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Sample records for microfilaments

  1. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, Patrick M.; Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.

  2. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.

  3. Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Microfilaments were visualized in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon to assess their possible role in tip growth and gravitropism. The relative effectiveness of rhodamine phalloidin (with or without m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS)) and of immunofluorescence (using the C4 antibody) was evaluated for actin localization in the same cell type. Using immunofluorescence, microfilaments were primarily in an axial orientation within the apical cell. However, a more complex network of microfilaments was observed using rhodamine phalloidin after MBS pretreatment, especially when viewed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This method revealed a rich three dimensional network of fine microfilaments throughout the apical cell, including the extreme apex. Although there were numerous internal microfilaments, peripheral microfilaments were more abundant. No major redistribution of microfilaments was detected after gravistimulation. The combination of MBS, rhodamine phalloidin, and confocal laser scanning microscopy preserves and reveals microfilaments remarkably well and documents perhaps the most extensive F-actin network visualized to date in any tip-growing cell.

  4. A Microfilament-eruption Mechanism for Solar Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-09-01

    Recent investigations indicate that solar coronal jets result from eruptions of small-scale chromospheric filaments, called minifilaments; that is, the jets are produced by scaled-down versions of typical-sized filament eruptions. We consider whether solar spicules might in turn be scaled-down versions of coronal jets, being driven by eruptions of microfilaments. Assuming a microfilament's size is about a spicule's width (∼300 km), the estimated occurrence number plotted against the estimated size of erupting filaments, minifilaments, and microfilaments approximately follows a power-law distribution (based on counts of coronal mass ejections, coronal jets, and spicules), suggesting that many or most spicules could result from microfilament eruptions. Observed spicule-base Ca ii brightenings plausibly result from such microfilament eruptions. By analogy with coronal jets, microfilament eruptions might produce spicules with many of their observed characteristics, including smooth rise profiles, twisting motions, and EUV counterparts. The postulated microfilament eruptions are presumably eruptions of twisted-core micro-magnetic bipoles that are ∼1.″0 wide. These explosive bipoles might be built and destabilized by merging and cancelation of approximately a few to 100 G magnetic-flux elements of size ≲ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5{--}1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 0. If, however, spicules are relatively more numerous than indicated by our extrapolated distribution, then only a fraction of spicules might result from this proposed mechanism.

  5. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Paves, Heiti; Truve, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area. PMID:15102327

  6. Calcium influx through stretch-activated channels mediates microfilament reorganization in osteoblasts under simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingzhi; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Shengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Airong; Shang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    We have explored the role of Ca2+ signaling in microfilament reorganization of osteoblasts induced by simulated weightlessness using a random positioning machine (RPM). The RPM-induced alterations of cell morphology, microfilament distribution, cell proliferation, cell migration, cytosol free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and protein expression in MG63 osteoblasts were investigated. Simulated weightlessness reduced cell size, disrupted microfilament, inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, and induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Gadolinium chloride (Gd), an inhibitor for stretch-activated channels, attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i and microfilament disruption. Further, the expression of calmodulin was significantly increased by simulated weightlessness, and an inhibitor of calmodulin, W-7, aggravated microfilament disruption. Our findings demonstrate that simulated weightlessness induces Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated channels, then results in microfilament disruption.

  7. Selective, pulsed CVD of platinum on microfilament gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Huber, R.J.; Senturia, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    A post-processing, selective micro-chemical vapor deposition (``micro-CVD``) technology for the deposition of catalytic films on surface-micromachined, nitride-passivated polysilicon filaments has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure deposition of Pt on microfilaments was accomplished by thermal decomposition of Pt acetylacetonate; deposition occurs selectively only on those filaments which are electrically heated. Catalyst morphology, characterized by SEM, can be controlled by altering deposition time, filament temperature, and through the use of pulsed heating of the filament during deposition. Morphology plays an important role in determining the sensitivity of these devices when used as combustible gas sensors.

  8. In situ localization of F-actin microfilaments in the vasculature of the porcine retina.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B I; Langille, B L; Gotlieb, A I

    1987-10-01

    The organization of F-actin microfilaments in the vascular endothelium of the porcine retina was studied in situ using rhodamine phalloidin labelling and fluorescence microscopy. A comparison was made between arterial and venous endothelial-cell microfilament distribution. The arterial cells in straight segments, bifurcations and branch points were elongated with their long axis in the direction of flow. Venous endothelial cells, on the other hand, were ellipsoid to rhomboid in shape throughout. F-actin was localized at the periphery of both arterial and venous endothelial cells. Prominent central microfilament bundles, similar to in vitro stress fibres, were oriented parallel to the long axis of arterial cells but were rarely present in venous cells. Only occasional venous endothelial cells contained short central actin filaments which were mainly in the venules. Central microfilaments were not identified in pre-capillary, capillary, or post-capillary endothelial cells. Incubation of the retinal organ cultures for 24 hr resulted in loss of the central microfilaments while peripheral staining persisted. Short-term incubation of the retinas in organ culture with low-dose cytochalasin B resulted in disruption of the central microfilaments while the peripheral actin microfilaments remained intact. The central microfilament bundles may reflect an adaptive response to arterial blood flow and may indeed be a sensitive dynamic system reflecting the influence of environmental factors on endothelial cells. PMID:3428383

  9. Actin microfilaments in presumptive statocytes of root caps and coleoptiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. G.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    Rhodamine-phalloidin was used to determine the distribution of actin microfilament bundles (mfb) in cells thought to be the site of gravity perception (statocytes) in coleoptiles and root caps of Zea mays and Hordeum vulgare. In coleoptile cells, amyloplasts were usually observed in close proximity to thick mfb, which often appeared to divide into finer mfb adjacent to individual amyloplasts. The nucleus in these cells was surrounded by an extensive network of mfb, which were connected to thicker transvacuolar mfb. Columella cells of the root cap contained an extensive reticulum of fine mfb throughout the protoplast, but lacked the much thicker mfb seen in coleoptile cells. The distribution and extent of mfb observed in fixed cells correlates with patterns of streaming and amyloplast movement seen in living cells. A possible role for actin mfb in the perception of gravity is discussed.

  10. Differential regulation of actin microfilaments by human MICAL proteins

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster MICAL protein is essential for the neuronal growth cone machinery that functions through plexin- and semaphorin-mediated axonal signaling. Drosophila MICAL is also involved in regulating myofilament organization and synaptic structures, and serves as an actin disassembly factor downstream of plexin-mediated axonal repulsion. In mammalian cells there are three known isoforms, MICAL1, MICAL2 and MICAL3, as well as the MICAL-like proteins MICAL-L1 and MICAL-L2, but little is known of their function, and information comes almost exclusively from neural cells. In this study we show that in non-neural cells human MICALs are required for normal actin organization, and all three MICALs regulate actin stress fibers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the generation of reactive oxygen species by MICAL proteins is crucial for their actin-regulatory function. However, although MICAL1 is auto-inhibited by its C-terminal coiled-coil region, MICAL2 remains constitutively active and affects stress fibers. These data suggest differential but complementary roles for MICAL1 and MICAL2 in actin microfilament regulation. PMID:22331357

  11. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wong, Chris Kc; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs) known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation). In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8-19 spermatids in the rat testis) is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES), respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis. PMID:26608945

  12. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Wong, Chris KC; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs) known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation). In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8–19 spermatids in the rat testis) is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES), respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis. PMID:26608945

  13. The Chromosomal Passenger Protein Birc5b Organizes Microfilaments and Germ Plasm in the Zebrafish Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sreelaja; Marlow, Florence; Abrams, Elliott; Kapp, Lee; Mullins, Mary C.; Pelegri, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule-microfilament interactions are important for cytokinesis and subcellular localization of proteins and mRNAs. In the early zebrafish embryo, astral microtubule-microfilament interactions also facilitate a stereotypic segregation pattern of germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (GP RNPs), which is critical for their eventual selective inheritance by germ cells. The precise mechanisms and molecular mediators for both cytoskeletal interactions and GP RNPs segregation are the focus of intense research. Here, we report the molecular identification of a zebrafish maternal-effect mutation motley as Birc5b, a homolog of the mammalian Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) component Survivin. The meiosis and mitosis defects in motley/birc5b mutant embryos are consistent with failed CPC function, and additional defects in astral microtubule remodeling contribute to failures in the initiation of cytokinesis furrow ingression. Unexpectedly, the motley/birc5b mutation also disrupts cortical microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation during early cell divisions. Birc5b localizes to the tips of astral microtubules along with polymerizing cortical F-actin and the GP RNPs. Mutant Birc5b co-localizes with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, but fails to associate with astral microtubule tips, leading to disorganized microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation defects. Thus, maternal Birc5b localizes to astral microtubule tips and associates with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, potentially linking the two cytoskeletons to mediate microtubule-microfilament reorganization and GP RNP aggregation during early embryonic cell cycles in zebrafish. In addition to the known mitotic function of CPC components, our analyses reveal a non-canonical role for an evolutionarily conserved CPC protein in microfilament reorganization and germ plasm aggregation. PMID:23637620

  14. Cytomagnetometric study of interactions between microfilaments and microtubules by measuring the energy imparted to magnetic particles within the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Iku; Kawamura, Kazuhisa

    2005-05-01

    Cytomagnetometric measurements of the energy imparted to intracellular organelles were made to study the relationship between microtubules and microfilaments. Depolymerization of microtubules by colchicine resulted in an increase in the energy suggesting that microtubules in control condition suppress the activity of microfilaments.

  15. Villin: The major microfilament-associated protein of the intestinal microvillus

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, Anthony; Weber, Klaus

    1979-01-01

    The major protein associated with actin in the microfilament core of intestinal microvilli has been purified. This protein, for which we propose the name villin, has a polypeptide molecular weight of approximately 95,000. Two arguments suggest that villin may be the microvillus crossfilament protein that links the microfilament core laterally down its length to the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. First, electron microscopy shows that crossfilaments stay attached to isolated membrane-free microvillus cores. Calculation of the expected abundance of the crossfilament protein shows that only villin is present in sufficient quantity to account for these structures. Second, decoration of microvillus cores by antibodies to either actin or villin, followed by ferritin-labeled second antibody in a sandwich procedure, results in specific labeling of the cores in both cases. The antivillin decoration, however, gives rise to a greater increase in diameter, in agreement with a model in which villin projects from the F-actin microfilament core. Villin is distinct from α-actinin, a protein suggested to be involved in membrane anchorage of microfilaments in nonmuscle cells. The two proteins differ in molecular weight. Specific antibodies against villin and α-actinin show no immunological crossreactivity. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that villin is located in the microvilli of the brush border whereas α-actinin is absent from the microvilli but is found in the terminal web. In addition, villin is not found in microfilament bundles of tissue culture cells, which are rich in α-actinin. Thus, villin and α-actinin appear to be immunologically and functionally different proteins. Images PMID:287075

  16. Cytoplasmic streaming emerges naturally from hydrodynamic self-organisation of a microfilament suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Francis; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is the ubiquitous phenomenon of deliberate, active circulation of the entire liquid contents of a plant or animal cell by the walking of motor proteins on polymer filament tracks. Its manifestation in the plant kingdom is particularly striking, where many cells exhibit highly organised patterns of flow. How these regimented flow templates develop is biologically unclear, but there is growing experimental evidence to support hydrodynamically-mediated self-organisation of the underlying microfilament tracks. Using the spirally-streaming giant internodal cells of the characean algae Chara and Nitella as our prototype, we model the developing sub-cortical streaming cytoplasm as a continuum microfilament suspension subject to hydrodynamic and geometric forcing. We show that our model successfully reproduces emergent streaming behaviour by evolving from a totally disordered initial state into a steady characean ``conveyor belt'' configuration as a consequence of the cell geometry, and discuss applicability to other classes of steadily streaming plant cells.

  17. On spatial stabilization of dielectric barrier discharge microfilaments by residual heat build-up in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ráhel, Jozef; Szalay, Zsolt; Čech, Jan; Morávek, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Microfilaments of dielectric barrier discharge are known for their multiple re-appearance at the same spot on dielectrics. This effect of localized re-appearance is driven by residual excited species and ions, surface charge deposited on the dielectric and the local temperature build-up resulting in the local increase of reduced electric field E/ΔN. To assess the magnitude of the latter, the breakdown voltage vs. temperature up to 180 °C was carefully measured at coplanar DBD and used as an input into the numerical simulation of heat build-up by the train of discharge pulses. An average reduction of breakdown voltage was found to be 20 V/K. The model predicted a quasi-stable microfilament temperature into which the thermal build-up rapidly converges. Its magnitude agreed well with the reported rotational temperature of similar electrode configuration. The impact of quasi-stable temperature on microfilament formation dynamics is further discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  18. The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization.

    PubMed

    Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A; Allan, David S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Garduño, Rafael A

    2009-11-01

    A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila. PMID:19687203

  19. [Study of a lysis medium stabilizing microfilaments and microtubules in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Determination of experimental conditions which allow the evaluation of the variations in the ratio of non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin during the reorganization of the cytoskeletal cell system is of most valuable importance. In order to prepare cell homogenates which would reflect the in vivo situation, we tested in vitro a lysis medium which stabilized both microfilaments and microtubules, which were determined by DNase inhibition assays and colchicine binding assays respectively. This lysis medium containing 10 mM potassium phosphate, 1mM magnesium chloride, 5 mM EGTA, 1 M hexylene glycol, 1% Triton X-100, pH 6.4, used at 4 degrees C a) diffused rapidly into the cells; b) did not denature actin and tubulin; c) did not displace the equilibrium between non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin, allowing biochemical assays on cell homogenates; d) blocked the evolution of the cytoskeletal system and permitted structural studies; e) and allowed the decoration of microfilaments by heavy meromyosin. PMID:6241485

  20. Osmium ferricyanide fixation improves microfilament preservation and membrane visualization in a variety of animal cell types.

    PubMed

    McDonald, K

    1984-02-01

    Using a fixation formula which includes adding potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) to the osmium step and an en bloc aqueous uranyl acetate step before dehydration we have looked at cells from mammals, birds, amphibia, algae, and higher plants and we have collaborated in fixing cells of teleost fish. In every cell type except the algae and higher plants the final EM image was improved by the OsFeCN-uranium method. The most common improvement was an increase in the membrane contrast but more significantly, some cells show improved preservation of microfilaments. We conclude that the OsFeCN adds contrast to all classes of membrane and does not destroy microfilaments to the extent that osmium alone does. Adding uranyl acetate to the cells may protect delicate filamentous structures from collapse during dehydration and embedding. We have preliminary evidence in PtK1 cells that addition of tannic acid after OsFeCN may function in a similar manner. This method is recommended for any animal cell type where improved visualization of membranes and filaments is required. PMID:6539826

  1. The proline-rich focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP is a ligand for profilins.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M; Giehl, K; Abel, K; Haffner, C; Jarchau, T; Hoppe, V; Jockusch, B M; Walter, U

    1995-01-01

    Profilins are small proteins that form complexes with G-actin and phosphoinositides and are therefore considered to link the microfilament system to signal transduction pathways. In addition, they bind to poly-L-proline, but the biological significance of this interaction is not yet known. The recent molecular cloning of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an established in vivo substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, revealed the presence of a proline-rich domain which prompted us to investigate a possible interaction with profilins. VASP is a microfilament and focal adhesion associated protein which is also concentrated in highly dynamic regions of the cell cortex. Here, we demonstrate that VASP is a natural proline-rich profilin ligand. Human platelet VASP bound directly to purified profilins from human platelets, calf thymus and birch pollen. Moreover, VASP and a novel protein were specifically extracted from total cell lysates by profilin affinity chromatography and subsequently eluted either with poly-L-proline or a peptide corresponding to a proline-rich VASP motif. Finally, the subcellular distributions of VASP and profilin suggest that both proteins also interact within living cells. Our data support the hypothesis that profilin and VASP act in concert to convey signal transduction to actin filament formation. Images PMID:7737110

  2. The complex dynamic network of microtubule and microfilament cytasters of the leech zygote.

    PubMed

    Cantillana, V; Urrutia, M; Ubilla, A; Fernández, J

    2000-12-01

    The organization of the cytoskeleton in the early first interphase zygote and its involvement in organelle redistribution were studied in the glossiphoniid leech Theromyzon trizonare by confocal and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and time-lapse video imaging after microinjection of labeled tubulin and/or actin and loading with a mitotracker. The cytoskeleton consists of an inner or endoplasmic and an outer or ectoplasmic domain. The inner domain consists of a monaster whose fibers retract from the zygote periphery by the end of the early first interphase. The outer domain is built upon a network of microtubules and microfilaments cytasters. Short pulses of microinjected labeled actin or tubulin and Taxol treatment demonstrate that cytasters are centers of microtubule and microfilament nucleation. Immunostaining with anti-centrophilin, anti-BX-63, and anti-AH-6 indicates that the network of cytasters includes centrosomal antigens. Cytasters move in an orderly fashion at speeds of 0.5-2 micrometer/min, in an energy-dependent process retarded and finally blocked by the ATP analogue AMP-PNP and high concentrations of Taxol. Colliding cytasters fuse and form larger cytoskeletal nucleation centers. The leech zygote is a highly compartmentalized cell whose cytasters function as articulated components of a very dynamic cytoskeletal system engaged in bulk transportation of organelles during ooplasmic segregation. PMID:11087633

  3. Intranuclear bundles of microfilaments and microtubules in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of a lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, D W; Adriaensen, D; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1988-01-01

    Intranuclear microtubular-microfilamentous rod-like inclusions were investigated in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of lungfishes. In conventional electron microscopy, these inclusions reveal a wide variety in appearance, depending on their orientation to the plane of sectioning. Whereas originally they were merely interpreted as a bundle of microfilaments, application of a goniometer stage showed the rod- or spindle-shaped intranuclear inclusions to have a basic substructure of parallel arranged microtubules among microfilaments, which are clearly connected to chromatin granules, occasionally penetrating dense areas of chromatin. The chemical nature and biological significance of these structures, which so far remain enigmatic, are discussed. PMID:3227775

  4. Overexpression of plastin 3 in Sertoli cells disrupts actin microfilament bundle homeostasis and perturbs the tight junction barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, actin microfilaments arranged as bundles near the Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the Sertoli cell-cell interface that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) undergo extensive re-organization by converting between bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to give plasticity to the F-actin network. This is crucial to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. Herein, we sought to examine changes in the actin microfilament organization at the Sertoli cell BTB using an in vitro model since Sertoli cells cultured in vitro is known to establish a functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo. Plastin 3, a known actin microfilament cross-linker and bundling protein, when overexpressed in Sertoli cells using a mammalian expression vector pCI-neo was found to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ-barrier function even though its overexpression increased the overall actin bundling activity in these cells. Furthermore, plastin 3 overexpression also perturbed the localization and distribution of BTB-associated proteins, such as occludin-ZO1 and N-cadherin-β-catenin, this thus destabilized the barrier function. Collectively, these data illustrate that a delicate balance of actin microfilaments between organized in bundles vs. an unbundled/branched configuration is crucial to confer the homeostasis of the BTB and its integrity. PMID:27559491

  5. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus infection induces dramatic changes in the tight junctions and microfilaments of polarized IPEC-J2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Gao, Junkai; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Viral infection converts the normal constitution of a cell to optimise viral entry, replication, and virion production. These conversions contain alterations or disruptions of the tight and adherens junctions between cells as part of their pathogenesis, and reorganise cellular microfilaments that initiate, sustain and spread the viral infections and so on. Using porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and a model of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we researched the interaction between tight and adherens junctions and microfilaments of IPEC-J2 cells with these viruses. In our work, the results showed that IPEC-J2 cells were susceptible to TGEV and PEDV infection. And TGEV could impair the barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 cells at early stages of infection through down-regulating some proteins of tight and adherens junctions, while PEDV cloud cause a slight of damage in the integrity of epithelial barrier. In addition, they also could affect the microfilaments remodelling of IPEC-J2 cells, and the drug-interfered microfilaments could inhibit viral replication and release. Furthermore, PEDV+TGEV co-infection was more aggravating to damage of tight junctions and remodelling of microfilaments than their single infection. Finally, the PEDV and TGEV infection affected the MAPK pathway, and inhibition of MAPK pathway regulated the changes of tight junctions and microfilaments of cells. These studies provide a new insight from the perspective of the epithelial barrier and microfilaments into the pathogenesis of PEDV and TGEV. PMID:25173696

  6. Fertilization cone formation in starfish oocytes: the role of the egg cortex actin microfilaments in sperm incorporation.

