, 7.7 dB of gain, and power density of 16.7 W/cm.

Sung, Y. M.; Casady, J. B.; Dufrene, J. B.; Agarwal, A. K.

2002-05-01

320

Proposal and Development of Power Quality Improvement Method under Islanding Operation in a Micro-Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Micro-Grid has a small capacity of the system compared with conventional power system. When the Micro-Grid is disconnected from power system and operated under islanding condition, the problems of the power quality such as frequency fluctuation and voltage fluctuation can occur. This paper presents the “local control" method of improvement of the power quality in order to solve the problem. The suggested method is to use an inverter of a battery which is an energy storage system in the Micro-Grid and to improve frequency fluctuation and voltage fluctuation in Micro-Grid islanding operation. The impact of the method is investigated in this paper by analysis using HYPERSIM. Additionally, it is shown that the local control is developed and verified by field test in the Micro-Grid under islanding operation.

Temma, Koji; Kono, Yoshiyuki; Shimomura, Masaru; Kataoka, Michio; Goda, Tadahiro; Uesaka, Shin

321

Power grid operation risk management: V2G deployment for sustainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production, transmission, and delivery of cost--efficient energy to supply ever-increasing peak loads along with a quest for developing a low-carbon economy require significant evolutions in the power grid operations. Lower prices of vast natural gas resources in the United States, Fukushima nuclear disaster, higher and more intense energy consumptions in China and India, issues related to energy security, and recent Middle East conflicts, have urged decisions makers throughout the world to look into other means of generating electricity locally. As the world look to combat climate changes, a shift from carbon-based fuels to non-carbon based fuels is inevitable. However, the variability of distributed generation assets in the electricity grid has introduced major reliability challenges for power grid operators. While spearheading sustainable and reliable power grid operations, this dissertation develops a multi-stakeholder approach to power grid operation design; aiming to address economic, security, and environmental challenges of the constrained electricity generation. It investigates the role of Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets integration, as distributed and mobile storage assets to support high penetrations of renewable energy sources, in the power grid. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept is considered to demonstrate the bidirectional role of EV fleets both as a provider and consumer of energy in securing a sustainable power grid operation. The proposed optimization modeling is the application of Mixed-Integer Linear Programing (MILP) to large-scale systems to solve the hourly security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) -- an optimal scheduling concept in the economic operation of electric power systems. The Monte Carlo scenario-based approach is utilized to evaluate different scenarios concerning the uncertainties in the operation of power grid system. Further, in order to expedite the real-time solution of the proposed approach for large-scale power systems, it considers a two-stage model using the Benders Decomposition (BD). The numerical simulation demonstrate that the utilization of smart EV fleets in power grid systems would ensure a sustainable grid operation with lower carbon footprints, smoother integration of renewable sources, higher security, and lower power grid operation costs. The results, additionally, illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MILP approach and its potentials as an optimization tool for sustainable operation of large scale electric power systems.

Haddadian, Ghazale J.

322

Human rights and South-South Development Cooperation: reflections on the 'rising powers' as international development actors  

E-print Network

position in relation to human rights responsibilities compared to national development agencies and other state actors. While corporations should be scrutinized and rigorously held accountable by regulators, shareholders, workers, and customers, these ne... . The reality of SSDC certainly departs from these principles at times, and there is no ques- tion that this discourse projects a sanitized and highly selective account of 42. Philip Nel, Redistribution and Recognition: What Emerging Regional Powers Want, 36...

Mawdsley, Emma

323

Develop and test fuel cell powered on-site integrated total energy systems: Phase 3: Full-scale power plant development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a commercially viable and cost-effective phospheric acid fuel cell powered on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) is described. The fuel cell offers energy efficients in the range of 35-40% of the higher heating value of available fuels in the form of electrical energy. In addition, by utilizing the thermal energy generated for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC), a fuel cell OS/IES could provide total energy efficiencies in the neighborhood of 80%. Also, the Engelhard fuel cell OS/IES offers the important incentive of replacing imported oil with domestically produced methanol, including coal-derived methanol.

1982-01-01

324

Development of Digital Materials Database for Design and Construction of New Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate materials selection, structural design, and future maintenance of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems, an interactive, internet accessible materials property database, dubbed Gen IV Materials Handbook, has been under development with the support of the United States Department of Energy. The Handbook will provide an authoritative source of information on structural materials needed for the development of various Gen IV nuclear reactor systems along with powerful data analysis and management tools. In this paper, the background, history, framework, major features, contents, and development strategy of the Gen IV Materials Handbook are discussed. Current development status and future plans are also elucidated.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2008-01-01

325

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

1975-01-01

326

Prospects of development of the power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the possibilities of developing a power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad (TCR). Two aspects of development are studied in particular: (1) the electric power supply for construction and subsequently for the operating railroad in coordination with simultaneous provision for the needs of adjacent regions; (2) the construction of a transcontinental transmission line with the use of a tunnel and railroad for its construction and with the creation of a unified transport--power corridor. Of great interest are the possibilities of constructing hydrostations in regions of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Chukchi Peninsula, and in the southern part of the Magadan region. The route of the proposed main line is located in the zone of influence of a number of prospective hydropower installations. 2 tabs.

Fel`dman, B.N.; Luk`yanov, V.A.

1994-02-01

327

Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes, phases I and II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes were developed for the metals tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering were measured permitting the accurate prediction of ideal forward and reverse diode performance. Processing procedures were developed which permit the fabrication of large area (approximately 1 sqcm) mesa-geometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values.

Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkle, M.; Taft, E. A.

1974-01-01

328

Small hydro power projects under clean development mechanism in India: A preliminary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides Annex-I countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in non-Annex-I countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Small hydro power (SHP) projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly

Pallav Purohit

2008-01-01

329

Development of advanced SQUID system for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in power plants  

SciTech Connect

A newer and more advanced version of the SQUID sensor system for estimating the degradation of materials in power plants have been developed. The miniaturized SQUID sensor developed for nondestructive measurement is 262 mm high, 152 mm in diameter, and 5 kg in weight, making it only one-twelfth the size and one-tenth the weight of a conventional SQUID sensor. Tests have demonstrated that the new SQUID sensor can successfully estimate fatigue damage in Type 316 stainless steel.

Otaka, M.; Hayashi, E. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01

330

Development of a PEMFC Power System with Integrated Balance of Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV s) have received increasing attention in recent years as military and commercial users look for means to maintain a mobile and persistent presence in the undersea world. Compact, neutrally buoyant power systems are needed for both small and large vehicles. Batteries are usually employed in these applications, but the energy density and therefore the mission duration are limited with current battery technology. At a certain energy or mission duration requirement, other means to get long duration power become feasible. For example, above 10 kW-hrs liquid oxygen and hydrogen have better specific energy than batteries and are preferable for energy storage as long as a compact system of about 100 W/liter is achievable to convert the chemical energy in these reactants into power. Other reactant forms are possible, such as high pressure gas, chemical hydrides or oxygen carriers, but it is essential that the power system be small and light weight. Recent fuel cell work, primarily focused on NASA applications, has developed power systems that can meet this target power density. Passive flow-through systems, using ejector driven reactant (EDR) flow, integrated into a compact balance of plant have been developed. These systems are thermally and functionally integrated in much the same way as are automotive, air breathing fuel cell systems. These systems fit into the small volumes required for AUV and future NASA applications. Designs have been developed for both a 21" diameter and a larger diameter (LD) AUV. These fuel cell systems occupy a very small portion of the overall energy system, allowing most of the system volume to be used for the reactants. The fuel cell systems have been optimized to use reactants efficiently with high stack efficiency and low parasitic losses. The resulting compact, highly efficient fuel cell system provides exceptional reactant utilization and energy density. Key design variables and supporting test data are presented. Future development activities are described.

