Science.gov

Sample records for microbially promoted solubilization

  1. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  2. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  3. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  4. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  6. FINAL REPORT. MICROBIALLY PROMOTED SOLUBILIZATION OF STEEL CORROSION PRODUCTS AND FATE OF ASSOCIATED ACTINIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project investigated processes related to the microbial reductive dissolution of mild and stainless steel corrosion products and the fate of associated radionuclide and metal contaminants. The general goals were to (1) develop an improved understanding of microbial ...

  7. ANNUAL REPORT. MICROBIALLY PROMOTED SOLUBILIZATION OF STEEL CORROSION PRODUCTS AND FATE OF ASSOCIATED ACTINIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) statements of need call for biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions and microbial processes with potential for decontaminating c...

  8. Microbially Promoted Solubilization of Steel Corrosion Products and Fate of Associated Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gorby, Yuri A.; Geesey, Gill G.; Caccavo Jr., Frank; Fredrickson, James K.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) statements of need call for ''biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions and microbial processes with potential for decontaminating corroding metal surfaces.'' Improved understanding of the fundamental processes of microbial reductive dissolution of iron oxide scale on corroding carbon steel will support assessment and potential application of an environmentally benign and cost-effective strategy for in situ decontamination of structural metal surfaces and piping. This research is designed to develop a safe and effective biological approach for decontaminating mild and stainless steels that were used in the production, transport, and storage of radioactive materials.

  9. Microbially-Promoted Solubilization of Steel Corrosion Products and Fate of Associated Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gill Geesey; Timothy Magnuson; Andrew Neal

    2002-06-15

    modify the iron oxide surfaces that they colonize and promote the reduction and precipitation of actinides such as uranium at these sites

  10. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    PubMed Central

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  11. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  12. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, A; Khan, M S; Ahemad, M; Oves, M

    2009-09-01

    Most agronomic soils contain large reserves of total phosphorus [P], but the fixation and precipitation of P cause P deficiency, and in turn, restrict the growth of crops severely. Phosphorus replenishment, especially in sustainable production systems, remains a major challenge as it is mainly fertilizer-dependent. Though the use of chemical P fertilizers is obviously the best means to circumvent P deficiency in different agro-ecosystems, their use is always limited due to its spiralling cost. A greater interest has, therefore, been generated to find an alternative yet inexpensive technology that could provide sufficient P to plants while reducing the dependence on expensive chemical P fertilizers. Among the heterogeneous and naturally abundant microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including bacteria have provided an alternative biotechnological solution in sustainable agriculture to meet the P demands of plants. These organisms in addition to providing P to plants also facilitate plant growth by other mechanisms. Despite their different ecological niches and multiple functional properties, P-solubilizing bacteria have yet to fulfil their promise as commercial bio-inoculants. Current developments in our understanding of the functional diversity, rhizosphere colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application are likely to facilitate their use as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:19789141

  14. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  16. Microbial Mn(IV) reduction requires an initial one-electron reductive solubilization step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Szeinbaum, Nadia H.; DiChristina, Thomas J.; Taillefert, Martial

    2012-12-01

    Mn(IV) and Mn(II) are the most stable and prevalent forms of manganese in natural environments. The occurrence of Mn(III) in minerals and the detection of soluble Mn(III) in natural waters, however, suggest that Mn(III) is an intermediate in both the oxidation of Mn(II) and the reduction of Mn(IV). Mn(III) has recently been proposed as an intermediate during the oxidation of Mn(II) by Mn-oxidizing bacteria but has never been considered as an intermediate during the bio-reduction of Mn(IV). Here we show for the first time that microbial Mn(IV) reduction proceeds step-wise via two successive one-electron transfer reactions with production of soluble Mn(III) as transient intermediate. Incubations with mutant strains demonstrate that the reduction of both solid Mn(IV) and soluble Mn(III) occurs at the outer membrane of the cell. In addition, pseudo-first order rate constants obtained from these incubations indicate that Mn(IV) respiration involves only one of the two potential terminal reductases (c-type cytochrome MtrC and OmcA) involved in Fe(III) respiration. More importantly, only the second electron transfer step is coupled to production of dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that the first electron transfer reaction is a reductive solubilization step that increases Mn bioavailability. These findings oppose the long-standing paradigm that microbial Mn(IV) reduction proceeds via a single two-electron transfer reaction coupled to organic carbon oxidation, and suggest that diagenetic models should be revised to correctly account for the impact of manganese reduction in the global carbon cycle.

  17. Growth promotion of maize by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria isolated from composts and macrofauna.

    PubMed

    Hameeda, B; Harini, G; Rupela, O P; Wani, S P; Reddy, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with phosphate-solubilizing ability and other plant growth promoting traits increased the plant biomass (20-40%) by paper towel method. Glasshouse and field experiments were conducted using two efficient strains Serratia marcescens EB 67 and Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35. Increase in plant biomass (dry weight) was 99% with EB 67 and 94% with CDB 35 under glasshouse conditions. Increase in plant biomass at 48 and 96 days after sowing was 66% and 50% with EB 67 and 51% and 18% with CDB 35 under field conditions. Seed treatment with EB 67 and CDB 35 increased the grain yield of field-grown maize by 85% and 64% compared to the uninoculated control. Population of EB 67 and CDB 35 were traced back from the rhizosphere of maize on buffered rock phosphate (RP) medium and both the strains survived up to 96 days after sowing. PMID:16831538

  18. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  19. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis.

    PubMed

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-06-15

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  20. Bacteria with Phosphate Solubilizing Capacity Alter Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Both Inside and Outside the Root and in the Presence of Native Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Yuli Marcela; Fernandez, Belen Rocio; Lara, Lidia Susana; Rodriguez, Alia; Uribe-Vélez, Daniel; Sanders, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas bacteria (PSB) could potentially interact synergistically because PSB solubilize phosphate into a form that AMF can absorb and transport to the plant. However, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the growth of each other. We tested whether different strains of bacteria, that have the capacity to solubilize phosphate, are able to grow along AMF hyphae and differentially influence the growth of AMF both outside the roots of carrot in in vitro conditions and inside the roots of potato in the presence of a microbial community. We found strong effects of AMF on the growth of the different bacterial strains. Different bacterial strains also had very strong effects on the growth of AMF extraradical hyphae outside the roots of carrot and on colonization of potato roots by AMF. The differential effects on colonization occurred in the presence of a microbial community. Our results show that these two important groups of rhizosphere microorganisms indeed interact with each other. Such interactions could potentially lead to synergistic effects between the two groups but this could depend on whether the bacteria truly solubilize phosphate in the rhizosphere in the presence of microbial communities. PMID:27253975

  1. Bacteria with Phosphate Solubilizing Capacity Alter Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Both Inside and Outside the Root and in the Presence of Native Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Lidia Susana; Rodriguez, Alia; Uribe-Vélez, Daniel; Sanders, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas bacteria (PSB) could potentially interact synergistically because PSB solubilize phosphate into a form that AMF can absorb and transport to the plant. However, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the growth of each other. We tested whether different strains of bacteria, that have the capacity to solubilize phosphate, are able to grow along AMF hyphae and differentially influence the growth of AMF both outside the roots of carrot in in vitro conditions and inside the roots of potato in the presence of a microbial community. We found strong effects of AMF on the growth of the different bacterial strains. Different bacterial strains also had very strong effects on the growth of AMF extraradical hyphae outside the roots of carrot and on colonization of potato roots by AMF. The differential effects on colonization occurred in the presence of a microbial community. Our results show that these two important groups of rhizosphere microorganisms indeed interact with each other. Such interactions could potentially lead to synergistic effects between the two groups but this could depend on whether the bacteria truly solubilize phosphate in the rhizosphere in the presence of microbial communities. PMID:27253975

  2. Modestobacter lacusdianchii sp. nov., a Phosphate-Solubilizing Actinobacterium with Ability to Promote Microcystis Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Huo; Salam, Nimaichand; Cheng, Juan; Li, Han-Quan; Yang, Jian-Yuan; Zha, Dai-Ming; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Ai, Meng-Jie; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 19T, was isolated from a culture mat of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Dianchi Lake, South-west China. 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison of strain JXJ CY 19T and the available sequences in the GenBank database showed that the strain was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1T (99.1% similarity) and Modestobacter roseus KLBMP 1279T (99.0%). The isolate had meso-diaminopimelic in the cell wall with whole-cell sugars of mannose, rhamnose, ribose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The menaquinone detected was MK-9(H4), while the major cellular fatty acids include C17:1 ω8c, C15:0 iso, C15:1 iso G and C16:0 iso. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains JXJ CY 19T and the closely related type strains Modestobacter marinus CGMCC 4.5581T and Modestobacter roseus NBRC 108673T were determined to be 50.8 ± 0.8% and 44.1 ± 1.7%, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 71.9 mol%. On the basis of the above taxonomic data and differences in physiological characters from the closely related type strains, strain JXJ CY 19T was recognized as a novel species of the genus Modestobacter, for which the name Modestobacter lacusdianchii sp. nov. (JXJ CY 19T = KCTC 39600T = CPCC 204352T) is proposed. The type strain JXJ CY 19T can solubilize calcium phosphate tribasic (Ca3(PO4)2), phytin and L-α-phosphatidylcholine. The phosphate-solubilizing property of the novel actinobacterium could be a possible factor for the increase in growth of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 in ecosystem where the amount of available soluble phosphate is limited such as Dianchi Lake. PMID:27537546

  3. Modestobacter lacusdianchii sp. nov., a Phosphate-Solubilizing Actinobacterium with Ability to Promote Microcystis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Juan; Li, Han-Quan; Yang, Jian-Yuan; Zha, Dai-Ming; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Ai, Meng-Jie; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 19T, was isolated from a culture mat of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Dianchi Lake, South-west China. 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison of strain JXJ CY 19T and the available sequences in the GenBank database showed that the strain was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1T (99.1% similarity) and Modestobacter roseus KLBMP 1279T (99.0%). The isolate had meso-diaminopimelic in the cell wall with whole-cell sugars of mannose, rhamnose, ribose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The menaquinone detected was MK-9(H4), while the major cellular fatty acids include C17:1 ω8c, C15:0 iso, C15:1 iso G and C16:0 iso. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains JXJ CY 19T and the closely related type strains Modestobacter marinus CGMCC 4.5581T and Modestobacter roseus NBRC 108673T were determined to be 50.8 ± 0.8% and 44.1 ± 1.7%, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 71.9 mol%. On the basis of the above taxonomic data and differences in physiological characters from the closely related type strains, strain JXJ CY 19T was recognized as a novel species of the genus Modestobacter, for which the name Modestobacter lacusdianchii sp. nov. (JXJ CY 19T = KCTC 39600T = CPCC 204352T) is proposed. The type strain JXJ CY 19T can solubilize calcium phosphate tribasic (Ca3(PO4)2), phytin and L-α-phosphatidylcholine. The phosphate-solubilizing property of the novel actinobacterium could be a possible factor for the increase in growth of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 in ecosystem where the amount of available soluble phosphate is limited such as Dianchi Lake. PMID:27537546

  4. Mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatment of green macroalgal biomass: Effects on solubilization, methanation, and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heejung; Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatments with HCl or NaOH on the solubilization and biomethanation of Ulva biomass were assessed. Within the explored region (0-0.2M HCl/NaOH, 60-90°C), both methods were effective for solubilization (about 2-fold increase in the proportion of soluble organics), particularly under high-temperature and high-chemical-dose conditions. However, increased solubilization was not translated into enhanced biogas production for both methods. Response surface analysis statistically revealed that HCl or NaOH addition enhances the solubilization degree while adversely affects the methanation. The thermal-only treatment at the upper-limit temperature (90°C) was estimated to maximize the biogas production for both methods, suggesting limited potential of HCl/NaOH treatment for enhanced Ulva biomethanation. Compared to HCl, NaOH had much stronger positive and negative effects on the solubilization and methanation, respectively. Methanosaeta was likely the dominant methanogen group in all trials. Bacterial community structure varied among the trials according primarily to HCl/NaOH addition. PMID:26294339

  5. Plant growth promoting traits of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from apple trees in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, C K

    2013-05-01

    Two hundred and six phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria (PSB) were isolated from rhizosphere soil (RS) and root endosphere (ER) of apple trees from different sites of four locations viz., Chamba, Shimla, Kinnaur and Kullu of Himachal Pradesh, Northern India, and were screened for plant growth promoting traits (PGPTs) by using culture dependent procedures. Indole acetic acid (IAA) production was detected in 50 isolates (24.2 %), siderophore synthesis in 53 isolates (25.7 %), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in 40 isolates (19.4 %) and percentage growth inhibition against Dematophora necatrix in 61 isolates (29.6 %). Overall, 54.3 % of PSB isolates from RS and 64.4 % from ER showed none of the PGPTs tested. Among the PSB showing PGPTs, 10.6 % had single trait and 30.6 % had multiple traits showing two (10.7 %), three (14.1 %) and four (5.8 %) types of PGPTs. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') revealed that PGPT-possessing PSBs in RS were more abundant than ER. Clustering analysis by principal component analysis showed that ER was most important factor influencing the ecological distribution and physiological characterization of PGPT-possessing PSB. There was a positive correlation (0.94, p < 0.05) between HCN and antifungal activity producers, and IAA and antifungal activity producers (0.99, p < 0.05). Significant positive correlation (0.42, p < 0.05) between HCN producers and altitude was also noted. PMID:23503555

  6. Biotechnological solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Vassileva, M

    2003-06-01

    Rock phosphate (RP) is an important natural material traditionally used for the production of phosphorus (P) fertilizers. Compared with chemical treatment, microbial solubilization of RP is an alternative environmentally mild approach. An overview of biotechnological techniques, mainly based on solubilization processes involving agro-industrial residues, is presented. Potential advantages of composting, solid-state fermentation, and liquid submerged fermentation employing free and immobilized microorganisms that produce organic acids and simultaneously solubilize RP are discussed. Subsequent introduction of the final fermented products into soil-plant systems promotes plant growth and P acquisition. PMID:12692692

  7. Cancer-Promoting Effects of Microbial Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheflin, Amy M.; Whitney, Alyssa K.; Weir, Tiffany L.

    2014-01-01

    Humans depend upon our commensal bacteria for nutritive, immune-modulating and metabolic contributions to maintenance of health. However, this commensal community exists in careful balance that, if disrupted, enters dysbiosis; which has been shown to contribute to the etiology of colon, gastric, esophageal, pancreatic, laryngeal, breast and gallbladder carcinomas. This etiology is closely tied to host inflammation, which causes and is aggravated by microbial dysbiosis while increasing vulnerability to pathogens. Advances in sequencing technology have increased our ability to catalog microbial species associated with various cancer types across the body. However, defining microbial biomarkers as cancer predictors presents multiple challenges and existing studies identifying cancer-associated bacteria have reported inconsistent outcomes. Combining metabolites and microbiome analyses can help elucidate interactions between gut microbiota, metabolism and the host. Ultimately, understanding how gut dysbiosis impacts host response and inflammation will be critical to creating an accurate picture of the role of the microbiome in cancer. PMID:25123079

  8. Microbially Promoted Solubilization of Steel Corrosion Products and Fate of Associated Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Yyri A. Gorby; Gill G. Geesey; Frank Caccavo, Jr.; James K. Fredrickson

    2003-02-28

    The ultimate goal of this project was to demonstrate that metal-reducing bacteria could be used to remove heavy metal and radionuclide contaminants from the surfaces of corroding steel surfaces. Toward this end, fundamental scientific issues regarding (1) factors influencing the adhesion and colonization of DIB on mineral surfaces, (2) the enzymatic activity of cells once they have adhered to mineral surfaces, (3) and (4) methods for recovering bacteria and attendant radionuclides following release from mineral surfaces were addressed. The fate of radionuclides (plutonium) contaminants following reduction by DIRB.

  9. MICROBIALLY PROMOTED SOLUBILIZATION OF STEEL CORROSION PRODUCTS AND FATE OF ASSOCIATED ACTINIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated surfaces of various metals, including stainless steel, copper, nickel, iron, and carbon steel, pose significant problems to the on going decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) efforts of the Department of Energy. Contamination consisting of nuclear fuel component...

  10. Prospecting cold deserts of north western Himalayas for microbial diversity and plant growth promoting attributes.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in different samples collected from cold deserts of north western Himalayas, India, were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. A total of 232 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with the three restriction endonucleases Alu I, Msp I and Hae III, which led to formation of 29-54 groups for the different sites, adding up to169 groups. 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis, revealed that 82 distinct species of 31 different genera, belonged to four phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. PLFA profiling was performed for concerned samples which gave an estimate of microbial communities without cultivating the microorganisms. PLFA analysis led to characterization of diverse group of microbes in different samples such as gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, sulphate reducing bacteria and fungi. The representative strains were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included production of ammonia, HCN, gibberellic acid, IAA and siderophore; solubilization of phosphorus and activity of ACC deaminase. In vitro antifungal activity assay was performed against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microorganisms may serve as inoculants for crops growing under cold climatic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Arthrobacter nicotianae, Brevundimonas terrae, Paenibacillus tylopili and Pseudomonas cedrina in cold deserts and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes at low temperatures. PMID:25575970

  11. Organic acid production and plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization by Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 isolated from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Sharma, Natasha; Vyas, Pratibha; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Prasad, Ramdeen

    2010-11-01

    An efficient phosphate-solubilizing plant growth-promoting Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 exhibited significantly higher solubilization of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) than Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP). Qualitative and quantitative differences were discerned in the gluconic, oxalic, 2-keto gluconic, lactic, malic and formic acids during the solubilization of various inorganic phosphates by the strain. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid produced during phosphate solubilization. Formic acid production was restricted to TCP solubilization and oxalic acid production to the solubilization of MRP, URP and NCRP. A significant increase in plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root dry weight, and root, shoot and soil phosphorus (P) contents was recorded with the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated NP(0)K or NP(TCP)K treatments. Plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization suggested that the use of bacterial strain would be a beneficial addition to the agriculture practices in TCP-rich soils in reducing the application of phosphatic fertilizers. PMID:20821196

  12. Allele surfing promotes microbial adaptation from standing variation.

    PubMed

    Gralka, Matti; Stiewe, Fabian; Farrell, Fred; Möbius, Wolfram; Waclaw, Bartlomiej; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2016-08-01

    The coupling of ecology and evolution during range expansions enables mutations to establish at expanding range margins and reach high frequencies. This phenomenon, called allele surfing, is thought to have caused revolutions in the gene pool of many species, most evidently in microbial communities. It has remained unclear, however, under which conditions allele surfing promotes or hinders adaptation. Here, using microbial experiments and simulations, we show that, starting with standing adaptive variation, range expansions generate a larger increase in mean fitness than spatially uniform population expansions. The adaptation gain results from 'soft' selective sweeps emerging from surfing beneficial mutations. The rate of these surfing events is shown to sensitively depend on the strength of genetic drift, which varies among strains and environmental conditions. More generally, allele surfing promotes the rate of adaptation per biomass produced, which could help developing biofilms and other resource-limited populations to cope with environmental challenges. PMID:27307400

  13. Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phophatases

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A.; Martial Taillefert

    2006-06-01

    The following is a summary of progress in our project ''Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phosphatases'' during the second year of the project. (1). Assignment of microbial phosphatases to molecular classes. One objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and possible contributions of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Non-specific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. To address this objective we have designed a collection of PCR primer sets based on known microbial acid phosphatase sequences. Genomic DNA is extracted from subsurface FRC isolates and amplicons of the expected sizes are sequenced and searched for conserved signature motifs. During this reporting period we have successfully designed and tested a suite of PCR primers for gram-positive and gram-negative groups of the following phosphatase classes: (1) Class A; (2) Class B; and (3) Class C (gram negative). We have obtained specific PCR products for each of the classes using the primers we have designed using control strains as well as with subsurface isolates.

  14. Performance of calcium peroxide for removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waste activated sludge and promotion of sludge solubilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai; Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2015-03-15

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation. Effects of initial pH and CaO2 dosage were investigated. The impacts of CaO2 treatment on sludge solubilization and anaerobic digestion were also evaluated. Specifically, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EDC degradation during CaO2 oxidation was tested. Effects of 6 metal ions contained in the sludge matrix on EDC degradation were also evaluated. The results showed that CaO2 treatment can be a promising technology for EDC removal and facilitating sludge reuse. The EDC removal efficiencies increased with the increase in CaO2 dosage. At CaO2 doses of more than 0.34 g per gram of total solid (g g(-1) TS), more than 50% of EDCs were removed in a wide pH range of 2-12. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved at initial pH values of 12 and 2. The products of EDCs during CaO2 oxidation had less estrogenic activity than the originals. Under the conditions of neutral pH and CaO2 dosage = 0.34 g g(-1) TS, the sludge solubilization can be improved by increasing the soluble total organic carbon (STOC) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction by 25% and 27% in 7 d, respectively; the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was enhanced by 96% in the 15 d following anaerobic digestion. The ROS released by CaO2 are the main factors contributing to EDC removal, among which, hydroxyl radicals (OH) play the most important role. Metal ions contained in the sludge matrix also affected EDC removal. For most cases, Fe, Cu, and Zn had positive effects; Mn and Ag had negative effects; and Mg had an insignificant effect on EDC removal. PMID:25613412

  15. Promoting Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Solubilization and Depolymerization of Cellulose from Raw Biomass Materials in Water.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhicheng; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; He, Ting; Hu, Changwei

    2015-06-01

    The development of a green system to solubilize cellulose from raw biomass is important, yet it is challenging because of the insolubility of cellulose in most solvents. Herein, a green NaCl-H2 O system is developed in which NaCl significantly enhances the dissolution and depolymerisation of cellulose from raw biomass. Nearly all the cellulose in the selected biomass types was dissolved and degraded into oligomers with molecular weights of 200-400 Da under relatively mild conditions. Cl(-) could interact strongly with the end OH group of the glucose unit in a 1:1 ratio, which resulted in the enhanced breaking of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. In particular, the intermolecular hydrogen bond with an FTIR band at approximately v=3200 cm(-1) was disrupted significantly by Cl(-) . The FTIR band for a hydrogen bond between hemicellulose and lignin might appear at v=1636 cm(-1) , whereas this bond could be almost totally broken under hydrothermal conditions at 220 °C. PMID:25916895

  16. Acinetobacter strains IH9 and OCI1, two rhizospheric phosphate solubilizing isolates able to promote plant growth, constitute a new genomovar of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Peix, Alvaro; Lang, Elke; Verbarg, Susanne; Spröer, Cathrin; Rivas, Raúl; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    During a screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in agricultural soils, two strains, IH9 and OCI1, were isolated from the rhizosphere of grasses in Spain, and they showed a high ability to solubilize phosphate in vitro. Inoculation experiments in chickpea and barley were conducted with both strains and the results demonstrated their ability to promote plant growth. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains were nearly identical to each other and to those of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T), as well as the strain CIP 70.29 representing genomospecies 3. Their phenotypic characteristics also coincided with those of strains forming the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. They differed from A. calcoaceticus in the utilization of l-tartrate as a carbon source and from genomospecies 3 in the use of d-asparagine as a carbon source. The 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences of the two isolates showed nearly 98% identities to those of A. calcoaceticus, confirming that they belong to this phylogenetic group. However, the isolates appeared as a separate branch from the A. calcoaceticus sequences, indicating their molecular separation from other A. calcoaceticus strains. The analysis of three housekeeping genes, recA, rpoD and gyrB, confirmed that IH9 and OCI1 form a distinct lineage within A. calcoaceticus. These results were congruent with those from DNA-DNA hybridization, indicating that strains IH9 and OCI1 constitute a new genomovar for which we propose the name A. calcoaceticus genomovar rhizosphaerae. PMID:19467815

  17. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  18. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil. PMID:26469739

  19. Promotion and nucleation of carbonate precipitation during microbial iron reduction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z; Tice, M M

    2014-07-01

    Iron-bearing early diagenetic carbonate cements are common in sedimentary rocks, where they are thought to be associated with microbial iron reduction. However, little is yet known about how local environments around actively iron-reducing cells affect carbonate mineral precipitation rates and compositions. Precipitation experiments with the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were conducted to examine the potential role of cells in promoting precipitation and to explore the possible range of precipitate compositions generated in varying fluid compositions. Actively iron-reducing cells induced increased carbonate mineral saturation and nucleated precipitation on their poles. However, precipitation only occurred when calcium was present in solution, suggesting that cell surfaces lowered local ferrous iron concentrations by adsorption or intracellular iron oxide precipitation even as they locally raised pH. Resultant precipitates were a range of thermodynamically unstable calcium-rich siderites that would likely act as precursors to siderite, calcite, or even dolomite in nature. By modifying local pH, providing nucleation sites, and altering metal ion concentrations around cell surfaces, iron-reducing micro-organisms could produce a wide range of carbonate cements in natural sediments. PMID:24862734

  20. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert; and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  1. Microbial activity promotes carbon storage in temperate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Markus; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sierra, Carlos; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Soils are one of the most important carbon sink and sources. Soils contain up to 3/4 of all terrestrial carbon. Beside physical aspects of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture and texture) plants play an important role in carbon sequestration. The positive effect of plant diversity on carbon storage is already known, though the underlying mechanisms remain still unclear. In the frame of the Jena Experiment, a long term biodiversity experiment, we are able to identify these processes. Nine years after an land use change from an arable field to managed grassland the mean soil carbon concentrations increased towards the concentrations of permanent meadows. The increase was positively linked to a plant diversity gradient. High diverse plant communities produce more biomass, which in turn results in higher amounts of litter inputs. The plant litter is transferred to the soil organic matter by the soil microbial community. However, higher plant diversity also causes changes in micro-climatic condition. For instance, more diverse plant communities have a more dense vegetation structure, which reduced the evaporation of soils surface and thus, increases soil moisture in the top layer. Higher inputs and higher soil moisture lead to an enlarged respiration of the soil microbial community. Most interestingly, the carbon storage in the Jena Experiment was much more related to microbial respiration than to plant root inputs. Moreover, using radiocarbon, we found a significant younger carbon age in soils of more diverse plant communities than in soils of lower diversity, indicating that more fresh carbon is integrated into the carbon pool. Putting these findings together, we could show, that the positive link between plant diversity and carbon storage is due to a higher microbial decomposition of plant litter, pointing out that carbon storage in soils is a function of the microbial community.

