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Sample records for microbial janitors tackle

  1. Even the Janitor Is White: Educating for Cultural Diversity in Small Colleges and Universities. Critical Education and Ethics. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. Gail, Ed.; Lanahan, Brian K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Even the Janitor Is White" addresses challenges faced by teacher educators who are committed to diversity education. The chapters in this volume invite readers to reflect on their own practice as teacher educators as well as consider ways in which that practice might be improved. More than forty percent of students in U.S. schools are of…

  2. India tackles lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Bagcchi, Sanjeet

    2015-04-01

    The Indian Government has instigated an ambitious plan to tackle this disabling disease with a combination of a high-profile campaign and mass drug administration. Sanjeet Bagcchi reports. PMID:25809895

  3. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. PMID:26498638

  4. Tackling antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Karen; Courvalin, Patrice; Dantas, Gautam; Davies, Julian; Eisenstein, Barry; Huovinen, Pentti; Jacoby, George A.; Kishony, Roy; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lerner, Stephen A.; Levy, Stuart; Lewis, Kim; Lomovskaya, Olga; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Projan, Steven; Thomas, Christopher M.; Tomasz, Alexander; Tulkens, Paul M.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Watson, James D.; Witkowski, Jan; Witte, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerry; Yeh, Pamela; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2014-01-01

    The development and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a universal threat to both humans and animals that is generally not preventable, but can nevertheless be controlled and must be tackled in the most effective ways possible. To explore how the problem of antibiotic resistance might best be addressed, a group of thirty scientists from academia and industry gathered at the Banbury Conference Centre in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, May 16-18, 2011. From these discussions emerged a priority list of steps that need to be taken to resolve this global crisis. PMID:22048738

  5. Health visitors tackle childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Vassie, Athena

    One of Public Health England's priorities is to tackle obesity, particularly in children. Health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support families of children at risk from obesity, but research shows they lack the training and confidence to do so. This article describes a short-term local scheme that offered support by a specially trained health visitor to families in their own homes. The health visitor was trained using a family partnership model that teaches how to work with parents and carers to help them implement their own solutions. PMID:26548260

  6. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  7. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  8. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  9. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  10. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  11. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  12. The Principal's Playbook: Tackling School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    "The Principal's Playbook: Tackling School Improvement" brings together the best thinking on successful schools and classrooms to help school administrators engage their faculty in discussion about effective school improvement strategies. Designed to support both school improvement efforts and professional development, each chapter includes…

  13. Tackling Noncommunicable Diseases in Africa: Caveat Lector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD), principally cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, constitutes the major cause of death worldwide. Evidence of a continuing increase in the global burden of these diseases has generated recent urgent calls for global action to tackle and reduce related death and disability. Because the…

  14. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  15. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  16. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  17. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  18. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  19. Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Manaia, Célia M; Merlin, Christophe; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Cytryn, Eddie; Walsh, Fiona; Bürgmann, Helmut; Sørum, Henning; Norström, Madelaine; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Huovinen, Pentti; Stefani, Stefania; Schwartz, Thomas; Kisand, Veljo; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:25817583

  20. Tackling obesity requires efficient government policies.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Changes in food supply and eating habits, combined with a dramatic fall in physical activity, have made obesity a global epidemic. Across OECD countries, one in two adults is currently overweight and one in six is obese. Children have not been spared, with up to one in three currently overweight. Obese people are more likely to develop diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and have a shorter life expectancy than people of normal weight. A prevention strategy combining health promotion campaigns, government regulation, counseling of individuals at risk in primary care, and paying special attention to the most vulnerable, would enhance population health at an affordable cost, with likely beneficial effects on health inequalities. Failure to implement such a strategy would impose heavy burdens on future generations. The new IJHPR paper by Ginsberg and Rosenberg illustrates how particular countries can assess alternative strategies for tackling obesity in a rigorous fashion.This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/17/ PMID:22913833

  1. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. PMID:12349742

  2. Tackling Structures of Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Irina V.; Hennelly, Scott P.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.

    2013-01-01

    RNAs are important catalytic machines and regulators at every level of gene expression. A new class of RNAs has emerged called long non-coding RNAs, providing new insights into evolution, development and disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) predominantly found in higher eukaryotes, have been implicated in the regulation of transcription factors, chromatin-remodeling, hormone receptors and many other processes. The structural versatility of RNA allows it to perform various functions, ranging from precise protein recognition to catalysis and metabolite sensing. While major housekeeping RNA molecules have long been the focus of structural studies, lncRNAs remain the least characterized class, both structurally and functionally. Here, we review common methodologies used to tackle RNA structure, emphasizing their potential application to lncRNAs. When considering the complexity of lncRNAs and lack of knowledge of their structure, chemical probing appears to be an indispensable tool, with few restrictions in terms of size, quantity and heterogeneity of the RNA molecule. Probing is not constrained to in vitro analysis and can be adapted to high-throughput sequencing platforms. Significant efforts have been applied to develop new in vivo chemical probing reagents, new library construction protocols for sequencing platforms and improved RNA prediction software based on the experimental evidence. PMID:24304541

  3. Tackling structures of long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Irina V; Hennelly, Scott P; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-01-01

    RNAs are important catalytic machines and regulators at every level of gene expression. A new class of RNAs has emerged called long non-coding RNAs, providing new insights into evolution, development and disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) predominantly found in higher eukaryotes, have been implicated in the regulation of transcription factors, chromatin-remodeling, hormone receptors and many other processes. The structural versatility of RNA allows it to perform various functions, ranging from precise protein recognition to catalysis and metabolite sensing. While major housekeeping RNA molecules have long been the focus of structural studies, lncRNAs remain the least characterized class, both structurally and functionally. Here, we review common methodologies used to tackle RNA structure, emphasizing their potential application to lncRNAs. When considering the complexity of lncRNAs and lack of knowledge of their structure, chemical probing appears to be an indispensable tool, with few restrictions in terms of size, quantity and heterogeneity of the RNA molecule. Probing is not constrained to in vitro analysis and can be adapted to high-throughput sequencing platforms. Significant efforts have been applied to develop new in vivo chemical probing reagents, new library construction protocols for sequencing platforms and improved RNA prediction software based on the experimental evidence. PMID:24304541

  4. Severe and Catastrophic Neck Injuries Resulting from Tackle Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torg, Joseph S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Use of the spring-loaded blocking and tackling devices should be discontinued due to severe neck injuries resulting from their use; employment of the head and helmet as the primary assault weapon in blocking, tackling, and head butting should be condemned for the same reason. (MJB)

  5. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  6. 84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE REFRIGERATOR ROOM IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-To-Control Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160833.html New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-to-Control Asthma Benralizumab ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new injectable drug reduces flare-ups in patients with ...

  8. Design smartness for tackling unanticipated loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Narayanan, V. T.; Natarajan, C.; Rajaraman, Arunachalam

    2003-10-01

    With present day scenario on enviornment and living, unanticipated loads from natural and man-made causes are on the rise, defying any rationality or scientific reasoning for anticipation. This aspect, coupled with the interest in creating slender and sleek structural systems, has assumed greater significance in designing structures with 'smartness' -- either in-built or externally activated or through evolution to a different configuration -- for tackling loads which do not get bracketed in conventional or limit state approaches. The definition of smartness under these circumstances can be termed as the ability to carry unanticipated loads over and above the designed one. Although the design methodology is confined within the boundaries of codal and functional requirements, a "buffer" needs to be built in the design so that an extra reserve is available over and above that prescribed by normal approach. This might seem misleading and here only the present day computing methods provide the turn-around by shifting the paradigm from "design-for-requirement" to "requirement-from-designs," an Object Oriented Approach. Thus the focus on present paper is on choosing from different designs to satisfy "buffer requirements" to bring in "smartness" in the design choice. Reinforced concrete section under bending is the emphasis to highlight this aspect, even though the concept is expandable. For a given span, and design/ultimate moment, sections are chosen to provide buffer and compared with conventional designs. Nonlinear behavior is modeled so that failure state is kept as the endpoint. From the studies it is observed that for a given span, moment -- either ultimate or design state -- and given strengths, number of "smart designs" with buffer indications can be generated to satisfy different criteria. This is illustrated with some examples for a typical span and given external moment, modeling either a bridge section or part of a frame member. It was also observed from the

  9. Metagenomic Pyrosequencing and Microbial Identification

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, Joseph F.; Highlander, Sarah; Luna, Ruth Ann; Gibbs, Richard A.; Versalovic, James

    2010-01-01

    Background The Human Microbiome Project has ushered in a new era for human metagenomics and high-throughput next generation sequencing strategies. Content This review will describe evolving strategies in metagenomics with a special emphasis on the core technology of DNA pyrosequencing. The challenges of microbial identification in the context of microbial populations are described. Summary Both 16S rDNA amplicon and whole genome sequencing approaches may be useful for human metagenomics, and numerous bio-informatics tools are being deployed to tackle such vast amounts of microbiological sequence diversity. Metagenomics or studies of microbial communities may ultimately contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of human health, disease susceptibilities, and the pathophysiology of infectious and immune-mediated diseases. PMID:19264858

  10. Using Invention to Change How Students Tackle Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jared L.; Smith, Karen M.; van Stolk, Adrian P.; Spiegelman, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Invention activities challenge students to tackle problems that superficially appear unrelated to the course material but illustrate underlying fundamental concepts that are fundamental to material that will be presented. During our invention activities in a first-year biology class, students were presented with problems that are parallel to those…

  11. Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

  12. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  13. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  14. Tackle and impact detection in elite Australian football using wearable microsensor technology.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P < 0.01). The tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms. PMID:24499311

  15. [Family Health Strategies to tackle violence involving adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected. PMID:27166906

  16. School bullying and tackling strategies in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis S W

    2004-10-01

    In view of the rising problem of school bullying in Hong Kong, scholars have endeavored to study the prevalence, causes, and tackling strategies of school bullying. This article highlights some typical incidences of school violence and reports research results of school bullying. It is noted unresolved school bullying problems are often a precursor of school violence and delinquency. Based on results from local studies of bullying, this article identifies risk and protective factors that contribute to the emergence and continuation of the bullyvictim problem in Hong Kong. The article argues that suppressive tactics, such as reprimanding bullies, calling parents to school, and suspension, are ineffective. Other than suppressive tactics, adopting a comprehensive antibullying strategy such as assisting students to develop adequate self-competency, strong social skills, and good relationships with parents and teachers seems to be a useful antiviolence strategy. PMID:15358929

  17. Tackling Drought Stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES Present New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alex; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Audenaert, Dominique; Beeckman, Tom; Broadley, Martin R.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Caño-Delgado, Ana I.; de Vries, Sacco; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Graham, Neil S.; Foulkes, John; Granier, Christine; Greb, Thomas; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Hammond, John P.; Heidstra, Renze; Hodgman, Charlie; Hothorn, Michael; Inzé, Dirk; Østergaard, Lars; Russinova, Eugenia; Simon, Rüdiger; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Stahl, Yvonne; Zipfel, Cyril; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with plant response to drought stress and we evaluate how research on RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES (RLKs) can contribute to improving plant performance under drought stress. RLKs are considered as key regulators of plant architecture and growth behavior, but they also function in defense and stress responses. The available literature and analyses of available transcript profiling data indeed suggest that RLKs can play an important role in optimizing plant responses to drought stress. In addition, RLK pathways are ideal targets for nontransgenic approaches, such as synthetic molecules, providing a novel strategy to manipulate their activity and supporting translational studies from model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, to economically useful crops. PMID:22693282

  18. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling.

    PubMed

    Budiman, Arif; Fanany, Mohamad Ivan; Basaruddin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM) by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM). It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER) and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect "underfitting" condition. PMID:27594879

  19. Cognition of an expert tackling an unfamiliar conceptual physics problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated and analyzed the cognition of an expert tackling a qualitative conceptual physics problem of an unfamiliar type. Our goal was to elucidate the detailed cognitive processes and knowledge elements involved, irrespective of final solution form, and consider implications for instruction. The basic but non-trivial problem was to find qualitatively the direction of acceleration of a pendulum bob at various stages of its motion, a problem originally studied by Reif and Allen. Methodology included interviews, introspection, retrospection and self-reported metacognition. Multiple facets of cognition were revealed, with different reasoning strategies used at different stages and for different points on the path. An account is given of the zigzag thinking paths and interplay of reasoning modes and schema elements involved. We interpret the cognitive processes in terms of theoretical concepts that emerged, namely: case-based, principle-based, experiential-intuitive and practical-heuristic reasoning; knowledge elements and schemata; activation; metacognition and epistemic framing. The complexity of cognition revealed in this case study contrasts with the tidy principle-based solutions we present to students. The pervasive role of schemata, case-based reasoning, practical heuristic strategies, and their interplay with physics principles is noteworthy, since these aspects of cognition are generally neither recognized nor taught. The schema/reasoning-mode perspective has direct application in science teaching, learning and problem-solving.

  20. Tackling obesity: new therapeutic agents for assisted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Karam, JG; McFarlane, SI

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic of overweight and obesity continues to rise in an alarming rate in western countries and around the globe representing a major public health challenge in desperate need for new strategies tackling obesity. In the United States nearly two thirds of the population is overweight or obese. Worldwide the number of persons who are overweight or obese exceeded 1.6 billion. These rising figures have been clearly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For example, in the Framingham study, the risk of death increases with each additional pound of weight gain even in the relatively younger population between 30 and 42 years of age. Overweight and obesity are also associated with increased co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease as well as certain types of cancer. In this review we discuss the epidemic of obesity, highlighting the pathophysiologic mechanisms of weight gain. We also provide an overview of the assessment of overweight and obese individuals discussing possible secondary causes of obesity. In a detailed section we discuss the currently approved therapeutic interventions for obesity highlighting their mechanisms of action and evidence of their efficacy and safety as provided in clinical trials. Finally, we discuss novel therapeutic interventions that are in various stages of development with a special section on the weight loss effects of anti-diabetic medications. These agents are particularly attractive options for our growing population of obese diabetic individuals. PMID:21437080

  1. Tackling Critical Catalytic Residues in Helicobacter pylori l-Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Maristella; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Valentini, Giovanna; Scotti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial asparaginases (amidohydrolases, EC 3.5.1.1) are important enzymes in cancer therapy, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. They are tetrameric enzymes able to catalyze the deamination of l-ASN and, to a variable extent, of l-GLN, on which leukemia cells are dependent for survival. In contrast to other known l-asparaginases, Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 type II enzyme (HpASNase) is cooperative and has a low affinity towards l-GLN. In this study, some critical amino acids forming the active site of HpASNase (T16, T95 and E289) have been tackled by rational engineering in the attempt to better define their role in catalysis and to achieve a deeper understanding of the peculiar cooperative behavior of this enzyme. Mutations T16E, T95D and T95H led to a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Mutation E289A dramatically reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but increased its thermostability. Interestingly, E289 belongs to a loop that is very variable in l-asparaginases from the structure, sequence and length point of view, and which could be a main determinant of their different catalytic features. PMID:25826146

  2. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling

    PubMed Central

    Basaruddin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM) by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM). It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER) and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect “underfitting” condition. PMID:27594879

  3. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, Scott P.; Creekmore, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Evers, D.C.; Duerr, A.E.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 through 1999, 2,240 individuals of 28 species of waterbirds were examined in the United States for ingested lead fishing weights. A combination of radiography and visual examination of stomachs was used to search for lead weights and blood and liver samples from live birds and carcasses, respectively, were collected for lead analysis. Ingested lead weights were found most frequently in the Common Loon (Gavia immer) (11 of 313 = 3.5%) and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) (10 of 365 = 2.7%), but also in one of 81 (1.2%) Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and one of 11 (9.1%) Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Birds with ingested lead fishing weights (including split shot, jig heads, and egg, bell, and pyramid sinkers) were found in California, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The size and mass of ingested lead weights ranged from split shot of 7 mm in the longest dimension, weighing less than 2 g, to a 22 ?? 39 mm pyramid sinker that weighed 78.2 g. Six ingested lead weights were more than 25.4 mm in the longest dimension. Lead concentrations in the blood and liver of birds with lead fishing weights in their stomachs ranged up to 13.9 ppm and 26.0 ppm (wet weight basis), respectively. During the study, we also noted the presence of ingested or entangled fishing tackle, with no associated lead weights, in eight species.

