Science.gov

Sample records for microbiol infect dis

  1. Unparticle physics in DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2007-10-01

    The unparticle stuff scenario related to the nontrivial IR fixed point in 4D-conformal field theory was recently suggested by Georgi. We illustrate its physical effects in the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) process. The possible signals of the unparticle related to parity violation asymmetry in DIS is investigated. It is found out that the behavior of this parity violation signal is sensitive to the value of the scale dimension d{sub U} of the unparticle.

  2. Kick Dis Power Puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    There is a new toy available that can be used to demonstrate many interesting physics principles. It is called the "Kick Dis Power Puck" and is basically a round plastic hovercraft with a soft cushion material around the perimeter (Fig. 1). It is a product of the Estes Company, which is well known for their model rockets, and is available from advertisers in this journal.1,2 The puck has a diameter of 19.5 cm and comes in two colors, red or green. The two samples I purchased had masses of 307 g and 303 g, respectively. There is a forceful, built-in fan, which is run by a rechargeable battery and powers the puck for about 30 minutes. A 9-V battery charger completes the package, which sells for about 45.

  3. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary. PMID:16609871

  4. Transverse SSA in inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) in inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), which requires a two-photon exchange to generate a non-zero effect. We present numerical results for the SSA that allow us to comment on the so-called "sign mismatch" issue invloving the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x,x). In particular, we discuss how our results indicate a collinear twist-3 Sivers-type effect may not be the main cause of the SSAs seen in proton-proton (pp) collisions.

  5. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  6. Semi-inclusive DIS: Factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-10

    In this talk, we will present a QCD factorization theorem for the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. There has been considerable experimental and theoretical interest in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. For example, by studying the polarized and unpolarized SIDIS, one will be able to identify the sea quark distribution and polarization in nucleon, and the experimental results from the HERMES collaboration have revealed nontrivial sea structure in nucleon [1]. More recently, SIDIS opened a new window to study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions and fragmentation functions from the low transverse momentum hadron production. The transverse momentum distribution of the final state hadron is directly related to the transverse momentum dependence of the parton distributions and fragmentation. These studies will provide new opportunities to explore the partonic structure of nucleon, especially the three-dimension distribution of partons inside nucleon. The DIS experiments, including HERMES, COMPAS, and JLab Hall B collaborations, have studied various azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS. In particular, the HERMES collaboration found sizable single spin asymmetries in these processes involving nontrivial QCD effects and hadron structure.

  7. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  8. Characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Mamolen, Megan; Andrulis, Erik D

    2009-12-18

    The Dis3 ribonuclease is a member of the hydrolytic RNR protein family. Although much progress has been made in understanding the structure, function, and enzymatic activities of prokaryotic RNR family members RNase II and RNase R, there are no activity studies of the metazoan ortholog, Dis3. Here, we characterize the activity of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. We find that dDis3 is active in the presence of various monovalent and divalent cations, and requires divalent cations for activity. dDis3 hydrolyzes compositionally distinct RNA substrates, yet releases different products depending upon the substrate. Additionally, dDis3 remains active when lacking N-terminal domains, suggesting that an independent active site resides in the C-terminus of the protein. Finally, a study of dDis3 interactions with dRrp6 and core exosome subunits in extracts revealed sensitivity to higher divalent cation concentrations and detergent, suggesting the presence of both ionic and hydrophobic interactions in dDis3-exosome complexes. Our study thus broadens our mechanistic understanding of the general ribonuclease activity of Dis3 and RNR family members. PMID:19800864

  9. Small-x DIS in NLO

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2011-04-01

    Deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region (for small $x$ and/or large nucleus) is described by the evolution of color dipoles. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the non-linear BK equation. To see if this equation is relevant for existing or future DIS accelerators (like EIC or LHeC) one needs to know how big are the next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections. I review the calculation of the NLO corrections to high-energy amplitudes in QCD.

  10. Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Marc; Metz, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist $\\sin(2\\phi)$ contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

  11. Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, M.; Metz, A.

    2009-08-04

    In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist sin(2{phi}) contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

  12. The human core exosome interacts with differentially localized processive RNases: hDIS3 and hDIS3L.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Kristiansen, Maiken S; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Larsen, Katja M; Szczesny, Roman J; Drazkowska, Karolina; Pastula, Agnieszka; Andersen, Jens S; Stepien, Piotr P; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2010-07-21

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a ribonucleolytic complex involved in RNA processing and turnover. It consists of a nine-subunit catalytically inert core that serves a structural function and participates in substrate recognition. Best defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enzymatic activity comes from the associated subunits Dis3p (Rrp44p) and Rrp6p. The former is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNase II/R-like enzyme, which possesses both processive exo- and endonuclease activities, whereas the latter is a distributive RNase D-like nuclear exonuclease. Although the exosome core is highly conserved, identity and arrangements of its catalytic subunits in different vertebrates remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the association of two different Dis3p homologs--hDIS3 and hDIS3L--with the human exosome core. Interestingly, these factors display markedly different intracellular localizations: hDIS3 is mainly nuclear, whereas hDIS3L is strictly cytoplasmic. This compartmental distribution reflects the substrate preferences of the complex in vivo. Both hDIS3 and hDIS3L are active exonucleases; however, only hDIS3 has retained endonucleolytic activity. Our data suggest that three different ribonucleases can serve as catalytic subunits for the exosome in human cells. PMID:20531386

  13. The Development and Validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J.; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of…

  14. MobiDis: Toward a Patient Centric Healthcare Information System.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Fabrizio L; Serbanati, Luca D

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the MobiDis project. MobiDis is an information system that includes healthcare consumers and providers in a unique, virtual organisation aimed at promoting a patient centric paradigm in healthcare. It allows logons from desktop or laptop computers, as well as wireless PDAs or tablet PCs connected to Internet. In MobiDis the clinical data of each consumer are stored in the consumer's virtual healthcare record (VHR), a highly structured entity that exists on the network and is simultaneously updated with information from multiple locations. The MobiDis architecture creates an environment for VHRs by providing them with a large variety of services. In order to prove that our proposed architectural solution meets the project goals a prototype was developed. The paper describes the MobiDis architecture and the VHR services, and briefly presents the prototype. PMID:16160316

  15. The development and validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS).

    PubMed

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G

    2013-03-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of these problems by (a) focusing on naturalistic dieting behavior and (b) being future-oriented. Four validation studies are presented with a total of 741 participants. We demonstrate that the DIS has predictive utility for dieting behaviors and is positively correlated with other measures related to eating, weight, and shape. Furthermore, the DIS demonstrates discriminant validity by not being related to constructs such as self-esteem and social desirability. The DIS also has high internal consistency, with a 1-factor solution replicated with confirmatory factor analysis. The potential uses of the scale in both research and clinical settings are considered. PMID:23148647

  16. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Naeem, Raeece; Lee, Kok-Wei; Tan, Yung-Chie; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia infection often leads to fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. However, antibiotic therapy rarely results in complete eradication of the pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to many clinically available antibiotics. Recent attention has turned to the identification of essential genes as the proteins encoded by these genes may serve as potential targets for development of novel antimicrobials. In this study, we utilized TraDIS (Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing) as a genome-wide screening tool to facilitate the identification of B. cenocepacia genes essential for its growth and viability. A transposon mutant pool consisting of approximately 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed, with more than 400,000 unique transposon insertion sites identified by computational analysis of TraDIS datasets. The saturated library allowed for the identification of 383 genes that were predicted to be essential in B. cenocepacia. We extended the application of TraDIS to identify conditionally essential genes required for in vitro growth and revealed an additional repertoire of 439 genes to be crucial for B. cenocepacia growth under nutrient-depleted conditions. The library of B. cenocepacia mutants can subsequently be subjected to various biologically related conditions to facilitate the discovery of genes involved in niche adaptation as well as pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:27597847

  17. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Naeem, Raeece; Lee, Kok-Wei; Tan, Yung-Chie; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia infection often leads to fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. However, antibiotic therapy rarely results in complete eradication of the pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to many clinically available antibiotics. Recent attention has turned to the identification of essential genes as the proteins encoded by these genes may serve as potential targets for development of novel antimicrobials. In this study, we utilized TraDIS (Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing) as a genome-wide screening tool to facilitate the identification of B. cenocepacia genes essential for its growth and viability. A transposon mutant pool consisting of approximately 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed, with more than 400,000 unique transposon insertion sites identified by computational analysis of TraDIS datasets. The saturated library allowed for the identification of 383 genes that were predicted to be essential in B. cenocepacia. We extended the application of TraDIS to identify conditionally essential genes required for in vitro growth and revealed an additional repertoire of 439 genes to be crucial for B. cenocepacia growth under nutrient-depleted conditions. The library of B. cenocepacia mutants can subsequently be subjected to various biologically related conditions to facilitate the discovery of genes involved in niche adaptation as well as pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:27597847

  18. Multiple myeloma-associated hDIS3 mutations cause perturbations in cellular RNA metabolism and suggest hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Drazkowska, Karolina; Kucinski, Iwo; Stodus, Krystian; Szczesny, Roman J; Gruchota, Jakub; Owczarek, Ewelina P; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    hDIS3 is a mainly nuclear, catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) active domains. Mutations in hDIS3 have been found in ∼10% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we show that these mutations interfere with hDIS3 exonucleolytic activity. Yeast harboring corresponding mutations in DIS3 show growth inhibition and changes in nuclear RNA metabolism typical for exosome dysfunction. Construction of a conditional DIS3 knockout in the chicken DT40 cell line revealed that DIS3 is essential for cell survival, indicating that its function cannot be replaced by other exosome-associated nucleases: hDIS3L and hRRP6. Moreover, HEK293-derived cells, in which depletion of endogenous wild-type hDIS3 was complemented with exogenously expressed MM hDIS3 mutants, proliferate at a slower rate and exhibit aberrant RNA metabolism. Importantly, MM mutations are synthetically lethal with the hDIS3 PIN domain catalytic mutation both in yeast and human cells. Since mutations in PIN domain alone have little effect on cell physiology, our results predict the hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target for MM patients with hDIS3 mutations. It is an interesting example of intramolecular synthetic lethality with putative therapeutic potential in humans. PMID:24150935

  19. Simultaneous QCD analysis of diffractive and inclusive DIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, G.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2005-09-01

    We present a novel analysis of diffractive DIS data, in which the input parton distributions of the Pomeron are parameterised using perturbative QCD expressions. In addition to the usual two-gluon model for the perturbative Pomeron, we allow for the possibility that it may be made from two sea quarks. In particular, we treat individually the components of the Pomeron of different size. This property allows the absorptive corrections to the inclusive DIS structure function F to be calculated using the AGK cutting rules. The absorptive effects are found to enhance the size of the gluon distribution of the proton at small x.

  20. Mea Culpa: Formal Education and the Dis-Integrated World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Brian P.; Daniels, Douglas S.

    Formal education has removed itself so far from any truly integrated view of the Natural World that fragmentation and certainty are prevailing ethics. Technological progress has resulted in increased specialization within academic disciplines and their concurrent separation from each other. Knowledge is extracted from a fully integrated world, but is examined and defined by the 'dis-integrated' objectives.

  1. Azimuthal dependence of the heavy quark initiated contributions to DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ananikyan, L. N.; Ivanov, N. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the azimuthal dependence of the heavy-quark-initiated contributions to the lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). First we derive the relations between the parton-level semi-inclusive structure functions and the helicity {gamma}*Q cross sections in the case of arbitrary values of the heavy quark mass. Then the azimuth-dependent O({alpha}{sub s}) lepton-quark DIS is calculated in the helicity basis. Finally, we investigate numerically the properties of the cos{phi} and cos2{phi} distributions caused by the photon-quark scattering (QS) contribution. It turns out that, contrary to the basic photon-gluon fusion (GF) component, the QS mechanism is practically cos2{phi}-independent. This fact implies that measurements of the azimuthal distributions in charm leptoproduction could directly probe the charm density in the proton.

  2. Twist-4 effects and Q2 dependence of diffractive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, M.; Genovese, M.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Pronyaev, A. V.; Zakharov, B. G.

    1998-03-01

    In this letter we report the direct perturbative QCD evaluation of twist-4 effects in diffractive DIS. They are large and have a strong impact on the Q2 dependence of diffractive structure functions at large β. Based on the AGK rules, we comment on the possible contribution from diffractive higher twists to ~1/Q2 corrections to proton structure function at small x. These corrections to the longitudinal structure function FL may be particularly large.

  3. Variable flavor number scheme for final state jets in DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Andre H.; Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Samitz, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We discuss massive quark effects in the end-point region x →1 of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), where the hadronic final state is collimated and thus represents a jet. In this regime heavy quark pairs are generated via secondary radiation, i.e. due to a gluon splitting in light quark initiated contributions starting at O (αs2) in the fixed-order expansion. Based on the factorization framework for DIS in the end-point region for massless quarks in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), which we also scrutinize in this work, we construct a variable flavor number scheme that deals with arbitrary hierarchies between the mass scale and the kinematic scales. The scheme exhibits a continuous behavior between the massless limit for very light quarks and the decoupling limit for very heavy quarks. It entails threshold matching corrections, arising from all gauge-invariant factorization components at the mass scale, which are related to each other via consistency conditions. This is explicitly demonstrated by recalculating the known threshold correction for the parton distribution function at O (αs2CFTF) within SCET. The latter contains large rapidity logarithms ˜ln (1 -x ) that can be summed by exponentiation. Their coefficients are universal, which can be used to obtain potentially relevant higher-order results for generic threshold corrections at colliders from computations in DIS. In particular, we extract the O (αs3) threshold correction multiplied by a single rapidity logarithm from results obtained earlier.

  4. Inhibition of cyclic diadenylate cyclase, DisA, by polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Temeng, Clement; Sintim, Herman O.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP has emerged as an important signaling molecule that controls a myriad of functions, including cell wall homeostasis in different bacteria. Polyphenols display various biological activities and tea polyphenols in particular have been shown to possess among other properties antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Certain tea polyphenols, such as catechin and epigallocatechin gallate, have been used to augment the action of traditional antibiotics that target the cell wall. Considering the expanding role played by cyclic dinucleotides in bacteria, we investigated whether the action of polyphenols on bacteria could be due in part to modulation of c-di-AMP signaling. Out of 14 tested polyphenols, tannic acid (TA), theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3) exhibited inhibitory effects on B. subtilis c-di-AMP synthase, DisA. TF2B and TF3 specifically inhibited DisA but not YybT (a PDE) whilst TA was more promiscuous and inhibited both DisA and YybT. PMID:27150552

  5. The exoribonuclease Dis3L2 defines a novel eukaryotic RNA degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Malecki, Michal; Viegas, Sandra C; Carneiro, Tiago; Golik, Pawel; Dressaire, Clémentine; Ferreira, Miguel G; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2013-07-01

    The final step of cytoplasmic mRNA degradation proceeds in either a 5'-3' direction catalysed by Xrn1 or in a 3'-5' direction catalysed by the exosome. Dis3/Rrp44, an RNase II family protein, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome. In humans, there are three paralogues of this enzyme: DIS3, DIS3L, and DIS3L2. In this work, we identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease belonging to the conserved family of human DIS3L2 and plant SOV. Dis3L2 does not interact with the exosome components and localizes in the cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic foci, which are docked to P-bodies. Deletion of dis3l2(+) is synthetically lethal with xrn1Δ, while deletion of dis3l2(+) in an lsm1Δ background results in the accumulation of transcripts and slower mRNA degradation rates. Accumulated transcripts show enhanced uridylation and in vitro Dis3L2 displays a preference for uridylated substrates. Altogether, our results suggest that in S. pombe, and possibly in most other eukaryotes, Dis3L2 is an important factor in mRNA degradation. Therefore, this novel 3'-5' RNA decay pathway represents an alternative to degradation by Xrn1 and the exosome. PMID:23503588

  6. Dis3-like 1: a novel exoribonuclease associated with the human exosome.

    PubMed

    Staals, Raymond H J; Bronkhorst, Alfred W; Schilders, Geurt; Slomovic, Shimyn; Schuster, Gadi; Heck, Albert J R; Raijmakers, Reinout; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2010-07-21

    The exosome is an exoribonuclease complex involved in the degradation and maturation of a wide variety of RNAs. The nine-subunit core of the eukaryotic exosome is catalytically inactive and may have an architectural function and mediate substrate binding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the associated Dis3 and Rrp6 provide the exoribonucleolytic activity. The human exosome-associated Rrp6 counterpart contributes to its activity, whereas the human Dis3 protein is not detectably associated with the exosome. Here, a proteomic analysis of immunoaffinity-purified human exosome complexes identified a novel exosome-associated exoribonuclease, human Dis3-like exonuclease 1 (hDis3L1), which was confirmed to associate with the exosome core by co-immunoprecipitation. In contrast to the nuclear localization of Dis3, hDis3L1 exclusively localized to the cytoplasm. The hDis3L1 isolated from transfected cells degraded RNA in an exoribonucleolytic manner, and its RNB domain seemed to mediate this activity. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of hDis3L1 in HeLa cells resulted in elevated levels of poly(A)-tailed 28S rRNA degradation intermediates, indicating the involvement of hDis3L1 in cytoplasmic RNA decay. Taken together, these data indicate that hDis3L1 is a novel exosome-associated exoribonuclease in the cytoplasm of human cells. PMID:20531389

  7. Diversity of DIS, SD and psi hairpins in HIV-1 isolates of group M: in silico study.

    PubMed

    Zarudnaya, M I; Potyahaylo, A L; Kolomiets, I N; Hovorun, D M

    2007-01-01

    The primary sequence and secondary structure of the region encompassing DIS, SD and psi hairpins in HIV-1 genomic RNAs have been analyzed for 731 group M isolates from NCBI database. The secondary structures have been predicted by the m fold program (M. Zuker). Though the primary sequence of the region studied was found to be highly heterogeneous, this region is folded into DIS, SD and psi hairpins (DIS-, SD- and psi-like hairpins) in 96% of the isolates studied. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the most frequent variants of DIS hairpin (DIS(Lai), DIS(Mal) and DIS(C)) tolerate certain base changes. Particularly, base changes at stem position 23 occur 5 and 33 times more frequently in DIS(Lai) than in DIS(Mal) and DIS(C), respectively, while A insertion at the 5'end of apical loop is tolerated in DIS(Mal) and DIS(C) but not in DIS(Lai). We have revealed that the bottom base pair substitution G-C --> A-U in SD hairpin is highly specific for subtype D isolates. All variants of DIS, SD and psi hairpins found in our database are discussed, systematized and presented in schemes of hypothetical transitions between variants via a single base change. Most variants of DIS and psi hairpins were found to adopt several conformations. PMID:18030736

  8. DIS on a large nucleus in AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2008-07-01

    We calculate the total cross section for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) on a nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. In analogy to the small coupling case we argue that at high energy the total DIS cross section is related to the expectation value of the Wilson loop formed by the quark-antiquark dipole. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find three extrema of the Nambu-Goto action: the string coordinates at the extrema are complex-valued and are given by three different branches of the solution of a cubic equation. The physically meaningful solutions for the total DIS cross section are given either by the only branch with a purely imaginary string coordinate in the bulk or by a superposition of the two other branches. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale, while energy-dependent at lower energies, at very high energy becomes independent of energy/Bjorken-x. The saturation scale depends very strongly on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs ~ A1/3.