    PubMed

    Kyozuka, K; Osanai, K

    1988-07-01

    The process of sperm incorporation into starfish (Asterias amurensis) oocytes was examined by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The fertilization cone began to form at the place where the acrosomal process fused with the egg surface and developed into an inverted conical mass containing a small amount of electron-dense cytoplasm. Microfilaments, which stained with NBD-phallacidin, were detected in the fertilization cone. Microvillar protrusions from the fully grown fertilization cone engulfed the sperm head outside the fertilization membrane. The sperm organelles were incorporated into the egg cortex with the absorption of the protrusions. Cytochalasin B inhibited sperm incorporation, fertilization cone formation, and actin filament organization. It is suggested that the development and reduction of the fertilization cone, which depend on the functioning of microfilaments, are necessary for sperm incorporation in starfish. PMID:3235041

  7. Soybean (Glycine max) agglutinin binds to corneal endothelial cells during wound repair and alters their microfilament pattern.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S R; Wood, M

    1997-05-01

    In the present study we have examined soybean (Glycine max) agglutinin (SBA) binding to cells of the rat corneal endothelium during wound repair. Circular transcorneal freeze injuries were given to the endothelia and the tissues were organ cultured at 37 degrees C in basal media Eagle with 10% serum for up to 72 hrs. SBA failed to bind to the surface of non-injured corneal endothelium, but strongly bound to cells involved in the wound repair process. Punctate surface binding was detected 24 hrs. post-injury, but stronger binding was observed at 48 hrs. after wounding. In this case, binding appeared to be distinctly distributed around the cell periphery. To investigate SBA binding during wound repair, endothelia were cultured in the presence of SBA (100 and 200 micrograms/ml). Cell migration into the wound area, and hence subsequent wound repair, was not affected at these concentrations. However, both concentrations altered cell morphology and microfilament patterns. Phalloidin staining of cells 24 hrs. after injury revealed that microfilaments appeared thinner and less in number. In addition, distinct aggregations of actin-positive material were detected at cell-to-cell contacts. Cells around the tissue periphery do not partake in the repair process but displayed an SBA concentration dependent fragmentation of their circumferential microfilament bundles. At 48 hrs. post-injury, SBA-treated cells within the wound area, unlike their control counterparts, did not exhibit stress fibers. These results suggest that a SBA binding surface component is associated with the reorganization of actin during corneal endothelial wound repair, and that these cells can migrate across their natural basement membrane without the benefit of a highly organized microfilament cytoskeleton. PMID:9193787

  8. Cytoarchitecture of Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed rat kidney fibroblasts: butyrate-induced reorganization within the actin microfilament network.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P; Higgins, P J

    1988-10-01

    Murine sarcoma virus-transformed rat fibroblasts (KNRK cells) undergo marked cytoarchitectural reorganization during in vitro exposure to sodium-n-butyrate (NaB) resulting in restoration of (1) a more typical fibroblastoid morphology, (2) proper cell-to-cell orientation, and (3) substratum adherence. Augmented cell spreading, involving greater than 90% of the population, was a function of culture density and time of exposure to NaB (2 mM final concentration). Induced cell spreading reflected a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in both total cellular actin content and deposition of actin into the detergent-resistant cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal actin deposition in response to NaB was accompanied by the formation of occasionally dense, parallel alignments of F-actin-containing microfilaments and by a dramatic increase in the size and incidence of actin-enriched membrane ruffles. Long-term NaB-treated cells exhibited parallel orientations of microfilaments similar to those found in untransformed fibroblasts. Increased cytoskeletal actin occurred within 24 hr of NaB exposure, correlating with the initial reorganization of actin-containing microfilaments detected microscopically, and reflected concomitant 3-fold increases in cellular alpha-actinin and fibronectin content. In contrast, the amount of vimentin, tropomyosin, and tubulin in NaB-treated cells was significantly decreased. NaB-induced morphologic restructuring of sarcoma virus-transformed fibroblasts, thus, impacts on all three basic cytoskeletal systems. Selective increases, however, were evident in particular cytoskeletal proteins (actin, alpha-actinin, fibronectin) implicated in microfilament networking and cell spreading. PMID:2844835

  9. Observations of microtubules and microtubule-microfilament associations in osmotically treated cells of Micrasterias denticulata Bréb.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus-Url, G; Kiermayer, O

    1982-06-01

    As an extension of the observation and interpretation regarding the different microtubule systems of Micrasterias denticulata [12, 19], the existence of intertubular structures, such as microfilaments, which are strongly marked in osmotically treated cells, is especially interesting. The complex of microtubules and microfilaments occurs during post-telophase nuclear migration, probably engaged in the mechanism of movement. The arrangement of microtubules either parallel or perpendicular to the nuclear membrane is characteristic for the stage of nuclear migration. Another microtubule system, the microtubule band in the cortical protoplasm of the isthmus region [12], is described during morphogenesis of the new half cell. Osmotically treated cells in the stage of septum formation demonstrate the presence of cross-linked microtubules near the plasmalemma and microtubule bundles, situated in the protoplasm between the secondary wall and the chloroplast, probably representing the microtubule system in the cortical protoplasm of the old half cell described by Kiermayer [12, 16]. The frequent appearance of microtubules and intertubular structures in differentiating cells of Micrasterias denticulata after osmotic treatment is discussed along with implication for stabilization of microtubules, cross bridges, and microfilaments. PMID:6889505

  10. Complex relationship between TCTP, microtubules and actin microfilaments regulates cell shape in normal and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Franck; Pascal, Aude; Arnal, Isabelle; Le Clainche, Christophe; Chesnel, Franck; Kubiak, Jacek Z.

    2009-01-01

    Translationally Controlled Tumor-associated Protein (TCTP) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein implicated in cancers. Here we demonstrate that interactions of TCTP with microtubules (MTs) are functionally important but indirect, and we reveal novel interaction of TCTP with the actin cytoskeleton. Firstly, immunofluorescence in Xenopus XL2 cells revealed cytoplasmic fibers stained with TCTP but not with tubulin antibodies, as well as MT-free of TCTP. Furthermore, TCTP localized to a subset of actin-rich fibers in migrating cells. Secondly XlTCTP did not affect in vitro assembly/disassembly of MTs, and lacked MT binding affinity both in pull-down assays and in cell-free extracts. Although TCTP also failed to bind to purified F-actin, it associated with microfilaments in cell-free extracts. Thirdly, TCTP concentrated in mitotic spindle did not colocalize with MTs, and was easily dissociated from these structures except at the poles. Finally, RNAi knockdown of TCTP in XL2 and HeLa cells provoked drastic, MT-dependent, shape change. These data show that although TCTP interacts with MTs it does not behave as classic MT Associated Protein (MAP). Our evidence for an association of TCTP with F-actin structures, and for an involvement in cell shape regulation, implicates this protein in integrating cytoskeletal interations both in interphase and mitosis providing a new avenue to fully understand the role of TCTP. PMID:19168579

  11. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Francis G.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species. PMID:23940314

  12. The Role of Microfilaments in Early Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calarco, Patricia G.

    2005-04-01

    Mouse oocyte microfilaments (MF) were perturbed by depolymerization (cytochalasin B) or stabilization (jasplakinolide) and correlated meiotic defects examined by confocal microscopy. MF, microtubules, and mitochondria were vitally stained; centrosomes ([gamma]-tubulin), after fixation. MF depolymerization by cytochalasin in culture medium did not affect central migration of centrosomes, mitochondria, or nuclear breakdown (GVBD); some MF signal was localized around the germinal vesicle (GV). In maturation-blocking medium (containing IBMX), central movement was curtailed and cortical MF aggregations made the plasma membrane wavy. Occasional long MF suggested that not all MF were depolymerized. MF stabilization by jasplakinolide led to MF aggregations throughout the cytoplasm. GVBD occurred (unless IBMX was present) but no spindle formed. Over time, most oocytes constricted creating a dumbbell shape with MF concentrated under one-half of the oocyte cortex and on either side of the constriction. In IBMX medium, the MF-containing half of the dumbbell over time sequestered the GV, MF, mitochondria, and one to two large cortical centrosomes; the non-MF half appeared empty. Cumulus processes contacted the oocyte surface (detected by microtubule content) and mirrored MF distribution. Results demonstrated that MF play an essential role in meiosis, primarily through cortically mediated events, including centrosome localization, spindle (or GV) movement to the periphery, activation of (polar body) constriction, and establishment of oocyte polarity. The presence of a cortical “organizing pole” is hypothesized.

  13. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-08-27

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species. PMID:23940314

  14. Rearrangement of Actin Microfilaments in Plant Root Hairs Responding to Rhizobium etli Nodulation Signals1

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Luis; Vidali, Luis; Domínguez, Jimena; Pérez, Héctor; Sánchez, Federico; Hepler, Peter K.; Quinto, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    The response of the actin cytoskeleton to nodulation (Nod) factors secreted by Rhizobium etli has been studied in living root hairs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) that were microinjected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin. In untreated control cells or cells treated with the inactive chitin oligomer, the actin cytoskeleton was organized into long bundles that were oriented parallel to the long axis of the root hair and extended into the apical zone. Upon exposure to R. etli Nod factors, the filamentous actin became fragmented, as indicated by the appearance of prominent masses of diffuse fluorescence in the apical region of the root hair. These changes in the actin cytoskeleton were rapid, observed as soon as 5 to 10 min after application of the Nod factors. It was interesting that the filamentous actin partially recovered in the continued presence of the Nod factor: by 1 h, long bundles had reformed. However, these cells still contained a significant amount of diffuse fluorescence in the apical zone and in the nuclear area, presumably indicating the presence of short actin filaments. These results indicate that Nod factors alter the organization of actin microfilaments in root hair cells, and this could be a prelude for the formation of infection threads. PMID:9501120

  15. The role of microtubules and microfilaments in the hydrosmotic response to antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Parisi, M; Pisam, M; Mérot, J; Chevalier, J; Bourguet, J

    1985-07-25

    To test the effects of colchicine and cytochalasin B on the ADH-induced response, unidirectional and net water fluxes were measured at one or two minutes intervals in frog urinary bladder. The action of these agents on the appearance of intramembrane particles aggregates in the luminal membrane of target cells under oxytocin stimulation and the changes in the tissue ultrastructure induced by cytochalasin B were also studied. It was observed that: the time-course of the response to oxytocin was strongly slowed by colchicine while the washout was not affected; the time-course of the 'on and off' of the response to oxytocin was not modified by cytochalasin B; cytochalasin B pretreatment proportionally reduced unidirectional and net water fluxes measured after glutaraldehyde fixation; the combined action of colchicine and cytochalasin B proportionally reduced the net water flux and the number of intramembrane particles aggregates, observed in freeze-fracture studies; after cytochalasin B action the dilation of intercellular spaces classically observed under oxytocin stimulation is strongly reduced. It is concluded that: microtubules probably play an important role in the water channels plug-in, but not in their removal; microfilaments integrity is necessary for the mechanisms inducing intercellular space dilation and the observed results confirm that water permeability is controlled by the number of permeation units present in the luminal border of granular cells and probably represented by the intramembrane particle aggregates. PMID:2410025

  16. Microtubules and Microfilaments in Fixed and Permeabilized Cells are Selectively Decorated by Nerve Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasi, S.; Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Marchisio, P. C.; Calissano, P.

    1982-02-01

    A specific antibody against nerve growth factor (NGF) and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy have been used to follow the in vitro binding of NGF to cells made permeable to large molecules. All cells tested, both target (sensory neurons and PC12 cells) and nontarget (3T3, BKH 2I, C6 glioma cells), revealed a decoration of cytoskeletal structures which on the basis of their form, reactivity with antibodies, and sensitivity to specific drugs may be identified as microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs). The decoration of either structure depends on the fixation and permeabilization conditions: MFs, in the form of stress fibers, are stained by NGF when the plasma membrane is permeabilized with methanol/acetone; MTs become intensely stained when the plasma membrane is solubilized with a nonionic detergent in the presence of a MT-stabilizing medium. The two procedures do not affect the staining of these structures with specific antibodies. Binding of 125I-labeled NGF to PC12 cells was not competitively inhibited by a 100-fold excess of several positively charged proteins but it was markedly decreased in the presence of DNase I. 125I-Labeled NGF interacted with MTs and F-actin (fixed with paraformaldehyde) in a range of concentrations similar to that used for their cellular localization with NGF-anti-NGF. Our studies show that the specificity and affinity of NGF binding to MTs and MFs is in the range of that of antibodies against tubulin and actin. The possible relevance of these findings to the mechanism of action of NGF in target cells is discussed.

  17. A marginal band-associated protein has properties of both microtubule- and microfilament-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The marginal band of nucleated erythrocytes is a microtubule organelle under rigorous quantitative and spatial control, with properties quite different from those of the microtubule organelles of cultured cells. Previous results suggest that proteins other than tubulin may participate in organizing the marginal band, and may interact with elements of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton in addition to microtubules. To identify such species, we raised mAbs against the proteins that assemble from chicken brain homogenates with tubulin. One such antibody binds to a single protein in chicken erythrocytes, and produces an immunofluorescence pattern colocalizing with marginal band microtubules. Several properties of this protein are identical to those of ezrin, a protein isolated from brush border and localized to motile elements of cultured cells. A significant proportion of the antigen is not soluble in erythrocytes, as determined by extraction with nonionic detergent. This cytoskeleton-associated fraction is unaffected by treatments that solubilize the marginal band microtubules. The protein has properties of both microtubule- and microfilament-associated proteins. In the accompanying manuscript (Goslin, K., E. Birgbauer, G. Banker, and F. Solomon. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:1621-1631), we show that the same antibody recognizes a component of growth cones with a similar dual nature. In early embryonic red blood cells, the antigen is dispersed throughout the cell and does not colocalize with assembled tubulin. Its confinement to the marginal band during development follows rather than precedes that of microtubules. These results, along with previous work, suggest models for the formation of the marginal band. PMID:2677023

  18. Ezrin: a regulator of actin microfilaments in cell junctions of the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Gungor-Ordueri, N Ece; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-01-01

    Ezrin, radixin, moesin and merlin (ERM) proteins are highly homologous actin-binding proteins that share extensive sequence similarity with each other. These proteins tether integral membrane proteins and their cytoplasmic peripheral proteins (e.g., adaptors, nonreceptor protein kinases and phosphatases) to the microfilaments of actin-based cytoskeleton. Thus, these proteins are crucial to confer integrity of the apical membrane domain and its associated junctional complex, namely the tight junction and the adherens junction. Since ectoplasmic specialization (ES) is an F-actin-rich testis-specific anchoring junction-a highly dynamic ultrastructure in the seminiferous epithelium due to continuous transport of germ cells, in particular spermatids, across the epithelium during the epithelial cycle-it is conceivable that ERM proteins are playing an active role in these events. Although these proteins were first reported almost 25 years and have since been extensively studied in multiple epithelia/endothelia, few reports are found in the literature to examine their role in the actin filament bundles at the ES. Studies have shown that ezrin is also a constituent protein of the actin-based tunneling nanotubes (TNT) also known as intercellular bridges, which are transient cytoplasmic tubular ultrastructures that transport signals, molecules and even organelles between adjacent and distant cells in an epithelium to coordinate cell events that occur across an epithelium. Herein, we critically evaluate recent data on ERM in light of recent findings in the field in particular ezrin regarding its role in actin dynamics at the ES in the testis, illustrating additional studies are warranted to examine its physiological significance in spermatogenesis. PMID:25652626

  19. Quantitative analysis of changes in actin microfilament contribution to cell plate development in plant cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sano, Toshio; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant cells divide by the formation of new cross walls, known as cell plates, from the center to periphery of each dividing cell. Formation of the cell plate occurs in the phragmoplast, a complex structure composed of membranes, microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs). Disruption of phragmoplast MTs was previously found to completely inhibit cell plate formation and expansion, indicative of their crucial role in the transport of cell plate membranes and materials. In contrast, disruption of MFs only delays cell plate expansion but does not completely inhibit cell plate formation. Despite such findings, the significance and molecular mechanisms of MTs and MFs remain largely unknown. Results Time-sequential changes in MF-distribution were monitored by live imaging of tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing the GFP-actin binding domain 2 (GFP-ABD2) fusion protein, which vitally co-stained with the endocytic tracer, FM4-64, that labels the cell plate. During cytokinesis, MFs accumulated near the newly-separated daughter nuclei towards the emerging cell plate, and subsequently approached the expanding cell plate edges. Treatment with an actin polymerization inhibitor caused a decrease in the cell plate expansion rate, which was quantified using time-lapse imaging and regression analysis. Our results demonstrated time-sequential changes in the contribution of MFs to cell plate expansion; MF-disruption caused about a 10% decrease in the cell plate expansion rate at the early phase of cytokinesis, but about 25% at the late phase. MF-disruption also caused malformation of the emerging cell plate at the early phase, indicative of MF involvement in early cell plate formation and expansion. The dynamic movement of endosomes around the cell plate was also inhibited by treatment with an actin polymerization inhibitor and a myosin ATPase inhibitor, respectively. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) revealed that MFs were involved in

  20. A stochastic thermostat algorithm for coarse-grained thermomechanical modeling of large-scale soft matters: Theory and application to microfilaments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong

    2014-04-15

    As all-atom molecular dynamics method is limited by its enormous computational cost, various coarse-grained strategies have been developed to extend the length scale of soft matters in the modeling of mechanical behaviors. However, the classical thermostat algorithm in highly coarse-grained molecular dynamics method would underestimate the thermodynamic behaviors of soft matters (e.g. microfilaments in cells), which can weaken the ability of materials to overcome local energy traps in granular modeling. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics modeling of microfilament fragments (G-actin clusters), a new stochastic thermostat algorithm is developed to retain the representation of thermodynamic properties of microfilaments at extra coarse-grained level. The accuracy of this stochastic thermostat algorithm is validated by all-atom MD simulation. This new stochastic thermostat algorithm provides an efficient way to investigate the thermomechanical properties of large-scale soft matters.

  1. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Tasripoo, Kriengsak; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments) and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P > .05). At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate. PMID:21234419

  2. The force induced by organelles' weight in the microfilament is in the range of 0.1-1 pN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun; Wei, Dong; Zhuang, Feng Y.

    It has been well documented that a microgravity environment can bring about many changes in cell metabolism. Can mammalian cells feel the gravity directly? At present, arguments surrounding the problem are difficult to be answered through experiments. However, using finite element simulation to estimate the force exerted on the microfilament meshwork model, we demonstrated a possible way through which gravity acts on the cytoskeleton system. This system, which includes microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, is responsible for the retention of cell shape and plays a role in many aspects related to cell proliferation and function. Many organelles, such as ribosomes and nucleus, are deposited, hinged, or attached on the cytoskeleton system. The weight of organelles can deform the cytoskeleton system and can induce force in it. Simulation results showed that the force induced by organelles' weight in the microfilament is in the range of 0.1-1 pN. The magnitude of the force is near the single Van der Waals bond force between the proteins, which is large enough to influence the hinge motion of proteins.

  3. Microtubule-associated Protein 2c Reorganizes Both Microtubules and Microfilaments into Distinct Cytological Structures in an Actin-binding Protein-280–deficient Melanoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, C. Casey; Leclerc, Nicole; Flanagan, Lisa A.; Lu, Mei; Janmey, Paul A.; Kosik, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of processes from cells often involves interactions between microtubules and microfilaments. Interactions between these two cytoskeletal systems are particularly apparent in neuronal growth cones. The juvenile isoform of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2c) is present in growth cones, where we hypothesize it mediates interactions between microfilaments and microtubules. To approach this problem in vivo, we used the human melanoma cell, M2, which lacks actin-binding protein-280 (ABP-280) and forms membrane blebs, which are not seen in wild-type or ABP-transfected cells. The microinjection of tau or mature MAP2 rescued the blebbing phenotype; MAP2c not only caused cessation of blebbing but also induced the formation of two distinct cellular structures. These were actin-rich lamellae, which often included membrane ruffles, and microtubule-bearing processes. The lamellae collapsed after treatment with cytochalasin D, and the processes retracted after treatment with colchicine. MAP2c was immunocytochemically visualized in zones of the cell that were devoid of tubulin, such as regions within the lamellae and in association with membrane ruffles. In vitro rheometry confirmed that MAP2c is an efficient actin gelation protein capable of organizing actin filaments into an isotropic array at very low concentrations; tau and mature MAP2 do not share this rheologic property. These results suggest that MAP2c engages in functionally specific interactions not only with microtubules but also with microfilaments. PMID:9049250

  4. Single microfilaments mediate the early steps of microtubule bundling during preprophase band formation in onion cotyledon epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Kajimura, Naoko; Takaoka, Akio; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Staehelin, L. Andrew; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The preprophase band (PPB) is a cytokinetic apparatus that determines the site of cell division in plants. It originates as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) in G2 and narrows to demarcate the future division site during late prophase. Studies with fluorescent probes have shown that PPBs contain F-actin during early stages of their development but become actin depleted in late prophase. Although this suggests that actins contribute to the early stages of PPB formation, how actins contribute to PPB-MT organization remains unsolved. To address this question, we used electron tomography to investigate the spatial relationship between microfilaments (MFs) and MTs at different stages of PPB assembly in onion cotyledon epidermal cells. We demonstrate that the PPB actins observed by fluorescence microscopy correspond to short, single MFs. A majority of the MFs are bound to MTs, with a subset forming MT-MF-MT bridging structures. During the later stages of PPB assembly, the MF-mediated links between MTs are displaced by MT-MT linkers as the PPB MT arrays mature into tightly packed MT bundles. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the primary function of actins during PPB formation is to mediate the initial bundling of the PPB MTs. PMID:27053663

  5. VLN2 Regulates Plant Architecture by Affecting Microfilament Dynamics and Polar Auxin Transport in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyang; Xie, Yurong; Guo, Xiuping; Sheng, Peike; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental and dynamic cytoskeleton network, microfilaments (MFs) are regulated by diverse actin binding proteins (ABPs). Villins are one type of ABPs belonging to the villin/gelsolin superfamily, and their function is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant defective in VILLIN2 (VLN2), which exhibits malformed organs, including twisted roots and shoots at the seedling stage. Cellular examination revealed that the twisted phenotype of the vln2 mutant is mainly caused by asymmetrical expansion of cells on the opposite sides of an organ. VLN2 is preferentially expressed in growing tissues, consistent with a role in regulating cell expansion in developing organs. Biochemically, VLN2 exhibits conserved actin filament bundling, severing and capping activities in vitro, with bundling and stabilizing activity being confirmed in vivo. In line with these findings, the vln2 mutant plants exhibit a more dynamic actin cytoskeleton network than the wild type. We show that vln2 mutant plants exhibit a hypersensitive gravitropic response, faster recycling of PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier), and altered auxin distribution. Together, our results demonstrate that VLN2 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture by modulating MF dynamics, recycling of PIN2, and polar auxin transport. PMID:26486445

  6. Vacuolar cytoplasmic phase separation in cultured mammalian cells involves the microfilament network and reduces motional properties of intracellular water.