  2. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. PMID:26805621

  3. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final and quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandbeck, K.A.; Cleveland, D.

    1995-08-01

    Research is reported on the recovery of molybdenum and nickel from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Mo release from spent coal liquefaction catalysts has been shown to be dependent upon many parameters, but release is dominated by microbial growth. The microbial Mo release is a rapid process requiring less than one week for 90% of the releaseable Mo to be solubilized from whole washed (THF) catalyst. It could be expected that the rates would be even greater with crushed catalyst. Efforts were centered on optimizing the parameters that stimulate microbial growth and action and further efforts centered on catalyst pre-treatment prior to microbial bio-leaching. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogen peroxide promises to be an effective pre-treatment wash. Hydrogen peroxide was also found to be an effective and economical agent for metals solubilization per se and could promote solubilization without subjecting the catalyst to microbial growth.

  4. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for the improvement of lead accumulation by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y X; Zhu, X L; Fan, D D; Ma, P; Liang, L H

    2013-01-01

    Two phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus YC-5a and Enterobacter agglomerans KMC-7 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A. calcoaceticus YC-5a is less well known as a phosphate-solubilizing plant-associated bacterium. The plant growth-promoting properties of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were characterized in vitro, including their phosphate-solubilizing activities and their capabilities for producing indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating both strains on the growth and Pb uptake of Brassica juncea grown in different concentrations of Pb-contaminated soils. Inoculation with both PSB not only stimulated the growth of B. juncea, but it also influenced the accumulation of Pb in the shoots and roots of the host plant. The present study demonstrates that PSB are a valuable microbial resource that can be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23530360

  5. Microbial exudate promoted dissolution and transformation of chromium containing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, E. M.; Sun, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Because of its utility in many industrial processes, chromium has become the second most common metal contaminant in the United States. The two most common oxidation states of chromium in nature are Cr(III), which is highly immobile, and Cr(VI), which is highly mobile and toxic. In both natural and engineered environments, the most common remediation of Cr(VI) is through reduction, which results in chromium sequestration in the low solubility mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide phases. Consequently, the stability of these minerals must be examined to assess the fate of chromium in the subsurface. We examined the dissolution of mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides in the presence of common microbial exudates, including the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB; a common organic ligand secreted by most microbes with high affinity for ferric iron and other trivalent metal ions) and oxalate (a common organic acid produced by microbes). The solids exhibited incongruent dissolution with preferential leaching of Fe from the solid phase. Over time, this leads to a more Cr rich mineral, which is known to be more soluble than the corresponding mixed mineral phase. We are currently investigating the structure of the reacted mineral phases and soluble Cr(III) species, as well as the potential oxidation and remobilization of the soluble Cr species. Results from this study will provide insights regarding the long term transport and fate of chromium in the natural environment in the presence of microbial activities.

  6. Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phophatases

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-06-01

    The first objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and the role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Nonspecific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. We have previously shown that PO43- accumulation during growth on a model organophosphorus compound was attributable to the overproduction of alkaline phosphatase by genetically modified subsurface pseudomonads [Powers et al. (2002) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 41:115-123]. During this report period, we have extended these results to include indigenous metal resistant subsurface microorganisms cultivated from the Field Research Center (FRC), in Oak Ridge Tennessee.

  7. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  8. Innate immune recognition of the microbiota promotes host-microbial symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hiutung; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are traditionally known to recognize microbial molecules during infection to initiate inflammatory responses. However, ligands for PRRs are not exclusive to pathogens, and are abundantly produced by the resident microbiota during normal colonization. Mechanism(s) that underlie this paradox have remained unclear. Recent studies reveal that gut bacterial ligands from the microbiota signal through PRRs to promote host tissue and immune development, and protection from disease. Furthermore, evidence from both invertebrate and vertebrate models reveals that innate immune receptors are required to promote long-term colonization by the microbiota. This emerging perspective challenges current paradigms in immunology, and suggests that PRRs may have evolved, in part, to mediate the bidirectional crosstalk between microbial symbionts and their hosts. PMID:23778794

  9. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24261118

  10. Promotion of anodic electron transfer in a microbial fuel cell combined with a silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hongrui; Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Wang, Xin; Wang, Changqiu

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on the promotion of electron transfer in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by equipping a silicon solar cell (SSC) into the circuit. As compared to a sole MFC, a significant improvement of power output is observed in the MFC-SSC, that the maximum power density increases from 7.5 W m-3-19 W m-3 by 2.53 times. A linear relationship between anodic potential and current has been observed when the current is below the limiting point of SSC. We estimate the electron transfer rate can be promoted in a MFC-SSC under the condition that the anodic microbial reactions are unaffected by the incorporation of a SSC. In this way, the anodic electrons are fully pumped and enter into the external circuit. This estimation is thereby demonstrated by the 24-h test, which shows the quantity of the electrons fluent in the circuit of a MFC-SSC is doubled and the microbial oxidation efficiency is improved to 341.6% as compared with a sole MFC.

  11. Solubilized xenon 133 lung scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung scanning using solubilized xenon 133 can provide important information concerning both pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. This technique proved valuable in establishing the diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema in a 7-month-old baby.

  12. Is artificial recharge promoting microbial activity and biodegradation processes in groundwater systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Ferrer, Carme; Folch, Albert; Gaju, Núria; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Carrasquilla, Marc; Grau-Martínez, Alba; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) represents a strategic tool for managing water resources, especially during scarce periods. On one hand, it can increase water stored in aquifers and extract it when weather conditions do not permit exclusive exploitation of surface resources. On the other, it allows improve water quality due the processes occurring into the soil whereas water crosses vadose zone. Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) conurbation is suffering significant quantitative and qualitative groundwater disturbances. For this reason, Sant Vicenç MAR system, constituted by a sedimentation and an infiltration pond, was constructed in 2009 as the strategic water management infrastructure. Compared with other MAR facilities, this infiltration pond has a reactive bed formed by organic compost and local material. The objective is to promote different redox states allowing more and different degradation of chemical compounds than regular MAR systems. In previous studies in the site, physical and hydrochemical parameters demonstrated that there was indeed a degradation of different pollutants. However, to go a step further understanding the different biogeochemical processes and the related degradation processes occurring in the system, we studied the existing microbial communities. So, molecular techniques were applied in water and soil samples in two different scenarios; the first one, when the system was fully operating and the second when the system was not operating during some months. We have specifically compared microbial diversity and richness indexes and both cluster dendrograms obtained from DGGEs analysis made in each sampling campaign.

  13. Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ming; Bell, Colin; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Pendall, Elise

    2015-03-01

    Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss can potentially mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2, but we currently lack effective means to achieve these goals. Soil microbes may play critical roles in mediating plant productivity and soil C/N dynamics under future climate scenarios of elevated CO2 (eCO2) through optimizing functioning of the root-soil interface. By using a labeling technique with 13C and 15N, we examined the effects of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens on C and N cycling in the rhizosphere of a common grass species under eCO2. These microbial inoculants were shown to increase plant productivity. Although strong competition for N between the plant and soil microbes was observed, the plant can increase its capacity to store more biomass C per unit of N under P. fluorescens addition. Unlike eCO2 effects, P. fluorescens inoculants did not change mass-specific microbial respiration and accelerate soil decomposition related to N cycling, suggesting these microbial inoculants mitigated positive feedbacks of soil microbial decomposition to eCO2. The potential to mitigate climate change by optimizing soil microbial functioning by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens is a prospect for ecosystem management.

  14. Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ming; Bell, Colin; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Pendall, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss can potentially mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2, but we currently lack effective means to achieve these goals. Soil microbes may play critical roles in mediating plant productivity and soil C/N dynamics under future climate scenarios of elevated CO2 (eCO2) through optimizing functioning of the root-soil interface. By using a labeling technique with 13C and 15N, we examined the effects of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens on C and N cycling in the rhizosphere of a common grass species under eCO2. These microbial inoculants were shown to increase plant productivity. Although strong competition for N between the plant and soil microbes was observed, the plant can increase its capacity to store more biomass C per unit of N under P. fluorescens addition. Unlike eCO2 effects, P. fluorescens inoculants did not change mass-specific microbial respiration and accelerate soil decomposition related to N cycling, suggesting these microbial inoculants mitigated positive feedbacks of soil microbial decomposition to eCO2. The potential to mitigate climate change by optimizing soil microbial functioning by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens is a prospect for ecosystem management. PMID:25784647

  15. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Promote Microbial Mutagenesis and Pathoadaptation in Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Rockel, Andrea B.; Host, Kurtis M.; Jha, Anuvrat; Kopp, Benjamin T.; Hollis, Thomas; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of adaptive mutations is essential for microbial persistence during chronic infections. This is particularly evident during chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Thus far, mutagenesis has been attributed to the generation of reactive species by polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) and antibiotic treatment. However, our current studies of mutagenesis leading to P. aeruginosa mucoid conversion have revealed a potential new mutagen. Our findings confirmed the current view that reactive oxygen species can promote mucoidy in vitro, but revealed PMNs are proficient at inducing mucoid conversion in the absence of an oxidative burst. This led to the discovery that cationic antimicrobial peptides can be mutagenic and promote mucoidy. Of specific interest was the human cathelicidin LL-37, canonically known to disrupt bacterial membranes leading to cell death. An alternative role was revealed at sub-inhibitory concentrations, where LL-37 was found to induce mutations within the mucA gene encoding a negative regulator of mucoidy and to promote rifampin resistance in both P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The mechanism of mutagenesis was found to be dependent upon sub-inhibitory concentrations of LL-37 entering the bacterial cytosol and binding to DNA. LL-37/DNA interactions then promote translesion DNA synthesis by the polymerase DinB, whose error-prone replication potentiates the mutations. A model of LL-37 bound to DNA was generated, which reveals amino termini α-helices of dimerized LL-37 bind the major groove of DNA, with numerous DNA contacts made by LL-37 basic residues. This demonstrates a mutagenic role for antimicrobials previously thought to be insusceptible to resistance by mutation, highlighting a need to further investigate their role in evolution and pathoadaptation in chronic infections. PMID:24763694

  16. Fluoride-Tolerant Mutants of Aspergillus niger Show Enhanced Phosphate Solubilization Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ubiana de Cássia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R. M.; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-01-01

    P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F−). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F−. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F−, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F−, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F− tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources. PMID:25310310

  17. Potassium Solubilization in Fungal Degradation of Aluminosilicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, H.; Lian, B.

    2007-12-01

    Potassium is an essential soil nutrient that performs a multitude of important biological functions to maintain plant growth and health. However, plants cannot directly use mineralic potassium. Only those that are released by weathering or dissolved in soil water are available for plants' nutrient uptake. On the other hand, microorganisms and related biological activities often play critical roles in mineral weathering and hence participate heavily in the geochemical cycles of nutrient elements. Here, we study the microbial release of potassium from K-bearing minerals orthoclase and illite. A strain of thermophilic fungus A. fumigatus was cultured with a mixture of the minerals to determine if microbe-mineral interactions enhance the solubilization of mineralic potassium. Experiments were carried in two settings, one with the mineral grains and the fungal cells in direct contact, and the other employing a membrane (pore size 0.22 um) to separate the two. Measurements over a period of 30 days showed that, irrespective of the experimental setup, the concentration of free K in the culture was drastically higher than those in any of the control experiments where no living organism was present. Moreover, the occurrence of mineral-cell physical contact enhanced potassium release by an additional factor of 3 to 4 in comparison to the separation experiments. For contact experiments, Electron Probe Microanalysis revealed the formation of mycelium-mineral aggregates, and Atomic Force Microscopy imaging further indicated the possible ingestion of mineral particles by the fungus cells. Contrasting to what was observed and expected in control experiments, the potassium solubilization rate showed a positive dependence upon pH when fungi and minerals were mixed directly, and exhibited no correlations with solution acidity if cell-rock contact was restrained. These results appear to suggest that A. fumigatus promoted potassium release by means of at least three likely routes, one

  18. Ferrous iron removal promotes microbial reduction of crystalline iron(III) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.

    1999-06-01

    Semicontinuous cultures were used to assess the effect of aqueous Fe(II) removal on the dissimilatory reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides by Shewanella alga strain BrY. Aqueous phase replacement in semicontinuous cultures resulted in a 2--3-fold increase in the cumulative amount of Fe(II) produced from synthetic goethite reduction over a 2-month incubation period, compared to parallel batch cultures. A more modest (maximum 30%) but significant stimulation of natural subsoil Fe(III) oxide reduction was observed. The extended Fe(III) reduction resulted from enhanced generation of aqueous Fe(II) which was periodically removed from the cultures. A concomitant stimulation of bacterial protein production was detected, which suggested that Fe(II) removal also promoted bacterial growth. A simulation model in which Fe(II) sorption to the solid-phase resulted in blockage of surface reduction sites captured the contrasting behavior of the batch vs semicontinuous Gt reduction systems. The findings indicate that elimination of Fe(II) via advective transport could play a significant role in governing the rate and extent of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in sedimentary environments.

  19. Widespread Attenuation of Antibiotics by Soil Bacteria Promotes Intermixed Microbial Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsigin, Kalin; Kelsic, Eric; Zhao, Jeffrey; Kishony, Roy

    2014-03-01

    In natural soil environments, antibiotic sensitive bacteria coexist with antibiotic producers, even in close proximities. Efforts to understand diversity in microbial communities have focused on pairwise interactions between species, yet mathematical models of such interactions lead to distinct spatial domains of individual species, rather than to intermixed multi-species communities. In this work, we measured interactions between triplets of species and asked and how the presence of these higher-order interactions affects community structure and diversity. We developed a 3-species diffusion-based assay in which a modulator species either intensifies or attenuates the toxicity of compounds made by a producer species against a fluorescently labeled indicator species. We found that intensifying interactions were quite rare among soil bacteria, while attenuating interactions that protected nearby sensitive species from the antibiotic producer were abundant. Furthermore, many soil bacteria attenuated multiple classes of antibiotics with widely varying mechanisms of action. Computer simulations showed that such cross-species protection, when abundant, promoted the spontaneous formation and expansion of intermixed multi-species communities that overtook or assimilated single species domains. These findings suggest that drug attenuation is a widespread phenomenon that can be key to the coexistence of antibiotic producing and sensitive microbes in close proximity and thereby to the overall species diversity within soil microenvironments.

  20. Desert Farming Benefits from Microbial Potential in Arid Soils and Promotes Diversity and Plant Health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Müller, Henry; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background To convert deserts into arable, green landscapes is a global vision, and desert farming is a strong growing area of agriculture world-wide. However, its effect on diversity of soil microbial communities, which are responsible for important ecosystem services like plant health, is still not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the impact of long-term agriculture on desert soil in one of the most prominent examples for organic desert farming in Sekem (Egypt). Using a polyphasic methodological approach to analyse microbial communities in soil as well as associated with cultivated plants, drastic effects caused by 30 years of agriculture were detected. Analysing bacterial fingerprints, we found statistically significant differences between agricultural and native desert soil of about 60%. A pyrosequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene regions showed higher diversity in agricultural than in desert soil (Shannon diversity indices: 11.21/7.90), and displayed structural differences. The proportion of Firmicutes in field soil was significantly higher (37%) than in the desert (11%). Bacillus and Paenibacillus play the key role: they represented 96% of the antagonists towards phytopathogens, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in the amplicon library and for isolates were detected. The proportion of antagonistic strains was doubled in field in comparison to desert soil (21.6%/12.4%); disease-suppressive bacteria were especially enriched in plant roots. On the opposite, several extremophilic bacterial groups, e.g., Acidimicrobium, Rubellimicrobium and Deinococcus-Thermus, disappeared from soil after agricultural use. The N-fixing Herbaspirillum group only occurred in desert soil. Soil bacterial communities were strongly driven by the a-biotic factors water supply and pH. Conclusions/Significance After long-term farming, a drastic shift in the bacterial communities in desert soil was observed. Bacterial communities in agricultural soil showed a higher

  1. The effects of fulvic acid on microbial denitrification: promotion of NADH generation, electron transfer, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Zheng, Xiong; Liu, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The heterotrophic denitrification requires the participation of electrons which are derived from direct electron donor (usually nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)), and the electrons are transferred via electron transport system in denitrifiers and then consumed by denitrifying enzymes. Despite the reported electron transfer ability of humic substances (HS), the influences of fulvic acid (FA), an ubiquitous major component of HS, on promoting NADH generation, electron transfer, and consumption in denitrification process have never been reported. The presence of FA, compared with the control, was found not only significantly improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency (99.9 % versus 74.8 %) but remarkably reduced the nitrite accumulation (0.2 against 43.8 mg/L) and N2O emission (0.003 against 0.240 mg nitrogen/mg TN removed). The mechanisms study showed that FA increased the metabolism of carbon source via glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pathways to produce more available NADH. FA also facilitated the electron transfer activities from NADH to denitrifying enzymes via complex I and complex III in electron transport system, which improved the reduction of nitrate and accelerated the transformations of nitrite and N2O, and lower nitrite and N2O accumulations were therefore observed. In addition, the consumption of electrons in denitrification was enhanced due to FA stimulating the synthesis and the catalytic activity of key denitrifying enzymes, especially nitrite reductase and N2O reductase. It will provide an important new insight into the potential effect of FA on microbial denitrification metabolism process and even nitrogen cycle in nature niches. PMID:26894403

  2. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger phosphate solubilization by fluoride released from rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-08-01

    The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F(-) per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

  3. Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their potential for lead immobilization in soil.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-01-30

    Lead (Pb), a highly toxic heavy metal forms stable compounds with phosphate (P). The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to immobilize Pb by enhancing solubilization of insoluble P compounds was tested in this research. Eighteen different PSB strains isolated from P amended and Pb contaminated soils were screened for their efficiency in P solubilization. The PSB isolated from P amended soils solubilized 217-479 mg/L of P while the PSB from Pb contaminated soil solubilized 31-293 mg/L of P. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and P solubility kinetics indicated that the major mechanism of P solubilization by PSB is the pH reduction through the release of organic acids. From the isolated bacteria, two PSB were chosen for Pb immobilization and these bacteria were identified as Pantoea sp. and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The PSB significantly increased P solubilization by 25.0% and 49.9% in the case of Pantoea sp., and 63.3% and 88.6% in the case of Enterobacter sp. for 200 and 800 mg/kg of rock phosphate (RP) addition, respectively, thereby enhancing the immobilization of Pb by 8.25-13.7% in the case of Pantoea sp. and 14.7-26.4% in the case of Enterobacter sp. The ability of PSB to solubilize P, promote plant growth, and immobilize Pb can be used for phytostabilization of Pb contaminated soils. PMID:20971555

  4. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  5. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  6. Studies on mineral phosphate solubilization by cyanobacteria Westiellopsis and Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Yadav, Arvind K; Srinavasan, Ramakrishnan; Pabbi, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Two diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Westiellopsis prolifica and Anabaena variabilis were evaluated for elucidating the possible mechanism of mineral phosphate solubilization. Phosphate starved cyanobacteria evaluated for the presence of organic acids, extracellular compounds or enzymes that might have been produced and promoted the mineral phosphate solubilization with Mussorie Rock Phosphate and Tricalcium Phosphate as substrates. Both the cultures did not reveal production of organic acids throughout the incubation period when checked for decrease in pH of the media and thin layer chromatography Thin layer chromatography of culture filtrates showed the presence of hydrocarbon like compound. Further analysis of the culture filtrates with gas liquid chromatography, a single peak near to the retention time of 7.6 was observed in all extracts of culture filtrates irrespective of phosphate source. UV-visible spectra of culture filtrates revealed the absorption maxima of 276 nm. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric analysis of culture filtrates showed most intense peak in the electron impact (EI) ionization was at m/z 149 and molecular ion peaks at m/z 207 and 167, inferring the presence of phthalic acid. Among the mechanisms in mineral phosphate solubilization, it was evident that these cyanobacteria used phthalic acid as possible mode of P solubilization. PMID:22073557

