Science.gov

Sample records for microelectrodes current status

  1. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K.; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V.; Ahn, Chong H.; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Approach. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Main results. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of

  2. Flexible polyimide microelectrode array for in vivo recordings and current source density analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Karen C; Renaud, Philippe; Tanila, Heikki; Djupsund, Kaj

    2007-03-15

    This work presents implantable, flexible polymer-based probes with embedded microelectrodes for acute and chronic neural recordings in vivo, as tested on rodents. Acute recordings using this array were done in mice under urethane anesthesia and compared to those made using silicon-based probes manufactured at the Center for Neural Communication Technology, University of Michigan. The two electrode arrays yielded similar results. Recordings with chronically implanted polymer-based electrodes were performed for 60 days post-surgically in awake, behaving rats. The microelectrodes were used to monitor local field potentials and capture laminar differences in function of cortex and hippocampus, and produced response waveforms of undiminished amplitude and signal-to-noise ratios 8 weeks after chronic implantation. The polymer-based electrodes could also be connected to a lesion current to mark specific locations in the tissue. Current source density (CSD) analysis from the recordings depicted a source - sink-composition. Tissue response was assessed 8 weeks after insertion by immunochemical labeling with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to identify astrocytes, and histological analysis showed minimal tissue reaction to the implanted structures. PMID:17027251

  3. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Smith, H V; Rose, J B

    1998-01-01

    In the past ten years Cryptosporidium oocysts have been shown to be common contaminants of water, causing at least 19 waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis which have affected more than 427 000 individuals. Recommended methods for oocyst isolation and enumeration are time-consuming and inefficient and experts state that the absence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water can never be guaranteed. In the UK alone, a National Research Programme costing pound3 million has been undertaken. Here, Huw Smith and Joan Rose review the current status of knowledge and identify approaches taken by UK and USA Government regulatory bodies in order to reduce the likelihood of waterborne transmission. PMID:17040684

  4. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M. Paarmann, A. Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-11-18

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations.

  5. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online. PMID:25143877

  6. Synthetic ligaments. Current status.

    PubMed

    Funk, F J

    1987-06-01

    Many techniques for ligamentous reconstruction have been developed in recent years. In the United States, injuries of the knee have been increasingly treated with innovative methods of surgical reconstruction, most of which have used normal structures. There are obvious theoretic advantages in using synthetic materials that might simplify surgery, spare normal tissues, and possibly facilitate stronger repairs. To these ends, several synthetic substances have been used experimentally and clinically. This is a brief summary of eight of the materials that have been or are being investigated in the United States. Some are no longer in use, others are currently being used in clinical trials. As of this writing, only the Gortex ligament has received a general device release from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:3034461

  7. Diabetic glomerulosclerosis: current status.

    PubMed Central

    Kalant, N.

    1978-01-01

    Current information on the nature, pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic glomerulosclerosis is reviewed. The fundamental lesion is one of the glomerular basement membrane, a complex layer of collage-like and other peptides; thickening of this membrane, seen microscopically, is due to the presence of an increased amount of membrane material of normal composition. There is little reliable evidence relating the frequency of glomerulosclerosis to the quality of control of the diabetic state, but indirect evidence from patients with secondary diabetes and from a variety of studies in animals indicates strongly that the glomerular lesion is a consequence of the abnormal metabolic state and can be prevented by adequate treatment of the diabetes. A concept of the pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions and renal failure is presented, but there remain large gaps in knowledge of the mechanisms involved. Treatment of chronic renal failure by maintenance renal dialysis and renal transplantation is not as successful in persons with diabetes as in those without this condition; however, the results appear to be improving, and transplantation particularly holds much promise. PMID:354765

  8. Brief Psychotherapy: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Pietro

    1967-01-01

    In the past decade, stimulated by public concern with issues of mental health, there has been a new spurt of interest in techniques of brief treatment with circumscribed goals. These are applicable to groups as well as to the single patient. There are still differences of opinion about the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy, particularly the lastingness and depth of the results obtained, yet it is often highly beneficial, especially to previously well-functioning individuals who are involved in a situational crisis. Although probably the best results of brief psychotherapy are with disturbances of moderate severity and recent onset, in practice, it is often tried with a wide spectrum of patients. Brief psychotherapy aims at relief of the patient's major current conflicts rather than at change of his personality structure, which generally requires long-term treatment. Brief psychotherapy is of special relevance for the general physician because the patients whom he sees in large numbers are precisely those best suited for this form of treatment. PMID:6075465

  9. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  10. The current status of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gureje, Oye

    2004-01-01

    Psychotherapy has a long history but its practice has always been strewn with controversy. In this review, the current status of psychotherapy is examined by setting its development in historical perspective. While previous practice was often based on the pronouncements of "masters", current approaches are almost always embedded in both rigorous theoretical formulations and frequently also in empirically derived data on efficacy. A fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neurosciences and neuroimaging. Whether such understanding will lead to a renaissance in the clinical utility of psychotherapy is still early to say. However, there is little doubt that the provision of a holistic care for patients with psychological and mental disorders in particular, and most physical conditions in general, should be informed by an appreciation of the bi-directional nature of the relationship between the mind and the body and should therefore include the provision of appropriate psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:15287283

  11. Current Status of GRAPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, J.

    2008-05-01

    I'll summarize the current status of GRAPE project. GRAPE-6, completed in 2002, has been used by a number of people, for a wide variety of problems such as planet formation, star cluster dynamics, galactic nuclei, and cosmology. In 2004, we started the development of the next-generation machine, GRAPE-DR. GRAPE-DR has a architecture radically different from that of previous GRAPEs. It does not have hardwired pipeline for gravitational force calculation but a large number of small and simple programmable processors. This change made it possible to apply GRAPE-DR to a wide range of problems to which GRAPE was not efficient, and at the same time it helps us to explore new algorithms for N-body simulations. The GRAPE-DR chip was completed in 2006, and second prototype board was completed in May 2007. We hope to have full production-level board commercially available by the end of year 2007. A single board will offer the theoretical peak speed of 2 Tflops, about 20 times as that of a single PCI card version of GRAPE-6.

  12. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  13. [Current status of autism studies].

    PubMed

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  14. Progress towards biocompatible intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-02-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing.

  15. Progress Towards Biocompatible Intracortical Microelectrodes for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing. PMID:25460808

  16. Neuronal loss due to prolonged controlled-current stimulation with chronically implanted microelectrodes in the cat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    McCreery, Douglas; Pikov, Victor; Troyk, Philip R

    2010-06-01

    Activated iridium microelectrodes were implanted for 450-1282 days in the sensorimotor cortex of seven adult domestic cats and then pulsed for 240 h (8 h per day for 30 days) at 50 Hz. Continuous stimulation at 2 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 100 microC cm(-2) produced no detectable change in neuronal density in the tissue surrounding the microelectrode tips. However, pulsing with a continuous 100% duty cycle at 4 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 200 microC cm(-2) induced loss of cortical neurons over a radius of at least 150 microm from the electrode tips. The same stimulus regimen but with a duty cycle of 50% (1 s of stimulation, and then 1 s without stimulation repeated for 8 h) produced neuronal loss within a smaller radius, approximately 60 microm from the center of the electrode tips. However, there also was significant loss of neurons surrounding the unpulsed electrodes, presumably as a result of mechanical injury due to their insertion into and long-term residence in the tissue, and this was responsible for most of the neuronal loss within 150 microm of the electrodes pulsed with the 50% duty cycle. PMID:20460692

  17. Neuronal loss due to prolonged controlled-current stimulation with chronically implanted microelectrodes in the cat cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Pikov, Victor; Troyk, Philip R.

    2010-06-01

    Activated iridium microelectrodes were implanted for 450-1282 days in the sensorimotor cortex of seven adult domestic cats and then pulsed for 240 h (8 h per day for 30 days) at 50 Hz. Continuous stimulation at 2 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 100 µC cm-2 produced no detectable change in neuronal density in the tissue surrounding the microelectrode tips. However, pulsing with a continuous 100% duty cycle at 4 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 200 µC cm-2 induced loss of cortical neurons over a radius of at least 150 µm from the electrode tips. The same stimulus regimen but with a duty cycle of 50% (1 s of stimulation, and then 1 s without stimulation repeated for 8 h) produced neuronal loss within a smaller radius, approximately 60 µm from the center of the electrode tips. However, there also was significant loss of neurons surrounding the unpulsed electrodes, presumably as a result of mechanical injury due to their insertion into and long-term residence in the tissue, and this was responsible for most of the neuronal loss within 150 µm of the electrodes pulsed with the 50% duty cycle.

  18. Status of current IPH applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a series of field tests since 1977 to gain operational experience in the application of solar energy to industrial process heat requirements. To date, 34 design studies or actual installations have been funded utilizing technologies ranging from flat plates to line-focus concentrators to central receiver industrial systems. The types of solar systems include hot air, hot water, and steam production applied to a broad spectrum of industrial processes. The program elements are identified and put in perspective relative to transport fluid, temperature level, and size of the solar field. The status of these programs ranges from design studies to operational systems. Solar enhanced oil recovery and repowering have been studied. The chronological history of each program is tabulated. (LEW)

  19. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    PubMed

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed. PMID:19819318

  20. Current Status of Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Paul; And Others

    General information on the studies currently underway by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory (SECEL) is presented in this report. Module A is concerned with investigating the relationships between a variety of cultural-psychological factors and language development in grade 1. Testing and home interviews play a major part in this…

  1. Revealing neuronal function through microelectrode array recordings

    PubMed Central

    Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Frey, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all possible sources around every sensor. Here, we review the current understanding of microelectrode signals and the techniques for analyzing them. We introduce the ongoing advancements in microelectrode technology, with focus on achieving higher resolution and quality of recordings by means of monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. We show how recent advanced microelectrode array measurement methods facilitate the understanding of single neurons as well as network function. PMID:25610364

  2. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Mahnken, Andreas H

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease. PMID:27247711

  3. Current status of transarterial radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Mahnken, Andreas H

    2016-05-28

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: (90)Y-resin and (90)Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease. PMID:27247711

  4. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

  5. Current status of NGL masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David M.

    2000-07-01

    The manufacture of Next Generation Lithography reticles presents many challenges. Extremely small critical dimension and image placement error budgets; novel substrates including membranes and multi-layer reflective coatings; and inspection, detection and repair of subresolution defects will force revolutionary change in the infrastructure of mask technology. This paper surveys current NGL mask designs, structures, materials and manufacturing capabilities. Results from mask fabrication, physical modeling, error budget analysis and extensive experience in building X-Ray membrane masks are presented to develop process learning plans to meet future product specifications.

  6. Current status of renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Suranyi, M. G.; Hall, B. M.

    1990-01-01

    The success rate of renal transplantation has improved considerably during the past decade, with substantial improvements in both graft and patient survival. The quality of graft function, however, and not graft survival alone is increasingly determining the standards by which transplantation outcome is being judged. As the demand for kidney transplants continues to rise and transplants are being offered to an ever-increasing number of patients, organs are being sought from new supply pools and efforts are being made to use current resources more efficiently. Improvements in clinical management have allowed short-term complications such as infection and rejection to be better prevented or better diagnosed and treated. Fundamental advances in the understanding of the immunologic processes underlying both allograft rejection and acceptance and the introduction of new immunosuppressive agents have allowed a better use of drug therapy and have moved the goal of acquired transplant tolerance closer to attainment. With improved initial transplant success rates, the long-term transplantation outcome is becoming more important. The role of tissue matching in preventing chronic rejection is becoming more appreciated, and the long-term risks of malignancy, arteriosclerosis, and chronic rejection are being better recognized and managed. PMID:2191502

  7. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  8. The status of neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-05

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  10. Current status of mold immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M

    1991-05-01

    There is evidence to suggest that molds can cause IgE-mediated upper respiratory tract disorders and immunotherapy is efficacious in a select group. The environmental sampling studies show a remarkably small numbers of molds accounting for a majority of the mold load in various diverse locations. These are Cladosporium, Basidiospores, Aspergillus, and Alternaria-Penicillin families. Basidiospores have been underreported in the older studies because of difficulties in their identification. Whether the absolute mold level is the most important factor leading to IgE formation and induction of upper respiratory tract symptoms is uncertain. Certainly, the majority of the studies are based on the assumption that the absolute level of mold in the environment is the most important factor leading to the development of symptoms, but this is not based on strong evidence. A major problem in the majority of the studies is a lack of standardization of extracts which may lead to false negatives on skin testing and thus produce variable data in population evaluations comparing the prevalence of mold to its ability to induce IgE production and symptoms. The best current trials to document the efficacy of mold immunotherapy have been with the standardized Cladosporium extract. Unfortunately, these results cannot be extrapolated to the commercially available mold extracts available in the United States either for immunotherapy or for skin testing. These extracts are highly variable in their potency, prone to high false negative rates, and at best serve as poor skin testing reagents and possibly even worse immunotherapy reagents. Adequately standardized mold reagents are urgently needed to determine whether the Cladosporium data can be extrapolated to them in any meaningful way. PMID:2035901

  11. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  12. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed.