  4. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  5. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-05-15

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  6. Microbial interactions and community assembly at microscales.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Otto X; Datta, Manoshi S

    2016-06-01

    In most environments, microbial interactions take place within microscale cell aggregates. At the scale of these aggregates (∼100μm), interactions are likely to be the dominant driver of population structure and dynamics. In particular, organisms that exploit interspecific interactions to increase ecological performance often co-aggregate. Conversely, organisms that antagonize each other will tend to spatially segregate, creating distinct micro-communities and increased diversity at larger length scales. We argue that, in order to understand the role that biological interactions play in microbial community function, it is necessary to study microscale spatial organization with enough throughput to measure statistical associations between taxa and possible alternative community states. We conclude by proposing strategies to tackle this challenge. PMID:27232202

  7. 10. Transporter/erector with cables and block and tackle lowered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Transporter/erector with cables and block and tackle lowered - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Moose, Steve

    2011-04-25

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  9. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Moose, Steve

    2010-03-25

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. Microbial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  11. Microbial Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial metabolomics constitutes an integrated component of systems biology. By studying the complete set of metabolites within a microorganism and monitoring the global outcome of interactions between its development processes and the environment, metabolomics can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state of the cell. Recent advancement of technologies and post-genomic developments enable the study and analysis of metabolome. This unique contribution resulted in many scientific disciplines incorporating metabolomics as one of their “omics” platforms. This review focuses on metabolomics in microorganisms and utilizes selected topics to illustrate its impact on the understanding of systems microbiology. PMID:22379393

  12. Towards an Evidence-Based Approach to Tackling Health Inequalities: The English Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Amanda; Kelly, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This short paper considers the development of an evidence-based approach to tackling health inequalities. Inequalities in health in England at the beginning of the 21st century have widened and are stark. Despite overall improvements in death rates, the growing gap between social groups means that now some parts of England have the same levels of…

  13. Tackling Behaviour in Your Primary School: A Practical Handbook for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken; Morgan, Nicola S.

    2012-01-01

    "Tackling Behaviour in the Primary School" provides ready-made advice and support for classroom professionals and can be used, read and adapted to suit the busy everyday lives of teachers working in primary schools today. This valuable text sets the scene for managing behaviour in the primary classroom in the context of the Children Act 2004…

  14. 77 FR 10451 - Fishing Tackle Containing Lead; Disposition of Petition Filed Pursuant to TSCA Section 21

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., including those made of brass (59 FR 11122, March 9, 1994). EPA received ] comments from many states or... withdraw the proposal (70 FR 27625, May 16, 2005). Given limited resources and competing priorities, EPA... to discourage the use of fishing tackle containing lead, to raise awareness of lead poisoning...

  15. The Chennai Declaration: a roadmap to tackle the challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Ghafur, A; Mathai, D; Muruganathan, A; Jayalal, J A; Kant, R; Chaudhary, D; Prabhash, K; Abraham, O C; Gopalakrishnan, R; Ramasubramanian, V; Shah, S N; Pardeshi, R; Huilgol, A; Kapil, A; Gill, Jps; Singh, S; Rissam, H S; Todi, S; Hegde, B M; Parikh, P

    2013-01-01

    "A Roadmap to Tackle the Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance - A Joint meeting of Medical Societies in India" was organized as a pre-conference symposium of the 2 nd annual conference of the Clinical Infectious Disease Society (CIDSCON 2012) at Chennai on 24 th August. This was the first ever meeting of medical societies in India on issue of tackling resistance, with a plan to formulate a road map to tackle the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance from the Indian perspective. We had representatives from most medical societies in India, eminent policy makers from both central and state governments, representatives of World Health Organization, National Accreditation Board of Hospitals, Medical Council of India, Drug Controller General of India, and Indian Council of Medical Research along with well-known dignitaries in the Indian medical field. The meeting was attended by a large gathering of health care professionals. The meeting consisted of plenary and interactive discussion sessions designed to seek experience and views from a large range of health care professionals and included six international experts who shared action plans in their respective regions. The intention was to gain a broad consensus and range of opinions to guide formation of the road map. The ethos of the meeting was very much not to look back but rather to look forward and make joint efforts to tackle the menace of antibiotic resistance. The Chennai Declaration will be submitted to all stake holders. PMID:23713050

  16. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  17. Are Elementary School Teachers Prepared to Tackle Bullying? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Beau; Bosman, Rie; Veenstra, René

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate to what extent elementary school teachers were prepared to tackle bullying. Interview data from 22 Dutch elementary school teachers (M[subscript age]?=?43.3, 18 classrooms in eight schools) were combined with survey data from 373 students of these teachers (M age?=?10.7, grades 3-6, ages 8- to…

  18. Improving Psychosexual Knowledge in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Pilot of the Tackling Teenage Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; van der Vegt, Esther J.; Visser, Kirsten; Tick, Nouchka; Boudesteijn, Frieda; Verhulst, Frank C.; Maras, Athanasios; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that psychosexual functioning in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hampered and emphasize the need for a specialized training program tailored to their needs. Therefore, an individual training program was developed; the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program. The current pilot study systematically…

  19. Microbial responses to southward and northward Cambisol soil transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-26

    We report that soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate changes. Recently, we have shown that southward transplant of black soil and northward transplant of red soil altered soil microbial communities and biogeochemical variables. However, fundamental differences in soil types have prevented direct comparison between southward and northward transplants. To tackle it, herein we report an analysis of microbial communities of Cambisol soil in an agriculture field after 4 years of adaptation to southward and northward soil transplants over large transects. Analysis of bare fallow soils revealed concurrent increase in microbial functional diversity and coarse-scale taxonomic diversity at both transplanted sites, as detected by GeoChip 3.0 and DGGE, respectively. Furthermore, a correlation between microbial functional diversity and taxonomic diversity was detected, which was masked in maize cropped soils. Mean annual temperature, soil moisture, and nitrate (NO3¯-N) showed strong correlations with microbial communities. In addition, abundances of ammonium-oxidizing genes (amoA) and denitrification genes were correlated with nitrification capacity and NO3¯-N contents, suggesting that microbial responses to soil transplant could alter microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycle at the ecosystem level.

  20. Microbial responses to southward and northward Cambisol soil transplant

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-26

    We report that soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate changes. Recently, we have shown that southward transplant of black soil and northward transplant of red soil altered soil microbial communities and biogeochemical variables. However, fundamental differences in soil types have prevented direct comparison between southward and northward transplants. To tackle it, herein we report an analysis of microbial communities of Cambisol soil in an agriculture field after 4 years of adaptation to southward and northward soil transplants over large transects. Analysis of bare fallow soils revealed concurrent increase in microbial functional diversity and coarse-scale taxonomic diversity atmore » both transplanted sites, as detected by GeoChip 3.0 and DGGE, respectively. Furthermore, a correlation between microbial functional diversity and taxonomic diversity was detected, which was masked in maize cropped soils. Mean annual temperature, soil moisture, and nitrate (NO3¯-N) showed strong correlations with microbial communities. In addition, abundances of ammonium-oxidizing genes (amoA) and denitrification genes were correlated with nitrification capacity and NO3¯-N contents, suggesting that microbial responses to soil transplant could alter microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycle at the ecosystem level.« less

  1. Microbial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

  2. Tackling Underperformance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Principal of the Year Mel Riddile, a former University of North Carolina football linebacker and principal of J. E. B. Stuart High school in Fairfax County, Virginia. Riddile was recently named the national high school principal of the year by the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) and MetLife.…

  3. Tackling Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document is designed to help British training and enterprise councils (TECs) and further education (FE) colleges develop and implement strategies for achieving the National Targets for Education and Training (NTET), which were developed by the Confederation of British Industry in 1992 and endorsed by the British government. The findings from…

  4. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting. PMID:26843697

  5. Microbial mineral recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.; Brierly, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the scientific basis for using microbial biomass to remove metals from solution. Reports on current and potential microbial technology, including bioleaching of ores, bio-benefication of ores and fossil fuels, metal recovery from solution, and microbial EOR. Examines how microorganisms used in these technologies might improve through genetic engineering.

  6. Role of Public-Private Partnerships in Tackling the Tobacco and Obesity Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alicia Richmond; McMahon, Catherine; Teel, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    In response to the illness and death caused by preventable chronic diseases, the US Department of Health and Human Services created Communities Putting Prevention to Work to support community efforts in tackling tobacco use and obesity through policy, systems, and environmental change. As part of this program, 10 national nonprofit organizations with prevention expertise were funded and matched with specific community objectives. Most tobacco and obesity-related matched objectives were successfully accomplished by communities. Public–private partnerships should be considered when addressing chronic disease prevention. PMID:24921902

  7. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  8. Why Microbial Communities?

    ScienceCinema

    Fredrickson, Jim (PNNL)

    2012-02-29

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Fredrickson introduces the symposium by defining microbial communities and describing their scientific relevance as they relate to solving problems in energy, climate, and sustainability.

  9. Social and health policies or interventions to tackle health inequalities in European cities: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health inequalities can be tackled with appropriate health and social policies, involving all community groups and governments, from local to global. The objective of this study was to carry out a scoping review on social and health policies or interventions to tackle health inequalities in European cities published in scientific journals. Methods Scoping review. The search was done in “PubMed” and the “Sociological Abstracts” database and was limited to articles published between 1995 and 2011. The inclusion criteria were: interventions had to take place in European cities and they had to state the reduction of health inequalities among their objectives. Results A total of 54 papers were included, of which 35.2% used an experimental design, and 74.1% were carried out in the United Kingdom. The whole city was the setting in 27.8% of them and 44.4% were based on promoting healthy behaviours. Adults and children were the most frequent target population and half of the interventions had a universal approach and the other half a selective one. Half of the interventions were evaluated and showed positive results. Conclusions Although health behaviours are not the main determinants of health inequalities, the majority of the selected documents were based on evaluations of interventions focusing on them. PMID:24564851

  10. Biofilms: A microbial home

    PubMed Central

    Chandki, Rita; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are mainly implicated in etiopathogenesis of caries and periodontal disease. Owing to its properties, these pose great challenges. Continuous and regular disruption of these biofilms is imperative for prevention and management of oral diseases. This essay provides a detailed insight into properties, mechanisms of etiopathogenesis, detection and removal of these microbial biofilms. PMID:21976832

  11. Inflight microbial analysis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Brown, Harlan D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of functional characteristics needed in the microbial water analysis system being developed for Space Station. Available technology is reviewed with respect to performing microbial monitoring, isolation, or identification functions. An integrated system composed of three different technologies is presented.

  12. Microbial surface thermodynamics and applications.

    PubMed

    Strevett, Keith A; Chen, Gang

    2003-06-01

    Microbial surface thermodynamics is the reflection of microbial physicochemical and biological characteristics and it bridges micro-scale structures with macro-scale biological functions. Microbial surface thermodynamics is theoretically based on colloid surface thermodynamics using the classical theory of colloidal stability, Derjauin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. An extended DLVO theory is applied to for the hydration forces not considered in the classical DLVO theory. Herein, a review of current application of microbial surface thermodynamic theory is presented. Microbial surface thermodynamic theory is the fundamental theory in interpreting microbial hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, microbial attachment, and microbial biofilm development. PMID:12837508

  13. Synthetic microbial communities☆

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2014-01-01

    While natural microbial communities are composed of a mix of microbes with often unknown functions, the construction of synthetic microbial communities allows for the generation of defined systems with reduced complexity. Used in a top-down approach, synthetic communities serve as model systems to ask questions about the performance and stability of microbial communities. In a second, bottom-up approach, synthetic microbial communities are used to study which conditions are necessary to generate interaction patterns like symbiosis or competition, and how higher order community structure can emerge from these. Besides their obvious value as model systems to understand the structure, function and evolution of microbial communities as complex dynamical systems, synthetic communities can also open up new avenues for biotechnological applications. PMID:24632350

  14. The hospital microbiome project: meeting report for the UK science and innovation network UK-USA workshop ‘beating the superbugs: hospital microbiome studies for tackling antimicrobial resistance’, October 14th 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The UK Science and Innovation Network UK-USA workshop ‘Beating the Superbugs: Hospital Microbiome Studies for tackling Antimicrobial Resistance’ was held on October 14th 2013 at the UK Department of Health, London. The workshop was designed to promote US-UK collaboration on hospital microbiome studies to add a new facet to our collective understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The assembled researchers debated the importance of the hospital microbial community in transmission of disease and as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes, and discussed methodologies, hypotheses, and priorities. A number of complementary approaches were explored, although the importance of the built environment microbiome in disease transmission was not universally accepted. Current whole genome epidemiological methods are being pioneered in the UK and the benefits of moving to community analysis are not necessarily obvious to the pioneers; however, rapid progress in other areas of microbiology suggest to some researchers that hospital microbiome studies will be exceptionally fruitful even in the short term. Collaborative studies will recombine different strengths to tackle the international problems of antimicrobial resistance and hospital and healthcare associated infections.