  7. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  8. Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages

  9. Analysis of the abilities of endophytic bacteria associated with banana tree roots to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro Fernandes; de Souza, Gleika Larisse Oliveira Dorasio; Nietsche, Silvia; Xavier, Adelica Aparecida; Costa, Marcia Regina; Cardoso, Acleide Maria Santos; Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo; Pereira, Débora Francine Gomes Silva

    2014-01-01

    A total of 40 endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from banana tree roots were characterized for their biotechnological potential for promoting banana tree growth. All isolates had at least one positive feature. Twenty isolates were likely diazotrophs and formed pellicles in nitrogen-free culture medium, and 67% of these isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. The isolates EB-04, EB-169, EB-64, and EB-144 had N fixation abilities as measured by the Kjeldahl method and by an acetylene reduction activity assay. Among the 40 isolates, 37.5% were capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and the isolates EB-47 and EB-64 showed the highest solubilization capacity. The isolate EB-53 (Lysinibacillus sp.) had a high solubilization index, whereas 73% of the isolates had low solubilization indices. The synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of L-tryptophan was detected in 40% of the isolates. The isolate EB-40 (Bacillus sp.) produced the highest amount of IAA (47.88 μg/ml) in medium supplemented with L-tryptophan and was able to synthesize IAA in the absence of L-tryptophan. The isolates EB-126 (Bacillus subtilis) and EB-47 (Bacillus sp.) were able to simultaneously fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and produce IAA in vitro. The results of this study demonstrated that the isolates analyzed here had diverse abilities and all have the potential to be used as growth-promoting microbial inoculants for banana trees. PMID:24390835

  10. Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Maria; Serrano, Mercedes; Bravo, Vicente; Jurado, Encarnación; Nikolaeva, Iana; Martos, Vanessa; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2010-02-01

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties. PMID:19946684

  11. Characterization of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas putida (B0) isolated from a sub-alpine location in the Indian Central Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Trivedi, Pankaj; Kumar, Bhavesh; Palni, Lok Man S

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic bacterial strain, designated as B0, isolated from a sub-alpine Himalayan forest site have been described. The isolate is gram negative, rod shaped, 0.8 x 1.6 microm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature that could grow from 0 to 35 degrees C (optimum temp. 25 degrees C). It exhibited tolerance to a wide pH range (3-12; optimum 8.0) and salt concentration up to 4% (w/v). Although it was sensitive to kanamycin, gentamicin, and streptomycin (<10 microg mL(-1)), it showed resistance to higher concentrations of ampicillin, penicillin, and carbenicillin (>1000 microg mL(-1)). The isolate showed maximum similarity with Pseudomonas putida based on 16S rRNA analysis. It solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. The phosphate solubilization was estimated along a temperature range (4-28 degrees C), and maximum activity (247 microg mL(-1)) was recorded at 21 degrees C after 15 days of incubation. The phosphate solubilizing activity coincided with a concomitant decrease in pH of the medium. The isolate also exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi in Petri dish assays and produced chitinase, ss-l,3-glucanase, salicylic acid, siderophore, and hydrogen cyanide. The plant growth promotion and antifungal properties were demonstrated through a maize-based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. Although the bacterial inoculation was found to result in significant increment in plant biomass, it stimulated bacterial and suppressed fungal counts in the rhizosphere. The present study is important with respect to enumerating microbial diversity of the colder regions as well as understanding the potential biotechnological applications of native microbes. PMID:16832725

  12. In situ stable isotope probing of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the hyphosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Ning; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Feng, Gu

    2016-03-01

    This study used a [(13)C]DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technique to elucidate a direct pathway for the translocation of (13)C-labeled photoassimilate from maize plants to extraradical mycelium-associated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) that mediate the mineralization and turnover of soil organic phosphorus (P) in the hyphosphere. Inoculation with PSB alone did not provide any benefit to maize plants but utilized the added phytate-P to their own advantage, while inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis alone significantly promoted shoot biomass and P content compared with the control. However, compared with both sole inoculation treatments, combined inoculation with PSB and R. irregularis in the hyphosphere enhanced organic P mineralization and increased microbial biomass P in the soil. There was no extra benefit to plant P uptake but the hyphal growth of R. irregularis was reduced, suggesting that PSB benefited from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium and competed for soil P with the fungus. The combination of T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis with a clone library revealed that one of the bacteria that actively assimilated carbon derived from pulse-labeled maize plants was Pseudomonas alcaligenes (Pseudomonadaceae) that was initially inoculated into the hyphosphere soil. These results provide the first in situ demonstration of the pathway underlying the carbon flux from plants to the AM mycelium-associated PSB, and the PSB assimilated the photosynthates exuded by the fungus and promoted mineralization and turnover of organic P in the soil. PMID:26802172

  13. In situ stable isotope probing of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the hyphosphere

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Ning; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Feng, Gu

    2016-01-01

    This study used a [13C]DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technique to elucidate a direct pathway for the translocation of 13C-labeled photoassimilate from maize plants to extraradical mycelium-associated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) that mediate the mineralization and turnover of soil organic phosphorus (P) in the hyphosphere. Inoculation with PSB alone did not provide any benefit to maize plants but utilized the added phytate-P to their own advantage, while inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis alone significantly promoted shoot biomass and P content compared with the control. However, compared with both sole inoculation treatments, combined inoculation with PSB and R. irregularis in the hyphosphere enhanced organic P mineralization and increased microbial biomass P in the soil. There was no extra benefit to plant P uptake but the hyphal growth of R. irregularis was reduced, suggesting that PSB benefited from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium and competed for soil P with the fungus. The combination of T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis with a clone library revealed that one of the bacteria that actively assimilated carbon derived from pulse-labeled maize plants was Pseudomonas alcaligenes (Pseudomonadaceae) that was initially inoculated into the hyphosphere soil. These results provide the first in situ demonstration of the pathway underlying the carbon flux from plants to the AM mycelium-associated PSB, and the PSB assimilated the photosynthates exuded by the fungus and promoted mineralization and turnover of organic P in the soil. PMID:26802172

  14. Gastric LTi cells promote lymphoid follicle formation but are limited by IRAK-M and do not alter microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Shiu, J; Piazuelo, M B; Ding, H; Czinn, S J; Drakes, M L; Banerjee, A; Basappa, N; Kobayashi, K S; Fricke, W F; Blanchard, T G

    2015-09-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are activated by accessory cell IL-23, and promote lymphoid tissue genesis and antibacterial peptide production by the mucosal epithelium. We investigated the role of LTi cells in the gastric mucosa in the context of microbial infection. Mice deficient in IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, were investigated for increased LTi cell activity, and antibody mediated LTi cell depletion was used to analyze LTi cell dependent antimicrobial activity. H. pylori infected IRAK-M deficient mice developed increased gastric IL-17 and lymphoid follicles compared to wild type mice. LTi cells were present in naive and infected mice, with increased numbers in IRAK-M deficient mice by two weeks. Helicobacter and Candida infection of LTi cell depleted rag1(-/-) mice demonstrated LTi-dependent increases in calprotectin but not RegIII proteins. However, pathogen and commensal microbiota populations remained unchanged in the presence or absence of LTi cell function. These data demonstrate LTi cells are present in the stomach and promote lymphoid follicle formation in response to infection, but are limited by IRAK-M expression. Additionally, LTi cell mediated antimicrobial peptide production at the gastric epithelium is less efficacious at protecting against microbial pathogens than has been reported for other tissues. PMID:25603827

  15. The Distribution of Solubilized Molecules among Micelles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dennis J.

    1978-01-01

    Conflicting views have been put forward on the derivation of the distribution of solubilized molecules among micelles. This stems from failure to consider the arrangement of the solubilized molecules in the micelles. In the treatment presented enthalpy effects are ignored as they are not amenable to a simple general theory. (Author/BB)

  16. Exogenous IAA treatment enhances phytoremediation of soil contaminated with phenanthrene by promoting soil enzyme activity and increasing microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Wang, Dongsheng; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Ma, Lili; Xu, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm that indole-3-acetic acid promotes plant uptake of phenanthrene (PHE), stimulates the activity of soil enzymes or microflora, and thereby accelerates the dissipation of PHE in soil. Four treatments were evaluated: PHE-contaminated soil planted with (1) ryegrass (T0), (2) ryegrass and supplemented with 1 mg kg(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (T1), (3) ryegrass and supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) IAA (T5), and (4) ryegrass and supplemented with 10 mg kg(-1) IAA (T10). After 30 days, PHE concentrations were lower for all treatments and the removal rate was 70.19, 89.17, 91.26, and 97.07 % for T0, T1, T5, and T10, respectively. PHE was only detected in the roots and not in the shoots. IAA facilitated the accumulation of PHE in the roots, and plants subjected to the T10 treatment had the highest levels. Exogenous IAA stimulated soil peroxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas soil polyphenoloxidase activity was not significantly increased, except in T10. Soil microbial biomass also increased in response to IAA treatment, particularly in T10. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis showed that IAA treatment increased microbial biomass and alleviated environmental stress. Gram-positive bacteria are largely responsible for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and we found that the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria in the soil significantly increased as the IAA concentrations increased (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that the increase in soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant uptake of PHE promotes removal of PHE from the soil. PMID:26884240

  17. Solubilization and reconstitution of renal vasopressin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Aiyar, N.; Nambi, P.; Stassen, F.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Renal vasopressin receptors (V/sub 2/) mediating antidiuresis are coupled to adenylate cyclase. To determine the molecular properties of these vasopressin receptors, it is necessary to solubilize the receptors from the membranes. Solubilization of vasopressin receptors in the non-liganded state was shown to abolish hormone recognition. To preserve ligand binding capacity they have developed reconstitution procedures for the renal vasopressin receptors. The pig kidney membranes were solubilized using a zwitterionic detergent, egg lysolecithin and then reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H) lysine vasopressin ((/sup 3/H)LVP) to these solubilized reconstituted fractions was fast, saturable and increased linearly with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicated the presence of single class of binding sites with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.3 nM. In competition binding experiments, the solubilized receptors displayed the same pharmacological profile as was observed with membrane V/sub 2/ receptors.

  18. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H.

    2006-08-15

    Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

  19. Mechanism of solubilization in detergent solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaeiwitz, J.A.; Chan, A.F.C.; Cussler, E.L.; Evans, D.F.

    1981-11-01

    The kinetics of the solubilization of lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and monopalmitin have been studied in detergent solutions as a function of concentration, temperature, and fluid flow. The detergents used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant), decyltrimethylammonium bromide (a cationic surfactant), sodium taurocholate (a trihydroxy bile salt), sodium taurodeoxycholate (a dihydroxy bile salt), and triton X-100 (a nonionic surfactant). At low temperature, solubilization can be described by a five-step mechanism is which micelle desorption and diffusion are rate controlling. At temperatures above the fatty acid penetration temperature, solubilization is governed by formation of a liquid crystalline phase at the fatty acid-detergent solution interface.

  20. Anaerobic liquefaction/solubilization of coal by microorganisms and isolated enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Woodward, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Biocatalytic systems utilizing either living organisms or modified enzymes have been shown to enhance the liquefaction (products are liquid at ambient conditions) or solubilization of coal under anaerobic conditions. Microbial tests have been carried out in aqueous media with organisms isolated from outcropping of coal or from premium coal samples. Some of these isolates have been shown to grow on coal as the only carbon source and to produce small quantities of oxychemicals such as acetate or ethanol. Reducing enzymes, such as hydrogenase and cytochrome C, can be chemically modified to increase solubilization in organic solvents by attaching less polar chemicals, such as phenyl groups or polyethylene glycol, to the free amino groups on the enzymes. These biocatalysts have been shown to degrade model compounds and enhance the solubilization of coal in organic solvents under a hydrogen atmosphere. The resulting product is a relatively light hydrocarbon mixture with reasonably high volatility. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. EPS solubilization treatment by applying the biosurfactant rhamnolipid to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingpu; Xu, Dong; Trinh, Xuantung; Liu, Shuangyuan; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Junmei; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Application of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solubilization treatment with biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands was first conducted in this study. The results showed significant improvement in the solubilization and dispersion of clogging matter following the treatment. And RL dosage of 0.09-0.15g/L altered microbial group make-up and had an overall positive effect on the growth of microorganisms. Moreover, RL was found to enhance EPS dissolution and dispersion, which was beneficial for the release of enzymes embedded in the EPS, and resulted in enhanced pollutant removal. The treatment had no apparent detrimental effect on wetland plants. Our results indicate that the optimum dosage of RL is 0.12g/L, and that the approach provides a promising and moderate option to reverse wetland clogging through RL-mediated solubilization treatment. PMID:27428300

  2. An improved tripod amphiphile for membrane protein solubilization.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S. M.; McQuade, D. T.; Quinn, M. A.; Hackenberger, C. P.; Krebs, M. P.; Polans, A. S.; Gellman, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrinsic membrane proteins represent a large fraction of the proteins produced by living organisms and perform many crucial functions. Structural and functional characterization of membrane proteins generally requires that they be extracted from the native lipid bilayer and solubilized with a small synthetic amphiphile, for example, a detergent. We describe the development of a small molecule with a distinctive amphiphilic architecture, a "tripod amphiphile," that solubilizes both bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and bovine rhodopsin (Rho). The polar portion of this amphiphile contains an amide and an amine-oxide; small variations in this polar segment are found to have profound effects on protein solubilization properties. The optimal tripod amphiphile extracts both BR and Rho from the native membrane environments and maintains each protein in a monomeric native-like form for several weeks after delipidation. Tripod amphiphiles are designed to display greater conformational rigidity than conventional detergents, with the long-range goal of promoting membrane protein crystallization. The results reported here represent an important step toward that ultimate goal. PMID:11206073

  3. High-Melting Lipid Mixtures and the Origin of Detergent-Resistant Membranes Studied with Temperature-Solubilization Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Sot, Jesús; Manni, Marco M.; Viguera, Ana R.; Castañeda, Verónica; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of resistance to detergent solubilization in certain membranes, or membrane components, is not clearly understood. We have studied the solubilization by Triton X-100 of binary mixtures composed of egg sphingomyelin (SM) and either ceramide, diacylglycerol, or cholesterol. Solubilization has been assayed in the 4–50°C range, and the results are summarized in a novel, to our knowledge, form of plots, that we have called temperature-solubilization diagrams. Despite using a large detergent excess (lipid/detergent 1:20 mol ratio) and extended solubilization times (24–48 h) certain mixtures were not amenable to Triton X-100 solubilization at one or more temperatures. DSC of all the lipid mixtures, and of all the lipid + detergent mixtures revealed that detergent resistance was associated with the presence of gel domains at the assay temperature. Once the system melted down, solubilization could occur. In general adding high-melting lipids limited the solubilization, whereas the addition of low-melting lipids promoted it. Lipidomic analysis of Madin-Darby canine kidney cell membranes and of the corresponding detergent-resistant fraction indicated a large enrichment of the nonsolubilized components in saturated diacylglycerol and ceramide. SM-cholesterol mixtures were special in that detergent solubilization was accompanied, for certain temperatures and compositions, by an independent phenomenon of reassembly of the partially solubilized lipid bilayers. The temperature at which lysis and reassembly prevailed was ∼25°C, thus for some SM-cholesterol mixtures solubilization occurred both above and below 25°C, but not at that temperature. These observations can be at the origin of the detergent resistance effects observed with cell membranes, and they also mean that cholesterol-containing detergent-resistant membrane remnants cannot correspond to structures existing in the native membrane before detergent addition. PMID:25517149

  4. Assessment of genetic and functional diversity of phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from rhizospheric soil

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Popavath Ravindra; Raman, Gurusamy; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2008-01-01

    Background Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for the growth of plants. However, in most soils a large portion of phosphorus becomes insoluble and therefore, unavailable to plants. Knowledge on biodiversity of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads is essential to understand their ecological role and their utilization in sustainable agriculture. Results Of 443 fluorescent pseudomonad strains tested, 80 strains (18%) showed positive for the solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) by the formation of visible dissolution halos on Pikovskaya's agar. These phosphate solubilizing strains showed high variability in utilizing various carbon sources. Numerical taxonomy of the phosphate solubilizing strains based on their carbon source utilization profiles resulted into three major phenons at a 0.76 similarity coefficient level. Genotypic analyses of strains by BOX (bacterial repetitive BOX element)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted into three distinct genomic clusters and 26 distinct BOX profiles at a 80% similarity level. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. mosselii, P. monteilii, P. plecoglossicida, P. putida, P. fulva and P. fluorescens. These phosphate solubilizing strains also showed the production of plant growth promoting enzymes, hormones and exhibited antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi that attack on various crops. Gene specific primers have identified the putative antibiotic producing strains. These putative strains were grown in fermentation media and production of antibiotics was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Conclusion Present study revealed a high degree of functional and genetic diversity among the phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonad bacteria. Due to their innate potential of producing an array of plant growth promoting enzymes, hormones and

  5. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9 wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6 wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3 days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  6. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface. PMID:26826983

  7. Effect of silica nanoparticles on microbial biomass and silica availability in maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Rangaraj, Suriyaprabha; Gopalu, Karunakaran; Rathinam, Yuvakkumar; Periasamy, Prabu; Venkatachalam, Rajendran; Narayanasamy, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of silica nanoparticles and conventional silica sources on the changes in microbial biomass and silica availability to pure soil and maize rhizosphere was studied. Nanosilica (20-40 nm) was synthesized from rice husk and comprehensively characterized. The efficiency of nanosilica was evaluated in terms of its effects on beneficial microbial population such as phosphate solubilizers, nitrogen fixers, silicate solubilizers, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, and silica content in comparison with other silica sources such as microsilica, sodium silicate, and silicic acid. Nanosilica significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced microbial populations, total biomass content (C = 1508 μg g(-1) and N = 178 μg g(-1) ), and silica content (14.75 mg mL(-1) ). Although microsilica sources enhanced factors associated with soil fertility, their use by maize roots and silicification in soil was found to be less. The results show that nanosilica plays a vital role in influencing soil nutrient content and microbial biota and, hence, may promote the growth of maize crop. PMID:24329970

  8. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants. PMID:16535730

  9. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  10. Molecular Model for the Solubilization of Membranes into Nanodisks by Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Pardo, Juan Dominguez; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Breukink, Eefjan; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    A recent discovery in membrane research is the ability of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers to solubilize membranes in the form of nanodisks allowing extraction and purification of membrane proteins from their native environment in a single detergent-free step. This has important implications for membrane research because it allows isolation as well as characterization of proteins and lipids in a near-native environment. Here, we aimed to unravel the molecular mode of action of SMA copolymers by performing systematic studies using model membranes of varying compositions and employing complementary biophysical approaches. We found that the SMA copolymer is a highly efficient membrane-solubilizing agent and that lipid bilayer properties such as fluidity, thickness, lateral pressure profile, and charge density all play distinct roles in the kinetics of solubilization. More specifically, relatively thin membranes, decreased lateral chain pressure, low charge density at the membrane surface, and increased salt concentration promote the speed and yield of vesicle solubilization. Experiments using a native membrane lipid extract showed that the SMA copolymer does not discriminate between different lipids and thus retains the native lipid composition in the solubilized particles. A model is proposed for the mode of action of SMA copolymers in which membrane solubilization is mainly driven by the hydrophobic effect and is further favored by physical properties of the polymer such as its relatively small cross-sectional area and rigid pendant groups. These results may be helpful for development of novel applications for this new type of solubilizing agent, and for optimization of the SMA technology for solubilization of the wide variety of cell membranes found in nature. PMID:25606677

  11. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea.

    PubMed

    Rahi, P; Vyas, P; Sharma, S; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-06-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate substrates, production of phytase and siderophores, and biosynthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA)-like auxins. The fungal inoculum significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry matter in the test plants of maize, pea and chickpea over the uninoculated control under the controlled environment. The plant growth promoting attributes have not been previously studied for the fungus. The fungal strain with its multiple plant growth promoting activities appears attractive towards the development of microbial inoculants. PMID:23100761

  12. Deep seawater circulation promotes microbial anaerobic methane oxidation at ˜400 meters below seafloor in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Lynch, J.; Morono, Y.; Kouduka, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Inagaki, F.; Iodp Expedition 322 Science Party

    2010-12-01

    Microbially-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in the seafloor significantly impacts the marine carbon cycle, and limits methane flux to the deep oceans. AOM mediated by microbial consortia predominantly utilizes sulfate as the terminal oxidant, although recent studies have demonstrated the potential for methane oxidation coupled to iron, manganese and nitrate reduction. In the Nankai Trough, aqueous biogeochemical data obtained during IODP Expedition 322 revealed concomitant peaks of methane and sulfide, indicative of a deeply buried sulfate-dependent methane oxidation zone located within a depth interval of intercalated mudstone and sandstone 370-450 meters below the seafloor at IODP Site C0012. Site C0012 is located on the west-northwest flank of a basement high (the Kashinosaki Knoll). Preliminary calculations suggest a ˜20% seawater contribution to sedimentary pore fluids at the depth interval of the observed AOM zone, reflecting deep circulation from possibly distant recharge areas. Methane (˜200 uM) is present and the resulting hydrogeochemical conditions promote anaerobic methane-oxidation and sulfide production. Extracted DNA from SMTZ sediments was nearly five times the concentration of any other depth, although comparison of biomass data obtained via fluorescent cell counts and total extracted DNA concentrations across all depths suggest significant challenges to extracting DNA, possibly related to the relative clay content of sediments. Regardless, the biomass associated with the deep AOM zone is very small, and possibly occupies a very transient ecological niche supported by deep hydrogeologic circulation. Ongoing 16S rDNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene sequencing has thus far revealed several Archaeal and delta-Proteobacteria phylotypes closely related to known AOM consortium members.