  13. Microelectrodes in microbial ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Boots, S.

    1989-03-15

    Understanding the microenvironment of bacteria has presented many challenges for the microbial ecologist. Simple intracellular capillary electrodes have been used in neurophysiology since the 1950s to measure action potentials in ion transport over biological membranes, and ion-selective electrodes were developed soon thereafter for the determination of H{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}. However, these analytical techniques did not receive much attention until 1978, when Niels Peter Revsbech and Bo Barker Joergensen at the Institute of Ecology and Genetics, University of Aarhus, Denmark, began using oxygen microelectrodes in their studies of the ecology and biogeochemistry of marine sediments and other microbial environments. Today, Revsbech and Joergensen use five types of microelectrodes, two types of oxygen microelectrodes, a combined microelectrode for nitrous oxide and oxygen, a sulfide microelectrode, and a pH microelectrode. The first three microelectrodes have diameters of about 10 {mu}m and the last two of about 50 {mu}m. Some of the electrodes actually contain two or three cathodes plus a reference electrode, all situated behind a polymer membrane. In situ experiments have been done for several years at a water depth of several meters, where the micromanipulator is operated by a diver. Recently measurements were obtained in the deep sea with the microelectrodes mounted on a free-falling vehicle or operated from a submersible vessel.

  14. Effects of stimulating the acetylcholine receptor on the current-voltage relationships of the smooth muscle membrane studied by voltage clamp of potential recorded by micro-electrode.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B

    1975-08-01

    1. A double sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique is described for use on smooth muscle strips longer than about 2 mm. It involves intracellular recording by microelectrode of the membrane potential of a narrow region of the strip ("node") sandwiched between two streams of deionized sucrose solution. Current was passed into the node across one or both sucrose streams. 2. Preliminary experiments in which potential was recorded intracellularly at two points during polarization of a "short cable" preparation, formed by folding over a strip of smooth muscle, suggested that a node width of less than 0-15 mm was needed to achieve uniform potential during inward current flow. However, when node width between sucrose-gaps was reduced to 0-5 mm, spontaneous electrical activity was lost, and below 0-5 mm spike threshold was raised and the regenerative spike became graded. The currents flowing during the application of rectangular voltage-clamp command potentials were described. 3. Using taenia smooth muscle it was shown by recording with a second, independent micro-electrode that potential was not uniform for up to 200 ms or more following a step change in potential under voltage-clamp in nodes 0-4-0-5 mm wide where current was passed across both sucrose gaps. However, reasonably uniform nodal potentials were obtained using ramps with relatively slow rates of rise (25 mV/s). 4. Using such slow ramp commands under voltage clamp, the effects of carbachol on the current-voltage relationship of longitudinal muscle of ileum and taenia were studied in hypertonic solution. 5. In the presence of carbachol (10(-6) to 10(-5) g/ml.) additional inward current flowed across the membrane (in some experiments an equilibrium potential was observed at which this current reversed direction). The magnitude of this additional current was linearly related to potential at potentials negative to the resting potential. At potentials positive to the resting membrane potential, this additional current

  15. Cancer pain management-current status

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Deepak; Rastogi, V; Ahuja, Vanita

    2011-01-01

    Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain.The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included. PMID:21772673

  16. Current status of silicon solar cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In quest of higher efficiency, major progress has occurred in solar cell technology. Cell efficiency has climbed about 50 percent. Technical approaches leading to increased output include back surface fields, shallow junctions, improved antireflection coatings, surface texturizing, and fine grid patterns on the cell surface. The status of current solar cell technology and its incorporation into cell production is discussed. Research and development leading to improved performance and reduced cost are also described.

  17. [The current status of psychology in Korea].

    PubMed

    Cha, J H

    1992-02-01

    This paper read as the special lecture at the Annual Convention of The Japanese Psychological Association, held at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 1990, and reported on the recent trends of psychology in the Republic of Korea. This report dealt essentially with four topics; 1) the history of Korean psychology which was divided into four periods of creation, reconstruction, development, and current status, after the liberation at the end of the World War II in 1945, 2) the distribution and academic status of 26 universities, with formal department of psychology, 3) general situation of job opportunities for the graduates in psychology of these universities, 4) the composition of Korean Psychological Association (KPA), consisting of nine divisions (social, industrial and organizational, clinical, consultations and psychotherapy, experimental and cognitive, developmental, biological and physiological psychology) with the total of about 400 members. Last, some directions of Korean psychology to the future was suggested. PMID:1507672

  18. Lung Xenotransplantation: Recent Progress and Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Donald G.; Quinn, Kevin J.; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many pre-clinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation – including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ – and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury. PMID:25040467

  19. Current Status of MAGDAS Deployment in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Kakinami, Y.; Tokunaga, T.; Fujimoto, A.; Ikeda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Sakai, M.; Eto, N.; Shinohara, M.; Magdas Project Team

    2010-12-01

    Under the lead of Prof. K. Yumoto (PI of the MAGDAS Project), the MAGDAS Project is intensively installing a network of real time magnetometers in Africa along two chains: (1) Dip Equator Chain, and (2) the so-called "96 Degree MM Chain" that runs from Egypt to South Africa. The Africa installations began in 2006 and still continue to this day. This talk discusses the details of the current status of this significant ground observation program in Africa. Africa presents some special problems. However, important data is now being collected continuously along these two chains. The MAGDAS Project is perhaps Japan's most significant contribution to IHY and ISWI (International Space Weather Initiative).

  20. ESATAN: Current status and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, N. J.; Kirtley, C. J.; Stroom, C. J. M.

    1991-12-01

    The ESA Thermal Analysis Network (ESATAN) software was first made available to users in August 1985. Since then it has replaced SINDA as the mainline thermal analysis tool in spacecraft developments for the ESA, and is the accepted standard for ESA projects. ESATAN is now in use at fifty sites throughout Europe. Over the six years since its release several major modifications to the system have been made, along with a multitude of detail changes. Updates and extensions are continuing to be made in response to user requests and developing computer technologies. The current status of the package is reviewed, explaining its development since the initial release in 1985. The current developments to the system and expected future direction are outlined.

  1. MIRI telescope simulator (MTS) current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, F. J.; Eiriz, V.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiaran, J.; Berenguer, T.; Diaz, E.; Figueroa, I.; Gonzalez, L. M.; Lopez, R.; Menendez, M.; Bernardo, A. M.; Reina, M.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, G.; Jimenez, A.; Colombo, M.; Canchal, M. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.

    2007-09-01

    MTS (MIRI telescope simulator) is the Spanish contribution to the JWST Project. MTS is a part of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) and Calibration phase of the MIRI instrument at the RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) facilities. Briefly, MTS main objetive consists on delivering a diffraction-limited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, to the MIRI instrument that reproduces the output beam of the JWST in environmental conditions similar to those corresponding to the flight. In this work, the current status of the project is reported on. Mainly, after a description of the whole instrument and the optomechanical performances required, the paper will be focused on the current status of the purchase and characterization of certain critical elements belonging to the different subsystems. The first step has been the verification of the thermoelastic behaviour of its structure, employing a mass prototype. Both extensometer measurements and optical measurements with alignment mirror cubes have been carried out during a thermal vacuum test of this MTS prototype. The correlation of the measurements, optically and mechanically, will provide a better knowledge of the structure behavior and will be used to define the integration process.

  2. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  3. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General rule. An individual has current employment status if— (1) The individual is actively working as an...

  4. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General rule. An individual has current employment status if— (1) The individual is actively working as an...

  5. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General rule. An individual has current employment status if— (1) The individual is actively working as an...

  6. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General rule. An individual has current employment status if— (1) The individual is actively working as an...

  7. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General rule. An individual has current employment status if— (1) The individual is actively working as an...

  8. MGEX data analysis at CODE - current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as an analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. In 2012 the IGS started its "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX). Meanwhile (status end of 2012) about 50 new or upgraded MGEX tracking stations offer their data to the user community meeting the IGS standards (e.g., correct equipment information, calibrated antennas, RINEX data format). MGEX supports the RINEX3 data format, new signal types for the established GNSS (e.g., L5 for GPS), and new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. It is therefore well suited as a testbed for future developments in GNSS processing. CODE supports MGEX by providing a three-system orbit solution (GPS+GLONASS+Galileo) on a non-operational basis. The CODE MGEX products are freely available at ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX). The current status of the MGEX processing at CODE will be presented focusing on the consistency of GNSS-derived results based on different frequencies/signals. An outlook about CODE's future multi-GNSS activities will be given.

  9. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  10. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  11. Intestinal transplantation in children: current status.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rivera, Andrea; Wales, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal transplantation (IT) is the least common form of organ transplantation; however, it has shown exceptional growth and improvement in graft survival rates over the past two decades mainly due to better outcomes achieved during the first year of transplantation (76 % at 1 year), due to improvement in surgical techniques and the development of better immunosupressive therapies as we understand more about the relationship between the recipient and host immune system. There are still ongoing issues with chronic rejection and long-term survival. Intestinal transplantation is still an acceptable therapy for patients with intestinal failure (IF), but it is generally reserved for patients who develop severe and life-threatening complications despite standard therapies, or those who are not able to maintain a good quality of life. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status, indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestinal transplantation. PMID:27033524

  12. Spaceborne GPS: Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting GPS technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor--it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on-board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-2000 GPS flight experiments, and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  13. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  14. Current status of human papillomavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Seokjae

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. It is the second most prevalent cancer among women. It can have several causes; an infection with some type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, and more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Among these, a number of HPVs types, containing types 16 and 18, are classified as "high-risk" HPVs that can cause cervical cancer. The HPVs vaccine prevents infection with certain species of HPVs associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: quadrivalent HPVs vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine that use virus-like particles as a vaccine antigen. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, clinical trials, and the future of HPVs vaccine development. PMID:25003090

  15. Analysis of capacitive coupling within microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Troyk, P R; Detlefsen, D E

    2006-01-01

    Capacitive coupling within high-density microelectrode arrays can degrade neural recording signal or disperse neural stimulation current. Material deterioration in a chronically implanted neural stimulation/recording system can cause such an undesired effect. We present a simple method with an iterative algorithm to quantify the cross-coupling capacitance, in-situ. PMID:17947024

  16. Epilepsy Surgery: Current Status and Ongoing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    KAWAI, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of surgical treatment of epilepsy and introduces the ongoing challenges. Seizure outcome of resective surgery for focal seizures associated with focal lesions is satisfactory. Particularly for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, surgical treatment should be considered from the earlier stage of the disease. Meanwhile, surgical outcome in nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy is still to be improved using various approaches. Disconnective surgeries reduce surgical complications of extensive resections while achieving equivalent or better seizure outcomes. Multiple subpial transection is still being modified expecting a better outcome by transection to the vertical cortices along the sulci- and multi-directional transection from a single entry point. Hippocampal transection is expected to preserve memory function while interrupting the abnormal epileptic synchronization. Proper selection or combination of subdural and depth electrodes and a wide-band analysis of electroencephalography may improve the accurate localization of epileptogenic region. Patients for whom curative resective surgery is not indicated because of generalized or bilateral multiple nature of their epilepsies, neuromodulation therapies are options of treatment which palliate their seizures. PMID:25925752

  17. The Power Systems Development Facility -- Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, T.E.; Maxwell, J.D.; Leonard, R.F.; Vimalchand, P.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) has entered into a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build and operate the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), currently under construction in Wilsonville, Alabama, 40 miles southeast of Birmingham. The objectives of the PSDF are to develop advanced coal-fired power generation technologies through testing and evaluation of hot gas cleanup systems and other major components at the pilot scale. The performance of components will be assessed and demonstrated in an integrated mode of operation and at a component size readily scaleable to commercial systems. The facility will initially contain five modules: (1) a transport reactor gasifier and combustor, (2) an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (APFBC) system, (3) a particulate control module, (4) an advanced burner-gas turbine module, and (5) a fuel cell. The five modules will initially be configured into two separate test trains, the transport reactor train (2 tons/hour of coal feed) and the APFBC train (3 tons/hour of coal feed). In addition to a project description, the project design and construction status, preparations for operations, and project test plans are reported in this paper.

  18. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2013-10-15

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation. Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema, is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries. Today, blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy. The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia, arterial tension, lipids and renal status. The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries, but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs, the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME), can be valid as gold standard in many countries. The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME, but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies. The corticosteroids for diffuse DME, has a place in pseudophakic patients, but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients. Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients. PMID:24147200

  19. ALOS-2 current status and operation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The Proto Flight Test (PFT) of ALOS-2 has been conducted since June 2012. In parallel, the PFT of PALSAR-2 has been conducted since March 2012. As of August 2013, ALOS-2 system has completed the interface test with ground system and is preparing for the Vibration test, Acoustic test and Electromagnetic Compatibility test. After completing these tests, ALOS-2 will be transported to JAXA Tanegashima Space Center for launch. The initial commissioning phase of ALOS-2 is planned for six months which are comprised of LEOP (Launch and Early Orbit Phase) and initial Cal/Val phase. During the LEOP, all components will be checked with direct downlink via Xband and with data relay communication via JAXA's DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite). During the initial Cal/Val phase, the PALSAR-2 data will be verified and calibrated by using Corner Reflectors and Geometric Calibrator at ground. The data acquisition during the commissioning phase will be consistent with the systematic acquisition strategy prepared for the routine operation. This paper describes the current status and operation plan of ALOS-2.