  9. Hadronization in nuclear DIS and ultra-relativistic HIC

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, T.; Cassing, W.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.

    2006-07-11

    We present a transport theoretical analysis of hadron attenuation in deep inelastic lepton scattering (DIS) off complex nuclei in the kinematic regime of the HERMES experiment. The HERMES data indicate the presence of strong prehadronic final state interactions shortly after the elementary lepton-nucleon interaction. The contribution of such (pre-)hadronic final state interactions to the observed jet quenching in ultra-relaticistic heavy ion collisions (HIC) at RHIC is estimated under the assumption that a similar space-time picture for hadronization also holds in a hot hadronic medium. Our results show that an additional mechanism for jet quenching must be at work for most central collisions.

  10. A compendium of DIS3 mutations and associated transcriptional signatures in plasma cell dyscrasias

    PubMed Central

    Todoerti, Katia; Agnelli, Luca; Fabris, Sonia; Tonon, Giovanni; Segalla, Simona; Cifola, Ingrid; Pinatel, Eva; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Musto, Pellegrino; Baldini, Luca; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    DIS3 is a catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) domains, recently found mutated in multiple myeloma (MM), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous form of plasma cell (PC) dyscrasia. We analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) the DIS3 PIN and RNB domains in purified bone marrow PCs from 164 representative patients, including 130 cases with MM, 24 with primary PC leukemia and 10 with secondary PC leukemia. DIS3 mutations were found respectively in 18.5%, 25% and 30% of cases. Identified variants were predominantly missense mutations localized in the RNB domain, and were often detected at low allele frequency. DIS3 mutations were preferentially carried by IGH-translocated/nonhyperdiploid patients. Sequential analysis at diagnosis and relapse in a subset of cases highlighted some instances of increasing DIS3 mutation burden during disease progression. NGS also revealed that the majority of DIS3 variants in mutated cases were comparably detectable at transcriptional level. Furthermore, gene expression profiling analysis in DIS3-mutated patients identified a transcriptional signature suggestive for impaired RNA exosome function. In conclusion, these data further support the pathological relevance of DIS3 mutations in plasma cell dyscrasias and suggest that DIS3 may represent a potential tumor suppressor gene in such disorders. PMID:26305418

  11. The molecular spectrum and clinical impact of DIS3 mutations in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Weißbach, Susann; Langer, Christian; Puppe, Bernhard; Nedeva, Theodora; Bach, Elisa; Kull, Miriam; Bargou, Ralf; Einsele, Hermann; Rosenwald, Andreas; Knop, Stefan; Leich, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that presents with a major biological and clinical heterogeneity. We here investigated the spectrum of clonal and subclonal mutations of DIS3, an active part of the exosome complex, that may play a role in the development or progression of MM. The whole coding sequence of DIS3 was subjected to deep sequencing in 81 uniformly-treated MM patients and 12 MM cell lines and the overall occurrence of DIS3 mutations as well as the presence of DIS3 mutations in minor and major subclones were correlated with cytogenetic alterations and clinical parameters. Our study identified DIS3 mutations in 9/81 patients that were associated with 13q14 deletions and IGH translocations on the cytogenetic level. Specifically, we detected seven novel somatic DIS3 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and defined three hot spot mutations within the RNB domain. Lastly, we found a trend towards a shorter median overall survival for patients with DIS3 mutations, and patients carrying DIS3 mutations in minor subclones of their tumours showed a significantly worse response to therapy compared to patients with DIS3 mutations in the major subclone. PMID:25521164

  12. A compendium of DIS3 mutations and associated transcriptional signatures in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Marta; Barbieri, Marzia; Todoerti, Katia; Agnelli, Luca; Fabris, Sonia; Tonon, Giovanni; Segalla, Simona; Cifola, Ingrid; Pinatel, Eva; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Musto, Pellegrino; Baldini, Luca; Neri, Antonino

    2015-09-22

    DIS3 is a catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) domains, recently found mutated in multiple myeloma (MM), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous form of plasma cell (PC) dyscrasia. We analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) the DIS3 PIN and RNB domains in purified bone marrow PCs from 164 representative patients, including 130 cases with MM, 24 with primary PC leukemia and 10 with secondary PC leukemia. DIS3 mutations were found respectively in 18.5%, 25% and 30% of cases. Identified variants were predominantly missense mutations localized in the RNB domain, and were often detected at low allele frequency. DIS3 mutations were preferentially carried by IGH-translocated/nonhyperdiploid patients. Sequential analysis at diagnosis and relapse in a subset of cases highlighted some instances of increasing DIS3 mutation burden during disease progression. NGS also revealed that the majority of DIS3 variants in mutated cases were comparably detectable at transcriptional level. Furthermore, gene expression profiling analysis in DIS3-mutated patients identified a transcriptional signature suggestive for impaired RNA exosome function. In conclusion, these data further support the pathological relevance of DIS3 mutations in plasma cell dyscrasias and suggest that DIS3 may represent a potential tumor suppressor gene in such disorders. PMID:26305418

  13. Germline mutations in DIS3L2 cause the Perlman syndrome of overgrowth and Wilms tumor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Dewi; Morris, Mark R; Cooper, Wendy N; Staals, Raymond H J; Wake, Naomi C; Fews, Graham A; Gill, Harmeet; Gentle, Dean; Shuib, Salwati; Ricketts, Christopher J; Cole, Trevor; van Essen, Anthonie J; van Lingen, Richard A; Neri, Giovanni; Opitz, John M; Rump, Patrick; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Müller, Ferenc; Pruijn, Ger J M; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R

    2012-03-01

    Perlman syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive manner that is associated with Wilms tumor susceptibility. We mapped a previously unknown susceptibility locus to 2q37.1 and identified germline mutations in DIS3L2, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 gene, in individuals with Perlman syndrome. Yeast dis3 mutant strains have mitotic abnormalities. Yeast Dis3 and its human homologs, DIS3 and DIS3L1, have exoribonuclease activity and bind to the core RNA exosome complex. DIS3L2 has a different intracellular localization and lacks the PIN domain found in DIS3 and DIS3L1; nevertheless, we show that DIS3L2 has exonuclease activity. DIS3L2 inactivation was associated with mitotic abnormalities and altered expression of mitotic checkpoint proteins. DIS3L2 overexpression suppressed the growth of human cancer cell lines, and knockdown enhanced the growth of these cells. We also detected evidence of DIS3L2 mutations in sporadic Wilms tumor. These observations suggest that DIS3L2 has a critical role in RNA metabolism and is essential for the regulation of cell growth and division. PMID:22306653

  14. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  15. Talking (and Not Talking) about Race, Social Class and Dis/Ability: Working Margin to Margin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…

  16. Children with Dis/abilities in Namibia, Africa: Uncovering Complexities of Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Children with dis/abilities the world over are widely required to sacrifice their human rights to education, equity, community, and inclusion. Fewer than 10% of children with dis/abilities in developing countries attend school. Namibia, Africa, where this study took place, is no different. Despite Namibia's adoption of international covenants and…

  17. DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from our…

  18. Dis3l2-Mediated Decay Is a Quality Control Pathway for Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Mehdi; Du, Peng; Munafò, Marzia; Gregory, Richard I

    2016-08-16

    Mutations in the 3'-5' exonuclease DIS3L2 are associated with Perlman syndrome and hypersusceptibility to Wilms tumorigenesis. Previously, we found that Dis3l2 specifically recognizes and degrades uridylated pre-let-7 microRNA. However, the widespread relevance of Dis3l2-mediated decay of uridylated substrates remains unknown. Here, we applied an unbiased RNA immunoprecipitation strategy to identify Dis3l2 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. The disease-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Rmrp, 7SL, as well as several other Pol III-transcribed noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) were among the most highly enriched Dis3l2-bound RNAs. 3'-Uridylated Rmrp, 7SL, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) species were highly stabilized in the cytoplasm of Dis3l2-depleted cells. Deep sequencing analysis of Rmrp 3' ends revealed extensive oligouridylation mainly on transcripts with imprecise ends. We implicate the terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) Zcchc6/11 in the uridylation of these ncRNAs, and biochemical reconstitution assays demonstrate the sufficiency of TUTase-Dis3l2 for Rmrp decay. This establishes Dis3l2-mediated decay (DMD) as a quality-control pathway that eliminates aberrant ncRNAs. PMID:27498873

  19. (dis)Ability and Postsecondary Education: One Woman's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Melissa; MacDonald, Judy E.; Jacquard, Sarah; Mcneil, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The storied experiences of a (dis)Abled student negotiating postsecondary education in Canada are highlighted within this article, including advocacy strategies and a critique of related policies. Persons with (dis)Abilities are a particularly marginalized population, traditionally excluded from society, with modern day views of pity or heroics…

  20. Perlman Syndrome: Overgrowth, Wilms Tumor Predisposition and DIS3L2.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark R; Astuti, Dewi; Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-04-01

    Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23576526

  1. Perlman syndrome: overgrowth, Wilms tumor predisposition and DIS3L2.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark R; Astuti, Dewi; Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-05-01

    Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. PMID:23613427

  2. Experimental Results in DIS, SIDIS and DES from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Sebastian E.

    2011-07-15

    Jefferson Lab's electron accelerator in its present incarnation, with a maximum beam energy slightly above 6 GeV, has already enabled a large number of experiments expanding our knowledge of nucleon and nuclear structure (especially in Deep Inelastic Scattering--DIS--at moderately high x, and in the resonance region). Several pioneering experiments have yielded first results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and other Deep Exclusive Processes (DES), and the exploration of the rich landscape of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) structure functions using Semi-Inclusive electron scattering (SIDIS) has begun. With the upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV now underway, a significantly larger kinematic space will become available. The 12 GeV program taking shape will complete a detailed mapping of inclusive, TMD and generalized distribution functions for quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the valence region and beyond.

  3. On the need for Embodied and Dis-Embodied Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Guy

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes and defends a pluralistic theory of conceptual embodiment. Our concepts are represented in at least two ways: (i) through sensorimotor simulations of our interactions with objects and events and (ii) through sensorimotor simulations of natural language processing. Linguistic representations are “dis-embodied” in the sense that they are dynamic and multimodal but, in contrast to other forms of embodied cognition, do not inherit semantic content from this embodiment. The capacity to store information in the associations and inferential relationships among linguistic representations extends our cognitive reach and provides an explanation of our ability to abstract and generalize. This theory is supported by a number of empirical considerations, including the large body of evidence from cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology supporting a multiple semantic code explanation of imageability effects. PMID:21833295

  4. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  5. The fission yeast dis3+ gene encodes a 110-kDa essential protein implicated in mitotic control.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Goebl, M; Yanagida, M

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast mutant dis3-54 is defective in mitosis and fails in chromosome disjunction. Its phenotype is similar to that of dis2-11, a mutant with a mutation in the type 1 protein phosphatase gene. We cloned the dis3+ gene by transformation. Nucleotide sequencing predicts a coding region of 970 amino acids interrupted by a 164-bp intron at the 65th codon. The predicted dis3+ protein shares a weak but significant similarity with the budding yeast SSD1 or SRK1 gene product, the gene for which is a suppressor for the absence of a protein phosphatase SIT4 gene or the BCY1 regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Anti-dis3 antibodies recognized the 110-kDa dis3+ gene product, which is part of a 250- to 350-kDa oligomer and is enriched in the nucleus. The cellular localization of the dis3+ protein is reminiscent of that of the dis2+ protein, but these two proteins do not form a complex. A type 1 protein phosphatase activity in the dis3-54 mutant extracts is apparently not affected. The dis3+ gene is essential for growth; gene disruptant cells do not germinate and fail in cell division. Increased dis3+ gene dosage reverses the Ts+ phenotype of a cdc25 wee1 strain, as does increased type 1 protein phosphatase gene dosage. Double mutant dis3 dis2 is lethal even at the permissive temperature, suggesting that the dis2+ and dis3+ genes may be functionally overlapped. The role of the dis3+ gene product in mitosis is unknown, but this gene product may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of mitosis. Images PMID:1944266

  6. DisAp-dependent striated fiber elongation is required to organize ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Bonney, Stephanie; Kronenberg, Zev; Clarissa, Christina; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C.; Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Giddings, Thomas H.; Frankel, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cilia-organizing basal bodies (BBs) are microtubule scaffolds that are visibly asymmetrical because they have attached auxiliary structures, such as striated fibers. In multiciliated cells, BB orientation aligns to ensure coherent ciliary beating, but the mechanisms that maintain BB orientation are unclear. For the first time in Tetrahymena thermophila, we use comparative whole-genome sequencing to identify the mutation in the BB disorientation mutant disA-1. disA-1 abolishes the localization of the novel protein DisAp to T. thermophila striated fibers (kinetodesmal fibers; KFs), which is consistent with DisAp’s similarity to the striated fiber protein SF-assemblin. We demonstrate that DisAp is required for KFs to elongate and to resist BB disorientation in response to ciliary forces. Newly formed BBs move along KFs as they approach their cortical attachment sites. However, because they contain short KFs that are rotated, BBs in disA-1 cells display aberrant spacing and disorientation. Therefore, DisAp is a novel KF component that is essential for force-dependent KF elongation and BB orientation in multiciliary arrays. PMID:25533842

  7. Collaborative Control of Cell Cycle Progression by the RNA Exonuclease Dis3 and Ras Is Conserved Across Species.

    PubMed

    Snee, Mark J; Wilson, William C; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Shin-Yu; Wilson, Beth A; Kseib, Cedric; O'Neal, Julie; Mahajan, Nitin; Tomasson, Michael H; Arur, Swathi; Skeath, James B

    2016-06-01

    Dis3 encodes a conserved RNase that degrades or processes all RNA species via an N-terminal PilT N terminus (PIN) domain and C-terminal RNB domain that harbor, respectively, endonuclease activity and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, dis3 mutations cause chromosome missegregation and failure in mitosis, suggesting dis3 promotes cell division. In humans, apparently hypomorphic dis3 mutations are found recurrently in multiple myeloma, suggesting dis3 opposes cell division. Except for the observation that RNAi-mediated depletion of dis3 function drives larval arrest and reduces tissue growth in Drosophila, the role of dis3 has not been rigorously explored in higher eukaryotic systems. Using the Drosophila system and newly generated dis3 null alleles, we find that absence of dis3 activity inhibits cell division. We uncover a conserved CDK1 phosphorylation site that when phosphorylated inhibits Dis3's exonuclease, but not endonuclease, activity. Leveraging this information, we show that Dis3's exonuclease function is required for mitotic cell division: in its absence, cells are delayed in mitosis and exhibit aneuploidy and overcondensed chromosomes. In contrast, we find that modest reduction of dis3 function enhances cell proliferation in the presence of elevated Ras activity, apparently by accelerating cells through G2/M even though each insult by itself delays G2/M. Additionally, we find that dis3 and ras genetically interact in worms and that dis3 can enhance cell proliferation under growth stimulatory conditions in murine B cells. Thus, reduction, but not absence, of dis3 activity can enhance cell proliferation in higher organisms. PMID:27029730

  8. Analytic calculation of 1-jettiness in DIS at O (αs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Stewart, Iain W.

    2014-11-24

    We present an analytic O(αs) calculation of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dependent on an event shape, 1-jettiness, that probes final states with one jet plus initial state radiation. This is the first entirely analytic calculation for a DIS event shape cross section at this order. We present results for the differential and cumulative 1-jettiness cross sections, and express both in terms of structure functions dependent not only on the usual DIS variables x, Q 2 but also on the 1-jettiness τ. Combined with previous results for log resummation, predictions are obtained over the entire range of the 1-jettiness distribution.

  9. DisSim: an online system for exploring significant similar diseases and exhibiting potential therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Zhenzhen; Shi, Hongbo; Sun, Jie; Yang, Haixiu; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The similarity of pair-wise diseases reveals the molecular relationships between them. For example, similar diseases have the potential to be treated by common therapeutic chemicals (TCs). In this paper, we introduced DisSim, an online system for exploring similar diseases, and comparing corresponding TCs. Currently, DisSim implemented five state-of-the-art methods to measure the similarity between Disease Ontology (DO) terms and provide the significance of the similarity score. Furthermore, DisSim integrated TCs of diseases from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), which can help to identify potential relationships between TCs and similar diseases. The system can be accessed from http://123.59.132.21:8080/DisSim. PMID:27457921

  10. DisSim: an online system for exploring significant similar diseases and exhibiting potential therapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Zhenzhen; Shi, Hongbo; Sun, Jie; Yang, Haixiu; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The similarity of pair-wise diseases reveals the molecular relationships between them. For example, similar diseases have the potential to be treated by common therapeutic chemicals (TCs). In this paper, we introduced DisSim, an online system for exploring similar diseases, and comparing corresponding TCs. Currently, DisSim implemented five state-of-the-art methods to measure the similarity between Disease Ontology (DO) terms and provide the significance of the similarity score. Furthermore, DisSim integrated TCs of diseases from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), which can help to identify potential relationships between TCs and similar diseases. The system can be accessed from http://123.59.132.21:8080/DisSim. PMID:27457921

  11. DisPredict: A Predictor of Disordered Protein Using Optimized RBF Kernel

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Sumaiya; Hoque, Md Tamjidul

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins or, regions perform important biological functions through their dynamic conformations during binding. Thus accurate identification of these disordered regions have significant implications in proper annotation of function, induced fold prediction and drug design to combat critical diseases. We introduce DisPredict, a disorder predictor that employs a single support vector machine with RBF kernel and novel features for reliable characterization of protein structure. DisPredict yields effective performance. In addition to 10-fold cross validation, training and testing of DisPredict was conducted with independent test datasets. The results were consistent with both the training and test error minimal. The use of multiple data sources, makes the predictor generic. The datasets used in developing the model include disordered regions of various length which are categorized as short and long having different compositions, different types of disorder, ranging from fully to partially disordered regions as well as completely ordered regions. Through comparison with other state of the art approaches and case studies, DisPredict is found to be a useful tool with competitive performance. DisPredict is available at https://github.com/tamjidul/DisPredict_v1.0. PMID:26517719

  12. The 3' to 5' Exoribonuclease DIS3: From Structure and Mechanisms to Biological Functions and Role in Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sophie R; Oliver, Antony W; Chevassut, Timothy J; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    DIS3 is a conserved exoribonuclease and catalytic subunit of the exosome, a protein complex involved in the 3' to 5' degradation and processing of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA species. Recently, aberrant expression of DIS3 has been found to be implicated in a range of different cancers. Perhaps most striking is the finding that DIS3 is recurrently mutated in 11% of multiple myeloma patients. Much work has been done to elucidate the structural and biochemical characteristics of DIS3, including the mechanistic details of its role as an effector of RNA decay pathways. Nevertheless, we do not understand how DIS3 mutations can lead to cancer. There are a number of studies that pertain to the function of DIS3 at the organismal level. Mutant phenotypes in S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and Drosophila suggest DIS3 homologues have a common role in cell-cycle progression and microtubule assembly. DIS3 has also recently been implicated in antibody diversification of mouse B-cells. This article aims to review current knowledge of the structure, mechanisms and functions of DIS3 as well as highlighting the genetic patterns observed within myeloma patients, in order to yield insight into the putative role of DIS3 mutations in oncogenesis. PMID:26193331

  13. The 3' to 5' Exoribonuclease DIS3: From Structure and Mechanisms to Biological Functions and Role in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sophie R.; Oliver, Antony W.; Chevassut, Timothy J.; Newbury, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    DIS3 is a conserved exoribonuclease and catalytic subunit of the exosome, a protein complex involved in the 3' to 5' degradation and processing of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA species. Recently, aberrant expression of DIS3 has been found to be implicated in a range of different cancers. Perhaps most striking is the finding that DIS3 is recurrently mutated in 11% of multiple myeloma patients. Much work has been done to elucidate the structural and biochemical characteristics of DIS3, including the mechanistic details of its role as an effector of RNA decay pathways. Nevertheless, we do not understand how DIS3 mutations can lead to cancer. There are a number of studies that pertain to the function of DIS3 at the organismal level. Mutant phenotypes in S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and Drosophila suggest DIS3 homologues have a common role in cell-cycle progression and microtubule assembly. DIS3 has also recently been implicated in antibody diversification of mouse B-cells. This article aims to review current knowledge of the structure, mechanisms and functions of DIS3 as well as highlighting the genetic patterns observed within myeloma patients, in order to yield insight into the putative role of DIS3 mutations in oncogenesis. PMID:26193331

  14. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S.; Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  15. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts.