Wynne, B.; Diffenderfer, C.; Ferguson, S.; Keyser, J.; Miller, M.; Sievers, B.; Ryan, A.; Vasquez, A.

2012-01-01

331

Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

Neuhauser, E.

1998-11-01

332

Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants have been described. Written descriptions of repetitive high dose jobs, their collective dose equivalent ranges and list of dose reduction techniques will aid in reducing collective dose equivalents from these dose-reduction targets. Knowing which components contribute to high maintenance or repair dose will aid in reducing routine maintenance collective

B. J. Dionne; J. W. Baum

1984-01-01

333

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

1975-01-01

334

Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS.

NONE

1996-08-05

335

Development and diffusion of the nuclear power reactor: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book focuses on the political and technological institutions that developed and disseminated the nuclear power reactor in six nations: the United States, England, France, the Soviet Union, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Canada. As such, it presents extensive case studies of these nations' developmental programs and, even more important, presents a generalized analytic framework which facilitates the comparison

DeLeon

1979-01-01

336

Participation and Power: Reflections on the Role of Government in Land Use Planning and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the role of power in interactive policymaking settings. Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature study is combined with four case studies relating to citizen participation in natural resource management and rural development in the Netherlands. Findings: Many of the identified problems and dilemmas of interactive policymaking…

Aarts, Noelle; Leeuwis, Cees

2010-01-01

337

Theoretical Borderlands: Using Multiple Theoretical Perspectives to Challenge Inequitable Power Structures in Student Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an exploration of possibilities and methodological considerations for using multiple theoretical perspectives in research that challenges inequitable power structures in student development theory. Specifically, I explore methodological considerations when partnering queer theory and constructivism in research on lesbian identity…

Abes, Elisa S.

2009-01-01

338

Development and testing of a hydraulic powered diver operated rock drill and sea floor fasteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Engineering Laboratory has developed a hand held diver operated rock drill. The drill is hydraulically powered thus eliminating the percussion and visibility problems associated with the underwater use of pneumatic rock drills. Capable of drilling holes up to 2-1\\/2 inches in diameter and 18 inches deep, the hydraulic rock drill has been used to install various seafloor fasteners

R. Brackett

1975-01-01

339

Ultra-Low Power, Radiation Tolerant, Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Technology Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-orbit reconfigurable computing offers system design flexibility long sought after. In additional, ultra-low power (ULP) electronics is an enabling technology for system miniaturization and thereby cost. Two core capabilities are being developed, namely RT (radiation tolerant) technology and ULP CMOS process technology. RT technology enables radiation tolerant CMOS integrated circuits to be fabricated at commercial foundries. ULP process technology allows

Earl Fuller; Brian Smith

340

The development of renewable energy power in India: Which policies have been effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Energy Agency has identified the development of renewable energy sources as a key element to mitigate climate change. At the same time it has projected India to be the second-largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand to 2035. India hence faces a significant challenge to ensure its energy security by diversifying its power generation mix. In

2012-01-01

341

The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

1994-01-01

342

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology  

E-print Network

University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, plowe@ksu.edu, 785 532-6804 Other Project Team Members Samantha M, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, lmhunt@k-state.edu, 785-532-6653 Project Oversight from National Wind Coordinatingi FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development

Sandercock, Brett K.

343

A review of SiC static induction transistor development for high-frequency power amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of silicon carbide (SiC) static induction transistor (SIT) development is presented. Basic conduction mechanisms are introduced and discussed, including ohmic, exponential, and space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanisms. Additionally, the impact of velocity saturation and temperature effects on SCLC are reviewed. The small signal model, breakdown voltage, power density, and different gate structures are also discussed, before a

Y. M. Sung; J. B. Casady; J. B. Dufrene; A. K. Agarwal

2002-01-01

344

Development of new partial discharge sensors for condition monitoring of power system equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial discharge measurement is a very effective method to assess the condition of power system equipment. This paper reviews recent developments on optically-interrogated sensing systems to detect the acoustic pressure induced by partial discharges. Also presented is work in progress by the authors on new sensing systems using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and distributed feedback fibre laser (DFBFL).

B. T. Phung; T. R. Blackburn; G. D. Peng; H. C. Chang; L. K. Guan

345

Development strategies of an expert system for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development strategies of a prototype expert system, called ESAPD, for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants are described. The main objectives of the system are to assist operators in identifying a primary causal alarm among multiple fired alarms and to diagnose the plant malfunction quickly. The overall plant-wide diagnosis is performed at the alarm processing stage

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang; Hak Yeong Chung

1993-01-01

346

Summary of project to develop handbook of human reliability analysis for nuclear power plant operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two years Alan Swain and Henry E. Guttmann, of the Statistics, Computing, and Human Factors Division, Sandia Laboratories, have been developing a handbook to aid qualified persons to evaluate the effect of human error on the availability of engineered safety systems and features in nuclear power plants. The handbook includes a mathematical model, procedures, derived human failure

1978-01-01

347

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARK A CONTROL ROD FOR THE HALLAM NUCLEAR POWER FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development program was initiated to design, fabricate, and test for ; conformance to specifications a shim regulating rod for the Hallam Nuclear Power ; Facility (HNPF). A prototype mechanism was designed and fabricated on the basis ; of experience gained from the operation of control rods in the Sodium Reactor ; Experiment (SRE). The mechanism was tested in a

Kaspic

1960-01-01

348

Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

2010-01-01

349

Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing  

E-print Network

sources such as hybrid-electric technologies, bio-ethanol, and hydrogen fuel cells are emergingVirginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing, Moran, Saerens, and Van den Bulck 2 ABSTRACT Existing fuel consumption and emission models suffer from

Rakha, Hesham A.

350

Study on development system of increasing gearbox for high-performance wind-power generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the analysis of the development potentiality of wind-power generator and domestic manufacture of its key parts in China, an independent development system of the Increasing Gearbox for High-performance Wind-power Generator (IGHPWG) was introduced. The main elements of the system were studied, including the procedure design, design analysis system, manufacturing technology and detecting system, and the relative important technologies were analyzed such as mixed optimal joint transmission structure of the first planetary drive with two grade parallel axle drive based on equal strength, tooth root round cutting technology before milling hard tooth surface, high-precise tooth grinding technology, heat treatment optimal technology and complex surface technique, and rig test and detection technique of IGHPWG. The development conception was advanced the data share and quality assurance system through all the elements of the development system. The increasing Gearboxes for 600KW and 1MW Wind-power Generator have been successfully developed through the application of the development system.

Xu, Hongbin; Yan, Kejun; Zhao, Junyu

2005-12-01

351

Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India  

PubMed Central

Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (? 15%) despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced. PMID:17663772

Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

2007-01-01

352

Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

2000-07-01

353

Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

2000-07-14

354

Simulation and Control Lab Development for Power and Energy Management for NASA Manned Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of distributed hierarchical and agent-based control systems will allow for reliable autonomous energy management and power distribution for on-orbit missions. Power is one of the most critical systems on board a space vehicle, requiring quick response time when a fault or emergency is identified. As NASAs missions with human presence extend beyond low earth orbit autonomous control of vehicle power systems will be necessary and will need to reliably function for long periods of time. In the design of autonomous electrical power control systems there is a need to dynamically simulate and verify the EPS controller functionality prior to use on-orbit. This paper presents the work at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where the development of a controls laboratory is being completed that will be utilized to demonstrate advanced prototype EPS controllers for space, aeronautical and terrestrial applications. The control laboratory hardware, software and application of an autonomous controller for demonstration with the ISS electrical power system is the subject of this paper.

McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Soeder, James F.; McNelis, Nancy B.; May, Ryan; Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry

2014-01-01

355

Ultra-High-Power-Density Motor Being Developed for Future Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept Program, NASA Glenn Research Center' s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future more-electric aircraft. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines that can generate power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20 000 A/cm2 was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced. A simple synchronous machine model that consists of rotor and stator windings and back-irons was considered first. The model had a sinusoidally distributed winding that produces a sinusoidal distribution of flux P poles. Excitation of the rotor winding produced P poles of rotor flux, which interacted with the P stator poles to produce torque.