  20. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  1. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  2. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core–shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  3. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier. PMID:27459210

  4. Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Willingham, A Lee; De, Nguyen Van; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Le Dinh; Dung, Truong Van; Dorny, Pierre; Cam, Phung Dac; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated for cysticercosis with most patients being young to middle-aged adults though several juvenile cases have been seen in the south. Clinical manifestations of the disease in humans include subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headache, impaired vision and memory loss. Albendazole has been found to be the best drug for treating cysticercosis though it does not appear to be totally effective for curing cerebral cysts. Information concerning porcine and bovine cysticercosis is very limited and based mostly on passive surveillance at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Surveys for human taeniasis in central and northern provinces indicate a prevalence of 0.2-7.2%. However, techniques of low sensitivity were used and the results are inconclusive since it is unknown with which species of tapeworm the people were infected. In addition to Taenia solium which causes human cysticercosis, T. saginata and T. asiatica are also known to be present in Vietnam. Risk factors investigated thus far with regard to transmission of T. solium suggest that consumption of raw pork, inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some areas, and the use of untreated human waste as fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam but this remains to be validated. The evidence thus far collected suggests that a national surveillance program for cysticercosis is a great need for Vietnam. The authors recommend further research on the epidemiology and impact of cysticercosis in

  5. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  6. [Current status and trends in blood biologicals].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xiong; Lv, Maomin; Zhang, Jingang

    2011-05-01

    Blood products are those biologicals derived from plasma or obtained by recombinant technologies. This overview covers the characteristics and classification of plasma proteins, the current status of products (albumin, immunoglobulins, coagulation factors and microcontent proteins), as well as the likely trends in the near future. Human serum albumin is one of the earliest, safest and most widely used proteins in the pharmaceutical field. The approval and development of high-purity plasma albumin, recombinant human albumin and HSA fusion proteins provide a favorable prospect for the therapeutic protein. Normal immunoglobulin contains antibodies to all the micro-organisms prevalent in the donor population. The IMIG is relatively simple to prepare and use, and the side effects are acceptable; IVIG is used mainly to treat patients with primary immunodeficiency syndromes; SCIG preparations can be used in selecting suitable patients for home therapy and have occurred fewer adverse systemic reactions; specific immunoglobulins contain concentrations of antibody to an individual organism or toxin at a higher titer than normal immunoglobulin and can not be replaced in clinical use. The plasma-derived or recombinant coagulation factors are used to treat the patients with congenital or acquired factor deficiency. The products such as Fibrinogen, FVII, FVIII, von Willebrand complex, FIX/PCC, FXI, FXIII and so on, have been widely used and proved to be effective. The development of recombinant FVIIa is now as a good bypassing product to haemophilia with inhibitors. The Fibrinogen and thrombin play a very important role in surgery hemostasis. Moreover, microcontent proteins including protein C, antithrombin, alpha 1-AT, tPA have been licensed and used in clinical treatment; a number of other small field proteins are under produced research or pre-clinical investment. The ongoing development of new recombinant plasma proteins is providing alternatives for patients, but the

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic flow at microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, Steven Ronald

    1998-12-01

    Voltammetric reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) at a 12.5 μm-radius Pt microdisk electrode in acetonitrile solutions containing 0.001/le x NB/le 0.999 is reported (x NB is the mole fraction of NB). The voltammetric response displays a reversible, sigmoidalshape wave, corresponding to the one-electron reduction of NB. The maximum limiting current occurs in solutions containing intermediate redox concentrations, x NB/le0.2. Voltammetric currents are analyzed using the Cullinan-Vignes model to describe the interdiffusion of the redox species and solvent. Mutual diffusivities are corrected for activity effects using isothermal liquid-vapor equilibrium data. Application of the activity-corrected diffusivities in the Cullinan- Vignes model yields reasonably accurate predictions of the dependence of the voltammetric current on solution composition. The influence of an external magnetic field (0-1 Tesla) on the voltammetric response of Pt and Au microdisk electrodes (0.1, 6.4, 12.5 and 25 μm radius) is described. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow within a microscopic volume element adjacent to the microdisk surface results from the magnetic force generated by the flux of electrogenerated ions through the magnetic field. An analytic expression is presented for the magnetic force generated during steady-state voltammetry at a hemispherical microelectrode immersed in a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic volume force, F/bf mag (N/m3), is shown to decrease as r-2 (where r is the distance from the center of the electrode). The dependence of F/bf mag on r-2 confines the MHD flow to small volumes very close to the electrode surface (e.g., ~2×10-9 L for a 12.5 μm-radius electrode). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is used to map MHD flows at a 25 μm-radius Pt microdisk electrode during the one-electron reduction of NB. Unidirectional lateral flow is observed when the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the electrode surface; rotational or cyclotron flow is observed when

  8. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  9. Limitations of current micronutrient status indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though assessment of micronutrient status is a major concern in public health nutrition, there are serious limitations to the available indicators. These include cost, lack of congruence between cut-offs used to denote deficiency and adverse functional consequences, and inconsistent methods of ...

  10. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  11. Current status of the US RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the RERTR Program. The main objective is to provide the audience with some orientation and sense of perspective that may assist in viewing the other program presentations as part of an overall effort, rather than as separate and unrelated activities.

  12. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  13. [Current status and industrialization of transgenic tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao-Xue; Chen, Xiu-Ling

    2011-09-01

    In this review, the progress in transgenic tomato research, including disease and insect resistance, herbicide resistance, stress tolerance, long-term storage, quality improvement, and male sterility, were described. The recent researches on producing heterologous proteins using transgenic tomatoes were also reviewed. Furthermore, the industrialization status and problems of transgenic tomatoes were analyzed and the prospects of both research and industrialization in transgenic tomatoes were discussed. PMID:21951797

  14. Title: SCOAP3: Explanation and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. SCOAP3 has negotiated with journal publishers on behalf of libraries and institutions from around the world to produce open access literature in particle physics journals that were previously published in a traditional subscription-based model. This presentation will provide an overview of the process, an update of its status and some intriguing research metrics that have emerged.

  15. Longitudinally-vibrating surgical microelectrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D.; Kawabus, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Microelectrode attached to cone of loudspeaker imparting longitudinal vibrations, penetrates relatively tough tissue of arterial walls easier and with more precise depth control because dimpling is eliminated. Vibrating microelectrode has been successfully used to make accurate oxygen-content measurements in arterial walls.

  16. The proton spin contents'': Current status perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ta-Pei . Dept. of Physics); Li, Ling-Fong . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs.

  17. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  18. Current status of photovoltaic research at SERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the Solar Energy Research Institute's photovoltaic cell development program is to conduct high risk, potentially high-payoff R&D leading to a more substantial knowledge base for exploitation by private concerns interested in the electrical energy market. Attention is presently given to the status of research and development for crystalline and amorphous silicon, polycrystalline CuInSe2 and CdTe thin-film, and high efficiency III-V compound solar cells. Comparative efficiencies and economies are presented in tabular form, together with schematics of promising solar cell layer structures.

  19. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smrithi S.; Uppal, Medha; Randhawa, Subeena; Cheema, Mehar S.; Aghdam, Nima; Usala, Rachel L.; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ- and tissue-specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic IR. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure. PMID:26870697

  20. Current Status of the GBM Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lichti, Giselher G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Steinle, H.; Kienlin, A. von; Bhat, N.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.

    2007-05-01

    One of the scientific goals of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) on GLAST is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to {approx}300 GeV. In order to extend the energy measurement towards lower energies a secondary instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), will measure GRBs from {approx}10 keV to {approx}30 MeV and will therefore allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from GRBs over more than six energy decades. These unprecedented measurements will furthermore permit the exploration of the unknown aspects of the high-energy burst emission. The status of the GBM project approximately one year before launch is reported here.

  1. Critical consciousness: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Watts, Roderick J; Diemer, Matthew A; Voight, Adam M

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within it--using egalitarian, empowering, and interactive methods. The aim is social change as well as learning, which makes these ideas especially relevant to the structural injustice faced by marginalized youth. From their review of these ideas, the authors derive three core CC components: critical reflection, political efficacy, and critical action. They highlight promising research related to these constructs and innovative applied work including youth action-research methodology. Their conclusion offers ideas for closing some of the critical gaps in CC theory and research. PMID:22147600

  2. [Surgical oncology: historical development and current status].

    PubMed

    Granados García, Martín; Beltrán Ortega, Arturo; Soto Sánchez, Beatriz Lucero; León Takahashi, Alberto Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The surgical oncology remains an essential part in the multidisciplinary management for patients with cancer, even though the current progress in field of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, systemic therapies, including therapies directed to molecular targets. Their role impact in several moments during the management of an oncological patient: prevention, diagnosis, assessment of the spread of the disease, curative treatment, management of the sequels, complications by the treatment and not less important, the palliation. The current state of the surgical oncology as a result of a constant development, inspired by skillful hands with creative and restless minds, have achieved to mark the history of the medicine in an area which currently has a great transcendence and an accelerated growth in a short period of time. Under this argument, we have decided to present an updated overview about the role of the surgical oncology, from the evolution through the history until all their applications in the different areas of the oncology. PMID:22116189

  3. [Precision stomatology: current status and challenges].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xin; Zheng, Liwei; Cheng, Lei; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-06-01

    The completion of human genome project and the progress in medical practice have inevitably lead to the development of precision medicine, which is a medical model that proposes the customization of medical care including medical decisions, practices, and/or medical products with patient's genetic background, environmental factors and life behavior being taken into account. The current work proposed precision stomatology for the first time, and by integrating data reported in recent literature, we described the current practice of precision stomatology in multiple disciplines in modem dentistry. The clinical significance of precision stomatology and its future challenges have also been discussed. PMID:26281265

  4. Current status of greenbug biotypes in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Laboratory in Stillwater, OK, currently maintains economically important greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) biotypes and has done so for at least 25 years. These aphids are used for wheat, Triticum aestivum L., barley, Hordeum vulgar L., and gra...

  5. CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

  6. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  7. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, H. . Dept. of Physics); White, A. . Dept. of Physics); Amos, N.; Beretvas, A. ); Barnett, R.M. ); Bhattacharya, G. . Dept. of Physics); De, K. . Dept. of Physi

    1990-11-01

    We review the most recent data from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and p{bar p} colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of E{sub T} and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the E{sub T} signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The E{sub T} and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z{degree} bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n {ge} 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs.

  8. SOFIA: Science Vision and Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details the science and status of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is a 2.5 m Telescope designed to fit into a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft. It will have imaging and spectroscopy from .03 micron to 1.6 mm, emphasizing the obscured infrared spectrum (i.e., 30-300 micron). It will fly between 39,000 to 45,000 feet, above over 99.8 % of the water vapor which obscures the infrared from other ground based telescopes. Since it is on a ground based airplane, the instrumentation can be interchangeable between flights, it can fly anywhere and anytime. Diagrams show an overview of the observatory, the optical layout, and a comparison of SOFIA with the other major IR Imaging spectroscopic Space Observatories. Pictures include a shot of the installation of the primary mirror, and the Telescope instrument interface. Charts show the first generation instruments, and their ranges of spectral observation. Also the presentation reviews the science questions that SOFIA's instruments will assist in reviewing.

  9. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  10. Graphene Mechanics: Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Galiotis, Costas; Frank, Otakar; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Sfyris, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of 2D materials such as monolayer graphene are of extreme importance for several potential applications. We summarize the experimental and theoretical results to date on mechanical loading of freely suspended or fully supported graphene. We assess the obtained axial properties of the material in tension and compression and comment on the methods used for deriving the various reported values. We also report on past and current efforts to define the elastic constants of graphene in a 3D representation. Current areas of research that are concerned with the effect of production method and/or the presence of defects upon the mechanical integrity of graphene are also covered. Finally, we examine extensively the work related to the effect of graphene deformation upon its electronic properties and the possibility of employing strained graphene in future electronic applications. PMID:25898069

  11. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  12. An independent Cepheid distance scale: Current status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, T. G., III

    1980-01-01

    An independent distance scale for Cepheid variables is discussed. The apparent magnitude and the visual surface brightness, inferred from an appropriate color index, are used to determine the angular diameter variation of the Cepheid. When combined with the linear displacement curve obtained from the integrated radial velocity curve, the distance and linear radius are determined. The attractiveness of the method is its complete independence of all other stellar distance scales, even though a number of practical difficulties currently exist in implementing the technique.

  13. Current status of visibility sensors for aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a new increased range higher visibility was investigated. The visibility sensor that is currently is the Transmissometer. Current transmissometer technology provides only a factor of 10 dynamic range with a single base line. The FAA is preparing to install automated weather observing systems (AWOS) at many locations. These systems require visibilities up to approximately 5 miles. To use a transmissometer for this type of measurement, the base line must be about 1,000 feet; where alignment becomes very difficult to maintain. New technologies were developd for measuring visibility. Improved transmissometers, forward-scatter meters and back-scatter meters have become available. A current practical issue for visibility sensors is how to specify one that is good enough to meet the needs of aviation. The first question is what performance is required; how accurately must the sensor measure? Visibility sensors do not actually measure the visibility directly. The purpose of measuring the visibility is to predict what the pilot will see a considerable distance away from the sensor location. The atmosphere introduces considerable variation in the measurement and the basic sensor accuracy needed is difficult to define. The second question for high visibilities is what to use as the standard reference sensor. The third question pertains to the competitive procurement of visibility sensors, which is mandated at present. Two acceptance test procedures to be used to insure satisfactory sensor performance is examined.