    PubMed

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S; Kulinski, Tomasz M; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  16. A single subunit, Dis3, is essentially responsible for yeast exosome core activity.

    PubMed

    Dziembowski, Andrzej; Lorentzen, Esben; Conti, Elena; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    The conserved core of the exosome, the major eukaryotic 3' --> 5' exonuclease, contains nine subunits that form a ring similar to the phosphorolytic bacterial PNPase and archaeal exosome, as well as Dis3. Dis3 is homologous to bacterial RNase II, a hydrolytic enzyme. Previous studies have suggested that all subunits are active 3' --> 5' exoRNases. We show here that Dis3 is responsible for exosome core activity. The purified exosome core has a hydrolytic, processive and Mg(2+)-dependent activity with characteristics similar to those of recombinant Dis3. Moreover, a catalytically inactive Dis3 mutant has no exosome core activity in vitro and shows in vivo RNA degradation phenotypes similar to those resulting from exosome depletion. In contrast, mutations in Rrp41, the only subunit carrying a conserved phosphorolytic site, appear phenotypically not different from wild-type yeast. We observed that the yeast exosome ring mediates interactions with protein partners, providing an explanation for its essential function. PMID:17173052

  17. Dis1: A Yeast Gene Required for Proper Meiotic Chromosome Disjunction

    PubMed Central

    Rockmill, B.; Fogel, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mutants at a newly identified locus, DIS1 (disjunction), were detected by screening for mutants that generate aneuploid spores (chromosome VIII disomes) at an increased frequency. Strains carrying the partially dominant alleles, DIS1-1 or DIS1-2, generate disomes at rates up to 100 times the background level. Mitotic nondisjunction is also increased 10- to 50-fold over background. Half-tetrad analysis of disomes for a marked interval on chromosome VIII yields wild-type map distances, indicating that a general recombination deficiency is not the cause of nondisjuction. Meiotic nondisjunction in DIS1 mutants is not chromosome specific; 5% of the spores disomic for chromosome VIII are also disomic for chromosome III. Although only one disomic spore is found per exceptional ascus most of the disomes appear to be generated in the first meiotic division because recovered chromosome VIII disomes contain mostly nonsister chromosomes. We propose that disome generation in the DIS1 mutants results from precocious separation of sister centromeres. PMID:3294101

  18. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome and importin-alpha3.

    PubMed

    Graham, Amy C; Davis, Stephanie M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2009-05-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNAses) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNAse substrates and functions, we know little of how RNAses are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the 'core' exosome, yet only reduce binding to the 'nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-alpha3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-alpha3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6 and importin-alpha3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  19. Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 N-terminal domains are required for ribonuclease activities, nuclear localization and exosome interactions.

    PubMed

    Mamolen, Megan; Smith, Alexandra; Andrulis, Erik D

    2010-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells use numerous pathways to regulate RNA production, localization and stability. Several of these pathways are controlled by ribonucleases. The essential ribonuclease, Dis3, plays important roles in distinct RNA metabolic pathways. Despite much progress in understanding general characteristics of the Dis3 enzyme in vitro and in vivo, much less is known about the contributions of Dis3 domains to its activities, subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions. To address these gaps, we constructed a set of Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) mutants and assessed their enzymatic activity in vitro and their localizations and interactions in S2 tissue culture cells. We show that the dDis3 N-terminus is sufficient for endoribonuclease activity in vitro and that proper N-terminal domain structure is critical for activity of the full-length polypeptide. We find that the dDis3 N-terminus also contributes to its subcellular distribution, and is necessary and sufficient for interactions with core exosome proteins. Finally, dDis3 interaction with dRrp6 and dImportin-α3 is independent of core interactions and occurs though two different regions. Taken together, our data suggest that the dDis3 N-terminus is a dynamic and complex hub for RNA metabolism and exosome interactions. PMID:20421210

  20. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome, and importin-α3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amy C.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2009-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNases) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNase substrates and functions, we know little of how RNases are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly-restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the `core' exosome yet only reduce binding to the `nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-α3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-α3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6, and importin-α3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  1. Responses of a direct ion storage dosimeter (DIS-1) to heavy charged particles.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, H

    2001-12-01

    The responses of a direct ion storage dosimeter (DIS-1) to energetic heavy charged particles were examined using (4)He, (12)C, (40)Ar and (56)Fe ion beams at the HIMAC at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The efficiency of the DIS-1 on the basis of absorbed dose was almost unity for the helium and carbon ions and was slightly decreased for the argon and iron ions. The linearity in the dose response and the angular independence for these heavy ions were fairly good. Although further studies are necessary, these results suggest that the DIS-1 would be a suitable passive dosimeter for measurements of absorbed dose in a field dominated by heavy charged particles such as the space environment. PMID:11741505

  2. Analytic calculation of 1-jettiness in DIS at O (αs)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Stewart, Iain W.

    2014-11-24

    We present an analytic O(αs) calculation of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dependent on an event shape, 1-jettiness, that probes final states with one jet plus initial state radiation. This is the first entirely analytic calculation for a DIS event shape cross section at this order. We present results for the differential and cumulative 1-jettiness cross sections, and express both in terms of structure functions dependent not only on the usual DIS variables x, Q 2 but also on the 1-jettiness τ. Combined with previous results for log resummation, predictions are obtained over the entire range of themore » 1-jettiness distribution.« less

  3. Validation of the MG-DIS: a disability assessment for myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Schiavolin, Silvia; Antozzi, Carlo; Brenna, Greta; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed to present the validation of the myasthenia gravis disability assessment (MG-DIS), a MG-specific patient-reported disability outcome measure. Consecutive MG patients were enrolled, followed-up for 12 months and administered the SF-36, the WHO disability assessment schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the preliminary 31-item MG-DIS addressing impairments and activity limitations. Factor structure and metric properties were assessed. In total, 109 patients were enrolled: 76 were females, mean age 50, mean MG duration 10.4 years, 86 were AChR-positive. The MG-DIS was reduced to 20 items, explaining 70.6 % of the original questionnaire variance, four subscales (generalized impairment-related problems; bulbar function-related problems; mental health and fatigue-related problems; vision-related problems) and an overall disability index. The MG-DIS has good metric properties (Cronbach's alpha ranging between .808 and .930), is stable, showed to be more sensitive than the WHODAS 2.0 and SF-36 to detect group differences and longitudinal changes and was well correlated with the MG-composite (.642). The MG-DIS includes items representing ocular, generalized, bulbar and respiratory symptoms, and is therefore well-built around MG-specific features. MG-DIS can be used in clinical trials as well as in observational or epidemiological studies to characterize patients' disability level and address the amount of improvement in disability. Further studies are needed to explore the possibility of a shorter disability scale. PMID:26931109

  4. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Han, M Y

    2009-12-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the

  5. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3' mRNA instability elements.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Daniel L; Hou, Dezhi; Gross, Robert H; Andrulis, Erik D

    2012-07-01

    Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3'-5' exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3' untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette-harboring four elements-destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are underrepresented or missing from the down-regulated data sets. Taken together, our findings imply a potentially novel mechanism of mRNA turnover that involves direct Dis3 and other exosome subunit recruitment to and/or regulation on mRNA substrates. PMID:22668878

  6. miRNA-dis: microRNA precursor identification based on distance structure status pairs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Longyun; Chen, Junjie; Liu, Fule; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNA precursor identification is an important task in bioinformatics. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the most effective machine learning methods used in this field. The performance of SVM-based methods depends on the vector representations of RNAs. However, the discriminative power of the existing feature vectors is limited, and many methods lack an interpretable model for analysis of characteristic sequence features. Prior studies have demonstrated that sequence or structure order effects were relevant for discrimination, but little work has explored how to use this kind of information for human pre-microRNA identification. In this study, in order to incorporate the structure-order information into the prediction, a method called "miRNA-dis" was proposed, in which the feature vector was constructed by the occurrence frequency of the "distance structure status pair" or just the "distance-pair". Rigorous cross-validations on a much larger and more stringent newly constructed benchmark dataset showed that the miRNA-dis outperformed some state-of-the-art predictors in this area. Remarkably, miRNA-dis trained with human data can correctly predict 87.02% of the 4022 pre-miRNAs from 11 different species ranging from animals, plants and viruses. miRNA-dis would be a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of microRNA precursors. In addition, the learnt model can be easily analyzed in terms of discriminative features, and some interesting patterns were discovered, which could reflect the characteristics of microRNAs. A user-friendly web-server of miRNA-dis was constructed, which is freely accessible to the public at the web-site on http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/miRNA-dis/. PMID:25715848

  7. The 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3 regulates the expression of specific microRNAs in Drosophila wing imaginal discs

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Benjamin P; Jones, Christopher I; Viegas, Sandra C; Apura, Patricia; Waldron, Joseph A; Smalley, Sarah K; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    Dis3 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease which degrades RNAs in the 3'-5' direction. Mutations in Dis3 are associated with a number of human cancers including multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, we have assessed the effect of a Dis3 knockdown on Drosophila imaginal disc development and on expression of mature microRNAs. We find that Dis3 knockdown severely disrupts the development of wing imaginal discs in that the flies have a “no wing” phenotype. Use of RNA-seq to quantify the effect of Dis3 knockdown on microRNA expression shows that Dis3 normally regulates a small subset of microRNAs, with only 11 (10.1%) increasing in level ≥2-fold and 6 (5.5%) decreasing in level ≥2-fold. Of these microRNAs, miR-252–5p is increased 2.1-fold in Dis3-depleted cells compared to controls while the level of the miR-252 precursor is unchanged, suggesting that Dis3 can act in the cytoplasm to specifically degrade this mature miRNA. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that Dis3 normally interacts with the exosomal subunit Rrp40 in the cytoplasm to target miR-252–5p for degradation during normal wing development. Another microRNA, miR-982–5p, is expressed at lower levels in Dis3 knockdown cells, while the miR-982 precursor remains unchanged, indicating that Dis3 is involved in its processing. Our study therefore reveals an unexpected specificity for this ribonuclease toward microRNA regulation, which is likely to be conserved in other eukaryotes and may be relevant to understanding its role in human disease. PMID:25892215

  8. The 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3 regulates the expression of specific microRNAs in Drosophila wing imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Towler, Benjamin P; Jones, Christopher I; Viegas, Sandra C; Apura, Patricia; Waldron, Joseph A; Smalley, Sarah K; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    Dis3 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease which degrades RNAs in the 3'-5' direction. Mutations in Dis3 are associated with a number of human cancers including multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, we have assessed the effect of a Dis3 knockdown on Drosophila imaginal disc development and on expression of mature microRNAs. We find that Dis3 knockdown severely disrupts the development of wing imaginal discs in that the flies have a "no wing" phenotype. Use of RNA-seq to quantify the effect of Dis3 knockdown on microRNA expression shows that Dis3 normally regulates a small subset of microRNAs, with only 11 (10.1%) increasing in level ≥ 2-fold and 6 (5.5%) decreasing in level ≥ 2-fold. Of these microRNAs, miR-252-5p is increased 2.1-fold in Dis3-depleted cells compared to controls while the level of the miR-252 precursor is unchanged, suggesting that Dis3 can act in the cytoplasm to specifically degrade this mature miRNA. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that Dis3 normally interacts with the exosomal subunit Rrp40 in the cytoplasm to target miR-252-5p for degradation during normal wing development. Another microRNA, miR-982-5p, is expressed at lower levels in Dis3 knockdown cells, while the miR-982 precursor remains unchanged, indicating that Dis3 is involved in its processing. Our study therefore reveals an unexpected specificity for this ribonuclease toward microRNA regulation, which is likely to be conserved in other eukaryotes and may be relevant to understanding its role in human disease. PMID:25892215

  9. The RNase II/RNB family of exoribonucleases: putting the 'Dis' in disease.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa P; Pobre, Vânia; Silva, Inês J; Malecki, Michal; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2013-01-01

    Important findings over the last years have shed new light onto the mechanistic details of RNA degradation by members of the RNase II/RNB family of exoribonucleases. Members of this family have been shown to be involved in growth, normal chloroplast biogenesis, mitotic control and cancer. Recently, different publications have linked human orthologs (Dis3 and Dis3L2) to important human diseases. This article describes the structural and biochemical characteristics of members of this family of enzymes, and the physiological implications that relate them with disease. PMID:23776156

  10. Access, Opportunity, and Career: Supporting the Aspirations of Dis/abled Students with High-End Needs in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Barrie A.

    2013-01-01

    Acting as an entry marker into the adult world, the transition from compulsory schooling is inextricably linked with a change in career status. As such, transition is widely acknowledged to be a significant event in the lives of "all" young people regardless of their dis/abilities. However, many dis/abled students in New Zealand,…

  11. Utilizing a Low-Cost, Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS) to Improve Learning in Developing Rural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an innovation Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS), utilizing general IWBs (Interactive Whiteboard) didactics, to support student learning for rural and developing regions. LaDIS is a system made to support traditional classroom practices between an instructor and a group of students. This invention effectively transforms a…

  12. A Socio-Cultural Reframing of Science and Dis/ability in Education: Past Problems, Current Concerns, and Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four…

  13. AuDis: an automatic CRF-enhanced disease normalization in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diseases play central roles in many areas of biomedical research and healthcare. Consequently, aggregating the disease knowledge and treatment research reports becomes an extremely critical issue, especially in rapid-growth knowledge bases (e.g. PubMed). We therefore developed a system, AuDis, for disease mention recognition and normalization in biomedical texts. Our system utilizes an order two conditional random fields model. To optimize the results, we customize several post-processing steps, including abbreviation resolution, consistency improvement and stopwords filtering. As the official evaluation on the CDR task in BioCreative V, AuDis obtained the best performance (86.46% of F-score) among 40 runs (16 unique teams) on disease normalization of the DNER sub task. These results suggest that AuDis is a high-performance recognition system for disease recognition and normalization from biomedical literature.Database URL: http://ikmlab.csie.ncku.edu.tw/CDR2015/AuDis.html. PMID:27278815

  14. AuDis: an automatic CRF-enhanced disease normalization in biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diseases play central roles in many areas of biomedical research and healthcare. Consequently, aggregating the disease knowledge and treatment research reports becomes an extremely critical issue, especially in rapid-growth knowledge bases (e.g. PubMed). We therefore developed a system, AuDis, for disease mention recognition and normalization in biomedical texts. Our system utilizes an order two conditional random fields model. To optimize the results, we customize several post-processing steps, including abbreviation resolution, consistency improvement and stopwords filtering. As the official evaluation on the CDR task in BioCreative V, AuDis obtained the best performance (86.46% of F-score) among 40 runs (16 unique teams) on disease normalization of the DNER sub task. These results suggest that AuDis is a high-performance recognition system for disease recognition and normalization from biomedical literature. Database URL: http://ikmlab.csie.ncku.edu.tw/CDR2015/AuDis.html PMID:27278815

  15. Arts Integration: An Exploration of the Dis/Connect between Policy and Live(d) Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaJevic, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the dis/connect between arts integration policy (i.e. written texts and curriculum documents) and the live(d) practice of teachers working with arts integration. Although previous studies have examined how arts integration is implemented in schools and how it affects student achievement, particularly standardized test…

  16. Pion content of the nucleon in polarized semi-inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, W.; Thomas, A.W.

    1994-04-01

    An explicit pionic component of the nucleon may be identified by measuring polarized {Delta}{sup ++} fragments produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off polarized protons. The pion-exchange model predicts highly correlated polarizations of the {Delta}{sup ++} and target proton, in marked contrast with the competing diquark fragmentation process.

  17. Tipping Point: The Diversity Threshold for White Student (Dis) Engagement in Traditional Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston, Dhanfu El-Hajj

    2011-01-01

    During a time when most institutions of higher education are in search of underrepresented student participation, Georgia State University (GSU), a majority White institution, has observed a lack of involvement of White students in co-curricular activities. The purpose of the research study was to critically examine White students' (dis)…

  18. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.

  19. Pronounced and extensive microtubule defects in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae DIS3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah B; Kiss, Daniel L; Turk, Edward; Tartakoff, Alan M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2011-11-01

    Subunits of the RNA processing exosome assemble into structurally distinct protein complexes that function in disparate cellular compartments and RNA metabolic pathways. Here, in a genetic, cell biological and transcriptomic analysis, we examined the role of Dis3, an essential polypeptide with endo- and 3'→5' exo-ribonuclease activity, in cell cycle progression. We present several lines of evidence that perturbation of DIS3 affects microtubule (MT) localization and structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells with a DIS3 mutant: (a) accumulate anaphase and pre-anaphase mitotic spindles; (b) exhibit spindles that are misorientated and displaced from the bud neck; (c) harbour elongated spindle-associated astral MTs; (d) have an increased G1 astral MT length and number; and (e) are hypersensitive to MT poisons. Mutations in the core exosome genes RRP4 and MTR3 and the exosome cofactor gene MTR4, but not other exosome subunit gene mutants, also elicit MT phenotypes. RNA deep sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) shows broad changes in the levels of cell cycle- and MT-related transcripts in mutant strains. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for Dis3 in linking RNA metabolism, MTs and cell cycle progression. PMID:21919057

  20. Scripted Curriculum: What Movies Teach about Dis/ability and Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Tropes of dis/ability in the movies and master-narratives of Black males in education and society are typically treated in isolation. Furthermore, education research on Hollywood movies has typically focused on portrayals of schools, principals, and teachers even though education professionals are exposed to a broader range of…

  1. The Transparency of Evil in "The Leftovers" and Its Implications for Student (Dis)engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kessel, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    The HBO series, "The Leftovers," provides a thought-provoking platform for discussing Baudrillard's conceptualization of evil and the implications for contemporary pedagogical discourse about student (dis)engagement. The dystopic scenario of 2% of the world's population suddenly disappearing might help us rethink our own society,…

  2. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  3. Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28-let-7 pathway.