Choi, Benjamin B.

2003-01-01

356

Development of gait training system powered by pneumatic actuator like human musculoskeletal system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) patient. This system consists of an orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and a piece of equipment of body weight support. The attachment of powered orthosis can be fit to individual subjects with different body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuators arranged as a pair of agonistic and antagonistic bi-articular muscle models and two pairs of agonistic and antagonistic mono-articular muscle models like the human musculoskeletal system. The body weight support equipment suspends the subject's body in a wire harness, with the body weight is supported continuously by a counterweight. The powered orthosis is attached to the body weight support equipment by a parallel linkage, and its movement of powered orthosis is limited at the sagittal plane. The weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by a parallel linkage with a gas-spring. In this paper, we report the detailed mechanics of this body weight support gait training system and the results of several experiments for evaluating the system. PMID:22275650

Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku

2011-01-01

357

Ka-Band GaAs FET Monolithic Power Amplifier Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the course of this program, very extensive progress was made in Ka-band GaAs technology. At the beginning of the program, odd-shaped VPE MESFET wafers were used. A breakthrough in power and efficiency was achieved with highly doped (8 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) MBE grown MESFET material. We obtained power of 112 mW with 16 dB gain and 21.6% efficiency at 34 GHz with a monolithic 50-100-250 micron amplifier. The next breakthrough came with the use of heterostructures grown by MBE (AlGaAs/InGaAs where the InGaAs is highly doped). This allowed us to achieve high power density with high efficiency. A benchmark 40% efficiency was achieved with a single-stage 100 micron MMIC at 32.5 GHz. The corresponding three-stage 50-100-250 micron amplifier achieved 180 mW with 23 dB gain and 30.3% efficiency. The next breakthrough came with 3-inch MBE grown PHEMT wafers incorporating an etch-stop layer for the gate recess (using RIE). Again, state-of-the-art performances were achieved: 40% efficiency with 235 mW output power and 20.7 dB gain. The single-stage 2 x 600 micron chip demonstrated 794 mW output power with 5 dB gain and 38.2% power-added efficiency (PAE). The Ka-band technology developed under this program has promise for extensive use: JPL demonstrated 32 GHz phased arrays with a three-stage amplifier developed under this contract. A variation of the three-stage amplifier was used successfully in a 4 x 4 phased array transmitter developed under another NASA contract.

Saunier, Paul; Tserng, Hua Quen

1997-01-01

358

Development of a smart type motor operated valve for nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the design concept of the smart type motor operator valve for nuclear power plant was described. The development objective of the smart valve is to achieve superior accuracy, long-term reliability, and ease of use. In this reasons, developed smart valve has fieldbus communication such as deviceNet and Profibus-DP, auto-tuning PID controller, self-diagnostics, and on-line calibration capabilities. And also, to achieve pressure, temperature, and flow control with internal PID controller, the pressure sensor and transmitter were included in this valve. And, temperature and flow signal acquisition port was prepared. The developed smart valve will be performed equipment qualification test such as environment, EMI/EMC, and vibration in Korea Test Lab. And, the valve performance is tested in a test loop which is located in Seoul National University Lab. To apply nuclear power plant, the software is being developed according to software life cycle. The developed software is verified by independent software V and V team. It is expected that the smart valve can be applied to an existing NPPs for replacing or to a new nuclear power plants. The design and fabrication of smart valve is now being processed.

Kim, Chang-Hwoi; Park, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Dong-young; Koo, In-Soo

2005-12-01

359

Development of CAPE-OPEN unit operations for advanced power systems modeling  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) is developing a suite of CORBA CAPE-OPEN compliant unit operations to support the Department of Energy NETL Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power systems. One of these components will provide an interface to the GateCycle software, which is widely used in the power generation industry for process modeling. Additional CAPE-OPEN components will provide modeling capabilities of varying fidelity for equipment such as a gasifier, air separation unit, syngas cooler, solid oxide fuel cell and water-gas shift reactor. The models used in the components will be a combination of those developed by REI and proprietary models developed by members of the Project's industrial interest group.

Swensen, D.; Zitney, S.; Bockelie, M.

2007-01-01

360

Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

Morse, Thomas M.

1994-07-01

361

Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2008-01-01

362

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-H of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

Neuhauser, E.

1997-08-01

363

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.

Neuhauser, E.

1998-05-01

364

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

Neuhauser, E.

1997-08-01

365

Development of a single-phase harmonic power flow program to study the 20 kHz AC power system for large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.

Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

1991-01-01

366

Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

2013-09-26

367

Problems in developing bimodal space power and propulsion system fuel element  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses design of a space nuclear power and propulsion system fuel element (PPFE) developed on the basis of an enhanced single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) of the 'TOPAZ-2' thermionic converter-reactor (TCR), and presents the PPFE performance for propulsion and power modes of operation. The choice of UC-TaC fuel composition is substantiated. Data on hydrogen effect on the PPFE output voltage are presented, design solutions are considered that allow to restrict hydrogen supply to an interelectrode gap (IEG). Long-term geometric stability of an emitter assembly is supported by calculated data.

Nikolaev, Yu. V.; Gontar, A. S.; Zaznoba, V. A.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A. [Research Institute of SIA 'Lutch' Podolsk, Moscow Region, 142100 (Russian Federation); RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

1997-01-10

368

Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security (EPIRS) Reseach and Development Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Power systems have become increasingly complex and face unprecedented challenges posed by population growth, climate change, national security issues, foreign energy dependence and an aging power infrastructure. Increased demand combined with increased economic and environmental constraints is forcing state, regional and national power grids to expand supply without the large safety and stability margins in generation and transmission capacity that have been the rule in the past. Deregulation, distributed generation, natural and man-made catastrophes and other causes serve to further challenge and complicate management of the electric power grid. To meet the challenges of the 21st century while also maintaining system reliability, the electric power grid must effectively integrate new and advanced technologies both in the actual equipment for energy conversion, transfer and use, and in the command, control, and communication systems by which effective and efficient operation of the system is orchestrated - in essence, the 'smart grid'. This evolution calls for advances in development, integration, analysis, and deployment approaches that ultimately seek to take into account, every step of the way, the dynamic behavior of the system, capturing critical effects due to interdependencies and interaction. This approach is necessary to better mitigate the risk of blackouts and other disruptions and to improve the flexibility and capacity of the grid. Building on prior Navy and Department of Energy investments in infrastructure and resources for electric power systems research, testing, modeling, and simulation at the Florida State University (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS), this project has continued an initiative aimed at assuring reliable and secure grid operation through a more complete understanding and characterization of some of the key technologies that will be important in a modern electric system, while also fulfilling an education and outreach mission to provide future energy workforce talent and support the electric system stakeholder community. Building upon and extending portions of that research effort, this project has been focused in the following areas: (1) Building high-fidelity integrated power and controls hardware-in-the-loop research and development testbed capabilities (Figure 1). (2) Distributed Energy Resources Integration - (a) Testing Requirements and Methods for Fault Current Limiters, (b) Contributions to the Development of IEEE 1547.7, (c) Analysis of a STATCOM Application for Wind Resource Integration, (d) Development of a Grid-Interactive Inverter with Energy Storage Elements, (e) Simulation-Assisted Advancement of Microgrid Understanding and Applications; (3) Availability of High-Fidelity Dynamic Simulation Tools for Grid Disturbance Investigations; (4) HTS Material Characterization - (a) AC Loss Studies on High Temperature Superconductors, (b) Local Identification of Current-Limiting Mechanisms in Coated Conductors; (5) Cryogenic Dielectric Research; and (6) Workshops, education, and outreach.