  14. Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

  15. Current Status of Celiac Disease Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Wungjiranirun, Manida; Kelly, Ciaran P; Leffler, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    Celiac disease (CeD) is one of the most common immune-mediated diseases. Symptoms and disease activity are incompletely controlled by the gluten-free diet, which is currently the only available therapy. Although no therapies are yet approved, there is a growing field of candidates and an improving understanding of the regulatory pathway. In this review, we briefly discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current treatment paradigm for CeD. We also review the major classes of therapies being considered for CeD and discuss extensively what is known and can be surmised regarding the regulatory pathway for approval of a CeD therapeutic. The coming years will see an increasing number and diversity of potential therapies entering clinical trials and hopefully the first approved agents targeting this significant unmet medical need. Although biomarkers including histology and serology will always be important in therapeutic clinical trials, they currently lack the necessary evidence linking them to improved patient outcomes required for use as primary outcomes for drug approval. For this reason, patient-reported outcomes will likely be primary end points in Phase III CeD trials for the foreseeable future. PMID:27021196

  16. Current status of dialytic therapy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Young; Jin, Dong Chan; Bang, Byung Kee

    2003-10-01

    The status of dialytic therapy in Korea at the end of 2001 was reported by the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry committee of Korean Society of Nephrology, where data were collected through an internet on-line registry program. The number of dialysis centres was 335 and the number of haemodialysis machines was 5529. The total number of patients with dialysis was 23,057 (haemodialysis 17,568, peritoneal dialysis 5489). Prevalence and incidence of dialysis patients were 477.5 and 96.4 patients per million population. The most common primary cause of end-stage renal diseases was diabetic nephropathy (41.5%), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (15.4%), and chronic glomerulonephritis (13.6%). Eighty-six percent of haemodialysis patients were on dialysis therapy three times a week, the mean urea reduction ratio was 66.7 +/- 8.68% and mean Kt/V was 1.250 +/- 0.292 in male patients; 1.526 +/- 0.361 in female patients. The technical survival of haemodialysis in 5 years was 30.2% and peritoneal dialysis was 13.8%. The common complication of haemodialysis patients was hypertension (43.3%), gastrointestinal disease other than peptic ulcer (8.0%), congestive heart failure (7.6%), and of peritoneal dialysis patients were also hypertension (28.8%), congestive heart failure (5.0%), and peritonitis (4.8%). The most common causes of death were cardiac diseases (26.9%), vascular diseases, including cerebrovascular accidents (22.7%), and infection (17.8%). PMID:15012684

  17. Chemoprevention in Barrett's Esophagus: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Muhammad H; Baruah, Anushka; Kossak, Sarah K; Buttar, Navtej S

    2015-06-01

    Chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus is currently applied only in research settings. Identifying pathways that can be targeted by safe, pharmaceutical or natural compounds is key to expanding the scope of chemoprevention. Defining meaningful surrogate markers of cancer progression is critical to test the efficacy of chemopreventive approaches. Combinatorial chemoprevention that targets multiple components of the same pathway or parallel pathways could reduce the risk and improve the efficacy of chemoprevention. Here we discuss the role of chemoprevention as an independent or an adjuvant management option in BE-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26021201

  18. Space law - Current status and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of space law over the past 25 years is surveyed, with attention also given to the procedures that were followed. The treaties now in existence are given, as are issues currently before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Projections that were made 25 years ago are discussed in the light of subsequent developments. It is noted that nearly all the technological advances in space activities forecast 25 years ago have come to pass. Various provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Principles Treaty relating to stricture against weapons and the militarization of space are discussed.

  19. Current status of the implantable LVAD.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Sagar; Moore, Ryan; Ambur, Vishnu; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2016-09-01

    With the ongoing shortage of available organs for heart transplantation, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly utilized for managing acute and chronic heart failure that is refractory to medical therapy. In particular, the introduction of the left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has revolutionized the field. In this review, we will discuss a brief history of the LVAD, available devices, current indications, patient selection, complications, and outcomes. In addition, we will discuss recent outcomes and advancements in the field of noncardiac surgery in the LVAD patient. Finally, we will discuss several topics for surgical consideration during LVAD implantation. PMID:27270581

  20. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  1. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  2. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  3. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  4. Landsat sensor performance: history and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Storey, James C.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the characterization of these instruments and data over the past 22 years. Extensive short-lived efforts early in the history, very limited efforts in the middle years, and now a systematic program for continuing characterization of all three systems are apparent. Currently, both the Landsat-5 TM and the Landsat-7 ETM+ are operational and providing data. Despite 20+ years of operation, the TM on Landsat-5 is fully functional, although downlinks for the data are limited. Landsat-7 ETM+ experienced a failure of its Scan Line Corrector mechanism in May 2003. Although there are gaps in the data coverage, the data remain of equivalent quality to prefailure data. Data products have been developed to fill these gaps using other ETM+ scenes.

  5. Scaffolds in vascular regeneration: current status

    PubMed Central

    Thottappillil, Neelima; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-01-01

    An ideal vascular substitute, especially in <6 mm diameter applications, is a major clinical essentiality in blood vessel replacement surgery. Blood vessels are structurally complex and functionally dynamic tissue, with minimal regeneration potential. These have composite extracellular matrix (ECM) and arrangement. The interplay between ECM components and tissue specific cells gives blood vessels their specialized functional attributes. The core of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration relies on the challenges in creating vascular conduits that match native vessels and adequately regenerate in vivo. Out of numerous vascular regeneration concerns, the relevance of ECM emphasizes much attention toward appropriate choice of scaffold material and further scaffold development strategies. The review is intended to be focused on the various approaches of scaffold materials currently in use in vascular regeneration and current state of the art. Scaffold of choice in vascular tissue engineering ranges from natural to synthetic, decellularized, and even scaffold free approach. The applicability of tubular scaffold for in vivo vascular regeneration is under active investigation. A patent conduit with an ample endothelial luminal layer that can regenerate in vivo remains an unanswered query in the field of small diameter vascular tissue engineering. Besides, scaffolds developed for vascular regeneration, should aim at providing functional substitutes for use in a regenerative approach from the laboratory bench to patient bedside. PMID:25632236

  6. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. PMID:26711880

  7. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  8. Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Tamin, A; Rota, P A

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement. PMID:23689891

  9. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  10. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  11. Current Status of Renal Denervation in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Alexander; Bakris, George L

    2016-11-01

    Over the past 7 years, prospective cohorts and small randomized controlled studies showed that renal denervation therapy (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension is safe but associated with variable effects on BP which are not substantially better than medical therapy alone. The failure of the most rigorously designed randomized sham-control study, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, to meet the efficacy endpoints has raised several methodological concerns. However, recently reported studies and ongoing trials with improved procedural characteristics, identification of patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension on appropriate antihypertensive regimens further explore potential benefits of RDN. The scope of this review is to summarize evidence from currently completed studies on RDN and discuss future perspectives of RDN therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. PMID:27614466

  12. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

    2013-07-01

    Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed. PMID:23879607

  13. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Karanikas, Michael; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zervas, Vasilis; Kouroumichakis, Ioannis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Tsimogiannis, Konstantinos E

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%-15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one. PMID:22247619

  14. The Current Status of the LLNL Recirculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahle, L.; Sangster, T. C.; Barnard, J.; Craig, G.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Hanks, R. L.; Hernandez, M.; Kirbie, H. C.; Logan, B. G.; Lund, S. M.; Mant, G.; Molvik, A. W.; Sharp, W. M.; Williams, C.; Debeling, A.; Fritz, W.; Burkhart, C.

    1999-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world’s first circular induction accelerator designed for space charge dominated ion beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Beam acceleration using an inductive adder circuit to pulse the induction cores was recently achieved with no adverse effects on the beam quality. In addition, a pulser to ramp the dipole plates was also implemented. The effect of these two systems can be clearly seen by changes in transverse charge centroid positions as measured by the Capacitve Beam Probes. Data from this system and other diagnostics will be presented.

  15. [EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: CURRENT STATUS].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Paula; Roussos, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring clinicians closer to the current discussion about the complex concept of Executive Functions in mental disorders that the DSM includes in axis 1, such as Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Social Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The present controversies about the definitions of Executive Functions are exposed as well as the importance of its study. The article also presents the idea that patients with these disorders suffer alterations in their Executive Functions and as the knowledge in this area is fragmented and contradictory, it is important to continue its study. Fi- nally, the review concludes that not only it is necessary to define the neuropsychological profile in different disorders but also to work together with the clinicians to build a common place of study and discussion. PMID:26323107

  16. Current status of optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Inami, Shigenobu; Wang, Zuoyan; Ming-Juan, Zhang; Takano, Masamichi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2011-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry that use near-infrared light in real-time, and allows cross-sectional in-situ visualization of the vessel wall at the microscopic level. OCT provides 10-fold higher resolution than intravascular ultrasound which is currently the most used modality for intra-coronary imaging. OCT offers the obvious advantages when characterizing precise plaque microstructure and distinguishing various type of plaques. OCT is also being assessed for its potential role in the understanding of neointimal coverage, vascular healing and the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vasculature after stenting on the micron scale. These unique capabilities could be helpful in guiding coronary management and interventions. Recent improvement in next generation OCT technology, such as frequency-domain OCT, will allow for a simple imaging procedure, providing more useful information and complementing other modalities on both clinical and research applications for the cardiologists. PMID:24122583

  17. Lasers in Cardiovascular Surgery—Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, John G.; Dixon, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO2 lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by “tissue welding” with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling “neocapillaries” in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur. PMID:3160168

  18. Regulatory factors of induced pluripotency: current status

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Bo; Qian, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through enforced expression of four transcription factors [Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM)]; however, the reprogramming efficiency is extremely low. This finding raises fundamental questions about the regulators that influence the change in epigenetic stability and endowment of dedifferentiation potential during reprogramming. Identification of such regulators is critical to removing the roadblocks impeding the efficient generation of safe iPSCs and their successful translation into clinical therapies. In this review, we summarize the current progress that has been made in understanding cellular reprogramming, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulators in induced pluripotency.

  19. Molecular Imaging: Current Status and Emerging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific therapeutic treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use PET- or SPECT-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multimodality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and ultrasound imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies since they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and ultrasound modalities involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with ultrasound. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation such as endoscopes and microcatheters suggest that these molecular imaging modalities have numerous clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future. PMID:20541650

  20. [Evaluating the current status of anthropologic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Degenhard, M

    1997-10-01

    Phenomenological psychiatry examines the variety of psychiatric diseases as regular modifications of human feeling tone experience and behaviour, which can be derived approximately from the nature of man as defined philosophically, Interdisciplinary self-conception of phenomenological psychiatry as a science calls for a constant critical dialogue with the philosophy of man and other disciplines of the humanities. The point of departure of phenomenological psychiatry is the mental or affective illness of the individual patient, with which the psychiatrist is acquainted, and reflects in interpersonal encounters in such a way that individual case studies are of central importance in this area of studies. From a methodological point of view two approaches are to be differentiated within the field of research in phenomenological psychiatry: 1. The phenomenological approach is concerned with the analysis of specific patterns of disturbance of the transcendental organisation of psychotic subjectivity. 2. The interpretative approaches are again divided into the so called "Daseinsanalyse" as a hermeneutic access to the inner biography and "Weltanschauung" of the psychiatric patient as well as the attempts of understanding the meaning of psychotic forms of experience. In this context a survey of the current fields of research of phenomenological psychiatry is given which aims at a deeper understanding of the situation of psychiatric patients and which claims to have a strong relevance for therapy. The relevance of such a phenomenological approach for current psychiatry lies in a broadening and sophistication of our experience in clinic and practice. Its main interest lies in the concentration on the patient as an individual and on the existential dimension of forms of mental and emotional diseases. PMID:9445840

  1. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these

  2. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum. PMID:27072150

  3. Current Status of Engineering Education in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ronald E.

    Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

  4. Biologic resurfacing of the patella: current status.

    PubMed

    Scapinelli, Raphaele; Aglietti, Paolo; Baldovin, Marino; Giron, Francesco; Teitge, Robert

    2002-07-01

    The techniques of biologic resurfacing of the patella, like other joint surfaces, are still evolving. Currently none of them is free from criticism. In this regard it is our hope that progress in the basic science will offer in the near future new and more optimistic therapeutic possibilities (i.e., the restoration of a reparative cartilage that is structurally and functionally comparable to the native one). The greater expectancies come perhaps from the present experimental investigations about the combined use of tissue-engineered implants embedded with staminal cells and growth factors. Many problems remain to be solved, however, before reliable applicability in humans. From a general point of view, stem cells obtained from various sources (e.g., adult bone marrow, umbilical cord) offer the same finalities as the embryonic stem cells, without the ethical obstacles related to the latter. Therefore, it may be that restoration of part or all of the articular surface of a joint will be possible by way of these mesenchymal progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lines, which is required for the restoration of the various layers of a normal articular cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:12365242

  5. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. PMID:26403068

  6. LOFAR: current status and observing opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Best, P. N.; Lofar Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    LOFAR ({http://www.lofar.org/}{LOw Frequency ARray}) is a distributed network of multipurpose sensors. It is composed mainly of a networked radio telescope operating between 15 and 250 MHz but also hosts geophysical and agricultural sensors. Designed and constructed by {http://www.astron.nl}{ASTRON}, it has facilities in several countries that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources). These facilities are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation under a joint scientific policy. Currently (July 2012), the {http://www.astron.nl/radio-observatory/lofar-msss/lofar-msss}{ Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS)} is producing the first sky model that is needed for data calibration. MSSS will cover all the northern hemisphere with a minimum resolution of 120 arcsec and a sensitivity between 5 and 15 mJy/beam. The first proposal cycle was opened to the international comunity in July 2012. LOFAR is one of the {http://www.skatelescope.org/}{Square Kilometer Array (SKA)} pathfinders, the new global project to build a new generation radio-interferometer with a collecting area of 1 km^2.