  13. Cocrystal Solubilization in Biorelevant Media and its Prediction from Drug Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Lipert, Maya P; Roy, Lilly; Childs, Scott L; RodrÍguez-Hornedo, NaÍr

    2015-12-01

    This work examines cocrystal solubility in biorelevant media (FeSSIF, fed-state simulated intestinal fluid), and develops a theoretical framework that allows for the simple and quantitative prediction of cocrystal solubilization from drug solubilization. The solubilities of four hydrophobic drugs and seven cocrystals containing these drugs were measured in FeSSIF and in acetate buffer at pH 5.00. In all cases, the cocrystal solubility (Scocrystal ) was higher than the drug solubility (Sdrug ) in both buffer and FeSSIF; however, the solubilization ratio of drug, SRdrug = (SFeSSIF /Sbuffer )drug , was not the same as the solubilization ratio of cocrystal, SRcocrystal = (SFeSSIF /Sbuffer )cocrystal , meaning drug and cocrystal were not solubilized to the same extent in FeSSIF. This highlights the potential risk of anticipating cocrystal behavior in biorelevant media based on solubility studies in water. Predictions of SRcocrystal from simple equations based only on SRdrug were in excellent agreement with measured values. For 1:1 cocrystals, the cocrystal solubilization ratio (SR) can be obtained from the square root of the drug SR. For 2:1 cocrystals, SRcocrystal is found from (SRdrug )(2/3) . The findings in FeSSIF can be generalized to describe cocrystal behavior in other systems involving preferential solubilization of a drug such as surfactants, lipids, and other drug solubilizing media. PMID:26390213

  14. TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Stephan; Domizio, Jeremy Di; Voo, Kui S; Friedrich, Heike C; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Conrad, Curdin; Gregorio, Josh; Roy, Didier Le; Roger, Thierry; Ladbury, John E; Homey, Bernhard; Watowich, Stanley; Modlin, Robert L; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arold, Stefan T; Gilliet, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 17–producing helper T cells (TH17 cells) have a major role in protection against infections and in mediating autoimmune diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 26 (IL-26), a human TH17 cell–derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, TH17 cell–derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The resulting IL-26–DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor. These findings provide insights into the potent antimicrobial and proinflammatory function of TH17 cells by showing that IL-26 is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. PMID:26168081

  15. H. hepaticus-induced liver tumor promotion is associated with increased serum bile acid and a persistent microbial-induced immune response

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexis; Zeng, Yu; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Potter, Amanda; Mobley, Melissa W.; Boussahmain, Chakib; Feng, Yan; Wishnok, John S.; Fox, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic microbial infection influence cancer progression but the mechanisms that link them remain unclear. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates enzymes involved in endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism. CAR activation is a mechanism of xenobiotic tumor promotion, however, the effects of chronic microbial infection on tumor promotion have not been studied in the context of CAR function. Here we report that CAR limits the effects of chronic infection-associated progression of liver cancer. CAR knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice were treated or not with the tumor initiator diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 5 weeks of age and then orally inoculated with Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) or sterile media at 8 weeks of age. At 50 weeks postinoculation mice were euthanized for histopathological, microbiological, molecular, and metabolomic analyses. Hh infection induced comparable hepatitis in WT and KO mice with or without DEN that correlated with significant upregulation of Tnfα and toll receptor Tlr2. Notably, DEN-treated Hh-infected KO mice exhibited increased numbers of liver lobes with dysplasia and neoplasia, as well as increased multiplicity of neoplasia, relative to similarly treated WT mice. Enhanced tumor promotion was associated with decreased hepatic expression of P450 enzymes Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11, increased expression of Camp, and increased serum concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid. Together, our findings suggest that liver tumor promotion is enhanced by an impaired metabolic detoxification of endobiotics and a persistent microbial-induced immune response. PMID:21335546

  16. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  17. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  18. Neutrophil Elastase Enhances Sputum Solubilization in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Receiving DNase Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Staab, Doris; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic lung infection and inflammation due to the secretion of viscous sputum. Sputum viscosity is caused by extracellular DNA, some of which originates from the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). During NET formation neutrophil elastase (NE) partially processes histones to decondense chromatin. NE is abundant in CF sputum and is thought to contribute to tissue damage. Exogenous nucleases are a palliative treatment in CF as they promote sputum solubilization. We show that in a process reminiscent of NET formation, NE enhances sputum solubilization by cleaving histones to enhance the access of exogenous nucleases to DNA. In addition, we find that in Cf sputum NE is predominantly bound to DNA, which is known to downregulate its proteolytic activity and may restrict host tissue damage. The beneficial role of NE in CF sputum solubilization may have important implications for the development of CF therapies targeting NE. PMID:22174830

  19. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Philip D.; Wander, Marc J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  20. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Phillip D; Wander, Marc J

    2014-11-04

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  1. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  2. Formation of single domain magnetite by green rust oxidation promoted by microbial anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Li, Jinhua; Benzerara, Karim; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Bernard, Sylvain; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Guyot, François

    2014-08-01

    Biomineralization of magnetite is a central geomicrobiological process that might have played a primordial role over Earth’s history, possibly leaving traces of life in the geological record or controlling trace metal(loid)s and organic pollutants mobility in modern environments. Magnetite biomineralization has been attributed to two main microbial pathways to date (namely magnetotactic bacteria and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria). Here, we uncover a new route of magnetite biomineralization involving the anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron(II) oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy and rock magnetic analyses, this strain is shown to promote the transformation of hydroxychloride green rust in equilibrium with dissolved Fe(II) to (1) periplasmic lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and (2) extracellular magnetite, thus leading to strong redox heterogeneities at the nanometer scale. On the one hand, lepidocrocite was associated with protein moieties and exhibited an anisotropic texture, with the elongated axis parallel to the cell wall. On the other hand, magnetite crystals exhibited grain sizes and magnetic properties consistent with stable single domain particles. By comparison, abiotic controls led to a very slow (4 months vs. 2 days in BoFeN1 cultures) and incomplete oxidation of hydroxychloride green rust towards magnetite. As this abiotic magnetite exhibited the same size and magnetic properties (stable single domain particles) as magnetite produced in BoFeN1 cultures, only the co-occurrence of textured Fe(III)-oxides and magnetite, associated with the persistence of organic carbon molecules, might constitute valuable biosignatures to be looked for in the geological record. Our results furthermore contribute to a more complex picture of Fe redox cycling in the environment, providing an additional process of Fe(II)-bearing phase

  3. Reduced Epithelial Na+/H+ Exchange Drives Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Promotes Inflammatory Response in T Cell-Mediated Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Midura-Kiela, Monica T.; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Larmonier, Claire B.; Chase, John H.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Besselsen, David G.; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with functional inhibition of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange. In mice, a selective disruption of NHE3 (Slc9a3), a major apical Na+/H+ exchanger, also promotes IBD-like symptoms and gut microbial dysbiosis. We hypothesized that disruption of Na+/H+ exchange is necessary for the development of dysbiosis, which promotes an exacerbated mucosal inflammatory response. Therefore, we performed a temporal analysis of gut microbiota composition, and mucosal immune response to adoptive T cell transfer was evaluated in Rag2-/- and NHE3-/-/Rag2-/- (DKO) mice with and without broad-spectrum antibiotics. Microbiome (16S profiling), colonic histology, T cell and neutrophil infiltration, mucosal inflammatory tone, and epithelial permeability were analyzed. In adoptive T cell transfer colitis model, Slc9a3 status was the most significant determinant of gut microbial community. In DKO mice, NHE3-deficiency and dysbiosis were associated with dramatically accelerated and exacerbated disease, with rapid body weight loss, increased mucosal T cell and neutrophil influx, increased mucosal cytokine expression, increased permeability, and expansion of CD25-FoxP3+ Tregs; this enhanced susceptibility was alleviated by oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Based on these results and our previous work, we postulate that epithelial electrolyte homeostasis is an important modulator in the progression of colitis, acting through remodeling of the gut microbial community. PMID:27050757

  4. Reduced Epithelial Na+/H+ Exchange Drives Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Promotes Inflammatory Response in T Cell-Mediated Murine Colitis.

    PubMed

    Laubitz, Daniel; Harrison, Christy A; Midura-Kiela, Monica T; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Larmonier, Claire B; Chase, John H; Caporaso, J Gregory; Besselsen, David G; Ghishan, Fayez K; Kiela, Pawel R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with functional inhibition of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange. In mice, a selective disruption of NHE3 (Slc9a3), a major apical Na+/H+ exchanger, also promotes IBD-like symptoms and gut microbial dysbiosis. We hypothesized that disruption of Na+/H+ exchange is necessary for the development of dysbiosis, which promotes an exacerbated mucosal inflammatory response. Therefore, we performed a temporal analysis of gut microbiota composition, and mucosal immune response to adoptive T cell transfer was evaluated in Rag2-/- and NHE3-/-/Rag2-/- (DKO) mice with and without broad-spectrum antibiotics. Microbiome (16S profiling), colonic histology, T cell and neutrophil infiltration, mucosal inflammatory tone, and epithelial permeability were analyzed. In adoptive T cell transfer colitis model, Slc9a3 status was the most significant determinant of gut microbial community. In DKO mice, NHE3-deficiency and dysbiosis were associated with dramatically accelerated and exacerbated disease, with rapid body weight loss, increased mucosal T cell and neutrophil influx, increased mucosal cytokine expression, increased permeability, and expansion of CD25-FoxP3+ Tregs; this enhanced susceptibility was alleviated by oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Based on these results and our previous work, we postulate that epithelial electrolyte homeostasis is an important modulator in the progression of colitis, acting through remodeling of the gut microbial community. PMID:27050757

  5. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  6. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1994-08-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the investigators plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. Main objectives are: (1) cloning of Neurospora gene for coal depolymerization protein controlling solubilization in different host cells, utilizing Neurospora plasmid and other vector(s); (2) (a) development of a large scale electrophoretic separation of coal drived products obtained after microbial solubilization; (b) identification of the coal derived products obtained after biosolubilization by Neurospora cultures or obtained after Neurospora enzyme catalyzed reaction in in vitro by the wildtype and mutant enzymes; (3) bioconversion of coal drived products into utilizable fuel; and (4) characterization of Neurospora wildtype and mutant CSA protein(s) involved in solubilization of coal in order to assess the nature of the mechanism of solubilization and the role of Neurospora proteins in this process.

  7. Solubilization of human platelet vasopressin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.

    1987-02-02

    The human platelet membrane receptor for vasopressin (AVP) has been solubilized with the cholic acid derivative detergent 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio)-1-propane sulfonate. Rapid and simple separation of free tritiated AVP ((/sup 3/H)AVP) from the solubilized receptor-hormone complex was done by filtration through polyethylenimine-treated filters. (/sup 3/H)AVP binds to this soluble receptor with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 11.03 +/- 1.86 nM and a maximal number of binding sites = 288 +/- 66 fmol/mg protein while the corresponding values of the membrane-bound receptor are 1.62 +/- 0.21 nM and 237 +/- 38 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Ki value for native AVP derived from competition experiments is 11.02 +/- 20.5 nM for the soluble receptor. Competition experiments with specific vascular and renal antagonists confirm that the solubilized receptor belongs to the V1-vascular subtype. 10 references, 5 figures.

  8. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  9. Microbial reduction of structural Fe3+ in nontronite by a thermophilic bacterium and its role in promoting the smectite to illite reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Kim, J.; Eberl, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    The illitization process of Fe-rich smectite (nontronite NAu-2) promoted by microbial reduction of structural Fe3+ was investigated by using a thermophilic metal-reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, isolated from the deep subsurface. T. ethanolicus was incubated with lactate as the sole electron donor and structural Fe3+ in nontronite as the sole electron acceptor, and anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) as an electron shuttle in a growth medium (pH 6.2 and 9.2, 65 ??C) with or without an external supply of Al and K sources. With an external supply of Al and K, the extent of reduction of Fe3+ in NAu-2 was 43.7 and 40.4% at pH 6.2 and 9.2, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of discrete illite at pH 9.2 with external Al and K sources, while mixed layers of illite/smectite or highly charged smectite were detected under other conditions. The morphology of biogenic illite evolved from lath and flake to pseudo-hexagonal shape. An external supply of Al and K under alkaline conditions enhances the smectite-illite reaction during microbial Fe3+ reduction of smectite. Biogenic SiO2 was observed as a result of bioreduction under all conditions. The microbially promoted smectite-illite reaction proceeds via dissolution of smectite and precipitation of illite. Thermophilic iron reducing bacteria have a significant role in promoting the smectite to illite reaction under conditions common in sedimentary basins.

  10. The goblet cell-derived mediator RELM-β drives spontaneous colitis in Muc2-deficient mice by promoting commensal microbial dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Morampudi, V; Dalwadi, U; Bhinder, G; Sham, H P; Gill, S K; Chan, J; Bergstrom, K S B; Huang, T; Ma, C; Jacobson, K; Gibson, D L; Vallance, B A

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal goblet cells are potentially key players in controlling susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC). Although impaired mucin (Muc2) production by goblet cells increases microbial stimulation of the colonic mucosa, goblet cells secrete other mediators that may influence or promote UC development. Correspondingly, Muc2-deficient ((-/-)) mice develop spontaneous colitis, concurrent with the dramatic upregulation of the goblet cell mediator, resistin-like molecule-beta (RELM-β). Testing RELM-β's role, we generated Muc2(-/-)/Retnlb(-/-) mice, finding that RELM-β deficiency significantly attenuated colitis development and symptoms compared with Muc2(-/-) mice. RELM-β expression in Muc2(-/-) mice strongly induced the production/secretion of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIβ, that exerted its microbicidal effect predominantly on Gram-positive Lactobacillus species. Compared with Muc2(-/-)/Retnlb(-/-) mice, this worsened intestinal microbial dysbiosis with a selective loss of colonic Lactobacilli spp. in Muc2(-/-) mice. Orally replenishing Muc2(-/-) mice with murine Lactobacillus spp., but not with a probiotic formulation containing several human Lactobacillus spp. (VSL#3), ameliorated their spontaneous colitis in concert with increased production of short-chain fatty acids. These studies demonstrate that the goblet cell mediator RELM-β drives colitis in Muc2(-/-) mice by depleting protective commensal microbes. The ability of selective commensal microbial replacement to ameliorate colitis suggests that personalized bacterial therapy may prove beneficial for treatment of UC. PMID:26813339

  11. Cell-Free Solubilization of Coal by Polyporus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Bowers, William C.; Aronson, Harold; Gray, Edward T.

    1987-01-01

    Solubilization of coal was demonstrated with filtrates (0.45-μm-pore-size filters) obtained from the broth in which Polyporus versicolor had grown. The rate and extent of solubilization were dependent on the age of the fungal cultures, the particle size of the coal, the pH of the filtrates, and the presence of proteins in the filtrates. The rate of solubilization of coal was significantly reduced after proteins in the filtrates were denatured by acid hydrolysis. PMID:16347500

  12. Biological solubilization of coal in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Current investigations into the biological solubilization of coal with microorganisms focus on the production of solubilizing activity in fungi. Test organisms for this work include a species of the yeast Candida previously isolated from a lignite outcrop, and P. chrysosporium, a filamentous higher fungus which has played a major role in lignin biodegradation research. The studies described are primarily exploratory in nature, and are fundamental to the design of more sophisticated inquiries into the physiology of fungal coal solubilization.

  13. Plant growth-promoting and rhizosphere-competent Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 from the cold deserts of the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Kasana, Ramesh Chand

    2009-04-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain BIHB 723 isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippophae rhamnoides was identified as Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, ammonia generation, and siderophore production. A significant increase in the growth of pea, chickpea, maize, and barley was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Field testing with the pea also showed a significant increment in plant growth and yield. The rifampicin mutant of the bacterial strain effectively colonized the pea rhizosphere without adversely affecting the resident microbial populations. PMID:19137371

  14. Solubilization of herbicides by single and mixed commercial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Galán-Jiménez, M C; Gómez-Pantoja, E; Morillo, E; Undabeytia, T

    2015-12-15

    The solubilization capabilities of micellar solutions of three single surfactants, two alcohol alkoxylates B048 and B266, and the tallow alkyl ethoxylated amine ET15, and their equimolar mixed solutions toward the herbicides flurtamone (FL), metribuzin (MTZ) and mesotrione (MST) were investigated. The solubilization capacity was quantified in terms of the molar solubilization ratio (MSR), critical micellar concentration (CMC), micelle-water partition coefficient (Kmc), binding constant (K1), number of aggregation (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (Ksv). The herbicides were greatly solubilized into different loci of the micelles: FL within the inner hydrophobic core, MST at the micelle/water interface and MTZ in the palisade region. Equimolar binary surfactant mixtures did not improve the solubilization of herbicides over those of single components, with the exception of MTZ by the B266/ET15 system which enhanced solubilization by 10-20%. This enhanced solubilization of MTZ was due to an increased number of micelles that arise from both the intermediate Nagg relative to that of the single surfactants and the lower CMC. The use of Ksv values was a better predictor of the solubilization of polar molecules within binary mixtures of these surfactants than the interaction parameter β(M) from regular solution theory (RST). The results herein suggest that the use of mixed surfactant systems for the solubilization of polar molecules in environmental remediation technologies may be very limited in scope, without clear advantages over the use of single surfactant systems. PMID:26311582

  15. Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-03-01

    This work provides insights on the solubilization products after a simultaneous combination of alkaline and ultrasonic (ALK+ULS) pre-treatment of sewage sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased from 1200 to 11,000 mg/L after such treatment. Organics with molecular weight around 5.6 kDa were solubilized because of the synergistic effect of ultrasound and alkali. Organics with molecular weight larger than 300 kDa increased from 7.8% to 60%, 16% and 42.3% after ULS, ALK and ALK+ULS treatment, respectively. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis identified soluble microbial product-like and humic acid-like matters as the main solubilization products. Sludge anaerobic biodegradability was significantly enhanced with the simultaneous application of ALK+ULS pre-treatment. ALK+ULS pre-treatment resulted in 37.8% biodegradability increase compared to the untreated sludge. This value was higher compared to the biodegradability increase induced by individual ALK pre-treatment (5.7%) or individual ULS pre-treatment (20.7%) under the same conditions applied. PMID:25766017

  16. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  17. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg−1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  18. Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are unique microorganisms that are present in ecological niches of high temperature, pH and salinity. A total of 157 archaea were obtained from thirteen sediment, water and rhizospheric soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. With an aim to screen phosphate solubilizing archaea, a new medium was designed as Haloarchaea P Solubilization (HPS) medium. The medium supported the growth and P solubilization activity of archaea. Employing the HPS medium, twenty isolates showed the P-solubilization. Phosphate solubilizing archaea were identified as seventeen distinct species of eleven genera namely Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halolamina, Halosarcina, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, Natrinema and Natronoarchaeum. Natrinema sp. strain IARI-WRAB2 was identified as the most efficient P-solubilizer (134.61 mg/L) followed by Halococcus hamelinensis strain IARI-SNS2 (112.56 mg/L). HPLC analysis detected seven different kinds of organic acids, namely: gluconic acid, citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid succinic acid, propionic acid and tartaric acid from the cultures of these isolates. These phosphate solubilizing halophilic archaea may play a role in P nutrition to vegetation growing in these hypersaline soils. This is the first report for these haloarchaea to solubilize considerable amount of P by production of organic acids and lowering of pH. PMID:26216440

  19. Solubilization of coal by biocatalysts in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Woodward, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The use of isolated enzymes for coal solubilization has been investigated, with an emphasis on enhancing enzyme activity, especially in organic solvents. Possible enzymatic interactions and oxidative processes are discussed. Subbituminous and bituminous coals were studied in two different types of solubilization tests, followed by two analytical methods. (CBS)

  20. Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are unique microorganisms that are present in ecological niches of high temperature, pH and salinity. A total of 157 archaea were obtained from thirteen sediment, water and rhizospheric soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. With an aim to screen phosphate solubilizing archaea, a new medium was designed as Haloarchaea P Solubilization (HPS) medium. The medium supported the growth and P solubilization activity of archaea. Employing the HPS medium, twenty isolates showed the P-solubilization. Phosphate solubilizing archaea were identified as seventeen distinct species of eleven genera namely Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halolamina, Halosarcina, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, Natrinema and Natronoarchaeum. Natrinema sp. strain IARI-WRAB2 was identified as the most efficient P-solubilizer (134.61 mg/L) followed by Halococcus hamelinensis strain IARI-SNS2 (112.56 mg/L). HPLC analysis detected seven different kinds of organic acids, namely: gluconic acid, citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid succinic acid, propionic acid and tartaric acid from the cultures of these isolates. These phosphate solubilizing halophilic archaea may play a role in P nutrition to vegetation growing in these hypersaline soils. This is the first report for these haloarchaea to solubilize considerable amount of P by production of organic acids and lowering of pH. PMID:26216440

  1. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Kuzu, H.; Peksel, A.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained by microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.

  2. Expression of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola in two rhizobacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, H; Gonzalez, T; Selman, G

    2001-11-30

    A genetic construction was carried out using the broad host range vector pKT230 and plasmid pMCG898, which encodes the Erwinia herbicola pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) synthase, a gene involved in mineral phosphate solubilization (mps). The final construction was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred to Burkholderia cepacia IS-16 and Pseudomonas sp. PSS recipient cells by conjugation. Clones containing recombinant plasmids produced higher clearing halos in plates with insoluble phosphate as the unique (P) source, in comparison with those of strains without plasmids, demonstrating the heterologous expression of the E. herbicola gene in the recipient strains. This genetic manipulation allowed the increase in mps ability of both strains, enhancing their potentialities as growth promoters of agricultural crops. These results represent the first report on the application of the recombinant DNA methodology for the obtaining of improved phosphate solubilizing ability from rhizobacterial strains for biofertilization purposes. PMID:11090687

  3. Solubilization of nutraceuticals into reverse hexagonal mesophases.

    PubMed

    Amar-Yuli, Idit; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2008-08-21

    The solubilization of four bioactive molecules with different polarities, in three reverse hexagonal (HII) systems has been investigated. The three HII systems were a typical reverse hexagonal composed of glycerol monooleate (GMO)/tricaprylin/water and two fluid hexagonal systems containing either 2.75 wt % Transcutol or ethanol as a fourth component. The phase behavior of the liquid crystalline phases in the presence of ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, D-alpha-tocopherol and D-alpha-tocopherol acetate were determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques were utilized to follow modifications in the thermal behavior and in the vibrations of different functional groups upon solubilizing the bioactive molecules. The nature of each guest molecule (in both geometry and polarity) together with the different HII structures (typical and fluids) determined the corresponding phase behavior, swelling or structural transformations and its location in the HII structures. Ascorbic acid was found to act as a chaotropic guest molecule, localized in the water-rich core and at the interface. The AP was also a chaotropic guest molecule with its head located in the vicinity of the GMO headgroup while its tail embedded close to the surfactant tail. D-alpha-tocopherol and D-alpha-tocopherol acetate were incorporated between the GMO tails; however, the D-alpha-tocopherol was located closer to the interface. Once Transcutol or ethanol was present and upon guest molecule incorporation, partial migration was detected. PMID:18665631

  4. Effects of Soluble Phosphate on Phosphate-Solubilizing Characteristics and Expression of gcd Gene in Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wen, Xinyi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria have the ability of solubilizing mineral phosphate in soil and promoting growth of plants, but the activity of phosphate solubilization is influenced by exogenous soluble phosphate. In the present study, the effects of soluble phosphate on the activity of phosphate solubilization, acidification of media, growth, and organic acid secretion of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JW-SD2 were investigated under six levels of soluble phosphate conditions. The activity of phosphate solubilization decreased with the increase of soluble phosphate concentration, accompanying with the increase of media pH. However, the growth was promoted by adding soluble phosphate. Production of gluconic, tartaric, and oxalic acids by the strain was reduced with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate, while acetic and pyruvic acids showed a remarkable increase. Gluconic acid predominantly produced by the strain at low levels of soluble phosphate showed that this acid was the most efficient organic acid in phosphate solubilization. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-glucose dehydrogenase gene gcd (pg5SD2) was cloned from the strain, and the expressions of pg5SD2 gene were repressed gradually with the increase of concentration of soluble phosphate. The soluble phosphate regulating the transcription of the gcd gene is speculated to underlie the regulation of the secretion of gluconic acid and subsequently the regulation of the activity of phosphate solubilization. Future research needs to consider a molecular engineering strategy to reduce the sensitivity of PSB strain to soluble phosphate via modification of the regulatory mechanism of gcd gene, which could improve the scope of PSB strains' application. PMID:26573634

  5. Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.E.; Sposito, G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.