  15. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    SciTech Connect

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  16. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  17. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  18. Redesigning primary care to tackle the global epidemic of noncommunicable disease.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Nigenda, Gustavo; Knaul, Felicia M

    2015-03-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to death and disability worldwide. Nearly 80% of the deaths in 2010 occurred in low- and middle-income countries, which have experienced rapid population aging, urbanization, rise in smoking, and changes in diet and activity. Yet the health systems of low- and middle-income countries, historically oriented to infectious disease and often severely underfunded, are poorly prepared for the challenge of caring for people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease. We have discussed how primary care can be redesigned to tackle the challenge of NCDs in resource-constrained countries. We suggest that four changes will be required: integration of services, innovative service delivery, a focus on patients and communities, and adoption of new technologies for communication. PMID:25602898

  19. Emerging nutrition challenges: policies to tackle under-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Denise Costa; Rivera, Juan A; Uauy, Ricardo; Ding, Zong-Yi; Ruel, Marie T; Svensson, Per-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    On 19 May, 2008, Mexico's Secretary of Health, Dr José Angel Córdova Villalobos, hosted an event entitled Emerging Nutrition Challenges: Policies to Tackle Under-nutrition, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Held in conjunction with the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, nearly 100 delegates from over 30 countries attended. The International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers and the International Hospital Federation supported Mexico in its sponsorship of this event. Dr Villalobos provided opening remarks including an overview of Mexico's public policies to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Dr. Mauricio Hernández, Mexico's Undersecretary of Health, moderated as six experts from around the world spoke on issues relating to the nutrition "double burden" (i.e. malnourishment and obesity), successful interventions and policy opportunities for improving nutrition, preventing obesity and enhancing health outcomes. Following are abstracts from their presentations. PMID:19181025

  20. Quantitative nanoscopy: Tackling sampling limitations in (S)TEM imaging of polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Snel, Roderick; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Sampling limitations in electron microscopy questions whether the analysis of a bulk material is representative, especially while analyzing hierarchical morphologies that extend over multiple length scales. We tackled this problem by automatically acquiring a large series of partially overlapping (S)TEM images with sufficient resolution, subsequently stitched together to generate a large-area map using an in-house developed acquisition toolbox (TU/e Acquisition ToolBox) and stitching module (TU/e Stitcher). In addition, we show that quantitative image analysis of the large scale maps provides representative information that can be related to the synthesis and process conditions of hierarchical materials, which moves electron microscopy analysis towards becoming a bulk characterization tool. We demonstrate the power of such an analysis by examining two different multi-phase materials that are structured over multiple length scales. PMID:26492325

  1. Applying the emergency risk management process to tackle the crisis of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Bajorek, Beata; Michael, Carolyn A.; Betteridge, Brittany; Iredell, Jonathan; Labbate, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We advocate that antibiotic resistance be reframed as a disaster risk management problem. Antibiotic-resistant infections represent a risk to life as significant as other commonly occurring natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes). Despite efforts by global health authorities, antibiotic resistance continues to escalate. Therefore, new approaches and expertise are needed to manage the issue. In this perspective we: (1) make a call for the emergency management community to recognize the antibiotic resistance risk and join in addressing this problem; (2) suggest using the risk management process to help tackle antibiotic resistance; (3) show why this approach has value and why it is different to existing approaches; and (4) identify public perception of antibiotic resistance as an important issue that warrants exploration. PMID:26388864

  2. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  3. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  4. Control of microbial contamination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdade, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Two specific applications are discussed of microbial contamination control in planetary quarantine. Under the first concept, using the clean room to control environmental microorganisms, the objective is to reduce the microbial species and keep the numbers of microorganisms within an enclosure at a low level. The clean room concept is aimed at obtaining a product that has a controlled and reduced level of microbial contamination. Under the second concept, using the microbiological barrier to control microbial contamination of a specific product, the barrier techniques are designed to prevent the entry of any microorganisms into a sterile work area. Thus the assembly of space flight hardware within the confines of a microbiological barrier is aimed at obtaining a sterile product. In theory and practice, both approaches are shown to be applicable to the planetary quarantine program.

  5. Microbial safety in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooneman, Janneke; Harmsen, Hermie; Landini, Paolo; Zinn, Manfred; Munaut, Françoise; van der Meer, Walter; Beimfohr, Claudia; Reichert, Bas; Preuß, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Microbial hygiene is important in our daily lives; preventing and combating microbial infections is increasingly important in society. In hospitals, strict monitoring and control is exercised for people and infrastructure alike. In modern buildings, air-conditioning system are screened for harmful bacteria such as Legionella. More recently, concerns about SARS (virus) and anthrax (bacteria) have added pressure on the scientific community to come up with adequate monitoring and control techniques to assure microbial hygiene. Additionally, the use of biotechnological recycling and cleaning processes for sustainability brings the need for reliable monitoring tools and preventive or riks-reducing strategies. In the manned space environment, similar problems need to be solved and efforts have already been made to study the behaviour of micro-organisms and microbial hygiene onboard space stations.

  6. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  7. Microbial dysbiosis in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Sameera G.; Raveendran, Ranjith

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a biofilm-associated inflammatory disease of the periodontium. This disease appears to have multiple etiologies with microbial factor contributing to initiation of the disease and immunological factor of the host propagating the disease. This review is on the concept of “microbial dysbiosis” and molecular nature of periodontitis, and the scope of traditional and emerging technologies for treating this disease. PMID:24174742

  8. Ocean microbial metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  9. Systems-based approaches to unravel multi-species microbial community functioning

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most transformative discoveries promising to enable the resolution of this century's grand societal challenges will most likely arise from environmental science and particularly environmental microbiology and biotechnology. Understanding how microbes interact in situ, and how microbial communities respond to environmental changes remains an enormous challenge for science. Systems biology offers a powerful experimental strategy to tackle the exciting task of deciphering microbial interactions. In this framework, entire microbial communities are considered as metaorganisms and each level of biological information (DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites) is investigated along with in situ environmental characteristics. In this way, systems biology can help unravel the interactions between the different parts of an ecosystem ultimately responsible for its emergent properties. Indeed each level of biological information provides a different level of characterisation of the microbial communities. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, metabolomics and SIP-omics can be employed to investigate collectively microbial community structure, potential, function, activity and interactions. Omics approaches are enabled by high-throughput 21st century technologies and this review will discuss how their implementation has revolutionised our understanding of microbial communities. PMID:25750697

  10. Microbial Fuel Cells and Microbial Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P

    2015-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells and microbial electrolyzers represent an upcoming technology for production of electricity and hydrogen using a hybrid electrocatalytic-biocatalytic approach. The combined catalytic efficiency of these processes has potential to make this technology highly efficient among the various renewable energy production alternatives. This field has attracted electrochemists, biologists and many other disciplines due to its potential to contribute to the energy, water and environment sectors. A brief introduction to the technology is provided followed by current research needs from a bioelectrochemical perspective. Insights into the operation and limitations of these systems achieved via cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy are discussed along with the power management needs to develop the application aspects. Besides energy production, other potential applications in bioenergy, bioelectronics, chemical production and remediation are also highlighted.

  11. Transgressive Local Act: Tackling Domestic Violence with Forum and Popular Theatre in "Sisterhood Bound as Yuan Ze Flowers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a community theatre project in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan that aimed to tackle domestic violence through a collaboration between local community female elders and the facilitator. The paper investigates how an outside facilitator could unfix the assumed community identities which tend to exclude outsiders or sub-groups, in this…

  12. Project T.A.C.K.L.E. (Together, Addressing the Challenges of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees). Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI.

    Project TACKLE (Together, Addressing the Challenge of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees) was a cooperative project, jointly developed to address employees with the inadequate basic skills necessary to operate modernized, technical equipment and maintain job security. Approximately 500 current employees of General Motors, Flint, Michigan, used…

  13. Can Smoking Cessation Services Be Better Targeted to Tackle Health Inequalities? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how smoking cessation services could be more effectively targeted to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a household interview survey undertaken for Middlesbrough Council in north east England using the technique of Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Setting: Home-based…

  14. Caught in the (Education) Act: Tackling Michael Gove's Education Revolution. Report on 19th November 2011 Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A number of significant campaigning organisations and education trades unions--the Anti-Academies Alliance, CASE, Comprehensive Future, Forum, ISCG and the Socialist Educational Association, along with ASCL, ATL, NASUWT and NUT--staged a conference in London on 19 November 2011, with the title 'Caught in the (Education) Act: tackling Michael…

  15. Microbial indicators of soil quality

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, R.F.; Kennedy, A.C.; Jawson, M.

    1992-01-01

    Soil quality is an elusive term; however, the quality of a soil can greatly impact land use, sustainability, and productivity. Soil microbial processes are an integral part of soil quality and a better understanding of these processes and microbial community structure is needed. Microbial biomass, respiration, and labile nutrient pool size have generally been used as intrinsic parameters of a soil's microbial status. These analyses may not fully identify inherent differences in soil quality, especially if environmental conditions or manmade pertubations alter microbial community structure. Assessment of microbial community structure is necessary to determine the long-term effects of stress on soil quality. Measurement of microbial diversity should include nucleic acid and fatty acid phospholipid profiles as well as substrate utilization patterns. Microbial indicators will allow us to characterize the ecological status of the soil microbial community. For soil quality indicators to be successful, integration with other soil parameters is essential.

  16. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  17. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity 1

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. PMID:27533268

  18. Tackling the urban health divide though enabling intersectoral action on malnutrition in Chile and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Lang'o, Daniel; McCowan, Tristan; Charnes, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    As momentum grows for a sustainable urbanisation goal in the post-2015 development agenda, this paper reports on an action research study that sought to tackle the urban health divide by enabling intersectoral action on social determinants at the local level. The study was located in the cities of Mombasa in Kenya and Valparaíso in Chile, and the impact of the intervention on child nutrition was evaluated using a controlled design. The findings showed that an action research process using the social educational process known as PLA could effectively build the capacity of multisectoral teams to take coordinated action which in turn built the capacity of communities to sustain them. The impact on child nutrition was inconclusive and needed to be interpreted within the context of economic collapse in the intervention area. Four factors were found to have been crucial for creating the enabling environment for effective intersectoral action (i) supportive government policy (ii) broad participation and capacity building (iii) involving policy makers as advisors and establishing the credibility of the research and (iii) strengthening community action. If lessons learned from this study can be adapted and applied in other contexts then they could have a significant economic and societal impact on health and nutrition equity in informal urban settlements. PMID:25758598

  19. On Tackling Flash Crowds with URL Shorteners and Examining User Behavior after Great East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeru; Minato, Shin-Ichi

    Several web sites providing disaster-related information failed repeatedly after the Great East Japan Earthquake, due to flash crowds caused by Twitter users. Twitter, which was intensively used for information sharing in the aftermath of the earthquake, relies on URL shorteners like bit.ly to offset its strict limit on message length. In order to mitigate the flash crowds, we examine the current Web usage and find that URL shorteners constitute a layer of indirection a significant part of Web traffic is guided by them. This implies that flash crowds can be controlled by URL shorteners. We developed a new URL shortener, named rcdn.info, just after the earthquake; rcdn.info redirects users to a replica created on a CoralCDN, if the original site is likely to become overloaded. This surprisingly simple solution worked very well in the emergency. We also conduct a thorough analysis of the request log and present several views that capture user behavior in the emergency from various aspects. Interestingly, the traffic significantly grew up at previously unpopular (i.e., small) sites during the disaster; this traffic shift could lead to the failure of several sites. Finally, we show that rcdn.info has great potential in mitigating such failures. We believe that our experience will help the research community tackle future disasters.

  20. Tackling the wider social determinants of health and health inequalities: evidence from systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, M; Sowden, A; Wright, K; Whitehead, M; Petticrew, M

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing pressure to tackle the wider social determinants of health through the implementation of appropriate interventions. However, turning these demands for better evidence about interventions around the social determinants of health into action requires identifying what we already know and highlighting areas for further development. Methods Systematic review methodology was used to identify systematic reviews (from 2000 to 2007, developed countries only) that described the health effects of any intervention based on the wider social determinants of health: water and sanitation, agriculture and food, access to health and social care services, unemployment and welfare, working conditions, housing and living environment, education, and transport. Results Thirty systematic reviews were identified. Generally, the effects of interventions on health inequalities were unclear. However, there is suggestive systematic review evidence that certain categories of intervention may impact positively on inequalities or on the health of specific disadvantaged groups, particularly interventions in the fields of housing and the work environment. Conclusion Intervention studies that address inequalities in health are a priority area for future public health research. PMID:19692738

  1. The relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate ('self'-directed) complement activation.

    PubMed

    Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Kyeremeh, Ransford; Adjei, Jonathan Kofi; Aryeh, Claudia; Kpentey, George

    2016-12-01

    The complement system is an enzyme cascade that helps defend against infection. Many complement proteins occur in serum as inactive enzyme precursors or reside on cell surfaces. Complement components have many biologic functions and their activation can eventually damage the plasma membranes of cells and some bacteria. Although a direct link between complement activation and autoimmune diseases has not been found, there is increasing evidence that complement activation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of a large number of inflammatory diseases that may have autoimmune linkage. The inhibition of complement may therefore be very important in a variety of autoimmune diseases since their activation may be detrimental to the individual involved. However, a complete and long-term inhibition of complement may have some contra side effects such as increased susceptibility to infection. The site of complement activation will, however, determine the type of inhibitor to be used, its route of application and dosage level. Compared with conventional drugs, complement inhibitors may be the best option for treatment of autoimmune diseases. The review takes a critical look at the relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate complement activation that are likely to result in sporadic autoimmune diseases or worsen already existing one. It covers the complement system, general aspects of complement inhibition therapy, therapeutic strategies and examples of complement inhibitors. It concludes by highlighting on the possibility that a better inhibitor of complement activation when found will help provide a formidable treatment for autoimmune diseases as well as preventing one. PMID:26935316

  2. Public health nutrition in the civil service (England): approaches to tackling obesity.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, J R

    2016-08-01

    The seriousness and scale of the physical, psychological, economic and societal consequences relating to poor diets, inactivity and obesity is unprecedented. Consequently, the contextual factors underpinning the work of a nutritionist in the civil service are complex and significant; however, there are real opportunities to make a difference and help improve the health of the nation. The present paper describes the delivery of public health nutrition through two work programmes, namely action to support young people develop healthier lifestyle choices and more recently the investigation and deployment of local insights to develop action to tackle obesity. Combining the application of nutrition expertise along with broader skills and approaches has enabled the translation of research and evidence into programmes of work to better the public's health. It is evident that the appropriate evaluation of such approaches has helped to deliver engaging and practical learning opportunities for young people. Furthermore, efforts to build on local intelligence and seek collaborative development can help inform the evidence base and seek to deliver public health approaches, which resonate with how people live their lives. PMID:26947185

  3. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Sisule F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

  4. Engineering and control of biological systems: A new way to tackle complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Menolascina, Filippo; Siciliano, Velia; di Bernardo, Diego

    2012-07-16

    The ongoing merge between engineering and biology has contributed to the emerging field of synthetic biology. The defining features of this new discipline are abstraction and standardisation of biological parts, decoupling between parts to prevent undesired cross-talking, and the application of quantitative modelling of synthetic genetic circuits in order to guide their design. Most of the efforts in the field of synthetic biology in the last decade have been devoted to the design and development of functional gene circuits in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Researchers have used synthetic biology not only to engineer new functions in the cell, but also to build simpler models of endogenous gene regulatory networks to gain knowledge of the "rules" governing their wiring diagram. However, the need for innovative approaches to study and modify complex signalling and regulatory networks in mammalian cells and multicellular organisms has prompted advances of synthetic biology also in these species, thus contributing to develop innovative ways to tackle human diseases. In this work, we will review the latest progress in synthetic biology and the most significant developments achieved so far, both in unicellular and multicellular organisms, with emphasis on human health. PMID:22580058

  5. Microbial bioinformatics 2020.

    PubMed

    Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! PMID:27471065

  6. Microbial Scout Hypothesis and Microbial Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, S.; Spoering, A.; Gavrish, E.; Leslin, C.; Ling, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the temporal pattern of colony appearance during cultivation experiments, and whether this pattern could inform on optimizing the process of microbial discovery. In a series of long-term cultivation experiments, we observed an expected gradual increase over time of the total number of microbial isolates, culminating in a 700-fold colony count increase at 18 months. Conventional thought suggests that long-term incubations result in a culture collection enriched with species that are slow growing or rare, may be unavailable from short-term experiments, and likely are novel. However, after we examined the phylogenetic novelty of the isolates as a function of the time of their isolation, we found no correlation between the two. The probability of discovering either a new or rare species late in the incubation matched that of species isolated earlier. These outcomes are especially notable because of their generality: observations were essentially identical for marine and soil bacteria as well as for spore formers and non-spore formers. These findings are consistent with the idea of the stochastic awakening of dormant cells, thus lending support to the scout model. The process of microbial discovery is central to the study of environmental microorganisms and the human microbiome. While long-term incubation does not appear to increase the probability of discovering novel species, the technology enabling such incubations, i.e., single-cell cultivation, may still be the method of choice. While it does not necessarily allow more species to grow from a given inoculum, it minimizes the overall isolation effort and supplies needed. PMID:22367084

  7. The Microbial Olympics.

    PubMed

    Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest; Stacy, Apollo; Whiteley, Marvin; Steel, Bradley C; Delalez, Nicolas J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M; Armitage, Judith P; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia; Diggle, Stephen P; Gurney, James; Pollitt, Eric J G; Boetius, Antje; Cary, S Craig

    2012-08-01

    Every four years, the Olympic Games plays host to competitors who have built on their natural talent by training for many years to become the best in their chosen discipline. Similar spirit and endeavour can be found throughout the microbial world, in which every day is a competition to survive and thrive. Microorganisms are trained through evolution to become the fittest and the best adapted to a particular environmental niche or lifestyle, and to innovate when the 'rules of the game' are changed by alterations to their natural habitats. In this Essay, we honour the best competitors in the microbial world by inviting them to take part in the inaugural Microbial Olympics. PMID:22796885

  8. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  9. Microbial Control News - November 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first of a column in the Society for Invertebrate Pathology Newsletter. Entitled "Microbial Control News" this article summarizes regulatory actions in the U.S. and Canada regarding microbial insect pest control agents....