  7. Current status of surgery in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C William; Moy, Ronald L; Roenigk, Randall K; Roenigk, Henry H; Spencer, James M; Tierney, Emily P; Bartus, Cynthia L; Bernstein, Robert M; Brown, Marc D; Busso, Mariano; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kauvar, Arielle N B; Kent, Kathryn M; Krueger, Nils; Landau, Marina; Leonard, Aimee L; Mandy, Stephen H; Rohrer, Thomas E; Sadick, Neil S; Wiest, Luitgard G

    2013-12-01

    An article titled "Current issues in dermatologic office-based surgery" was published in the JAAD in October 1999 (volume 41, issue 4, pp. 624-634). The article was developed by the Joint American Academy of Dermatology/American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Liaison Committee. A number of subjects were addressed in the article including surgical training program requirements for dermatology residents and selected advances in dermatologic surgery that had been pioneered by dermatologists. The article concluded with sections on credentialing, privileging, and accreditation of office-based surgical facilities. Much has changed since 1999, including more stringent requirements for surgical training during dermatology residency, and the establishment of 57 accredited Procedural Dermatology Fellowship Training Programs. All of these changes have been overseen and approved by the Residency Review Committee for Dermatology and the Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education. The fertile academic environment of academic training programs with interaction between established dermatologic surgeons and fellows, as well as the inquisitive nature of many of our colleagues, has led to the numerous major advances in dermatologic surgery, which are described herein. PMID:24099730

  8. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  9. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  10. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, Jean-François; Javahery, Gholamreza; Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Litherland, Albert; Cousins, Lisa; Charles, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of 36S from 36Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion-molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  11. Current status of laser applications in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  12. Current status of the ITER MSE diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuh, Howard; Levinton, F.; La Fleur, H.; Foley, E.; Feder, R.; Zakharov, L.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. is providing ITER with a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic to provide a measurement to guide reconstructions of the plasma q-profile. The diagnostic design has gone through many iterations, driven primarily by the evolution of the ITER port plug design and the steering of the heating beams. The present two port, three view design viewing both heating beams and the DNB has recently passed a conceptual design review at the IO. The traditional line polarization (MSE-LP) technique employed on many devices around the world faces many challenges in ITER, including strong background light and mirror degradation. To mitigate these effects, a multi-wavelength polarimeter and high resolution spectrometer will be used to subtract polarized background, while retroreflecting polarizers will provide mirror calibration concurrent with MSE-LP measurements. However, without a proven plasma-facing mirror cleaning technique, inherent risks to MSE-LP remain. The high field and high beam energy on ITER offers optimal conditions for a spectroscopic measurement of the electric field using line splitting (MSE-LS), a technique which does not depend on mirror polarization properties. The current design is presented with a roadmap of the R&D needed to address remaining challenges. This work is supported by DOE contracts S009627-R and S012380-F.

  13. Current status of Plasmodium vivax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chitnis, Chetan; Herrera, Sócrates

    2010-01-01

    From a total of 2.6 billion people at permanent risk of suffering malaria infection worldwide, 80-300 million experience Plasmodium vivax infections every year, with clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to mild and chronic infection that in some cases lead to severe disease and death. The increasing P. vivax drug resistance and reports of severe and lethal cases, the relapsing parasite behavior and the existence of Plasmodium spp. co-infections must prompt more investment and greater efforts for the development of P. vivax vaccine. Currently there are only two P. vivax vaccine candidates being tested in clinical trials and few others are being assessed in preclinical studies which contrast with the numerous P. falciparum vaccines candidates under evaluation. The recent availability of the P. vivax genome and ongoing proteomic analysis are likely to accelerate P. vivax vaccine development. Recent development of human sporozoite-challenge models would contribute to move clinical development forward and to identify mechanisms of immunity. PMID:20009526

  14. Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2004-01-01

    The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other sexual dysfunctions that can help in developing newer pharmacological cures for these conditions. Recently, a number of clinical trials have studied the potential effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Premature Ejaculation (PME). The introduction of PDE-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil has revolutionized the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. This review focuses on the recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of common sexual dysfunctions like ED and PME with special focus on the role of PDE-5 inhibitors. Also discussed is the pharmacological treatment of other less prevalent and recognized disorders like female sexual dysfunction, drug induced sexual dysfunction etc. PMID:21224902

  15. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  16. Current Status of Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Shuntaro; Sato, Shinpei; Kawai, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) is frequently used to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian countries. However, there is a lack of evidence supporting the use of HAIC. Summary Many studies report high response rates in patients with advanced HCC receiving HAIC, and clinical responses translate to survival benefits. Therefore, prediction of an antitumor response is important in selecting appropriate treatments. There are no proven post-sorafenib therapeutic measures or procedures for HCC patients with poor liver function, and HAIC is one of the few options for patients in these situations. Despite studies showing its effectiveness, the use of HAIC for treatment of advanced HCC is unclear because convincing data from large-scale randomized clinical trials are lacking. For HAIC to become a standard treatment for HCC, such trials must establish its efficacy compared with other HCC therapies; prediction of antitumor response in HAIC may aid trial design, and a multi-center, open-labelled, randomized clinical trial of HAIC in advanced HCC is currently in progress. Optimization of HCC treatment protocols and regimens is also required. Key message We think that both HAIC and sorafenib are effective treatments for advanced HCC, and this review presents evidence supporting this contention. PMID:26674592

  17. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  18. Photoacoustic imaging: current status and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Jiang, Jingying; Su, Yixiong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Jianquan

    2006-09-01

    Photo-acoustic tomography(PAT) is a new ultrasound-mediated biomedical imaging technology which combines the advantages of high optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution. In theory, PAT can image object embedded several centimeters under the surface of sample with the resolution of tens of microns. In this paper, several representative image reconstruction algorithms are discussed. Because the PA signal is wide band signal, it is hard to get the whole frequency spectrum due to the tremendous calculation needed. Therefore, the most applicable reconstruction algorithms are all performed in time domain such as "delay-and-sum" and "back projection". The current research methods have been focused on optical detecting and piezoelectric detecting. The optical method has the advantage of high spatial sensitivity due to the short wavelength of the probe laser beam. PA signal detecting using piezoelectric sensor has two main modes i.e. using unfocused transducer or transducer array or using focused transducer array or linear transducer array. When a focused transducer array is used, the "delay-and-sum" method is often used for image reconstruction. The advantage of the method is that its data acquisition time can be reduced to several minutes or even several seconds by employing the phase control linear scan technique. The future development in PAT research and its potential clinic application is also presented.

  19. Current Status and Perspective of EUV Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Iwao

    The EUV lithography (EUVL) utilizes 13-nm photons as a light source. Because of the short wavelength, it provides a very high resolution and is applicable to the fabrication of multiple generations of semiconductor devices from 45 nm hp down to 32 and even 22 nm hp. This makes EUVL the most promising next-generation lithography, which will follow ArF immersion lithography. However, because the wavelength is so short, bringing EUVL to the level of a practical production tool involves many difficult challenges, such as the development of a high-power light source, high-precision reflective optics, low-defect multilayer masks, a high-resolution high-sensitivity resist, and so on. To overcome the technical difficulties and accelerate the development of EUVL, various projects have been launched and are currently running under the management of SEMATECH (US), NEDEA+ (Europe), and ASET and EUVA (Japan). These activities have produced great advances in EUVL technology in the past several years. A full-field exposure tool for process development (α tool) will be delivered in 2006, and an exposure tool for mass production (γ tool) will be delivered two or three years after that. This presentation gives an overview of recent progress in EUVL.

  20. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors.

  1. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  2. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  3. [Headache. Current status of research and treatment].

    PubMed

    Straube, A; Gaul, C

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for German headache research and clinical education was the engagement of D. Soyka in the 1970s, which enabled the foundation of the German Headache Society (DMKG) on 28 June 1979 and, some years later, the founding congress of the International Headache Society (IHS) in Munich 1982. As a result of these activities, in 1988 the first international classification of headache disorders was published. This classification was one of the major milestones in the development of basic as well as clinical headache research. In the following years, epidemiological studies all over the world showed a 1-year prevalence for headache of approximately 60%, making headaches one of the most frequent medical complaints. Basic research showed an involvement of serotonergic mechanisms in migraine pain and triptans were one of the first drugs designed to influence these mechanisms. Functional brain imaging studies in migraine patients further showed a cyclic modulation of the activity of brainstem areas independent of the current pain state. Various research groups were involved in the clarification of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine and cluster headache. A specific development in the German headache scene is the establishment of integrated headache centers and reflects the primarily multimodal treatment approach in Germany which contrasts with the settings in other countries. These successful developments are increasingly being undermined by the fact that the low financial support of headache research, for example, by the German science council is causing a decreasing interest in headache research, with the consequence that the clinical education of students as well as young medical doctors shows increasing deficits. The consequence for the future will be a deficit in the clinical care of the population. PMID:26264901

  4. Torque teno virus (TTV): current status.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shigeo; Miyata, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV), currently classified into the family Circoviridae, genus Anellovirus, was first found in a patient with non-A-E hepatitis. TTV has a single stranded circular DNA of approximately 3.8 kb. TTVs are extraordinarily diverse, spanning five groups including SANBAN and SEN viruses. Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with approximately 2.9 kb genome also has wide variants. Recently, two related 2.2- and 2.6-kb species joined this community. Recombinations between variants are frequent. This extensive TTV diversity remains unexplained; it is unclear how TTVs could be viable, and why they require such genetic variation. An unequivocal culture system is still not available. TTVs are ubiquitous in > 90% of adults worldwide but no human pathogenicity of TTV has been fully established. Epidemiological surveys need to specify the variants being studied and clinical targets, and must calibrate the sensitivity of the assay used. Potentially interesting observations include a higher viral load in patients with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. Active replication was also found in infants with acute respiratory diseases. TTV/TTMV-related viruses were found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys and tupaias, and also in chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Experimentally, rhesus monkeys were persistently infected by TTV, but only 1/53 chimpanzees. TTV transcribes three species of mRNAs, 3.0-, 1.2- and 1.0-kb in the ratio of 60:5:35. Recently, at least three mRNAs were shown in chicken anaemia virus. The genomic region -154/-76 contains a critical promoter. TTV seems to have at least three proteins; however, the definite functions of these proteins await further research work. PMID:17146841

  5. Current Status of Intestinal Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge; Bueno, Javier; Kocoshis, Samuel; Green, Mike; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Furukawa, Hiro; Barksdale, Edward M.; Strom, Sharon; Fung, John J.; Todo, Satoru; Irish, William; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A clinical trial of intestinal transplantation (Itx) under tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression was initiated in June 1990 in children with irreversible intestinal failure and who were dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods Fifty-five patients (28 girls, 27 boys) with a median age of 3.2 years (range, 0.5 to 18 years) received 58 intestinal transplants that included isolated small bowel (SB) (n = 17), liver SB (LSB) (n = 33), and multivisceral (MV) (n = 8) allografts. Nine patients also received bone marrow infusion, and there were 20 colonic allografts. Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or mycophenolate mofetil were used in different phases of the series. Indications for Itx included: gastroschisis(n = 14), volvulus (n = 13), necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 6), intestinal atresia (n = 8), chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 5), Hirschsprung’s disease (n = 4), microvillus inclusion disease (n = 3), multiple polyposis (n = 1), and trauma (n = 1). Results Currently, 30 patients are alive (patient survival, 55%; graft survival, 52%). Twenty-nine children with functioning grafts are living at home and off TPN, with a mean follow-up of 962 (range, 75 to 2,424) days. Immunologic complications have included liver allograft rejection (n = 18), intestinal allograft rejection (n = 52), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 16), cytomegalovirus (n = 16) and graft-versus-host disease (n = 4). A combination of associated complications included intestinal perforation (n = 4), biliary leak (n = 3), bile duct stenosis (n = 1), intestinal leak (n = 6), dehiscence with evisceration (n = 4), hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 3), bleeding (n = 9), portal vein stenosis (n = 1), intraabdominal abscess (n = 11), and chylous ascites (n = 4). Graft loss occurred as a result of rejection (n = 8), infection (n = 12), technical complications (n = 8), and complications of TPN after graft removal (n = 3). There were four retransplants (SB, n = 1; LSB n

  6. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  7. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  8. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  9. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  10. Multicultural Education in Australia: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rod; Hill, Bob

    The historical development and current status of multicultural education in Australia are reviewed, without, however, focusing on the education of Aboriginal people. In Australia, the term multicultural education is generally understood to exclude Aborigines, a distinction in which Aboriginal educators concur as they assert the unique identity and…

  11. CURRENT STATUS OF COMMERCIAL UTILITY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the current status of commercial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes applied to coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. Major objectives of the work were to examine the impacts of the 1979 New Source Performance Standards on FGD system design and operatio...

  12. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  13. Higher Education in Palestine: Current Status and Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashweh, Maher; Hashweh, Mazen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the current status of Palestinian higher education, examining Palestine's history and its impact on education. Discusses recent developments in educational policies, higher education programs, and educational finance. Explains that Palestinian higher education is characterized by poor governance and planning, inadequate finances, rapid…

  14. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  15. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  16. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  17. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  18. Auditing Public Education. Current Status and Future Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMickle, Peter L.; Elrod, Gene

    This book examines the audit and accountability environment of public education. It provides the reader with an assessment of the current status and future potential of audits of State and local education agencies (SEAs/LEAs) and makes suggestions and recommendations for both auditors and educators. An in-depth review of the development of…

  19. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L.; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Xu, Juan; Folio, Lindsey S.

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has become widespread in ophthalmology over the past 15 years, because of its ability to visualize ocular structures at high resolution. This article reviews the history of OCT imaging of the eye, its current status, and the laboratory work that is driving the future of the technology. PMID:21493951

  1. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Current status of high-Tc wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vase, Per; Flükiger, René; Leghissa, Martino; Glowacki, Bartek

    2000-07-01

    This paper is the result of the work of a SCENET (The European Network for Superconductivity) material working group's efforts on giving values for present and future expected performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires and tapes. The purpose of the work is to give input to the design of HTS applications like power cables, motors, current leads, magnets, transformers and generators. The current status performance values are supposed to be used in the design of today's prototypes and the future values for the design of fully commercial HTS applications of the future. We focus on what is expected to be the relevant parameters for HTS application design. The most successful technique by far for making HTS tapes has been on the (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) material by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique and this paper therefore focuses on giving the current status and expected future performance for Bi-2223 tapes.