  6. Solubilization and purification of melatonin receptors from lizard brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Conron, R.W. Jr.; Reppert, S.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Melatonin receptors in lizard brain were identified and characterized using {sup 125}I-labeled melatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) after solubilization with the detergent digitonin. Saturation studies of solubilized material revealed a high affinity binding site, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 181 +/- 45 pM. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs, but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of solubilized material with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-(3-O-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), significantly reduced receptor affinity. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized melatonin receptors revealed a high affinity, large (Mr 400,000) peak of specific binding. Pretreatment with GTP-gamma-S before solubilization resulted in elution of a lower affinity, smaller (Mr 150,000) peak of specific binding. To purify solubilized receptors, a novel affinity chromatography resin was developed by coupling 6-hydroxymelatonin with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. Using this resin, melatonin receptors were purified approximately 10,000-fold. Purified material retained the pharmacologic specificity of melatonin receptors. These results show that melatonin receptors that bind ligand after detergent treatment can be solubilized and substantially purified by affinity chromatography.

  7. Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW. PMID:24463412

  8. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  9. CHAPS solubilization of a G-protein sensitive 5-HT sub 1 A receptor from bovine hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, T. ); Park, H.; Meyerson, L.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The binding of ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT to membrane-bound 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors from bovine hippocampus was saturable and corresponded to a single high-affinity state. Solubilization of the bovine hippocampal membranes with 10 mM CHAPS containing 200 mM NaCl, renders a preparation which binds ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT with high affinity and is guanine nucleotide sensitive and ketanserin insensitive. 50% of ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT binding activity is solubilized. The presence of GMP-P(NH)P promotes a low-affinity state which is characteristic of receptors coupled to G-proteins. GMP-P(NH)P markedly accelerates the dissociation ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT from solubilized membranes while having negligible effects on association. Thus, the agonist can activate the ternary complex rather than to promote its formation. 8-OH-DPAT, WB 4101 and 5-carboxamidotryptamine dose responsively inhibit soluble ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT binding with IC{sub 50} values of 16.1, 15.6 and 1.3 nM, respectively. The CHAPS solubilized membrane preparation retains many of the ({sup 3}H) 8-OH-DPAT binding characteristics of the membrane bound form.

  10. Drug solubilization effect of lauroyl-L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ariki, Ryosuke; Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a new technique for the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs using lauroyl-L-glutamate, which is one of the amino acid detergents, with additional small additives. Lauroyl-L-glutamate was highly effective in solubilizing long-chain alkyl gallates, e.g. dodecyl gallate. Furthermore, lauroyl-L-glutamate and small additives, particularly arginine, acted to increase the solubility of alkyl gallates. The synergistic effect was not observed by sodium dodecyl sulphate with arginine. The solubilizing system can be applied to other drugs because of the low toxicity of both lauroyl-L-glutamate and arginine. PMID:21949409

  11. Solubilization of active ingredients of different polarity in Pluronic® micellar solutions - Correlations between solubilizate polarity and solubilization site.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Kim, Viet; Prévost, Sylvain; Seidel, Karsten; Maier, Walter; Marguerre, Ann-Kathrin; Oetter, Günter; Tadros, Tharwat; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The solubilization of two pharmaceutically active ingredients (AI) with significantly different water solubility, namely carbamazepine and fenofibrate (solubility of 150ppm and 10ppm, respectively), has been investigated using a series of Pluronics® (Poloxamers) containing different ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EO/PO) units in the molecule. The results show largely enhanced solubilization of fenofibrate by Pluronic® micelles that increases with the PPO chain length provided the temperature is above the critical micelle temperature (cmt). In contrast the more water-soluble carbamazepine only shows a moderate increase in solubilization upon addition of Pluronics®. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments show that the solubilization of fenofibrate occurs in the core of the micelles, whereas carbamazepine shows no direct association with the micelles. These clearly different solubilization mechanisms for the two AIs were confirmed by Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments, which show that fenofibrate interacts only with the PPO core of the micelle, whereas carbamazepine interacts with both PPO and PEO similarly. Accordingly, the large enhancement of the solubilization of fenofibrate is related to the fact that it is solubilized within the PPO core of the Pluronic® micelles, while the much more moderate increase of carbamazepine solubility is attributed to the change of solvent quality due to the presence of the amphiphilic copolymer and the interaction with the EO and PO units in solution. PMID:27244594

  12. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

  13. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

  14. Solubilization and Humanization of Paraoxonase-1

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Harsch, Christina Keventzidis; Matic, George T.; Hoffman, Kathryn; Norris, Joseph R.; Otto, Tamara C.; Lenz, David E.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Magliery, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum protein, the activity of which is related to susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and intoxication by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. It may also be involved in innate immunity, and it is a possible lead molecule in the development of a catalytic bioscavenger of OP pesticides and nerve agents. Human PON1 expressed in E. coli is mostly found in the insoluble fraction, which motivated the engineering of soluble variants, such as G2E6, with more than 50 mutations from huPON1. We examined the effect on the solubility, activity, and stability of three sets of mutations designed to solubilize huPON1 with fewer overall changes: deletion of the N-terminal leader, polar mutations in the putative HDL binding site, and selection of the subset of residues that became more polar in going from huPON1 to G2E6. All three sets of mutations increase the solubility of huPON1; the HDL-binding mutant has the largest effect on solubility, but it also decreases the activity and stability the most. Based on the G2E6 polar mutations, we “humanized” an engineered variant of PON1 with high activity against cyclosarin (GF) and found that it was still very active against GF with much greater similarity to the human sequence. PMID:22720164

  15. Solubilization of gabapentin into HII mesophases.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-02-10

    In the present work, we report on the solubilization of gabapentin (GBP) into lyotropic hexagonal mesophases composed of monoolein, tricaprylin, and water. It was demonstrated that the hexagonal structure remained intact up to 2 wt % gabapentin, whereas the lamellar phase coexisted with the hexagonal one in the concentration range of 3-4 wt % of the drug. At gabapentin content of 5-6 wt %, only lamellar phases containing defects such as dislocations and multilamellar vesicles were detected. Incorporation of GBP decreased the lattice parameter of the H(II) mesophase from 56.6 to 50.6 Å, while the structural dimensions of the lamellar phase were not affected. ATR-FTIR analysis suggested enhanced hydrogen bonding between the protonated amine of GBP and the O-H groups of the GMO and the water surrounding in the inner hydrophilic interface region. This led to intercalation of the drug into the water-lipid interface. At higher GBP loads of 4-6 wt %, thermal analysis revealed disordering within the lipid packing, apparently induced by the spatially altered interface area. Rheological measurements correlated the macroscopic features of the systems with alterations on the molecular level and allowed distinguishing between closely related mesophases due to their different rheological characteristics. In vitro transdermal delivery studies showed that the examined mesophases enabled a sustained release of GBP compared to its aqueous solution. Sustained release was more pronounced in the case of the hexagonal mesophase, compared to the lamellar one. PMID:21182317

  16. Solubilization of genistein by caseinate micellar system.

    PubMed

    Anjani, Gemala; Ohta, Akio; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Asakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aggregation behavior of caseinate and the solubilization of genistein in aqueous caseinate solution. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of caseinate was obtained from the fluorescence intensity of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS), which was enhanced by ANS-protein interactions and the hydrophobicity of caseinate. The increasing solubility of genistein in caseinate was confirmed by HPLC measurements; above and below the CAC, the genistein/caseinate molar ratio is 1:1 and 10:1, respectively. The latter ratio indicates that more caseinate molecules surround genistein below the CAC. However, the solubility of genistein in caseinate is unaffected by calcium ions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that casein sub-micelles are similarly structured in the presence and absence of genistein. In AFM phase images, the caseinate sub-micelle is brightened in the presence of genistein, implying that the particle becomes more rigid, probably because genistein attaches to the surface or to the narrow part of the sub-micelle. The diameter of sub-micelle aggregates is two times that of caseinate alone (24 nm versus 12 nm). These results were confirmed by cryo-TEM observations. PMID:24599106

  17. Trace heavy metal ions promoted extracellular electron transfer and power generation by Shewanella in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Shang; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Xiao-Yu; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Si, Rong-Wei; Li, Bing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Although microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered as one of the most promising technology for renewable energy harvesting, low power output still accounts one of the bottlenecks and limits its further development. In this work, it is found that Cu(2+) (0.1μgL(-1)-0.1mgL(-1)) or Cd(2+) (0.1μgL(-1)-1mgL(-1)) significantly improve the electricity generation in MFCs. The maximum power output achieved with trace level of Cu(2+) (∼6nM) or Cd(2+) (∼5nM) is 1.3 times and 1.6 times higher than that of the control, respectively. Further analysis verifies that addition of Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) effectively improves riboflavin production and bacteria attachment on the electrode, which enhances bacterial extracellular electron transfer (EET) in MFCs. These results unveil the mechanism for power output enhancement by Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) addition, and suggest that metal ion addition should be a promising strategy to enhance EET as well as power generation of MFCs. PMID:27038263

  18. Evidence for surfactant solubilization of plant epicuticular wax.

    PubMed

    Tamura, H; Knoche, M; Bukovac, M J

    2001-04-01

    The solubilization of isolated, reconstituted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit and broccoli (Brassica oleracaea var. botrytis L.) leaf epicuticular waxes (ECW) by nonionic octylphenoxypolyethoxy ethanol surfactant (Triton X-100) was demonstrated in a model system by TLC and fluorescence analysis using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. ECW was solubilized at or above the surfactant critical micelle concentration; solubilization increased with an increase in micelle concentration. As shown by the fluorescence quenching of pyrene, surfactant solubilization of the ECW increased rapidly for the first 12 h, then approached a plateau, increased linearly with an increase in temperature (22--32 degrees C), and decreased linearly with the log of the polyoxyethylene chain length (range 5--40 oxyethylenes). These data are discussed in relation to surfactant effects on phytotoxicity and performance of foliar spray application of agrochemicals. PMID:11308330

  19. Solubilization of 2-phenylethanol by dodecyldimethylamine oxide in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Scamehorn, J.F. ); Abe, Masahiko; Ogino, Keizo )

    1991-01-01

    The solubilization of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) was measured over a wide range of solute activities and pH values by using dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO) as the surfactant. The DDAO in micellar form is all cationic (protonated) at low pH and all nonionic at high pH. At intermediate pH levels, the DDAO forms mixed micelles containing both the cationic and nonionic forms of surfactant. Thus, measurement of the solubilization of PEA as a function of pH produces solubilization data as a function of mixed micelle composition for this amphoteric surfactant. The solubilization equilibrium constant was found to decrease with increasing mole fraction of PEA in the micelle for all pH values and to be less in the mixed micelles than in either pure cationic or pure nonionic micelles. This latter effect could be due to the hydrophilic region of the mixed micelle being more compact than that of the single-component micelles.

  20. Mechanisms for solubilization of various insoluble phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different soils by an efficient and salinity-tolerant Aspergillus niger strain An2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Luo, Lijin; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms for solubilization of different types of phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different types of soils by an efficient fungal strain An2 were explored and evaluated in this study. An2 was isolated from a Chinese cabbage rhizosphere soil and identified as Aspergillus niger. It could fast release up to 1722, 2066, and 2356 mg L(-1) of soluble phosphorus (P) from 1 % Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2, and AlPO4 (Ca-P, Mg-P, and Al-P) and 215 and 179 mg L(-1) from 0.5 % FePO4 and rock phosphate (Fe-P and RP), respectively. HPLC assay demonstrated that An2 mainly secreted oxalic acid to solubilize Ca-P, Mg-P, Al-P, and Fe-P whereas secreted tartaric acid to solubilize RP. Furthermore, An2 could tolerate salinity up to 4 % NaCl without impairing its phosphate-solubilizing ability. The simulation experiments validated that An2 was able to effectively activate immobilized phosphates in general calcareous, acidic, as well as saline-alkali soils with high total P content. This study shows new insights into the mechanisms for microbial solubilization of different types of phosphates and supports the future application of strain An2 in different types of soils to effectively activate P for plants. PMID:25561059

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on swine wastewater solubilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, S-M; Na, S; So, K-H; Nam, J-J

    2009-01-01

    In order to accelerate hydrolysis known to be the rate-limiting step of the overall digestion process for swine wastewater, an ultrasonic treatment process was tested for the solubilization of the swine wastewater. The effectiveness of ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater under various operational conditions was compared by means of an increment of soluble organics in the treated swine wastewater and the hydrolysis rate constant. Ultrasonic treatment resulted in the high degree of solubilization of particulate organics in the swine wastewater and the degree of solubilization increased with increasing supplied energy. The highest extent of an increment of SCOD concentration and SCOD/TCOD ratio at the end of the operation time of 60 min was 109.7 and 117.5%, respectively, under 120 W power output and 20(o)C operating temperature conditions. The observed highest hydrolysis rate constant described by pseudo-first order rate constant was 2.94 h(-1) under the same conditions. Based on the estimated activation energy from modeling using the Arrhenius equation, ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater under higher supplied energy conditions was more dependent on the operating temperature, which was consistent with the experimentally obtained results. Based on the investigation into the effect of gas type and gas delivery methods for ultrasonic solubilization of the swine wastewater, oxygen gas bubbling through the liquid showed the highest degree of an increment of soluble organics possibly attributed to the influent of oxygen in an increase of radicals during the sonolysis. PMID:19214016

  2. Peritoneal cavity is a route for gut-derived microbial signals to promote autoimmunity in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Emani, R; Alam, C; Pekkala, S; Zafar, S; Emani, M R; Hänninen, A

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in innate immune reactions, and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) guard the sterility of this compartment mainly against microbial threat from the gut. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which gut microbiota and gut immune system appear to contribute to disease pathogenesis. We have recently reported elevated free radical production and increased permeability of gut epithelium in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Impaired barrier function could lead to bacterial leakage to the peritoneal cavity. To explore the consequences of impaired gut barrier function on extra-intestinal immune regulation, we characterized peritoneal lavage cells from young newly weaned NOD mice. We detected a rapid increase in the number of macrophages 1-2 weeks after weaning in NOD mice compared to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, this increase in macrophages was abrogated in NOD mice that were fed an antidiabetogenic diet (ProSobee), which improves gut barrier function. Macrophages in young (5-week-old) NOD mice displayed a poor TNF-α cytokine response to LPS stimulation and high expression of interleukin-1receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), indicating prior in vivo exposure to TLR-4 ligand(s). Furthermore, injection of LPS intraperitoneally increased T cell CD69 expression in pancreatic lymph node (PaLN), suggestive of T cell activation. Leakage of bacterial components such as endotoxins into the peritoneal cavity may contribute to auto-reactive T cell activation in the PaLN. PMID:25410403

  3. Solubilization of a dendrimer into a microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Nir, Ido; Aserin, Abraham; Libster, Dima; Garti, Nissim

    2010-12-23

    The present work investigates, for the first time, a system comprising a dendrimer incorporated into the water core of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (ME). A second generation (G-2) poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer (PPI) was solubilized into W/O ME composed of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate), heptane, and water. Such a model system possessing the benefits of both dendrimers and ME, can potentially offer superior control of drug administration. The localization of PPI within the system, its specific interactions with the components of the carrier, and its effect on the ME structure was explored by SAXS, DSC, ATR-FTIR, and electrical conductivity measurements. Considerable water binding by PPI, accompanied by partial dehydration of AOT polar heads, was detected by ATR-FTIR and DSC analysis, suggesting that PPI acted as a "water pump". In addition, SAXS measurements showed periodicity increase and disordering of the droplets. Hence, localization of PPI within the core and interfacial regions of the droplets was assumed. Direct electrostatic interactions between PPI and the sulfonate group were not noticed, since the dendrimer molecules were mostly not protonated in the current basic environment at pH 12. However, slight hydrogen bonding between PPI and the S=O groups allowed the dendrimer to behave as a "spacer" between sodium and sulfonate ions. This affected the electrical conductivity behavior of the system, revealing that PPI favored the percolation process. Most likely, PPI decreased the rigidity of the interfacial layer, facilitating the diffusion of sodium ions through the channels. The characterized model system can be advantageously utilized to design specific delivery vehicles, allowing administration of dendrimers as a therapeutic agent from host MEs. PMID:21126032

  4. Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE) Initiatives Toward Promoting Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on

  5. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia

    PubMed Central

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    Following trauma, the central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. Here, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the co-initiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair. PMID:18606660

  6. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2008-07-15

    Following trauma, the CNS of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. In this study, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the coinitiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair. PMID:18606660

  7. Solubilization and biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/aqueous systems with nonionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Laha, S.; Liu, Zhongbao; Luthy, R.G.

    1992-05-01

    Nonionic surfactants may strongly interact with hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), soil, and microorganisms in soil/aqueous systems. These interactions affect the potential for surfactant-facilitated HOC transport in soil and groundwater systems, and the feasibility of engineered surfactant cleanup of contaminated sites (McCarthy and Wober, 1991). At sufficiently high bulk liquid concentrations at 25 C, most nonionic surfactants form regular micelles in single-phase solutions, whereas certain surfactants, such as C{sub 12}E{sub 4}, may form bilayer lamellae or other types of aggregates in more complex two-phase solutions. The critical concentrations for the onset of micelle and aggregate formation are termed the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), respectively. Important changes occur in surfactant sorption, surfactant solubilization of HOCs, and microbial mineralization of HOCs in the presence of nonionic surfactants at or near these critical surfactant concentrations.

  8. Solubilization and biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/aqueous systems with nonionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Laha, S.; Liu, Zhongbao; Luthy, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nonionic surfactants may strongly interact with hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), soil, and microorganisms in soil/aqueous systems. These interactions affect the potential for surfactant-facilitated HOC transport in soil and groundwater systems, and the feasibility of engineered surfactant cleanup of contaminated sites (McCarthy and Wober, 1991). At sufficiently high bulk liquid concentrations at 25 C, most nonionic surfactants form regular micelles in single-phase solutions, whereas certain surfactants, such as C{sub 12}E{sub 4}, may form bilayer lamellae or other types of aggregates in more complex two-phase solutions. The critical concentrations for the onset of micelle and aggregate formation are termed the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), respectively. Important changes occur in surfactant sorption, surfactant solubilization of HOCs, and microbial mineralization of HOCs in the presence of nonionic surfactants at or near these critical surfactant concentrations.

  9. Characterization and solubilization of the human platelet vasopressin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.; Hinko, A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently showed that human platelets bear specific vasopressin (AVP) V1-vascular receptors. They now present the identification of AVP intra-platelet messenger and solubilization of AVP receptors. AVP binding to its platelet receptors is modulated by divalent cations but not TP or Gpp(NH)p, (10 /sup 3/M). AVP-induced reduction of adenylate cyclase activity is blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor. In the presence of calcium (1 mM), AVP stimulates the phosphorylation of two endogenous proteins (M.W. = 40,000 and 20,000 daltons) which are substrates for protein kinase C and calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase, respectively. Phosphorylation is also stimulated by a V1-vascular agonist but not V2-renal agonists and is more potently blocked by a V1-vascular antagonist than by a V2-renal antagonist. AVP platelet membrane receptor is solubilized with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio)-1-propane sulfonate. Separation of free (/sub 3/H)AVP from solubilized receptor-hormone complexes is done by filtration through polyethylenimine-treated filters. The solubilized receptor retains its binding characteristics (Kd = 11.03 +/- 1.86 nM, Bmax 288 +/- 66 fmol/mg protein, n = 6). In human platelets, AVP intra-cellular messengers are diacylglycerol and calcium, not adenylate cyclase. Solubilization of AVP human receptor opens the way to its purification.

  10. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. Solubilization of ester- and either-linked phenolics accounted for 9.2% of the lignin released. The amounts of free phenolic acids detected in culture fluid were equivalent to the apparent loss of ester-linked phenolics from the sorghum substrate. However, the fungus was unable to cleave the ether bond in hydroxycinnamic acid bridges that cross-link lignin and polysaccharide. It is suggested that the majority of the solubilized lignin fraction was a lignin carbohydrate complex containing ether-linked hydroxycinnamic acids. The lignin carbohydrate complex was probably solubilized through dissolution of xylan in the lignin-xylan matrix rather than by lignin depolymerization. PMID:8085834

  11. Detergent solubilization of phospholipid vesicle. Effect of electric charge.

    PubMed Central

    Urbaneja, M A; Alonso, A; Gonzalez-Mañas, J M; Goñi, F M; Partearroyo, M A; Tribout, M; Paredes, S

    1990-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of electric charge on detergent solubilization of phospholipid bilayers, the interaction of nine electrically charged surfactants with neutral or electrically charged liposomes has been examined. The detergents belonged to the alkyl pyridinium, alkyl trimethylammonium or alkyl sulphate families. Large unilamellar liposomes formed by egg phosphatidylcholine plus or minus stearylamine or dicetyl phosphate were used. Solubilization was assessed as a decrease in light-scattering of the liposome suspensions. The results suggest that electrostatic forces do not play a significant role in the formation of mixed micelles and that hydrophobic interactions are by far the main forces involved in solubilization. In addition, from the study of thirty different liposome-surfactant systems, we have derived a series of empirical rules that may be useful in predicting the behaviour of untested surfactants: (i) the detergent concentration producing the onset of solubilization (Don) decreases as the alkyl chain length increases; the decrease follows a semi-logarithmic pattern in the case of alkyl pyridinium compounds; (ii) for surfactants with critical micellar concentrations (cmc) less than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. is independent of the nature of the detergent and the bilayer composition; for detergents having cmc greater than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. increases linearly with the cmc; and (iii) Don. varies linearly with the surfactant concentration that produces maximum solubilization. PMID:2400390

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CBMB205, a Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Rice in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis CBMB205 (= KACC 13105T = NCCB 100236T) was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. O-dae). According to previous studies, this bacterium has several genes that can promote plant growth, such as the phosphorus-solubilizing protein-coding gene. Here, we present the first complete genome of B. velezensis CBMB205. PMID:27417835

  13. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment. PMID:25016342

  15. Solubilization and reconstitution of vesicular stomatitis virus envelope using octylglucoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Viard, M; Meyer, O; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M; Blumenthal, R

    1997-01-01

    Reconstituted vesicular stomatitis virus envelopes or virosomes are formed by detergent removal from solubilized intact virus. We have monitored the solubilization process of the intact vesicular stomatitis virus by the nonionic surfactant octylglucoside at various initial virus concentrations by employing turbidity measurements. This allowed us to determine the phase boundaries between the membrane and the mixed micelles domains. We have also characterized the lipid and protein content of the solubilized material and of the reconstituted envelope. Both G and M proteins and all of the lipids of the envelope were extracted by octylglucoside and recovered in the reconstituted envelope. Fusion activity of the virosomes tested either on Vero cells or on liposomes showed kinetics and pH dependence similar to those of the intact virus. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083672

  16. Association of solubilized angiotensin II receptors with phospholipase C-alpha in murine neuroblastoma NIE-115 cells.