  10. Challenges in process marginality for advanced technology nodes and tackling its contributors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Samy, Aravind; Schiwon, Roberto; Seltmann, Rolf; Kahlenberg, Frank; Katakamsetty, Ushasree

    2013-10-01

    Process margin is getting critical in the present node shrinkage scenario due to the physical limits reached (Rayleigh's criterion) using ArF lithography tools. K1 is used to its best for better resolution and to enhance the process margin (28nm metal patterning k1=0.31). In this paper, we would like to give an overview of various contributors in the advanced technology nodes which limit the process margins and how the challenges have been tackled in a modern foundry model. Advanced OPC algorithms are used to make the design content at the mask optimum for patterning. However, as we work at the physical limit, critical features (Hot-spots) are very susceptible to litho process variations. Furthermore, etch can have a significant impact as well. Pattern that still looks healthy at litho can fail due to etch interactions. This makes the traditional 2D contour output from ORC tools not able to predict accurately all defects and hence not able to fully correct it in the early mask tapeout phase. The above makes a huge difference in the fast ramp-up and high yield in a competitive foundry market. We will explain in this paper how the early introduction of 3D resist model based simulation of resist profiles (resist top-loss, bottom bridging, top-rounding, etc.,) helped in our prediction and correction of hot-spots in the early 28nm process development phase. The paper also discusses about the other overall process window reduction contributors due to mask 3D effects, wafer topography (focus shifts/variations) and how this has been addressed with different simulation efforts in a fast and timely manner.

  11. Tackling community integration in mental health home visit integration in Finland.

    PubMed

    Raitakari, Suvi; Haahtela, Riikka; Juhila, Kirsi

    2016-09-01

    Integration - and its synonym inclusion - is emphasised in the western welfare states and in the European Union in particular. Integration is also a central topic in the social sciences and in current mental health and homelessness research and practice. As mental healthcare has shifted from psychiatric hospitals to the community, it has inevitably become involved with housing and integration issues. This article explores how community integration is understood and tackled in mental health floating support services (FSSs) and, more precisely, in service user-practitioner home visit interaction. The aim, through shedding light on how the idea of integration is present and discussed in front-line mental health practices, is to offer a 'template' on how we might, in a systematic and reflective way, develop community integration research and practice. The analysis is based on ethnomethodological and micro-sociological interaction research. The research settings are two FSSs located in a large Finnish city. The data contain 24 audio-recorded and transcribed home visits conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 16 different service users. The study shows how the participants in service user-practitioner interaction give meaning to community integration and make decisions about how it should (or should not) be enhanced in each individual case. This activity is called community integration work in action. Community integration work in action is based on various dimensions of integration: getting out of the house, participating in group activities and getting along with those involved in one's life and working life. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates how community integration work is accomplished by discursive devices (resistance, positioning, excuses and justifications, delicacy and advice-giving). The article concludes that community integration is about interaction: it is not only service users' individual challenge but also a social challenge, our challenge. PMID:25950446

  12. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  13. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  15. Microbial Endophytes of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing recognition is being given to the impact of microbial population dynamics on the general health of biological systems. Building on previous mycological and bacteriological research on agricultural commodities, more advanced technology is expanding our understanding of the “endophytic habi...

  16. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The growth of microorganisms in a sample is detected and monitored by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium and detecting a change in potential between two electrodes, separated from the microbial growth by a barrier which is permeable to charged paticles but microorganism impermeable.

  17. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  19. Mapping Microbial Biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Daphne Lisabet; Micah C. Geary; White, Luke James; Lee, Randy Dean; Brizzee, Julie Ann; Rodman, A. C.; Rope, Ronald C

    2001-09-01

    We report the development of a prototype database that "maps" microbial diversity in the context of the geochemical and geological environment and geographic location. When it is fully implemented, scientists will be able to conduct database searches, construct maps containing the information of interest, download files, and enter data over the Internet.

  20. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  1. Introduction to Microbial Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insect specific pathogens have been exploited as microbial control agents for the management of pest insects. Successes have been reported for a few insect pathogens as classical biological control agents, but they are mostly used as inundatively appled biopesticides. A number of them have be...

  2. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  3. A Microbial Murder Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

  4. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  5. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  6. Tackling the threat of antimicrobial resistance: from policy to sustainable action.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Laura J; Howard, Simon J; Fowler, Tom; Davies, Sally C

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics underpin all of modern medicine, from routine major surgery through to caesarean sections and modern cancer therapies. These drugs have revolutionized how we practice medicine, but we are in a constant evolutionary battle to evade microbial resistance and this has become a major global public health problem. We have overused and misused these essential medicines both in the human and animal health sectors and this threatens the effectiveness of antimicrobials for future generations. We can only address the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through international collaboration across human and animal health sectors integrating social, economic and behavioural factors. Our global organizations are rising to the challenge with the recent World Health Assembly resolution on AMR and development of the Global Action plan but we must act now to avoid a return to a pre-antibiotic era. PMID:25918440

  7. Tackling rare diseases at European level: why do we need a harmonized framework?

    PubMed

    Taruscio, Domenica; Trama, Annalisa; Stefanov, Rumen

    2007-01-01

    Since 1999 the European Commission has gradually developed a proactive approach towards rare diseases (RD). Despite the progress made over the last years, a comprehensive and evidence based approach is still missing in many EU Member States (MS), leading to an incomplete and often inadequate framework to address rare diseases. Healthcare systems in EU MS differ to great extent among countries in respect to their organization and funding. In general, they are not ready to face the specific problems and needs of people with rare diseases for possible prevention, timely diagnosis, adequate treatment and rehabilitation. Access to new advanced treatment and approved orphan drugs by EMEA is also a big challenge for many MS. A public health approach is needed to properly tackle rare diseases. It is a while that the idea of a comprehensive approach addressing the different challenges of rare diseases is under discussion. In our opinion, the first step to build a comprehensive approach is to properly plan the activities to undertake accordingly to needs, gaps and resources available in a Country. It is therefore important to develop a strategic plan. Adopting a strategic planning approach to rare diseases implies taking advantage of ongoing actions and building on it to adjust, re-orient or expand the response. So far only France has developed a national strategic plan for rare diseases, Bulgaria is in the process of approving its national plan for RD and Spain is in the process of developing it. In this context, considering the importance of developing national plans for RD, it would be very useful to develop recommendations for RD national plan development in order to provide an instrument to support Countries in designing their national plans. The three MS initiatives presented in this paper confirmed the availability of great experiences and expertises among many EU MS and supported the idea that all these different experiences available at the EU level should form the

  8. Tackling student neurophobia in neurosciences block with team-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Shaikh, Abdul A.; Sajid, Muhammad R.; Cahusac, Peter; Alarifi, Norah A.; Al Shedoukhy, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    improvement in communication and interpersonal skills. Conclusion We conclude that implementing TBL strategy increased students’ responsibility for their own learning and helped the students in bridging the gap in their cognitive knowledge to tackle ‘neurophobia’ in a difficult neurosciences block evidenced by their improved performance in the summative assessment. PMID:26232115

  9. Applications of Microbial Cell Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of microbial cell sensors have been developed as analytical tools. The microbial cell sensor utilizes microbes as a sensing element and a transducer. The characteristics of microbial cell sensors as sensing devices are a complete contrast to those of enzyme sensors or immunosensors, which are highly specific for the substrates of interest, although the specificity of the microbial cell sensor has been improved by genetic modification of the microbe used as the sensing element. Microbial cell sensors have the advantages of tolerance to measuring conditions, a long lifetime, and good cost performance, and have the disadvantage of a long response time. In this review, applications of microbial cell sensors are summarized.

  10. Microbial interaction networks in soil and in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsigian, Kalin

    2012-02-01

    Soil harbors a huge number of microbial species interacting through secretion of antibiotics and other chemicals. What patterns of species interactions allow for this astonishing biodiversity to be sustained, and how do these interactions evolve? I used a combined experimental-theoretical approach to tackle these questions. Focusing on bacteria from the genus Steptomyces, known for their diverse secondary metabolism, I isolated 64 natural strains from several individual grains of soil and systematically measured all pairwise interactions among them. Quantitative measurements on such scale were enabled by a novel experimental platform based on robotic handling, a custom scanner array and automatic image analysis. This unique platform allowed the simultaneous capturing of ˜15,000 time-lapse movies of growing colonies of each isolate on media conditioned by each of the other isolates. The data revealed a rich network of strong negative (inhibitory) and positive (stimulating) interactions. Analysis of this network and the phylogeny of the isolates, together with mathematical modeling of microbial communities, revealed that: 1) The network of interactions has three special properties: ``balance'', ``bi- modality'' and ``reciprocity''; 2) The interaction network is fast evolving; 3) Mathematical modeling explains how rapid evolution can give rise to the three special properties through an interplay between ecology and evolution. These properties are not a result of stable co-existence, but rather of continuous evolutionary turnover of strains with different production and resistance capabilities.

  11. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  12. Microbial Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  13. Microbial Genomes Multiply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2002-01-01

    The publication of the first complete sequence of a bacterial genome in 1995 was a signal event, underscored by the fact that the article has been cited more than 2,100 times during the intervening seven years. It was a marvelous technical achievement, made possible by automatic DNA-sequencing machines. The feat is the more impressive in that complete genome sequencing has now been adopted in many different laboratories around the world. Four years ago in these columns I examined the situation after a dozen microbial genomes had been completed. Now, with upwards of 60 microbial genome sequences determined and twice that many in progress, it seems reasonable to assess just what is being learned. Are new concepts emerging about how cells work? Have there been practical benefits in the fields of medicine and agriculture? Is it feasible to determine the genomic sequence of every bacterial species on Earth? The answers to these questions maybe Yes, Perhaps, and No, respectively.

  14. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  15. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  16. Pyrosequencing for microbial typing.

    PubMed

    Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2002-12-25

    Pyrosequencing is a real-time DNA sequencing technique generating short reads rapidly and inexpensively. This technology has the potential advantage of accuracy, ease-of-use, high flexibility and is now emerging as a popular platform for microbial typing. Here, we review the methodology and the use of this technique for viral typing, bacterial typing, and fungal typing. In addition, we describe how to use multiplexing for accurate and rapid typing. PMID:12457996

  17. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  18. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  19. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  20. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species. PMID:26584739

  1. Microbial reduction of iodate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  2. The combined water system as approach for tackling water scarcity in Permilovo groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    groundwater basin (PGB) was developed to illustrate the application of CWS. PGB is located in northwest of the Northern Dvina Artesian Basin, Russia. The principle aquifer is in the Carboniferous fissured and karstified rocks. The aquifer has a good hydraulic connection to the stream. The basin was explored but not used due to impermissible stream depletion. The organization of CWS is offered as approach for tackling environmental problem. The major well is located on the bank of river Vaymuga and induces infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons (from November to April) is compensated for by the pumping aquifer storage. The aquifer system under consideration belongs to the first hydraulic case (a), where distance between CW and the stream should be sufficient enough to prevent the groundwater drawdown levels from reaching the stream edge during the pumping period. The developed PGB model showed the efficiency of compensation pumping. Application of the combined water system in PGB allows of meet water demands during water-limited periods and of avoid the environmental problems.

  3. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases PMID:20184752

  4. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  5. Small flies to tackle big questions: assaying complex bacterial virulence mechanisms using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fauvarque, Marie-Odile

    2014-06-01

    A successful raid on a fortress requires ingenious strategies in addition to a large number of soldiers. When a microorganism faces a potential host many factors are important, including not only the capacity to proliferate but also the ability to hide, escape or subvert the defence arsenal of the infected organism. This ability confers microbial pathogenicity and relies on complex virulence mechanisms, which are tightly regulated during the course of the infection. The amazing versatility of some microbes that can infect a wide broad of hosts undoubtedly relies on virulence factors intent on fighting evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanisms. This makes the use of alternative invertebrate models, which are of outstanding interest because they demand less ethical consideration and lower experimental costs, extremely relevant. These simpler organisms are used to analyse genes and mechanisms involved in resistance or tolerance to microorganisms. They can also be used to study bacterial virulence factors that allow proliferation or persistence in the host. In particular, the Drosophila fruit fly has a complex immune response (similar to the mammalian innate immune response) and is particularly appropriate for deciphering many events underlying bacterial pathogenicity from acute virulence to biofilm formation. As highlighted in this review, Drosophila has been notably extensively used to study virulence traits of the opportunistic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, such as proliferation or persistence, translocation through an epithelial barrier, subversion of the phagocytic machinery, in vivo biofilm formation and enhanced virulence provided by commensal flora or a polymicrobial community. Moreover, these small flies now appear to be a useful system for assaying chemicals with therapeutic potential. PMID:24628939

  6. Tackling the minority: sulfate-reducing bacteria in an archaea-dominated subsurface biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Birarda, Giovanni; Bechtel, Hans A; Piceno, Yvette M; Sonnleitner, Maria; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Archaea are usually minor components of a microbial community and dominated by a large and diverse bacterial population. In contrast, the SM1 Euryarchaeon dominates a sulfidic aquifer by forming subsurface biofilms that contain a very minor bacterial fraction (5%). These unique biofilms are delivered in high biomass to the spring outflow that provides an outstanding window to the subsurface. Despite previous attempts to understand its natural role, the metabolic capacities of the SM1 Euryarchaeon remain mysterious to date. In this study, we focused on the minor bacterial fraction in order to obtain insights into the ecological function of the biofilm. We link phylogenetic diversity information with the spatial distribution of chemical and metabolic compounds by combining three different state-of-the-art methods: PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray technology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy. The results of PhyloChip and FISH technologies provide evidence for selective enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which was confirmed by the detection of bacterial dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) genes via quantitative PCR and sequence-based analyses. We further established a differentiation of archaeal and bacterial cells by SR-FTIR based on typical lipid and carbohydrate signatures, which demonstrated a co-localization of organic sulfate, carbonated mineral and bacterial signatures in the biofilm. All these results strongly indicate an involvement of the SM1 euryarchaeal biofilm in the global cycles of sulfur and carbon and support the hypothesis that sulfidic springs are important habitats for Earth's energy cycles. Moreover, these investigations of a bacterial minority in an Archaea-dominated environment are a remarkable example of the great power of combining highly sensitive microarrays with label-free infrared imaging. PMID:23178669

  7. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  8. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets. PMID:23483981

  9. Microbial Bebop: Creating Music from Complex Dynamics in Microbial Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets. PMID:23483981

  10. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  11. Microbial metabolism of Tholin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Boston, P. J.; Segal, W.; Khare, B. N.