Rick Meeker; L. Baldwin; Steinar Dale; Alexander Domijan; Davild Larbalestier; Hui Li; Peter McLaren; Sastry Pamidi; Horatio Rodrigo; Michael Steurer

2010-03-31

369

Design, development and deployment of public service photovoltaic power/load systems for the Gabonese Republic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five different types of public service photovoltaic power/load systems installed in the Gabonese Republic are discussed. The village settings, the systems, performance results and some problems encountered are described. Most of the systems performed well, but some of the systems had problems due to failure of components or installation errors. The project was reasonably successful in collecting and reporting data for system performance evaluation that will be useful for guiding officials and system designers involved in village power applications in developing countries.

Kaszeta, William J.

1987-01-01

370

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

None,

1980-05-01

371

The architecture of the electric power system of the International Space Station and its application as a platform for power technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station (ISS) represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full US built system consists of a 160 Volt DC primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120 Volt DC secondary network. Additionally, the US system interfaces with the

Eric B. Gietl; Edward W. Gholdston; Fred Cohen; Bruce A. Manners; Rex A. Delventhal

2000-01-01

372

Power System Concepts for the Lunar Outpost: A Review of the Power Generation, Energy Storage, Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System Requirements and Potential Technologies for Development of the Lunar Outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will review potential power system concepts for the development of the lunar outpost including power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD). In particular, the requirements of the initial robotic missions will be discussed and the technologies considered will include cryogenics and regenerative fuel cells (RFC), AC and DC transmission line technology, high voltage and low voltage power transmission, conductor materials of construction and power beaming concepts for transmitting power to difficult to access locations such as at the bottom of craters. Operating conditions, component characteristics, reliability, maintainability, constructability, system safety, technology gaps/risk and adaptability for future lunar missions will be discussed for the technologies considered.

Khan, Z.; Vranis, A.; Zavoico, A.; Freid, S.; Manners, B.

2006-01-01

373

Report on Performance of Prototype Dynatronix Power Supplies Developed Under a Phase I DOE SBIR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prototype power supplies fabricated by Dynatronix, Inc. This project supports the advancement of electroforming capabilities to produce ultra-high purity copper. Ultra-high purity copper is an essential material used for a range of current and future fundamental nuclear physics programs such as the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The Mach 30 power supplies are a new design built to the specifications from the requirements of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with regard to timing, voltage, current output, and the required tolerances. The parameters used in these tests were developed empirically over a number of years based on a combination of thermodynamic and kinetics of the electroplating process. The power supplies were operated in a typical cleanroom environment for the production electroforming at PNNL. The units that were received by PNNL in July, 2010 have performed satisfactorily and have demonstrated short term durability.

Hoppe, Eric W.; Merriman, Jason H.

2011-03-01

374

Characteristics and development report for the T1576 power supply and the MC3935 battery  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the requirements, designs, performance, and development histories for the T1576 power supply and the MC3935 rechargeable battery. These devices are used to power Permissive Action Link (PAL) ground controllers. The T1576 consists of a stainless steel container, one SA3553 connector, and one MC3935 battery. The MC3935 is a vented nickel/cadmium battery with 24 cells connected in series. It was designed to deliver 5.5 Amp-hours at 25{number_sign}C and the one-hour rate, with a nominal voltage of 28 V. The battery was designed to operate for 5 years or 500 full charge/discharge cycles. The power supply is expected to last indefinitely with replacement batteries and hardware.

Butler, P.C.; Robinson, C.E.

1993-10-01

375

Status of the high power, solid-state RF amplifier development at laboratori nazionali di legnaro  

E-print Network

The development of high power, unconditionally stable solid-state amplifiers for superconducting low-beta cavities, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in the framework of the EURISOL Design Study and in collaboration with Synchrotron Soleil [1], has led to the construction and testing of two newly designed 10 kW units that can be used both individually or coupled together to obtain a 20 kW source. This family of amplifiers, based on parallel assemblies of 300 W modules equipped with mosfets and individual circulators, gives the possibility of operating in any matching conditions and also, at a reduced power, in case of failure of one mosfet. Characteristics of amplifiers and high power combiner will be described, and their performance and test results will be reported.

Scarpa, F; Facco, A

376

Development of 16 kWh power storage system applying Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 16 kWh power storage system applying Li-ion batteries has been jointly developed by Kyushu Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The system comprises a Li-ion battery pack, an inverter and a battery protection system. Four cells, each with a capacity of 270 Wh, are connected in a series to form a single 1.1 kWh module battery. The Li-ion battery pack is made up of a series of 15 such module batteries. A 270 Wh cell, in which Li-manganese oxide is used for the cathode and graphite for the anode, can expect to perform 3500 lifecycles during operating conditions of the rated 70% DOD. Even though power loss in the inverter and battery protection system must be further reduced, satisfactory response was found both in the batteries and inverter control, leading to the creation of a practical power storage system applying Li-ion batteries.

Adachi, Kazuyuki; Tajima, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Katsuaki

377

Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations with the bias in the Tobit estimates remaining at or below 5 percent. Under severe censoring (1 percent uncensored observations), large biases appear in the estimated standard errors and marginal effects. These are generally reduced as the sample size increases in both N and T.

Hitaj, Claudia

378

Fusion Engineering and Design 41 (1998) 371376 The ARIES-RS power core--recent development in Li/V  

E-print Network

Fusion Engineering and Design 41 (1998) 371­376 The ARIES-RS power core--recent development in Li tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core

California at San Diego, University of

379

Wind-Power Development in Germany and the U.S.: Multiple Streams, Advocacy Coalitions, and Turning Points  

E-print Network

Wind-Power Development in Germany and the U.S.: Multiple Streams, Advocacy Coalitions, and Turning especially large. Wind power produces relatively low levels of environmental damage over its life cycle (like capacity of wind power rose an average of 26% a year from 2001 to 2010, to a total of about 197

Qiu, Weigang

380

ANEMOS: Development of a Next Generation Wind Power Forecasting System for the Large-Scale Integration of Onshore &  

E-print Network

ANEMOS: Development of a Next Generation Wind Power Forecasting System for the Large and the research work carried out in the frame of the ANEMOS project on short-term wind power forecasting. The aim, for onshore and offshore wind power forecasting, exploiting both statistical and physical modeling approaches

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Research on strategic importance of non-grid-connected wind power for U.S. energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the cost of wind power generation has declined 20 times since 1982, giving it a price advantage in competition with conventional energy. Therefore, wind power has a much broader prospect. The data indicates that power-generating capacity has increased recently in the USA and has developed quickly, with 50% growth in 2008. By April 30, 2009, installed

Ming Gu

2009-01-01

382

The development of a high-performance perfluorinated polymer electret and its application to micro power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, micro power generation using electrets has attracted much attention due to its large power output at a low frequency range. Since the theoretical power output is proportional to the square of the surface charge density of the electret, the development of a high-performance electret is required. In the present study, it is shown that the surface charge density of

Yoshihiko Sakane; Yuji Suzuki; Nobuhide Kasagi

2008-01-01

383

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the third quarter of 1997, much of the Consortium`s effort has focused on outreach activities, continued feedstock development, fuel supply planning, and fuel contract development, and preparation for 1998 scale-up activities. The Consortium also submitted a Phase-1 extension proposal during this period. A few of the more important milestones are outlined below. The fourth quarter of 1997 is expected to be dominated by Phase-II proposal efforts and planning for 1998 activities.

Neuhauser, E.