    PubMed

    Henics, T; Wheatley, D N

    1997-10-01

    Hep-2, human epithelial carcinoma cells, and human foreskin fibroblasts (FF9 and FF13) were exposed to either an ultrafiltrate (< 50 kD) of human sera or the weak base, procaine hydrochloride, to induce reversible cytoplasmic vacuolization. The formation of vacuoles was shown not to be due to imbibition of medium. Ultrastructural details obtained from various stages of vacuole formation were compared. In both cases of induction vacuoles were irregular and often appeared membraneless, with little in the way of electron-dense content. They started to form in the perinuclear cytoplasm and progressed towards the periphery. Osmotic stress was not involved since mitochondria remained normal throughout a vacuolization episode. Vacuoles were often seen in close contact with filamentous structures, and this association remained detectable at late stages of the phenomenon. Fluorescent visualization of F-actin confirmed that the vacuoles were frequently bordered by microfilaments. No major metabolic impairment was apparent in vacuolized cells as judged by protein synthesis measurements, but nuclear fluorescence (DNA content) and forward light scatter (nuclear volume) by flow cytometric analysis suggested late S phase and G2 retardation. 1H-nmr relaxation measurements indicated intracellular water restricted in motional characteristics in vacuolized cells. The possibility of a restricted cytoplasmic phase separation as part of a transient adaptation response is raised, and a hypothesis to explain the findings is discussed. PMID:9462232

  7. Single microfilaments mediate the early steps of microtubule bundling during preprophase band formation in onion cotyledon epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Kajimura, Naoko; Takaoka, Akio; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Staehelin, L Andrew; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-01

    The preprophase band (PPB) is a cytokinetic apparatus that determines the site of cell division in plants. It originates as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) in G2 and narrows to demarcate the future division site during late prophase. Studies with fluorescent probes have shown that PPBs contain F-actin during early stages of their development but become actin depleted in late prophase. Although this suggests that actins contribute to the early stages of PPB formation, how actins contribute to PPB-MT organization remains unsolved. To address this question, we used electron tomography to investigate the spatial relationship between microfilaments (MFs) and MTs at different stages of PPB assembly in onion cotyledon epidermal cells. We demonstrate that the PPB actins observed by fluorescence microscopy correspond to short, single MFs. A majority of the MFs are bound to MTs, with a subset forming MT-MF-MT bridging structures. During the later stages of PPB assembly, the MF-mediated links between MTs are displaced by MT-MT linkers as the PPB MT arrays mature into tightly packed MT bundles. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the primary function of actins during PPB formation is to mediate the initial bundling of the PPB MTs. PMID:27053663

  8. ROP GTPase-Dependent Actin Microfilaments Promote PIN1 Polarization by Localized Inhibition of Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Deshu; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Zhang, Xingxing; Friml, Jiri; Scheres, Ben; Fu, Ying; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2012-01-01

    Cell polarization via asymmetrical distribution of structures or molecules is essential for diverse cellular functions and development of organisms, but how polarity is developmentally controlled has been poorly understood. In plants, the asymmetrical distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins involved in the cellular efflux of the quintessential phytohormone auxin plays a central role in developmental patterning, morphogenesis, and differential growth. Recently we showed that auxin promotes cell interdigitation by activating the Rho family ROP GTPases in leaf epidermal pavement cells. Here we found that auxin activation of the ROP2 signaling pathway regulates the asymmetric distribution of PIN1 by inhibiting its endocytosis. ROP2 inhibits PIN1 endocytosis via the accumulation of cortical actin microfilaments induced by the ROP2 effector protein RIC4. Our findings suggest a link between the developmental auxin signal and polar PIN1 distribution via Rho-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization and reveal the conservation of a design principle for cell polarization that is based on Rho GTPase-mediated inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:22509133

  9. The role of cytoskeleton in organizing growth cones: a microfilament- associated growth cone component depends upon microtubules for its localization

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between the cytoskeleton and the organization of polarized cell morphology. We show here that the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture are specifically stained by a monoclonal antibody called 13H9. In other systems, the antigen recognized by 13H9 is associated with marginal bands of chicken erythrocytes and shows properties of both microtubule-and microfilament- associated proteins (Birgbauer, E., and F. Solomon. 1989 J. Cell Biol. 109:1609-1620). This dual nature is manifest in hippocampal neurons as well. At early stages after plating, the antibody stains the circumferential lamellipodia that mediate initial cell spreading. As processes emerge, 13H9 staining is heavily concentrated in the distal regions of growth cones, particularly in lamellipodial fans. In these cells, the 13H9 staining is complementary to the localization of assembled microtubules. It colocalizes partially, but not entirely, with phalloidin staining of assembled actin. Incubation with nocodazole rapidly induces microtubule depolymerization, which proceeds in the distal-to-proximal direction in the processes. At the same time, a rapid and dramatic redistribution of the 13H9 staining occurs; it delocalizes along the axon shaft, becoming clearly distinct from the phalloidin staining and always remaining distal to the receding front of assembled microtubules. After longer times without assembled microtubules, no staining of 13H9 can be detected. Removal of the nocodazole allows the microtubules to reform, in an ordered proximal-to- distal fashion. The 13H9 immunoreactivity also reappears, but only in the growth cones, not in any intermediate positions along the axon, and only after the reformation of microtubules is complete. The results indicate that the antigen recognized by 13H9 is highly concentrated in growth cones, closely associated with polymerized actin, and that its proper localization depends upon intact microtubules. PMID:2677024

  10. Activation of tyrosinase kinase and microfilament-binding functions of c-abl by bcr sequences in bcr/abl fusion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    McWhirter, J R; Wang, J Y

    1991-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia and one type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are characterized by a 9;22 chronosome translocation in which 5' sequences of the bcr gene become fused to the c-abl proto-oncogene. The resulting chimeric genes encode bcr/abl fusion proteins which have deregulated tyrosine kinase activity and appear to play an important role in induction of these leukemias. A series of bcr/abl genes were constructed in which nested deletions of the bcr gene were fused to the c-abl gene. The fusion proteins encoded by these genes were assayed for autophosphorylation in vivo and for differences in subcellular localization. Our results demonstrate that bcr sequences activate two functions of c-abl; the tyrosine kinase activity and a previously undescribed microfilament-binding function. Two regions of bcr which activate these functions to different degrees have been mapped: amino acids 1 to 63 were strongly activating and amino acids 64 to 509 were weakly activating. The tyrosine kinase and microfilament-binding functions were not interdependent, as a kinase defective bcr/abl mutant still associated with actin filaments and a bcr/abl mutant lacking actin association still had deregulated kinase activity. Modification of actin filament functions by the bcr/abl tyrosine kinase may be an important event in leukemogenesis. Images PMID:1705008

  11. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Protein Vangl2 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization Dynamics via Its Effects on Actin Microfilaments in the Testes of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis. PMID:26990065

  12. rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics through Arp3-mediated actin microfilament organization in rat sertoli cells. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Chen, Haiqi; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-05-01

    In the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes, preleptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment are transported across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. This process involves redistribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins via reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells that serves as attachment site for adhesion protein complexes. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream molecule of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), participates in this process via a yet-to-be defined mechanism. Here, we constructed an rpS6 quadruple phosphomimetic mutant by converting Ser residues at 235, 236, 240, and 244 to Glu via site-directed mutagenesis, making this mutant constitutively active. When this rpS6 mutant was overexpressed in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established TJ barrier mimicking the BTB in vivo, it perturbed the TJ permeability by down-regulating and redistributing TJ proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes are mediated by a reorganization of actin microfilaments, which was triggered by a redistribution of activated actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) as well as changes in Arp3-neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) interaction. This in turn induced reorganization of actin microfilaments, converting them from a "bundled" to an "unbundled/branched" configuration, concomitant with a reduced actin bundling activity, thereby destabilizing the TJ-barrier function. These changes were mediated by Akt (transforming oncogene of v-akt), because an Akt knockdown by RNA interference was able to mimic the phenotypes of rpS6 mutant overexpression at the Sertoli cell BTB. In summary, this study illustrates a mechanism by which mTORC1 signal complex regulates BTB function through rpS6 downstream by modulating actin organization via the Arp2/3 complex, which may be applicable to other tissue barriers. PMID:25714812

  13. The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Protein P6 Forms Motile Inclusions That Traffic along Actin Microfilaments and Stabilize Microtubules1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Phillip A.; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Yu, Weichang; Schoelz, James E.; Nelson, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The gene VI product (P6) of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a multifunctional protein known to be a major component of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies formed during CaMV infection. Although these inclusions are known to contain virions and are thought to be sites of translation from the CaMV 35S polycistronic RNA intermediate, the precise role of these bodies in the CaMV infection cycle remains unclear. Here, we examine the functionality and intracellular location of a fusion between P6 and GFP (P6-GFP). We initially show that the ability of P6-GFP to transactivate translation is comparable to unmodified P6. Consequently, our work has direct application for the large body of literature in which P6 has been expressed ectopically and its functions characterized. We subsequently found that P6-GFP forms highly motile cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and revealed through fluorescence colocalization studies that these P6-GFP bodies associate with the actin/endoplasmic reticulum network as well as microtubules. We demonstrate that while P6-GFP inclusions traffic along microfilaments, those associated with microtubules appear stationary. Additionally, inhibitor studies reveal that the intracellular movement of P6-GFP inclusions is sensitive to the actin inhibitor, latrunculin B, which also inhibits the formation of local lesions by CaMV in Nicotiana edwardsonii leaves. The motility of P6 along microfilaments represents an entirely new property for this protein, and these results imply a role for P6 in intracellular and cell-to-cell movement of CaMV. PMID:19028879

  14. rpS6 Regulates Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics Through Arp3-Mediated Actin Microfilament Organization in Rat Sertoli Cells. An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Chen, Haiqi; Lee, Will M.

    2015-01-01

    In the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes, preleptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment are transported across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. This process involves redistribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins via reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells that serves as attachment site for adhesion protein complexes. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream molecule of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), participates in this process via a yet-to-be defined mechanism. Here, we constructed an rpS6 quadruple phosphomimetic mutant by converting Ser residues at 235, 236, 240, and 244 to Glu via site-directed mutagenesis, making this mutant constitutively active. When this rpS6 mutant was overexpressed in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established TJ barrier mimicking the BTB in vivo, it perturbed the TJ permeability by down-regulating and redistributing TJ proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes are mediated by a reorganization of actin microfilaments, which was triggered by a redistribution of activated actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) as well as changes in Arp3-neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) interaction. This in turn induced reorganization of actin microfilaments, converting them from a “bundled” to an “unbundled/branched” configuration, concomitant with a reduced actin bundling activity, thereby destabilizing the TJ-barrier function. These changes were mediated by Akt (transforming oncogene of v-akt), because an Akt knockdown by RNA interference was able to mimic the phenotypes of rpS6 mutant overexpression at the Sertoli cell BTB. In summary, this study illustrates a mechanism by which mTORC1 signal complex regulates BTB function through rpS6 downstream by modulating actin organization via the Arp2/3 complex, which may be applicable to other tissue barriers. PMID:25714812

  15. Complementary roles of microtubules and microfilaments in the lung fibroblast-mediated contraction of collagen gels: Dynamics and the influence of cell density.

    PubMed

    Redden, Robert A; Doolin, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblasts are important cellular components in wound healing, scar formation, and fibrotic disorders; and the fibroblast-populated collagen-gel (FPCG) model allows examination of fibroblast behavior in an in vitro three-dimensional environment similar to that in vivo. Contraction of free-floating FPCGs depends on an active and dynamic cytoskeleton, and the contraction dynamics are highly influenced by cell density. We investigated mechanistic differences between high- and low-cell density FPCG contraction by evaluating contraction dynamics in detail, using specific cytoskeletal disruptors. Collagen gels were seeded with human lung fibroblasts at either high (HD) or low (LD) density, and incubated with or without cytoskeletal disruptors colchicine (microtubules) or cytochalasin D (microfilaments). Gel area was measured daily. FPCG contraction curves were essentially sigmoidal, featuring an initial period of no contraction (lag phase), followed by a period of rapid contraction (log phase). Contraction curves of HD-FPCGs were distinct from those of LD-FPCGs. For example, HD-FPCGs had a negligible lag phase (compared with 3 d for LD-FPCGs) and exhibited a higher rate of log-phase contraction. Both colchicine and cytochalasin dose-dependently inhibited contraction but specifically affected different phases of contraction in HD- and LD-FPCGs; and colchicine inhibited LD-FPCGs much more than HD-FPCGs. The data indicate that LD- and HD-FPCGs contract through different primary mechanisms. Microtubules and microfilaments are both complementarily and dynamically involved in the contraction of FPCGs, and cell density influences primary cytoskeletal mechanisms. These results provide valuable information about fibroblast behavior in healing and fibrosis, and may suggest novel treatment options. PMID:16759151

  16. A single-cell correlative nanoelectromechanosensing approach to detect cancerous transformation: monitoring the function of F-actin microfilaments in the modulation of the ion channel activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdolahadThe Authors With Same Contributions., Mohammad; Saeidi, Ali; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mashinchian, Omid; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Azimi, Soheil; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2015-01-01

    Cancerous transformation may be dependent on correlation between electrical disruptions in the cell membrane and mechanical disruptions of cytoskeleton structures. Silicon nanotube (SiNT)-based electrical probes, as ultra-accurate signal recorders with subcellular resolution, may create many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here, we used this technology to electrically monitor cellular mechanosensing. The SiNT probe was combined with an electrically activated glass micropipette aspiration system to achieve a new cancer diagnostic technique that is based on real-time correlation between mechanical and electrical behaviour of single cells. Our studies demonstrated marked changes in the electrical response following increases in the mechanical aspiration force in healthy cells. In contrast, such responses were extremely weak for malignant cells. Confocal microscopy results showed the impact of actin microfilament remodelling on the reduction of the electrical response for aspirated cancer cells due to the significant role of actin in modulating the ion channel activity in the cell membrane.Cancerous transformation may be dependent on correlation between electrical disruptions in the cell membrane and mechanical disruptions of cytoskeleton structures. Silicon nanotube (SiNT)-based electrical probes, as ultra-accurate signal recorders with subcellular resolution, may create many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here, we used this technology to electrically monitor cellular mechanosensing. The SiNT probe was combined with an electrically activated glass micropipette aspiration system to achieve a new cancer diagnostic technique that is based on real-time correlation between mechanical and electrical behaviour of single cells. Our studies demonstrated marked changes in the electrical response following increases in the mechanical aspiration force in healthy cells. In contrast, such

  17. Tau dephosphorylation and microfilaments disruption are upstream events of the anti-proliferative effects of DADS in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Aquilano, Katia; Vigilanza, Paola; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Garlic organosulphur compounds have been successfully used as redox anti-proliferative agents. In this work, we dissect the effects of diallyl disulphide (DADS) focusing on the events upstream of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We demonstrate that DADS is able to cause early morphological changes, cytoskeleton oxidation, microfilaments reduction and depolymerization of microtubules. These events are attenuated in cells stably overexpressing the antioxidant enzyme SOD1, suggesting that superoxide plays a crucial role in destabilizing cytoskeleton. Moreover, we evidence that the main microtubules-associated protein Tau undergoes PP1-mediated dephosphorylation as demonstrated by treatment with okadaic acid as well as by immunoreaction with anti-Tau-1 antibody, which specifically recognizes its dephosphorylated forms. Tau dephosphorylation is inhibited by the two-electron reductants NAC and GSH ester but not by SOD1. The inability of DADS to induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma-differentiated cells gives emphasis to the anti-proliferative activity of DADS, which can be regarded as a promising potent anti-neuroblastoma drug by virtue of its widespread cytoskeleton disrupting action on proliferating cells. PMID:19040422

  18. Actin microfilaments are associated with the migrating nucleus and the cell cortex in the green alga Micrasterias. Studies on living cells.

    PubMed

    Meindl, U; Zhang, D; Hepler, P K

    1994-07-01

    Rhodamine-phalloidin or FITC-phalloidin has been injected in small amounts into living, developing cells of Micrasterias denticulata and the stained microfilaments visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results reveal that two different actin filament systems are present in a growing cell: a cortical actin network that covers the inner surface of the cell and is extended far into the tips of the lobes in both the growing and the nongrowing semicell; it is also associated with the surface of the chloroplast. The second actin system ensheathes the nucleus at the isthmus-facing side during nuclear migration. Its arrangement corresponds to that of the microtubule system that has been described in earlier electron microscopic investigations. The spatial correspondence between the distribution of actin filaments and microtubules suggests a cooperation between both cytoskeleton elements in generating the motive force for nuclear migration. The function of the cortical actin network is not yet clear. It may be involved in processes like transport and fusion of secretory vesicles and may also function in shaping and anchoring the chloroplast. PMID:7983159

  19. Curcumin inhibits cellular condensation and alters microfilament organization during chondrogenic differentiation of limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Kyun; Kim, Song Ja; Kang, Shin Sung; Jin, Eun Jung

    2009-09-30

    Curcumin is a well known natural polyphenol product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, anti-inflammatory agent for arthritis by inhibiting synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins. However, the mechanisms by which curcumin regulates the functions of chondroprogenitor, such as proliferation, precartilage condensation, cytoskeletal organization or overall chondrogenic behavior, are largely unknown. In the present report, we investigated the effects and signaling mechanism of curcumin on the regulation of chondrogenesis. Treating chick limb bud mesenchymal cells with curcumin suppressed chondrogenesis by stimulating apoptotic cell death. It also inhibited reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into a cortical pattern concomitant with rounding of chondrogenic competent cells and down-regulation of integrin beta1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation. Curcumin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt leading to Akt inactivation. Activation of Akt by introducing a myristoylated, constitutively active form of Akt reversed the inhibitory actions of curcumin during chondrogenesis. In summary, for the first time, we describe biological properties of curcumin during chondrogenic differentiation of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells. Curcumin suppressed chondrogenesis by stimulating apoptotic cell death and down-regulating integrin-mediated reorganization of actin cytoskeleton via modulation of Akt signaling. PMID:19478554

  20. [Technic of studying microorganism viability in a simulated aerosol state on fiberglass microfilaments].