    PubMed

    Faehnle, Christopher R; Walleshauser, Jack; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2014-10-01

    The pluripotency factor Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of the let-7 family of mammalian microRNAs. Lin28 is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has a fundamental role in regulation of development, glucose metabolism and tissue regeneration. Overexpression of Lin28 is correlated with the onset of numerous cancers, whereas let-7, a tumour suppressor, silences several human oncogenes. Lin28 binds to precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) hairpins, triggering the 3' oligo-uridylation activity of TUT4 and TUT7 (refs 10-12). The oligoU tail added to pre-let-7 serves as a decay signal, as it is rapidly degraded by Dis3l2 (refs 13, 14), a homologue of the catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome. The molecular basis of Lin28-mediated recruitment of TUT4 and TUT7 to pre-let-7 and its subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 is largely unknown. To examine the mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition we determined the structure of mouse Dis3l2 in complex with an oligoU RNA to mimic the uridylated tail of pre-let-7. Three RNA-binding domains form an open funnel on one face of the catalytic domain that allows RNA to navigate a path to the active site different from that of its exosome counterpart. The resulting path reveals an extensive network of uracil-specific interactions spanning the first 12 nucleotides of an oligoU-tailed RNA. We identify three U-specificity zones that explain how Dis3l2 recognizes, binds and processes uridylated pre-let-7 in the final step of the Lin28-let-7 pathway. PMID:25119025

  4. Mechanism of Dis3L2 substrate recognition in the Lin28/let-7 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2014-01-01

    Summary paragraph The pluripotency factor Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of the let-7 family of mammalian microRNAs1–4. Lin28 is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has a fundamental role in regulation of development5, glucose metabolism6 and tissue regeneration7. Alternatively, Lin28 overexpression is correlated with the onset of numerous cancers8, while let-7, a tumor suppressor, silences several human oncogenes5. Lin28 binds to precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) hairpins9, triggering the 3' oligo-uridylation activity of TUT4/710–12. The oligoU tail added to pre-let-7 serves as a decay signal, as it is rapidly degraded by Dis3L213,14, a homolog of the catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome. The molecular basis of Lin28 mediated recruitment of TUT4/7 to pre-let-7 and its subsequent degradation by Dis3L2 is largely unknown. To examine the mechanism of Dis3L2 substrate recognition we determined the structure of mouse Dis3L2 in complex with an oligoU RNA to mimic the uridylated tail of pre-let-7. Three RNA binding domains form an open funnel on one face of the catalytic domain that allows RNA to navigate a path to the active site different from its exosome counterpart. The resulting path reveals an extensive network of uracil-specific interactions spanning the first twelve nucleotides of an oligoU-tailed RNA. We identify three U-specificity zones that explain how Dis3L2 recognizes, binds and processes uridylated pre-let-7 in the final step of the Lin28/let-7 pathway. PMID:25119025

  5. DisGeNET: a discovery platform for the dynamical exploration of human diseases and their genes.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Bravo, Àlex; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Baron, Martin; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I

    2015-01-01

    DisGeNET is a comprehensive discovery platform designed to address a variety of questions concerning the genetic underpinning of human diseases. DisGeNET contains over 380,000 associations between >16,000 genes and 13,000 diseases, which makes it one of the largest repositories currently available of its kind. DisGeNET integrates expert-curated databases with text-mined data, covers information on Mendelian and complex diseases, and includes data from animal disease models. It features a score based on the supporting evidence to prioritize gene-disease associations. It is an open access resource available through a web interface, a Cytoscape plugin and as a Semantic Web resource. The web interface supports user-friendly data exploration and navigation. DisGeNET data can also be analysed via the DisGeNET Cytoscape plugin, and enriched with the annotations of other plugins of this popular network analysis software suite. Finally, the information contained in DisGeNET can be expanded and complemented using Semantic Web technologies and linked to a variety of resources already present in the Linked Data cloud. Hence, DisGeNET offers one of the most comprehensive collections of human gene-disease associations and a valuable set of tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases of genetic origin, designed to fulfill the needs of different user profiles, including bioinformaticians, biologists and health-care practitioners. Database URL: http://www.disgenet.org/ PMID:25877637

  6. DisGeNET: a discovery platform for the dynamical exploration of human diseases and their genes

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Bravo, Àlex; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Baron, Martin; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2015-01-01

    DisGeNET is a comprehensive discovery platform designed to address a variety of questions concerning the genetic underpinning of human diseases. DisGeNET contains over 380 000 associations between >16 000 genes and 13 000 diseases, which makes it one of the largest repositories currently available of its kind. DisGeNET integrates expert-curated databases with text-mined data, covers information on Mendelian and complex diseases, and includes data from animal disease models. It features a score based on the supporting evidence to prioritize gene-disease associations. It is an open access resource available through a web interface, a Cytoscape plugin and as a Semantic Web resource. The web interface supports user-friendly data exploration and navigation. DisGeNET data can also be analysed via the DisGeNET Cytoscape plugin, and enriched with the annotations of other plugins of this popular network analysis software suite. Finally, the information contained in DisGeNET can be expanded and complemented using Semantic Web technologies and linked to a variety of resources already present in the Linked Data cloud. Hence, DisGeNET offers one of the most comprehensive collections of human gene-disease associations and a valuable set of tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases of genetic origin, designed to fulfill the needs of different user profiles, including bioinformaticians, biologists and health-care practitioners. Database URL: http://www.disgenet.org/ PMID:25877637

  7. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3 Prime mRNA instability elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, Daniel L.; Hou, Dezhi; Gross, Robert H.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful use of a novel RNA-specific bioinformatic tool, RNA SCOPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified novel 3 Prime UTR cis-acting element that destabilizes a reporter mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show exosome subunits are required for cis-acting element-mediated mRNA instability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Define precise sequence requirements of novel cis-acting element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show that microarray-defined exosome subunit-regulated mRNAs have novel element. -- Abstract: Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3 Prime -5 Prime exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3 Prime untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette-harboring four elements-destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are

  8. Ribonuclease Activity of Dis3 Is Required for Mitotic Progression and Provides a Possible Link between Heterochromatin and Kinetochore Function

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hiroaki; Goto, Derek B.; Toda, Takashi; Chen, Ee Sin; Grewal, Shiv I.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular RNA metabolism has a broad range of functional aspects in cell growth and division, but its role in chromosome segregation during mitosis is only poorly understood. The Dis3 ribonuclease is a key component of the RNA-processing exosome complex. Previous isolation of the dis3-54 cold-sensitive mutant of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that Dis3 is also required for correct chromosome segregation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that the progression of mitosis is arrested in dis3-54, and that segregation of the chromosomes is blocked by activation of the mitotic checkpoint control. This block is dependent on the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Double mutant and inhibitor analyses revealed that Dis3 is required for correct kinetochore formation and function, and that this activity is monitored by the Mad2 checkpoint. Dis3 is a member of the highly conserved RNase II family and is known to be an essential subunit of the exosome complex. The dis3-54 mutation was found to alter the RNaseII domain of Dis3, which caused a reduction in ribonuclease activity in vitro. This was associated with loss of silencing of an ura4+ reporter gene inserted into the outer repeats (otr) and central core (cnt and imr) regions of the centromere. On the other hand, centromeric siRNA maturation and formation of the RITS RNAi effector complex was normal in the dis3-54 mutant. Micrococcal nuclease assay also suggested the overall chromatin structure of the centromere was not affected in dis3-54 mutant. Conclusions/Significance RNase activity of Dis3, a core subunit of exosome, was found to be required for proper kinetochore formation and establishment of kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Moreover, Dis3 was suggested to contribute to kinetochore formation through an involvement in heterochromatic silencing at both outer centromeric repeats and within the central core region. This activity is likely monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, and distinct

  9. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year. PMID:22516599

  10. The distribution of mental illness found by DIS (Diagnostic Interview Schedule) among internal and orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Y; Nishizono, M; Yamamoto, J

    1990-03-01

    In order to understand how psychiatric problems are distributed in general medical departments, we used DIS (Diagnostic Interview Schedule). The subjects are 307 inpatients and outpatients in the Departments in Internal Medicine and Orthopedics of Fukuoka University Hospital, M Hospital and N Hospital. As a result, 53.4% of all the subjects showed some psychiatric problems. These are, in a descending order, tobacco dependence (30.0%), psychosexual dysfunction (14.3%), alcohol abuse/dependence (14.0%), major depressive episode (6.5%), organic brain syndrome (4.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (3.9%), dysthymic disorder (2.3%), panic disorder (2.0%) and others. Also, we discussed comparison between internal patients and neurotic patients who visited psychiatrists complaining of physical symptoms, and the incidence of DIS diagnoses in individual physical diseases. PMID:2362392

  11. 3-dimensional interactive space (3DIS); A new dimension in asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, S. ); Veitch, J. ); West, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 3DIS security system which uses standard CCTV cameras to create 3-Dimensional detection zones around valuable assets within protected areas. An intrusion into a zone changes light values and triggers an alarm that is annunciated, while images from multiple cameras are recorded. 3DIS lowers nuisance alarm rates and provides superior automated surveillance capability. Performance is improved over 2-D systems because activity around, above or below the zone does to cause an alarm. Invisible 3-D zones protect assets as small as a pin or as large as a 747 jetliner. Detection zones are created by excising subspaces from the overlapping fields of view of two or more video cameras. Hundred of zones may co-exist, operating simultaneously. Intrusion into any 3-D zone will cause a coincidental change in light values, triggering an alarm specific to that space.

  12. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose. PMID:26606386

  13. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose. PMID:26606386

  14. The TraDIS toolkit: sequencing and analysis for dense transposon mutant libraries

    PubMed Central

    Barquist, Lars; Mayho, Matthew; Cummins, Carla; Cain, Amy K.; Boinett, Christine J.; Page, Andrew J.; Langridge, Gemma C.; Quail, Michael A.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Parkhill, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Transposon insertion sequencing is a high-throughput technique for assaying large libraries of otherwise isogenic transposon mutants providing insight into gene essentiality, gene function and genetic interactions. We previously developed the Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) protocol for this purpose, which utilizes shearing of genomic DNA followed by specific PCR amplification of transposon-containing fragments and Illumina sequencing. Here we describe an optimized high-yield library preparation and sequencing protocol for TraDIS experiments and a novel software pipeline for analysis of the resulting data. The Bio-Tradis analysis pipeline is implemented as an extensible Perl library which can either be used as is, or as a basis for the development of more advanced analysis tools. This article can serve as a general reference for the application of the TraDIS methodology. Availability and implementation: The optimized sequencing protocol is included as supplementary information. The Bio-Tradis analysis pipeline is available under a GPL license at https://github.com/sanger-pathogens/Bio-Tradis Contact: parkhill@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26794317

  15. A socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education: past problems, current concerns, and future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four interconnected areas: (1) the historical mistrust of science and pseudo-science by people with dis/abilities; (2) the pervasive use of pseudo-science within the contemporary field of special education; (3) the use of dis/ability studies in education (DSE) to provide a contrast between a traditional positivist framing and a socio-cultural framing of dis/ability, and; (4) a brief exploration of what a DSE/socio-cultural grounding looks like for both schools and classroom teachers. In sum, our intention is to engage science educators to reject deficit-notions of dis/ability in favor of understanding it as part of human variation, and consider the personal and professional benefits of this shift.

  16. New COMPASS Results on Transverse Spin Asymmetries in Hadron Pair Production in DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbrizzai, G.

    2016-02-01

    The COMPASS measurements of the azimuthal asymmetries in the hadron pairs production in DIS on transversely polarised targets are here presented. Results on oppositely charged pion and kaon pairs produced on both deuteron and proton targets are shown. They have been used to update the calculation of the Transversity function which was previously extracted from the asymmetries measured from un-identified hadron pairs. Also a new method for the direct measurement of the integral of Transversity using both COMPASS and BELLE results is presented.

  17. Inclusive hadron distributions in p+p collisions from saturation models of HERA DIS data.

    SciTech Connect

    Tribedy, P.; Venugopalan, R.

    2010-12-06

    Dipole models based on various saturation scenarios provide reasonable fits to small-x DIS inclusive, diffractive and exclusive data from HERA. Proton un-integrated gluon distributions extracted from such fits are employed in a k{sub {perpendicular}}-factorization framework to calculate inclusive gluon distributions at various energies. The n-particle multiplicity distribution predicted in the Glasma flux tube approach shows good agreement with data over a wide range of energies. Hadron inclusive transverse momentum distributions expressed in terms of the saturation scale demonstrate universal behavior over a wider kinematic range systematically with increasing center of mass energies.

  18. DisVis: quantifying and visualizing accessible interaction space of distance-restrained biomolecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    van Zundert, G.C.P.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present DisVis, a Python package and command line tool to calculate the reduced accessible interaction space of distance-restrained binary protein complexes, allowing for direct visualization and quantification of the information content of the distance restraints. The approach is general and can also be used as a knowledge-based distance energy term in FFT-based docking directly during the sampling stage. Availability and implementation: The source code with documentation is freely available from https://github.com/haddocking/disvis. Contact: a.m.j.j.bonvin@uu.nl Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26026169

  19. (A whistle-stop tour of) theoretical models of diffraction in DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, M. F.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this talk was to present a very brief overview of theoretical models of diffraction in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). In particular, predictions for the behaviour of the diffractive structure functions F2D, RD are presented. The measurement of these functions at both small and high values of the variable β and their evolution with Q2 is expected to reveal crucial information concerning the underlying dynamics. This talk is based on the more extensive review [1] which also discusses expectations for charm in diffraction and contains a more complete list of references.

  20. [Management of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal dis orders in healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Toca, María del C; Sosa, Patricia; Aprigliano, Gustavo; Furnes, Raquel; Marchisone, Silvia; Mora, Mabel; Orsi, Marina; Saieg, Graciela; Tabacco, Omar; Wagener, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Healthy infants during the first year of life often have multiple functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as colic, regurgitation and constipation. The usual fuzziness and/or crying at this stage of life is interpreted as digestive discomfort or pain, and the corresponding concerns result in unsuitable behaviors as overeating, interruption of breastfeeding, multiple changes of formulas, innumerable queries and unnecessary medications. The aim of this paper is to update knowledge on the pathophysiology of the most common functional gastrointestinal dis orders, in order to avoid over diagnosis and select the most appropriate therapeutic approach and convenient nutritional interventions. PMID:26593804

  1. [The nursing team and Maslow: (dis)satisfaction in the work].

    PubMed

    Vitória Regis, Lorena Fagundes Ladeia; Porto, Isaura Setenta

    2006-01-01

    This text tries to understand the Nursing team and their (dis)satisfactions in the work. We consider the association with the theory of basic human needs of Abraham Maslow as a way to systemize and to comprehend the recurrent situations and the day-by-day Nursing issues. The necessities are structuralized hierarchically in physiological, security, social, auto-esteem and auto-accomplishment indicating the degree of satisfaction (from the disease to the fullness) of an individual or group. The advantage of this approach consists of being able to use the solid, depth and rich Maslow theory in concrete and particular situations of the Nursing team. PMID:17340737

  2. Impact parameter dependent potentials and average transverse momentum in inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhalholy, Tareq; Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We exploit a connection between the Coulomb/Eikonal phase and the charge distribution in the transverse plane for a transversely polarized nucleon. The known deformation of the charge density in impact parameter space translates into an asymmetry in the Coulomb/Eikonal phase (or the impact parameter electromagnetic potential). The asymmetry in the transverse potential implies an azimuthal asymmetry in the scattering cross section of the scattered electrons in inclusive DIS. We use the transverse potential to calculate the average transverse momentum of the scattered electrons. The sign of the calculated average transverse momentum for a neutron target is consistent with recent Jefferson Lab data.

  3. Semi-inclusive DIS cross sections and spin asymmetries in the quantum statistical parton distributions approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques

    2011-04-01

    We consider the extension of the statistical parton distributions to include their transverse momentum dependence, by using two different methods, one is based on our quantum statistical approach, the other on a relativistic covariant method. We take into account the effects of the Melosh-Wigner rotation for the polarized distributions. The results obtained can be compared with recent semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data on the cross section and double longitudinal-spin asymmetries from JLab. We also give some predictions for future experiments on electron-neutron scattering.

  4. Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species. PMID:25981476

  5. DisClose: Discovering Colossal Closed Itemsets via a Memory Efficient Compact Row-Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Zulkurnain, Nurul F.; Keane, John A.; Haglin, David J.

    2013-02-01

    Itemset mining has recently focused on discovery of frequent itemsets from high-dimensional datasets with relatively few rows and a larger number of items. With exponentially in-creasing running time as average row length increases, mining such datasets renders most conventional algorithms impracti-cal. Unfortunately, large cardinality closed itemsets are likely to be more informative than small cardinality closed itemsets in this type of dataset. This paper proposes an approach, called DisClose, to extract large cardinality (colossal) closed itemsets from high-dimensional datasets. The approach relies on a memory-efficient Compact Row-Tree data structure to represent itemsets during the search process. The search strategy explores the transposed representation of the dataset. Large cardinality itemsets are enumerated first followed by smaller ones. In addition, we utilize a minimum cardinality threshold to further reduce the search space. Experimental result shows that DisClose can complete the extraction of colossal closed itemsets in the considered dataset, even for low support thresholds. The algorithm immediately discovers closed itemsets without needing to check if each new closed itemset has previously been found.