1998-03-01

384

Development and application of a nonequilibrium magnetohydrodynamics code to hypersonic flow power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent, 2½-dimensional, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver MACH2 has been upgraded to include the effects of non-equilibrium air chemistry using the well-established reaction model developed by Park. Several validation cases are presented based on comparisons to the experimentally deduced shock stand-off distance of nitrogen flow over spheres, the shock stand-off distance of spheres fired into air in a ballistic test facility, and the electron number density on the surface of the Ram-C re-entry experiment. In addition, the magnetic induction equation has been upgraded with new verified models that compute the effects of the Hall and ion slip terms. The upgraded code is utilized to model an annular, Hall-type MHD generator that can be employed upstream of a turbojet engine for freestream conditions corresponding to Mach 5 flight at an altitude of 20km. The simulations demonstrate the feasibility of convening inlet kinetic power to storable electric power. Using ionization provided by electron-beam guns and a radial magnetic field B=3T, the generator is shown to produce a maximum of 4.8MW of electric power while reducing the total kinetic power of the flow by 31%. Optimizing the loading parameter, K*Load, across the electrodes demonstrates that the generator could produce 1.54MW of excess electric power that can be stored and used for on-board power requirements. Further, the reduction in flow kinetic power results in an increase in static pressure of 30% and a reduction in stagnation temperature of 3% at the turbojet's compressor inlet that aids the subsequent process of combustion.

Lorzel, Heath

385

Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network  

PubMed Central

In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient program.

Lee, Dasheng

2008-01-01

386

Development of High-power LED Lighting Luminaires Using Loop Heat Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-power LED should reject about 6 times of heat of the conventional lighting device and keep the LED junction temperature below 80°C to assure reliability and low light decay. In addition, no fan is allowed and the heat dissipation design should not interfere with the industrial design of lighting fixture and have a light weight. This thus creates an extreme thermal management problem. The present study has shown that, using a special heat dissipation technology (loop heat pipe), the high-power LED lighting luminaire with input power from 36 to 150W for outdoor and indoor applications can be achieved with light weight, among 0.96 to 1.57 kg per 1,000 lumen of net luminous flux output from the luminaire. The loop heat pipe uses a flexible connecting pipe as the condenser which can be wounded around the reflector of the luminaire to dissipate the heat to the ambient air by natural convection. For roadway or street lighting application, the present study shows that a better optical design of LED lamps can further result in power consumption reduction, based on the same illumination on road surface. The high-power LED luminaries developed in the present study have shown that the energy saving is > 50% in road lighting applications as compared to sodium light or > 70% compared to mercury light.

Huang, Bin-Juine; Huang, Huan-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Wu, Min-Sheng

387

Recent advances in the development of high average power induction accelerators for industrial and environmental applications  

SciTech Connect

Short-pulse accelerator technology developed during the early 1960`s through the late 1980`s is being extended to high average power systems capable of use in industrial and environmental applications. Processes requiring high dose levels and/or high volume throughput will require systems with beam power levels from several hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts. Beam accelerating potentials can range from less than 1 MeV to as much as 10 MeV depending on the type of beam, depth of penetration required, and the density of the product being treated. This paper addresses the present status of a family of high average power systems, with output beam power levels up to 200 kW, now in operation that use saturable core switches to achieve output pulse widths of 50 to 80 nanoseconds. Inductive adders and field emission cathodes are used to generate beams of electrons or x-rays at up to 2.5 MeV over areas of 1000 cm{sup 2}. Similar high average power technology is being used at {le} 1 MeV to drive repetitive ion beam sources for treatment of material surfaces over 100`s of cm{sup 2}.

Neau, E.L.

1994-09-01

388

Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

1994-01-01

389

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

1975-01-01

390

Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ���¢�������� 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

D. Y. Goswami

2012-09-04

391

Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

2014-03-01

392

Technology Development for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase 2 SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations, compared to an unbalanced convertor, with a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over a mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper discusses the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also presents results for characterizing the friction factor of high-porosity random fiber regenerators that are being used for this application.

Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

2000-01-01

393

Development and fabrication of a fast recovery, high voltage power diode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of positive bevels for P-I-N mesa structures to achieve high voltages is described. The technique of glass passivation for mesa structures is described. The utilization of high energy radiation to control the lifetime of carriers in silicon is reported as a means to achieve fast recovery times. Characterization data is reported and is in agreement with design concepts developed for power diodes.

Berman, A. H.; Balodis, V.; Duffin, J. J.; Gaugh, C.; Kkaratnicki, H. M.; Troutman, G.

1981-01-01

394

Development of Medium-Voltage and Large-Capacity Uninterruptible Power Supply System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2-MVA uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system has been developed for compensating for voltage dips in a medium voltage network. The UPS system realizes a high efficiency (99.7%) during single-pulse switching. In this paper, the UPS configurations, storage devices, and transfer switches are compared. Thereafter, the details of the UPS system, the results of the short-circuit test and the system efficiencies are described.

Fujii, Kansuke; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yoda, Kazuyuki

395

Development of an advanced electron gun for high power radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing klystron high power amplifiers used for wide-band, S-band radar incorporate a gridded electron gun developed prior to the 1960s, which uses an oxide cathode. Since then, the electron gun technology has evolved including many new materials and advanced manufacturing techniques. Thus, the cost to manufacture these older guns can be improved to reduce the financial burden to the end

T. Bui; L. Ives; G. Miram; M. Mizuhara; S. Lenci; M. Davis; K. Lande

2002-01-01

396

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, May 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000 is the focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Facette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. There will be testing of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials expected to occur at BED`s McNeill power station and potentially at one of GPU`s facilities. Phase-III will represent full-scale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. Willow has been selected as the energy crop of choice for many reasons. Willow is well suited to the climate of the Northeastern United States, and initial field trials have demonstrated that the yields required for the success of the project are obtainable. Like other energy crops, willow has rural development benefits and could serve to diversify local crop production, provide new sources of income for participating growers, and create new jobs. Willow could be used to put a large base of idle acreage back into crop production. Additionally, the willow coppicing system integrates well with current farm operations and utilizes agricultural practices that are already familiar to farmers.

Neuhauser, E.

1996-02-01

397

Future development of high-power solid-state laser systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future trends in the development and design of high-power pulsed solid-state laser systems are considered in relation to the laser fusion problem. Attention is concentrated on neodymium-doped glass lasers, but the possibility of using other media, particularly ion-doped crystals, is also discussed. New methods for pumping such systems (both existing and future) are reviewed. Ways and means of tuning

J. L. Emmett; W. F. Krupke; J. B. Trenholme

1983-01-01

398

Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Goals for the biomass power for rural development include: expanded feedstock research and demonstration activities to provide soil-specific production costs and yield data, as well as better methods for harvest and transport; four thousand acres of feedstock available for fueling a commercial venture; comparison of the feasibility of gasification and cocombustion; designs for on-site switchgrass handling and feeding system; a detailed assessment of utilizing switchgrass for gasification and cocombustion to generate electricity using turbines and fuel cells.

Cooper, J.T.