    PubMed

    Koniukhov, V F; Krasnozhenov, G G; Labushkin, Iu G; Olenichev, A V; Petrosov, V V

    1980-07-01

    A specially developed method of studying the viability of microorganisms in the simulated aerosol state on glass microfibers was used to show that the survival rate of E. coli and F. tularensis on fiber-glass spheres was similar to that in true aerosol, as observed in a static aerosol chamber. The proposed method allows to study the viability of microbial cells after prolonged existence in aerosol under any environmental condition both in open spaces and closed rooms. PMID:7001815

  1. Suppression of Tumorigenicity in Breast Cancer Cells by the Microfilament Protein Profilin 1

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Jürgen; Schlüter, Kathrin; Jandrig, Burkhard; Theile, Michael; Kölble, Konrad; Arnold, Wolfgang; Grinstein, Edgar; Schwartz, Arnfried; Estevéz-Schwarz, Lope; Schlag, Peter M.; Jockusch, Brigitte M.; Scherneck, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Differential display screening was used to reveal differential gene expression between the tumorigenic breast cancer cell line CAL51 and nontumorigenic microcell hybrids obtained after transfer of human chromosome 17 into CAL51. The human profilin 1 (PFN1) gene was found overexpressed in the microcell hybrid clones compared with the parental line, which displayed a low profilin 1 level. A comparison between several different tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines with nontumorigenic lines showed consistently lower profilin 1 levels in the tumor cells. Transfection of PFN1 cDNA into CAL51 cells raised the profilin 1 level, had a prominent effect on cell growth, cytoskeletal organization and spreading, and suppressed tumorigenicity of the stable, PFN1-overexpressing cell clones in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intermediate and low levels of profilin 1 in different human breast cancers. These results suggest profilin 1 as a suppressor of the tumorigenic phenotype of breast cancer cells. PMID:10811861

  2. Organization and function of microfilaments during late epiboly in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jackie C; Miller, Andrew L; Webb, Sarah E

    2004-10-01

    We report that, during epiboly in zebrafish, three F-actin--based structures appear only after the blastoderm migrates past the embryonic equator. They are composed of two ring-like F-actin structures that form at the deep cell and enveloping layer margins of the blastoderm and a punctate actin band that develops in the external yolk syncytial layer. Treatment with cytochalasin B or the calcium chelator dibromo-BAPTA results in the disruption of all three of these actin-based structures, leading to the slowing or immediate arrest of epiboly, respectively, followed by a failure of yolk cell occlusion and the eventual lysis of the embryo through the vegetal pole region. We suggest, therefore, that these structures function in the occlusion of the vegetal portion of the yolk cell during the latter stages of epiboly. Possible roles for these new structures, their modulation by Ca2+, as well as the functions of other previously described F-actin--based structures observed throughout epiboly, are discussed. PMID:15366008

  3. Dolastatin 11 connects two long-pitch strands in F-actin to stabilize microfilaments.

    PubMed

    Oda, Toshiro; Crane, Zackary D; Dicus, Christopher W; Sufi, Bilal A; Bates, Robert B

    2003-04-25

    Dolastatin 11, a drug isolated from the Indian Ocean sea hare Dolabella auricularia, arrests cytokinesis in vivo and increases the amount of F-actin to stabilize F-actin in vitro, like phalloidin and jasplakinolide. However, according to the previous biochemical study, the binding of dolastatin 11 to F-actin does not compete with that of phalloidin, suggesting that the binding sites are different. To understand the mechanism of F-actin stabilization by dolastatin 11, we determined the position of bound dolastatin 11 in F-actin using the X-ray fiber diffraction from oriented filament sols. Our analysis shows that the position of dolastatin 11 is clearly different from that of phalloidin. However, these bound drugs are present in the gap between the two long-pitch F-actin strands in a similar way. The result suggests that the connection between the two long-pitch F-actin strands might be a key for the control of F-actin stabilization. PMID:12691743

  4. Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components

    PubMed Central

    Jelenska, Joanna; Kang, Yongsung; Greenberg, Jean T

    2014-01-01

    Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Pseudomonas syringae, a plant extracellular pathogen, injects HopW1 effector into host cells to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and reduce vesicle movement in order to elude defense responses. In some Arabidopsis accessions, however, HopW1 is recognized and causes resistance via an actin-independent mechanism. HopW1 targets isoform 7 of vegetative actin (ACT7) that is regulated by phytohormones and environmental factors. We hypothesize that dynamic changes of ACT7 filaments are involved in plant immunity. PMID:25551177

  5. Molecular cloning, structural analysis and functional expression of the proline-rich focal adhesion and microfilament-associated protein VASP.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, C; Jarchau, T; Reinhard, M; Hoppe, J; Lohmann, S M; Walter, U

    1995-01-01

    The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a substrate for cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in vitro and in intact cells, is associated with actin filaments, focal adhesions and dynamic membrane regions. VASP, cloned here from human HL-60 and canine MDCK cells, is organized into three distinct domains. A central proline-rich domain contains a GPPPPP motif as a single copy and as a 3-fold tandem repeat, as well as three conserved phosphorylation sites for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. A C-terminal domain contains a repetitive mixed-charge cluster which is predicted to form an alpha-helix. The hydrodynamic properties of purified human VASP together with the calculated molecular mass of cloned VASP suggest that the native protein is a homotetramer with an elongated structure. VASP over-expressed in transiently transfected BHK21 cells was predominantly detected at stress fibres, at focal adhesions and in F-actin-containing cell surface protrusions, whereas truncated VASP lacking the C-terminal domain was no longer concentrated at focal adhesions. These data indicate that the C-terminal domain is required for anchoring VASP at focal adhesion sites, whereas the central domain is suggested to mediate VASP interaction with profilin. Our results provide evidence for the structural basis by which VASP, both a target of the cAMP and cGMP signal transduction pathways and a component of the actin-based cytoskeleton, including the cytoskeleton-membrane interface, may be able to exchange signals between these networks. Images PMID:7828592

  6. Linking microfilaments to intracellular membranes: the actin-binding and vesicle-associated protein comitin exhibits a mannose-specific lectin activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, E; Fucini, P; Stewart, M; Noegel, A A; Schleicher, M

    1996-01-01

    Comitin is a 24 kDa actin-binding protein from Dictyostelium discoideum that is located primarily on Golgi and vesicle membranes. We have probed the molecular basis of comitin's interaction with both actin and membranes using a series of truncation mutants obtained by expressing the appropriate cDNA in Escherichia coli. Comitin dimerizes in solution; its principle actin-binding activity is located between residues 90 and 135. The N-terminal 135 'core' residues of comitin contain a 3-fold sequence repeat that is homologous to several monocotyledon lectins and which retains key residues that determine these lectins' three-dimensional structure and mannose binding. These repeats of comitin appear to mediate its interaction with mannose residues in glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cytoplasmic surface of membrane vesicles from D.discoideum, and comitin can be released from membranes with mannose. Our data indicate that comitin binds to vesicle membranes via mannose residues and, by way of its interaction with actin, links these membranes to the cytoskeleton. Images PMID:8635456

  7. New Clue Found to Growth Factor Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the discovery which may help to explain epidermal growth factor effects on the cell skeleton. The role of a protein called profilin in the regulation of the microfilament system is described. (CW)

  8. Actin Filaments in Mature Guard Cells Are Radially Distributed and Involved in Stomatal Movement.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Hepler, P. K.; Eun, S. O.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Stomatal movements, which regulate gas exchange in plants, involve pronounced changes in the shape and volume of the guard cell. To test whether the changes are regulated by actin filaments, we visualized microfilaments in mature guard cells and examined the effects of actin antagonists on stomatal movements. Immunolocalization on fixed cells and microinjection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin into living guard cells of Commelina communis L. showed that cortical microfilaments were radially distributed, fanning out from the stomatal pore site, resembling the known pattern of microtubules. Treatment of epidermal peels with phalloidin prior to stabilizing microfilaments with m-maleimidobenzoyl N-hydroxysuccimimide caused dense packing of radial microfilaments and an accumulation of actin around many organelles. Both stomatal closing induced by abscisic acid and opening under light were inhibited. Treatment of guard cells with cytochalasin D abolished the radial pattern of microfilaments; generated sparse, poorly oriented arrays; and caused partial opening of dark-closed stomata. These results suggest that microfilaments participate in stomatal aperture regulation. PMID:12228654

  9. Effects of cytochalasin treatment on short-term synaptic plasticity at developing neuromuscular junctions in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X H; Zheng, J Q; Poo, M M

    1996-01-01

    1. The role of actin microfilaments in synaptic transmission was tested by monitoring spontaneous and evoked transmitter release from developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures, using whole-cell recording of synaptic currents in the absence and presence of microfilament-disrupting agents cytochalasins B and D. 2. Treatment with cytochalasins resulted in disruption of microfilament networks in the growth cone and the presynaptic nerve terminal of spinal neurons in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures, as revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. 3. The same cytochalasin treatment did not significantly affect the spontaneous or evoked synaptic currents during low-frequency stimulation at 0.05 Hz in these Xenopus cultures. Synaptic depression induced by high-frequency (5 Hz) stimulation, however, was reduced by this treatment. Paired-pulse facilitation for short interpulse intervals was also increased by the treatment. 4. These results indicate that disruption of microfilaments alters short-term changes in transmitter release induced by repetitive activity, without affecting normal synaptic transmission at low frequency. 5. Our results support the notion that actin microfilaments impose a barrier for mobilization of synaptic vesicles from the reserve pool, but do not affect the exocytosis of immediately available synaptic vesicles at the active zone. Images Figure 1 PMID:9011610

  10. Nuclear localization signal receptor importin alpha associates with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H M; Raikhel, N V

    1998-01-01

    Importin alpha is the nuclear localization signal (NLS) receptor that is involved in the nuclear import of proteins containing basic NLSs. Using importin alpha as a tool, we were interested in determining whether the cytoskeleton could function in the transport of NLS-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Double-labeling immunofluorescence studies showed that most of the cytoplasmic importin alpha coaligned with microtubules and microfilaments in tobacco protoplasts. Treatment of tobacco protoplasts with microtubule- or microfilament-depolymerizing agents disrupted the strands of importin alpha in the cytoplasm, whereas a microtubule-stabilizing agent had no effect. Biochemical analysis showed that importin alpha associated with microtubules and microfilaments in vitro in an NLS-dependent manner. The interaction of importin alpha with the cytoskeleton could be an essential element of protein transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in vivo. PMID:9811789

  11. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in Arabidopsis roots under stress and during gravitropic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhvanov, Gregory; Medvedev, Sergei; Suslov, Dmitry; Demidchik, Vadim

    Among environmental factors, gravity vector is the only one which is constant in direction and accompanies the whole plant ontogenesis. That said, gravity vector can be considered as an essential factor for correct development of plants. Gravitropism is a plant growth response against changing its position relative to the gravity vector. It is well estableshed that gravitropism is directed by auxin redistribution across the gravistimulated organ. In addition to auxin, actin cytoskeleton was shown to be involved in gravitropism at different stages: gravity perception, signal transduction and gravitropic bending formation. However, the relationship between IAA and actin is still under discussion. In this work we studied rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton during root gravitropic response. Actin microfilaments were visualized in vivo in GFP-fABD2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and their angle distribution was acquired from MicroFilament Analyzer software. The curvature of actin microfilaments in root elongation zone was shown to be increased within 30-60 min of gravistimulation, the fraction of axially oriented microfilaments decreased with a concomitant increase in the fraction of oblique and transversally oriented microfilaments. In particular, the fraction of transversally oriented microfilaments (i.e. parallel to the gravity vector) increased 3-5 times. Under 10 min of sub-lethal salt stress impact, actin microfilament orientations widened from an initial axial orientation to a set of peaks at 15(°) , 45(°) and 90(°) . We conclude that the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements observed are associated with the regulation of basic mechanisms of cell extension growth by which the gravitropic bending is formed. Having common stress-related features, gravity-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is slower but results in higher number of g-vector-parallel microfilaments when compared to salt stress-induced rearrangement. Also, differences in gravistimulated root

  12. Induction of Plant Curvature by Magnetophoresis and Cytoskeletal Changes during Root Graviresponse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Blancaflor, Eilson B.

    1996-01-01

    High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) induce curvature in roots and shoots. It is considered that this response is likely to be based on the intracellular displacement of bulk starch (amyloplasts) by the ponderomotive force generated by the HGMF. This process is called magnetophoresis. The differential elongation during the curvature along the concave and convex flanks of growing organs may be linked to the microtubular and/or microfilament cytoskeleton. The possible existence of an effect of the HGMF on the cytoskeleton was tested for, but none was found. The application of cytoskeletal stabilizers or depolymerizers showed that neither microtubules, nor microfilaments, are involved in the graviresponse.

  13. Cytochalasin D does not inhibit gravitropism in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally thought that sedimenting plastids are responsible for gravity sensing in higher plants. We directly tested the model generated by the current statolith hypothesis that the gravity sensing that leads to gravitropism results from an interaction between the plastids and actin microfilaments. We find that the primary roots of rice, corn, and cress undergo normal gravitropism and growth even when exposed to cytochalasin D, a disruptor of actin microfilaments. These results indicate that an interaction between amyloplasts and the actin cytoskeleton is not critical for gravity sensing in higher plants and weaken the current statolith hypothesis.

  14. Aberrant Vimentin DNA Methylation in Stool — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The VIM gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament family. VIM proteins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. These intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin microfilaments, make up the cytoskeleton.

  15. The 46/50 kDa phosphoprotein VASP purified from human platelets is a novel protein associated with actin filaments and focal contacts.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M; Halbrügge, M; Scheer, U; Wiegand, C; Jockusch, B M; Walter, U

    1992-01-01

    Vasoactive agents which elevate either cGMP or cAMP inhibit platelet activation by pathways sharing at least one component, the 46/50 kDa vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). VASP is stoichiometrically phosphorylated by both cGMP-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases in intact human platelets, and its phosphorylation correlates very well with platelet inhibition caused by cGMP- and cAMP-elevating agents. Here we report that in human platelets spread on glass, VASP is associated predominantly with the distal parts of radial microfilament bundles and with microfilaments outlining the periphery, whereas less VASP is associated with a central microfilamentous ring. VASP is also detectable in a variety of different cell types including fibroblasts and epithelial cells. In fibroblasts, VASP is concentrated at focal contact areas, along microfilament bundles (stress fibres) in a punctate pattern, in the periphery of protruding lamellae, and is phosphorylated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases in response to appropriate stimuli. Evidence for the direct binding of VASP to F-actin is also presented. The data demonstrate that VASP is a novel phosphoprotein associated with actin filaments and focal contact areas, i.e. transmembrane junctions between microfilaments and the extracellular matrix. Images PMID:1318192

  16. Inside the Cell: The New Frontier of Medical Science. Series: A New Medical Science for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Maya

    Provides information on cellular morphology and physiology, including general cell characteristics, the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, microfilaments, and membranes. Focuses on membranes which are postulated to play an important role in many aspects of health and disease.…

  17. The Molecules of the Cell Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Klaus; Osborn, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins form a highly structured yet changeable matrix that affects cell shape, division, motion, and transport of vesicles and organelles. Types of microfilaments, research techniques, actin and myosin, tumor cells, and other topics are addressed. Evidence indicates that the cell matrix might have a bearing on metabolism. (DH)

  18. Motility and centrosomal organization during sea urchin and mouse fertilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    It is noted that microfilaments are essential for incorporation of sperm in sea urchins and for pronuclear apposition in mice. The ability of sea urchin sperm to fertilize eggs is lowered by latrunculin, giving evidence that acrosomal microfilaments are of importance to the process of fertilization. Due to the uncertainty regarding the presence of microfilaments in various mammalian sperm, it is interesting that latrunculin does not noticeably affect the ability of mouse sperm to fertilize oocytes. The movements of the sperm and egg nuclei at the time of sea urchin fertilization are dependent on microtubules arranged into a radial monastral array (the sperm aster). In the mouse egg, microtubule activity is also required during pronuclear apposition, but they are arranged by a number of egg cytoplasmic sites. Results of the investigations show that both microtubules and microfilaments are necessary for the successful completion of fertilization in both mice and sea urchins, but at different stages. Also, it is demonstrated that centrosomes are contributed by the sperm in the process of sea urchin fertilization, but in mammals they may be inherited maternally.

  19. Unusual microtubule-dependent endocytosis mechanisms triggered by Campylobacter jejuni and Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlaeger, T A; Guerry, P; Kopecko, D J

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of six different human epithelial cell lines showed that some strains of the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invaded intestinal cell lines at a level 10(2)-10(4) times higher than reported previously for other Campylobacter strains. Separately, urinary tract isolates of Citrobacter freundii triggered a high-efficiency invasion of bladder cells. Use of multiple inhibitors with known effects on eukaryotic cell structures/processes allowed us to define in these genetically distinct bacterial genera unusual bacterial invasion mechanisms that uniquely require microtubules but not microfilaments. Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 uptake into 407 intestinal cells and Citrobacter entry into T24 bladder cells was blocked by microtubule depolymerization and inhibitors of coated-pit formation but not by microfilament depolymerization. Inhibitors of endosome acidification had no significant impact on intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni or Citrobacter freundii, but monensin markedly reduced Citrobacter uptake. Epithelial cell invasion by both of these bacterial genera was dependent upon de novo bacterial protein synthesis but not upon de novo eukaryotic cell protein synthesis. In contrast to the T24 cell line-specific, strict microtubule-dependent uptake, Citrobacter entry into other cell lines was inhibited by both microtubule- and microfilament-depolymerization, suggesting that these bacteria encode two separate pathways for uptake (i, microtubule-dependent; ii, microfilament-dependent) that are cell line-specific and are recognized perhaps depending on the presence and abundance of appropriate eukaryotic receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8341714

  20. Axial rotation in rat embryos: involvement of changes in the shapes and arrangement of cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Yasutomi, M

    1995-02-01

    Rat embryos at the head-fold stage (9.5 days of gestation) were cultured for 32 hours in rat serum. Embryos rotated their axes (changing from the shape of a concave mid-region to that of a convex mid-region) during the last 5 hours of culture (from 27 h to 32 h in culture). Addition of 0.1 micrograms/ml cytochalasin D to the culture medium for this 5-hour period prevented axial rotation in the embryos and disturbed the appearance of microfilaments in the dermatome, the dorsal region of the trunk neural tube, and the dorsal epidermis. During the period of axial rotation, the dermatome and the dorsal epidermis extended and showed the arrangement of microfilaments along the cranio-caudal axis in the control embryos but not in the treated embryos. The dorsal region of the trunk neural tube in the control embryos consisted of a seam of neuroepithelial cells in which microfilaments were apparently arranged along the cranio-caudal axis but the region in the treated embryos was crowded with the neuroepithelial cells piled up randomly and microfilaments showed no arrangement. These results suggest that changes in the shapes and arrangement of the cells in the dermatome, the dorsal region of the trunk neural tube, and the dorsal epidermis cause extension of these tissues along the cranio-caudal axis and result in axial rotation. Microfilaments may play an essential role in changes in the shapes and arrangement of the cells in these tissues. PMID:7796462

  1. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved.

  2. Special type of morphological reorganization induced by phorbol ester: reversible partition of cell into motile and stable domains

    SciTech Connect

    Dugina, V.B.; Svitkina, T.M.; Vasiliev, J.M.; Gelfand, I.M.

    1987-06-01

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced reversible alteration of the shape of fibroblastic cells of certain transformed lines-namely, partition of the cells into two types of domains: motile body actively extending large lamellas and stable narrow cytoplasmic processes. Dynamic observations have shown that stable processes are formed from partially retracted lamellas and from contracted tail parts of cell bodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of platinum replicas of cytoskeleton have shown that PMA-induced narrow processes are rich in microtubules and intermediate filaments but relatively poor in actin microfilaments; in contrast, lamellas and cell bodies contained numerous microfilaments. Colcemid-induced depolymerization of microtubules led to contraction of PMA-induced processes; cytochalasin B prevented this contraction. It is suggested that PMA-induced separation of cell into motile and stable parts is due to directional movement of actin structures along the microtubular framework. Similar movements may play an important role in various normal morphogenetic processes.