  3. A 96-channel neural stimulation system for driving AIROF microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Troyk, P; Cogan, S

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 96-channel stimulation system to drive activated iridium oxide (AIROF) microelectrodes within safe charge-injection limits. Our system improves upon the traditional capacitively coupled, symmetric charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveform so as to maximize charge-injection capacity without endangering the microelectrodes. It can deliver computer-controlled cathodic current pulse for to up to 96 AIROF microelectrodes and positively bias them during the inter-pulse interval. The stimulation system is comprised of (1) 12 custom-designed PCB boards each hosting an 8-channel ASIC chip, (2) a motherboard to communicate between these 12 boards and the PC, (3) the PC interface equipped with a DIO card and the corresponding software. We plan to use this system in animal experiments for intracortical neural stimulation of implanted electrodes within our visual prosthesis project. PMID:17271241

  4. Fiber microelectrodes for electrophysiological recordings.

    PubMed

    Reitboeck, H J

    1983-07-01

    Methods for the fabrication of tungsten-glass and platinum-rhodium-quartz fiber microelectrodes and of fiber pipettes are described and the electrical and mechanical properties of fiber electrodes are discussed. These properties (minimal tissue damage, good single unit isolation and temporal stability) make them particularly suited for multielectrode recordings from the central nervous system. PMID:6312201

  5. Interatomic (Intermolecular) Decay Processes in Clusters: Current Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Averbukh, V.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2007-11-29

    Since their theoretical prediction a decade ago, interatomic (intermolecular) Coulombic decay (ICD) and related processes have been in the focus of intensive theoretical and experimental research. The spectacular progress in this direction has been stimulated both by the fundamental importance of the new electronic decay phenomena and by the exciting possibility of their practical application, for example in spectroscopy. We review the current status of the research of interatomic (intermolecular) decay phenomena in clusters and discuss some perspectives of this new field.

  6. Oral Cancer Chernoprevention: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Messadi, Diana V; Sato, Kazumichi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to review the current status of cancer chemoprevention and its effectiveness in treatment of oral premalignant lesions and prevention of their progression to oral cancer. The challenges encountered in the different oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials, including lack of surrogate endpoints, reversal of histologic premalignant changes as study endpoints, tobacco use, human papillomavirus, delivery system, adverse effects and risk of bias in clinical studies, are presented. PMID:26930753

  7. Current Status of Protein Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro E.M.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields. PMID:25330958

  8. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  9. Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations: Current status and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Y.; Bolotin, S.; Bolotina, O.; Khoda, O.; Medvedsky, M.; Sydorenko, G.; Stopkhay, Y.; Volvach, O.

    Current status and perspective of establishing the Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations (UKRGEONETWORK) is reviewed in connection with Integrated Space Geodetic Systems project. The UKRGEONETWORK consists of several stations which form GPS, SLR, and VLBI subnetworks as well as Gravimetry subsystem. Some information concerned with current activity of the UKRGEONETWORK in particular precise orbit determination in software complex Kiev-Geodynamic, ionospheric modelling in Klio program, and EOP determination on SteelBreeze software is given. Plan for upgrading the hardware of stations and for increasing the number of collocation sites is considered.

  10. Current status of two molten carbonate fuel cell installations

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, T.M.; Robertson, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    Bechtel Corporation and Stewart and Stevenson Service, Inc. are currently designing and building two 250-kW net molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) demonstration plants. Both plants employ MCFC stacks produced by M-C Power Corporation using internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stacks. M-C Power provides the overall project management.Bechtel is responsible for the overall system design, integration, and procurement of major BOP (balance of plant) equipment. Stewart and Stevenson is responsible for the engineering and fabrication of a BOP skid for both plants. This paper gives a brief description of the two fuel cell plants and the current status of each plant.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  12. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  13. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  14. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  15. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  17. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  18. Current status of percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for totally occluded coronary arteries. Chronic total occlusion is associated with 10%–20% of all PCI procedures. Results show that opening an occluded vessel, especially one supplying a considerable area of myocardium, may be beneficial for a patient’s angina relief and heart function. We describe the devices used currently in re-canalization such as new wires, microcatheters (including Tonus and Cosair) and intravascular ultrasound guidance. Different techniques to improve the success rate and reduce complications are discussed in detail. PMID:22843178

  19. The current status of allied dental faculty: a survey report.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Patricia J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Battrell, Ann; Bruce, Stephen Ives; Hanlon, Linda L; Kaiser, Catherine; Purifoy-Seldon, Barbara

    2004-03-01

    Allied dental program directors have expressed increasing concerns about possible current and future shortages of allied dental educators. As a result, the ADEA Board of Directors created a task force to investigate the current status of allied dental faculty, including the degree of cultural diversity, and to identify whether current and/or potential future shortages of educators exist. A survey was sent to all accredited allied dental program directors. Results indicated that a current faculty shortage exists for dental assisting and dental hygiene programs, with a projected greater future shortage for all allied dental education disciplines, primarily as a result of retirement of current faculty members. The data collected also revealed a lack of diversity in allied dental faculties, especially in dental hygiene and dental assisting programs. Recommendations for action steps included investigating: 1) the use of technology to provide the faculty expertise necessary to allow more affordable quality education in almost any location and to maximize available resources; 2) alternative ways to reward faculty; 3) loan forgiveness as an incentive for exemplary graduates to pursue educational career goals; 4) an ongoing database to monitor the status of allied dental educators; and 5) best practices in higher education to attract a more diverse student body and faculty in terms of gender, ethnicity, and race. PMID:15038634

  20. In vivo microelectrode track reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fung, S.H.; Burstein, D.; Born, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    To obtain more precise anatomical information about cortical sites of microelectrode recording and microstimulation experiments in alert animals, we have developed a non-invasive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for reconstructing microelectrode tracks. We made microelectrode penetrations in the brains of anesthetized rats and marked sites along them by depositing metal, presumably iron, with anodic monophasic or biphasic current from the tip of a stainless steel microelectrode. The metal deposits were clearly visible in the living animal as approximately 200 μm wide hypointense punctate marks using gradient echo sequences in a 4.7T MRI scanner. We confirmed the MRI findings by comparing them directly to the postmortem histology in which the iron in the deposits could be rendered visible with a Prussian blue reaction. MRI-visible marks could be created using currents as low as 1 μA (anodic) for 5 s, and they remained stable in the brains of living rats for up to nine months. We were able to make marks using either direct current or biphasic current pulses. Biphasic pulses caused less tissue damage and were similar to those used by many laboratories for functional microstimulation studies in the brains of alert monkeys. PMID:9667395

  1. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  2. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources. PMID:23568544

  3. Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors: Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masaki

    2008-08-01

    Constructions of the first-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600, and TAMA300, have been finished, and long-term observation runs have been carried out as a global network. These data are analyzed in searches for gravitational-wave signals, and are starting to produce scientific results. In addition, next-generation detectors, which will have sufficient sensitivity to directly detect gravitational waves, are being proposed. In this article, the status of the current detectors, scientific results obtained form observation data, and future interferometric detector plans are reviewed.

  4. On the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Loehrer, Marco; Vogel, Alexander; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Benes, Vladimir; Duplessis, Sébastien; Usadel, Björn; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow a more rapid access to genomes of non-model organisms at sinking costs. Accordingly, draft genomes of several economically important cereal rust fungi have been released in the last 3 years. Aside from the very recent flax rust and poplar rust draft assemblies there are no genomic data available for other dicot-infecting rust fungi. In this article we outline rust fungus sequencing efforts and comment on the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust) genome sequencing. PMID:25221558

  5. On the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Loehrer, Marco; Vogel, Alexander; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Benes, Vladimir; Duplessis, Sébastien; Usadel, Björn; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow a more rapid access to genomes of non-model organisms at sinking costs. Accordingly, draft genomes of several economically important cereal rust fungi have been released in the last 3 years. Aside from the very recent flax rust and poplar rust draft assemblies there are no genomic data available for other dicot-infecting rust fungi. In this article we outline rust fungus sequencing efforts and comment on the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust) genome sequencing. PMID:25221558

  6. Current status of the Taiwan Photon Source project

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Lin

    2014-03-05

    The progress of establishment of a high brightness and low emittance mid-energy storage ring is reported. The status of the 3 GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) currently under construction will be presented. The progress on the civil construction, manufacturing of machine components, as well as the opportunity of using low emittace synchrotron source and phase I beamlines at TPS will be mentioned. The future planning of phase II beamlines and related research will be sketched. Future developments will be also briefly outlined.

  7. Current status of the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Leppaenen, J.

    2006-07-01

    PSG is a new Monte Carlo neutron transport code, developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The code is mainly intended for fuel assembly-level reactor physics calculations, such as group constant generation for deterministic reactor simulator codes. This paper presents the current status of the project and the essential capabilities of the code. Although the main application of PSG is in lattice calculations, the geometry is not restricted in two dimensions. This paper presents the validation of PSG against the experimental results of the three-dimensional MOX fuelled VENUS-2 reactor dosimetry benchmark. (authors)

  8. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  9. The Square Kilometre Array: Current Status and Science Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The Square Kilometre Array has now entered the final design phase, with construction anticipated to begin from 2018. Even in its first deployment phase, termed SKA1, the SKA Observatory will provide a quantum leap in capability at radio frequencies between 50 MHz and 15 GHz, with survey speeds exceeding the current state-of-the art by factors between 20 and 200 over this range. These capabilities enable an extremely wide range of cutting edge programs, from understanding planet formation through the first glimpses of “cosmic dawn”. The project status and opportunities for participation in the science program will be highlighted in this presentation.

  10. Chemoprevention of colon cancer: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gustin, David M; Brenner, Dean E

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem in the western world. Although some progress has been made in the prevention and management of this disease, colon cancer still remains one of the most common types of epithelial malignancies in both genders and is essentially incurable when it reaches the most advanced stages. Given the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal malignancies and their treatment, cancer prevention in its many forms emerges as a very attractive approach. Colorectal cancer chemoprevention refers to the administration of natural or synthetic compounds to block, reverse, delay or prevent the development of invasive large bowel neoplasms. The ultimate goal of implementing a chemopreventive intervention in the general, or alternatively, in an at-risk population is to decrease the incidence rate of the specific cancer being targeted. This article reviews the present status of colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Current insights into the molecular and genetic models of human colorectal carcinogenesis, preclinical models for efficacy testing as well as into promising biomarkers for colorectal chemoprevention are provided. The developmental status of many promising agents is also discussed emphasizing the epidemiological evidence, preclinical information substantiating an anticarcinogenic effect, their postulated mechanism of action and the status of human clinical development. Our perspective of the future prospects in this scientific area is also provided and has been predicated primarily on the firm belief that the proper integration of advances in the biology of colon carcinogenesis, experimental therapeutics and clinical trial methodology will be critical for the success of this promising field. PMID:12549770

  11. Microelectrode array with integrated nanowire FET switches for high-resolution retinal prosthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Suk Won; Ahn, Jaehyun; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Oh, Sung Jin; ‘Dan' Cho, Dong-Il

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a novel microelectrode array integrated with nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) switches is developed for retinal prosthetic systems. Retinal prosthetic systems require many electrodes (generally more than several hundreds) and this paper presents a novel method of integrating silicon nanowire-FET switches with microelectrodes that can significantly reduce wiring complexity. Also, in order to fit the curvature of an eyeball, the silicon nanowire FETs are transferred to a flexible substrate. In order to demonstrate the concept of using FETs for switching collocated retinal microelectrodes, a microelectrode array with 32 × 32 pixels is fabricated, which has 1,024 microelectrodes. Using the FET switches in a two-dimensional array addressing configuration, 1,024 microelectrodes are addressed by only 64 lines (32 for scan and 32 for data), as compared to requiring 1,024 lines in the conventional one-to-one configuration. With the gate voltage of -5 V, the threshold voltage, current on/off ratio, and on-resistance of the fabricated silicon nanowire-FET switch are -0.4 V, 1 × 107, and 37-47 kΩ, respectively. The maximum allowable current injection limit of the silicon nanowire-FET switch integrated microelectrode is 44 μA with a pulse duration of 1 ms. These results show an excellent potential for high-resolution retinal prosthetic systems.

  12. Antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease: current status

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Darren Lowell; Ponda, Punita

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are common chronic disorders that not only have a major impact on the quality of life but are also potentially life-threatening. Treatment modalities that are currently favored have conferred significant clinical benefits, but they may have considerable side effects. An optimal treatment strategy for autoimmune disease would specifically target disease-associated antigens and limit systemic side effects. Similar to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis, antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease aims to induce immune deviation and promote tolerance to specific antigens. In this review, we present the current status of studies and clinical trials in both human and animal hosts that use antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease. PMID:27471707

  13. Current status of the measurement of the anapole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Dong; Perez Galvan, Adrian; Hood, Jonathan; Orozco, Luis

    2009-05-01

    We present the current status of the experimental effort towards the measurement of the anapole moment in different isotopes of francium. The anapole is a parity-violating, time-reversal conserving nuclear moment that arises from the weak interaction among nucleons. Due to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, atomic physics gives the unique possibility to probe the weak interaction in the low energy regime. Our experimental scheme involves driving a parity forbidden E1 transition between hyperfine ground states in a series of francium isotopes inside a blue detuned dipole trap at the electric antinode of a microwave cavity. The experiment will make use of the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF. The system is currently being tested with rubidium.