1997-02-01

399

Development, Application, and Implementation of RAMCAP to Characterize Nuclear Power Plant Risk From Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI and ERIN Engineering were selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate the RAMCAP method for nuclear power plant (NPP) risk assessment. The objective is to characterize plant-specific NPP risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. This paper is

John P. Gaertner; Grant A. Teagarden

2006-01-01

400

Proposal for the development of a high power, low frequency underwater acoustic source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program for the development of a high-power underwater acoustic source for use at infrasonic and low-audio frequencies is proposed. This source is in the form of a three-element line array, each of whose elements is a transducer of existing design, the USRD type J15-3. Unique features of this source are its small size, light weight, and its ability to

A. M. Young

1974-01-01

401

Development of a semiconductor switch for high power copper vapor lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiconductor switch utilizing 2.5 kV, 1 kA flat packaged IGBTs, twenty pieces connected in series and two in parallel, was developed for high power copper vapor laser (CVL) excitation. Its voltage and current ratings are 31 kV and 2600 A, respectively. Since the flat packaged IGBT has no internal wiring, it is considered inherently suitable for the applications under

K. Okamura; H. Shimamura; N. Kobayashi; K. Watanabe

1997-01-01

402

High power 352MHz solid state amplifiers developed at the Synchrotron SOLEIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In SOLEIL, 5 solid state amplifiers provide the required rf power at 352MHz: 1×35kW in the booster and 4×190kW in the storage ring. They consist in a combination of a large number of 330 W elementary modules (1×147 in the booster and 4×724 in the storage ring), based on a design developed in-house, with MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors), integrated circulators,

P. Marchand; T. Ruan; F. Ribeiro; R. Lopes

2007-01-01

403

High Power GaAs FET Solid State Amplifier (32 watt) Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A High Power Solid State Amplifier (HPSSA) using Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors (GaAs FETs) has been developed to compete with the 40 watt TWTAs on the Defense Satellite Communications System III (DSCS III), the latest generation of United States Military Communications Satellites. The Engineering Model of this state-of-the-art component demonstrates that it is competitive with the 40 watt TWTA

W. Joseph Soo Hoo

1986-01-01

404

High power GaAs FET solid state amplifier (32 watt) development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-power solid-state amplifier (HPSSA) using GaAs FETs has been developed to compete with the 40-watt TWTAs on the Defense Satellite Communications System III (DSCS III), military communications satellites. The engineering model of this state-of-the-art component demonstrates that it is competitive with the 40-watt TWTA from an efficiency and performance standpoint, and is significantly more reliable. Specific typical data and

W. Joseph Soo Hoo

1986-01-01

405

Status of free-piston Stirling engine\\/linear alternator power conversion system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a kW free-piston Stirling engine\\/linear alternator power conversion system is discussed in terms of the second phase of testing. Attention is given to: (1) engine\\/alternator system testing to demonstrator system feasibility, (2) the demonstrator preliminary design which defines concepts for system arrangement, analyzes components and their interactions, and establishes an optimal design, (3) a conceptual design of

S. J. Piller

1978-01-01

406

State-of-the-art and recent developments of high-power gyrotron oscillators  

SciTech Connect

Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high-power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. High unit power and high efficiency single-mode CW gyrotrons with conventional cylindrical (1 MW) and advanced coaxial (2 MW) cavities are worldwide under development. 118 GHz, 140 GHz and 170 GHz conventional cavity gyrotrons with output power P{sub out}{approx_equal}0.5 MW, pulse length {tau}{approx_equal}5.0 s and efficiency {eta}{approx_equal}35% are commercially available. Advanced internal quasi-optical mode converters generate linearly polarized output wave beams from the high-order cavity modes (e.g., TE{sub 22,6}) with efficiencies of 90-95% and separate the millimeter-wave beam from the electron beam, thus allowing the use of large CW-relevant depressed collectors for energy recovery. Overall efficiencies between 50 and 60% have been already achieved at JAERI, FZK, and GYCOM employing single-stage depressed collectors (SDC). First successful experiments at FZK employing a broadband Brewster window gave up to 1.5 MW output power at around 50% efficiency (SDC) for all operating mode series in the frequency range from 114 to 166 GHz (frequency tuning in 3.7 GHz steps by variation of the magnetic field strength in the cavity). Gyrotrons with advanced coaxial cavities designed for operation in the TE{sub 28,16} and TE{sub 31,17} modes at 140 and 165 GHz, respectively, are under development and test at IAP Nizhny Novgorod and FZK Karlsruhe. A maximum output power of 1.7 MW has been measured at 165 GHz with an efficiency of 35.2% (SDC, FZK). Cryogenically edge-cooled single-disk sapphire (T=77 K) and Au-doped silicon (T=230 K) windows as well as CVD-diamond windows with water edge-cooling at room temperature are under investigation in order to solve the window problem. Commercial CVD-diamond disks will easily allow the transmission of 2 MW power level at 170 GHz, CW. Bonding and brazing techniques are available. Recently, gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in materials processing. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: ISM frequency f{>=}24 GHz, P{sub out}=10-50 kW, CW, {eta}=30%. The present paper reviews recent developments and the state-of-the-art of high-power gyrotron oscillators for fusion plasma and industrial applications.

Thumm, Manfred [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, ITP, P.O. Box 3640, D-76012 Karlsruhe (Germany); Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

1999-05-07

407

NASA GRC Technology Development Project for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. A first characterization of the DOE/STC 55-We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under the expected launch random vibration environment was recently completed in the NASA GRC Structural Dynamics Laboratory. Two TDCs also completed an initial electromagnetic interference (EMI) characterization at NASA GRC while being tested in a synchronized, opposed configuration. Materials testing is underway to support a life assessment of the heater head, and magnet characterization and aging tests have been initiated. Test facilities are now being established for an independent convertor performance verification and technology development. A preliminary Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), initial finite element analysis (FEA) for the linear alternator, ionizing radiation survivability assessment, and radiator parametric study have also been completed. This paper will discuss the status, plans, and results to date for these efforts.

Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

2000-01-01

408

Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

Landis, D. M.

1985-01-01

409

Material Requirements, Selection And Development for the Proposed JIMO SpacePower System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is proposing a major new nuclear Space initiative-The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). A mission such as this inevitably requires a significant power source both for propulsion and for on-board power. Three reactor concepts, liquid metal cooled, heat pipe cooled and gas cooled are being considered together with three power conversion systems Brayton (cycle), Thermoelectric and Stirling cycles, and possibly Photo voltaics for future systems. Regardless of the reactor system selected it is almost certain that high temperature (materials), refractory alloys, will be required. This paper revisits the material selection options, reviewing the rationale behind the SP-100 selection of Nb-1Zr as the major cladding and structural material and considers the alternatives and developments needed for the longer duty cycle of the JIMO power supply. A side glance is also taken at the basis behind the selection of Uranium nitride fuel over UO2 or UC and a brief discussion of the reason for the selection of Lithium as the liquid metal coolant for SP-100 over other liquid metals.

Ring, P. J.; Sayre, E. D.

2004-02-01

410

Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

1980-11-01

411

Development of a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery  

SciTech Connect

The power requirements for an inverter application were specified to be 500 V at 360 A, or 180 kW per each of six 1-s pulses delivered over a period of 10 minutes. Conventional high-power sources (e.g., flywheels) could not meet these requirements and the use of a thermal battery was considered. The final design involved four, 125-cell, 50-kW modules connected in series. A module using the LiSi/CoS{sub 2} couple and all-Li (LiCI-LiBr-LiF minimum-melting) electrolyte was successfully developed and tested. A power level of over 40 kW was delivered during a 0.5-s pulse. This translates into a specific power level of over 9 kW/kg or 19.2 kW/L delivered from a module. The module was still able to deliver over 30 kW during a 1-s pulse after 10 minutes.

Guidotti, R.A.; Scharrer, G.L.; Binasiewicz, E.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-04-01

412

Research and Technology Activities Supporting Closed-Brayton-Cycle Power Conversion System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elements of Brayton technology development emphasize power conversion system risk mitigation. Risk mitigation is achieved by demonstrating system integration feasibility, subsystem/component life capability (particularly in the context of material creep) and overall spacecraft mass reduction. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion technology is viewed as relatively mature. At the 2-kWe power level, a CBC conversion system Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six (6) was achieved during the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration (SD-GTD) in 1998. A TRL 5 was demonstrated for 10 kWe-class CBC components during the development of the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) from 1968 to 1976. Components currently in terrestrial (open cycle) Brayton machines represent TRL 4 for similar uses in 100 kWe-class CBC space systems. Because of the baseline component and subsystem technology maturity, much of the Brayton technology task is focused on issues related to systems integration. A brief description of ongoing technology activities is given.

Barrett, Michael J.