  3. Ordered stacking of F-actin layers and mixed lipid bilayers: a columnar liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Caillé, A; Artzner, F; Amblard, F

    2013-01-25

    In this Letter, we show how the grooved helical structure of actin microfilaments (F-actin) interacting with mixed fluid lipid bilayers leads to handedness-independent 1D lipid bilayer undulations coupled to longitudinal in-plane ordering of the microfilaments. This longitudinal ordering is forced by the emerging in-plane compression and curvature energy terms of the straight 1D bilayer undulation wave fronts. Thereby, adjacent helices are set into registry along their long axis in their monolayer and π shifted between adjacent monolayers. An ordered composite multilamellar structure emerges by alternate stacking of these lipid bilayers and monolayers of F-actin. This two-dimensionally ordered system has the symmetries of a centered rectangular columnar liquid crystal, the straight 1D wave fronts playing the role of the classical molecular columns. PMID:25166203

  4. Fine structure of the adhesive pads of Gonionemus vertens.

    PubMed

    Singla, C L

    1977-07-15

    The adhesive pads of Gonionemus vertens, located near the distal end of each tentacle, consist of a layer of columnar glandulomuscular cells surrounded by a collar of microfilament containing epithelial cells. The glandulomuscular cells contain dense secretory rods, microtubules, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi elements and myonemes. Axons located between the basal portions of the glandulomuscular cells form synapses with the glandulomuscular cells. The roles of these various cell organelles in adhesion and detachment process are discussed. PMID:18289

  5. Cytoskeletal organization and collagen orientation in the fish scales.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, L; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Sire, J Y

    1988-09-01

    Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to analyze the relationships between the organization of collagen fibrils in elasmoid scales, and the orientation of microtubules and actin microfilaments in the scleroblasts producing this collagenous stroma. Attention was focused on the basal plate of the scales because of the highly ordered three-dimensional arrangement of the collagen fibrils in superimposed plies forming an acellular plywood-like structure. The collagen fibrils are synthesized by the scleroblasts forming a monolayered pseudo-epithelium, the hyposquama, at the lowest surface of the scale. Fully developed scales with a low collagen deposition rate were compared with regenerating scales active in fibrillogenesis. When an ordered array of the collagen fibrils is found, the innermost collagen fibrils are coaligned with microtubules and actin microfilaments. Thus, because of this coalignment, microtubules and actin microfilaments of the hyposquamal scleroblasts are subjected to consecutive alterations during the formation of the plies of the basal plate. The sequence of events when the collagen fibrils change their direction from one ply to the other in the basal plate is deduced from immunofluorescence and phase-contrast-microscopic observations. During the formation of the orthogonal plywood-like structure in the regenerating scales, first microtubules may change their curse with a rotating angle of about 90 degrees; then, actin microfilaments are disorganized and reorganized by interacting mechanically with the microtubules with which they are coaligned. Collagen fibrils are synthesized in a direction that is roughly perpendicular to that of the preceding ply. The unknown signals inducing the change in direction of the cytoskeleton may be transmitted throughout the hyposquama via gap junctions. PMID:3052849

  6. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  7. The surgical gowns and drapes of tomorrow. Specifying material performance and test methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, S R; Urech, D; Werner, H P

    1998-09-01

    A mandatory European standard is being developed to establish basic requirements and test methods for disposable and reusable materials used for surgical gowns and drapes. Once this standard has been adopted, the continued use of cotton textiles and conventional cotton-polyester-mixed textiles will become questionable. This article outlines the proposed requirements and looks at alternative methods that use liquid-repellent micro-filament textiles or liquid-proof textile laminates. PMID:10186984

  8. Different calcium sensitivity in osteoclasts on glass and on bone and maintenance of cytoskeletal structures on bone in the presence of high extracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Lakkakorpi, P T; Lehenkari, P P; Rautiala, T J; Väänänen, H K

    1996-09-01

    The sensitivity of rat osteoclasts to increased extracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]e) was investigated by single cell measurements of free cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i), by changes in microfilament organization of resorbing osteoclasts, and by in vitro bone resorption assays. Osteoclasts cultured on glass and on bone showed clear differences in their responses, as in 44% and 52% of osteoclasts on glass but in only 21% and 25% of osteoclasts on bone [Ca2+]i increased when [Ca2+]e was increased from 2 mM to 6 or 10 mM via perfusion, respectively. Bone resorption was inhibited without changes in the osteoclast numbers only by 10 mM [Ca2+]e in 2 day cultures. Furthermore, there were no changes in the organization of microfilament structures in resorbing osteoclasts after increased [Ca2+]e (up to 20 mM [Ca2+]e, 30 min incubation). These results suggest that the sensitivity of osteoclasts to increased [Ca2+]e is dependent on their activation phase (resting/migrating vs. resorbing) and that resorbing osteoclasts are not sensitive to increased [Ca2+]e or that the sensing system cannot be reached in polarized resorbing osteoclasts. In contrast, increasing [Ca2+]i through the use of calcium ionophores dispersed specific microfilament structures at the sealing zone transiently in a few minutes. This shows that [Ca2+]i is used as a signaling mechanism to inactivate osteoclasts, with a similar end result on microfilament structures at the sealing zone as caused by increased concentration of cAMP and activation of protein kinase C. PMID:8816921

  9. Polarity protein Crumbs homolog-3 (CRB3) regulates ectoplasmic specialization dynamics through its action on F-actin organization in Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lui, Wing-yee; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    Crumbs homolog 3 (or Crumbs3, CRB3) is a polarity protein expressed by Sertoli and germ cells at the basal compartment in the seminiferous epithelium. CRB3 also expressed at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), co-localized with F-actin, TJ proteins occludin/ZO-1 and basal ES (ectoplasmic specialization) proteins N-cadherin/β-catenin at stages IV-VII only. The binding partners of CRB3 in the testis were the branched actin polymerization protein Arp3, and the barbed end-capping and bundling protein Eps8, illustrating its possible role in actin organization. CRB3 knockdown (KD) by RNAi in Sertoli cells with an established tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier perturbed the TJ-barrier via changes in the distribution of TJ- and basal ES-proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes were the result of CRB3 KD-induced re-organization of actin microfilaments, in which actin microfilaments were truncated, and extensively branched, thereby destabilizing F-actin-based adhesion protein complexes at the BTB. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI as a transfection medium with high efficiency for CRB3 KD in the testis, the CRB3 KD testes displayed defects in spermatid and phagosome transport, and also spermatid polarity due to a disruption of F-actin organization. In summary, CRB3 is an actin microfilament regulator, playing a pivotal role in organizing actin filament bundles at the ES. PMID:27358069

  10. Polarity protein Crumbs homolog-3 (CRB3) regulates ectoplasmic specialization dynamics through its action on F-actin organization in Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Crumbs homolog 3 (or Crumbs3, CRB3) is a polarity protein expressed by Sertoli and germ cells at the basal compartment in the seminiferous epithelium. CRB3 also expressed at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), co-localized with F-actin, TJ proteins occludin/ZO-1 and basal ES (ectoplasmic specialization) proteins N-cadherin/β-catenin at stages IV-VII only. The binding partners of CRB3 in the testis were the branched actin polymerization protein Arp3, and the barbed end-capping and bundling protein Eps8, illustrating its possible role in actin organization. CRB3 knockdown (KD) by RNAi in Sertoli cells with an established tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier perturbed the TJ-barrier via changes in the distribution of TJ- and basal ES-proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes were the result of CRB3 KD-induced re-organization of actin microfilaments, in which actin microfilaments were truncated, and extensively branched, thereby destabilizing F-actin-based adhesion protein complexes at the BTB. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI as a transfection medium with high efficiency for CRB3 KD in the testis, the CRB3 KD testes displayed defects in spermatid and phagosome transport, and also spermatid polarity due to a disruption of F-actin organization. In summary, CRB3 is an actin microfilament regulator, playing a pivotal role in organizing actin filament bundles at the ES. PMID:27358069

  11. The cytoskeleton of Drosophila-derived Schneider line-1 and Kc23 cells undergoes significant changes during long-term culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Hedrick, J.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Insect cell cultures derived from Drosophila melanogaster are increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures, as they are amenable to genetic manipulation. Although Drosophila cells are an excellent tool for the study of genes and expression of proteins, culture conditions have to be considered in the interpretation of biochemical results. Our studies indicate that significant differences occur in cytoskeletal structure during the long-term culture of the Drosophila-derived cell lines Schneider Line-1 (S1) and Kc23. Scanning, transmission-electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy studies reveal that microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes become increasingly different during the culture of these cells from 24 h to 7-14 days. Significant cytoskeletal changes are observed at the cell surface where actin polymerizes into microfilaments, during the elongation of long microvilli. Additionally, long protrusions develop from the cell surface; these protrusions are microtubule-based and establish contact with neighboring cells. In contrast, the microtubule network in the interior of the cells becomes disrupted after four days of culture, resulting in altered transport of mitochondria. Microtubules and centrosomes are also affected in a small percent of cells during cell division, indicating an instability of centrosomes. Thus, the cytoskeletal network of microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes is affected in Drosophila cells during long-term culture. This implies that gene regulation and post-translational modifications are probably different under different culture conditions.

  12. Effects of clinorotation and microgravity on sweet clover columella cells treated with cytochalasin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of columella cells is believed to be involved in maintaining the developmental polarity of cells observed as a reproducible positioning of cellular organelles. It is also implicated in the transduction of gravitropic signals. Roots of sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.) seedlings were treated with a microfilament disrupter, cytochalasin D, on a slowly rotating horizontal clinostat (2 rpm). Electron micrographs of treated columella cells revealed several ultrastructural effects including repositioning of the nucleus and the amyloplasts and the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whorls. However, experiments performed during fast clinorotation (55 rpm) showed an accumulation (but no whorling) of a disorganized ER network at the proximal and distal pole and a random distribution of the amyloplasts. Therefore, formation of whorls depends upon the speed of clinorotation, and the overall impact of cytochalasin D suggests the necessity of microfilaments in organelle positioning. Interestingly, a similar drug treatment performed in microgravity aboard the US Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-54, January 1993) caused a displacement of ER membranes and amyloplasts away from the distal plasma membrane. In the present study, we discuss the role of microfilaments in maintaining columella cell polarity and the utility of clinostats to simulate microgravity.

  13. Drak Is Required for Actomyosin Organization During Drosophila Cellularization

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Ashish B.; Hastert, Mary C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of force by actomyosin contraction is critical for a variety of cellular and developmental processes. Nonmuscle myosin II is the motor that drives actomyosin contraction, and its activity is largely regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain. During the formation of the Drosophila cellular blastoderm, actomyosin contraction drives constriction of microfilament rings, modified cytokinesis rings. Here, we find that Drak is necessary for most of the phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during cellularization. We show that Drak is required for organization of myosin II within the microfilament rings. Proper actomyosin contraction of the microfilament rings during cellularization also requires Drak activity. Constitutive activation of myosin regulatory light chain bypasses the requirement for Drak, suggesting that actomyosin organization and contraction are mediated through Drak’s regulation of myosin activity. Drak is also involved in the maintenance of furrow canal structure and lateral plasma membrane integrity during cellularization. Together, our observations suggest that Drak is the primary regulator of actomyosin dynamics during cellularization. PMID:26818071

  14. Ethanol interferes with thrombin mediated changes in the morphology and cytoskeleton of human vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, K.J.; Rubin, R.; Hoek, J.; Williams, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of physiological concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) on the response of human vascular endothelial cells (EC) to thrombin was examined Treatment of EC with EtOH concentrations of 20-85mM for 2-10 min. produced no significant changes in the morphology of 3- and 4-day monolayers established on fibronectin coated polystyrene. When examined immunofluorescently no significantly changes in the microfilament or microtubule structures were seen. Exposure of EC monolayers to 0.5 and 1 U/ml of thrombin for 1-60 minutes causes a concentration and time dependent monolayer retraction, evidenced by a general decrease in cell size, increase in visible gaps in the monolayer and redistribution of the microtubule and microfilament networks. Pretreatment of EC monolayers with EtOH for 3-5 minutes prior to addition of thrombin prevents the changes seen with thrombin alone. Immunofluorescent examination of the microfilament and microtubule structures suggests than EtOH may act in part via the microtubule network, which appears to be disorganized/disrupted when the EC are exposed to EtOH and then thrombin. Colchicine studies show that EC which have been pretreated with EtOH respond to colchicine differently then cells which have not previously seen EtOH. These data suggest that EtOH may alter EC monolayer responsiveness either by indirect changes which are reflected in cytoskeletal disorganization or possibly by direct influence on the cytoskeleton.

  15. Pivotal and distinct role for Plasmodium actin capping protein alpha during blood infection of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ganter, Markus; Rizopoulos, Zaira; Schüler, Herwig; Matuschewski, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Accurate regulation of microfilament dynamics is central to cell growth, motility and response to environmental stimuli. Stabilizing and depolymerizing proteins control the steady-state levels of filamentous (F-) actin. Capping protein (CP) binds to free barbed ends, thereby arresting microfilament growth and restraining elongation to remaining free barbed ends. In all CPs characterized to date, alpha and beta subunits form the active heterodimer. Here, we show in a eukaryotic parasitic cell that the two CP subunits can be functionally separated. Unlike the beta subunit, the CP alpha subunit of the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium is refractory to targeted gene deletion during blood infection in the mammalian host. Combinatorial complementation of Plasmodium berghei CP genes with the orthologs from Plasmodium falciparum verified distinct activities of CP alpha and CP alpha/beta during parasite life cycle progression. Recombinant Plasmodium CP alpha could be produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of the beta subunit and the protein displayed F-actin capping activity. Thus, the functional separation of two CP subunits in a parasitic eukaryotic cell and the F-actin capping activity of CP alpha expand the repertoire of microfilament regulatory mechanisms assigned to CPs. PMID:25565321

  16. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  17. [Effect of vitrification on the functioning of the structural elements of the cytoskeleton in porcine oocytes].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, V Iu; Kuz'mina, T I

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of inhibition analysis using inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilament under the influence oftheophylline, GDP and GTP have studied the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (ryanodin- and inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate) of native and devitrified porcine oocytes. It is found that theophylline, as well as GDP stimulate the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in the native and devitrified oocytes, but a further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP was observed only in native oocytes. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilaments in native oocytes have a negative impact on the further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP. In possible transition of Ca2+ between intracellular depots, that stimulated by GDF, but GTF doesn't take part. The received results indicate that disruption of the functioning of the system of microfilaments in oocytes determined by vitrification that assumes a priori difference in the signal transduction pathways in native and devitrified oocytes at diplotene stage. PMID:25427385

  18. [Effect of vitrification on the functioning of the structural elements of the cytoskeleton in porcine oocytes].

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of inhibition analysis using inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilament under the influence oftheophylline, GDP and GTP have studied the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (ryanodin- and inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate) of native and devitrified porcine oocytes. It is found that theophylline, as well as GDP stimulate the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in the native and devitrified oocytes, but a further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP was observed only in native oocytes. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilaments in native oocytes have a negative impact on the further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP. In possible transition of Ca2+ between intracellular depots, that stimulated by GDF, but GTF doesn't take part. The received results indicate that disruption of the functioning of the system of microfilaments in oocytes determined by vitrification that assumes a priori difference in the signal transduction pathways in native and devitrified oocytes at diplotene stage. PMID:25507635

  19. Wnt5a Directs Polarized Calcium Gradients by Recruiting Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cell Trailing Edge

    PubMed Central

    Witze, Eric S.; Connacher, Mary Katherine; Houel, Stephane; Schwartz, Michael P.; Morphew, Mary K.; Reid, Leah; Sacks, David B.; Anseth, Kristi S.; Ahn, Natalie G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt5a directs the assembly of “Wnt-receptor-actin-myosin-polarity (WRAMP)” structure, which integrates cell adhesion receptors with F-actin and myosin to form a microfilament array associated with multivesicular bodies. The WRAMP structure is polarized to the cell posterior, where it directs tail-end membrane retraction, driving forward translocation of the cell body. Here, we define constituents of the WRAMP proteome, including regulators of microfilament and microtubule dynamics, protein interactions, and enzymatic activity. IQGAP1, a scaffold for F-actin nucleation and crosslinking, is necessary for WRAMP structure formation, potentially bridging microfilaments and MVBs. Vesicle coat proteins, including coatomer-I subunits, localize to and are required for the WRAMP structure. Electron microscopy and live imaging demonstrate movement of ER to the WRAMP structure and plasma membrane, followed by elevation of intracellular Ca2+. Thus, Wnt5a controls directional movement by recruiting cortical ER to mobilize a rear-directed, localized Ca2+ signal, activating actomyosin contraction and adhesion disassembly for membrane retraction. PMID:24091015

  20. Cytoskeletal filament assembly and the control of cell spreading and function by extracellular matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, D. J.; Langer, R.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze how cell binding to extracellular matrix produces changes in cell shape. We focused on the initial process of cell spreading that follows cell attachment to matrix and, thus, cell 'shape' changes are defined here in terms of alterations in projected cell areas, as determined by computerized image analysis. Cell spreading kinetics and changes in microtubule and actin microfilament mass were simultaneously quantitated in hepatocytes plated on different extracellular matrix substrata. The initial rate of cell spreading was highly dependent on the matrix coating density and decreased from 740 microns 2/h to 50 microns 2/h as the coating density was lowered from 1000 to 1 ng/cm2. At approximately 4 to 6 hours after plating, this initial rapid spreading rate slowed and became independent of the matrix density regardless of whether laminin, fibronectin, type I collagen or type IV collagen was used for cell attachment. Analysis of F-actin mass revealed that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix resulted in a 20-fold increase in polymerized actin within 30 minutes after plating, before any significant change in cell shape was observed. This was followed by a phase of actin microfilament disassembly which correlated with the most rapid phase of cell extension and ended at about 6 hours; F-actin mass remained relatively constant during the slow matrix-independent spreading phase. Microtubule mass increased more slowly in spreading cells, peaking at 4 hours, the time at which the transition between rapid and slow spreading rates was observed. However, inhibition of this early rise in microtubule mass using either nocodazole or cycloheximide did not prevent this transition. Use of cytochalasin D revealed that microfilament integrity was absolutely required for hepatocyte spreading whereas interference with microtubule assembly (using nocodazole or taxol) or protein synthesis (using cycloheximide) only partially suppressed cell extension. In

  1. THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACTIN: ITS ROLE IN THE GENERATION OF THE ACROSOMAL PROCESS OF CERTAIN ECHINODERM SPERM

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Lewis G.; Hatano, Sadashi; Ishikawa, Harunori; Mooseker, Mark S.

    1973-01-01

    When Asterias or Thyone sperm come in contact with egg jelly, a long process which in Thyone measures up to 90 µm in length is formed from the acrosomal region. This process can be generated in less than 30 s. Within this process is a bundle of microfilaments. Water extracts prepared from acetone powders of Asterias sperm contain a protein which binds rabbit skeletal muscle myosin forming a complex whose viscosity is reduced by ATP. Within this extract is a protein with the same molecular weight as muscle actin. It can be purified either by collecting the pellet produced after the addition of Mg++ or by reextracting an acetone powder of actomyosin prepared by the addition of highly purified muscle myosin to the extract. The sperm actin can be polymerized and by electron microscopy the polymer is indistinguishable from muscle F-actin. The sperm actin was shown to be localized in the microfilaments in the acrosomal processes by: (a) heavy meromyosin binding in situ, (b) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis of the isolated acrosomal processes and a comparison to gels of flagella which contain no band corresponding to the molecular weight of actin, and (c) SDS gel electrophoresis of the extract from isolated acrosomal caps. Since the precursor for the microfilaments in the unreacted sperm appears amorphous, we suspected that the force for the generation of the acrosomal process is brought about by the polymerization of the sperm actin. This supposition was confirmed, for when unreacted sperm were lysed with the detergent Triton X-100 and the state of the actin in the sperm extract was analyzed by centrifugation, we determined that at least 80% of the actin in the unreacted sperm was in the monomeric state. PMID:4356568

  2. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean

  3. Rotavirus Infection of Cells in Culture Induces Activation of RhoA and Changes in the Actin and Tubulin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Sorondo, Orlando; Alcala, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Diaz, Yuleima; Ruiz, Marie Christine; Michelangeli, Fabian; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus infection induces an increase in [Ca2+]cyto, which in turn may affect the distribution of the cytoskeleton proteins in the infected cell. Changes in microfilaments, including the formation of stress fibers, were observed starting at 0.5 h.p.i. using fluorescent phalloidin. Western blot analysis indicated that RhoA is activated between 0.5 and 1 h.p.i. Neither the phosphorylation of RhoA nor the formation of stress fibers were observed in cells infected with virions pre-treated with an anti-VP5* non-neutralizing mAb, suggesting that RhoA activation is stimulated by the interaction of the virus with integrins forming the cell receptor complex. In addition, the structure of the tubulin cytoskeleton was also studied. Alterations of the microtubules were evident starting at 3 h.p.i. and by 7 h.p.i. when microtubules were markedly displaced toward the periphery of the cell cytoplasm. Loading of rotavirus-infected cells with either a Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA) or transfection with siRNAs to silence NSP4, reversed the changes observed in both the microfilaments and microtubules distribution, but not the appearance of stress fibers. These results indicate that alterations in the distribution of actin microfilaments are initiated early during infection by the activation of RhoA, and that latter changes in the Ca2+ homeostasis promoted by NSP4 during infection may be responsible for other alterations in the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton. PMID:23082182

  4. Regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells by actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, S. J.; Norvell, S. M.; Ponik, S. M.; Pavalko, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of microfilaments in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with cytochalasin D (cytD) or latrunculin A (latA) resulted in a 3.3- to 5.7-fold increase in total synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and a 3.4- to 6.5-fold increase in prostacyclin (PGI(2)) compared with control cells. Disruption of the microtubule network with nocodazole or colchicine increased synthesis of PGE(2) 1.7- to 1.9-fold and PGI(2) 1.9- to 2.0-fold compared with control cells. Interestingly, however, increased release of PGE(2) and PGI(2) from HUVEC into the media occurred only when microfilaments were disrupted. CytD treatment resulted in 6.7-fold more PGE(2) and 3.8-fold more PGI(2) released from HUVEC compared with control cells; latA treatment resulted in 17.7-fold more PGE(2) and 11.2-fold more PGI(2) released compared with control cells. Both increased synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to all drug treatments were completely inhibited by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Disruption of either microfilaments using cytD or latA or of microtubules using nocodazole or colchicine resulted in a significant increase in COX-2 protein levels, suggesting that the increased synthesis of prostaglandins in response to drug treatments may result from increased activity of COX-2. These results, together with studies demonstrating a vasoprotective role for prostaglandins, suggest that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function by regulating prostaglandin synthesis and release from HUVEC.