  14. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  16. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

  17. Molecular detection of pancreatic neoplasia: Current status and future promise

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T; Ahlquist, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and curative resection is feasible in only a small minority of patients at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis at an early stage is unequivocally associated with better long-term survival. Several candidate molecular markers for early detection are currently under investigation in different phases of discovery and validation. Recent advances in the technology for whole genome, methylome, ribonucleome, and proteome interrogation has enabled rapid advancements in the field of biomarker discovery. In this review we discuss the current status of molecular markers for detection of pancreatic cancer in blood, pancreatic cyst fluid, pancreatic juice and stool and briefly highlight some promising preliminary results of new approaches that have the potential of advancing this field in the near future. PMID:26526068

  18. The ILLIAC IV memory system: Current status and future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    The future needs of researchers who will use the Illiac were examined and the requirements they will place on the memory system were evaluated. Various alternatives to replacing critical memory components were considered with regard to cost, risk, system impact, software requirements, and implementation schedules. The current system, its performance and status, and the limitations it places on possible enhancements are discussed as well as the planned enhancements to the Illiac processor. After a brief technology survey, different implementations are presented for each system memory component. Three different memory systems are proposed to meet the identified needs of the Illiac user community. These three alternatives differ considerably with respect to storage capacity and accessing capabilities, but they all offer significant improvements over the current system. The proposed systems and their relative merits are analyzed.

  19. Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C.; Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M.; Wojtczuk, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

  20. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  1. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Dylst, Pieter; Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  2. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  3. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  4. [Cord blood transplantation: current status and new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2016-03-01

    Cord blood (CB) has been an alternative stem cell source for patients with a wide variety of hematological diseases. When compared with unrelated bone marrow transplantation (u-BMT), obvious advantages of CB are the rapid availability and tolerance of 2 HLA antigen mismatch, which have increased the chances of transplantation for patients who lack a suitable donor or need urgent transplantation. Although higher rates of engraftment failure as compared to other stem cell sources after cord blood transplantation (CBT) have been a serious concern, the mechanisms underlying these failures have gradually been clarified by analyzing accumulated clinical data, thereby contributing to improvement of engraftment. Recent large-scale retrospective comparisons of clinical outcomes between CBT and u-BMT from HLA-matched donors have obtained comparable results, and moreover, results of CBT have been promising even in elderly patients and those in non-remission status. This review describes the current status of CBT and problems to be solved, along with discussion of developing strategies aimed at improving patient outcomes. PMID:27076239

  5. [Current and future status of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Ikegame, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation from HLA-haploidentical related donors (haploSCT) has been highlighted as an alternative donor source. The regimen consisting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) has been highly prevalent in the US, Europe, and Japan. Considering the status overseas and the current status in Japan, we aim to show our efforts in haploSCT. We initially established the "haplo-full (original)" regimen, which was found to be excessively toxic for general use. Thus, we added ATG to diminish the GVH reaction (haplo-full with ATG). Unfortunately, "haplo-mini (original)" was found to be relatively weak against refractory diseases. Thus, we intensified the preconditioning regimen, which has enabled us to deal with refractory and post-transplant relapse (FAMC-T). One of the characteristics in haploSCT in Hyogo is the use of steroids from the beginning of SCT. The aim of this strategy is to diminish the inflammation affecting GVHD-target organs, and to suppress chemokine release. Since chemokines produced by the preconditioning regimen are well known to induce GVHD, chemokine suppression should effectively suppress GVHD development. The dependency of the GVL effect on chemokines is unclear, possibly serving as a therapeutic window to separate GVHD from the GVL effect. PMID:25876782

  6. Immunomonitoring in glioma immunotherapy: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamano, Jonathan B; Ampie, Leonel; Choy, Winward; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; DiDomenico, Joseph D; Oyon, Daniel E; Parsa, Andrew T; Bloch, Orin

    2016-03-01

    Given the continued poor clinical outcomes and refractory nature of glioblastoma multiforme to traditional interventions, immunotherapy is gaining traction due to its potential for specific tumor-targeting and long-term antitumor protective surveillance. Currently, development of glioma immunotherapy relies on overall survival as an endpoint in clinical trials. However, the identification of surrogate immunologic biomarkers can accelerate the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomonitoring techniques possess the potential to elucidate immunological mechanisms of antitumor responses, monitor disease progression, evaluate therapeutic effect, identify candidates for immunotherapy, and serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome. Current immunomonitoring assays assess delayed-type hypersensitivity, T cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function, cytokine secretion profiles, antibody titers, and lymphocyte phenotypes. Yet, no single immunomonitoring technique can reliably predict outcomes, relegating immunological markers to exploratory endpoints. In response, the most recent immunomonitoring assays are incorporating emerging technologies and novel analysis techniques to approach the goal of identifying a competent immunological biomarker which predicts therapy responsiveness and clinical outcome. This review addresses the current status of immunomonitoring in glioma vaccine clinical trials with emphasis on correlations with clinical response. PMID:26638171

  7. Immunomonitoring in glioma immunotherapy: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lamano, Jonathan B.; Ampie, Leonel; Choy, Winward; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; DiDomenico, Joseph David; Oyon, Daniel E.; Parsa, Andrew T.; Bloch, Orin

    2016-01-01

    Given the continued poor clinical outcomes and refractory nature of glioblastoma multiforme to traditional interventions, immunotherapy is gaining traction due to its potential for specific tumor-targeting and long-term antitumor protective surveillance. Currently, development of glioma immunotherapy relies on overall survival as an endpoint in clinical trials. However, the identification of surrogate immunologic biomarkers can accelerate the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomonitoring techniques possess the potential to elucidate immunological mechanisms of antitumor responses, monitor disease progression, evaluate therapeutic effect, identify candidates for immunotherapy, and serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome. Current immunomonitoring assays assess delayed-type hypersensitivity, T-cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function, cytokine secretion profiles, antibody titers, and lymphocyte phenotypes. Yet, no single immunomonitoring technique can reliably predict outcomes, relegating immunological markers to exploratory endpoints. In response, the most recent immunomonitoring assays are incorporating emerging technologies and novel analysis techniques to approach the goal of identifying a competent immunological biomarker which predicts therapy responsiveness and clinical outcome. This review addresses the current status of immunomonitoring in glioma vaccine clinical trials with emphasis on correlations with clinical response. PMID:26638171

  8. [Renaissance of immuno-oncology for urological tumors : Current status].

    PubMed

    Grimm, M-O; Winkler, Y; Fetter, I; Oppel-Heuchel, H

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors. The toxicity profile is favorable but involves new so-called immune-related side effects, which need to be recognized and treated in time. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also currently being tested in uro-oncology in phase 3 trials relevant for approval status. Based on this it is to be expected that immune checkpoint inhibitors will become a new standard (as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy) in the early lines of therapy in the near future and replace the previous standard therapies, particularly for metastasized renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cancer. PMID:27119960

  9. Current Status and Application of Hazard Definition Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, George C.

    1997-01-01

    A research is performed: to define wake non-encounter & hazard, to provide requirements for sensors, and to obtain input from the user community. This research includes: validating wake encounter simulation models, establishing a metric to quantify the upset potential of a wake encounter, applying hazard metric and simulation models to the commercial fleet for development of candidate acceptable encounter limits, and applying technology to near term problems to evaluate current status of technology. The following lessons are learned from this project: technology is not adequate to determine absolute spacing requirements; time, not distance, determines the duration of the wake hazard; Optimum standards depend on the traffic; Wing span is an important parameter for characterizing both generator and follower; and Short span "biz jets" are easily rolled.

  10. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos; Giamouzis, Gregory; Karayannis, George; Karangelis, Dimos; Koutsias, Stelios; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Skoularigis, John; Butler, Javed; Triposkiadis, Filippos

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs) evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support. PMID:22970403

  11. IHY Activities in Africa: Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; Balogun, E. E.

    2006-11-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) has already gained a global acceptance as international research cooperation. This paper assesses the current status of IHY; its organization, activities and challenges in Nigeria and THE African continent as a whole. The tremendous impact and successes of the program is highlighted. Two successful annual workshops have been held at different locations with wide national representation. A few facilities already installed or secured are presented for probable exploration and forging of partnership in research. On-going research involvement with SCINDA, AWESOME and MAGDAS are presented. With the passing of the dip equator through the country, Nigeria is presented as a region for ground observation and measurements of geo- and helio-physical variables. Ways by which Nigerian scientists are taking advantage of the opportunities embedded in the international program are exposed. Benefits of IHY including training, collaboration, workshop participation and publications, are explored.

  12. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of informed consent. Descriptive statistics, the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The mean age was 8.55 ± 2 years (range: 5-12 years). Seventy-eight percent of the schoolchildren presented with a backpack overload that was greater than 10% of their body weight. No significant differences were found in relation to gender. Four out of every five schoolchildren presented with backpack overload, exposing them to a potential health problem. Education and public policy prevention strategies for this situation should be implemented in Mexico and other regions of the world with the same problem. PMID:26416767

  13. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must be available to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts in both school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legal basis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveys from the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed for the improvement of SHE and school health care. PMID:24019840

  14. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  15. Nano-JASMINE: current status and data output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Niwa, Yoshito; Murooka, Jyunpei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi

    2010-07-01

    The current status of the Nano-JASMINE project is reported. Nano-JASMINE is a very small-sized (50 cm cubic form) satellite that is expected to carry out astrometric observations of nearby bright stars. The satellite will determine distances of more than 8000 stars by performing annual parallax measurements, which is the only direct method to measure the distance of an astronomical object. The mission is required to continue for more than two years to obtain reliable annual parallax measurements. In addition, Nano-JASMINE will serve as a preliminary to the main JASMINE mission. We expect that Nano-JASMINE will be launched in August 2011 from the Alcantara Space Center in Brazil using the Cyclone-4 rocket.

  16. Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurishita, H.; Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1994-09-01

    The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb2 or ( Bb{3}/{2} ( B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens.

  17. Remote sensing using GNSS signals: Current status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, G. P.; Gleason, S.

    2011-05-01

    The refracted, reflected and scattered signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) have been successfully used to remotely sense the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has demonstrated its potential to sense the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture) and the cryosphere. These new measurements, although in need of refinement and further validation in many cases, can be used to complement existing techniques and sensors, e.g., radiosonde, ionosonde, radar altimetry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This paper presents the current status and new developments of remote sensing using GNSS signals as well as its future directions and applications. Some notable emerging applications include monitoring sea ice, dangerous sea states, ocean eddy and storm surges. With the further improvement of the next generation multi -frequency GNSS systems and receivers and new space-based instruments utilizing GNSS reflections and refractions, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in various environment remote sensing fields in the near future.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  19. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A.

    2009-09-15

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  20. Hardware and software configuration control - History and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlack, H. R.

    1982-11-01

    Attention is given to the activity and maturation of the design process from 1953 to the present time. During the period of 1953 to mid-1962, the prevailing design control document was the Air Force Navy Aeronautical (ANA) Bulletin 390 and 319A, Engineering Changes, Deviations and Waivers. In June of 1962, the first definitive requirements for configuration control were published by the U.S. Air Force as AFSCM/AFLCM 375-1, titled 'Configuration Management'. In July of 1968, DOD Directive 5010.19, Configuration Management, was issued, followed by DOD Instruction 5010.21, Configuration Management Implementation Guidance. The issuance of DOD Directive 5000.29 - Management of Computer Resources in Major Defense Systems, in April 1976, was DOD's official recognition of the emerging software requirements. Attention is given to the current status, taking into account documents, standards, and specifications which prevail today.

  1. Targeted radiotherapy with gold nanoparticles: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas; Korideck, Houari; Zygmanski, Piotr; Cormack, Robert A; Berbeco, Ross; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. The ultimate goal of RT is to destroy all the disease cells while sparing healthy tissue. Towards this goal, RT has advanced significantly over the past few decades in part due to new technologies including: multileaf collimator-assisted modulation of radiation beams, improved computer-assisted inverse treatment planning, image guidance, robotics with more precision, better motion management strategies, stereotactic treatments and hypofractionation. With recent advances in nanotechnology, targeted RT with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is actively being investigated as a means to further increase the RT therapeutic ratio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research and development towards the use of GNPs to enhance RT. We highlight the promising emerging modalities for targeted RT with GNPs and the corresponding preclinical evidence supporting such promise towards potential clinical translation. Future prospects and perspectives are discussed. PMID:24978464

  2. Targeted radiotherapy with gold nanoparticles: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas; Korideck, Houari; Zygmanski, Piotr; Cormack, Robert A; Berbeco, Ross; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. The ultimate goal of RT is to destroy all the disease cells while sparing healthy tissue. Towards this goal, RT has advanced significantly over the past few decades in part due to new technologies including: multileaf collimator-assisted modulation of radiation beams, improved computer-assisted inverse treatment planning, image guidance, robotics with more precision, better motion management strategies, stereotactic treatments and hypofractionation. With recent advances in nanotechnology, targeted RT with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is actively being investigated as a means to further increase the RT therapeutic ratio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research and development towards the use of GNPs to enhance RT. We highlight the promising emerging modalities for targeted RT with GNPs and the corresponding preclinical evidence supporting such promise towards potential clinical translation. Future prospects and perspectives are discussed. PMID:24978464

  3. Current status of SK-Gd project and EGADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenyuan; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Supernova Relic Neutrino (SRN) has not been observed yet because of its low event rate and high background. By adding gadolinium into water Cherenkov detector, inverse beta decay will have two signals, the prompt one is positron signal and the delayed one is a ~8 MeV gamma cascade from neutron capture on gadolinium. By this way, background for SRN can be largely reduced by detecting prompt and delayed signals coincidently, and Super-K will also have the ability to distinguish neutrino and anti-neutrino. SK-Gd is a R&D project proposed to dissolve gadolinium into Super-K. As a part of it, EGADS, a 200 ton water Cherenkov detector was built in Kamioka mine. Current status of SK-Gd project and the physics work being performed in EGADS will be presented here.