    1990-01-01

    Tholin, a class of complex organic heteropolymers hypothesized to possess wide solar system distribution, is shown to furnish the carbon and energy requirements of a wide variety of common soil bacteria which encompasses aerobic, anaerobic, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Some of these bacteria are able to derive not merely their carbon but also their nitrogen requirements from tholin. The palatability of tholins to modern microbes is speculated to have implications for the early evolution of microbial life on earth; tholins may have formed the base of the food chain for an early heterotrophic biosphere, prior to the evolution of autotrophy on the early earth.

  12. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  13. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  14. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  15. Tackling stigma associated with intellectual disability among the general public: a study of two indirect contact interventions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Scior, Katrina

    2013-07-01

    Although evidence abounds that people with intellectual disabilities are exposed to stigma and discrimination, few interventions have attempted to tackle stigma among the general public. This study set out to assess the impact of two brief indirect contact interventions on lay people's inclusion attitudes, social distance and positive behavioral intentions, and to explore emotional reactions towards the two interventions. 925 participants completed the first online survey. Participants were randomized to watch either a 10 min film based on intergroup contact theory, or a film based on a protest message. In total, 403 participants completed the follow-up survey at one month. Both interventions were effective at changing inclusion attitudes and social distance in the short term and these effects were partially maintained at one month. The protest based intervention had a greater effect compared to the contact one on aspects of inclusion attitudes and evoked stronger emotional reactions. Despite small effect sizes, brief indirect contact interventions may have a potential role in tackling public stigma associated with intellectual disability but their effects on behavioral intentions are questionable. PMID:23644953

  16. Tackling NCD in LMIC: Achievements and Lessons Learned From the NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program.

    PubMed

    Engelgau, Michael M; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Rabadan-Diehl, Cristina; Smith, Richard; Miranda, Jaime; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Belis, Deshiree; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2016-03-01

    Effectively tackling the growing noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a major challenge. To address research needs in this setting for NCDs, in 2009, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and UnitedHealth Group (UHG) engaged in a public-private partnership that supported a network of 11 LMIC-based research centers and created the NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence (COE) Program. The Program's overall goal was to contribute to reducing the cardiovascular and lung disease burdens by catalyzing in-country research institutions to develop a global network of biomedical research centers. Key elements of the Program included team science and collaborative approaches, developing research and training platforms for future investigators, and creating a data commons. This Program embraced a strategic approach for tackling NCDs in LMICs and will provide capacity for locally driven research efforts that can identify and address priority health issues in specific countries' settings. PMID:27102018

  17. Tackling the Challenge of Deep Vadose Zone Remediation at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. G.; Wellman, D. M.; Gephart, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Plateau of the Hanford Site in Washington State contains some 800 waste disposal sites where 1.7 trillion liters of contaminated water was once discharged into the subsurface. Most of these sites received liquids from the chemical reprocessing of spent uranium fuel to recover plutonium. In addition, 67 single shell tanks have leaked or are suspected to have leaked 3.8 million liters of high alkali and aluminate rich cesium-contaminated liquids into the sediment. Today, this inventory of subsurface contamination contains an estimated 550,000 curies of radioactivity and 150 million kg (165,000 tons) of metals and hazardous chemicals. Radionuclides range from mobile 99Tc to more immobilized 137Cs, 241Am, uranium, and plutonium. A significant fraction of these contaminants likely remain within the deep vadose zone. Plumes of groundwater containing tritium, nitrate, 129I and other contaminants have migrated through the vadose zone and now extend outward from the Central Plateau to the Columbia River. During most of Hanford Site history, subsurface studies focused on groundwater monitoring and characterization to support waste management decisions. Deep vadose zone studies were not a priority because waste practices relied upon that zone to buffer contaminant releases into the underlying aquifer. Remediation of the deep vadose zone is now central to Hanford Site cleanup because these sediments can provide an ongoing source of contamination to the aquifer and therefore to the Columbia River. However, characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone pose some unique challenges. These include sediment thickness; contaminant depth; coupled geohydrologic, geochemical, and microbial processes controlling contaminant spread; limited availability and effectiveness of traditional characterization tools and cleanup remedies; and predicting contaminant behavior and remediation performance over long time periods and across molecular to field scales. The U

  18. Microbial response to triepthylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Santo Domingo, J.W.; Berry, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of triethylphosphate (TEP) on the activity of a landfill aquifer microbial community was evaluated using standard techniques and in situ hybridizations with phylogenetic probes. Benzene was used as an external carbon source to monitor degradation of an aromatic compound in TEP amended microcosms. Microscopical and viable counts were higher in TEP containing microcosms when compared to unamended controls. A significant increase in metabolic activity was also observed for TEP amended samples as determined by the number of cells hybridizing to an eubacterial probe. In addition, the number of beta and gamma Proteobacteria increased from undetectable levels prior to the study to 15-29% of the total bacteria in microcosms containing TEP and benzene. In these microcosms, nearly 40% of the benzene was degraded during the incubation period compared to less than 5% in unamended microcosms. While TEP has previously been used as an alternate phosphate source in the bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatics, this study shows that it can also stimulate the microbial degradation of aromatics in phosphate limited aquifers.

  19. Microelectrodes in microbial ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Boots, S.

    1989-03-15

    Understanding the microenvironment of bacteria has presented many challenges for the microbial ecologist. Simple intracellular capillary electrodes have been used in neurophysiology since the 1950s to measure action potentials in ion transport over biological membranes, and ion-selective electrodes were developed soon thereafter for the determination of H{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}. However, these analytical techniques did not receive much attention until 1978, when Niels Peter Revsbech and Bo Barker Joergensen at the Institute of Ecology and Genetics, University of Aarhus, Denmark, began using oxygen microelectrodes in their studies of the ecology and biogeochemistry of marine sediments and other microbial environments. Today, Revsbech and Joergensen use five types of microelectrodes, two types of oxygen microelectrodes, a combined microelectrode for nitrous oxide and oxygen, a sulfide microelectrode, and a pH microelectrode. The first three microelectrodes have diameters of about 10 {mu}m and the last two of about 50 {mu}m. Some of the electrodes actually contain two or three cathodes plus a reference electrode, all situated behind a polymer membrane. In situ experiments have been done for several years at a water depth of several meters, where the micromanipulator is operated by a diver. Recently measurements were obtained in the deep sea with the microelectrodes mounted on a free-falling vehicle or operated from a submersible vessel.

  20. Microbial genomic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Chimetto, Luciane; Edwards, Robert A; Swings, Jean; Stackebrandt, Erko; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2013-01-01

    A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes, <10 in Karlin genomic signature, and > 70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (GGDH). Species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and supertree analysis. In addition to the established requirements for species descriptions, we propose that new taxa descriptions should also include at least a draft genome sequence of the type strain in order to obtain a clear outlook on the genomic landscape of the novel microbe. The application of the new genomic species definition put forward here will allow researchers to use genome sequences to define simultaneously coherent phenotypic and genomic groups. PMID:24365132

  1. The Promise of Microbial Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Nawawy, Amin S.

    1982-01-01

    Prospects for microbial technology are discussed including: (1) possible transfer of nitrogen-fixing ability directly from bacteria to plant; (2) increasing food needs met through single-cell proteins and fermentation; (3) microbial production of antibiotics; and (4) increased biogas production. (Author/JN)

  2. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  3. Compositions of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  4. Microbial interactions during carrion decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This addresses the microbial ecology of carrion decomposition in the age of metagenomics. It describes what is known about the microbial communities on carrion, including a brief synopsis about the communities on other organic matter sources. It provides a description of studies using state-of-the...

  5. MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF SOIL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil quality is an elusive term; however, the quality of a soil can greatly impact land use, sustainability, and productivity. Soil microbial processes are an integral part of soil quality and a better understanding of these processes and microbial community structure is needed. ...

  6. Microbial "social networks"

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well understood that distinct communities of bacteria are present at different sites of the body, and that changes in the structure of these communities have strong implications for human health. Yet, challenges remain in understanding the complex interconnections between the bacterial taxa within these microbial communities and how they change during the progression of diseases. Many recent studies attempt to analyze the human microbiome using traditional ecological measures and cataloging differences in bacterial community membership. In this paper, we show how to push metagenomic analyses beyond mundane questions related to the bacterial taxonomic profiles that differentiate one sample from another. Methods We develop tools and techniques that help us to investigate the nature of social interactions in microbial communities, and demonstrate ways of compactly capturing extensive information about these networks and visually conveying them in an effective manner. We define the concept of bacterial "social clubs", which are groups of taxa that tend to appear together in many samples. More importantly, we define the concept of "rival clubs", entire groups that tend to avoid occurring together in many samples. We show how to efficiently compute social clubs and rival clubs and demonstrate their utility with the help of examples including a smokers' dataset and a dataset from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Results The tools developed provide a framework for analyzing relationships between bacterial taxa modeled as bacterial co-occurrence networks. The computational techniques also provide a framework for identifying clubs and rival clubs and for studying differences in the microbiomes (and their interactions) of two or more collections of samples. Conclusions Microbial relationships are similar to those found in social networks. In this work, we assume that strong (positive or negative) tendencies to co-occur or co-infect is likely to have

  7. Microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nealson, Kenneth H; Pirbazari, Massoud; Hsu, Lewis

    2013-04-09

    A microbial fuel cell includes an anode compartment with an anode and an anode biocatalyst and a cathode compartment with a cathode and a cathode biocatalyst, with a membrane positioned between the anode compartment and the cathode compartment, and an electrical pathway between the anode and the cathode. The anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an organic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an inorganic substance. The reduced organic substance can form a precipitate, thereby removing the inorganic substance from solution. In some cases, the anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an inorganic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an organic or inorganic substance.

  8. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  9. Taking microbial roll call

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, I.R. Jr.; Wieck, J.M.; Lamb, S.R.

    1998-02-01

    Natural attenuation is an important process that can reduce contaminant mass both above and below the water table. Although this natural process is sometimes referred to as wink and walk, bioProcrastination, mental attenuation or other environmental euphemisms, demonstrating that it may be protective of human health and the environment is a rigorous scientific exercise that considers biological, physical and chemical mechanisms as well as hydrogeologic site constraints. Such investigations typically focus on intrinsic, or natural, bioremediation because biological mechanisms are more important than physical-chemical ones for attenuating contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in many hydrogeologic settings. One supplemental method for evaluating intrinsic bioremediation potential is microbial enumeration screening. This paper describes four case studies using this method.

  10. Microbial sensor cell arrays.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Sahar; Elad, Tal; Belkin, Shimshon

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by the advantages endowed by high-throughput analysis, researchers have succeeded in incorporating multiple reporter cells into a single platform; the technology now allows the simultaneous scrutiny of a large collection of sensor strains. We review current aspects in cell array technology with emphasis on microbial sensor arrays. We consider various techniques for patterning live cells on solid surfaces, describe different array-based applications and devices, and highlight recent efforts for live cell storage. We review mathematical approaches for deciphering the data emanating from bioreporter collections, and discuss the future of single cell arrays. Innovative technologies for cell patterning, preservation and interpretation are continuously being developed; when they all mature, cell arrays may become an efficient analytical tool, in a scope resembling that of DNA microarray biochips. PMID:22176747

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) attempts to exploit the metabolic processes of microorganisms to increase oil production from reservoirs of marginal oil productivity. MEOR can be achieved by direct stimulation of existing microflora within the reservoir, introduction of specialized microroganisms, or above ground use of bioproducts as chemically enhanced oil recovery agents. Reservoir microbiology, the biotransformation of crude oil, and bioproducts applicable to EOR all need further study. Xanthan and polyacrylamine have been applied to EOR, but with some problems. Other selected polysaccharides for which reasonable data bases exist are listed. Some tests on injection of microorganisms, CEOR use, and use of biosurfactants (bacteria that reduces the viscosity of crude oil) are reviewed. The status of MEOR currently resides at a basic level of research and developement.

  12. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  13. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Microbially mediated phosphine emission.

    PubMed

    Roels, Joris; Huyghe, Gwen; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-02-15

    There is still a lot of controversy in literature concerning the question whether a biochemical system exists enabling micro-organisms to reduce phosphate to phosphine gas. The search for so-called 'de novo synthesised' phosphine is complicated by the fact that soils, slurries, sludges, etc., which are often used as inocula, usually contain matrix bound phosphine (MBP). Matrix bound phosphine is a general term used to indicate non-gaseous reduced phosphorus compounds that are transformed into phosphine gas upon reaction with bases or acids. A study was carried out to compare the different digestion methods, used to transform matrix bound phosphine into phosphine gas. It was demonstrated that caustic and acidic digestion methods should be used to measure the matrix bound phosphine of the inoculum prior to inoculation to avoid false positive results concerning de novo synthesis. This is especially true if anthropogenically influenced inocula possibly containing minute steel or aluminium particles are used. The comparative study on different digestion methods also revealed that the fraction of phosphorus in mild steel, converted to phosphine during acid corrosion depended on the temperature. Following these preliminary studies, anaerobic growth experiments were set up using different inocula and media to study the emission of phosphine gas. Phosphine was detected in the headspace gases and its quantity and timeframe of emission depended on the medium composition, suggesting microbially mediated formation of the gas. The amount of phosphine emitted during the growth experiments never exceeded the bound phosphine present in inocula, prior to inoculation. Hence, de novo synthesis of phosphine from phosphate could not be demonstrated. Yet, microbially mediated conversion to phosphine of hitherto unknown reduced phosphorus compounds in the inoculum was evidenced. PMID:15713333

  15. Global microbialization of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Fairoz, Mohamed F M; Kelly, Linda W; Nelson, Craig E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A; Giles, Steve; Hatay, Mark; Hisakawa, Nao; Knowles, Ben; Lim, Yan Wei; Maughan, Heather; Pantos, Olga; Roach, Ty N F; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-01-01

    Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance. Using an unprecedented data set of >400 samples from 60 coral reef sites, we show that the central DDAM predictions are consistent across three ocean basins. Reef algal cover is positively correlated with lower concentrations of DOC and higher microbial abundances. On turf and fleshy macroalgal-rich reefs, higher relative abundances of copiotrophic microbial taxa were identified. These microbial communities shift their metabolic potential for carbohydrate degradation from the more energy efficient Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway on coral-dominated reefs to the less efficient Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways on algal-dominated reefs. This 'yield-to-power' switch by microorganism directly threatens reefs via increased hypoxia and greater CO2 release from the microbial respiration of DOC. PMID:27572833

  16. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products. PMID:27529912

  17. Application of PRECEDE-PROCEED model to tackle problems identified with diarrhoea burden among under-5s in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Tosin; Mchunu, Gugu

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhoea has been identified as the second leading cause of mortality among under-5s and also claims more life than HIV, measles and malaria combined together in the same category of population. This article is a combination of literature review and personal experience of lessons learnt from past diarrhoea outbreaks in Botswana that caused significant rate of mortality among under-5s. The paper used literature review to identify contributory factors to diarrhoea burden among under-5s in Botswana and applied a community health nursing framework (PRECEDE-PROCEED) to tackle the problems identified. The study revealed that Botswana mothers are lacking in knowledge related to exclusive breastfeeding, prevention and treatment of diarrhoea disease. The paper recommends that health-care workers in Botswana be sensitized on current diarrhoea management to tailor their health education methods appropriately. PMID:26125574