2004-01-01

413

Development and Application of Laser Peening System for PWR Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Laser peening is a process to improve residual stress from tensile to compressive in surface layer of materials by irradiating high-power laser pulses on the material in water. Toshiba has developed a laser peening system composed of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillators, laser delivery equipment and underwater remote handling equipment. We have applied the system for Japanese operating BWR power plants as a preventive maintenance measure for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on reactor internals like core shrouds or control rod drive (CRD) penetrations since 1999. As for PWRs, alloy 600 or 182 can be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), and some cracks or leakages caused by the PWSCC have been discovered on penetrations of reactor vessel heads (RVHs), reactor bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) nozzles, and others. Taking measures to meet the unconformity of the RVH penetrations, RVHs themselves have been replaced in many PWRs. On the other hand, it's too time-consuming and expensive to replace BMI nozzles, therefore, any other convenient and less expensive measures are required instead of the replacement. In Toshiba, we carried out various tests for laser-peened nickel base alloys and confirmed the effectiveness of laser peening as a preventive maintenance measure for PWSCC. We have developed a laser peening system for PWRs as well after the one for BWRs, and applied it for BMI nozzles, core deluge line nozzles and primary water inlet nozzles of Ikata Unit 1 and 2 of Shikoku Electric Power Company since 2004, which are Japanese operating PWR power plants. In this system, laser oscillators and control devices were packed into two containers placed on the operating floor inside the reactor containment vessel. Laser pulses were delivered through twin optical fibers and irradiated on two portions in parallel to reduce operation time. For BMI nozzles, we developed a tiny irradiation head for small tubes and we peened the inner surface around J-groove welds after laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) as the remote inspection, and we peened the outer surface and the weld for Ikata Unit 2 supplementary. For core deluge line nozzles and primary water inlet nozzles, we peened the inner surface of the dissimilar metal welding, which is of nickel base alloy, joining a safe end and a low alloy metal nozzle. In this paper, the development and the actual application of the laser peening system for PWR power plants will be described. (authors)

Masaki Yoda; Itaru Chida; Satoshi Okada; Makoto Ochiai; Yuji Sano; Naruhiko Mukai; Gaku Komotori; Ryoichi Saeki [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Toshimitsu Takagi; Masanori Sugihara; Hirokata Yoriki [Shikoku Electric Co., Inc. (Japan)

2006-07-01

414

Alexandrite lidar for the atmospheric water vapor detection and development of powerful tunable sources in IR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New tunable solid-state lasers, such as alexandrite and Ti-sapphire lasers, provide a powerful technique to detect various molecules in the atmosphere whose absorption bands are in the infrared region. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system to measure the tropospheric water vapor has been investigated by many authors, in an early stage, by dye and ruby lasers. Using the alpha band of water vapor, the longest detection range can be obtained with high accuracy, and the alexandrite laser is the most suitable laser for this purpose. In this paper, we describe the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere by an alexandrite lidar, and the development of powerful tunable sources based on Raman lasers in the infrared region.

Uchiumi, M.; Maeda, M.; Muraoka, K.; Uchino, O.

1992-01-01

415

Update on the Development of Externally Powered Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures  

SciTech Connect

We report on recent progress in a program to develop an RF-driven Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure, capable of supporting high gradient acceleration. Previous high power tests revealed that the earlier DLA structures suffered from multipactor and arcing at the dielectric joint. A few new DLA structures have been designed to alleviate this limitation including the coaxial coupler based DLA structure and the clamped DLA structure. These structures were recently fabricated and high power tested at the NRL X-band Magnicon facility. Results show the multipactor can be reduced by the TiN coating on the dielectric surface. Gradient of 15 MV/m has also been tested without dielectric breakdown in the test of the clamped DLA structure. Detailed results are reported, and future plans discussed.

Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Liu, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gold, S. H. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kinkead, A. K. [Icarus Research, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2009-01-22

416

Political and legal implications of developing and operating a satellite power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of political and legal implications of developing and operating a satellite power system (SPS) are identified and studied in this report. These include the vulnerability of SPS to actions of adversaries, communications impacts, the legality of an SPS in orbit including on-orbit military protection, alleviation of political concerns about deployment and operation of SPS, programmatic planning for SPS and the interaction of SPS with federal regulatory agencies and major departments. In comparing SPS to terrestrial power stations, it is seen that the political problems are neither clearly larger nor clearly smaller--they are clearly different and they are international in nature. If SPS is to become a reality these problems must be dealt with. Five major issues are identified. These must be resolved in order to obtain international acceptance of SPS. However, this study has found no insurmountable obstacles that would clearly prohibit the deployment, operation and protection of an SPS fleet.

Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

1977-01-01

417

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Wireless Power Transfer Development for Sustainable Campus Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a convenient, safe, and autonomous means for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging that has seen rapid growth in recent years for stationary applications. WPT does not require bulky contacts, plugs, and wires, is not affected by dirt or weather conditions, and is as efficient as conventional charging systems. This study summarizes some of the recent Sustainable Campus Initiative activities of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in WPT charging of an on-campus vehicle (a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). Laboratory development of the WPT coils, high-frequency power inverter, and overall systems integration are discussed. Results cover the coil performance testing at different operating frequencies, airgaps, and misalignments. Some of the experimental results of insertion loss due to roadway surfacing materials in the air-gap are presented. Experimental lessons learned are also covered in this study.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL; Coomer, Chester [ORNL] [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL] [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

418

High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser  

SciTech Connect

A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

1989-04-01

419

Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

1997-01-01

420

Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas turbine and a three-pressure heat recovery steam generator with reheat, for base load and load following operations. The oil-fired and gas-fired plants showed excellent gross thermal efficiency, 49.6 and 59.4 percent, respectively. Regarding the anthracite plant, based on a traditional subcritical pressure steam cycle, the unit gross efficiency was calculated at 42.3 percent. These efficiency values represent an increase of over 2 percent compared to the comparable plant class, operating today. This 2 percent efficiency gained translates into approximately 35,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas reduction, and a saving of 16,000 tonnes of coal, per year (based on 300MWe coal-fired plant). The positive results from the three simulations have demonstrated that by integrating planning and design optimization, significant gain of efficiency in thermal power plants is possible. This establishes the need for improved planning processes. It starts with a pre-planning process, before project tendering, to identify applicable operational issues and design features to enhance efficiency and reduce emissions. It should also include a pre-contract period to provide an opportunity for all OEM finalists to consolidate and fine-tune their designs for compatibility with those of others to achieve optimal performance. The inclusion of a period for final consolidation and integrated design enables the original goals of greater overall plant efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction to be achieved beyond those available from current planning and contracting procedures.

Pham, John Dinh Chuong

421

Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.  

PubMed

To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

2013-01-01

422

Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants  

PubMed Central

To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

2013-01-01

423

Developing a Free-Piston Stirling Convertor for advanced radioisotope space power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. This paper provides a description of the Flight Prototype (FP) Stirling convertor design as compared to the previous TDC design. The initial flight prototype units are already undergoing performance tuning at STC. The new design will be hermetically scaled and will provide a weight reduction from approximately 4.8 kg to approximately 3.9 kg. .

Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; White, Maurice A.; Peterson, Allen A.; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

2002-01-01

424

Basic Research and Development Effort to Design a Micro Nuclear Power Plant for Brazilian Space Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years the Nuclear Energy Division of the Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA (Portuguese abbreviation for advanced fast reactor technology) project. This project aims at research and development of the key issues related with nuclear energy applied to space technology. The purpose of this development is to allow future Brazilian space explorers the access of a good and reliable heat, power and/or propulsion system based on nuclear energy. Efforts are being made in fuel and nuclear core design, designing and building a closed Brayton cycle loop for energy conversion, heat pipe systems research for passive space heat rejection, developing computational programs for thermal loop safety analysis and other technology that may be used to improve efficiency and operation. Currently there is no specific mission that requires these technology development efforts; therefore, there is a certain degree of freedom in the organization and development efforts. This paper will present what has been achieved so far, what is the current development status, where efforts are heading and a proposed time table to meet development objectives.