  6. [(Dis)satisfaction with mental healthcare work: a study in Psychosocial Care Centers].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo

    2011-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze satisfaction in the workplace of mental healthcare professionals who serve in Psychosocial Care Centers (Caps). The research is of a qualitative nature and the data-collecting medium was semistructured interviews with 19 workers of three Caps in Fortaleza, in the Northern Brazilian State of Ceará. The treatment of the empirical material was based upon the analysis of content with an emphasis on the thematic bias. The results revealed the determinants of (dis)satisfaction present in the daily routine of these workers. The relationships established with the users were singled out as the main source of satisfaction, whereas the work and wage conditions were the main motives for dissatisfaction. In addition to these aspects, consequences of (dis)satisfaction at work in the private, social and organizational field of the workers' life in the Caps were revealed, mainly in physical and mental health. Lastly, they emphasized the urgent need for implementation - on the part of public administration - of strategies that seek to reduce the precariousness of healthcare work, especially in mental health, with a view to mitigating damages potentially caused by such work. PMID:21584456

  7. DisGeNET-RDF: harnessing the innovative power of the Semantic Web to explore the genetic basis of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Piñero, Janet; Bravo, Àlex; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: DisGeNET-RDF makes available knowledge on the genetic basis of human diseases in the Semantic Web. Gene-disease associations (GDAs) and their provenance metadata are published as human-readable and machine-processable web resources. The information on GDAs included in DisGeNET-RDF is interlinked to other biomedical databases to support the development of bioinformatics approaches for translational research through evidence-based exploitation of a rich and fully interconnected linked open data. Availability and implementation: http://rdf.disgenet.org/ Contact: support@disgenet.org PMID:27153650

  8. The ribonuclease DIS3 promotes let-7 miRNA maturation by degrading the pluripotency factor LIN28B mRNA.

    PubMed

    Segalla, Simona; Pivetti, Silvia; Todoerti, Katia; Chudzik, Malgorzata Agata; Giuliani, Erica Claudia; Lazzaro, Federico; Volta, Viviana; Lazarevic, Dejan; Musco, Giovanna; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Biffo, Stefano; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-05-26

    Multiple myeloma, the second most frequent hematologic tumor after lymphomas, is an incurable cancer. Recent sequencing efforts have identified the ribonuclease DIS3 as one of the most frequently mutated genes in this disease. DIS3 represents the catalytic subunit of the exosome, a macromolecular complex central to the processing, maturation and surveillance of various RNAs. miRNAs are an evolutionarily conserved class of small noncoding RNAs, regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Ribonucleases, including Drosha, Dicer and XRN2, are involved in the processing and stability of miRNAs. However, the role of DIS3 on the regulation of miRNAs remains largely unknown. Here we found that DIS3 regulates the levels of the tumor suppressor let-7 miRNAs without affecting other miRNA families. DIS3 facilitates the maturation of let-7 miRNAs by reducing in the cytoplasm the RNA stability of the pluripotency factor LIN28B, a inhibitor of let-7 processing. DIS3 inactivation, through the increase of LIN28B and the reduction of mature let-7, enhances the translation of let-7 targets such as MYC and RAS leading to enhanced tumorigenesis. Our study establishes that the ribonuclease DIS3, targeting LIN28B, sustains the maturation of let-7 miRNAs and suggests the increased translation of critical oncogenes as one of the biological outcomes of DIS3 inactivation. PMID:25925570

  9. The ribonuclease DIS3 promotes let-7 miRNA maturation by degrading the pluripotency factor LIN28B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Segalla, Simona; Pivetti, Silvia; Todoerti, Katia; Chudzik, Malgorzata Agata; Giuliani, Erica Claudia; Lazzaro, Federico; Volta, Viviana; Lazarevic, Dejan; Musco, Giovanna; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Biffo, Stefano; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma, the second most frequent hematologic tumor after lymphomas, is an incurable cancer. Recent sequencing efforts have identified the ribonuclease DIS3 as one of the most frequently mutated genes in this disease. DIS3 represents the catalytic subunit of the exosome, a macromolecular complex central to the processing, maturation and surveillance of various RNAs. miRNAs are an evolutionarily conserved class of small noncoding RNAs, regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Ribonucleases, including Drosha, Dicer and XRN2, are involved in the processing and stability of miRNAs. However, the role of DIS3 on the regulation of miRNAs remains largely unknown. Here we found that DIS3 regulates the levels of the tumor suppressor let-7 miRNAs without affecting other miRNA families. DIS3 facilitates the maturation of let-7 miRNAs by reducing in the cytoplasm the RNA stability of the pluripotency factor LIN28B, a inhibitor of let-7 processing. DIS3 inactivation, through the increase of LIN28B and the reduction of mature let-7, enhances the translation of let-7 targets such as MYC and RAS leading to enhanced tumorigenesis. Our study establishes that the ribonuclease DIS3, targeting LIN28B, sustains the maturation of let-7 miRNAs and suggests the increased translation of critical oncogenes as one of the biological outcomes of DIS3 inactivation. PMID:25925570

  10. Integration of whole-genome sequencing into infection control practices: the potential and the hurdles.

    PubMed

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Kamboj, Mini

    2015-04-01

    Microbial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is poised to transform many of the currently used approaches in medical microbiology. Recent reports on the application of WGS to understand genetic evolution and reconstruct transmission pathways have provided valuable information that will influence infection control practices. While this technology holds great promise, obstacles to full implementation remain. Two articles in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (S. Octavia, Q. Wang, M. M. Tanaka, S. Kaur, V. Sintchenko, and R. Lan, J Clin Microbiol 53:1063-1071, 2015, doi:10.1128/JCM.03235-14, and S. J. Salipante, D. J. SenGupta, L. A. Cummings, T. A. Land, D. R. Hoogestraat, and B. T. Cookson, J Clin Microbiol 53:1072-1079, 2015, doi:10.1128/JCM.03385-14) describe the breadth of application of WGS to the field of clinical epidemiology. PMID:25673795

  11. Distress from Motivational Dis-integration: When Fundamental Motives Are Too Weak or Too Strong.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, James F M; Franks, Becca; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    Past research has shown that satisfying different kinds of fundamental motives contributes to well-being. More recently, advances in motivational theory have shown that z is also tied to the integration of different motives. In other words, well-being depends not only on maximizing effectiveness in satisfying specific motives, but also on ensuring that motives work together such that no individual motive is too weak or too strong. In this chapter, we review existing research to show that specific forms of psychological distress can be linked to specific types of motivational imbalance or dis-integration. Such disintegration can arise from either excessive weakness of a specific motive or the excessive strength and/or dominance of a specific motive, thereby inhibiting other motives. Possible neural correlates and avenues of intervention are discussed. PMID:26419241

  12. A role for the Perlman syndrome exonuclease Dis3l2 in the Lin28-let-7 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Triboulet, Robinson; Thornton, James E.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    The pluripotency factor Lin28 blocks the expression of let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) in undifferentiated cells during development and functions as an oncogene in a subset of cancers1. Lin28 binds to let-7 precursor RNAs and recruits 3′ terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) to selectively inhibit let-7 biogenesis2–4. Uridylated pre-let-7 is refractory to processing by Dicer and is rapidly degraded by an unknown ribonuclease5. Here we identify Dis3l2 as the 3′-5′ exonuclease responsible for the decay of uridylated pre-let-7. Biochemical reconstitution assays reveal that 3′ oligouridylation stimulates Dis3l2 activity in vitro, and knockdown of Dis3l2 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to the stabilization of pre-let-7. Our study establishes 3′ oligouridylation as an RNA decay signal for Dis3l2 and identifies the first physiological RNA substrate of this novel exonuclease that is mutated in the Perlman syndrome of fetal overgrowth and predisposition to Wilms’ tumor6. PMID:23594738

  13. (Re)Writing Civics in the Digital Age: The Role of Social Media in Student (Dis)Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman Daley, Joannah

    2012-01-01

    (Re)Writing Civics in the Digital Age: The Role of Social Media in Student (Dis)Engagement addresses an important gap in the knowledge of civic rhetoric available in Rhetoric and Composition by using qualitative methods to explore the parameters of civic engagement through social media-based digital writing. With funding from URI's Office of…

  14. Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

  15. The Canadian Legal System, the Robert Latimer Case, and the Rhetorical Construction of (Dis)ability: "Bodies that Matter?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers Judge Ted Noble's 1997 ruling of the Latimer case in terms of how it rhetorically constructs and privileges the normal, able-bodied status quo, while, at the same time, deconstructs and positions as inferior the "abnormal," dis-abled minority. In this case, Noble not only took the unprecedented step of granting Robert…

  16. Heterogeneous performances of conceptual dis/continuity: a dialectic reading of Brown and Kloser's article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sungwon; Kim, Mijung

    2009-12-01

    We review Brown and Kloser's article, "Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students science learning" from a Vygotskian cultural-historical and dialectic perspective. Brown and Kloser interpret interview data with student baseball players and claim that students' conceptual understanding articulated in vernacular genres involves continuities (similarities) with the canonical scientific explanations. In this commentary, we suggest that the authors' approach presupposes the dichotomy of the formal and the informal, which brings the authors' attention to continuity into the separation of cognition from language. We propose a Vygotskian approach that points out the problem of theorizing cognition (conceptual understanding) by depending on specific forms of representation (e.g., scientific terms). As alternative, we envision a Vygotskian cultural-historical approach to language, which considers different, irreducible modes of communication as an integrated whole and therefore allows theorizing cognition without dichotomizing it from the concrete ways by which human being communicates. We provide an exemplary analysis of a lecture talk in a university physics classroom and exemplify dialectic theories that explain the development of conceptual understanding. We discuss that this Vygotskian dialectic approach shows that people communicate scientific concepts through hybridization, which does not reproduce a genre self-identically; the continuity of conceptual understanding involves dis/continuity.

  17. Geometric scaling behavior of the scattering amplitude for DIS with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Tapia, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    The main question, that we answer in this paper, is whether the initial condition can influence on the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude for DIS at high energy. We re-write the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation in the form which is useful for treating the interaction with nuclei. Using the simplified BFKL kernel, we find the analytical solution to this equation with the initial condition given by the McLerran-Venugopalan formula. This solution does not show the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude deeply in the saturation region. On the other hand, the BFKL Pomeron calculus with the initial condition at x=1/mR given by the solution to Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, leads to the geometric scaling behavior. The McLerran-Venugopalan formula is the natural initial condition for the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach. Therefore, our result gives a possibility to check experimentally which approach: CGC or BFKL Pomeron calculus, is more satisfactory.

  18. Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, look outside, and look beyond the persons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Amalio; Blanco, Rubén; Díaz, Darío

    2016-04-01

    The most common and extreme suffering humankind has ever experienced comes from interpersonal and collective intentional violence. In dealing with traumatic outcomes psychology must overcome the mutually constitutive interaction between the (dis)order of a given macro or microsocial context and the mental health of the persons living in it. Social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró addressed in a preferential way the study of civil war in El Salvador in terms of intergroup hostility and polarization. He also approached the aftereffects of war by means of a theoretical core assumption: that traumatic experience rooted in collective violence (a human-made stressor) should be understood bearing in mind its social roots (pretraumatic situation), its personal and collective harm (collective injury), and the destruction of the social fabric. These are the arguments for his conceptualization of psychosocial trauma. Twenty-six years after the violent murder of Martín-Baró, along with 5 Jesuit priests, a housekeeper, and his teenage daughter, the current authors have adopted his general framework. Based on new theoretical insights and supporting data, the authors propose an expanded 4-dimension theoretical argument on psychosocial trauma: (a) pretrauma conditions based on social distress, (b) shared network of fear leading to breakdown of core social assumptions, (c) the outgroup as a target of negative emotions, and (d) destruction of family ties and community networks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27042882

  19. Transverse target spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS with two-photon exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasev, A.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2008-01-01

    We study the transverse target spin dependence of the cross section for inclusive electron-nucleon scattering with unpolarized beam. Such dependence is absent in the one-photon exchange approximation (Christ-Lee theorem) and arises only in higher orders of the QED expansion, from the interference of one-photon and absorptive two-photon exchange amplitudes as well as from real photon emission (bremsstrahlung). We demonstrate that the transverse spin-dependent two-photon exchange cross section is free of QED infrared and collinear divergences. We argue that in DIS kinematics the transverse spin dependence should be governed by a 'partonlike' mechanism in which the two-photon exchange couples mainly to a single quark. We calculate the normal spin asymmetry in an approximation where the dominant contribution arises from quark-helicity flip due to interactions with nonperturbative vacuum fields (constituent quark picture) and is proportional to the quark transversity distribution in the nucleon. Such helicity-flip processes are not significantly Sudakov-suppressed if the infrared scale for gluon emission in the photon-quark subprocess is of the order of the chiral symmetry breaking scale, {mu}{sub chiral}{sup 2}>>{lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}. We estimate the asymmetry in the kinematics of the planned Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment to be of the order 10{sup -4}, with different sign for proton and neutron. We also comment on the spin dependence in the limit of soft high-energy scattering.

  20. Transverse target spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS with two-photon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, A.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2008-01-01

    We study the transverse target spin dependence of the cross section for inclusive electron-nucleon scattering with unpolarized beam. Such dependence is absent in the one-photon exchange approximation (Christ-Lee theorem) and arises only in higher orders of the QED expansion, from the interference of one-photon and absorptive two-photon exchange amplitudes as well as from real photon emission (bremsstrahlung). We demonstrate that the transverse spin-dependent two-photon exchange cross section is free of QED infrared and collinear divergences. We argue that in DIS kinematics the transverse spin dependence should be governed by a “partonlike” mechanism in which the two-photon exchange couples mainly to a single quark. We calculate the normal spin asymmetry in an approximation where the dominant contribution arises from quark-helicity flip due to interactions with nonperturbative vacuum fields (constituent quark picture) and is proportional to the quark transversity distribution in the nucleon. Such helicity-flip processes are not significantly Sudakov-suppressed if the infrared scale for gluon emission in the photon-quark subprocess is of the order of the chiral symmetry breaking scale, μchiral2≫ΛQCD2. We estimate the asymmetry in the kinematics of the planned Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment to be of the order 10-4, with different sign for proton and neutron. We also comment on the spin dependence in the limit of soft high-energy scattering.

  1. Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagarina, E.; Ambati, V. R.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.; Bokhove, O.

    2014-10-01

    A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a finite element discretization that is continuous in space and discontinuous in time. One novel feature of this variational finite element approach is that the free surface evolution is variationally dependent on the mesh deformation vis-à-vis the mesh deformation being geometrically dependent on free surface evolution. Another key feature is the use of a variational (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element discretization in time. Moreover, in the absence of a wave maker, it is shown to be equivalent to the second order symplectic Störmer-Verlet time stepping scheme for the free-surface degrees of freedom. These key features add to the stability of the numerical method. Finally, the resulting numerical scheme is verified against nonlinear analytical solutions with long time simulations and validated against experimental measurements of driven wave solutions in a wave basin of the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands.

  2. Immunogenomic engineering of a plug-and-(dis)play hybridoma platform

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, Mark; Parola, Cristina; Kelton, William J.; Heuberger, Paul; Reddy, Sai T.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridomas, fusions of primary mouse B cells and myelomas, are stable, rapidly-proliferating cell lines widely utilized for antibody screening and production. Antibody specificity of a hybridoma clone is determined by the immunoglobulin sequence of the primary B cell. Here we report a platform for rapid reprogramming of hybridoma antibody specificity by immunogenomic engineering. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double-stranded breaks in immunoglobulin loci, enabling deletion of the native variable light chain and replacement of the endogenous variable heavy chain with a fluorescent reporter protein (mRuby). New antibody genes are introduced by Cas9-targeting of mRuby for replacement with a donor construct encoding a light chain and a variable heavy chain, resulting in full-length antibody expression. Since hybridomas surface express and secrete antibodies, reprogrammed cells are isolated using flow cytometry and cell culture supernatant is used for antibody production. Plug-and-(dis)play hybridomas can be reprogrammed with only a single transfection and screening step. PMID:27531490

  3. Immunogenomic engineering of a plug-and-(dis)play hybridoma platform.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Mark; Parola, Cristina; Kelton, William J; Heuberger, Paul; Reddy, Sai T

    2016-01-01

    Hybridomas, fusions of primary mouse B cells and myelomas, are stable, rapidly-proliferating cell lines widely utilized for antibody screening and production. Antibody specificity of a hybridoma clone is determined by the immunoglobulin sequence of the primary B cell. Here we report a platform for rapid reprogramming of hybridoma antibody specificity by immunogenomic engineering. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double-stranded breaks in immunoglobulin loci, enabling deletion of the native variable light chain and replacement of the endogenous variable heavy chain with a fluorescent reporter protein (mRuby). New antibody genes are introduced by Cas9-targeting of mRuby for replacement with a donor construct encoding a light chain and a variable heavy chain, resulting in full-length antibody expression. Since hybridomas surface express and secrete antibodies, reprogrammed cells are isolated using flow cytometry and cell culture supernatant is used for antibody production. Plug-and-(dis)play hybridomas can be reprogrammed with only a single transfection and screening step. PMID:27531490

  4. Transverse target spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS with two-photon exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Afanasev; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-09-06

    We study the transverse target spin dependence of the cross section for the inclusive electron-nucleon scattering with unpolarized beam. Such dependence is absent in the one-photon exchange approximation (Christ-Lee theorem) and arises only in higher orders of the QED expansion, from the interference of one-photon and absorptive two-photon exchange amplitudes as well as from real photon emission (bremsstrahlung). We demonstrate that the transverse spin-dependent two-photon exchange cross section is free of QED infrared and collinear divergences. We argue that in DIS kinematics the transverse spin dependence should be governed by a "parton-like" mechanism in which the two-photon exchange couples mainly to a single quark. We calculate the normal spin asymmetry in an approximation where the dominant contribution arises from quark helicity flip due to interactions with non-perturbative vacuum fields (constituent quark picture) and is proportional to the quark transversity distribution in the nucleon. Such helicity-flip processes are not significantly Sudakov-suppressed if the infrared scale for gluon emission in the photon-quark subprocess is of the order of the chiral symmetry breaking scale, mu^2_chiral>>Lambda^2_QCD. We estimate the asymmetry in the kinematics of the planned Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment to be of the order 10^-4, with different sign for proton and neutron. We also comment on the spin dependence in the limit of soft high-energy scattering.

  5. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  6. Gene-dosage dependent overexpression at the 13q amplicon identifies DIS3 as candidate oncogene in colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    de Groen, Florence L M; Krijgsman, Oscar; Tijssen, Marianne; Vriend, Lianne E M; Ylstra, Bauke; Hooijberg, Erik; Meijer, Gerrit A; Steenbergen, Renske D M; Carvalho, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is in most cases marked by the accumulation of genomic alterations including gain of the entire q-arm of chromosome 13. This aberration occurs in 40%-60% of all CRC and is associated with progression from adenoma to carcinoma. To date, little is known about the effect of the 13q amplicon on the expression of the therein located genes and their functional relevance. We therefore aimed to identify candidate genes at the 13q amplicon that contribute to colorectal adenoma to carcinoma progression in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Integrative analysis of whole genome expression and DNA copy number signatures resulted in the identification of 36 genes on 13q of which significant overexpression in carcinomas compared with adenomas was linked to a copy number gain. Five genes showing high levels of overexpression in carcinomas versus adenomas were further tested by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in two independent sample sets of colorectal tumors (n = 40 and n = 47). DIS3 and LRCH1 revealed significant overexpression in carcinomas compared with adenomas in a 13q gain dependent manner. Silencing of DIS3 affected important tumorigenic characteristics such as viability, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, significant overexpression of DIS3 and LRCH1 associated with adenoma to carcinoma progression is linked to the CRC specific gain of 13q. The functional relevance of this copy number aberration was corroborated for DIS3, thereby identifying this gene as novel candidate oncogene contributing to the 13q-driven adenoma to carcinoma progression. PMID:24478024

  7. Preparation of Dis-Azo Dyes Derived from p-Aminophenol and Their Fastness Properties for Synthetic Polymer-Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otutu, J. O.; Okoro, D.; Ossai, E. K.

    The preparation and properties of a series of dis-azo dyes derived from p-aminophenol is described. The influence on colour, dyeing fastness properties of the dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres is reported. Most of the dyes synthesized afford better light fastness and better wet (wash, perspiration) fastness on PET than on nylon 6 fabric. The structure of each compound was confirmed by using infrared, UV-VIS and elemental analysis.