  5. Differential Regulation of Disheveled in a Novel Vegetal Cortical Domain in Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos: Implications for the Localized Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg’s vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized “activation” of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  6. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, C; Oelschlaeger, T A; Merkert, H; Korhonen, T K; Hacker, J

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns are able to invade the circulation and subsequently cross the blood-brain barrier. One mechanism for traversing the blood-brain barrier might involve transcytosis through the endothelial cells. The ability of the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034, of serotype 018:K1:H7, to invade epithelial (T24) and endothelial (EA-hy926) cells was investigated by the standard gentamicin survival assay and by electron microscopy. Human bladder epithelial and endothelial cells were efficiently invaded by strain IHE3034, whereas epithelial human colon Caco-2 cells, canine kidney MDCK cells, and the opossum [correction of opposum] epithelial kidney cell line OK were not invaded. The ability to invade human epithelial cells of the bladder could also be demonstrated for several other newborn meningitis E. coli strains and one septicemic E. coli strain. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells revealed a dependence on microfilaments as well as on microtubules in the process of E. coli IHE3034 entry into T24 and EA-hy926 cells. These results indicated that cell cytoskeletal rearrangements are involved in bacterial uptake and suggest that there are either two pathways (microtubule dependent and microfilament dependent) or one complex pathway involving both microtubules and microfilaments. The intracellular IHE3034 organisms were contained in a host-membrane-confined compartment mainly as single microorganisms. Intracellular replication of 1HE3034 was not detected, nor did the number of intracellular bacteria decrease significantly during a 48-h period. The ability of E. coli O18:K1 to invade and survive within certain eukaryotic cells may be another virulence factor of meningitis-associated E. coli. PMID:8698457

  7. Formin 1 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization in the Rat Testis Through Its Actin Nucleation and Bundling Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Wong, Chris K C; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-08-01

    During spermatogenesis, developing spermatids and preleptotene spermatocytes are transported across the adluminal compartment and the blood-testis barrier (BTB), respectively, so that spermatids line up near the luminal edge to prepare for spermiation, whereas preleptotene spermatocytes enter the adluminal compartment to differentiate into late spermatocytes to prepare for meiosis I/II. These cellular events involve actin microfilament reorganization at the testis-specific, actin-rich Sertoli-spermatid and Sertoli-Sertoli cell junction called apical and basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES). Formin 1, an actin nucleation protein known to promote actin microfilament elongation and bundling, was expressed at the apical ES but limited to stage VII of the epithelial cycle, whereas its expression at the basal ES/BTB stretched from stage III to stage VI, diminished in stage VII, and was undetectable in stage VIII tubules. Using an in vitro model of studying Sertoli cell BTB function by RNA interference and biochemical assays to monitor actin bundling and polymerization activity, a knockdown of formin 1 in Sertoli cells by approximately 70% impeded the tight junction-permeability function. This disruptive effect on the tight junction barrier was mediated by a loss of actin microfilament bundling and actin polymerization capability mediated by changes in the localization of branched actin-inducing protein Arp3 (actin-related protein 3), and actin bundling proteins Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8) and palladin, thereby disrupting cell adhesion. Formin 1 knockdown in vivo was found to impede spermatid adhesion, transport, and polarity, causing defects in spermiation in which elongated spermatids remained embedded into the epithelium in stage IX tubules, mediated by changes in the spatiotemporal expression of Arp3, Eps8, and palladin. In summary, formin 1 is a regulator of ES dynamics. PMID:25901598

  8. Method for localized deposition of noble metal catalysts with control of morphology

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Huber, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 .degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick .times.10 .mu.m wide .times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer.

  9. Synthetic peptides that cause F-actin bundling and block actin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Sederoff, Heike; Huber, Steven C; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2011-10-18

    Synthetic peptides derived from sucrose synthase, and having homology to actin and actin-related proteins, sharing a common motif, useful for causing acting bundling and preventing actin depolymerization. Peptides exhibiting the common motif are described, as well as specific synthetic peptides which caused bundled actin and inhibit actin depolymerization. These peptides can be useful for treating a subject suffering from a disease characterized by cells having neoplastic growth, for anti-cancer therapeutics, delivered to subjects solely, or concomitantly or sequentially with other known cancer therapeutics. These peptides can also be used for stabilizing microfilaments in living cells and inhibiting growth of cells.

  10. Changes in F-actin organization induced by hard metal particle exposure in rat pulmonary epithelial cells using laser scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Antonini, J M; Starks, K; Roberts, J R; Millecchia, L; Yang, H M; Rao, K M

    2000-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of hard metal (WC-Co) particles causes alveolitis and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. The initial inflammatory response includes a change in the alveolar epithelial cell-capillary barrier, which has been shown to be regulated by the state of assembly and organization of the actin cytoskeletal network. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect WC-Co particles have on F-actin organization of lung epithelial cells in an in vitro culture system. Rat lung epithelial (L2) cells were exposed to 5, 25, and 100 microg/mL of WC-Co particles, as well as the individual components (Co and WC) of the hard metal mixture particles for 24 h. The effect on F-actin organization was visualized by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) following Bodipy-Phallacidin staining. Minimal changes in the F-actin microfilaments of L2 cells were observed by LSCM after exposure to WC and WC-Co at 5 and 25 microg/mL, while at 100 microg/mL, there was a noticeable disruption in the uniform distribution of L2 cell F-actin microfilaments. After exposure to Co, a dose-dependent change in the F-actin organization of the L2 cells was observed. Little change in F-actin assembly was observed after treatment with 5 microg/mL of Co (the concentration equivalent to the 5% amount of Co commonly present in 100 microg/mL of the WC-Co sample mixture). However, at 100 microg/mL of Co, the microfilaments aggregated into homogeneous masses within the cells, and a significant loss in the organization of L2 F-actin was observed. These dramatic alterations in F-actin organization seen after exposure to the higher doses of Co were attributed to an increase in L2 cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase and trypan blue exclusion. We conclude the pulmonary response evoked in the lung by inhalation of high levels of WC-Co particles is unlikely due to alterations in the F-actin microfilaments of lung-epithelial cells. PMID:10900403

  11. Contraction of cross-linked actomyosin bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Marcq, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Cross-linked actomyosin bundles retract when severed in vivo by laser ablation, or when isolated from the cell and micromanipulated in vitro in the presence of ATP. We identify the timescale for contraction as a viscoelastic time τ, where the viscosity is due to (internal) protein friction. We obtain an estimate of the order of magnitude of the contraction time τ ≈ 10-100 s, consistent with available experimental data for circumferential microfilament bundles and stress fibers. Our results are supported by an exactly solvable, hydrodynamic model of a retracting bundle as a cylinder of isotropic, active matter, from which the order of magnitude of the active stress is estimated.

  12. The fine structure of granules in eosinophil leucocytes from aquatic and terrestrial birds.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, M H

    1978-01-01

    The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules from various aquatic and terrestrial birds has been described. Granules of three basic types were found. The first had a crystalline internum and was found only in the order Anseriformes, which included the black-necked screamer, ducks, geese and swans. The crystals occurred in three morphological forms. The second and least common granule examined contained a non-crystalline internum which was either homogeneous or composed of microfilaments or microtubules. The largest and most common group of birds had a homogenous granule with no internum shown. Homogeneous granules occurred less frequently than did those with interna. PMID:566969

  13. Effects of inhibitors on 1-methyladenine induced maturation of starfish oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harold H.; Xu, Quanhan

    1986-12-01

    1-methladenine (1-MA) induces starfish oocytes maturation via surface reaction followed by the appearance of a cytoplasmic maturation factor which in turn induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to resume meiosis. Cellular mechanisms involved in GVBD were investigated by microinjection of metabolic inhibitors. Colchicine (Co) inhibited maturation, cytochalasin-B (CB) delayed GVBD and actinomycin-D-(Act-D) and puromycin (Pu) had no effect. It appears that the microtubule and the microfilament systems are associated with the nuclear membrane dissolution during the process of oocyte maturation of starfish.

  14. Analysis of murine cellular receptors for tumor-killing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsawa, F.; Natori, S.

    1987-01-01

    Receptors for tumor-killing factor (TKF) on the surface of murine cells were analyzed using radioiodinated TKF. Not only sensitive cells but also insensitive cells were found to have specific receptors. Among the sensitive cells, no clear relation was observed between the number of receptors on the cell surface and sensitivity to TKF. Compounds affecting microfilaments (cytochalasin B and D) and microtubules (colchicine and Colcemid) significantly inhibited cytolysis of sensitive cells induced by receptor-bound TKF. It is concluded that internalization of receptor-bound TKF is a prerequisite for triggering cytolysis.

  15. Effects of X irradiation on the cytoskeleton of rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ladyman, S.J.; Townsend, K.M.S.; Edwards, C.

    1984-07-01

    The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons has been used to demonstrate that an absorbed dose of 120 Gy from X rays causes a distinctive and reproducible alteration of the cytoskeleton of intact rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The alteration has also been shown to be rapidly and completely ''repaired'' and to be apparently similar to alterations caused by colchicine but dissimilar to those caused by cytochalasin B. From these observations and those of other workers who have studied the irradiation of extracted microtubular proteins in vitro, the authors think it likely that microtubules rather than microfilaments are the radiosensitive component of the macrophage cytoskeleton.

  16. Magnetometer probe with low temperature rotation and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajerowski, D. M.; Meisel, M. W.

    2009-02-01

    A new probe has been developed that allows for both optical irradiation and uniaxial rotation, all in the low temperature environment of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. As part of the design process, various materials were investigated and characterized for their low temperature structural and magnetic properties, including nylon, Vespel, Delrin, Spiderwire monofilament, and PowerPro braided microfilament. Using this information, a prototype was built and operated. Characteristics of the probe will be presented along with a summary of the low temperature (T >= 2 K) and high magnetic field (H <= 7 T) properties of the construction materials.

  17. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes. PMID:27557581

  18. Texture sensing of cytoskeletal dynamics in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satarupa; Lee, Rachel; Hourwitz, Matthew J.; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    Migrating cells can be directed towards a target by gradients in properties such as chemical concentration or mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment. In previous studies we have shown that micro/nanotopographical features on scales comparable to those of natural collagen fibers can guide fast migrating amoeboid cells by aligning actin polymerization waves to such nanostructures. We find that actin microfilaments and microtubules are aligned along the nanoridge topographies, modulating overall cell polarity and directional migration in epithelial cells. This work shows that topographic features on a biologically relevant length scale can modulate migration outcomes by affecting the texture sensing property of the cytoskeleton.

  19. Organized F-actin is essential for normal trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, D B; Marks, M D; Wick, S M

    1999-01-01

    Actin microfilaments form a three-dimensional cytoskeletal network throughout the cell and constitute an essential throughway for organelle and vesicle transport. Development of Arabidopsis trichomes, unicellular structures derived from the epidermis, is being used as a genetic system in which to study actin-dependent growth in plant cells. The present study indicates that filamentous actin (F-actin) plays an important role during Arabidopsis trichome morphogenesis. For example, immunolocalization of actin filaments during trichome morphogenesis identified rearrangements of the cytoskeletal structure during the development of the mature cell. Moreover, pharmacological experiments indicate that there are distinct requirements for actin- and microtubule-dependent function during trichome morphogenesis. The F-actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D does not affect the establishment of polarity during trichome development; however, maintenance and coordination of the normal pattern of cell growth are very sensitive to this drug. In contrast, oryzalin, an agent that depolymerizes microtubules, severely inhibits cell polarization. Furthermore, cytochalasin D treatment phenocopies a known class of mutations that cause distorted trichome morphology. Results of an analysis of cell shape and microfilament structure in wild-type, mutant, and drug-treated trichomes are consistent with a role for actin in the maintenance and coordination of an established growth pattern. PMID:10590162

  20. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, M L; Mounier, J; d'Hauteville, H; Coquis-Rondon, M; Sansonetti, P J

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of Shigella to spread within the cytosol of infected epithelial cells and to infect adjacent cells is critical for the development of infection foci, which lead to mucosal abscesses. Shigella is a nonmotile microorganism that appears to utilize host cell microfilaments to generate intra- as well as intercellular movements, since this movement was inhibited by cytochalasin D and involvement of F-actin was demonstrated by direct labeling of infected cells with the specific dye N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)phallacidin. Such movements led to the formation of extracellular protrusions, which may explain cell to cell spread. icsA, a locus necessary for intra- and intercellular spread, was identified on the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid pWR100. This locus was cloned and shown to express a 120-kDa outer membrane protein, which plays an important role in the interactions established between host cell microfilaments and the bacterial surface, thus leading to intracellular movement. Images PMID:2542950

  1. Micro-to-nano biomechanical modeling for assisted biological cell injection.

    PubMed

    Ladjal, Hamid; Hanus, Jean-Luc; Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-09-01

    To facilitate training of biological cell injection operations, we are developing an interactive virtual environment to simulate needle insertion into biological cells. This paper presents methodologies for dynamic modeling, visual/haptic display, and model validation of cell injection. We first investigate the challenging issues in the modeling of the biomechanical properties of living cells. We propose two dynamic models to simulate cell deformation and puncture. The first approach is based on the assumptions that the mechanical response of living cells is mainly determined by the cytoskeleton and that the cytoskeleton is organized as a tensegrity structure including microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Equivalent microtubules struts are represented with a linear mass-tensor finite-element model and equivalent microfilaments and intermediate filaments with viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt elements. The second modeling method assumes the overall cell as an homogeneous hyperelastic model (St, Venant-Kirchhoff). Both graphic and haptic rendering are provided in real time to the operator through a 3-D virtual environment. Simulated responses are compared to experimental data to show the effectiveness of the proposed physically based model. PMID:23613019

  2. Non linear behaviour of cell tensegrity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alippi, A.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Conclusio, D.; D'Orazio, A.; Germano, M.; Passeri, D.

    2012-05-01

    Tensegrity models for the cytoskeleton structure of living cells is largely used nowadays for interpreting the biochemical response of living tissues to mechanical stresses. Microtubules, microfilaments and filaments are the microscopic cell counterparts of struts (microtubules) and cables (microfilaments and filaments) in the macroscopic world: the formers oppose to compression, the latters to tension, thus yielding an overall structure, light and highly deformable. Specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, act as the coupling elements that transmit the outside mechanical stress state into the cell body. Reversible finite deformations of tensegrity structures have been widely demonstrated experimentally and in a number of living cell simulations. In the present paper, the bistability behaviour of two general models, the linear bar oscillator and the icosahedron, is studied, as they are both obtained from mathematical simulation, the former, and from larger scale experiments, the latter. The discontinuity in the frequency response of the oscillation amplitude and the lateral bending of the resonance curves are put in evidence, as it grows larger as the driving amplitude increases, respectively.

  3. The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Natalie K; Gordon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The cell state splitter is a membraneless organelle at the apical end of each epithelial cell in a developing embryo. It consists of a microfilament ring and an intermediate filament ring subtending a microtubule mat. The microtubules and microfilament ring are in mechanical opposition as in a tensegrity structure. The cell state splitter is bistable, perturbations causing it to contract or expand radially. The intermediate filament ring provides metastability against small perturbations. Once this snap-through organelle is triggered, it initiates signal transduction to the nucleus, which changes gene expression in one of two readied manners, causing its cell to undergo a step of determination and subsequent differentiation. The cell state splitter also triggers the cell state splitters of adjacent cells to respond, resulting in a differentiation wave. Embryogenesis may be represented then as a bifurcating differentiation tree, each edge representing one cell type. In combination with the differentiation waves they propagate, cell state splitters explain the spatiotemporal course of differentiation in the developing embryo. This review is excerpted from and elaborates on "Embryogenesis Explained" (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2016). PMID:26965444

  4. Progressive hair straightening using an automated flat iron: function of silicones.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Rana, Bhavna; Lam, Hui Tung

    2013-01-01

    An automated hair iron was built with which the hair temperature, contact force of the iron against the hair tress, and gliding speed were controlled. The changes in keratin were characterized by several techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, birefringence measurements, and wet tensile tests. Undamaged curly hair was ironed for several iron cycles at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 175°C and washed between each iron cycle. Irreversible straightening of curly hair was observed and depended on the temperature and the number of cycles. The birefringence data suggested that the straightening was related to a gradual decrease of the microfilament organization. Silicone treatment did not significantly affect the course of microfilament denaturation, but it improved the quality of straightening. It enhanced the fiber alignment under the gliding action of the iron. Progressive thermal straightening may be a promising method to achieve permanent smoothing of curly hair without chemical treatment. Ironing at the onset temperature (∼154°C), before substantial disulfide bond scission occurred, seemed to be a good compromise between process speed, straightening performance, and hair integrity (i.e., reduced loss of cross-linking). PMID:23578835

  5. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  6. A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbo; Guan, Qingmei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Yingdian; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. PMID:23571490

  7. Single-molecule imaging of {beta}-actin mRNAs in the cytoplasm of a living cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Mai; Ishihama, Yo; Shirasaki, Yoshitaka; Kurama, Hideki; Funatsu, Takashi

    2009-04-15

    {beta}-Actin mRNA labeled with an MS2-EGFP fusion protein was expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts and its localization and movement were analyzed by single-molecule imaging. Most {beta}-Actin mRNAs localized to the leading edge, while some others were observed in the perinuclear region. Singe-molecule tracking of individual mRNAs revealed that the majority of mRNAs were in unrestricted Brownian motion at the leading edge and in restricted Brownian motion in the perinuclear region. The macroscopic diffusion coefficient of mRNA (D{sub MACRO}) at the leading edge was 0.3 {mu}m{sup 2}/s. On the other hand, D{sub MACRO} in the perinuclear region was 0.02 {mu}m{sup 2}/s. The destruction of microfilaments with cytochalasin D, which is known to delocalize {beta}-actin mRNAs, led to an increase in D{sub MACRO} to 0.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/s in the perinuclear region. These results suggest that the microstructure, composed of microfilaments, serves as a barrier for the movement of {beta}-actin mRNA.

  8. Phenotypes of Aging Postovulatory Oocytes After Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Reum; Shimoike, Takashi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kishigami, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Oocytes rapidly lose their developmental potential after ovulation, termed postovulatory oocyte aging, and often exhibit characteristic phenotypes, such as cytofragmentation, abnormal spindle shapes, and chromosome misalignments. Here, we reconstructed mouse oocytes using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to reveal the effect of somatic cell-derived nuclei on oocyte physiology during aging. Normal oocytes started undergoing cytofragmentation 24 hours after oocyte collection; however, this occurred earlier in SCNT oocytes and was more severe at 48 hours, suggesting that the transferred somatic cell nuclei affected oocyte physiology. We found no difference in the status of acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-Tub) and α-tubulin (Tub) between normal and SCNT aging oocytes, but unlike normal oocytes, aging SCNT oocytes did not have astral microtubules. Interestingly, aging SCNT oocytes displayed more severely scattered chromosomes or irregularly shaped spindles. Observations of the microfilaments showed that, in normal oocytes, there was a clear actin ring beneath the plasma membrane and condensed microfilaments around the spindle (the actin cap) at 0 hours, and the actin filaments started degenerating at 1 hour, becoming completely disrupted and distributed to the cytoplasm at 24 hours. By contrast, in SCNT oocytes, an actin cap formed around the transplanted nuclei within 1 hour of SCNT, which was still present at 24 hours. Thus, SCNT oocytes age in a similar but distinct way, suggesting that they not only contain nuclei with abnormal epigenetics but are also physiologically different. PMID:27253626

  9. Effects of small doses of cytochalasins on fibroblasts: preferential changes of active edges and focal contacts.

    PubMed Central

    Domnina, L V; Gelfand, V I; Ivanova, O Y; Leonova, E V; Pletjushkina, O Y; Vasiliev, J M; Gelfand, I M

    1982-01-01

    The effects of low doses of cytochalasin B (2 micrograms/ml) and cytochalasin D (0.2 microgram/ml) on the spreading of normal mouse fibroblasts in culture were investigated to find out which components of cell-substrate interactions are most sensitive to alterations of the state of actin cytoskeleton. Cytochalasin B disorganized the cortical layer of actin microfilaments and caused partial or complete disappearance of microfilament bundles; focal contacts with the substrate seen by interference-reflection microscopy also disappeared. Diffuse close contacts were apparently insensitive to cytochalasin B. Low doses of cytochalasin B did not inhibit the outgrowth and maintenance of lamellas at the cell periphery. However, in contrast to controls, these lamellas had no distal zones with convex outer edges and ruffles at the upper surfaces. The disappearance of these ruffling active edges was accompanied by loss of the ability to clear the surface of the lamellas from the concanavalin A receptors crosslinked by the corresponding ligand. The effects of cytochalasin D were similar to those of cytochalasin B. Thus, ruffling active edges and focal contacts can be regarded as specialized parts of lamellas with increased sensitivity to cytochalasins; the presence of ruffling active edges is essential for the initiation of centripetal movement of the patches of crosslinked surface receptors. Images PMID:6961447

  10. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima. PMID:25800683

  11. Plasmolysis: Loss of Turgor and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ingeborg; Sassmann, Stefan; Schmidt, Brigitte; Komis, George

    2014-01-01

    Plasmolysis is a typical response of plant cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress. The loss of turgor causes the violent detachment of the living protoplast from the cell wall. The plasmolytic process is mainly driven by the vacuole. Plasmolysis is reversible (deplasmolysis) and characteristic to living plant cells. Obviously, dramatic structural changes are required to fulfill a plasmolytic cycle. In the present paper, the fate of cortical microtubules and actin microfilaments is documented throughout a plasmolytic cycle in living cells of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged Arabidopsis lines. While the microtubules became wavy and highly bundled during plasmolysis, cortical filamentous actin remained in close vicinity to the plasma membrane lining the sites of concave plasmolysis and adjusting readily to the diminished size of the protoplast. During deplasmolysis, cortical microtubule re-organization progressed slowly and required up to 24 h to complete the restoration of the original pre-plasmolytic pattern. Actin microfilaments, again, recovered faster and organelle movement remained intact throughout the whole process. In summary, the hydrostatic skeleton resulting from the osmotic state of the plant vacuole “overrules” the stabilization by cortical cytoskeletal elements. PMID:27135521

  12. RICE MORPHOLOGY DETERMINANT Encodes the Type II Formin FH5 and Regulates Rice Morphogenesis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hexin; Wang, Ying; Li, Gang; Liang, Wanqi; Yuan, Zheng; Hu, Jianping; Ren, Haiyun; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms contain a large number of formins; however, their physiological roles in plants remain poorly understood. Here, we reveal that formin homology 5 (FH5), a type II formin mutated in rice morphology determinant (rmd), plays a crucial role in determining rice (Oryza sativa) morphology. FH5/RMD encodes a formin-like protein consisting of an N-terminal phosphatase tensin (PTEN)-like domain, an FH1 domain, and an FH2 domain. The rmd mutants display a bending growth pattern in seedlings, are stunted as adult plants, and have aberrant inflorescence (panicle) and seed shape. Cytological analysis showed that rmd mutants have severe cell elongation defects and abnormal microtubule and microfilament arrays. FH5/RMD is ubiquitously expressed in rice tissues, and its protein localization to the chloroplast surface is mediated by the PTEN domain. Biochemical assays demonstrated that recombinant FH5 protein can nucleate actin polymerization from monomeric G-actin or actin/profilin complexes, cap the barbed end of actin filaments, and bundle actin filaments in vitro. Moreover, FH5 can directly bind to and bundle microtubules through its FH2 domain in vitro. Our findings suggest that the rice formin protein FH5 plays a critical role in determining plant morphology by regulating actin dynamics and proper spatial organization of microtubules and microfilaments. PMID:21307283

  13. Contact-dependent cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, J.N.; Ravdin, J.I.; Rein, M.F.

    1985-12-01

    The cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis have been debated since the 1940s. We examined the following three proposed pathogenic mechanisms: contact-dependent extracellular killing, cytophagocytosis, and extracellular cytotoxins. Serial observations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell monolayers exposed to trichomonads revealed that (i) trichomonads form clumps, (ii) the clumps adhere to cells in culture, and (iii) monolayer destruction occurs only in areas of contact with T. vaginalis. Kinetic analysis of target cell killing by trichomonads revealed that the probability of CHO cell death was related to the probability of contact with T. vaginalis, supporting the observation by microscopy that trichomonads kill cells only by direct contact. Simultaneous studies of /sup 111/indium oxine label release from CHO cells and trypan blue dye exclusion demonstrated that T. vaginalis kills target cells without phagocytosis. Filtrates of trichomonad cultures or from media in which trichomonads were killing CHO cells had no effect on CHO cell monolayers, indicating that trichomonads do not kill cells by a cell-free or secreted cytotoxin. The microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D (10 micrograms/ml) inhibited trichomonad killing of CHO cell monolayers by 80% (P less than 0.0001). In contrast, the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine (10(-6) M) caused only 17% inhibition of trichomonad destruction of CHO cell monolayers (P less than 0.020), whereas colchicine (10(-6) M) had no effect. T. vaginalis kills target cells by direct contact without phagocytosis. This event requires intact trichomonad microfilament function; microtubule function appears not to be essential.