    PubMed

    Mah, S J; Ades, A M; Mir, R; Siemens, I R; Williamson, J R; Fluharty, S J

    1992-08-01

    The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) has been reported to stimulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies raised against a PLC isoenzyme, PLC-alpha, reacted with a 60-kDa protein present in both membrane and cytosolic fractions of differentiated N1E-115 cells. In order to examine the possible association of PLC-alpha with cell surface AngII receptors (AngII-Rs), membranes from differentiated N1E-115 cells were solubilized, using the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). CHAPS (1%) solubilized AngII-Rs, from N1E-115 cells, that maintained their high affinity for agonists. Gel filtration analysis of the solubilized membranes revealed that the majority of the specific binding of 125I-AngII eluted as a large protein complex with a molecular mass of 380 kDa and that agonist binding was partially reduced by guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), within this complex. CHAPS also effectively solubilized immunoreactive PLC-alpha, from N1E-115 cell membranes, that was similarly present within the 380-kDa AngII-binding complex. Anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 16% of the total phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-specific PLC activity in the 1% CHAPS extract and 40% of cytosolic PLC activity. Moreover, a 60-kDa 35S-Trans S-labeled protein, comigrating with immunoreactive PLC-alpha, was immunoprecipitated from the 1% CHAPS extract by the antisera. In addition, anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 20% of solubilized AngII-Rs prebound with 125I-AngII but failed to precipitate receptors prebound with the antagonist 125I-Sarc1,Ile8-AngII. The anti-PLC-alpha antisera also immunoprecipitated AngII-Rs when intact membranes were labeled with 125I-AngII before solubilization in 1% CHAPS, suggesting that the AngII-R interaction with PLC-alpha was not the result of detergent-promoted

  17. Solubilization of native actin monomers from human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Tilley, L; Dwyer, M; Ralston, G B

    1986-01-01

    Up to 50% of the actin in erythrocyte membranes can be solubilized at low ionic strength in a form capable of inhibiting DNAse I, in the presence of 0.4 mM ATP and 0.05 mM calcium. In the absence of calcium and ATP, actin is released but is apparently rapidly denatured. Solubilization of G-actin increases with temperature up to 37 degrees C. At higher temperatures, actin is released rapidly but quickly loses its ability to inhibit DNAse I. PMID:3789986

  18. Cosolvent-induced solubilization of hydrophobic compounds into water

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1988-10-01

    The solubilization of toluene into water by propylene glycol and methanol was measured by a novel liquid chromatographic procedure. The relationship between solubilization and cosolvent content is linear up to 10-20 vol % of cosolvent, beyond which conventional logarithmic behavior is observed. The point of departure from linearity is believed to signal the onset of interaction between the extended hydration shells of the cosolvent. For propylene glycol, the volume of this shell is about 500 mL/mol, and the solubility of toluene within the shell is about 1.3 times its solubility in pure water.

  19. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  20. Survival of Listeria innocua in rainbow trout protein recovered by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation with acetic and citric acids.

    PubMed

    Otto, R A; Paker, I; Bane, L; Beamer, S; Jaczynski, J; Matak, K E

    2011-08-01

    During mechanical fish processing, a substantial amount of protein is discarded as by-products. Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a process that uses extreme pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein from by-products to recover previously discarded protein. Typically, strong acids are used for pH reduction, but these acids do not have a pasteurization effect (6 log reduction) on bacterial load; therefore, organic acids were used during ISP processing to test the impact on Listeria innocua concentrations. Headed and gutted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were inoculated with L. innocua, homogenized, and brought to the target pH with granular citric acid (pH 2.0 and 2.5) or glacial acetic acid (pH 3.0 and 3.5). Proteins were solubilized for 10 min at 4°C, and insoluble components (e.g., skin and insoluble protein) were removed by centrifugation. The remaining solution was pH shifted to the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.5) with sodium hydroxide, and precipitated protein was separated from the water. Microbial cells for each component (proteins, insolubles, and water) were enumerated on modified Oxford agar (MOX) and tryptic soy agar with 6% yeast extract (TSAYE). The sums of the surviving cells from each component were compared with the initial inoculum levels. No significant differences were observed between results obtained from TSAYE and from MOX (P > 0.05). Significant reductions in microbial populations were detected, regardless of pH or acid type (P < 0.05). The greatest reduction was at pH 3.0 with glacial acetic acid, resulting in a mean reduction of 6.41 log CFU/g in the recovered protein and 5.88 log CFU/g in the combined components. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of organic acids in ISP processing. PMID:21819665

  1. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandbeck, K.A.; Cleveland, D.H.

    1994-07-01

    Mo release from spent coal liquefaction catalysts has been shown to be dependent upon many parameters, but release is dominated by microbial growth. The microbial Mo release is a rapid process requiring less than one week for 90% of the releaseable Mo to be solubilized from whole washed (THF) catalyst. It could be expected that the rates would be even greater with crushed catalyst. Efforts are now centering on optimizing the parameters that stimulate microbial growth and action.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF MASS TRANSFER RATES FOR SURFACTANT-ENHANCED SOLUBILIZATION OF NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS. (R825405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced solubilization of residual, nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants is an emerging, subsurface remediation technology. The potential for nonequilibrium conditions is investigated for surfactant-enhanced solubilization of a NAPL, trichloroethylene (TCE), in...

  3. Surfactant micelles containing solubilized oil decrease foam film thickness stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongju; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh

    2014-02-01

    Many practical applications involving three-phase foams (aqueous foams containing oil) commonly employ surfactants at several times their critical micelle concentration (CMC); in these applications, the oil can exist in two forms: (1) oil drops or macroemulsions and (2) oil solubilized within the micelles. We have recently observed that in the case of aqueous foams stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and n-dodecane as an oil, the oil drops did not alter the foam stability but the solubilized oil (swollen micelles) greatly influenced the foam's stability. In order to explain the effect of oil solubilized in the surfactant micelles on foam stability, we studied the stability of a single foam film containing swollen micelles of SDS using reflected light microinterferometry. The film thinning occurs in stepwise manner (stratification). In addition, we obtained data for the film-meniscus contact angle versus film thickness (corresponding to the different number of micellar layers) and used it to calculate the film structural energy isotherm. The results of this study showed that the structural energy stabilization barrier decreased in the presence of swollen micelles in the film, thereby decreasing the foam stability. These results provide a better understanding of the role of oil solubilized by the micelles in affecting foam stability. PMID:24267325

  4. Free-energy analysis of solubilization in micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Liang, Kuo Kan; Nakahara, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    A statistical-mechanical treatment of the solubilization in micelle is presented in combination with molecular simulation. The micellar solution is viewed as an inhomogeneous and partially finite, mixed solvent system, and the method of energy representation is employed to evaluate the free-energy change for insertion of a solute into the micelle inside with a realistic set of potential functions. Methane, benzene, and ethylbenzene are adopted as model hydrophobic solutes to analyze the solubilization in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle. It is shown that these solutes are more favorably located within the micelle than in bulk water and that the affinity to the micelle inside is stronger for benzene and ethylbenzene than for methane. The micellar system is then divided into the hydrophobic core, the head-group region in contact with water, and the aqueous region outside the micelle to assess the relative importance of each region in the solubilization. In support of the pseudophase model, the aqueous region is found to be unimportant to determine the extent of solubilization. The contribution from the hydrophobic-core region is shown to be dominant for benzene and ethylbenzene, while an appreciable contribution from the head-group region is observed for methane. The methodology presented is not restricted to the binding of a molecule to micelle, and will be useful in treating the binding to such nanoscale structures as protein and membrane.

  5. Dietary microbial phytase exerts mixed effects on the gut health of tilapia: a possible reason for the null effect on growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Ran, Chao; He, Suxu; Cao, Yanan; Yao, Bin; Ye, Yuantu; Zhang, Xuezhen; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of dietary microbial phytase on the growth and gut health of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀×Oreochromis aureus ♂), focusing on the effect on intestinal histology, adhesive microbiota and expression of immune-related cytokine genes. Tilapia were fed either control diet or diet supplemented with microbial phytase (1000 U/kg). Each diet was randomly assigned to four groups of fish reared in cages (3×3×2 m). After 12 weeks of feeding, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of tilapia were not significantly improved by dietary microbial phytase supplementation. However, significantly higher level of P content in the scales, tighter and more regular intestinal mucosa folds were observed in the microbial phytase group and the microvilli density was significantly increased. The adhesive gut bacterial communities were strikingly altered by microbial phytase supplementation (0·41microbial phytase, as indicated by the up-regulated intestinal expressions of the cytokine genes (tnf-α and tgf-β) and hsp70. In addition, the gut microvilli height was significantly decreased in the phytase group. These results indicate that dietary microbial phytase may exert mixed effects on hybrid tilapia, and can guide our future selection of phytases as aquafeed additives - that is, eliminating those that can stimulate intestinal inflammation. PMID:27080419

  6. Unified concept of solubilization in water by hydrotropes and cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Bauduin, P; Renoncourt, A; Kopf, A; Touraud, D; Kunz, W

    2005-07-19

    In the present work hydrophobic dyes, i.e. disperse red 13 (DR-13; (2-[4-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenylazo)-N-ethylphenylamino]ethanol) and Jaune au gras W1201 (1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione,2-(2-quinolinyl)), are solubilized in water with the help of different additives: acetone and 1-propanol as typical cosolvents, sodium xylene sulfonate (SXS) as a representative of a classical hydrotrope, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a typical surfactant, and finally some "solvosurfactants" [ propylene glycol monoalkyl ether derivatives (CiPOj: i = 1, j = 1 and 3; i = 3, j = 1 and 2; i = 4 and tertio-butyl, j = 1) and 1-propoxy-2-ethanol (C3EO1)]. These solvosurfactants are short amphiphiles that do not form well-defined structures in water such as micelles. For all additives an exponential increase in the solubilizations of the two studied hydrophobic dyes was observed when their concentrations in water were increased. Except for the SDS solution, no difference in the overall shapes of the solubilization curves (dye solubility against additive concentration) was found. All the studied molecules were classified according to their hydrotropic efficiencies, i.e., their abilities to solubilize a hydrophobic, sparingly soluble compound in water. The volume of the hydrophobic parts of the studied additives, roughly evaluated by simple calculations, was found to influence strongly the hydrotropic efficiency; i.e. the larger the hydrophobic part of the additive, the better the hydrotropic efficiency. By contrast, the hydrophilic part carrying a charge or not is of minor importance. Taking the hydrophobic part of the molecules as the key parameter, the water solubilization efficiency of cosolvents, hydrotropes, and solvosurfactants can be described in a coherent way. PMID:16008386

  7. Characterization of mineral phosphate solubilization traits from a barley rhizosphere soil functional metagenome.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Sagar; Brazil, Dina; Morrissey, John; Burke, James I; O'Gara, Fergal; N Dowling, David

    2013-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (~666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8-77.1 mmol/L and 27.6-38.16 μg/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ~37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil. PMID:23894099

  8. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  9. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  10. Effect of salt on survival and P-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Yandigeri, Mahesh S.; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Alagawadi, Ajjanna R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. The ability of 12 selected PSB and PSF to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl was examined. Among 12 PSB, Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 M NaCl concentration after 7 days after incubation (DAI) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was recorded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSBI3-1 at 2.0 M NaCl concentration after 24 h of incubation. Highest mycelial dry weight irrespective of NaCl concentrations was recorded by the Aspergillus terreus strain PSFCRG2-1 (0.567 g). The percent Pi release, in general, was found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.8 M for bacterial solubilization and declined thereafter. At 15 DAI, strain Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 irrespective of NaCl concentrations showed the maximum P-solubilization (12.12%) which was significantly superior over all other isolates. The amount of Pi released in general among PSF was found to decrease with increase in NaCl concentration at all the incubation periods. Aspergillus sp. strain PSFNRH-2 (20.81%) recorded the maximum Pi release irrespective of the NaCl concentrations and was significantly superior over all other PSF at 7 DAI. PMID:24936136

  11. [Screening, identification and phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of Rahnella sp. phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in calcareous soil].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhi-wei; Hong, Jian-ping; Xie, Ying-he; Li, Lin-xuan

    2013-08-01

    Several strains of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated and screened from the crop rhizosphere of calcareous soil in Shanxi Province of China. After repeated isolation and purification, the strain W25 with strong phosphate-solubilizing activity was obtained, and identified as Rahnella sp., based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical properties and the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Further studies on the W25 showed that the maximum phosphate-solubilizing capability of the W25 on tricalium phosphate, aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate reached 385.5, 110.4 and 216.6 mg x L(-1), respectively. In the liquid culture with aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate, the solubilized phosphorous by the W25 was significantly negatively correlated with the liquid pH, with the correlation coefficient being 0.56 and 0.81, respectively. Among the carbon and nitrogen sources, glucose and ammonium nitrate were the optimum for the solubilization of tricalium phosphate by W25. The utilization of carbon source was in the order of glucose > lactose > sucrose > mannitose > starch, and that of nitrogen source was in the order of ammonium nitrate > ammonium chloride > ammonium sulfate > potassium nitrate > sodium nitrate. Different nitrogen sources had greater effects on the production of organic acids by W25. Formic acid and acetic acid would be produced when the nitrogen source was NH4+, oxalic acid and succinic acid would be produced when the nitrogen source was NO3(-), and citric acid would be extra produced when the ammonium nitrate was used as the nitrogen source. PMID:24380351

  12. Interactions of selected bacterial isolates with DBT and solubilized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Key, D.H.; Fox, R.V.; Kase, R.S.; Willey, M.S.; Stoner, D.L.; Ward, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    We are studying the interactions of isolated bacteria with dibenzothiophene (DBT), a sulfur-containing model compound, and with a solubilized coal product derived from a high-organic-sulfur lignite. The sensitivity of the tetrazolium assay used to identify and study these strains was improved by substituting tetrazolium violet for triphenyltetrazolium. DBT metabolism by thirteen strains was investigated using qualitative and quantitative GC and GC-MS analyses. Growth medium and incubation time affect the extent of DBT degradation and the production of DBT metabolites. Under specific conditions, seven of the strains produce metabolites which elute close to the position of one or another of the biphenyl standards. However, when these samples are spiked with the standard compounds, the bacterial metabolites do not co-elute with the standards. The modification of solubilized high-organic-sulfur coal by six of these strains was also studied. No selective removal of sulfur relative to carbon was observed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Pineal hormone melatonin: solubilization studies in model aqueous gastrointestinal environments.

    PubMed

    Vlachou, Marilena; Eikosipentaki, Aphrodite; Xenogiorgis, Vassilios

    2006-07-01

    In view of the variable oral absorption, short biological half-life and extensive first pass metabolism of the pineal hormone melatonin, an investigation of its solubilization profile in modified aqueous media is described. Four readily available surfactants were examined with respect to their ability to enhance the solubility of melatonin under simulated physiological conditions. The most effective surfactant was found to be the sodium salt of dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DSS), which augmented the aqueous solubility of the hormone by 23%. This is attributed to a favourable stereoelectronic interaction between DSS and the nucleus of melatonin, which seems to be independent of the pH of the dissolution medium. A noteworthy synergistic effect in the aqueous solubilization of the hormone occurs when a 1:2 DSS-sodium dodecyl sulphate mixture is used. PMID:16848727

  14. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  15. Recovery Act - Large Scale SWNT Purification and Solubilization

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gemano; Dr. Linda B. McGown

    2010-10-07

    The goal of this Phase I project was to establish a quantitative foundation for development of binary G-gels for large-scale, commercial processing of SWNTs and to develop scientific insight into the underlying mechanisms of solubilization, selectivity and alignment. In order to accomplish this, we performed systematic studies to determine the effects of G-gel composition and experimental conditions that will enable us to achieve our goals that include (1) preparation of ultra-high purity SWNTs from low-quality, commercial SWNT starting materials, (2) separation of MWNTs from SWNTs, (3) bulk, non-destructive solubilization of individual SWNTs in aqueous solution at high concentrations (10-100 mg/mL) without sonication or centrifugation, (4) tunable enrichment of subpopulations of the SWNTs based on metallic vs. semiconductor properties, diameter, or chirality and (5) alignment of individual SWNTs.

  16. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. PMID:26494247

  17. Fungal attack on rock: solubilization and altered infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1970-09-01

    Penicillium simplicissimum, isolated from weathering basalt, produced citric acid when grown in a glucose-mineral salts medium with basalt, granite, granodiorite, rhyolite, andesite, peridotite, dunite, or quartzite. After 7 days' growth as much as 31 percent of the silicon, 11 percent of the aluminum, 64 percent of the iron, and 59 percent of the magnesium in some of the rocks were solubilized, and a number of rocks showed altered infrared absorption in the silicon-oxygen vibration region. PMID:17838175

  18. Solubilization of PAH mixtures by three different anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Chun, Chan Lan; Lee, Jung-Ju; Park, Jae-Woo

    2002-01-01

    Solubilization of naphthalene and phenanthrene into the micelles formed by three different anionic surfactants was investigated for single, binary, and ternary mixtures including pyrene. The three surfactants were sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDDBS), monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide (MADS-C12), and dialkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide (DADS-C12). The order of increasing solubility enhancement of naphthalene and phenanthrene was SDDBS < MADS-C12 < < DADS-C12, which indicates that the hydrophobic chains in micellar core play more important role for the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than the benzene rings in palisade layer of a micelle. The solubility enhancement of naphthalene was slightly changed in PAH mixtures. The solubility of phenanthrene was greatly enhanced in presence of naphthalene but reduced in presence of pyrene. The explanation for these results could be that less hydrophobic compounds can be solubilized at the interfacial region of a hydrophobic core, which reduces the interfacial tension between the core and water, and then the reduced interfacial tension can support a larger core volume for the same interfacial energy. PMID:12009127

  19. Higher order structure of proteins solubilized in AOT reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Naoe, Kazumitsu; Noda, Kazuki; Kawagoe, Mikio; Imai, Masanao

    2004-11-15

    The higher order structure of proteins solubilized in an bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium (AOT) reverse micellar system was investigated. From circular dichroic (CD) measurement, CD spectra of cytochrome c, which is solubilized at the interface of reverse micelles, markedly changed on going from buffer solution to the reverse micellar solution, and the ellipticity values in the far- and near-UV regions decreased with decreasing the water content (W0: molar ratio of water to AOT), indicating that the secondary and tertiary structures of cytochrome c changed with the water content. The ellipticity of ribonuclease A, which is solubilized in the center of micellar water pool, in the near-UV region was dependent on W0 and became minimum when W0 of ca. 8 while the ellipticity in the far-UV region was almost constant, indicating that the tertiary structure of ribonuclease A was affected by the water content, but the secondary structure was conserved. The degree of curvature of the micellar interface appears to influence the protein structure because the reverse micelle size is linearly proportional to the W0 value. As evidence of this, when the micelle size was comparable to the protein's dimensions, the structures were more affected by the water content. Judging from the dependence of the factor influencing the protein structure on the protein species, the location of solubilized protein in reverse micelles is significantly related to whether the protein structure in the system is affected by the micellar interface. In the cases of cytochrome c and lysozyme, the ellipticity against W0 was dependent on the AOT concentration. In contrast, ribonuclease A gave very similar ellipticity values whatever the AOT concentration. In the n-hexane micellar system, cytochrome c exhibited lower ellipticity values and ribonuclease A in the lower W0 range (W0

  20. Acyclic CB[n]-Type Molecular Containers: Effect of Solubilizing Group on their Function as Solubilizing Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ben; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and x-ray crystal structures of three acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (2a, 2h, 2f) that differ in the charge on their solubilizing groups (SO3−, OH, NH3+). The x-ray crystal structures of compounds 2h and 2f reveal a self-folding of the ArOCH2CH2X wall into the cavity driven by π–π interactions, H-bonds and ion-dipole interactions. The need to reverse this self-folding phenomenon upon guest binding decreases the affinity of 2h and 2f toward cationic guests in water relative to 2a as revealed by direct 1H NMR and UV/Vis titrations as well as UV/Vis competition experiments. We determined the pKa of 6-aminocoumarin 7 (pKa = 3.6) on its own and in the presence anionic, neutral, and cationic hosts (2a: pKa = 4.9; 2h: pKa = 4.1; 2f, pKa = 3.4) which reflect in part the relevance of direct ion-ion interactions between the arms of the host and the guest toward the recognition properties of acyclic CB[n]-type containers. Finally, we showed that the weaker binding affinities measured for neutral and positively charged hosts 2h and 2f compared to anionic 2a results in a decreased ability to act as solubilizing agents for either cationic (tamoxifen), neutral (17α–ethynylestradiol), or anionic (indomethacin) drugs in water. The results establish that acyclic CB[n] compounds that bear anionic solubilizing groups are most suitable for development as general purpose solubilizing excipients for insoluble pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24595500

  1. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  2. Effect of the herbicides oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen on phosphates solubilizing microorganisms and their persistence in rice fields.