  18. An Ultrahydrophobic Fluorous Metal-Organic Framework Derived Recyclable Composite as a Promising Platform to Tackle Marine Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; Kansara, Ankit M; Saha, Debasis; Gonnade, Rajesh; Mullangi, Dinesh; Manna, Biplab; Desai, Aamod V; Thorat, Shridhar H; Singh, Puyam S; Mukherjee, Arnab; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2016-07-25

    Derived from a strategically chosen hexafluorinated dicarboxylate linker aimed at the designed synthesis of a superhydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF), the fluorine-rich nanospace of a water-stable MOF (UHMOF-100) exhibits excellent water-repellent features. It registered the highest water contact angle (≈176°) in the MOF domain, marking the first example of an ultrahydrophobic MOF. Various experimental and theoretical studies reinforce its distinctive water-repellent characteristics, and the conjugation of superoleophilicity and unparalleled hydrophobicity of a MOF material has been coherently exploited to achieve real-time oil/water separation in recyclable membrane form, with significant absorption capacity performance. This is also the first report of an oil/water separating fluorinated ultrahydrophobic MOF-based membrane material, with potential promise for tackling marine oil spillages. PMID:27359254

  19. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  20. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  1. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  2. Biochemical Analysis of Microbial Rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Julia A; Keffer, Jessica L; Miller, Kelsey J

    2016-01-01

    Ion-pumping rhodopsins transfer ions across the microbial cell membrane in a light-dependent fashion. As the rate of biochemical characterization of microbial rhodopsins begins to catch up to the rate of microbial rhodopsin identification in environmental and genomic sequence data sets, in vitro analysis of their light-absorbing properties and in vivo analysis of ion pumping will remain critical to characterizing these proteins. As we learn more about the variety of physiological roles performed by microbial rhodopsins in different cell types and environments, observing the localization patterns of the rhodopsins and/or quantifying the number of rhodopsin-bearing cells in natural environments will become more important. Here, we provide protocols for purification of rhodopsin-containing membranes, detection of ion pumping, and observation of functional rhodopsins in laboratory and environmental samples using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153387

  3. When microbial conversations get physical

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that microorganisms are social beings. Whereas communication via chemical signals (e.g. quorum sensing) has been the focus of most investigations, the use of physical signals for microbial cell-cell communication has received only limited attention. Here, I argue that physical modes of microbial communication could be widespread in nature. This is based on experimental evidence on the microbial emission and response to three physical signals: sound waves, electromagnetic radiation, and electric currents. These signals propagate rapidly and, even at very low intensities, they provide useful mechanisms when a rapid response is required. I also make some suggestions for promising future research avenues that could bring novel and unsuspected insights into the physical nature of microbial signaling networks. PMID:21239171

  4. Teaching Microbial Growth by Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, A. Fernandez; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a simulation program for Apple II computer which assays the effects of a series of variables on bacterial growth and interactions between microbial populations. Results of evaluation of the program with students are summarized. (CW)

  5. Microbial Infection and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Yu, Yangsheng; Yue, Yinshi; Zhang, Zhixin; Su, Kaihong

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease affecting 1–2% of general worldwide population. The etiopathogenesis of RA involves the interplay of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Microbial infections are believed to play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of RA. Recent clinical studies have shown the association of microbial infections with RA. Accumulated studies using animal models have also found that microbial infections can induce and/or exaggerate the symptoms of experimental arthritis. In this review, we have identified the most common microbial infections associated with RA in the literature and summarized the current evidence supporting their pathogenic role in RA. We also discussed the potential mechanisms whereby infection may promote the development of RA, such as generation of neo-autoantigens, induction of loss of tolerance by molecular mimicry, and bystander activation of the immune system. PMID:25133066

  6. Allopatric origins of microbial species

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Rachel J

    2006-01-01

    Although allopatric divergence is a well-accepted mechanism of speciation for eukaryotic macro-organisms, the importance of geographical barriers to divergence in microbial populations is a subject of great debate. Do geographically separated populations of micro-organisms diverge independently, or does their structure fit the often quoted Bass-Becking description ‘everything is everywhere; the environment selects’? Aided by high-resolution genetic and genomic tools, the search for ‘microbial marsupials’ has revealed that in fact both are true; some species of micro-organisms demonstrate allopatric divergence, while others do not. This discovery opens the door for comparative analyses, where questions about the differences in evolutionary and ecological mechanisms that drive divergence and speciation in different microbial species can begin to be explored. Investigating these differences in evolutionary mechanisms will greatly enhance interest in, and understanding of, the dynamic processes that create and maintain the vast diversity of the microbial world. PMID:17062415

  7. Microbial hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Maness, P.C.; Martin, S.

    1995-09-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria inhabit an anaerobic or microaerophilic world where H{sub 2} is produced and consumed as a shared intermediary metabolite. Within a given bacterial isolate there are as many as 4 to 6 distinct enzymes that function to evolve or consume H{sub 2}. Three of the H{sub 2}-evolving physiologies involving three different enzymes from photosynthetic bacteria have been examined in detail for commercial viability. Nitrogenase-mediated H{sub 2} production completely dissimilates many soluble organic compounds to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at rates up to 131 {mu}mol H{sub 2}{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} and can remain active for up to 20 days. This metabolism is very energy intensive, however, which limits solar conversion efficiencies. Fermentative hydrogenase can produce H{sub 2} at rates of 440 {mu}mol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} at low levels of irradiation over indefinite periods. The equilibrium for this activity is low (<0.15 atmospheres), thereby requiring gas sparging, vacuuming, or microbial scavenging to retain prolonged activity. Microbial H{sub 2} production from the CO component of synthesis or producer gases maximally reaches activities of 1.5 mmol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1}. Mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension is the rate-limiting step. Increased gas pressure strongly accelerates these rates. Immobilized bacteria on solid supports at ambient pressures also show enhanced shift activity when the bulk water is drained away. Scaled-up bioreactors with 100-200 cc bed volume have been constructed and tested. The near-term goal of this portion of the project is to engineer and economically evaluate a prototype system for the biological production of H{sub 2} from biomass. The CO shift enables a positive selection technique for O{sub 2}-resistant, H{sub 2}-evolving bacterial enzymes from nature.

  8. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  9. Biogeochemical Processes in Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life, and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and, potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial populations and their metabolic properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Microbial origin of desert varnish.

    PubMed

    Dorn, R I; Oberlander, T M

    1981-09-11

    Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses of desert varnish reveal that microorganisms concentrate ambient manganese that becomes greatly enhanced in brown to black varnish. Specific characteristics of desert varnish and of varnish bacteria support a microbial origin for manganese-rich films. Varnish microbes can be cultured and produce laboratory manganese films. Accordingly, natural desert varnish and also manganese-rich rock varnishes in nondesert environments appear to be a product of microbial activity. PMID:17744757

  11. Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life

    SciTech Connect

    Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

    2000-12-31

    Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

  12. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  13. Enhancing metaproteomics-The value of models and defined environmental microbial systems.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Lünsmann, Vanessa; Kjeldal, Henrik; Jehmlich, Nico; Tholey, Andreas; von Bergen, Martin; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Hettich, Robert L; Seifert, Jana; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2016-03-01

    Metaproteomics-the large-scale characterization of the entire protein complement of environmental microbiota at a given point in time-has provided new features to study complex microbial communities in order to unravel these "black boxes." New technical challenges arose that were not an issue for classical proteome analytics before that could be tackled by the application of different model systems. Here, we review different current and future model systems for metaproteome analysis. Following a short introduction to microbial communities and metaproteomics, we introduce model systems for clinical and biotechnological research questions including acid mine drainage, anaerobic digesters, and activated sludge. Model systems are useful to evaluate the challenges encountered within (but not limited to) metaproteomics, including species complexity and coverage, biomass availability, or reliable protein extraction. The implementation of model systems can be considered as a step forward to better understand microbial community responses and ecological functions of single member organisms. In the future, improvements are necessary to fully explore complex environmental systems by metaproteomics. PMID:26621789

  14. A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference model in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Zeng, Guangming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Sun, Xueling

    2009-12-01

    A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference (SMI) model was developed through introducing stepwise-cluster analysis (SCA) into composting process modeling to tackle the nonlinear relationships among state variables and microbial activities. The essence of SCA is to form a classification tree based on a series of cutting or mergence processes according to given statistical criteria. Eight runs of designed experiments in bench-scale reactors in a laboratory were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results indicated that SMI could help establish a statistical relationship between state variables and composting microbial characteristics, where discrete and nonlinear complexities exist. Significance levels of cutting/merging were provided such that the accuracies of the developed forecasting trees were controllable. Through an attempted definition of input effects on the output in SMI, the effects of the state variables on thermophilic bacteria were ranged in a descending order as: Time (day)>moisture content (%)>ash content (%, dry)>Lower Temperature ( degrees C)>pH>NH(4)(+)-N (mg/Kg, dry)>Total N (%, dry)>Total C (%, dry); the effects on mesophilic bacteria were ordered as: Time>Upper Temperature ( degrees C)>Total N>moisture content>NH(4)(+)-N>Total C>pH. This study made the first attempt in applying SCA to mapping the nonlinear and discrete relationships in composting processes. PMID:19620001

  15. Metabolomic Applications to Decipher Gut Microbial Metabolic Influence in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, François-Pierre J.; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Dietary preferences and nutrients composition have been shown to influence human and gut microbial metabolism, which ultimately has specific effects on health and diseases’ risk. Increasingly, results from molecular biology and microbiology demonstrate the key role of the gut microbiota metabolic interface to the overall mammalian host’s health status. There is therefore raising interest in nutrition research to characterize the molecular foundations of the gut microbial–mammalian cross talk at both physiological and biochemical pathway levels. Tackling these challenges can be achieved through systems biology approaches, such as metabolomics, to underpin the highly complex metabolic exchanges between diverse biological compartments, including organs, systemic biofluids, and microbial symbionts. By the development of specific biomarkers for prediction of health and disease, metabolomics is increasingly used in clinical applications as regard to disease etiology, diagnostic stratification, and potentially mechanism of action of therapeutical and nutraceutical solutions. Surprisingly, an increasing number of metabolomics investigations in pre-clinical and clinical studies based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided compelling evidence that system wide and organ-specific biochemical processes are under the influence of gut microbial metabolism. This review aims at describing recent applications of metabolomics in clinical fields where main objective is to discern the biochemical mechanisms under the influence of the gut microbiota, with insight into gastrointestinal health and diseases diagnostics and improvement of homeostasis metabolic regulation. PMID:22557976

  16. Enhancing metaproteomics-The value of models and defined environmental microbial systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Lünsmann, Vanessa; Kjeldal, Henrik; Jehmlich, Nico; Tholey, Andreas; von Bergen, Martin; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Hettich, Robert L.; Seifert, Jana; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2016-01-21

    Metaproteomicsthe large-scale characterization of the entire protein complement of environmental microbiota at a given point in timehas provided new features to study complex microbial communities in order to unravel these black boxes. Some new technical challenges arose that were not an issue for classical proteome analytics before that could be tackled by the application of different model systems. Here, we review different current and future model systems for metaproteome analysis. We introduce model systems for clinical and biotechnological research questions including acid mine drainage, anaerobic digesters, and activated sludge, following a short introduction to microbial communities and metaproteomics. Model systemsmore » are useful to evaluate the challenges encountered within (but not limited to) metaproteomics, including species complexity and coverage, biomass availability, or reliable protein extraction. Moreover, the implementation of model systems can be considered as a step forward to better understand microbial community responses and ecological functions of single member organisms. In the future, improvements are necessary to fully explore complex environmental systems by metaproteomics.« less

  17. A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference model in food waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Zeng Guangming; Qin Xiaosheng; Sun Xueling

    2009-12-15

    A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference (SMI) model was developed through introducing stepwise-cluster analysis (SCA) into composting process modeling to tackle the nonlinear relationships among state variables and microbial activities. The essence of SCA is to form a classification tree based on a series of cutting or mergence processes according to given statistical criteria. Eight runs of designed experiments in bench-scale reactors in a laboratory were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results indicated that SMI could help establish a statistical relationship between state variables and composting microbial characteristics, where discrete and nonlinear complexities exist. Significance levels of cutting/merging were provided such that the accuracies of the developed forecasting trees were controllable. Through an attempted definition of input effects on the output in SMI, the effects of the state variables on thermophilic bacteria were ranged in a descending order as: Time (day) > moisture content (%) > ash content (%, dry) > Lower Temperature (deg. C) > pH > NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N (mg/Kg, dry) > Total N (%, dry) > Total C (%, dry); the effects on mesophilic bacteria were ordered as: Time > Upper Temperature (deg. C) > Total N > moisture content > NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N > Total C > pH. This study made the first attempt in applying SCA to mapping the nonlinear and discrete relationships in composting processes.

  18. Population-reaction model and microbial experimental ecosystems for understanding hierarchical dynamics of ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kazufumi; Tsuda, Soichiro; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Nakamura, Yutaka; Nakano, Tadashi; Ishii, Kojiro

    2016-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem dynamics is crucial as contemporary human societies face ecosystem degradation. One of the challenges that needs to be recognized is the complex hierarchical dynamics. Conventional dynamic models in ecology often represent only the population level and have yet to include the dynamics of the sub-organism level, which makes an ecosystem a complex adaptive system that shows characteristic behaviors such as resilience and regime shifts. The neglect of the sub-organism level in the conventional dynamic models would be because integrating multiple hierarchical levels makes the models unnecessarily complex unless supporting experimental data are present. Now that large amounts of molecular and ecological data are increasingly accessible in microbial experimental ecosystems, it is worthwhile to tackle the questions of their complex hierarchical dynamics. Here, we propose an approach that combines microbial experimental ecosystems and a hierarchical dynamic model named population-reaction model. We present a simple microbial experimental ecosystem as an example and show how the system can be analyzed by a population-reaction model. We also show that population-reaction models can be applied to various ecological concepts, such as predator-prey interactions, climate change, evolution, and stability of diversity. Our approach will reveal a path to the general understanding of various ecosystems and organisms. PMID:26747638

  19. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  20. Microbial diversity of marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, U; Fieseler, L; Wehrl, M; Gernert, C; Steinert, M; Hacker, J; Horn, M

    2003-01-01

    The recent application of molecular microbial ecology tools to sponge-microbe associations has revealed a glimpse into the biodiversity of these microbial communities, that is considered just 'the tip of the iceberg'. This chapter provides an overview over these new findings with regard to identity, diversity and distribution patterns of sponge-associated microbial consortia. The sponges Aplysina aerophoba (Verongida), Rhopaloeides odorabile (Dicytoceratida) and Theonella swinhoei (Lithistida) were chosen as model systems for this review because they have been subject to both, cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. A discussion of the microbial assemblages of Halichondriapanicea is presented in the accompanying chapter by Imhoff and Stöhr. Considering that a large fraction of sponge-associated microbes is not yet amenable to cultivation, an emphasis has been placed on the techniques centering around the 16S rRNA gene. A section has been included that covers the potential of sponge microbial communities for drug discovery. Finally, a 'sponge-microbe interaction model' is presented that summarizes our current understanding of the processes that might have shaped the community structure of the microbial assemblages within sponges. PMID:15825640

  1. Microbial Source Tracking: Current and Future Molecular Tools in Microbial Water Quality Forensics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current regulations in the United States stipulate that the microbial quality of waters used for consumption and recreational activities should be determined regularly by measuring microbial indicators of fecal pollution. Hence, the microbial risk associated with these waters is...

  2. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  3. Chaos and microbial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, M.