  14. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction. PMID:27436542

  15. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Structural and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sabanero, Myrna; Azorín-Vega, Juan Carlos; Flores-Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Castruita-Dominguez, J Pedro; Vallejo, Miguel Angel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro; Sosa-Aquino, Modesto

    2016-02-01

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv/year) and subsequently exposure to high doses produces greater effects in people. It has been reported that people who have been exposed to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv/year) and subsequently are exposed to high doses, have greater effects. However, at a molecular and biochemical level, it is an unknown alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa ATCC CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/90 s). Our research considers multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments), nuclei (DAPI), and genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation show structural alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin microfilaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200 μM H2O2/1h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between various line cells. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:26656429

  16. Protein Kinases Possibly Mediate Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline D.; Bosah, Francis N.; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. These studies indicate that microgravity affects a number of physiological systems and included in this are cell signaling mechanisms. Rijken and coworkers performed growth factor studies that showed PKC signaling and actin microfilament organization appears to be sensitive to microgravity, suggesting that the inhibition of signal transduction by microgravity may be related to alterations in actin microfilament organization. However, similar studies have not been done for vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in providing nutrients to organ and tissues and in wound repair. The major deterrent to ground-based microgravity studies is that it is impossible to achieved true microgravity for longer than a few minutes on earth. Hence, it has not been possible to conduct prolonged microgravity studies except for two models that simulate certain aspects of microgravity. However, hypergravity is quite easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell lines while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, These studies indicate the hypergravity also alters the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the activation of several protein kinases (PKs) in cells. In this study, we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the role of PK's (calmodulin 11 dependent, PKA and PKC) as mediators of these effects.

  17. Tropomyosin 4 regulates adhesion structures and resorptive capacity in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Brooke K; Lee, Beth S

    2008-02-01

    Tropomyosins (Tms) are alpha-helical dimers that bind and stabilize actin microfilaments while regulating their accessibility to other actin-associated proteins. Four genes encode expression of over forty Tms, most of which are expressed in nonmuscle cells. In recent years, it has become clear that individual Tm isoforms may regulate specific actin pools within cells. In this study, we examined how osteoclast function may be regulated by the tropomyosin isoform Tm-4, which we previously showed to be highly localized to podosomes and sealing zones of osteoclasts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tm-4, both in RAW264.7- and mouse marrow-derived osteoclasts, resulted in thinning of the actin ring of the sealing zone. Knockdown of Tm-4 also resulted in diminished bone resorptive capacity and altered resorption pit shape. In contrast, osteoclasts overexpressing Tm-4 demonstrated thickened podosomes on glass as well as thickened, aberrant actin structures on bone, and diminished motility and resorptive capacity. These results indicate that Tm-4 plays a role in regulating adhesion structures of osteoclasts, most likely by stabilizing the actin microfilaments present in podosomes and the sealing zone. PMID:18036591

  18. Effects of an antimitotic drug on mechanical behaviours of the cytoskeleton in distinct grades of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seyedpour, S M; Pachenari, M; Janmaleki, M; Alizadeh, M; Hosseinkhani, H

    2015-04-13

    Biomechanical behaviours of cells change during cancer progression due to alterations in the main cytoskeletal proteins. Microtubules play a vital role in mitosis and in supporting the integrity of the cell due to their ability to withstand high compressive loads. Accordingly, microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) have become one of the most promising classes of drugs in cancer therapy. This study evaluated changes in visco-elastic parameters induced by an appropriate concentration of an antimitotic drug in two different grades of colon cancer cells. Actin microfilaments and microtubules contents in the cells were evaluated by Western blot analysis and fluorescence intensity calculation. Micropipette aspiration experiments showed that the MTA had distinct mechanical effects on different cell lines. The more aggressive the cells, the greater the reduction in elasticity and viscosity. Invasive cells had a higher initial instantaneous Young's modulus than primary cells, but this reduced to approximately one half of the values for primary cells after 48 h of drug treatment. A considerable association was seen between the changes in mechanical properties and the microtubule to F-actin microfilament content ratio, which decreased with MTA treatment. PMID:25678199

  19. beta-Dystroglycan modulates the interplay between actin and microtubules in human-adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Hernández-González, Enrique; Galván, Iván

    2008-05-01

    To maintain the continuity of an injured blood vessel, platelets change shape, secrete granule contents, adhere, aggregate, and retract in a haemostatic plug. Ordered arrays of microtubules, microfilaments, and associated proteins are responsible for these platelet responses. In full-spread platelets, microfilament bundles in association with other cytoskeleton proteins are anchored in focal contacts. Recent studies in migrating cells suggest that co-ordination and direct physical interaction of microtubules and actin network modulate adhesion development. In platelets, we have proposed a feasible association between these two cytoskeletal systems, as well as the participation of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, as part of the focal adhesion complex. The present study analysed the participation of microtubules and actin during the platelet adhesion process. Confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance transfer energy and immunoprecipitation assays were used to provide evidence of a cross-talk between these two cytoskeletal systems. Interestingly, beta-dystroglycan was found to act as an interplay protein between actin and microtubules and an additional communication between these two cytoskeleton networks was maintained through proteins of focal adhesion complex. Altogether our data are indicative of a dynamic co-participation of actin filaments and microtubules in modulating focal contacts to achieve platelet function. PMID:18341635

  20. Role of cytoskeleton network in anisosmotic volume changes of intact and permeabilized A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Alexandra; Ponomarchuk, Olga; Boudreault, Francis; Kapilevich, Leonid V; Maksimov, Georgy V; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Orlov, Sergei N

    2015-10-01

    Recently we found that cytoplasm of permeabilized mammalian cells behaves as a hydrogel displaying intrinsic osmosensitivity. This study examined the role of microfilaments and microtubules in the regulation of hydrogel osmosensitivity, volume-sensitive ion transporters, and their contribution to volume modulation of intact cells. We found that intact and digitonin-permeabilized A549 cells displayed similar rate of shrinkage triggered by hyperosmotic medium. It was significantly slowed-down in both cell preparations after disruption of actin microfilaments by cytochalasin B, suggesting that rapid water release by intact cytoplasmic hydrogel contributes to hyperosmotic shrinkage. In hyposmotic swelling experiments, disruption of microtubules by vinblastine attenuated the maximal amplitude of swelling in intact cells and completely abolished it in permeabilized cells. The swelling of intact cells also triggered ~10-fold elevation of furosemide-resistant (86)Rb+ (K+) permeability and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD), both of which were abolished by Ba2+. Interestingly, RVD and K+ permeability remained unaffected in cytocholasin/vinblastine treated cells demonstrating that cytoskeleton disruption has no direct impact on Ba2+-sensitive K+-channels involved in RVD. Our results show, for the first time, that the cytoskeleton network contributes directly to passive cell volume adjustments in anisosmotic media via the modulation of the water retained by the cytoplasmic hydrogel. PMID:26171817

  1. Regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by redox signaling and oxidative stress: implications for neuronal development and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carlos; González-Billault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A proper balance between chemical reduction and oxidation (known as redox balance) is essential for normal cellular physiology. Deregulation in the production of oxidative species leads to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and aberrant post-translational modification of proteins, which in most cases induces injury, cell death and disease. However, physiological concentrations of oxidative species are necessary to support important cell functions, such as chemotaxis, hormone synthesis, immune response, cytoskeletal remodeling, Ca2+ homeostasis and others. Recent evidence suggests that redox balance regulates actin and microtubule dynamics in both physiological and pathological contexts. Microtubules and actin microfilaments contain certain amino acid residues that are susceptible to oxidation, which reduces the ability of microtubules to polymerize and causes severing of actin microfilaments in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In contrast, inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS; e.g., due to NOXs) leads to aberrant actin polymerization, decreases neurite outgrowth and affects the normal development and polarization of neurons. In this review, we summarize emerging evidence suggesting that both general and specific enzymatic sources of redox species exert diverse effects on cytoskeletal dynamics. Considering the intimate relationship between cytoskeletal dynamics and trafficking, we also discuss the potential effects of redox balance on intracellular transport via regulation of the components of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which may directly impact localization of proteins and vesicles across the soma, dendrites and axon of neurons. PMID:26483635

  2. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K C; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction. PMID:27436542

  3. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. PMID:26150354

  4. Transport of Motor Proteins along Microtubules: A Study by Optical Trapping Method and Analysis of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Angelique

    The cellular transportation is fundamental for cell function. Under this transportation, organelles bind to motor proteins. These proteins, then move along cellular microfilaments such as microtubules. The optical trapping technique is a method that allows us to monitor the movement of molecular motors along their tracks. In this method, motor proteins are absorbed by micro-sized beads. The beads are captured by the laser and placed close to the microfilaments. Consequently, the motor proteins bind to the track and move along them. This motion can be recorded and analyzed. In this work, we have analyzed many produced trajectories resulted from the motion of a single kinesin along microtubules. We present the design of the experiment, the method of recording and extracting data, as well as the factors that need to be considered to obtain accurate results. Finally, we calculated some of the physical properties resulted from kinesin movement in our experiment. Our outcomes are compatible with previously reported results. I acknowledge the support of NJSGC 2016 during this project. This work was conducted under the supervision of Dr. Mitra Feizabadi.

  5. A kinesin with calponin-homology domain is involved in premitotic nuclear migration

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Nicole; Klotz, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Interaction and cross-talk between microtubules and actin microfilaments are important for numerous processes during plant growth and development, including the control of cell elongation and tissue expansion, but little is known about the molecular components of this interaction. Plant kinesins with the calponin-homology domain (KCH) were recently identified and associated with a putative role in microtubule-microfilament cross-linking. The putative biological role of the rice KCH member OsKCH1 is addressed here using a combined approach with Tos17 kch1 knock-out mutants on the one hand, and a KCH1 overexpression line generated in tobacco BY-2 cells. It is shown that OsKCH1 is expressed in a development and tissue-specific manner in rice and antagonistic cell elongation and division phenotypes as a result of knock-down and overexpression are reported. Further, the dynamic repartitioning of OsKCH1 during the cell cycle is described and it is demonstrated that KCH overexpression delays nuclear positioning and mitosis in BY-2 cells. These findings are discussed with respect to a putative role of KCHs as linkers between actin filaments and microtubules during nuclear positioning. PMID:20566563

  6. Plasmolysis: Loss of Turgor and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ingeborg; Sassmann, Stefan; Schmidt, Brigitte; Komis, George

    2014-01-01

    Plasmolysis is a typical response of plant cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress. The loss of turgor causes the violent detachment of the living protoplast from the cell wall. The plasmolytic process is mainly driven by the vacuole. Plasmolysis is reversible (deplasmolysis) and characteristic to living plant cells. Obviously, dramatic structural changes are required to fulfill a plasmolytic cycle. In the present paper, the fate of cortical microtubules and actin microfilaments is documented throughout a plasmolytic cycle in living cells of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged Arabidopsis lines. While the microtubules became wavy and highly bundled during plasmolysis, cortical filamentous actin remained in close vicinity to the plasma membrane lining the sites of concave plasmolysis and adjusting readily to the diminished size of the protoplast. During deplasmolysis, cortical microtubule re-organization progressed slowly and required up to 24 h to complete the restoration of the original pre-plasmolytic pattern. Actin microfilaments, again, recovered faster and organelle movement remained intact throughout the whole process. In summary, the hydrostatic skeleton resulting from the osmotic state of the plant vacuole "overrules" the stabilization by cortical cytoskeletal elements. PMID:27135521

  7. Arabidopsis FH1 Formin Affects Cotyledon Pavement Cell Shape by Modulating Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Amparo; Oulehlová, Denisa; Stillerová, Lenka; Schiebertová, Petra; Grunt, Michal; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis involves concerted rearrangements of microtubules and actin microfilaments. We previously reported that FH1, the main Arabidopsis thaliana housekeeping Class I membrane-anchored formin, contributes to actin dynamics and microtubule stability in rhizodermis cells. Here we examine the effects of mutations affecting FH1 (At3g25500) on cell morphogenesis and above-ground organ development in seedlings, as well as on cytoskeletal organization and dynamics, using a combination of confocal and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy with a pharmacological approach. Homozygous fh1 mutants exhibited cotyledon epinasty and had larger cotyledon pavement cells with more pronounced lobes than the wild type. The pavement cell shape alterations were enhanced by expression of the fluorescent microtubule marker GFP-microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Mutant cotyledon pavement cells exhibited reduced density and increased stability of microfilament bundles, as well as enhanced dynamics of microtubules. Analogous results were also obtained upon treatments with the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 (small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains). Pavement cell shape in wild-type (wt) and fh1 plants in some situations exhibited a differential response towards anti-cytoskeletal drugs, especially the microtubule disruptor oryzalin. Our observations indicate that FH1 participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, possibly via its effects on actin, subsequently influencing cell morphogenesis and macroscopic organ development. PMID:26738547

  8. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction.

  9. The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules of the black-necked crowned crane.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H

    1979-01-01

    The fine structure of the granules of circulating eosinophil leucocytes was studied in five adult black-necked crowned cranes. The interna within these granules showed various crystalline arrangements. Optical diffraction patterns of the crystals revealed linear arrangements measuring 6.2 and 3.8 nm and often, when these arrangements were superimposed, a hexagonal pattern was observed. Bundles of microfilaments measuring 5-7 nm in diameter were found frequently in crystal-containing granules. Staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and various other cytochemical procedures gave results similar to those obtained previously in the shag and the duck. The PTA stain and peroxidase reaction product were found only in the externum of the granules whereas the acid hydrolases, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase were located within the crystalline matrix and in or between the microfilaments. As with shag eosinophil granules, those of the crane did not appear to contain histone arginine and in this respect they differed from those of the duck and the fowl. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:422484

  10. Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

  11. Proteomic analysis of differentiating neuroblastoma cells treated with sub-lethal neurite inhibitory concentrations of diazinon: Identification of novel biomarkers of effect

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Flaskos, J.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2009-10-15

    In previous work we showed that sub-lethal levels of diazinon inhibited neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. Western blotting analysis targeted at proteins involved in axon growth and stress responses, revealed that such exposure led to a reduction in the levels of neurofilament heavy chain, microtubule associated protein 1 B (MAP 1B) and HSP-70. The aim of this study was to apply the approach of 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify novel biomarkers of effect. A number of proteins were found to be up-regulated compared to the control on silver-stained gels. These were classified in to 3 main groups of proteins: cytosolic factors, chaperones and the actin-binding protein cofilin, all of which are involved in cell differentiation, survival or metabolism. The changes observed for cofilin were further confirmed by quantitative Western blotting analysis with anti-actin and anti-cofilin antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence staining with the same antibodies indicated that the microfilament network was disrupted in diazinon-treated cells. Our data suggest that microfilament organisation is disrupted by diazinon exposure, which may be related to increased cofilin expression.

  12. Decreased blood flow rate disrupts endothelial repair in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Vyalov, S.; Langille, B. L.; Gotlieb, A. I.

    1996-01-01

    Both local hemodynamics and endothelial injury have been implicated in vascular disorders including bypass graft failure and atherogenesis, but little is known about the effect of local blood flow conditions on repair of endothelial injury. We decreased blood flow rates and shear stresses in common carotid arteries of rabbits by ligating the ipsilateral external carotid artery. After 24 hours, endothelial cells were less elongated, contained fewer central microfilament bundles, and showed less polarity of the centrosome toward the heart than endothelial cells in unmanipulated carotid arteries. To examine wound repair, we made narrow longitudinal intimal wounds at the time of flow reduction using a nylon monofilament device. In arteries with normal blood flows, endothelial cells at the edge of the wound initially spread and elongated in the direction of the wound. The dense peripheral band of actin was attenuated and central microfilaments became more prominent. Endothelial cells remained in close contact with their neighbors in the monolayer. The centrosome of cells adjacent to the wound was redistributed toward the wound side of the nucleus at 6 and 12 hours. Complete closure occurred by 24 hours, at which time the elongated endothelial cells covering the wound were organized in a herringbone pattern with their downstream ends at the center of the wound. With decreased flow and shear stress, the cells at the wound edge spread less than those in normal vessels at 12 hours after wounding and were randomly oriented and polygonal in shape. Also, re-endothelialization proceeded more slowly and there was a marked reduction of central microfilaments in cells at the wound edge. At 24 hours, the wounds were still open, the endothelial cells covering the central portion of the wound did not maintain intimate contact with their neighbors, and orientation of the centrosome toward the wound was reduced. We hypothesize that loss of cell-cell contact during repair at low flow

  13. Hyperthermia effects on the cytoskeleton and on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Coakley, W T

    1987-01-01

    Human erythrocyte ghost membranes undergo five thermal transitions at temperatures between 50 and 75 degrees C. Spontaneous fragmentation of whole cells occurs at 50 degrees C, a transition temperature which has been associated with denaturation of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin. Haemolysis occurs at 65 degrees C and microvesiculation of the resulting ghost membrane is seen at temperatures in excess of 70 degrees C. The cell fragmentation develops through spatially periodic growth of surface waves on the erythrocyte membrane. The interfacial instability associated with the surface wave growth arises from thermal impairment of the stabilizing function of spectrin. Interfacial instability is also associated with the beading pattern which arises when long processes drawn mechanically from erythrocytes are heated. Similar beading of cell processes is a feature of many cytoskeleton-weakening agents acting on nonerythroid cells. The complexities of the cytoskeletons of eucaryotic cells including structure, composition and interaction of cytoskeletal microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments, both with each other and with the cell membrane, are outlined. Attention is drawn to the importance of the function of proteins which interact with the cytoskeletal elements and to the influence of calcium concentration on those proteins. Actin monomers are denatured (and are no longer polymerizable) at temperatures a few degrees above the growth temperature of the cell source of the actins. Actin in the filament form requires much higher denaturation temperatures. This greater thermal lability of actin monomers would be expected to result (because of treadmilling in microfilaments) in a gradual depolymerization of the filaments. Depolymerization of microtubules occurs at temperatures close to the cell growth temperature and may be dependent on a thermal effect on microtubule-associated proteins. The response of spread interphase mammalian cells to temperatures

  14. JVG9, a benzimidazole derivative, alters the surface and cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Castillo, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Ambrosio, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a particular cytoskeleton that consists of a subpellicular network of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Therefore, it is an excellent target for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Benzimidazole 2-carbamates, a class of well-known broad-spectrum anthelmintics, have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of many protozoa. Therefore, to find efficient anti-trypanosomal (trypanocidal) drugs, our group has designed and synthesised several benzimidazole derivatives. One, named JVG9 (5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol), has been found to be effective against T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we present the in vitro effects observed by laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Changes in the surface and the distribution of the cytoskeletal proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the trypanocidal activity of JVG9 involves the cytoskeleton as a target. PMID:25317703

  15. Perversions with a twist

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro E. S.; Trigueiros, Joao L.; Trindade, Ana C.; Simoes, Ricardo; Dias, Ricardo G.; Godinho, Maria Helena; de Abreu, Fernao Vistulo

    2016-01-01

    Perversions connecting two helices with symmetric handedness are a common occurrence in nature, for example in tendrils. These defects can be found in our day life decorating ribbon gifts or when plants use tendrils to attach to a support. Perversions arise when clamped elastic filaments coil into a helical shape but have to conserve zero overall twist. We investigate whether other types of perversions exist and if they display different properties. Here we show mathematically and experimentally that a continuous range of different perversions can exist and present different geometries. Experimentally, different perversions were generated using micro electrospun fibres. Our experimental results also confirm that these perversions behave differently upon release and adopt different final configurations. These results also demonstrate that it is possible to control on demand the formation and shape of microfilaments, in particular, of electrospun fibres by using ultraviolet light. PMID:27025549

  16. Nanocapillarity-mediated magnetic assembly of nanoparticles into ultraflexible filaments and reconfigurable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Fameau, Anne-Laure; Rubinstein, Michael; Velev, Orlin D.