    PubMed

    Das, Amal Chandra; Debnath, Anjan; Mukherjee, Debatosh

    2003-10-01

    A field experiment has been conducted with two herbicides viz. oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at rates of 0.4 and 0.12 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, to investigate their effect on the growth and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of phosphorus as well as persistence of the herbicides in the rhizosphere soil of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L. variety IR-36). Application of herbicides stimulated the population and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and also the availability of phosphorus in the rhizosphere soil. Oxyfluorfen provided greater microbial stimulation than oxadiazon. Dissipation of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon followed first order reaction kinetics with half-life (T(1/2)) of 8.8 and 12 days, respectively. Sixty days after application 0.5% and 3% of the applied oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen residues persisted, respectively, in the rhizosphere soil of rice. PMID:12919781

  3. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  4. Localized Metal Solubilization in the Rhizosphere of Salix smithiana upon Sulfur Application

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A metal-accumulating willow was grown under greenhouse conditions on a Zn/Cd-polluted soil to investigate the effects of sulfur (S0) application on metal solubility and plant uptake. Soil porewater samples were analyzed 8 times during 61 days of growth, while DGT-measured metal flux and O2 were chemically mapped at selected times. Sulfur oxidation resulted in soil acidification and related mobilization of Mn, Zn, and Cd, more pronounced in the rooted compared to bulk soil. Chemical imaging revealed increased DGT-measured Zn and Cd flux at the root-soil interface. Our findings indicated sustained microbial S0 oxidation and associated metal mobilization close to root surfaces. The localized depletion of O2 along single roots upon S0 addition indicated the contribution of reductive Mn (oxy)hydoxide dissolution with Mn eventually becoming a terminal electron acceptor after depletion of O2 and NO3–. The S0 treatments increased the foliar metal concentrations (mg kg–1 dwt) up to 10-fold for Mn, (5810 ± 593), 3.3-fold for Zn (3850 ± 87.0), and 1.7-fold for Cd (36.9 ± 3.35), but had no significant influence on biomass production. Lower metal solubilization in the bulk soils should translate into reduced leaching, offering opportunities for using S0 as environmentally favorable amendment for phytoextraction of metal-polluted soils. PMID:25782052

  5. Localized metal solubilization in the rhizosphere of Salix smithiana upon sulfur application.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-04-01

    A metal-accumulating willow was grown under greenhouse conditions on a Zn/Cd-polluted soil to investigate the effects of sulfur (S(0)) application on metal solubility and plant uptake. Soil porewater samples were analyzed 8 times during 61 days of growth, while DGT-measured metal flux and O2 were chemically mapped at selected times. Sulfur oxidation resulted in soil acidification and related mobilization of Mn, Zn, and Cd, more pronounced in the rooted compared to bulk soil. Chemical imaging revealed increased DGT-measured Zn and Cd flux at the root-soil interface. Our findings indicated sustained microbial S(0) oxidation and associated metal mobilization close to root surfaces. The localized depletion of O2 along single roots upon S(0) addition indicated the contribution of reductive Mn (oxy)hydoxide dissolution with Mn eventually becoming a terminal electron acceptor after depletion of O2 and NO3(-). The S(0) treatments increased the foliar metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dwt) up to 10-fold for Mn, (5810 ± 593), 3.3-fold for Zn (3850 ± 87.0), and 1.7-fold for Cd (36.9 ± 3.35), but had no significant influence on biomass production. Lower metal solubilization in the bulk soils should translate into reduced leaching, offering opportunities for using S(0) as environmentally favorable amendment for phytoextraction of metal-polluted soils. PMID:25782052

  6. Cyclodextrin solubilization of benzodiazepines: formulation of midazolam nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, T; Gudmundsdóttir, H; Sigurjónsdóttir, J F; Sigurdsson, H H; Sigfússon, S D; Másson, M; Stefánsson, E

    2001-01-01

    The cyclodextrin solubilization of three benzodiazepines, i.e. alprazolam, midazolam and triazolam, was investigated. The cyclodextrin solubilization was enhanced through ring-opening of the benzodiazepine rings and ionization of the ring-open forms. Additional enhancement was obtained through interaction of a water-soluble polymer with the cyclodextrin complexes. The ring-opening was pH-dependent and completely reversible, the ring-open forms dominating at low pH but the ring-closed forms at physiologic pH. The ring-closed forms were rapidly regenerated upon elevation of pH. In freshly collected human serum in vitro at 37 degrees C, the half-life for the first-order rate constant for the ring-closing reaction was estimated to be less than 2 min for both alprazolam and midazolam. Midazolam (17 mg/ml) was solubilized in aqueous pH 4.3 nasal formulation containing 14% (w/v) sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin, 0.1% (w/v) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, preservatives and buffer salts. Six healthy volunteers received 0.06 mg/kg midazolam intranasally and 2 mg intravenously, and blood samples were collected up to 360 min after the administration. Midazolam was absorbed rapidly reaching maximum serum concentrations of 54.3+/-5.0 ng/ml at 15+/-2 min. The elimination half-life of midazolam was 2.2+/-0.3 h and the absolute availability was 73+/-7%. All mean values+/-SEM. PMID:11165818

  7. Evaluation of the ultrasonic method for solubilizing Daphnia magna before liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Carlile, D.W.

    1984-11-01

    Adult Daphnia magna were exposed to /sup 14/C-labeled phenol and tissues analyzed for /sup 14/C uptake by three methods: (1) tissue solubilizer, (2) tissue solubilizer plus sonication, and (3) sonication alone. Analysis by liquid scintillation counting revealed that measurements of total activity among treatments were not significantly different (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 0.10) at two count levels. Sonicated samples showed less variation than tissue samples that were solubilized. 5 references, 1 table.

  8. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  9. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  10. Reversible calcitonin binding to solubilized sheep brain binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, P M; Schneider, H G; D'Santos, C S; Mendelsohn, F A; Kemp, B E; Moseley, J M; Martin, T J; Findlay, D M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we have solubilized and characterized binding sites for calcitonin (CT) from sheep brainstem. Autoradiography of 125I-labelled salmon CT (125I-sCT) binding to sheep diencephalon revealed a similar pattern of binding to that seen in other species, although the extent of distribution was greater in the sheep. CT binding activity could be extracted from membranes with either CHAPS or digitonin, but not with beta-octyl glucoside, 125I-sCT binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant for CHAPS-solubilized membranes of 2.8 +/- 0.5 nM and a maximum binding site concentration of 6.2 +/- 1.6 pmol/mg of protein. In competition binding studies, various CTs and their analogues demonstrated a similar rank order of potency to that seen in other CT receptor systems, Optimal binding occurred in the pH range 6.5-7.5, and was decreased in the presence of NaCl concentrations greater than 200 mM. In contrast with most other CT receptor binding systems, in which binding is poorly reversible, the binding of 125I-sCT to sheep brain binding sites underwent substantial dissociation upon addition of excess unlabelled sCT, with 40% and 46% dissociation after 2 h at 4 degree C in particulate and solubilized membranes respectively. Photoaffinity labelling of the binding site with the biologically active analogue 125I-[Arg11,18,4-azidobenzoyl-Lys14]sCT and analysis on SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions revealed a specific protein band of Mr approximately solubilized and particulate brain membranes. This is in accordance with the molecular size of CT receptors in other tissues where two species of receptor have been identified. one of Mr approximately 71,000 and another of Mr approximately 88,000. These results demonstrate the presence of high concentrations of CT binding sites in sheep brain which display different kinetic properties to those of CT receptors found in other tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 6. PMID:1846527

  11. Solubilization and characterization of the anthrax toxin pore in detergent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Vernier, Gregory; Wang, Jie; Jennings, Laura D; Sun, Jianjun; Fischer, Audrey; Song, Likai; Collier, R John

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytically activated Protective Antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin self-associates to form a heptameric ring-shaped oligomer (the prepore). Acidic pH within the endosome converts the prepore to a pore that serves as a passageway for the toxin's enzymatic moieties to cross the endosomal membrane. Prepore is stable in solution under mildly basic conditions, and lowering the pH promotes a conformational transition to an insoluble pore-like state. N-tetradecylphosphocholine (FOS14) was the only detergent among 110 tested that prevented aggregation without dissociating the multimer into its constituent subunits. FOS14 maintained the heptamers as monodisperse, insertion-competent 440-kDa particles, which formed channels in planar phospholipid bilayers with the same unitary conductance and ability to translocate a model substrate protein as channels formed in the absence of detergent. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis detected pore-like conformational changes within PA on solubilization with FOS14, and electron micrograph images of FOS14-solubilized pore showed an extended, mushroom-shaped structure. Circular dichroïsm measurements revealed an increase in α helix and a decrease in β structure in pore formation. Spectral changes caused by a deletion mutation support the hypothesis that the 2β2-2β3 loop transforms into the transmembrane segment of the β-barrel stem of the pore. Changes caused by selected point mutations indicate that the transition to α structure is dependent on residues of the luminal 2β11-2β12 loop that are known to affect pore formation. Stabilizing the PA pore in solution with FOS14 may facilitate further structural analysis and a more detailed understanding of the folding pathway by which the pore is formed. PMID:19609933

  12. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  13. Complete solubilization of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls with retention of most structural features

    SciTech Connect

    Mort, A.J.; Oiu, Feng; Otiko, G.; Maness, N.O.; West, P. ); An, Jinhua Univ. of Georgia, Athens ); Oi, Xiaoyang Univ. of Cincinnati, OH )

    1993-05-01

    Cotton suspension culture cell walls contain four major pectin substructures: (1) rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), (2) rhamnogalacturonan II, (3) highly methyl esterified homogalacturonan, and (4) homogalacturonan of low degree of methyl esterification. Methods are described to solubilize and isolate each of the four major substructures from the cell walls in high yields. RGII is completely solubilized by an easily purified endopolygalacturonase (EPG). Around 40% of RGI can be solubilized by the sequential action of this EPG and a commercially available cellulase. Almost all of the RGI along with xyloglucan can be solubilized after the EPG treatment using strong alkali. Highly methyl esterified homogalacturonan (degree of methyl esterification [approximately]40%) is solubilized into water after HF treatment of the untreated walls, at [minus]23[degrees], and homogalacturonans with a very low degree of methyl esterification ([approximately]10%) can subsequently be solubilized into 500 mM imidazole buffer. the highly methyl esterified homogalacturonan co-solubilizes with the RGI during several extraction procedures and co-chromatographs with it, indicating that they are covalently attached to each other in the cell walls. Little of the RGI is solubilized from cotton walls by EPG digestion without a subsequent treatment that co-solubilizes the xyloglucan or degrades the xyloglucan, indicating crosslinks exist between the RGI and much of the xyloglucan.

  14. Solubilization of high affinity corticotropin-releasing factor receptors from rat brain: Characterization of an active digitonin-solubilized receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriadis, D.E.; Zaczek, R.; Pearsall, D.M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1989-12-01

    The binding characteristics of CRF receptors in rat frontal cerebral cortex membranes solubilized in 1% digitonin were determined. The binding of (125I)Tyro-ovine CRF ((125I)oCRF) to solubilized membrane proteins was dependent on incubation time, temperature, and protein concentration, was saturable and of high affinity, and was absent in boiled tissue. The solubilized receptors retained their high affinity for (125I) oCRF in the solubilized state, exhibiting a dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 200 pM, as determined by direct binding saturation isotherms. Solubilized CRF receptors maintained the rank order of potencies for various related and unrelated CRF peptides characteristic of the membrane CRF receptor: rat/human CRF congruent to ovine CRF congruent to Nle21,38-rat CRF greater than alpha-helical oCRF-(9-41) greater than oCRF-(7-41) much greater than vasoactive intestinal peptide, arginine vasopressin, or the substance-P antagonist. Furthermore, the absolute potencies (Ki values) for the various CRF-related peptides in solubilized receptors were almost identical to those observed in the membrane preparations, indicating that the CRF receptor retained its high affinity binding capacity in the digitonin-solubilized state. Chemical affinity cross-linking of digitonin-solubilized rat cortical membrane proteins revealed a specifically labeled protein with an apparent mol wt of 58,000 which was similar to the labeled protein in native membrane homogenates. Although solubilized CRF receptors retained their high affinity for agonists, their sensitivity for guanine nucleotide was lost. Size exclusion chromatography substantiated these results, demonstrating that in the presence or absence of guanine nucleotides, (125I)oCRF labeled the same size receptor complex.

  15. Solubilization and electrophoretic characterization of select edible nut seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sharma, Girdhari M; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of almond, Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, walnut, and peanut proteins in several aqueous solvents was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, the effects of extraction time and ionic strength on protein solubility were also investigated. Electrophoresis and protein determination (Lowry, Bradford, and micro-Kjeldahl) methods were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins, respectively. Depending on the seed, buffer type and ionic strength significantly affected protein solubility. The results suggest that buffered sodium borate (BSB; 0.1 M H(3)BO(3), 0.025 M Na(2)B(4)O(7), 0.075 M NaCl, pH 8.45) optimally solubilizes nut seed proteins. Qualitative differences in seed protein electrophoretic profiles were revealed. For a specific seed type, these differences were dependent on the solvent(s) used to solubilize the seed proteins. SDS-PAGE results suggest the polypeptide molecular mass range for the tree nut seed proteins to be 3-100 kDa. The results of native IEF suggested that the proteins were mainly acidic, with a pI range from >4.5 to <7.0. Western immunoblotting experiments indicated that rabbit polyclonal antibodies recognized substantially the same polypeptides as those recognized by the corresponding pooled patient sera IgE. PMID:19655801

  16. Solubilization and partial characterization of a microsomal high affinity GTPase

    SciTech Connect

    Nicchitta, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Isolated rat liver microsomes release sequestered Ca/sup 2 +/ following addition of GTP. In contrast to permeabilized cells, GTP dependent microsomal Ca/sup 2 +/ release requires low concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG). They have identified a microsomal, PEG-sensitive high affinity GTPase which shares a number of characteristics with the GTP-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ release system. To aid in further characterization of this activity they have initiated studies on the solubilization and purification of the microsomal GTPases. When microsomes are solubilized under the following conditions (150 mM NaCl, 5 mg protein/ml, 1% Triton X-114) PEG sensitive GTPase activity selectively partitions into the detergent rich phase of the Triton X-114 extract. As observed in intact microsomal membranes the Triton X-114 soluble GTPase is maximally stimulated by 3% PEG. Half maximal stimulation is observed at 1% PEG. PEG increases the Vmax of this activity; no effects on Km were observed. The Km for GTP of the detergent soluble GTPase is 5 ..mu..M. This GTPase is sensitive to inhibition by sulfhydryl reagents. PEG-sensitive GTPase activity was completely inhibited in the presence of 25 ..mu..M p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PHMB); half maximal inhibition was observed at 5 ..mu..M. Labeling of the Triton X-114 extract with the photosensitive compound (/sup 32/P) 8-azido GTP indicated the presence of two prominent GTP binding proteins of approximate molecular weights 17 and 54 kD.

  17. Ozone solubilizes elastin and increases its susceptibility to elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.S.; Johnson, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant gas that may contribute to lung diseases such as emphysema. Because the hallmark of emphysema is destruction of the elastin rich alveoli of the lung, ozonization of elastin was studied in vitro to examine the effects of ozone on elastin structure and susceptibility to proteolysis. Samples of bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin were suspended in 15 ml PBS and bubbled with 13.7 ppm ozone in argon at a flow rate of 3.5 ml/min. Ozone treatment resulted in the solubilization of elastin as evidenced by a visual decrease in turbidity and an increase in the 225 nm absorbance of the supernatant fraction after centrifugation to pellet the insoluble elastin. Insoluble elastin recovered from exposed suspensions was examined for proteolytic susceptibility with human neutrophil elastase (HNE), by incubating 600 {mu}g samples in 1 ml of 50 mM Tris-HCl, 200 mM NaCl, pH 8.0 with 3 {mu}g HNE for various times at room temp. Elastin proteolysis was followed by measuring the 225 nm absorbance of solubilized peptides in supernatant fractions. Ozone exposed elastin, which had been previously ozonized to 5% solubility was found to be approximately twice as susceptible to proteolysis as native elastin.

  18. Transfer specificity of detergent-solubilized fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mary E; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J; Reid, J S Grant

    2002-07-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of ((14)C)Gal from UDP-((14)C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1-->6)-alpha, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  19. Transfer Specificity of Detergent-Solubilized Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mary E.; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J.; Reid, J.S. Grant

    2002-01-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of (14C)Gal from UDP-(14C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1→6)-α, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  20. Tocol emulsions for drug solubilization and parenteral delivery.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Tustian, Alex; Kessler, Dean R

    2004-05-01

    Tocols represent a family of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and their derivatives, and are fundamentally derived from the simplest tocopherol, 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-phytylchroman, which is referred to as "tocol". The most common tocol is D-alpha-tocopherol, also known as vitamin E. Tocols can be excellent solvents for water insoluble drugs and are compatible with other cosolvents, oils and surfactants. This review highlights the major developments in the use of tocols in parenteral emulsions for drug delivery, with a focus on drug solubilization, physicochemical properties, and biopharmaceutical applications. Tocol emulsions offer an appealing alternative for the parenteral administration of poorly soluble drugs, including major chemotherapeutics such as paclitaxel. Data will be presented on solubilization of paclitaxel, a key chemotherapeutic agent, and its corresponding formulation development, toxicity, efficacy and pharmacokinetic studies in animal models and humans. The breadth of the utility of tocol-based emulsions will be discussed and examples of specific therapeutic drugs and applications will be provided. As these formulations progress further in the clinic, the therapeutic utility of tocol emulsions is anticipated to expand. PMID:15109767

  1. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. PMID:27130213

  2. Extraction, Enrichment, Solubilization, and Digestion Techniques for Membrane Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie M; Hess, Stephanie M; Jorgenson, James W

    2016-04-01

    The importance of membrane proteins in biological systems is indisputable; however, their amphipathic nature makes them difficult to analyze. In this study, the most popular techniques for extraction, enrichment, solubilization, and digestion are compared, resulting in an overall improved workflow for the insoluble portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell lysate. Yeast cells were successfully lysed using a French press pressure cell at 20 000 psi, and resulting proteins were fractionated prior to digestion to reduce sample complexity. The proteins were best solubilized with the addition of ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (1%) and through the application of high-frequency sonication prior to a tryptic digestion at 37 °C. Overall, the improved membrane proteomic workflow resulted in a 26% increase in membrane protein identifications for baker's yeast. In addition, more membrane protein identifications were unique to the improved protocol. When comparing membrane proteins that were identified in the improved protocol and the standard operating procedure (176 proteins), 93% of these proteins were present in greater abundance (higher intensity) when using the improved method. PMID:26979493

  3. Pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis gene pqqC, a novel molecular marker for studying the phylogeny and diversity of phosphate-solubilizing pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Frapolli, Michele; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2011-10-01

    Many root-colonizing pseudomonads are able to promote plant growth by increasing phosphate availability in soil through solubilization of poorly soluble rock phosphates. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization by pseudomonads is the secretion of gluconic acid, which requires the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase and its cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether a PQQ biosynthetic gene is suitable to study the phylogeny of phosphate-solubilizing pseudomonads. To this end, two new primers, which specifically amplify the pqqC gene of the Pseudomonas genus, were designed. pqqC fragments were amplified and sequenced from a Pseudomonas strain collection and from a natural wheat rhizosphere population using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. Phylogenetic trees based on pqqC sequences were compared to trees obtained with the two concatenated housekeeping genes rpoD and gyrB. For both pqqC and rpoD-gyrB, similar main phylogenetic clusters were found. However, in the pqqC but not in the rpoD-gyrB tree, the group of fluorescent pseudomonads producing the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin was located outside the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. pqqC sequences from isolated pseudomonads were differently distributed among the identified phylogenetic groups than pqqC sequences derived from the cultivation-independent approach. Comparing pqqC phylogeny and phosphate solubilization activity, we identified one phylogenetic group with high solubilization activity. In summary, we demonstrate that the gene pqqC is a novel molecular marker that can be used complementary to housekeeping genes for studying the diversity and evolution of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. PMID:21856827

  4. Phosphate solubilizing and indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria from the soil of Garhwal Himalaya aimed to improve the growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Gusain, Yogendra Singh; Kamal, Ranveer; Mehta, C M; Singh, U S; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, soil bacteria from rainfed agriculture field of Garhwal Himalaya, just prior to sowing of summer crop, were isolated and initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. Two bacterial isolates, having efficient P- solubilizing activity in solid medium, were identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Pseudomonas koreensis strainYB1 Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB3 and three bacterial isolates, producing high amount of IAA in liquid medium, were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strainYB2 and two strain of Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, strainYB4 and YB5, respectively. In culture medium supplemented with L-Tryptophan, Klebsiella oxytoca produced high amount of IAA (337.44 μg l(-1)). The selected five bacterial strains were further tested for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilizing abilities at three different incubation temperature viz., 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 28 degrees C, under in vitro conditions. At 28 degrees C, three bacterial strains Pseudomonas koreensis, Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 and Klebsiella oxytoca solubilized the phosphate efficiently. At 10 degrees C only two strains, Pseudomonas koreensis and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 solubilized phosphate efficiently as compared to other strains. These five bacterial strains were tested for nitrogen, catalase activity, starch and cellulose hydrolysis as well as growth promotion activity on rice, under controlled conditions. All the five bacterial strains efficiently increased the biomass and phosphorus uptake in Swama and Swarna sub1 varieties of rice. PMID:26536808

  5. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Biosynthesis Gene pqqC, a Novel Molecular Marker for Studying the Phylogeny and Diversity of Phosphate-Solubilizing Pseudomonads ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Frapolli, Michele; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Many root-colonizing pseudomonads are able to promote plant growth by increasing phosphate availability in soil through solubilization of poorly soluble rock phosphates. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization by pseudomonads is the secretion of gluconic acid, which requires the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase and its cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether a PQQ biosynthetic gene is suitable to study the phylogeny of phosphate-solubilizing pseudomonads. To this end, two new primers, which specifically amplify the pqqC gene of the Pseudomonas genus, were designed. pqqC fragments were amplified and sequenced from a Pseudomonas strain collection and from a natural wheat rhizosphere population using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. Phylogenetic trees based on pqqC sequences were compared to trees obtained with the two concatenated housekeeping genes rpoD and gyrB. For both pqqC and rpoD-gyrB, similar main phylogenetic clusters were found. However, in the pqqC but not in the rpoD-gyrB tree, the group of fluorescent pseudomonads producing the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin was located outside the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. pqqC sequences from isolated pseudomonads were differently distributed among the identified phylogenetic groups than pqqC sequences derived from the cultivation-independent approach. Comparing pqqC phylogeny and phosphate solubilization activity, we identified one phylogenetic group with high solubilization activity. In summary, we demonstrate that the gene pqqC is a novel molecular marker that can be used complementary to housekeeping genes for studying the diversity and evolution of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. PMID:21856827

  6. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  7. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  8. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  9. Effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos, on phosphate-solubilizing efficiency of soil fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Saxena, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Soil is a sink of pesticide residues as well as microorganisms. Fungi are well known for solubilization of inorganic phosphates, and this activity of fungal isolates may be affected by the presence of pesticide residues in the soil. In the present study, five generically different fungal isolates, viz. Aspergillus niger JQ660373, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium aculeatum JQ660374, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp., were tested and compared for their phosphate-solubilizing ability in the absence and presence of monocrotophos (500 mg L(-1)). After 168 h of incubation, four times high amount of tricalcium phosphate was solubilized by isolates in the growth medium containing monocrotophos in comparison to control (without monocrotophos). Concurrently, 78 % of the applied monocrotophos was degraded by these fungal isolates. Kinetics of phosphate solubilization shifted from logarithmic to power model in the presence of monocrotophos. Similarly, the phosphatase activity was also found significantly high in the presence of monocrotophos. The combined order of phosphate solubilization as well as monocrotophos degradation was found to be A. niger JQ660373 > P. aculeatum JQ660374 > A. flavus > F. pallidoroseum > Macrophomina sp. On the contrary, phosphate solubilization negatively correlated with the pH of the growth medium. Hence, it could be concluded that these fungal species efficiently solubilize inorganic phosphates and monocrotophos poses a positive effect on their ability and in turn degraded by them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on P solubilization by Macrophomina sp. and F. pallidoroseum. PMID:25344433

  10. Effect of temperature on VFA's and biogas production in anaerobic solubilization of food waste.

    PubMed

    Komemoto, K; Lim, Y G; Nagao, N; Onoue, Y; Niwa, C; Toda, T

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of methane fermentation treatment used in food waste processing is currently limited by solubilization and acidogenesis. In efforts to improve the treatment process, this study examined the effects of temperature on solubilization and acidogenesis. The solubilization rate of food waste, which was based on suspended solid removal, was 47.5%, 62.2%, 70.0%, 72.7%, 56.1% and 45.9% at 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 55 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively. Solubilization rate was accelerated from the middle to late experimental periods under mesophilic (35 degrees C and 45 degrees C) conditions. In contrast, overall solubilization rate was significantly lower under thermophilic (55 degrees C and 65 degrees C) conditions than under mesophilic conditions, although solubilization occurred rapidly in the early experimental period. The production of biogas was high under mesophilic conditions of 35 degrees C and 45 degrees C, at 64.7 and 62.7mL/g-VS, respectively, while it was scarce under thermophilic conditions. Solubilization of food waste was accelerated under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions; however, solubilization rate was observed to be particularly high under mesophilic conditions, and a shortening of the hydraulic retention time is expected under thermophilic conditions. PMID:19716284

  11. Improved Solubilization of Surface Proteins from Listeria monocytogenes for Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solubilization of bacterial surface (cell wall and membrane-associated) proteins for 2-DE is challenging, particularly in the case of Gram-positive bacteria. This is primarily due to strong protein association with the cell wall peptidoglycan and protein hydrophobicity. We solubilized surface protei...