  8. Kinetics of Assembly and Dis-assembly of Structures Forming a Chromonic Liquid Crystal at Low Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieser, Kenneth; Collings, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The molecules of the near-IR absorbing dye IR-806 spontaneously assemble in water at very low concentrations, forming a chromonic liquid crystal phase at room temperature when the concentration is above 0.5 wt%. The assembly process proceeds in two steps and results in a complex structure that orientationally orders in a liquid crystal phase. The kinetics of the assembly and dis-assembly of these complex structures can be followed through absorption measurements by rapidly mixing the initial sample with either a small fraction of salt solution (assembly) or a large fraction of water (dis-assembly). The kinetics of dis-assembly is exponential while the kinetics of assembly is non-exponential, both with rate constants depending on the starting and ending conditions, but falling in the 0.1-1.0 s-1 range. While past equilibrium absorption measurements on IR-806 offer evidence for a threshold concentration for the assembly of these complex structures, the kinetics experiments show with certainty the existence of such a threshold. Similar experiments on Benzopurpurin 4B, another dye that forms a chromonic liquid crystal at low concentrations, reveal kinetics that are slower by two orders of magnitude and a threshold concentration for the assembly of complex structures. Acknowledgment is made to the donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for partial support of this research.

  9. Low-cost real-time 3D PC distributed-interactive-simulation (DIS) application for C4I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, David L.; Veron, Harry

    1998-04-01

    A 3D Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) application was developed and demonstrated in a PC environment. The application is capable of running in the stealth mode or as a player which includes battlefield simulations, such as ModSAF. PCs can be clustered together, but not necessarily collocated, to run a simulation or training exercise on their own. A 3D perspective view of the battlefield is displayed that includes terrain, trees, buildings and other objects supported by the DIS application. Screen update rates of 15 to 20 frames per second have been achieved with fully lit and textured scenes thus providing high quality and fast graphics. A complete PC system can be configured for under $2,500. The software runs under Windows95 and WindowsNT. It is written in C++ and uses a commercial API called RenderWare for 3D rendering. The software uses Microsoft Foundation classes and Microsoft DirectPlay for joystick input. The RenderWare libraries enhance the performance through optimization for MMX and the Pentium Pro processor. The RenderWare and the Righteous 3D graphics board from Orchid Technologies with an advertised rendering rate of up to 2 million texture mapped triangles per second. A low-cost PC DIS simulator that can partake in a real-time collaborative simulation with other platforms is thus achieved.

  10. Chains of (dis)trust: exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result. PMID:26614364

  11. The RNA exosome complex central channel controls both exonuclease and endonuclease Dis3 activities in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Drazkowska, Karolina; Tomecki, Rafal; Stodus, Krystian; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    The RNA exosome is an essential ribonuclease complex involved in RNA processing and decay. It consists of a 9-subunit catalytically inert ring composed of six RNase PH-like proteins forming a central channel and three cap subunits with KH/S1 domains located at the top. The yeast exosome catalytic activity is supplied by the Dis3 (also known as Rrp44) protein, which has both endo- and exoribonucleolytic activities and the nucleus-specific exonuclease Rrp6. In vitro studies suggest that substrates reach the Dis3 exonucleolytic active site following passage through the ring channel, but in vivo support is lacking. Here, we constructed an Rrp41 ring subunit mutant with a partially blocked channel that led to thermosensitivity and synthetic lethality with Rrp6 deletion. Rrp41 mutation caused accumulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome substrates including the non-stop decay reporter, for which degradation is dependent on either endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic Dis3 activities. This suggests that the central channel also controls endonucleolytic activity. In vitro experiments performed using Chaetomium thermophilum exosomes reconstituted from recombinant subunits confirmed this notion. Finally, we analysed the impact of a lethal mutation of conserved basic residues in Rrp4 cap subunit and found that it inhibits digestion of single-stranded and structured RNA substrates. PMID:23404585

  12. Modulating the RNA processing and decay by the exosome: altering Rrp44/Dis3 activity and end-product.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa P; Barbas, Ana; Klauer-King, A A; Tsanova, Borislava; Schaeffer, Daneen; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; van Hoof, Ambro; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the exosome plays a central role in RNA maturation, turnover, and quality control. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the core exosome is composed of nine catalytically inactive subunits constituting a ring structure and the active nuclease Rrp44, also known as Dis3. Rrp44 is a member of the ribonuclease II superfamily of exoribonucleases which include RNase R, Dis3L1 and Dis3L2. In this work we have functionally characterized three residues located in the highly conserved RNB catalytic domain of Rrp44: Y595, Q892 and G895. To address their precise role in Rrp44 activity, we have constructed Rrp44 mutants and compared their activity to the wild-type Rrp44. When we mutated residue Q892 and tested its activity in vitro, the enzyme became slightly more active. We also showed that when we mutated Y595, the final degradation product of Rrp44 changed from 4 to 5 nucleotides. This result confirms that this residue is responsible for the stacking of the RNA substrate in the catalytic cavity, as was predicted from the structure of Rrp44. Furthermore, we also show that a strain with a mutation in this residue has a growth defect and affects RNA processing and degradation. These results lead us to hypothesize that this residue has an important biological role. Molecular dynamics modeling of these Rrp44 mutants and the wild-type enzyme showed changes that extended beyond the mutated residues and helped to explain these results. PMID:24265673

  13. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  14. Measuring sin2θw in PV-DIS with the Baseline Spectrometers at JLab 12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Paul

    2007-07-18

    The couplings of leptons to quarks are fundamental parameters of the electroweak interaction. Within the framework of the Standard Model, these couplings can be related to sin2θw. Parity violation (PV) in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is proportional to these couplings and hence sensitive sin2θw. PV-DIS, first measured at SLAC in the mid-1970's, was used to establish the Standard Model. The high quality and intensity of the upgraded 11 GeV CEBAF beam at Jefferson Laboratory will make it an ideal tool for PV studies. In DIS the asymmetry from parity violation is large (APV ≈10-4 Q2), allowing precise measurements with modest beam-time. This talk will explore a PV-DIS measurement which can be made using the baseline spectrometers that will exist as part of the 12 GeV JLab upgrade.

  15. DisA and c-di-AMP act at the intersection between DNA-damage response and stress homeostasis in exponentially growing Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Carolina; Alonso, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains two vegetative diadenylate cyclases, DisA and CdaA, which produce cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), and one phosphodiesterase, GdpP, that degrades it into a linear di-AMP. We report here that DisA and CdaA contribute to elicit repair of DNA damage generated by alkyl groups and H2O2, respectively, during vegetative growth. disA forms an operon with radA (also termed sms) that encodes a protein distantly related to RecA. Among different DNA damage agents tested, only methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) affected disA null strain viability, while radA showed sensitivity to all of them. A strain lacking both disA and radA was as sensitive to MMS as the most sensitive single parent (epistasis). Low c-di-AMP levels (e.g. by over-expressing GdpP) decreased the ability of cells to repair DNA damage caused by MMS and in less extent by H2O2, while high levels of c-di-AMP (absence of GdpP or expression of sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase, CdaS) increased cell survival. Taken together, our results support the idea that c-di-AMP is a crucial signalling molecule involved in DNA repair with DisA and CdaA contributing to modulate different DNA damage responses during exponential growth. PMID:25616256

  16. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  17. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  18. Model-based sensor rendering for a DIS multisensor airborne surveillance platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John D.; Santapietro, John J.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reports on the continuing development of a DIS- compliant model for an airborne platform carrying a multisensor payload. This payload consists of a moving target indicator (MTI) radar, a cooperative battlefield combat identification system (BCIS), and imaging sensors. The imaging sensors are a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a forward looking infrared (FLIR) imager. The entire platform model is an extension to the ModSAF environment. The sensor model code is fully portable and integrated as ModSAF libraries. Relevant emission protocol data units (PDU) are generated and transmitted. The overall simulation architecture and the MTI and BCIS models have been described in detail elsewhere. The current work concentrates on the development of real-time model-based imaging functions. The software tools which provide this capability are available both in the government- owned inventory and as commercial products. The purpose of the current activity is to investigate the feasibility of integrating software of this kind with the ModSAF environment in order to produce realistic target/scene rendering similar to those obtained by high-resolution imaging sensors. To this end, we investigated real-time scene generation using two approaches. The first, through integration of the IRMA software package developed and distributed by the USAF Wright Laboratories, Eglin AFB, and the second is by use of the commercial software package SensorVisionTM, which is marketed and distributed by Paradigm Solutions, Inc. Both of these produce scene renderings in user specified wavebands by combining entity state PDU information with terrain data. The scene model information is passed to rendering software to produce an IR or SAR rendering of the scene.

  19. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  20. Exploring Physicians' Dissatisfaction and Work-Related Stress: Development of the PhyDis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazza, Monica; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena; Bressan, Franco

    2016-01-01

    with reference to attachment styles, which is recognized as being a central variable of individual difference supporting caregiving practices. This study represents an original and innovative attempt to address physicians' dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. The PhyDis scale has been developed and, in line with international findings, our results indicate that role uncertainty and loss of social esteem are the most dissatisfying factors. PMID:27588013

  1. Plagioclase-melt (dis)equilibrium due to cooling dynamics: Implications for thermometry, barometry and hygrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, Silvio; Putirka, Keith; Iezzi, Gianluca; Del Gaudio, Pierdomenico; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2011-07-01

    The compositional variation of plagioclase and the partitioning of major elements between plagioclase and melt have been experimentally measured as a function of the cooling rate. Crystals were grown from a basaltic melt at a pressure of 500 MPa under (i) variable cooling rates of 0.5, 2.1, 3, 9.4, and 15 °C/min from 1250 °C down to 1000 °C, (ii) quenching temperatures of 1025, 1050, 1075, 1090, and 1100 °C at the fixed cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min, and (iii) isothermal temperatures of 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075, 1090, and 1100 °C. Our results show that euhedral, faceted plagioclases form during isothermal and slower cooling experiments exhibiting idiomorphic tabular shapes. In contrast, dendritic shapes are observed from faster cooled charges. As the cooling rate is increased, concentrations of Al + Ca + Fe + Mg increase and Si + Na + K decrease in plagioclase favoring higher An and lower Ab + Or contents. Significant variations of pl-liqKd are also observed by the comparison between isothermal and cooled charges; notably, pl-liqKdAb-An, pl-liqKdCa-Na and pl-liqKdFe-Mg progressively change with increasing cooling rate. Therefore, crystal-melt exchange reactions have the potential to reveal the departure from equilibrium for plagioclase-bearing cooling magmas. Finally, thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers derived through the plagioclase-liquid equilibria have been tested at these non-equilibrium experimental conditions. Since such models are based on assumption of equilibrium, any form of disequilibrium will yield errors. Results show that errors on estimates of temperature, pressure, and melt-water content increase systematically with increasing cooling rate (i.e. disequilibrium condition) depicting monotonic trends towards drastic overestimates. These trends are perfectly correlated with those of pl-liqKdCa-Na, pl-liqKdAb-An, and pl-liqKdFe-Mg, thus demonstrating their ability to test (dis)equilibrium conditions.

  2. Exploring Physicians' Dissatisfaction and Work-Related Stress: Development of the PhyDis Scale.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena; Bressan, Franco

    2016-01-01

    reference to attachment styles, which is recognized as being a central variable of individual difference supporting caregiving practices. This study represents an original and innovative attempt to address physicians' dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. The PhyDis scale has been developed and, in line with international findings, our results indicate that role uncertainty and loss of social esteem are the most dissatisfying factors. PMID:27588013

  3. Predictions on the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries at Subleading Twist of Pion Production in Semi-Inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenjuan; Lu, Zhun; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We estimate the single-spin asymmetries with sin ϕS and sin(2ϕh ‑ ϕS) angular dependencies for electroproduction of pions in transversely polarized semi-inclusive DIS process. We consider the effect of the twist-3 transverse momentum dependent distributions which convoluted with twist-2 fragmentation functions. We calculate these distributions in a spectator-diquark model, and predict the corresponding single-spin asymmetries at the kinematics of HERMES, JLab and COMPASS. We find that the numerical estimates show that the asymmetries are sizable, and the T-odd twist-3 TMDs play an important role in these asymmetries.

  4. cos (4 φ ) azimuthal anisotropy in small-x DIS dijet production beyond the leading power TMD limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    We determine the first correction to the quadrupole operator in high-energy QCD beyond the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) limit of Weizsäcker-Williams and linearly polarized gluon distributions. These functions give rise to isotropic, respectively, ˜cos 2 ϕ angular distributions in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dijet production. On the other hand, the correction produces a ˜cos 4 ϕ angular dependence which is suppressed by one additional power of the dijet transverse momentum scale (squared) P2.

  5. VennDIS: a JavaFX-based Venn and Euler diagram software to generate publication quality figures.

    PubMed

    Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alexandr; Sinha, Ankit; Boutros, Paul C; Kislinger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Venn diagrams are graphical representations of the relationships among multiple sets of objects and are often used to illustrate similarities and differences among genomic and proteomic datasets. All currently existing tools for producing Venn diagrams evince one of two traits; they require expertise in specific statistical software packages (such as R), or lack the flexibility required to produce publication-quality figures. We describe a simple tool that addresses both shortcomings, Venn Diagram Interactive Software (VennDIS), a JavaFX-based solution for producing highly customizable, publication-quality Venn, and Euler diagrams of up to five sets. The strengths of VennDIS are its simple graphical user interface and its large array of customization options, including the ability to modify attributes such as font, style and position of the labels, background color, size of the circle/ellipse, and outline color. It is platform independent and provides real-time visualization of figure modifications. The created figures can be saved as XML files for future modification or exported as high-resolution images for direct use in publications. PMID:25545689

  6. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  7. Functional requirements document for NASA/MSFC Earth Science and Applications Division: Data and information system (ESAD-DIS). Interoperability, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. Briscoe; Grider, Gary W.

    1992-01-01

    These Earth Science and Applications Division-Data and Information System (ESAD-DIS) interoperability requirements are designed to quantify the Earth Science and Application Division's hardware and software requirements in terms of communications between personal and visualization workstation, and mainframe computers. The electronic mail requirements and local area network (LAN) requirements are addressed. These interoperability requirements are top-level requirements framed around defining the existing ESAD-DIS interoperability and projecting known near-term requirements for both operational support and for management planning. Detailed requirements will be submitted on a case-by-case basis. This document is also intended as an overview of ESAD-DIs interoperability for new-comers and management not familiar with these activities. It is intended as background documentation to support requests for resources and support requirements.

  8. Comparison of chemical permeation data obtained with ASTM and ISO permeation test cells--II. The ISO/DIS standard test procedure.

    PubMed

    Mellström, G A

    1991-04-01

    ASTM and ISO/DIS test cells were used for permeation testing according to the procedure proposed in draft international standard ISO/DIS 6259. Two compounds, toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, were tested with one neoprene glove and one made of a specially prepared Neoprene material. Different open-loop systems, direct-flow measurement and a sampling system with different gas flow rates were compared, and the effects on the test result were evaluated. The initial breakthrough (BTT) times and cumulative breakthrough times (lag-BTT) were significantly influenced only by the measurement systems. Neither cell configuration nor changes in the gas flow rate influenced them to any degree relevant for comparison of the test values on a relative basis in most cases. The permeation rates (PER) and the cumulative amount permeating per cm2 in 60 min showed significant differences between measuring systems, gas flow rates and the ASTM vs the ISO/DIS test procedures. PMID:2042883

  9. Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin.

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to αvβ3 integrin, but was moderate to weak with αvβ5, αvβ6, α2β1, and α6β1. Interestingly, the inhibition of r-Cam-dis on pancreatic cancer cell lines adhesion to laminin-1 was more effective than that to vitronectin. Based on our binding results to integrin receptors and previous adhesion studies using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, it is suggested that r-Cam-dis could be inhibiting adhesion of pancreatic cancer cell lines through integrins α2β1, α6β1, αvβ5, and αvβ6. PMID:26045944

  10. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  11. Student (dis)engagement and need-supportive teaching behavior: a multi-informant and multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Tallir, Isabel B; Cardon, Greet; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers' need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers' causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students' (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26442767

  12. Leading order determination of the gluon polarisation from DIS events with high-pT hadron pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.-M.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moinester, M. A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J. P.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S. L.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A. N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N. V.; Wang, L.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of the gluon polarisation Δg / g in the nucleon, based on the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry of DIS events with Q2 > 1 (GeV / c) 2 including a pair of large transverse-momentum hadrons in the final state. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam scattering off a polarised 6LiD target. The gluon polarisation is evaluated by a Neural Network approach for three intervals of the gluon momentum fraction xg covering the range 0.04

  13. Analyse And Graphical Representation On Implementation Of New ISO/DIS 14001:2015 Revision In Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagateanu, Alina Mihaela; Nicolaescu, Sergiu Ştefan; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile

    2015-09-01

    We live in a dynamic world that is constantly changing in order to lighten our daily activities. All changes made must meet several conditions, most of them having a direct relationship with the environment and are applicable for more than one person. Considering that in this moment the standard for environment protection has passed the review period and will be published in the near future, the present article aims to highlight the most important changes from the new version of ISO / DIS 14001: 2015. The information is structured for the organizations which holds the old version ISO 14001: 2004, so, the necessary steps to follow can be easily understood while moving totally to the new version.

  14. The Allee effect and infectious diseases: extinction, multistability, and the (dis-)appearance of oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Frank M; Langlais, Michel; Malchow, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases that affect their host on a long timescale can regulate the host population dynamics. Here we show that a strong Allee effect can lead to complex dynamics in simple epidemic models. Generally, the Allee effect renders a population bistable, but we also identify conditions for tri- or monostability. Moreover, the disease can destabilize endemic equilibria and induce sustained oscillations. These disappear again for high transmissibilities, with eventually vanishing host population. Disease-induced extinction is thus possible for density-dependent transmission and without any alternative reservoirs. The overall complexity suggests that the system is very sensitive to perturbations and control methods, even in parameter regions with a basic reproductive ratio far beyond R(0) = 1. This may have profound implications for biological conservation as well as pest management. We identify important threshold quantities and attribute the dynamical behavior to the joint interplay of a strong Allee effect and infection. PMID:19072071

  15. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... in getting the disease is walking barefoot on ground where there are feces of people who have ...

  16. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection. Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways: Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida ...

  17. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  18. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  19. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  20. Operating room management: operative suite considerations, infection control.