    1990-07-01

    A recurrent theme of much recent research is that seemingly random fluctuations often occur as the result of simple deterministic mechanisms. Hence, much of the recent work in nonlinear dynamics has centered on new techniques for identifying order in seemingly chaotic systems. To determine the robustness of these techniques, chaos must, to some extent, be brought into the laboratory. Preliminary investigations of the forced double-Monod equations, a model for a predator and a prey in a chemostat with periodic variation in inflowing substrate concentration, suggest that simple microbial systems may provide the perfect framework for determining the efficacy and relevance of the new nonlinear dynamics in dealing with complex population dynamics. This research has two main goals, that is the mathematical analysis and computer simulation of the periodically forced double-Monod equations and of related models; and experimental (chemostat) population studies that evaluate the accuracy and generality of the models, and that judge the usefulness of various new techniques of nonlinear dynamics to the study of populations.

  4. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth's environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microliters produce hydrogen, small organic acids, nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  5. Microbial production of propanol.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; François, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Both, n-propanol and isopropanol are industrially attractive value-added molecules that can be produced by microbes from renewable resources. The development of cost-effective fermentation processes may allow using these alcohols as a biofuel component, or as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of propylene. This review reports and discusses the recent progress which has been made in the biochemical production of propanol. Several synthetic propanol-producing pathways were developed that vary with respect to stoichiometry and metabolic entry point. These pathways were expressed in different host organisms and enabled propanol production from various renewable feedstocks. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimization of fermentation conditions greatly improved process performance, in particular, when continuous product removal prevented accumulation of toxic propanol levels. Although these advanced metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies have facilitated significant progress in the biochemical production of propanol, the currently achieved propanol yields and productivities appear to be insufficient to compete with chemical propanol synthesis. The development of biosynthetic pathways with improved propanol yields, the breeding or identification of microorganisms with higher propanol tolerance, and the engineering of propanol producer strains that efficiently utilize low-cost feedstocks are the major challenges on the way to industrially relevant microbial propanol production processes. PMID:27262999

  6. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Tackling the STEM Crisis: Five Steps Your State Can Take to Improve the Quality and Quantity of its K-12 Math and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    State laws and regulations can either help or hinder the ability of school districts to hire effective teachers for STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects. State officials wanting to tackle this critical problem need to begin with a thorough review of relevant policies, asking themselves: "Are we part of the problem, and…

  9. Which Women Were Executed for Witchcraft? And Which Pupils Cared? Low-Attaining Year 8 Use Fiction to Tackle Three Demons: Extended Reading, Diversity and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Paula Worth was concerned that her low-attaining set were only going through the motions when tackling causal explanation. Identifying, prioritising and weighing causes seemed an empty routine rather than a fascinating puzzle engaging intellect and imagination. She was also concerned that her usual efforts to solve this problem had been misplaced.…

  10. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  11. Reconstructing each cell's genome within complex microbial communities-dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Clum, Alicia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    As the vast majority of microorganisms have yet to be cultivated in a laboratory setting, access to their genetic makeup has largely been limited to cultivation-independent methods. These methods, namely metagenomics and more recently single-cell genomics, have become cornerstones for microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. One ultimate goal is the recovery of genome sequences from each cell within an environment to move toward a better understanding of community metabolic potential and to provide substrate for experimental work. As single-cell sequencing has the ability to decipher all sequence information contained in an individual cell, this method holds great promise in tackling such challenge. Methodological limitations and inherent biases however do exist, which will be discussed here based on environmental and benchmark data, to assess how far we are from reaching this goal. PMID:25620966

  12. Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays for the Detection and Typing of Food- and Water-Borne (Bacterial) Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kostić, Tanja; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and sensitive pathogen detection in clinical and environmental (including food and water) samples is of greatest importance for public health. Standard microbiological methods have several limitations and improved alternatives are needed. Most important requirements for reliable analysis include: (i) specificity; (ii) sensitivity; (iii) multiplexing potential; (iv) robustness; (v) speed; (vi) automation potential; and (vii) low cost. Microarray technology can, through its very nature, fulfill many of these requirements directly and the remaining challenges have been tackled. In this review, we attempt to compare performance characteristics of the microbial diagnostic microarrays developed for the detection and typing of food and water pathogens, and discuss limitations, points still to be addressed and issues specific for the analysis of food, water and environmental samples.

  13. Microbial Production of Isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Fall

    2007-07-29

    Isoprene is a volatile hydrocarbon of unknown function, produced by certain bacteria, plants and animals, sometimes in huge amounts—the Earth’s forests are estimated to emit >500 x 106 tons of isoprene per year. With funding from this program we explored the biochemistry and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis, with the goals of explaining the biological rationale for isoprene biogenesis and constructing an isoprene-overproducing microbial system. Although the role for isoprene formation in B. subtilis is still uncertain, our current model for regulation of this hydrocarbon’s synthesis is that isoprene production in B. subtilis is controlled by a combination of i) rapid regulation of isoprene synthase activity and ii) supply of the substrate for isoprene synthase, dimethyallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This model parallels our current thinking about the control of isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts. In this reporting period we have been working to test part ii) of this model; this work has produced new results using genetic and analytical approaches. For examples, we have developed an analytical method to resolve DMAPP and its isomer, isopentenyl diphosphate, from each other in bacteria and plants. We have also shown that the IPP isomerase (type 2) of B. subtilis is not the source of “isoprene synthase” activity, and discovered that B. subtilis releases C5 isoprenoid alcohols to the medium, suggesting that isoprene plus other C5 isoprenoids may be common by-products of metabolism. In addition, we have continued to work on our discovery that wild type B. subtilis strains form prolific biofilms, are normal components of plant root microflora, and are testing the idea that B. subtilis growing in biofilms uses isoprene to induce plant root exudation.

  14. Modeling microbial growth and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Esser, Daniel S; Leveau, Johan H J; Meyer, Katrin M

    2015-11-01

    Modeling has become an important tool for widening our understanding of microbial growth in the context of applied microbiology and related to such processes as safe food production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, or microbe-mediated mining. Various modeling techniques, such as primary, secondary and tertiary mathematical models, phenomenological models, mechanistic or kinetic models, reactive transport models, Bayesian network models, artificial neural networks, as well as agent-, individual-, and particle-based models have been applied to model microbial growth and activity in many applied fields. In this mini-review, we summarize the basic concepts of these models using examples and applications from food safety and wastewater treatment systems. We further review recent developments in other applied fields focusing on models that explicitly include spatial relationships. Using these examples, we point out the conceptual similarities across fields of application and encourage the combined use of different modeling techniques in hybrid models as well as their cross-disciplinary exchange. For instance, pattern-oriented modeling has its origin in ecology but may be employed to parameterize microbial growth models when experimental data are scarce. Models could also be used as virtual laboratories to optimize experimental design analogous to the virtual ecologist approach. Future microbial growth models will likely become more complex to benefit from the rich toolbox that is now available to microbial growth modelers. PMID:26298697

  15. Recovery strategies for tackling the impact of phenolic compounds in a UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of phenolic compounds (around 3.2 g/L) resulted in a completely failed performance in a mesophilic UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater. The recovery strategies, including extension of HRT, dilution, oxygen-limited aeration, and addition of powdered activated carbon were evaluated in batch tests, in order to obtain the most appropriate way for the quick recovery of the failed reactor performance. Results indicated that addition of powdered activated carbon and oxygen-limited aeration were the best recovery strategies in the batch tests. In the UASB reactor, addition of powdered activated carbon of 1 g/L shortened the recovery time from 25 to 9 days and oxygen-limited aeration of 0-0.5 mgO2/L reduced the recovery time to 17 days. Reduction of bioavailable concentration of phenolic compounds and recovery of sludge activity were the decisive factors for the recovery strategies to tackle the impact of phenolic compounds in anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater. PMID:22033369

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitor pracinostat in doublet therapy: a unique strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy and to tackle herculean cancer chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Context Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising results in neurodegeneration and cancer. Hydroxamate HDACi, including vorinostat, have shown encouraging results in haematological malignancies, but the poor pharmacokinetic of these inhibitors leads to insufficient tumour concentration limiting their application against solid malignancies. Objective This article deals with novel HDAC inhibitor pracinostat (SB939) and delineates its therapeutic role in solid and haematological malignancies. The article provides rigorous details about the underlying molecular mechanisms modulated by pracinostat to exert cytotoxic effect. The article further highlights the doublet therapy that may be used to tackle monotonous cancer chemoresistance. Methods Both old and the latest literature on pracinostat was retrieved from diverse sources, such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, general Google search using both pracinostat and SB939 keywords in various ways: after thorough evaluation the topic which can fulfil the current gap was chosen. Results Pracinostat shows potent anticancer activity against both solid and haematological malignancies compared to the FDA-approved drug vorinostat. This marvellous inhibitor has better physicochemical, pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic properties than the defined inhibitor vorinostat. Pracinostat has  >100-fold more affinity towards HDACs compared to other zinc-dependent metalloenzymes and shows maximum efficacy when used in doublet therapy. Conclusion Pracinostat shows potent anticancer activity even against therapeutically challenging cancers when used in doublet therapy. However, the triplet combination studies of the defined inhibitor that may prove even more beneficial are still undone, emphasizing the desperate need of further research in the defined gap. PMID:26853619

  17. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  18. [Stocking with bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, by fisheries experimental stations, fishing tackle makers, and anglers in Japan, 1960-1975].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses some facts that were pivotal in the process of the introduction of Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, into various places in Japan, however have not been considered in the existing literature. This paper points out that L. macrochirus escaped, and also was stocked, to the open water in Osaka as a result of experiments by a fisheries experimental station in the 1960s and early 1970s. In Shiga Prefecture too, the fish escaped into Lake Biwa as a result of experiments by a fisheries experimental station in about 1969. Neither Osaka nor Shiga are mentioned, by previous studies based on questionnaire research, as the prefectures in which L. macrochirus inhabited in the years between 1960, when the fish was first introduced into Japan, and 1979. In addition, anglers, who considered L. macrochirus an ideal game fish, stocked ponds and lakes in some prefectures with L. macrochirus in around 1970 on purpose to multiply the species. During this process, a network among not only local governments, fisheries experimental stations, and fish farmers, but also industries targeting anglers, such as fishing tackle makers and a magazine for anglers, was being formed, which however did not get established after all. These findings will contribute to enrich the basis of today's genetic research on the distribution of L. macrochirus in Japan. PMID:25296515

  19. Microbial Genomics Data from the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The JGI makes high-quality genome sequencing data freely available to the greater scientific community through its web portal. Having played a significant role in the federally funded Human Genome Project -- generating the complete sequences of Chromosomes 5, 16, and 19--the JGI has now moved on to contributing in other critical areas of genomics research. While NIH-funded genome sequencing activities continue to emphasize human biomedical targets and applications, the JGI has since shifted its focus to the non-human components of the biosphere, particularly those relevant to the science mission of the Department of Energy. With efficiencies of scale established at the PGF, and capacity now exceeding three billion bases generated on a monthly basis, the JGI has tackled scores of additional genomes. These include more than 60 microbial genomes and many important multicellular organisms and communities of microbes. In partnership with other federal institutions and universities, the JGI is in the process of sequencing a frog (Xenopus tropicalis), a green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), a diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana) , the cottonwood tree (Populus trichocarpa), and a host of agriculturally important plants and plant pathogens. Microorganisms, for example those that thrive under extreme conditions such as high acidity, radiation, and metal contamination, are of particular interest to the DOE and JGI. Investigations by JGI and its partners are shedding light on the cellular machinery of microbes and how they can be harnessed to clean up contaminated soil or water, capture carbon from the atmosphere, and produce potentially important sources of energy such as hydrogen and methane. [Excerpt from the JGI page "Who We Are" at http://www.jgi.doe.gov/whoweare/whoweare.html] From the JGI webportal users can view a photo grid of organisims, check assemblies for status, access the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system to do comparative analysis of publicly available

  20. Microbial metabolism of tholin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Boston, P. J.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Segal, W.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, we show that a wide variety of common soil bacteria are able to obtain their carbon and energy needs from tholin (a class of complex organic heteropolymers thought to be widely distributed through the solar system; in this case tholin was produced by passage of electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water vapor). We have isolated aerobic, anaerobic, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria which are able to use tholin as a sole carbon source. Organisms which metabolize tholin represent a variety of bacterial genera including Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Paracoccus, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, Cornebacterium, Aerobacter, Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium,and Actinomyces. Aerobic tholin-using bacteria were firrst isolated from soils containing unusual or sparse carbon sources. Some of these organisms were found to be facultatively anaerobic. Strictly anaerobic tholin-using bacteria were isolated from both carbon-rich and carbon-poor anaerobic lake muds. In addition, both aerobic and anaerobic tholin-using bacteria were isolated from common soil collected outside the laboratory building. Some, but not all, of the strains that were able to obtain carbon from tholin were also able to obtain their nitrogen requirements from tholin. Bacteria isolated from common soils were tested for their ability to obtain carbon from the water-soluble fraction, the ethanol-soluble fraction, and the water/ethanol-insoluble fraction of the tholin. Of the 3.5 × 10 7 bacteria isolated per gram of common soils, 1.7 0.5, and 0.2%, respectively, were able to obtaib their carbon requirements from the water-soluble fraction, the ethanol-soluble fraction and the water/ethanol-insoluble fraction of the tholin. The palatability of tholins to modern microbes may have implications for the early evolution of microbial life on Earth. Tholins may have formed the base of the food chain for an early heterotrophic biosphere before the evolution of

  1. Microbial Identification in Pharmaceutical Compounding.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Tiffany; Anstead, James; Schade, Lisa; Zellner, James

    2016-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies and contract testing laboratories can readily utilize critical information that microbial identification methods provide. Rapidly identifying the genus and species of environmental isolates and sample contaminates provides pharmacies and laboratories the opportunity to determine the possible source and implement corrective actions to improve compounding and testing processes. The microbial identification data collected from a compounding environment is critical. It is important to have accurate and specific microbial information to guide environmental collection practices, validation studies, and troubleshooting initiatives. The different technologies available provide varying levels of identification. They range from phenotypic assays to more accurate molecular-based techniques, including macromolecular methods and whole genome sequencing. Selecting the appropriate identification methodology requires evaluating multiple factors including the level of information required (genus only, genus and species, etc.) and the pharmacy's tolerance for unidentified or incorrectly identified isolates. PMID:27125052

  2. The phenomenon of microbial uncultivability.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S S

    2013-10-01

    Most of the microbial diversity on our planet cannot be cultivated, and remains inaccessible. To bring the missing species into culture, microbiologists have introduced over the past decade a number of innovations aiming to meet the demands of new microbes and better mimic their natural conditions. This resulted in a significant increase in microbial recovery yet the real reasons why so many microbes do not grow on artificial media remain largely unknown. The recently proposed scout model of microbial life cycle may provide a partial explanation for the phenomenon. It postulates that transition from dormancy to activity is a stochastic process originating in noise-driven bistability. The model helps explain several otherwise perplexing observations, and informs the future cultivation efforts. PMID:24011825

  3. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of a supplementary biotechnology that will potentially aid in obtaining greater oil production and processing capabilities. This supplementary technology involves the application of microbiological processes to specific and well-defined problems in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The discussion outlines scenarios for various microbiological processes that have been identified as promising areas for research and development, many of which are currently being addressed within the petroleum industry and by the Department of Energy. Microorganisms and microbial products can be used to recover oil from reservoirs. To be successful, the complexity of oil and the physical constraints in the reservoir must be taken into account. The three general approaches are: stimulation of the endogenous microbial population; injection of microorganisms with proven ability to perform well in situ; and the use of microbial products, such as xanthan gum, produced by Xanthomonas campestris.