Guimares, L. N. F.; Camillo, G. P.; Placco, G. M.; Barrios, G., A., Jr.; Do Nascimento, J. A.; Borges, E. M.; De Castro Lobo, P. D.

425

Developments and directions in 200 MHz very high power RF at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), is a linear particle accelerator a half-mile long. It produces an 800 million electron- volt hydrogen-ion beam at an average current of more than one milliamp. The first RF section of the accelerator consists of four Alvarez drift-tube structures. Each of these structures is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 201.25 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of 13 percent or more and at peak pulsed power levels of about 2.5 million watts. The second RF accelerator section consists of forty-four side-coupled-cavity structures. Each of these is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 805 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of up to 12 percent and at peak pulsed power levels of about 1.2 million watts. The relatively high average beam current in the accelerator places a heavy demand upon components in the RF systems. The 201-MHz modules have always required a large share of maintenance efforts. In recent years, the four 201.25 MHz modules have been responsible for more than twice as much accelerator down-time as have the forty-four 805 MHz modules. This paper reviews recent, ongoing, and planned improvements in the 201-MHz systems. The Burle Industries 7835 super power triode is used in the final power amplifiers of each of the 201-MHz modules. This tube has been modified for operation at LAMPF by the addition of Penning ion vacuum pumps.'' This has enabled more effective tube conditioning and restarting. A calorimetry system of high accuracy is in development to monitor tube plate-power dissipation.

Cliff, R.; Bush, E.D.; DeHaven, R.A.; Harris, H.W.; Parsons, M.

1991-01-01

426

ASME development of risk-based inspection guidelines for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A methodology has been developed for use in preparing guidelines for the in-service inspection of nuclear power plant pressure boundary and structural components. This methodology is a further development of a general methodology previously published by the task force for application to any industry. It is unique in that it utilizes probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information to improve the quantification of risks associated with component ruptures. A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Characteristics which an inspection strategy must possess in order to maintain target rupture probabilities are being determined by structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations. The major features of this methodology are described in this paper, and example applications are briefly discussed. Plans for additional work in developing and applying the methodology are described.

Gore, B.F.; Balkey, K.R.

1992-08-01

427

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

None,

1980-05-01

428

Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

Palac, Donald T.

2011-01-01

429

Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 2: System Concept Selection. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is presented. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. Systems design and systems optimization studies are conducted which consider plant size, annual capacity factors, and startup time as variables. Investigations are performed on the energy storage requirements and type of energy storage, concentrator design and field optimization, energy transport, and power conversion subsystems. The system utilizes a Rankine cycle, an axial flow steam turbine for power conversion, and heat transfer sodium for collector fluid.

Holl, R. J.

1979-01-01

430

Development of long life three phase uninterruptible power supply using flywheel energy storage unit  

SciTech Connect

According to development of computer applications, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are indispensable to the industrial field. But the cost for maintaining the conventional UPS is very high, because frequent replacement of parts which have short life time is necessary. This paper describes the research and development of a new UPS which has long life parts for maintenance free. To lengthen the life time, the following techniques are introduced: (1) a flywheel energy storage unit having more than 20 years life time; (2) electrolytic capacitor less inverter and converter. By using these techniques, a three phase UPS rating 5kVA, 200V is developed, and excellent performance is obtained: input power factor is over 99.7%; output voltage distortion is under 1.5%; transformer less UPS achieves light weight system; the UPS have function of automatic output voltage balance using auxiliary diode rectifier; input current harmonic distortion is less than 1.2%, even if the single phase load is connected.

Takahashi, Isao; Okita, Yoshihisa; Andoh, Itaru [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering

1995-12-31

431

Development of fragility descriptions of equipment for seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant for postulated hazard requires the development of fragility relationships for the plants' safety related equipment. The objective of this paper is to present some general results and conclusions concerning the development of these seismic fragility levels. Participation in fragility-related research and experience gained from the completion of several PRA studies of a variety of nuclear power plants have provided much insight as to the most vulnerable equipment and the most efficient use of resources for development of fragilities. Plants studied had seismic design bases ranging from very simple equivalent static analysis for some of the earlier plants to state-of-the-art complex multimode dyanamic analyses for plants currently under construction. Increased sophistication and rigor in seismic qualification of equipment has resulted for the most part in increased seismic resistance. The majority of equipment has been found, however, to possess more than adequate resistance to seismic loading regardless of the degree of sophistication utilized in design as long as seismic loading was included in the design process. This paper presents conclusions of the authors as to which items of equipment typically require an individual ''plant-specific'' fragility analysis and which can be treated in a generic fashion. In addition, general conclusions on the relative seismic capacity levels and most frequent failure modes are summarized for generic equipment groups.

Hardy, G.S.; Campbell, R.D.

1983-01-01

432

Development of an electrochemical antifouling system for seawater cooling pipelines of power plants using titanium.  

PubMed

Biofouling is the undesirable adhesion and development of microorganisms and macroorganisms in a water environment. An electrochemical antifouling system based on management of primary adhesion of microorganisms was developed employing titanium electrode for antifouling of seawater cooling pipes and marine infrastructures. The system consists of an electrochemical reaction-monitoring unit, a power control unit, and a potential/current remote monitoring and a control unit. Titanium plates and iron plates were used as the working and counter electrode, respectively. Field experiment was conducted in the seawater cooling pipeline system of a thermal power station. Four titanium electrodes with 1.0 m length and 3.0 m width were set in the seawater intake pit and current density was controlled at 50-100 mA/m(2). The electrode surface maintained clean conditions for 2 years. The average wet weight of fouling organisms on the titanium electrode surface was below 100 g/m(2) whereas the corresponding wet weight was above 10 kg/m(2) on the control surface. Using titanium as the electrode material, chlorine and hypochlorite are not generated. The developed electrochemical antifouling system provided an effective, environmentally friendly, and feasible techniques for remote operations. PMID:16752370

Wake, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Takimoto, Toshihiro; Takayanagi, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Kinichi; Kadoi, Hideo; Okochi, Mina; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-10-20

433

Developing and financing merchant power plants in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Limited recourse financing for merchant plants in some areas of the world such as Latin America has become almost commonplace in the recent past. Limited recourse project financing for merchant plants in the US, once almost unthinkable, has already been achieved with the frontier-breaking Calpine Pasadena project. While long-term power purchase agreements have historically provided comfort to lenders and developers alike, they are increasingly becoming a thing of the past as utilities are reluctant to lock themselves into a fixed price, which may turn out to exceed the prices available in the open market. So, it seems that the trends toward merchant plants in Latin America will soon take hold in the domestic market. With the market for limited recourse project financing still in the embryonic stage, and the strong likelihood that long-term power purchase agreements will not be available, it is clear that successful domestic projects will have to be well conceived, properly structured and capitalized to secure debt and equity funding commitments. This paper will focus on opportunities for developing merchant plants, the major risks present to developers and investors and the most appropriate strategies for structuring finance for a project.

Ryan, M.J.

1998-07-01

434

Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to design a pump for a trough solar power plant system, the intent is for the design to be extensible to a solar power tower application. This can be accomplished by adding pumping stages to increase the discharge pressure to the levels necessary for a solar power tower application. This report incorporates all available conceptual design information completed for this project in Phase I.

Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

2010-03-31

435

Development and field experience of digital protection and control equipment in power system  

SciTech Connect

In applying microelectronic techniques to protective and control equipment in the power system, there is an important subject to be solved, which is the assurerance of long-term reliability. From this viewpoint, countermeasures against environmental conditions, for example temperature rise, electro-magnetic interference and dust are reconsidered. As a further developed version of the field trial system which was tested from 1977 to 1980, a new multi-microprocessor-based digital protective relaying and automatic control system for distribution substations was completed. This system has be