    PubMed

    Allo, Maria D; Tedesco, Maureen

    2005-12-01

    An operating room's condition is rarely directly implicated in dis-ease transmission. Even so, to prevent such rare transmissions,hospitals must be thoughtful in designing operating rooms as important adjuncts to infection control. Proper ventilation in and near the operating room is the single most important component in establishing an environment that stops the spread of infection. Other considerations include attention to traffic control, equipment maintenance and storage, and construction materials that enhance the ability to maintain clean rooms. Hospitals can avert potential infectious problems through preventive maintenance and the use of infection control risk assessments (ICRAs) for preemptive consideration of infectious risks before renovations, repairs and new construction. Guidelines should be consulted and incorporated into each operating room's policies and procedures. PMID:16326209

  1. Real-time depth image-based rendering with layered dis-occlusion compensation and aliasing-free composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Gotchev, Atanas

    2015-03-01

    Depth Image-based Rendering (DIBR) is a popular view synthesis technique which utilizes the RGB+D image format, also referred to as view-plus-depth scene representation. Classical DIBR is prone to dis-occlusion artefacts, caused by the lack of information in areas behind foreground objects, which appear visible in the synthesized images. A number of recently proposed compensation techniques have addressed the problem of hole filling. However, their computational complexity does not allow for real-time view synthesis and may require additional user input. In this work, we propose a hole-compensation technique, which works fully automatically and in a perceptually-correct manner. The proposed technique applies a two-layer model of the given RGB+D imagery, which is specifically tailored for rendering with free viewpoint selection. The main two components of the proposed technique are an adaptive layering of depth into relative 'foreground' and 'background' layers to be rendered separately and an additional blending filtering aimed at creating a blending function for aliasing cancellation during the process of view composition. The proposed real-time implementation turns ordinary view-plus-depth images to true 3D scene representations, which allow visualization in the y-around manner.

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals distinct substrate specificities of Rrp6, Dis3, and core exosome subunits.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Daniel L; Andrulis, Erik D

    2010-04-01

    The RNA processing exosome complex was originally defined as an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit complex of ribonucleases responsible for the processing and/or turnover of stable RNAs. The exosome complex is also involved in the surveillance of mRNAs in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, including nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) targets. The detailed mechanisms for how individual exosome subunits participate in each of these RNA metabolic pathways remains unclear. Here, we use RNAi to deplete exosome subunits, the exonucleases Rrp6 and Dis3, and an exosome cofactor in Drosophila melanogaster S2 tissue culture cells and assay the effects on global mRNA levels using gene expression microarrays. Consistent with the RNA degradative activities ascribed to the exosome, most mRNAs are increased. Notably, these stabilized mRNAs possess 3' untranslated regions that are longer than the representative transcriptomic average. Moreover, our results reveal substantial differences in the pools of affected mRNAs for each depleted subunit. For example, approximately 25% of the affected transcripts in Rrp6 depleted cells represent NMD substrates. While the affected mRNAs were dissimilar, they encode proteins that function in similar cellular pathways. We conclude that individual exosome subunits are largely functionally independent at the transcript level, but are interdependent on a transcriptomic level. PMID:20185544

  3. Thermodiffusion as a close-to-interface effect that matters in non-isothermal (dis)orderly protein aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadomski, A.; Kruszewska, N.

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this discussion letter is to argue how and why an inherent nanoscale thermodiffusion (Soret-type) effect can be relevant in (dis)orderly protein aggregation. We propose a model in which the aggregation of proteins, in the presence of temperature gradient, is described in terms of Smoluchowski dynamics in the phase space of nuclei sizes. The Soret coefficient of the aggregation is proportional to the variations of the aggregation free energy over temperature. The free energy is related to the (interface) boundary condition of the system. When boundary condition is of equilibrium Gibbs-Thomson type, with a well-stated surface tension of the nucleus, to the system can be assigned a negative Soret effect. On the contrary, when a non-equilibrium perturbing (salting-out) term enters the boundary condition, a positive Soret effect may manifest. A zero-value Soret regime is expected to occur in between, yielding very soft (“fragile”) non-Kossel protein-type crystals.

  4. Stigma, discrimination, and sexual (dis)satisfaction among people living with HIV: results from the "AIDES et toi" survey.

    PubMed

    Rojas Castro, D; Le Gall, J M; Andreo, C; Spire, B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of HIV-related stigma and discrimination have been studied in several areas, such as access to testing, quality of care quality, and access to work. Nevertheless, the effects of stigma and discrimination on the sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not been studied enough. AIDES, a French community-based organization, has developed a biannual survey which assesses several socioeconomical and psychosocial dimensions of the people in contact with this organization. A focus on the results concerning sexual (dis)satisfaction and the factors associated are presented here. A convenience sample of 521 HIV-positive men having sex with men, heterosexual men and women was analyzed. A logistic regression was performed to examine which factors were significantly associated with sexual dissatisfaction. Results showed that being older, not having a full-time job, not having a steady sexual partner, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, discrimination in the sexual relationship setting, and the perception of loneliness were independently associated with sexual dissatisfaction. A quality health approach must include the aspects linked to sexual life and sexual satisfaction. Given the potentially harmful effects that HIV-related stigma and discrimination have on PLWHA's well-being, more specific actions and advocacy in this direction should be developed and implemented. PMID:20552468

  5. Structural analysis of the diadenylate cyclase reaction of DNA-integrity scanning protein A (DisA) and its inhibition by 3'-dATP.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martina; Deimling, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Witte, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The identification of the essential bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) synthesized by the DNA-integrity scanning protein A (DisA) has opened up a new and emerging field in bacterial signalling. To further analyse the diadenylate cyclase (DAC) reaction catalysed by the DAC domains of DisA, we crystallized Thermotoga maritima DisA in the presence of different ATP analogues and metal ions to identify the metal-binding site and trap the enzyme in pre- and post-reaction states. Through structural and biochemical assays we identified important residues essential for the reaction in the active site of the DAC domains. Our structures resolve the metal-binding site and thus explain the activation of ATP for the DAC reaction. Moreover, we were able to identify a potent inhibitor of the DAC domain. Based on the available structures and homology to annotated DAC domains we propose a common mechanism for c-di-AMP synthesis by DAC domains in c-di-AMP-producing species and a possible approach for its effective inhibition. PMID:26014055

  6. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  7. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli. Antibiotics are the usual treatment. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each ... infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute ...

  8. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people ...

  9. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  10. Infection Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way ...

  11. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most staph skin infections are easily treated with antibiotics or by draining the infection. Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making ...

  12. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to prevent staph is to keep hands and wounds clean. Most staph skin infections are easily treated with antibiotics or by draining the infection. Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are ...

  13. Spinal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgical risk factors include a long surgical time, instrumentation and re-operations. Infections occur in up to 4% of surgical cases despite the numerous preventative measures that are taken. The likelihood of an infection ...

  14. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  15. TORCH infections.

    PubMed

    Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip

    2015-03-01

    TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25677998

  16. Acinetobacter baumannii Genes Required for Bacterial Survival during Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Smith, Sara; DeOrnellas, Valerie; Crepin, Sebastien; Kole, Monica; Zahdeh, Carina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a leading global multiple-antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogen. The identity of genes essential for pathogenesis in a mammalian host remains largely unknown. Using transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS), we identified A. baumannii genes involved in bacterial survival in a leukopenic mouse model of bloodstream infection. Mice were inoculated with a pooled transposon mutant library derived from 109,000 mutants, and TraDIS was used to map transposon insertion sites in the genomes of bacteria in the inoculum and of bacteria recovered from mouse spleens. Unique transposon insertion sites were mapped and used to calculate a fitness factor for every insertion site based on its relative abundance in the inoculum and postinfection libraries. Eighty-nine transposon insertion mutants that were underrepresented after experimental infection in mice compared to their presence in the inocula were delineated as candidates for further evaluation. Genetically defined mutants lacking feoB (ferrous iron import), ddc (d-ala-d-ala-carboxypeptidase), and pntB (pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase subunit) exhibited a fitness defect during systemic infection resulting from bacteremia. In vitro, these mutants, as well as a fepA (ferric enterobactin receptor) mutant, are defective in survival in human serum and within macrophages and are hypersensitive to killing by antimicrobial peptides compared to the survival of the parental strain under these conditions. Our data demonstrate that FepA is involved in the uptake of exogenous enterobactin in A. baumannii. Genetic complementation rescues the phenotypes of mutants in assays that emulate conditions encountered during infection. In summary, we have determined novel A. baumannii fitness genes involved in the pathogenesis of mammalian infection. IMPORTANCE A. baumannii is a significant cause of bacterial bloodstream infection in humans. Since multiple antibiotic resistance

  17. Dis-Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.

    2008-01-01

    Higher education accreditation, created to help safeguard the quality of academic programming, has instead become a kind of insider's game that protects American colleges and universities from close scrutiny, when not pressuring them to become more politically correct. In this article, the author presents a survey of the sorry current state of…

  18. Laboratory Testing of Operator Seat Vibration with 37 SUBJECTS—CRITICAL Comment on Iso/dis 7096

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, B.; Menzel, G.; Blüthner, R.; Seidel, H.

    1998-08-01

    The operators of earth moving machinery are often exposed to a low frequency vibration environment caused by the movement of vehicles over uneven ground and the task carried out. The seat constitutes the least state of suspension before the driver. The efficiency of attenuation under consideration of the best design practice today is the basis for the revision of ISO 7096 for the testing seats for earth moving machinery. This standard requires the participation of two subjects with different body masses (52-55 kg; 98-103 kg). The aim of the study was to investigate (1) the extent and the influence of individual variability and posture change on the result of seat tests, and (2) the possibility of deducing representative results for the user population. 37 male subjects took part in the experimental investigations. They were exposed in three postures for 67 s to three acceleration signals in a vertical direction corresponding to the spectral classes (EM2, EM5, EM6) in ISO/DIS 7096 on two commercial suspension seats. The vertical accelerations were measured at the seat basis and at the interface between seat cushion and subject. The results of the analysis of variance show a significant influence of exposure, type of seat, and interactions exposure-by-posture, exposure-by-type of seat, and posture-by type of seat on the SEAT factor. Simple and multiple regression analyses were applied in order to test the predictability of the seat factor (SEAT) by anthropometric variables. The conclusions were drawn that the seat testing could be improved by (1) selecting subjects according to the 5th and 95th percentile masses of the population of vehicle or machinery users for which the seat is intended (ISO 10326), instead of fixed masses (ISO 7096), (2) considering other anthropometric parameters for the selection like the body height and body mass supported by the seat, and (3) the inclusion of several subjects near the 50th percentile in order to assess the variability of the

  19. Sediment tracing in the upper Hunter catchment using elemental and mineralogical compositions: Implications for catchment-scale suspended sediment (dis)connectivity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Gore, Damian

    2013-07-01

    River bed colmation layers clog the interstices of gravel-bed rivers, impeding the vertical exchange of water and nutrients that drives ecosystem function in the hyporheic zone. In catchments where fine-grained sediment supply has increased since human disturbance, understanding sediment provenance and the (dis)connectivity of supply allows practitioners to target sediment source problems and treat them within catchment management plans. Release of alluvial fine-grained sediment from channel bank erosion since European settlement has resulted in the formation of a colmation layer along the upper Hunter River at Muswellbrook, eastern Australia. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) are used to determine the elemental and mineralogical signatures of colmation layer and floodplain sediment sources across this 4480 km2 catchment. This sediment tracing technique is used to construct a picture of how suspended sediment supply and (dis)connectivity operates in this catchment. In this system, the primary source areas are subcatchments in which sediments are stored largely in partly confined floodplain pockets, but from which sediment supply is unimpeded and directly connected to the receiving reach. Subcatchments in which alluvial sediment storage is significant — and which contain large, laterally unconfined valleys — are essentially 'switched off' or disconnected from the receiving reach. This is because large sediment sinks act to trap fine-grained sediment before it reaches the receiving reach, forming a buffer along the sediment conveyor belt. Given the age structure of floodplains in the receiving reach, this pattern of source area contributions and (dis)connectivity must have occurred throughout the Holocene.

  20. Giardia Infection Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(5):e682. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  1. Norovirus Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Norovirus Infection Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical ...

  2. Imaging infection.

    PubMed

    Ketai, Loren; Jordan, Kirk; Busby, Katrina H

    2015-06-01

    Thoracic imaging is widely used to detect lower respiratory tract infections, identify their complications, and aid in differentiating infectious from noninfectious thoracic disease. Less commonly, the combination of imaging findings and a clinical setting can favor infection with a specific organism. This confluence can occur in cases of bronchiectatic nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in immune-competent hosts, invasive fungal disease among neutropenic patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with AIDS, and in cytomegalovirus infections in patients with recent hematopoietic cell transplantation. These specific diagnoses often depend on computed tomography scanning rather than chest radiography alone. PMID:26024600

  3. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... similar to tuberculosis: Cough Weight loss Coughing up blood or mucus Weakness or fatigue Fever and chills Night sweats Lack of appetite and weight loss Medicines can treat these infections, but often more than one is needed to cure the infection.

  4. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues ... Bladder and Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum ...

  5. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and fever Swelling, warmth, and redness A blood ...

  6. Salmonella Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for a variety of acute and chronic diseases in poultry. These diseases continue to cause economically significant losses in many nations and absorb a large investment of resources in testing and control efforts in others. Infected poul...

  7. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... include fever, headache or body aches. Treatment includes bed rest and lots of liquids to prevent dehydration. There is no specific medicine to treat norovirus infections. Proper hand washing and safe food preparation may help prevent infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Raphael, B; Judd, F; Perdices, M; Kernutt, G; Burnett, P; Dunne, M; Burrows, G

    1998-11-01

    This study investigated the psychological impact of HIV infection through assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV infection. Sixty-one HIV-positive homosexual/bisexual men were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV infection (PTSD-HIV) using a modified PTSD module of the DIS-III-R. Thirty percent met criteria for a syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV diagnosis (PTSD-HIV). In over one-third of the PTSD cases, the disorder had an onset greater than 6 months after initial HIV infection diagnosis. PTSD-HIV was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses, particularly the development of first episodes of major depression after HIV infection diagnosis. PTSD-HIV was significantly associated with a pre-HIV history of PTSD from other causes, and other pre-HIV psychiatric disorders and neuroticism scores, indicating a similarity with findings in studies of PTSD from other causes. The findings from this preliminary study suggest that a PTSD response to HIV diagnosis has clinical validity and requires further investigation in this population and other medically ill groups. The results support the inclusion of the diagnosis of life-threatening illness as a traumatic incident that may lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder, which is consistent with the DSM-IV criteria. PMID:9854646

  9. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related illnesses, including toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, and staphylococcal-related food poisoning. In fact, ... Staphylococcus that you should be familiar with include the ...

  10. Hand Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  11. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood, imaging, or lab tests. Treatment is with antibiotics. Vaccines can prevent pneumococcal infections. There are two vaccines. One is for infants and young children. The other is for people ...

  12. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Trichuris trichiura egg References Diemert DJ. Intestinal nematode infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 365. Maguire JH. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  13. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ... symptoms include coughing and shortness of breath. Controlling rodents in and around your house is the best ...

  14. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  15. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections ... aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people ...

  16. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  17. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Giardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  20. Salmonella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables. You also can get infected after handling pets, especially reptiles like snakes, turtles, and lizards. Symptoms include Fever Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Headache Possible nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite Symptoms usually last 4-7 days. ...

  1. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Noroviruses are a group of related viruses. Infection with these viruses causes an illness called gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can spread from person to person, or ...

  2. Significance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Health Care-Associated Infections, from Contaminant to Clinically Relevant Pathogen: This Is a Wake-Up Call!

    PubMed

    Widerström, Micael

    2016-07-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, have been recognized as an important cause of health care-associated infections. Concurrently, S. epidermidis is a common contaminant in clinical cultures, which poses a diagnostic challenge. An article in this issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology (I. Tolo, J. C. Thomas, R. S. B. Fischer, E. L. Brown, B. M. Gray, and D. A. Robinson, J Clin Microbiol 54:1711-1719, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03345-15) describes a rapid single nucleotide polymorphism-based assay for distinguishing between S. epidermidis isolates from hospital and nonhospital sources, which represents an important contribution to the characterization and understanding of S. epidermidis health care-associated infections. PMID:27170016

  3. The World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument for people with intellectual and physical disabilities (WHOQOL-Dis): evidence of validity of the Brazilian version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of people with disabilities in Brazil and worldwide has grown substantially in recent decades. Cross-cultural quality of life instruments can be helpful in the development of interventions designed to meet the needs of this population and contribute to rational allocation of resources. This study sought to provide evidence of validity and reliability the Brazilian Portuguese version of WHOQOL-Dis-D (a cross-cultural, multicentre instrument developed by the WHOQOL-Group for the assessment of quality of life in persons with physical disability – PD) and WHOQOL-Dis-ID (for persons with intellectual disability – ID). Methods Classical psychometric methods were used to conduct independent analyses of the PD and ID samples. Criterion groups were established for analysis of construct validity. Concurrent validity was assessed in relation to SWLS and BDI-II scores; discriminant validity, in relation to WHODAS-II. Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument scales and subscales for reliability. The ID subgroup was retested, and test-retest reliability assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficients and paired Student’s t-test. Results A total of 162 (98 females) people with PD and 156 (55 females) people with ID participated in the study. Cronbach alpha was satisfactory across practically all domains and factors in the PD subsample. In IDs, most factors or domains had coefficients higher than 0.70, but four subscales exhibited less satisfactory performance. Evidence of construct and concurrent validity and reliability were obtained. Conclusions The analyses presented herein provide satisfactory evidence of the validity and reliability of the instrument and corroborated the factor structure revealed during cross-cultural research. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to obtain additional evidence of validity and reliability. PMID:24886102

  4. Cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Climent, C; Vélez, R; Capriles, J A

    1992-01-01

    Post-transfusion CMV infection most frequently results in asymptomatic seroconversion. Among immunocompetent patients only seronegative pregnant women require such products because of the risk of fetal CMV infection. In selected groups of immunocompromised patients, significant disease can occur. It is desirable to provide blood and blood components with reduced CMV risk to the following patients: seronegative infants weighting less than 1200 g at birth, seronegative bone marrow transplant patients who receive marrow from seronegative donors and seronegative renal transplant patients receiving kidneys from seronegative donors. Heart and liver transplantation seronegative patients may receive seronegative blood if the donor is seronegative. CMV--seronegative HIV infected cases may also be transfused with CMV--seronegative blood. PMID:1323967

  5. [Legionella infections].