  4. Colorectal tissue engineering: prerequisites, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Denost, Quentin; Adam, Jean-Philippe; Rullier, Eric; Bareille, Reine; Montembault, Alexandra; David, Laurent; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Gastrointestinal tissue engineering has emerged over the past 20 years and was often focused on esophagus, stomach or small intestine, whereas bioengineering researches of colorectal tissue are scarce. However, some promising results have been obtained in animal models. Refinements should be performed in scaffold and cell source selection to allow smooth muscle layer regeneration. Indeed, synthetic and natural polymers such as small intestinal submucosa and collagen sponge seeded with organoid units or smooth muscle cells did not allow smooth muscle regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue seeded on composite scaffold could represent an interesting way to achieve this goal. This article reviews potential indications, current status and perspectives of tissue engineering in the area of colorectal surgery. PMID:23895077

  5. Current research status, databases and application of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Javed, R; Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of DNA variation in the genome. SNPs are genetic markers which are bi-allelic in nature and grow at a very fast rate. Current genomic databases contain information on several million SNPs. More than 6 million SNPs have been identified and the information is publicly available through the efforts of the SNP Consortium and others data bases. The NCBI plays a major role in facillating the identification and cataloging of SNPs through creation and maintenance of the public SNP database (dbSNP) by the biomedical community worldwide and stimulate many areas of biological research including the identification of the genetic components of disease. In this review article, we are compiling the existing SNP databases, research status and their application. PMID:21717869

  6. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  7. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  8. Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form

  9. Uas for Geo-Information Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarbrink, R. B.

    2011-09-01

    Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g), to longer distances (BLOS operations), and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

  10. Current status of Barrett's esophagus research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Cook, Michael B; Lee, Yi-Chia; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ando, Takafumi; Bhatia, Shobna; Chow, Wong-Ho; El-Omar, Emad M; Goto, Hidemi; Li, Yang-Qing; McColl, Kenneth; Reddy, Nageshwar; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sharma, Prateek; Sung, Joseph J-Y; Ghoshal, Uday; Wong, Jennie Y-Y; Wu, Justin C-Y; Zhang, Jun; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2011-02-01

    In Western countries, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer has changed considerably over the past decades with a rise in the ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux is increasing in Asia, the prevalences of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have remained low in most Asian countries. The Asian Barrett's Consortium recently conducted a review of published studies on BE from Asia to assess the current status of BE research in Asia, and to recommend potential areas for future BE research in the region. Differences in study design, enrolled population, and endoscopic biopsy protocols used have led to substantial variability in the reported BE prevalence (0.06% to 19.9%) across Asia. In particular, some Japanese studies used diagnostic criteria that differed considerably from what was used in most Asian studies. As in Western countries, increased age, male sex, tobacco smoking, reflux symptoms, and erosive esophagitis have been found to be risk factors for BE in several case-control studies from Asia. The Prague C and M criteria, developed to provide better interobserver reliability in diagnosis and grading of BE, are currently under extensive evaluation in the Asian population. There is a need for standardized protocols for endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis before initiating collaborative projects to identify etiologic determinants of BE and its ensuing malignant transformation. At present, data regarding the management and long-term outcome of BE are extremely limited in Asia. More studies of BE in this geographic area are warranted. PMID:21155883

  11. Development of improved vaccines against whooping cough: current status.

    PubMed

    Marzouqi, Ibrahim; Richmond, Peter; Fry, Scott; Wetherall, John; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2010-07-01

    Prior to the introduction of killed whole cell pertussis vaccine [wP] in the 1940s, whooping cough was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children with this vaccine caused a significant reduction in mortality. However in the 1990s and now more recently, there has been a resurgence of pertussis in several countries even in populations previously vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine [aP]. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of whooping cough, the vast array of virulence factors produced by this pathogen potentially contributing to the resurgence of pertussis even in previously vaccinated populations of infants and children, history of whooping cough prophylaxis, possible mechanisms of immunity, lack of availability of a suitable non-toxic adjuvant capable of inducing both arms of the immune response, and the current status of development of improved vaccines with potential to induce longer-lasting protection, than is currently possible with the wP or aP vaccines, against whooping cough. PMID:20448470

  12. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Mikata, Rintaro; Yasui, Shin; Watanabe, Yuto; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Senoo, Jun-ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed using the keywords “PBD”, “pancreaticoduodenectomy”, and “obstructive jaundice”. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention. PMID:26328029

  13. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Eglin, J. L.; Michalak, S. E.; Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  14. Groin hernia repair by laparoscopic techniques: current status and controversies.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Maurice E; Young, Susan B

    2005-08-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair remains controversial, and its position in current hernia surgery remains in flux. In this article we attempt to put the laparoscopic approach in perspective by describing the rationale for its development. We summarize studies comparing it with open repairs, including recent publications, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews; and we then contrast the data with recent findings of the United States Veterans Affairs Cooperative study 456. We discuss the current and future status of the laparoscopic approach to inguinal hernia repair and present an update of our own laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal technique without mesh fixation. From 1994 to 2004 we performed 314 hernia repairs on 224 patients with no intraoperative complications, no conversions to an open procedure, and no mortality. Thirty (14%) minor postoperative complications occurred. There were three herniated lipomas (preperitoneal fat) but no true peritoneal reherniations. We evaluate critical points of laparoscopic hernia repair including extensive preperitoneal dissection, mesh configuration, size and fixation, cost reduction, and the learning curve. PMID:15983713

  15. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations. PMID:26855917

  16. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Mikata, Rintaro; Yasui, Shin; Watanabe, Yuto; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Senoo, Jun-Ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-08-28

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed using the keywords "PBD", "pancreaticoduodenectomy", and "obstructive jaundice". Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention. PMID:26328029

  17. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations. PMID:26855917

  18. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  19. Current status and future trends in telepathology and digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Chordia, Trupti Dinesh; Vikey, Ashok; Choudhary, Anuraag B; Samdariya, Yashpal; Chordia, Dipti Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future trends in telepathology (TP) and digital pathology (DP) in central India. Materials and Methods: A self-constructed questionnaire including 12 questions was designed with five specialists, to improve the design ambiguity. The study was conducted through postal and online survey consisting of 12 questions and sent to 300 histopathologists. Results: A total of 247 histopathologists answered the survey. The overall response rate was 81%. 98% pathologists felt the need for TP and DP. 34% pathologists used digital photomicrographic images in routine practice. Utilization of DP in most efficient way was observed by 48% pathologists mainly for the purpose of teaching in academic institutions. 82% believed that TP is helpful to take an expert opinion whereas only26% believed that a second opinion has to be taken. With respect to limitations, 67% pathologists believed that its cost-effective whereas 51% revealed high use of TP in next 5 years. Conclusions: Our survey shows that as the field evolves, pathologists are more towards welcoming TP and DP, provided frequent workshops and training programs are conducted. The results of this survey indicates that pathology staff across central India currently utilize gross digital images for educational or academic purposes. They also revealed that technology will be required in near future applications in academics, consultation and for medico-legal purposes. PMID:27601805

  20. Current Status of Gyroklystron Research at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, E. S.; Lawson, W.; Hogan, B.; Bharathan, K.; Granatstein, V. L.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Maryland, we have been developing high-power coaxial gyroklystrons. Our present work is focused on the development of a 17.136 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron amplifier. This device will then be used to drive a high gradient linear accelerator structure recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. Our work has been afflicted by many technical challenges, most arising from thermal imperfections in the custom-made high current emitter of our electron gun. In our latest experimental run, instabilities were detected in the input cavity of our amplifier tube. These instabilities appear when the beam pitch ratio (α) is approximately 1, thus impeding our search of domains with higher α values (note that the circuit was designed to operate at α=1.4). In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. The new input cavity has been fabricated and cold-tested. It will soon undergo hot-test in the next run of experimental studies of the circuit, which will commence after an upgrade of our vacuum system. Here we present the current status of this research.

  1. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  2. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  3. Electrochemical measurements on a droplet using gold microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma; Rastkhadiv, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Facile methods of ion recognition are important for the fabrication of electronic tongue systems. In this work, we demonstrate performing pulsed conductometry on microliter electrolyte droplets dropped on gold microelectrodes vapor deposited on soda lime glass slides. A droplet is dropped between two microelectrodes when a voltage waveform from a preprogramed power supply is applied on them. The temporal variation of the electric current passing through the droplet is recorded, digitized and stored. The obtained data are compared with the database formed out of the previous experiences for the classification of the sample electrolytes. It is shown that the shape of the voltage waveform is the important parameter of the process. We devised a method for the optimization of the voltage waveform profile for obtaining the maximum of discriminating information from the recorded current variations.

  4. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

  5. Characterization of a light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyi; Xiong, Tao; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Li, Zhihong

    2011-12-01

    A light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis, which is performed with the photosensitive conductivity of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and of more advantages over the two major current retinal prosthetic categories, is characterized. Sensitivity to different visible wavelengths and light intensities are verified as well. Preliminary impedance test invitro shows appropriate impedance for neuron stimulation applications. It is indicated that such device provides a promising potential to restore a certain degree of visual function.

  6. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-11-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology surveyed. The current survey was performed to assess the status and success rate of ART performed in Korea, between January 1 and December 31, 2009. Reporting forms had been sent out to IVF centers via e-mail, and collected by e-mail as well in 2012. With International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies recommendation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and non-ICSI cases have been categorized and also IVF-ET cases involving frozen embryo replacement have been surveyed separately. Seventy-four centers have reported the treatment cycles initiated in the year of 2009, and had performed a total of 27,947 cycles of ART treatments. Among a total of 27,947 treatment cycles, IVF and ICSI cases added up to 22,049 (78.9%), with 45.3% IVF without ICSI and 54.7% IVF with ICSI, respectively. Among the IVF and ICSI patients, patients confirmed to have achieved clinical pregnancy was 28.8% per cycle with oocyte retrieval, and 30.9% per cycle with embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in 2009 is three embryos (40.4%), followed by 2 embryos (28.4%) and a single embryo transferred (13.6%). Among IVF and ICSI cycles that resulted in multiple live births, twin pregnancy rate was 45.3% and triple pregnancy rate was 1.1%. A total of 191 cases of oocyte donation had been performed to result in 25.0% of live birth rate. Meanwhile, a total of 5,619 cases of frozen embryo replacement had been performed with 33.7% of clinical

  7. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology surveyed. The current survey was performed to assess the status and success rate of ART performed in Korea, between January 1 and December 31, 2009. Reporting forms had been sent out to IVF centers via e-mail, and collected by e-mail as well in 2012. With International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies recommendation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and non-ICSI cases have been categorized and also IVF-ET cases involving frozen embryo replacement have been surveyed separately. Seventy-four centers have reported the treatment cycles initiated in the year of 2009, and had performed a total of 27,947 cycles of ART treatments. Among a total of 27,947 treatment cycles, IVF and ICSI cases added up to 22,049 (78.9%), with 45.3% IVF without ICSI and 54.7% IVF with ICSI, respectively. Among the IVF and ICSI patients, patients confirmed to have achieved clinical pregnancy was 28.8% per cycle with oocyte retrieval, and 30.9% per cycle with embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in 2009 is three embryos (40.4%), followed by 2 embryos (28.4%) and a single embryo transferred (13.6%). Among IVF and ICSI cycles that resulted in multiple live births, twin pregnancy rate was 45.3% and triple pregnancy rate was 1.1%. A total of 191 cases of oocyte donation had been performed to result in 25.0% of live birth rate. Meanwhile, a total of 5,619 cases of frozen embryo replacement had been performed with 33.7% of clinical

  8. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  9. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  10. Current Status of the DPOSS Effort at Caltech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odewahn, S. C.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the current status of a three-color survey of fields of the digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Eventually, the DPOSS catalogs will be released to the astronomical community. The final catalog will contain an estimated minimum of 50,000,000 (50 million) galaxies, and over 2,000,000,000 (2 billion) stars, down to the equivalent blue limiting magnitude of 22., and with star-galaxy classifications accurate to 90% or better down to the equivalent blue magnitude of 21. An important addition is a program to collect extensive CCD calibration data in the Gunn gri system with the Palomar 60". This represents a considerable advance over other, currently existing optical sky surveys based on large-format photographic plates. A great variety of scientific projects should become possible using this major data set, including the following: studies of galaxy clustering and of the large-scale structure in the low-redshift universe, as tests of structure formation models; galaxy counts at moderate depth, as a function of magnitudes, colors, and morphology, to be used in tests of galaxy evolution over the past few Gigayears; a search for high redshift (z > 4) quasars, and active galactic nuclei at lower redshifts; mass optical identifications of radio, IR, and x-ray sources; generation of objectively defined catalogs of clusters and groups of galaxies; a search for previously unknown sparse globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies; cataloging of low surface brightness galaxies; a search for objects with peculiar colors or variability; and many others. In particular, we review efforts to perform automatic galaxy classification using artificial neural network image classifiers. This powerful technique is used to map a multivariate photometric parameter space to the revised Hubble system of galaxy classification. We present a new morphological classification approach using Fourier image models to identify barred and ringed spiral systems.