  4. Microbial Metagenomics: Beyond the Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Dupont, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomics literally means “beyond the genome.” Marine microbial metagenomic databases presently comprise ˜400 billion base pairs of DNA, only ˜3% of that found in 1 ml of seawater. Very soon a trillion-base-pair sequence run will be feasible, so it is time to reflect on what we have learned from metagenomics. We review the impact of metagenomics on our understanding of marine microbial communities. We consider the studies facilitated by data generated through the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, as well as the revolution wrought at the individual laboratory level through next generation sequencing technologies. We review recent studies and discoveries since 2008, provide a discussion of bioinformatic analyses, including conceptual pipelines and sequence annotation and predict the future of metagenomics, with suggestions of collaborative community studies tailored toward answering some of the fundamental questions in marine microbial ecology.

  5. Microbial keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Bates, A K; Kirkness, C M; Ficker, L A; Steele, A D; Rice, N S

    1990-01-01

    Thirty cases of microbial keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty were reviewed to examine the associated risk factors, the spectrum of pathogens and the prognosis for graft survival and visual outcome. The indications for keratoplasty in this group differed markedly from those for all corneal grafts performed with a much higher incidence of previous microbial keratitis and of herpes simplex keratitis. A positive culture was obtained in 93% of cases and in contrast to microbial keratitis overall, Gram positive organisms predominated particularly streptococcus pneumoniae and staphylococcus aureus. Risk factors identified were loose or broken sutures, graft decompensation and a poor ocular surface environment. There was a poor prognosis for graft survival with only 23% of cases retaining a clear graft. Overall 53% of cases were regrafted. PMID:2323481

  6. Universality of human microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Amir; Gibson, Travis E; Friedman, Jonathan; Carey, Vincent J; Weiss, Scott T; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Human-associated microbial communities have a crucial role in determining our health and well-being, and this has led to the continuing development of microbiome-based therapies such as faecal microbiota transplantation. These microbial communities are very complex, dynamic and highly personalized ecosystems, exhibiting a high degree of inter-individual variability in both species assemblages and abundance profiles. It is not known whether the underlying ecological dynamics of these communities, which can be parameterized by growth rates, and intra- and inter-species interactions in population dynamics models, are largely host-independent (that is, universal) or host-specific. If the inter-individual variability reflects host-specific dynamics due to differences in host lifestyle, physiology or genetics, then generic microbiome manipulations may have unintended consequences, rendering them ineffective or even detrimental. Alternatively, microbial ecosystems of different subjects may exhibit universal dynamics, with the inter-individual variability mainly originating from differences in the sets of colonizing species. Here we develop a new computational method to characterize human microbial dynamics. By applying this method to cross-sectional data from two large-scale metagenomic studies--the Human Microbiome Project and the Student Microbiome Project--we show that gut and mouth microbiomes display pronounced universal dynamics, whereas communities associated with certain skin sites are probably shaped by differences in the host environment. Notably, the universality of gut microbial dynamics is not observed in subjects with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection but is observed in the same set of subjects after faecal microbiota transplantation. These results fundamentally improve our understanding of the processes that shape human microbial ecosystems, and pave the way to designing general microbiome-based therapies. PMID:27279224

  7. Universality of human microbial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Gibson, Travis E.; Friedman, Jonathan; Carey, Vincent J.; Weiss, Scott T.; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Human-associated microbial communities have a crucial role in determining our health and well-being, and this has led to the continuing development of microbiome-based therapies such as faecal microbiota transplantation. These microbial communities are very complex, dynamic and highly personalized ecosystems, exhibiting a high degree of inter-individual variability in both species assemblages and abundance profiles. It is not known whether the underlying ecological dynamics of these communities, which can be parameterized by growth rates, and intra- and inter-species interactions in population dynamics models, are largely host-independent (that is, universal) or host-specific. If the inter-individual variability reflects host-specific dynamics due to differences in host lifestyle, physiology or genetics, then generic microbiome manipulations may have unintended consequences, rendering them ineffective or even detrimental. Alternatively, microbial ecosystems of different subjects may exhibit universal dynamics, with the inter-individual variability mainly originating from differences in the sets of colonizing species. Here we develop a new computational method to characterize human microbial dynamics. By applying this method to cross-sectional data from two large-scale metagenomic studies—the Human Microbiome Project and the Student Microbiome Project—we show that gut and mouth microbiomes display pronounced universal dynamics, whereas communities associated with certain skin sites are probably shaped by differences in the host environment. Notably, the universality of gut microbial dynamics is not observed in subjects with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection but is observed in the same set of subjects after faecal microbiota transplantation. These results fundamentally improve our understanding of the processes that shape human microbial ecosystems, and pave the way to designing general microbiome-based therapies.

  8. Synthetic networks in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suel, Gurol

    2015-03-01

    While bacteria are single celled organisms, they predominantly reside in structured communities known as biofilms. Cells in biofilms are encapsulated and protected by the extracellular matrix (ECM), which also confines cells in space. During biofilm development, microbial cells are organized in space and over time. Little is known regarding the processes that drive the spatio-temporal organization of microbial communities. Here I will present our latest efforts that utilize synthetic biology approaches to uncover the organizational principles that drive biofilm development. I will also discuss the possible implications of our recent findings in terms of the cost and benefit to biofilm cells.

  9. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modeling: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the need for microbial assessments and presents a road map associated with quantitative microbial risk assessments, through an integrated environmental modeling approach. A brief introduction and the strengths of the current knowledge are illustrated. W...

  11. THE FUTURE OF MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is differentiated from traditional microbial water quality efforts by the need to identify the host species from which the bacteria originate, rather than necessarily identifying an individual point source. Despite recent advances in the developmen...

  12. Recreating Microbial Ecosystems of the Late Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez Rivera, M.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2016-05-01

    Microbialites are important deposits for studying early microbial life. Cuspate and plumose microbialites of the Gamohaan Formation provide evidence for multiple microbial communities that grew contemporaneously with different growth rates.

  13. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  14. Time to tackle obesity.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Obesity has been described by the WHO as a global epidemic. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2 and it is estimated that almost a quarter of the population of England are obese. Lighten Up was a randomised controlled trial that studied 740 obese or overweight men and women identified from GP records in a primary care trust in Birmingham. The study compared a range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity. The commercial weight management programmes were more effective and cheaper than the primary care based services studied. The authors calculated that patients lost an average of 1.3 kg/m2 with the most effective intervention which if maintained gives a crude cost per life year saved of 77 pound sterling. This would indicate that providing commercial weight loss programmes as an NHS funded service is a potentially cost-effective intervention. PMID:22272525

  15. Tackling a Recurrent Pinealoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Palled, Siddanna; Kalavagunta, Sruthi; Beerappa Gowda, Jaipal; Umesh, Kavita; Aal, Mahalaxmi; Abdul Razack, Tanvir pasha Chitraduraga; Gowda, Veerabhadre; Viswanath, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Pineoblastomas are rare, malignant, pineal region lesions that account for <0.1% of all intracranial tumors and can metastasize along the neuroaxis. Pineoblastomas are more common in children than in adults and adults account for <10% of patients. The management of pinealoblastoma is multimodality approach, surgery followed with radiation and chemotherapy. In view of aggressive nature few centres use high dose chemotherapy with autologus stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed cases but in recurrent setting the literature is very sparse. The present case represents the management of pinealoblastoma in the recurrent setting with reirradiation and adjuvant carmustine chemotherapy wherein the management guidelines are not definitive. PMID:25210636

  16. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  17. Chevron tackles urban drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Chevron USA transformed a landfill in Pacioma, Calif., into an urban drill site for a field expected to produce 2,400 b/d of oil and 24 MMcfd of natural gas within 3 years. Chevron's foremost challenges in developing the Paxton drill site were to drill and produce oil and gas within a limited, 2.7-acre spacing and with minimum impact to the immediate environment. To meet these goals, Chevron: Used offshore technology for the well cellar layout and rig design and construction. Performed extensive research in soil mechanics, noise abatement, and safety. Employed state-of-the-art computer technology for monitoring and controlling different operating systems. Concealed the drilling derrick in a 10-story tower that resembles a Spanish mission. Hid other structures, including offices, a computerized control room, and gas processing facilities, behind a 12-ft fence. The Paxton site, located a few miles north of Los Angeles, is Chevron's fifth compressed urban drill site. The other sites, all in the Los Angeles area, are San Vicente, Packard, Broadway, and Garey. Chevron's experience in drilling 173 wells at these four facilities was beneficial, since the same engineering and technology were applied to the Paxton site.

  18. Tackling science's distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    If arguments for limiting support for science continue to dominate the public discourse about science, “we will be talking our way into scientific decline,” said Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences, to the academy's annual meeting on April 30. Press is the latest in a number of prominent figures on the Washington science scene, from George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science Committee, to Mary L. Good, head of the National Science Board, to take stock of the U.S. science enterprise.Press lauded President Bush's current budget request for science, calling it the best one in recent years. The new federal budget caps, however, provide a counterweight by creating a “fixed pie” for spending. Added to this, the university science community is in severe distress, Press said, suffering from outmoded laboratories, rising costs, budget cuts, and new and expensive government regulations, among other burdens. The budget caps also force federally funded laboratories and universities to compete with each other for support.

  19. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors to…

  20. Tackling the Sixth State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolm, Henry H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the process of high gradient magnetic separation which gives promise as a method of large scale removal of colloidal impurities including bacteria and viruses. Examples and diagrams are included. (GH)

  1. Smith Tackles Oakland Unified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    As a 20-something, Anthony "Tony" Smith had fulfilled one dream: playing professional football for the Green Bay Packers and the San Francisco 49ers. Next up, he thought, was law school, but a former mentor reminded him that he is a teacher. Smith never became a classroom teacher, but his background in sports--where he learned the power of…

  2. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M

  3. Modeling microbial communities: current, developing, and future technologies for predicting microbial community interaction.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack

    2012-07-31

    Never has there been a greater opportunity for investigating microbial communities. Not only are the profound effects of microbial ecology on every aspect of Earth's geochemical cycles beginning to be understood, but also the analytical and computational tools for investigating microbial Earth are undergoing a rapid revolution. This environmental microbial interactome, the system of interactions between the microbiome and the environment, has shaped the planet's past and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future. We review recent approaches for modeling microbial community structures and the interactions of microbial populations with their environments. Different modeling approaches consider the environmental microbial interactome from different aspects, and each provides insights to different facets of microbial ecology. We discuss the challenges and opportunities for the future of microbial modeling and describe recent advances in microbial community modeling that are extending current descriptive technologies into a predictive science. PMID:22465599

  4. In situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  5. What visual illusions tell us about underlying neural mechanisms and observer strategies for tackling the inverse problem of achromatic perception

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Research in lightness perception centers on understanding the prior assumptions and processing strategies the visual system uses to parse the retinal intensity distribution (the proximal stimulus) into the surface reflectance and illumination components of the scene (the distal stimulus—ground truth). It is agreed that the visual system must compare different regions of the visual image to solve this inverse problem; however, the nature of the comparisons and the mechanisms underlying them are topics of intense debate. Perceptual illusions are of value because they reveal important information about these visual processing mechanisms. We propose a framework for lightness research that resolves confusions and paradoxes in the literature, and provides insight into the mechanisms the visual system employs to tackle the inverse problem. The main idea is that much of the debate and confusion in the literature stems from the fact that lightness, defined as apparent reflectance, is underspecified and refers to three different types of judgments that are not comparable. Under stimulus conditions containing a visible illumination component, such as a shadow boundary, observers can distinguish and match three independent dimensions of achromatic experience: apparent intensity (brightness), apparent local intensity ratio (brightness-contrast), and apparent reflectance (lightness). In the absence of a visible illumination boundary, however, achromatic vision reduces to two dimensions and, depending on stimulus conditions and observer instructions, judgments of lightness are identical to judgments of brightness or brightness-contrast. Furthermore, because lightness judgments are based on different information under different conditions, they can differ greatly in their degree of difficulty and in their accuracy. This may, in part, explain the large variability in lightness constancy across studies. PMID:25954181

  6. Tackling reproducibility in microcantilever biosensors: a statistical approach for sensitive and specific end-point detection of immunoreactions.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Priscila M; Tamayo, Javier; Ruz, José J; Puertas, Sara; Polo, Ester; Grazu, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Calleja, Montserrat

    2013-02-21

    In the last decade, microcantilever biosensors have shown enormous potential for highly sensitive label-free detection of nucleic acid and proteins. Despite the enormous advances, the promise of applications of this technology in the biomedical field has been frustrated because of its low reproducibility. Here we tackle the reproducibility issue in microcantilever biosensors and provide the guidelines to minimize the deviations in the biosensor response between different assays. We use as a model system the label-free end-point detection of horseradish peroxidase. We choose the end-point detection mode because of its suitability for implementation in the clinical field that requires simplicity and point-of-care capability. Our study comprises the analysis of 1012 cantilevers with different antibody surface densities, two blocking strategies based on polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and stringent controls. The study reveals that the performance of the assay critically depends on both antibody surface density and blocking strategies. We find that the optimal conditions involve antibody surface densities near but below saturation and blocking with PEG. We find that the surface stress induced by the antibody-antigen binding is significantly correlated with the surface stress generated during the antibody attachment and blocking steps. The statistical correlation is harnessed to identify immobilization failure or success, and thus enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. This procedure enables achieving rates of true positives and true negatives of 90% and 91% respectively. The detection limit is of 10 ng mL(-1) (250 pM) that is similar to the detection limit obtained in our enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that achieved with well-established label-free biosensors such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. PMID:23223515

  7. Ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsins are light-sensing proteins used in optogenetics. The word “rhodopsin” originates from the Greek words “rhodo” and “opsis,” indicating rose and sight, respectively. Although the classical meaning of rhodopsin is the red-colored pigment in our eyes, the modern meaning of rhodopsin encompasses photoactive proteins containing a retinal chromophore in animals and microbes. Animal and microbial rhodopsins possess 11-cis and all-trans retinal, respectively, to capture light in seven transmembrane α-helices, and photoisomerizations into all-trans and 13-cis forms, respectively, initiate each function. Ion-transporting proteins can be found in microbial rhodopsins, such as light-gated channels and light-driven pumps, which are the main tools in optogenetics. Light-driven pumps, such as archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Cl− pump halorhodopsin (HR), were discovered in the 1970s, and their mechanism has been extensively studied. On the other hand, different kinds of H+ and Cl− pumps have been found in marine bacteria, such as proteorhodopsin (PR) and Fulvimarina pelagi rhodopsin (FR), respectively. In addition, a light-driven Na+ pump was found, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2). These light-driven ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins are classified as DTD, TSA, DTE, NTQ, and NDQ rhodopsins for BR, HR, PR, FR, and KR2, respectively. Recent understanding of ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins is reviewed in this paper. PMID:26442282

  8. Biogeochemical Processes in Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines process rates that shape Earth's environment, create the biomarker sedimentary and atmospheric signatures of life and define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred. In order to understand how microorganisms have shaped the global environment of Earth and potentially, other worlds, we must develop an experimental paradigm that links biogeochemical processes with ever-changing temporal and spatial distributions of microbial population, and their metabolic properties. Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time, their Biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self-sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a diel (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen. sulfur, and a host of other elements.

  9. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  10. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Cloelle G. S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R.; Butler, Caitlyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199