    PubMed

    Fleurette, J

    1983-01-01

    The authors review the bacteriological features of Legionella infections, their clinical symptoms and the methods of diagnosis. They stress the unusual ecological features of Legionella which generally lives in natural water reservoirs or in artificial reservoirs (drinking water piping, air conditioning). In the clinical situation, current emphasis is on the extrapulmonary infections whose pathogenesis has not yet been fully explained. The incidence and prevalence of Legionella in pneumonia still needs to be defined. The methods of bacteriological and serological diagnosis are described as well as the ways of interpreting the results. PMID:6666882

  6. Arabidopsis AtRRP44A is the functional homolog of Rrp44/Dis3, an exosome component, is essential for viability and is required for RNA processing and degradation.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Otsuki, Hiroka; Tsuzuki, Masayuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2013-01-01

    The RNA exosome is a multi-subunit complex that is responsible for 3' to 5' degradation and processing of cellular RNA. Rrp44/Dis3 is the catalytic center of the exosome in yeast and humans. However, the role of Rrp44/Dis3 homologs in plants is still unidentified. Here, we show that Arabidopsis AtRRP44A is the functional homolog of Rrp44/Dis3, is essential for plant viability and is required for RNA processing and degradation. We characterized AtRRP44A and AtRRP44B/SOV, two predicted Arabidopsis Rrp44/Dis3 homologs. AtRRP44A could functionally replace S. cerevisiae Rrp44/Dis3, but AtRRP44B/SOV could not. rrp44a knock-down mutants showed typical phenotypes of exosome function deficiency, 5.8S rRNA 3' extension and rRNA maturation by-product over-accumulation, but rrp44b mutants did not. Conversely, AtRRP44B/SOV mutants showed elevated levels of a selected mRNA, on which rrp44a did not have detectable effects. Although T-DNA insertion mutants of AtRRP44B/SOV had no obvious phenotype, those of AtRRP44A showed defects in female gametophyte development and early embryogenesis. These results indicate that AtRRP44A and AtRRP44B/SOV have independent roles for RNA turnover in plants. PMID:24244451

  7. Tinea Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are ... depend on the affected area of the body: Ringworm is a red skin rash that forms a ...

  8. Paratyphoid Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numerous motile Salmonella serotypes are often referred to collectively as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms can infect a very wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asymptomati...

  9. Paratyphoid Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numerous motile members of the bacterial genus Salmonella are collectively referred to as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms infect a wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asympt...

  10. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campylobacter is found in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are passed in their feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers ...

  11. Giardia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnose it. You often need to collect several samples to test. Doctors use several drugs to treat it. The best way to prevent giardia infection is to practice good hygiene, including frequent hand washing. You should not drink water that may be contaminated. You should also peel ...

  12. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  13. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  14. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strep throat - a sore, red throat, sometimes with white spots on the tonsils Scarlet fever - an illness that follows strep throat. It causes a red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group ...

  15. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  16. Hepatitis Infection in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, Thomas F; Sylvestre, Diana; Seeff, Leonard; Litwin, Alain H; Hoffman, Kenneth; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H Westley

    2008-01-01

    Many new and existing cases of viral hepatitis infections are related to injection drug use. Transmission of these infections can result directly from the use of injection equipment that is contaminated with blood containing the hepatitis B or C virus or through sexual contact with an infected individual. In the latter case, drug use can indirectly contribute to hepatitis transmission through the dis-inhibited at-risk behavior, that is, unprotected sex with an infected partner. Individuals who inject drugs are at-risk for infection from different hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A, B, or C. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection also face additional risk should they become co-infected with hepatitis D virus. Protection from the transmission of hepatitis viruses A and B is best achieved by vaccination. For those with a history of or who currently inject drugs, the medical management of viral hepatitis infection comprising screening, testing, counseling and providing care and treatment is evolving. Components of the medical management of hepatitis infection, for persons considering, initiating, or receiving pharmacologic therapy for opioid addiction include: testing for hepatitis B and C infections; education and counseling regarding at-risk behavior and hepatitis transmission, acute and chronic hepatitis infection, liver disease and its care and treatment; vaccination against hepatitis A and B infection; and integrative primary care as part of the comprehensive treatment approach for recovery from opioid abuse and dependence. In addition, participation in a peer support group as part of integrated medical care enhances treatment outcomes. Liver disease is highly prevalent in patient populations seeking recovery from opioid addiction or who are currently receiving pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction. Pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction is not a contraindication to evaluation, care, or treatment of liver disease due to hepatitis virus infection. Successful

  17. Craniotomy infections.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, G C

    1992-04-01

    The incidence of craniotomy infections, usually less than 5%, is dependent on many factors, such as how the information is collected and how the percentage is calculated. Because these factors may vary from report to report, incidence figures should be read with skepticism. It is difficult to prove that a given factor contributes to infection. Most routines are based more on personal convictions than on solid evidence. CSF leak is one factor known to have great impact; it should be avoided with painstaking technique and, if it occurs, it should be treated promptly. Solid evidence favoring prophylactic antibiotics for persistent CSF leak is not available; but, until a well-designed randomized study tells otherwise, the high risk of meningitis justifies prophylaxis. Penicillin is adequate for leaks through the nose or the ear. For leaks through the skin, the antibiotic should be effective against staphylococci. The infection register should provide information about prevailing bacteria. In many hospitals, the prophylaxis should cover gram-negative bacilli. CRP is a useful diagnostic aid for detecting postoperative infections. The operation, however, also causes a CRP rise. Daily CRP monitoring, at least for patients with elevated temperature, is recommended. The third-generation cephalosporins are a welcome contribution to the treatment of bacterial meningitis. To avoid side effects, and to keep them potent when they are really needed, they should be used with caution. Most postoperative cases of meningitis are in fact aseptic. If the patient is moderately ill, chloramphenicol is still eligible as the first choice antibiotic. When the bacterial culture is negative, the antibiotic should be stopped. The standard treatment for bone flap infection is removal of the bone flap. The bone flap is essentially devascularized and comparable to a foreign body. The justification of vancomycin prophylaxis has been shown in a randomized study. PMID:1633466

  18. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease. PMID:26341945

  19. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290

  20. Anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  1. Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  2. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  3. The Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1: Facilitating Discovery and Evaluation of, and Access to Distributed Information Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, S. J.; Richard, S. M.; Doniger, A.; Danko, D. M.; Derenthal, L.; Energistics Metadata Work Group

    2011-12-01

    A diverse group of organizations representative of the international community involved in disciplines relevant to the upstream petroleum industry, - energy companies, - suppliers and publishers of information to the energy industry, - vendors of software applications used by the industry, - partner government and academic organizations, has engaged in the Energy Industry Metadata Standards Initiative. This Initiative envisions the use of standard metadata within the community to enable significant improvements in the efficiency with which users discover, evaluate, and access distributed information resources. The metadata standard needed to realize this vision is the initiative's primary deliverable. In addition to developing the metadata standard, the initiative is promoting its adoption to accelerate realization of the vision, and publishing metadata exemplars conformant with the standard. Implementation of the standard by community members, in the form of published metadata which document the information resources each organization manages, will allow use of tools requiring consistent metadata for efficient discovery and evaluation of, and access to, information resources. While metadata are expected to be widely accessible, access to associated information resources may be more constrained. The initiative is being conducting by Energistics' Metadata Work Group, in collaboration with the USGIN Project. Energistics is a global standards group in the oil and natural gas industry. The Work Group determined early in the initiative, based on input solicited from 40+ organizations and on an assessment of existing metadata standards, to develop the target metadata standard as a profile of a revised version of ISO 19115, formally the "Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1 v1.0" (EIP). The Work Group is participating on the ISO/TC 211 project team responsible for the revision of ISO 19115, now ready for "Draft International Standard" (DIS) status. With ISO 19115 an

  4. [Malassezia infections].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis. Lipophilic yeasts are being considered as major opportunistic pathogens for a very long time. Most of the yeasts show an absolute requirement for long fatty acid chains and specific procedures are required for their isolation, conservation and identification. To date, the genus is composed of one non lipid-dependent species M. pachydermatis and lipid-dependent species M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae, M. dermatis, M. yamatoensis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. PMID:22467125

  5. Deletion of the cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reduced virulence in a mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bai, Yinlan; Zhang, Yang; Gabrielle, Vincent D; Jin, Lei; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis by the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is still not fully understood. We have previously reported that M. tuberculosis Rv3586 (disA) encodes a diadenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP). In this study, we demonstrated that a protein encoded by Rv2837c (cnpB) possesses c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and cleaves c-di-AMP exclusively to AMP. Our results showed that in M. tuberculosis, deletion of disA abolished bacterial c-di-AMP production, whereas deletion of cnpB significantly enhanced the bacterial c-di-AMP accumulation and secretion. The c-di-AMP levels in both mutants could be corrected by expressing the respective gene. We also found that macrophages infected with ΔcnpB secreted much higher levels of IFN-β than those infected with the wild type (WT) or the complemented mutant. Interestingly, mice infected with M. tuberculosis ΔcnpB displayed significantly reduced inflammation, less bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens, and extended survival compared with those infected with the WT or the complemented mutant. These results indicate that deletion of cnpB results in attenuated virulence, which is correlated with elevated c-di-AMP levels. PMID:24806618

  6. Deletion of the cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reduced virulence in a mouse model of infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Bai, Yinlan; Zhang, Yang; Gabrielle, Vincent D.; Jin, Lei; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis by the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is still not fully understood. We have previously reported that M. tuberculosis Rv3586 (disA) encodes a diadenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP). In this study, we demonstrated that a protein encoded by Rv2837c (cnpB) possesses c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and cleaves c-di-AMP exclusively to AMP. Our results showed that in M. tuberculosis, deletion of disA abolished bacterial c-di-AMP production, whereas deletion of cnpB significantly enhanced the bacterial c-di-AMP accumulation and secretion. The c-di-AMP levels in both mutants could be corrected by expressing the respective gene. We also found that macrophages infected with ΔcnpB secreted much higher levels of IFN-β than those infected with the wildtype (WT) or the complemented mutant. Interestingly, mice infected with M. tuberculosis ΔcnpB displayed significantly reduced inflammation, less bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens, and extended survival compared to those infected with the WT or the complemented mutant. These results indicate that deletion of cnpB results in attenuated virulence, which is correlated with elevated c-di-AMP levels. PMID:24806618

  7. Characteristics of a 85Kr beta-particle source applied in Series 1 reference irradiations of DIS-1 direct ion storage dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, A T; Sipilä, P M; Sahla, T T

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics necessary to specify an ISO 6980 Series 1 reference radiation field were determined for a commercially available 85Kr beta-particle source, using a BEAM EGS4 Monte Carlo code. The characteristics include residual maximum beta energy, E(res), and the uniformity of the dose rate over the calibration area. The E(res) and the uniformity were also determined experimentally, using an extrapolation ionization chamber (EC) and a 0.2 cm3 parallel plate ionization chamber, respectively. The depth-dose curve measured with the EC gave a value 0.62 MeV for the E(res). Series 2 90Sr + 90Y and Series 1(85) Kr beta-particle sources calibrated for H(p)(0.07) at the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) of STUK were used to determine the energy and angular responses of DIS-1 direct ion storage dosemeters. The averaged zero angle H(p)(0.07) responses to the 90Sr + 90Y and 85Kr reference radiations were 135 and 80%, respectively. The responses were normalized to 100%, H(p)(0.07) response to 137Cs photon radiation. PMID:17548464

  8. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas L; Baddour, Larry M; Bayer, Arnold S; Hoen, Bruno; Miro, Jose M; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that has long-lasting effects even among patients who survive and are cured. IE disproportionately affects those with underlying structural heart disease and is increasingly associated with health care contact, particularly in patients who have intravascular prosthetic material. In the setting of bacteraemia with a pathogenic organism, an infected vegetation may form as the end result of complex interactions between invading microorganisms and the host immune system. Once established, IE can involve almost any organ system in the body. The diagnosis of IE may be difficult to establish and a strategy that combines clinical, microbiological and echocardiography results has been codified in the modified Duke criteria. In cases of blood culture-negative IE, the diagnosis may be especially challenging, and novel microbiological and imaging techniques have been developed to establish its presence. Once diagnosed, IE is best managed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in infectious diseases, cardiology and cardiac surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of IE remains controversial. Efforts to develop a vaccine that targets common bacterial causes of IE are ongoing, but have not yet yielded a commercially available product. PMID:27582414

  9. Shigella infections.

    PubMed

    Shears, P

    1996-04-01

    Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400

  10. Drug release from E chemistry hypromellose tablets using the Bio-Dis USP type III apparatus: An evaluation of the effect of systematic agitation and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Supuk, Enes; Mahdi, Mohammed H; Adebisi, Adeola O; Nep, Elijah; Conway, Barbara R; Kaialy, Waseem; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of systematic agitation, increasing ionic strength and gel strength on drug release from a gel-forming matrix (HPMC E10M, E4M and E50LV) using USP type III Bio-Dis apparatus with theophylline as a model drug. The triboelectric charging; particle sizing, water content, true density and SEM of all the hypromellose grades, theophylline and formulated blends were characterised. The results showed that balanced inter-particulate forces exist between drug particles and the excipient surface and this enabled optimum charge to mass ratio to be measured. Agitation and ionic strength affected drug release from E50LV and E4M tablet matrices in comparison to the E10M tablet matrices. Drug release increased substantially when water was used as the dissolution media relative to media at pH 1.2 (containing 0.4M NaCl). The results showed all f2 values for the E10M tablet matrices were above 50 suggesting the drug release from these tablet matrices to be similar. Rheological data also explained the different drug release behaviour with the stress required to yield/erode being 1Pa, 150Pa, and 320Pa, for the E50LV, E4M and E10M respectively. The stiffness of the gel was also found to be varied from 2.5Pa, 176.2Pa and 408.3Pa for the E50LV, E4M and E10M respectively. The lower G' value can be explained by a softer gel being formed after tablet introduction into the dissolution media thereby indicating faster drug release. PMID:27038913

  11. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  12. Infections and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you are pregnant, an infection can be more than just a problem for you. Some infections can be dangerous to your baby. You can help yourself avoid infections: Don't eat raw or undercooked meat Don' ...

  13. Monitoring of West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, U; Seidowski, D; Angenvoort, J; Eiden, M; Müller, K; Nowotny, N; Groschup, M H

    2012-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between ornithophilic mosquitoes, mainly of the Culex genus, and certain wild bird species. Other bird species like ravens, jays and raptors are highly susceptible to the infection and may develop deadly encephalitis, while further species of birds are only going through subclinical infection. The objective of this study was to continue in years 2009-2011 the serological and molecular surveillance in wild birds in Germany (see Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10, 639) and to expand these investigations for the first time also to sera from domestic poultry and horses collected between 2005 and 2009. All three cohorts function as indicators for the endemic circulation of WNV. The presence of WNV-specific antibodies was detected in all samples by virus neutralization test (VNT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of WNV genomes was monitored in relevant sera using two qRT-PCRs that amplify lineage 1 and 2 strains. A total of 364 migratory and resident wild bird serum samples (with emphasis on Passeriformes and Falconiformes) as well as 1119 serum samples from domestic poultry and 1282 sera from horses were analysed. With the exception of one hooded crow, antibody carriers were exclusively found in migratory birds, but not in resident birds/domestic poultry or in local horses. Crows are facultative, short-distance winter migrants in Germany. WNV-specific nucleic acids could not be demonstrated in any of the samples. According to these data, there is no convincing evidence for indigenous WNV infections in equines and in wild/domestic birds in Germany. However, since a few years, WNV infections are endemic in other European countries such as Austria, Hungary, Greece and Italy, a state-of-the-art surveillance system for the detection of incursions of WNV into Germany deems mandatory. PMID:22958253

  14. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  15. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  16. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  17. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  18. DisPATCh as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture using localized in situ measurements: Application to SMOS and AMSR-E data in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbéteau, Yoann; Merlin, Olivier; Molero, Beatriz; Rüdiger, Christoph; Bacon, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Validating coarse-scale satellite soil moisture data still represents a big challenge, notably due to the large mismatch existing between the spatial resolution (> 10 km) of microwave radiometers and the representativeness scale (several m) of localized in situ measurements. This study aims to examine the potential of DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical and Theoretical scale Change) for validating SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth observation system) level-3 soil moisture products. The ∽40-50 km resolution SMOS and AMSR-E data are disaggregated at 1 km resolution over the Murrumbidgee catchment in Southeastern Australia during a one year period in 2010-2011, and the satellite products are compared with the in situ measurements of 38 stations distributed within the study area. It is found that disaggregation improves the mean difference, correlation coefficient and slope of the linear regression between satellite and in situ data in 77%, 92% and 94% of cases, respectively. Nevertheless, the downscaling efficiency is lower in winter than during the hotter months when DisPATCh performance is optimal. Consistently, better results are obtained in the semi-arid than in a temperate zone of the catchment. In the semi-arid Yanco region, disaggregation in summer increases the correlation coefficient from 0.63 to 0.78 and from 0.42 to 0.71 for SMOS and AMSR-E in morning overpasses and from 0.37 to 0.63 and from 0.47 to 0.73 for SMOS and AMSR-E in afternoon overpasses, respectively. DisPATCh has strong potential in low vegetated semi-arid areas where it can be used as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture by explicitly representing the sub-pixel variability.

  19. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed. PMID:16170738

  20. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  1. Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the clinical microbiology laboratory by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amity L

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical assays for the phenotypic identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the clinical microbiology laboratory have been well described in previous publications (Becker and Von Eiff Manual of Clinical Microbiology, ASM Press, Washington, pp. 308-330, 2011; Kloos and Wolfshohl J Clin Microbiol 16:509-516, 1982). This discussion focuses on identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis through molecular and proteomic methods. Molecular assays have been shown to be more discriminatory between the coagulase-negative staphylococcal species than are phenotypic assays (Zadoks and Watts Vet Microbiol 134:20-28, 2009; Sheraba et al. BMC Res Notes 3:278, 2010; Patteet et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:747-751, 2012). The molecular and proteomic methods that have shown the greatest utilization potential within the clinical laboratory are as follows: PCR amplification and sequencing of discriminatory genes, real-time polymerase chain reaction with species-specific probes in conjunction with a melt-curve analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:24222453

  2. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Botwin, Gregory J; Morgan, Timothy R

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial infections occur in 25-35 % of cirrhotics admitted to hospital. Health-care associated and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections are the most common epidemiology, with community acquired infections less common (15-30 %). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary infections are the most common sites, with spontaneous bacteremia, pneumonia, cellulitis and other sites being less common. The risk of infection is increased among subjects with more severe liver disease and an infection in the past 6 months. Bacteria are isolated from approximately half of patients with a clinical diagnosis of infection. Gram-negative enterobacteriaceae are the most common organisms among community acquired infections; Gram-positive cocci are the most common organisms isolated among subjects with nosocomial infections. Up to 30 % of hospital associated infections are with multidrug resistant bacteria. Consequently, empiric antibiotic therapy that is recommended for community acquired infections is often inadequate for nosocomial infections. Infections worsen liver function. In-hospital and 1-year mortality of cirrhotics with infections is significantly higher than among cirrhotics without infection. In-hospital complications of infections, such as severe sepsis and septic shock, and mortality, are increased among subjects with multidrug-resistant infections as compared with cirrhotics with susceptible bacteria. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis of cirrhotics with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and long-term antibiotic prophylaxis of selected cirrhotics with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis reduces infections and improves survival. Albumin administration to cirrhotics with SBP and evidence of advanced liver disease improves survival. The benefit of albumin administration to cirrhotics with infections other than SBP is under investigation. PMID:26201326

  3. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000660.htm Chlamydia infections in women To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). This means ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  5. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urethra is called urethritis . Some UTIs Lead to Severe Problems Most UTIs are not serious. But some UTIs, such as kidney infections, can lead to severe problems. Bacteria from a kidney infection ...

  7. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  8. Upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  9. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can also get the infection by swallowing water in a swimming pool contaminated with human waste. Most cases of E. coli infection get better without treatment in 5 to 10 days. NIH: National Institute ...

  10. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...