  12. Behavior of inorganic elements during sludge ozonation and their effects on sludge solubilization.

    PubMed

    Sui, Pengzhe; Nishimura, Fumitake; Nagare, Hideaki; Hidaka, Taira; Nakagawa, Yuko; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of inorganic elements (including phosphorus, nitrogen, and metals) during sludge ozonation was investigated using batch tests and the effects of metals on sludge solubilization were elucidated. A decrease of ∼ 50% in the ratio of sludge solubilization was found to relate to a high iron content 80-120 mgFe/gSS than that of 4.7-7.4 mgFe/gSS. During sludge ozonation, the pH decreased from 7 to 5, which resulted in the dissolution of chemically precipitated metals and phosphorus. Based on experimental results and thermodynamic calculation, phosphate precipitated by iron and aluminum was more difficult to release while that by calcium released with decrease in pH. The release of barium, manganese, and chrome did not exceed 10% and was much lower than COD solubilization; however, that of nickel, copper, and zinc was similar to COD solubilization. The ratio of nitrogen solubilization was 1.2 times higher than that of COD solubilization (R(2)=0.85). Of the total nitrogen solubilized, 80% was organic nitrogen. Because of their high accumulation potential and negative effect on sludge solubilization, high levels of iron and aluminum in both sewage and sludge should be considered carefully for the application of the advanced sewage treatment process with sludge ozonation and phosphorus crystallization. PMID:21215984

  13. High quality draft genome sequence of the type strain of Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T) (=LMG 21974(T), CECT 5822(T)) is the type strain of the species and was isolated from the rhizosphere of grass growing in Spain in 2003 based on its phosphate-solubilizing capacity. In order to identify the functional significance of phosphate solubilization in Pseudomonas Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, we describe here the phenotypic characteristics of strain OK2(T) along with its high-quality draft genome sequence, its annotation, and analysis. The genome is comprised of 5,647,497 bp with 60.15 % G + C content. The sequence includes 4,846 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes. PMID:27555890

  14. Pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthesized in Escherichia coli by pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthase of Deinococcus radiodurans plays a role beyond mineral phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Nivedita P; Misra, Hari S; Apte, Shree K

    2003-12-12

    Deinococcus radiodurans, an extremely radioresistant bacterium, synthesizes coenzyme pyrroloquinoline-quinone (PQQ) but exhibits a negative phenotype for mineral phosphate solubilization. Gene for the putative PQQ synthesizing protein was PCR amplified and cloned from Deinococcus, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli, under an inducible E. coli promoter. The transgenic E. coli expressed PQQ synthase protein of 42kDa and complemented the mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of E. coli, suggesting the synthesis of an active protein. The cells expressing high levels of this protein showed increased protection against photodynamically produced reactive oxygen species. The effect could be attributed to the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase by PQQ in transgenic E. coli through an unknown mechanism. The study elucidates a hitherto unknown possible function of PQQ in bacteria. PMID:14637137

  15. Strategy for large scale solubilization of coal - characterization of Neurospora protein and gene

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Chen, Y.P.; Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-31

    Low grade coal placed on mycelial mat of Neurospora crassa growing on Petri plate was found to be solubilized by this fungus. A heat stable protein has been purified to near homogeneity which can solubilize low grade coal in in vitro. The biochemical properties of the Neurospora protein will be presented. The nature of the product obtained after solubilization of coal by Neurospora protein in vivo and in vitro will also be presented. The N-terminus sequence of the amino acids of this protein will be used to design primer for possible cloning of gene for Neurospora protein capable of solubilization of coal in order to develop methodology for coal solubilization on a large scale.

  16. Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

    2000-07-20

    Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

  17. Visualization of surfactant enhanced NAPL mobilization and solubilization in a two-dimensional micromodel

    SciTech Connect

    ZHONG,LIRONG; MAYER,ALEX; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-03-08

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is an emerging technology for aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). A two-dimensional micromodel and image capture system were applied to observe NAPL mobilization and solubilization phenomena. In each experiment, a common residual NAPL field was established, followed by a series of mobilization and solubilization experiments. Mobilization floods included pure water floods with variable flow rates and surfactant floods with variations in surfactant formulations. At relatively low capillary numbers (N{sub ca}<10{sup {minus}3}), the surfactant mobilization floods resulted in higher NAPL saturations than for the pure water flood, for similar N{sub ca}.These differences in macroscopic saturations are explained by differences in micro-scale mobilization processes. Solubilization of the residual NAPL remaining after the mobilization stage was dominated by the formation of dissolution fingers, which produced nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization. A macroemulsion phase also as observed to form spontaneously and persist during the solubilization stage of the experiments.

  18. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) promotes direct electron transfer at the interface between Shewanella loihica and the anode in a microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Wu, Wenguo; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-03-01

    Anode modification is an effective method for enhancing extracellular electron transportation and improving the power density of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a new conductive polymer called poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is electrochemically polymerized to modify the anode. The surface of the electrochemically polymerized PEDOT layer has a widespread porous structure. Both the anode electrochemical discharge experiment and MFC discharge test demonstrate the improved performance of the PEDOT-modified anode compared with a plain anode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses show that the PEDOT modification increases the availability of redox active sites and reduces the interfacial electron transfer resistance of the anode. Compared with the unmodified anode, the PEDOT anodic modification improves the power density by 43%-140 mW m-2. Possible mechanisms are proposed to help understand the function of the PEDOT-modified anodic layer.

  19. Solubilization, purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes using polyoxometalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bin; Lu, Haifeng; Hu, Zhigang; Xin, John H.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we developed a convenient and efficient method for solubilization, purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a versatile reagent (phosphotungstic acid (HPW)). Because HPW can spontaneously attach to graphite walls as polyanions and provide static repulsion, CNT aggregates were divided into individual and small bundles of CNTs and turned into a stable solution by sonication in the presence of HPW. Amorphous carbon impurities and metal catalysts in the raw CNTs were removed by centrifugation and filtration. Finally, purified CNTs with a yield of 82 wt% were obtained. Using HPW on graphite walls as an electrostatic and acid anchor, positively charged titania nanoparticles and albumin molecules were successfully assembled around CNTs without altering their delocalized π-electron system. The versatility of this simple approach could be extended beyond inorganic nanoparticles and proteins, to other systems with desired properties.

  20. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  1. Survival of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria against DNA damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Manoj; Rajpurohit, Yogendra S; Misra, Hari S; D'Souza, S F

    2010-10-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSBs) were isolated from different plant rhizosphere soils of various agroecological regions of India. These isolates showed synthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), production of gluconic acid, and release of phosphorus from insoluble tricalcium phosphate. The bacterial isolates synthesizing PQQ also showed higher tolerance to ultraviolet C radiation and mitomycin C as compared to Escherichia coli but were less tolerant than Deinococcus radiodurans. Unlike E. coli, PSB isolates showed higher tolerance to DNA damage when grown in the absence of inorganic phosphate. Higher tolerance to ultraviolet C radiation and oxidative stress in these PSBs grown under PQQ synthesis inducible conditions, namely phosphate starvation, might suggest the possible additional role of this redox cofactor in the survival of these isolates under extreme abiotic stress conditions. PMID:20962905

  2. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  3. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C.; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  4. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible. PMID:26776022

  5. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible. PMID:23244679

  6. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.

  7. Studies on the solubilization of the water-insoluble fraction from human lens and cataract.

    PubMed

    Ortwerth, B J; Olesen, P R

    1992-12-01

    Studies were carried out comparing the ability of urea extraction and sonication to solubilize the water-insoluble (WI) protein fraction from human lens tissue. Sonication and urea extraction were able to solubilize greater than 80% of the insoluble protein whether whole lenses or lens nuclei were used. This was true for normal lens and +1 cataracts; however, only 60% solubilization was obtained with the WI fraction from more advanced cataracts. Equal aliquots of a WI fraction from both pooled normal and pooled cataract lens nuclei were solubilized with and without reducing agents. The addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) had no significant effect on solubilization of the normal lens WI fraction. DTT did increase the protein solubilized from the cataract WI fraction by 30% with urea extraction; however, no increase was seen with sonication. When sodium borohydride was used as the reducing agent, essentially the same results were obtained. The solubilized protein populations were identical by SDS-PAGE and amino acid analysis. The addition of reducing agents had no effect on the amino acid content of the solubilized proteins with the single exception of lysine. This amino acid was markedly decreased in the proteins extracted in the presence of 40 mM sodium borohydride, but not with DTT. These data suggest that the borohydride not only increased the amount of protein solubilized, but likely also stabilized glycated lysine residues during the acid hydrolysis. Therefore, sonication readily provides a soluble preparation of the WI proteins from normal and cataract lens nuclei without the need for denaturing agents, however, disulfide-linked and lysine modified crystallins were best solubilized with urea. PMID:1486936

  8. NMR study about solubilization of phenyl alkyl alcohol in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle and in BRIJ 35 micelle

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagishi, S.; Nishida, M.

    1980-11-01

    This work examines the NMR spectra of surfactant solutions solubilizing phenyl alkyl alcohols and the effect of holmium ion on them. More detailed information was obtained about the solubilization site. In addition, it was found that the solubilization in BRIJ 35 micelle was different from that in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle. 16 references.

  9. Structure and biological properties of solubilized envelope proteins of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A; Hawkins, D C

    1983-01-01

    The structure and biological properties of solubilized envelope proteins of Bordetella pertussis have been examined. Several envelope proteins were found to be specific for phase I strains of B. pertussis and could be isolated by selective detergent extraction. These proteins had molecular weights of 90,000, 86,000, 81,000, 33,000, 31,000, and 30,000 and were reduced or absent in envelope preparations from Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis, or phase IV strains of B. pertussis. When the envelope preparations from phase I B. pertussis were assayed in the mouse intracerebral protection test they were found to be highly protective, and there was a strong correlation between the protective potency and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor (LPF) content of different preparations. Treatment with glutaraldehyde reduced the LPF activity, toxicity, and protective potency of the envelope extracts. Similarly affinity chromatography of envelope proteins on columns of haptoglobin coupled to Sepharose 4B reduced both the LPF content and the protective potency. The addition of a small amount of purified LPF to the haptoglobin-treated proteins restored the protective potency. The LPF by itself was nonprotective, indicating a potentiating role of LPF in the mouse intracerebral challenge test. Images PMID:6299946

  10. Derepression of Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Phenotype by Insertional Inactivation of iclR in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Maharshi; Jog, Rahul; G, Naresh Kumar; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    The mode of succinate mediated repression of mineral phosphate solubilization and the role of repressor in suppressing phosphate solubilization phenotype of two free-living nitrogen fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains was studied. Organic acid mediated mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of oxalic acid producing Klebsiella pneumoniae SM6 and SM11 were transcriptionally repressed by IclR in presence of succinate as carbon source. Oxalic acid production and expression of genes of the glyoxylate shunt (aceBAK) was found only in glucose but not in succinate- and glucose+succinate-grown cells. IclR, repressor of aceBAK operon, was inactivated using an allelic exchange system resulting in derepressed mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype through constitutive expression of the glyoxylate shunt. Insertional inactivation of iclR resulted in increased activity of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes even in succinate-grown cells. An augmented phosphate solubilization up to 54 and 59% soluble phosphate release was attained in glucose+succinate-grown SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains respectively, compared to glucose-grown cells, whereas phosphate solubilization was absent or negligible in wildtype cells grown in glucose+succinate. Both wildtype and iclR deletion strains showed similar indole-3-acetic acid production. Wheat seeds inoculated with wildtype SM6 and SM11 improved both root and shoot length by 1.2 fold. However, iclR deletion SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains increased root and shoot length by 1.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The repressor inactivated phosphate solubilizers better served the purpose of constitutive phosphate solubilization in pot experiments, where presence of other carbon sources (e.g., succinate) might repress mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of wildtype strains. PMID:26381651

  11. Solubilization Behavior of Polyene Antibiotics in Nanomicellar System: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Amphotericin B and Nystatin Interactions with Polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Meysam; Attar, Hossein; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mehdi; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    -core compatibility in detergent micelles. Based on the obtained results, the dearth of water at interior sites of micelle and the large lateral occupation space of PAs lead to shallow insertion, broad radial distribution, and lack of core interactions of the amphiphilic drugs. Hence, controlled promotion of micelle permeability and optimization of chain crowding in palisade layer may help to achieve more efficient solubilization of the PAs. PMID:26712721

  12. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B. )

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate on coal solubilization by this organism.

  13. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in cultured hepatoma cells and a solubilized system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods are described which have been used successfully to study insulin receptor autophosphorylation in cultured cells (hepatoma cell line Fao) and detergent solubilized receptor systems. Intact cultured cells were labelled with /sup 32/PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/. Details are given for the solubilization and purification of the insulin receptor and insulin dose-response curves for phosphorylation of the solubilized insulin receptor. Trypsin digestion of a phosphorylated subunit suggests that at least peptides containing sites of /sup 32/P incorporation exist in the receptor molecule.

  14. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands. PMID:25345061

  15. Solubilization, solution equilibria, and biodegradation of PAH's under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Richards, Lee A; Petersen, James N

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 60 degrees C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 degrees C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 degrees C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates. PMID:16934313

  16. Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of PAH's under Thermophilic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.

  17. Characterization and Solubilization of Kaurenoic Acid Hydroxylase from Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, J. C.; Coolbaugh, R. C.; Nakata, D. A.; West, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    A key step in gibberellin biosynthesis is the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid, mediated by the enzyme kaurenoic acid hydroxylase. A cell-free system obtained from Gibberella fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr. was used to characterize kaurenoic acid hydroxylase activity. Microsomal preparations from disrupted fungal cells, in the presence of O2 and NADPH, converted [17-14C]ent-kaurenoic acid to oxidation products that were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaurenoic acid and gibberellin A14 by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavin adenine dinucleotide and the chloride salts of several monovalent cations stimulated the conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to these products, whereas CO and a number of known inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including paclobutrazol, tetcyclacis, BAS 111.W, flurprimidol, triarimol, metyrapone, and 1-phenylimida-zole, significantly reduced kaurenoic acid hydroxylase activity. Kaurenoic acid hydroxylase was solubilized from fungal microsomes by treatment with 1 M KCl. The properties of the enzyme noted above suggest that kaurenoic acid hydroxylase from G. fujikuroi is a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase. PMID:12231743

  18. Solubilization and Mineralization of Lignin by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, C. David; Kropp, Bradley R.; Reid, Ian D.

    1992-01-01

    The white rot fungi Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Flammulina velutipes, and Schizophyllum commune were grown in liquid media containing 14C-lignin-labelled wood, and the formation of water-soluble 14C-labelled products and 14CO2, the growth of the fungi, and the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were measured. Conditions that affect the rate of lignin degradation were imposed, and both long-term (0- to 16-day) and short-term (0- to 72-h) effects on the production of the two types of product and on the activities of the enzymes were monitored. The production of 14CO2-labelled products from the aqueous ones was also investigated. The short-term studies showed that the different conditions had different effects on the production of the two products and on the activities of the enzymes. Nitrogen sources inhibited the production of both products by all species when differences in growth could be discounted. Medium pH and manganese affected lignin degradation by the different species differently. With P. chrysosporium, the results were consistent, with lignin peroxidase playing a role in lignin solubilization and manganese peroxidase being important in subsequent CO2 production. PMID:16348781

  19. Membrane Protein Solubilization and Composition of Protein Detergent Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duquesne, Katia; Prima, Valérie; Sturgis, James N

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are typically expressed in heterologous systems with a view to in vitro characterization. A critical step in the preparation of membrane proteins after expression in any system is the solubilization of the protein in aqueous solution, typically using detergents and lipids, to obtain the protein in a form suitable for purification, structural or functional analysis. This process is particularly difficult as the objective is to prepare the protein in an unnatural environment, a protein detergent complex, separating it from its natural lipid partners while causing the minimum destabilization or modification of the structure. Although the process is difficult, and relatively hard to master, an increasing number of membrane proteins have been successfully isolated after expression in a wide variety of systems. In this chapter we give a general protocol for preparing protein detergent complexes that is aimed at guiding the reader through the different critical steps. In the second part of the chapter we illustrate how to analyze the composition of protein detergent complexes; this analysis is important as it has been found that compositional variation often causes irreproducible results. PMID:27485340

  20. Electrochemical detection of nitromethane vapors combined with a solubilization device.

    PubMed

    Delile, Sébastien; Aussage, Adeline; Maillou, Thierry; Palmas, Pascal; Lair, Virginie; Cassir, Michel

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of terrorism acts has increased and the need for efficient explosive detectors has become an urgent worldwide necessity. A prototype, Nebulex™, was recently developed in our laboratory. Basically, it couples the solubilization of an analyte from the atmosphere by a nebulization process and in-situ detection. This article presents the development and integration of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitromethane, a common chemical product that can be used to make an improvised explosive device. A gold screen-printed electrode was used in a flow-cell and a detection limit of 4.5 µM was achieved by square wave voltammetry. The detection method was also determined to be selective toward nitromethane over a large panel of interfering compounds. Detection tests with the Nebulex™ were thus carried out using a custom-made calibrated nitromethane vapor generator. Detection times of less than one minute were obtained for nitromethane contents of 8 and 90 ppmv. Further measurements were performed in a room-measurement configuration leading to detection times in the range of 1-2 min, clearly demonstrating the system's efficiency under quasi-real conditions. PMID:25476316

  1. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Nelson; Gómez, Liliana; Pantoja, Manuel; Ramírez, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L−1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils. PMID:25477925

  2. Solubilization of leonardite by an extracellular fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A//sub 280/ and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60/sup 0/C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are know inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action.

  3. Solubilized wheat protein isolate: functional properties and potential food applications.

    PubMed

    Ahmedna, M; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Rao, R M

    1999-04-01

    Solubility, foaming capacity/stability, water holding and fat absorption capacities, and emulsifying capacity/stability of a solubilized wheat protein isolate (SWPI) were compared with those of commercial protein, that is, sodium caseinate (NaCAS), dried egg white (DEW), nonfat dry milk (NFDM), and soy protein isolate (SPI). SWPI was highly soluble at pH 6.5-8.5. Foaming capacity of SWPI was superior to those of SPI, NFDM, and DEW, and its foaming stability was similar to those of the commercial proteins. Foaming properties of SWPI were greatly improved in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) CaCl(2). Water holding capacity of SWPI was greater than that of NaCAS, NFDM, and DEW, whereas its fat absorption capacity was comparable to that of SPI, NaCAS, and DEW. SWPI exhibited emulsifying properties similar to those of SPI. SWPI was incorporated at 5, 10, 15, or 20% into ice cream, chocolate chip cookies, banana nut muffins, and hamburger patties. Products containing <5% SWPI were acceptable to consumers. PMID:10563977

  4. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-10-26

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel(II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxides, as well as aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The metals can be stripped from the ionic liquid by treatment of the ionic liquid with an acidic aqueous solution. After transfer of the metal ions to the aqueous phase, the ionic liquid can be recycled for reuse. Betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide forms one phase with water at high temperatures, whereas phase separation occurs below 55.5 degrees C (temperature switch behavior). The mixtures of the ionic liquid with water also show a pH-dependent phase behavior: two phases occur at low pH, whereas one phase is present under neutral or alkaline conditions. The structures, the energetics, and the charge distribution of the betaine cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, as well as the cation-anion pairs, were studied by density functional theory calculations. PMID:17048916

  5. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pyne, J W; Stewart, D L; Fredrickson, J; Wilson, B W

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A(280) and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60 degrees C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  6. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, John W.; Stewart, Dorothy L.; Fredrickson, James; Wilson, Bary W.

    1987-01-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A280 and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60°C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  7. Microbial Infection and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Yu, Yangsheng; Yue, Yinshi; Zhang, Zhixin; Su, Kaihong

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease affecting 1–2% of general worldwide population. The etiopathogenesis of RA involves the interplay of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Microbial infections are believed to play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of RA. Recent clinical studies have shown the association of microbial infections with RA. Accumulated studies using animal models have also found that microbial infections can induce and/or exaggerate the symptoms of experimental arthritis. In this review, we have identified the most common microbial infections associated with RA in the literature and summarized the current evidence supporting their pathogenic role in RA. We also discussed the potential mechanisms whereby infection may promote the development of RA, such as generation of neo-autoantigens, induction of loss of tolerance by molecular mimicry, and bystander activation of the immune system. PMID:25133066

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS OF SOLUBILIZED CARBON NANOTUBES IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS:TRANSFORMATION, SORPTION, AND TOXICITY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study is expected to provide fundamental and systematic information regarding the environmental and exposure behaviors of solubilized carbon nanotubes. This information will enable science-informed assessments of the environmental risks related to aquatic exposur...

  9. Evaluation of solubilized herpes simplex virus membrane antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Jeansson, S; Forsgren, M; Svennerholm, B

    1983-01-01

    An antigen prepared by solubilization of membranes from herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells with deoxycholate was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The deoxycholate-solubilized antigen, previously shown to contain all major HSV glycoproteins, was noninfectious and adsorbed easily and reproducibly to a polystyrene surface at pH 9.6. The deoxycholate-solubilized antigen provided an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of high sensitivity and reproducibility with complete correlation with complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute HSV infection. The correlation with neutralization and immunofluorescence for the presence or absence of anti-HSV activity was very good. Comparison with an HSV envelope preparation yielded results slightly in favor of the deoxycholate-solubilized antigen. The assay seems to be useful for demonstration of intrathecal production of antibody activity in HSV encephalitis. PMID:6315767

  10. Co-solubilization of hydroxyproline and pectin. Is there a direct link between the two

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Xiaoyang; Mort, A.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Extensin, a major hydroxyproline (hyp) rich glycoprotein in walls of cultured cells of dicots, is known to be very difficult to solubilize. It has been suggested that this may be because of covalent crosslinks to cell wall polysaccharides, or more recently, crosslinks between tyrosine residues of different extensin molecules to form isodityrosine. Neither of thee hypotheses has strong evidence to support it. We are attempting to solubilize fragments of extensin which contain crosslinks for subsequent characterization. Cotton suspension culture cell walls were digested with endopolygalacturonase followed by cellulase to remove homogalacturonan, and xyloglucan and cellulose, respectively. Very little extensin (as indicated by hyp) was released by those or a subsequent trypsin digestion. Treatment of the residue with anhydrous HF at {minus}73{degree}C selectively removed the arabinofuranose residues from the hydroxyproline residues and allowed trypsin to solubilize {approximately}50% of the hyp as peptides and glycopeptides. Sugars characteristic of pectin co-solubilized with hyp during the trypsin digestion.