    2015-11-01

    The fabrication of multifunctional materials with tunable structure and properties requires programmed binding of their building blocks. For example, particles organized in long-ranged structures by external fields can be bound permanently into stiff chains through electrostatic or van der Waals attraction, or into flexible chains through soft molecular linkers such as surface-grafted DNA or polymers. Here, we show that capillarity-mediated binding between magnetic nanoparticles coated with a liquid lipid shell can be used for the assembly of ultraflexible microfilaments and network structures. These filaments can be magnetically regenerated on mechanical damage, owing to the fluidity of the capillary bridges between nanoparticles and their reversible binding on contact. Nanocapillary forces offer opportunities for assembling dynamically reconfigurable multifunctional materials that could find applications as micromanipulators, microbots with ultrasoft joints, or magnetically self-repairing gels.

  17. Metabolic and cytoskeletal modulation of transferrin receptor mobility in mitogen-activated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, G M; Galbraith, R M

    1980-01-01

    The transferrin receptors which appear on mitogen-activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were found by the use of immunofluorescence techniques to display temperature-dependent patching and capping reactions upon binding of transferrin. Lateral mobility of ligand-occupied membrane sites was accompanied by both shedding and endocytosis of receptor-transferrin complexes. In the presence of sodium azide or the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B, cap formation and shedding were markedly inhibited. In contrast, endocytosis of patched receptor-ligand complexes was inhibited by azide and microtubule inhibitors, including colchicine, vinblastine and vincristine. Co-capping experiments performed to elucidate further the alterations in membrane configuration involved in these reactions failed to reveal any topographical relationship between transferrin receptors and lectin-binding sites in these cells. These studied indicate that temperature-dependent mobility of transferrin receptors upon mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes is dependent upon the integrity of the cytoskeletal system and metabolic function of the cell. PMID:6258830

  18. Gravity and the cell: Intracellular structures and Stokes sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1977-01-01

    Plant and certain animal embryos appear to be responsive to the gravity vector during early stages of development. The convection of particle sedimentation as the basis for the sensing of gravity is investigated using the cells of wheat seedlings, amphibian embryos, and mammals. Exploration of the mammalian cell for sedimenting particles reveals that their existence is unlikely, especially in the presence of a network of microtubules and microfilaments considered to be responsible for intracellular organization. Destruction of these structures renders the cell susceptible to accelerations several times g. Large dense particles, such as chromosomes, nucleoli, and cytoplasmic organelles are acted upon by forces much larger than that due to gravity, and their positions in the cell appear to be insensitive to gravity.

  19. Polygonal networks, "geodomes", of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Y; Furukawa, K; Mitaka, T; Yokoi, T; Kodama, T

    1988-01-01

    Polygonal networks, "geodomes", in cultured hepatocytes of adult rats were examined by both light and electron microscopy. On light microscopical examinations of specimens stained with Coomassie blue after the treatment with Triton X-100, the networks were detected 5 days after culture, which consisted of triangles arranged mainly in hexagonal patterns. They surrounded main cell body, looking like a headband, or were occasionally situated over nuclei, looking like a geodesic dome. Scanning electron microscopical observations after Triton treatment revealed that these structures were located underneath surface membrane. Transmission electron microscopical investigations revealed that the connecting fibers of networks consisted of microfilaments which radiated in a compact bundle from electron-dense vertices. PMID:3396075

  20. Microtubule-organizing centers and cell migration: effect of inhibition of migration and microtubule disruption in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, A I; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I

    1983-05-01

    We have previously shown that microtubule-organizing centers (MTOC's) become preferentially oriented towards the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells (EC's) at the margin of an experimentally induced wound made in a confluent EC monolayer. To learn more about the mechanism responsible for the reorientation of MTOC's and to determine whether a similar reorientation takes place when cell migration is inhibited, we incubated the wounded cultures with colcemid (C) and cytochalasin B (CB), which disrupt microtubules (MT's) and microfilaments (MF's), respectively. The results obtained showed that the MTOC reorientation can occur independent of cell migration since MTOC's reoriented preferentially toward the wound edge in the CB-treated cultures, even though forward migration of the EC was inhibited. In addition, the MTOC reorientation is inhibited by C, indicating that it requires an intact system of MT's and/or other intracellular structures whose distribution is dependent on that of MT's. PMID:6341378

  1. Quality control of cytoskeletal proteins and human disease.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Victor F; Leroux, Michel R; Stirling, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    Actins and tubulins are abundant cytoskeletal proteins that support diverse cellular processes. Owing to the unique properties of these filament-forming proteins, an intricate cellular machinery consisting minimally of the chaperonin CCT, prefoldin, phosducin-like proteins, and tubulin cofactors has evolved to facilitate their biogenesis. More recent evidence also suggests that regulated degradation pathways exist for actin (via TRIM32) and tubulin (via parkin or cofactor E-like). Collectively, these pathways maintain the quality control of cytoskeletal proteins ('proteostasis'), ensuring the appropriate function of microfilaments and microtubules. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of the quality control of actin and tubulin, and discuss emerging links between cytoskeletal proteostasis and human diseases. PMID:20116259

  2. Electrostatic control of microstructure thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supino, Ryan N.; Talghader, Joseph J.

    2001-03-01

    A technology for controlling the thermal conductivity of etch-released microstructures is proposed and demonstrated by placing test structures in and out of contact with their underlying substrate. By adjusting the duty cycle of a periodic actuation, the thermal conductivity can be adjusted linearly across a wide range. Experimental work with microfilaments in air has shown a continuous tuning range from approximately 1.7×10-4 W/K to 3.3×10-4 W/K. These numbers are limited by thermal conduction through air and thermal contact conductance, respectively. The fundamental tuning range is orders of magnitude wider, limited by radiation heat transfer and the thermal contact conductance of coated structures.

  3. Perversions with a twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pedro E. S.; Trigueiros, Joao L.; Trindade, Ana C.; Simoes, Ricardo; Dias, Ricardo G.; Godinho, Maria Helena; de Abreu, Fernao Vistulo

    2016-03-01

    Perversions connecting two helices with symmetric handedness are a common occurrence in nature, for example in tendrils. These defects can be found in our day life decorating ribbon gifts or when plants use tendrils to attach to a support. Perversions arise when clamped elastic filaments coil into a helical shape but have to conserve zero overall twist. We investigate whether other types of perversions exist and if they display different properties. Here we show mathematically and experimentally that a continuous range of different perversions can exist and present different geometries. Experimentally, different perversions were generated using micro electrospun fibres. Our experimental results also confirm that these perversions behave differently upon release and adopt different final configurations. These results also demonstrate that it is possible to control on demand the formation and shape of microfilaments, in particular, of electrospun fibres by using ultraviolet light.

  4. The role of P-cadherin in skin biology and skin pathology: lessons from the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Samuelov, Liat; Sprecher, Eli; Paus, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) are one of the major intercellular junctions in various epithelia including the epidermis and the follicular epithelium. AJs connect the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton and comprise classic transmembrane cadherins, such as P-cadherin, armadillo family proteins, and actin microfilaments. Loss-of-function mutations in CDH3, which encodes P-cadherin, result in two allelic autosomal recessive disorders: hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) and ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy (EEM) syndromes. Both syndromes feature sparse hair heralding progressive macular dystrophy. EEM syndrome is characterized in addition by ectodermal and limb defects. Recent studies have demonstrated that, together with its involvement in cell-cell adhesion, P-cadherin plays a crucial role in regulating cell signaling, malignant transformation, and other major intercellular processes. Here, we review the roles of P-cadherin in skin and hair biology, with emphasize on human hair growth, cycling and pigmentation. PMID:25707507

  5. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin), particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath. PMID:16733537

  6. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-05-15

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  7. [Ultrastructural diagnostic problems of pleural tumors. A study of 125 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stoebner, P; Bernaudin, J F; Adnet, J J; Basset, F

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies may improve the diagnosis of pleural tumors. A comparative study of 125 primary and secondary pleural cancers provided the major structural features needed for differential diagnosis. Two cell types were always present in malignant mesothelioma: differentiated mesothelial, and fibroblastoid cells. The former had some features of metastatic epitheliomas (microvilli, microfilaments, junctional complexes, basement membranes). The later were specific. They were sometimes isolated, had the general aspect of fibroblasts but possessed typical microvilli. It was difficult to assess the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma on isolated differentiated mesothelial cells in pleural fluids or biopsies. Cilia or secretory granules were found only in metastatic cells. The finding of fibroblastoid cells in a pleural tumor proves its mesothelial origin. PMID:573917

  8. An ultrastructural study on the reactive oligodendrocytes, myeloclasts, and myelophages in transected dog spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chang, L W; Kao, C C

    1980-01-01

    As early as 1 to 3 hr after cord transection, proliferation of many reactive oligodendrocytes was observed. Bundles of microfilaments and microtubules were observed in those cells that sent out long, complex pseudopodlike processes near the area of injury. These reactive oligodendrocytes may be comparable to Vaughn's multipotential glia cells. Between 1 day and 1 wk, hypertrophy of the oligodendrocytes was observed. These hypertrophied oligodendrocytes also became hyperactive and infiltrated into the axons within the myelin sheath. These infiltrating hyperactive oligodendrocytes had a scanty fibrillary cytoplasm and are believed to correspond to Jakob's "myeloclasts". The infiltration of macrophages into the nerve fibers and myelin sheaths was also observed. These macrophages were found to be very active in phagocytosis and removal of degenerated debris within the nerve fiber and are believed to represent the "myelophages" described by Jakob in 1913. PMID:6107880

  9. Two Molecules of Lobophorolide Cooperate to Stabilize an Actin Dimer Using Both Their 'Ring' and 'Tail' Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, J.; Mok, Y; Kubanek, J; Allingham, J

    2010-01-01

    Actin filament-disrupting marine macrolides are promising templates from which to design therapeutics against cancer and other diseases that co-opt the actin cytoskeleton. Typically, these macrolides form either a 1:1 or 2:1 actin-macrolide complex where their aliphatic side chain, or 'tail', has been reported to convey the major determinant of cytotoxicity. We now report the structure of the marine macrolide lobophorolide bound to actin with a unique 2:2 stoichiometry in which two lobophorolide molecules cooperate to form a dimerization interface that is composed entirely of the macrolide 'ring' region, and each molecule of lobophorolide interacts with both actin subunits via their ring and tail regions to tether the subunits together. This binding mode imposes multiple barriers against microfilament stability and holds important implications for development of actin-targeting drugs and the evolution of macrolide biosynthetic enzymes.

  10. Rho-Signaling-Directed YAP/TAZ Activity Underlies the Long-Term Survival and Expansion of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Minaguchi, Maki; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2015-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can survive and proliferate for an extended period of time in culture, but unlike that of tumor-derived cells, this form of cellular immortality does not depend on genomic aberrations. In this study, we sought to elucidate the molecular basis of this long-term growth property of hESCs. We found that the survival of hESCs depends on the small GTPase Rho and its activator AKAP-Lbc. We show that AKAP-Lbc/Rho signaling sustains the nuclear function of the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ by modulating actin microfilament organization. By inducing reprogramming and differentiation, we found that dependency on this Rho signaling pathway is associated with the pluripotent state. Thus, our findings show that the capacity of hESCs to undergo long-term expansion in vitro is intrinsically coupled to their cellular identity through interconnected molecular circuits that link cell survival to pluripotency. PMID:26321201

  11. Physical properties of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Block, Johanna; Schroeder, Viktor; Pawelzyk, Paul; Willenbacher, Norbert; Köster, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a sophisticated filament system in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. They form bundles and networks with adapted viscoelastic properties and are strongly interconnected with the other filament types, microfilaments and microtubules. IFs are cell type specific and apart from biochemical functions, they act as mechanical entities to provide stability and resilience to cells and tissues. We review the physical properties of these abundant structural proteins including both in vitro studies and cell experiments. IFs are hierarchical structures and their physical properties seem to a large part be encoded in the very specific architecture of the biopolymers. Thus, we begin our review by presenting the assembly mechanism, followed by the mechanical properties of individual filaments, network and structure formation due to electrostatic interactions, and eventually the mechanics of in vitro and cellular networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:25975455

  12. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes. PMID:20038822

  13. Perversions with a twist.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro E S; Trigueiros, Joao L; Trindade, Ana C; Simoes, Ricardo; Dias, Ricardo G; Godinho, Maria Helena; de Abreu, Fernao Vistulo

    2016-01-01

    Perversions connecting two helices with symmetric handedness are a common occurrence in nature, for example in tendrils. These defects can be found in our day life decorating ribbon gifts or when plants use tendrils to attach to a support. Perversions arise when clamped elastic filaments coil into a helical shape but have to conserve zero overall twist. We investigate whether other types of perversions exist and if they display different properties. Here we show mathematically and experimentally that a continuous range of different perversions can exist and present different geometries. Experimentally, different perversions were generated using micro electrospun fibres. Our experimental results also confirm that these perversions behave differently upon release and adopt different final configurations. These results also demonstrate that it is possible to control on demand the formation and shape of microfilaments, in particular, of electrospun fibres by using ultraviolet light. PMID:27025549

  14. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  15. Relationship between Microtubule Network Structure and Intracellular Transport in Cultured Endothelial Cells Affected by Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Susumu; Ikezawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo

    Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are barriers to the transport of various substances into or from vessel walls, and are continuously exposed to shear stress induced by blood flow in vivo. Shear stress affects the cytoskeleton (e.g., microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments), and affects the transport of macromolecules. Here, the relationship between the microtubule network structure and this transport process for albumin uptake within cultured aortic endothelial cells affected by shear stress was studied. Based on fluorescent images of albumin uptake obtained by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), both the microtubule network and albumin uptake in ECs were disrupted by colchicine and were affected by shear stress loading.

  16. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes. PMID:6997878

  17. Elasticity, unexpected contractility and the identification of actin and myosin in lobster arteries.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, J L; Cavey, M J; Shovkivska, I; Zhang, M L; ter Keurs, H E D J

    2008-03-01

    Lobster arteries, which exhibit non-uniform elasticity when stretched, have a trilaminar organization. The inner layer is an elastic connective tissue and the outer layer is a collagenous connective tissue; the middle layer of an artery is an aggregation of cells containing microfilaments. Arterial cells possess actin, myosin and tropomyosin. Except for the dorsal abdominal artery, striated muscle cells are not evident in the walls of any of the vessels. The neurotransmitter glutamic acid and the neurohormone proctolin elicit slow circumferential contractions in all of the arteries leaving the lobster heart. Only the dorsal abdominal artery contracts when stimulated electrically. Longitudinal strips of the arteries do not respond to either drugs or electrical stimulation. Arterial contraction will have profound effects on resistance to blood flow and may be an important component of the control mechanisms regulating blood distribution. PMID:18281339

  18. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  19. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Panayotov, Ivan; Secret, Emilie; Cunin, Frédérique; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Martin, Marta

    2014-10-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions.

  20. The effect of length and diameter on the resistivity of bromine intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The resistivity of bromine intercalated graphite fibers has been shown to vary with both the diameter and the length of the fibers. This is due to bromine depletion from the fiber surface. Model calculations assuming a 1.0 micron bromine depletion zone for P-100, and 3.0 microns for vapor-grown graphite fibers fit the respective diameter dependence of their resistivities quite well. Length dependence data imply a bromine depletion zone along the length of P-100 fibers which is also a few microns, but that of vapor grown fibers appears to be as large as 300 microns. Despite these values, microfilaments, which are much smaller than the expected depletion zones, do form residual bromine intercalation compounds with resistivities about one-half of their pristine value.

  1. The exocyst at the interface between cytoskeleton and membranes in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Synek, Lukáš; Sekereš, Juraj; Žárský, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Delivery and final fusion of the secretory vesicles with the relevant target membrane are hierarchically organized and reciprocally interconnected multi-step processes involving not only specific protein–protein interactions, but also specific protein–phospholipid interactions. The exocyst was discovered as a tethering complex mediating initial encounter of arriving exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. The exocyst complex is regulated by Rab and Rho small GTPases, resulting in docking of exocytic vesicles to the plasma membrane (PM) and finally their fusion mediated by specific SNARE complexes. In model Opisthokont cells, the exocyst was shown to directly interact with both microtubule and microfilament cytoskeleton and related motor proteins as well as with the PM via phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate specific binding, which directly affects cortical cytoskeleton and PM dynamics. Here we summarize the current knowledge on exocyst-cytoskeleton-PM interactions in order to open a perspective for future research in this area in plant cells. PMID:24427163

  2. A protein kinase C isozyme is translocated to cytoskeletal elements on activation.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Henrich, C J; Cheever, L; Khaner, H; Simpson, P C

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)1 isozymes comprise a family of related cytosolic kinases that translocate to the cell particulate fraction on stimulation. The activated enzyme is thought to be on the plasma membrane. However, phosphorylation of protein substrates occurs throughout the cell and is inconsistent with plasma membrane localization. Using an isozyme-specific monoclonal antibody we found that, on activation, this PKC isozyme translocates to myofibrils in cardiac myocytes and to microfilaments in fibroblasts. Translocation of this activated PKC isozyme to cytoskeletal elements may explain some of the effects of PKC on cell contractility and morphology. In addition, differences in the translocation site of individual isozymes--and, therefore, phosphorylation of different substrates localized at these sites--may explain the diverse biological effects of PKC. Images PMID:2078573

  3. Neuronal migration in the murine rostral migratory stream requires serum response factor

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Siegfried; Krause, Sven M.; Kretz, Oliver; Philippar, Ulrike; Lemberger, Thomas; Casanova, Emilio; Wiebel, Franziska F.; Schwarz, Heinz; Frotscher, Michael; Schütz, Günther; Nordheim, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The central nervous system is fundamentally dependent on guided cell migration, both during development and in adulthood. We report an absolute requirement of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) for neuronal migration in the mouse forebrain. Conditional, late-prenatal deletion of Srf causes neurons to accumulate ectopically at the subventricular zone (SVZ), a prime neurogenic region in the brain. SRF-deficient cells of the SVZ exhibit impaired tangential chain migration along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb. SVZ explants display retarded chain migration in vitro. Regarding target genes, SRF deficiency impairs expression of the β-actin and gelsolin genes, accompanied by reduced cytoskeletal actin fiber density. At the posttranslational level, cofilin, a key regulator of actin dynamics, displays dramatically elevated inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-3. Our studies indicate that SRF-controlled gene expression directs both the structure and dynamics of the actin microfilament, thereby determining cell-autonomous neuronal migration. PMID:15837932

  4. Bcl-wav and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter drive gastrula morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Julien; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Bonneau, Benjamin; Thibaut, Julien; Gadet, Rudy; Lopez, Jonathan; Gonzalo, Philippe; Rimokh, Ruth; Manon, Stephen; Houart, Corinne; Herbomel, Philippe; Aouacheria, Abdel; Gillet, Germain

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-2 proteins are acknowledged as key regulators of programmed cell death. However, increasing data suggest additional roles, including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a new Bcl-2-related multidomain apoptosis accelerator, Bcl-wav, found in fish and frogs. Genetic and molecular studies in zebrafish indicate that Bcl-wav and the recently identified mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) contribute to the formation of the notochord axis by controlling blastomere convergence and extension movements during gastrulation. Furthermore, we found that Bcl-wav controls intracellular Ca(2+) trafficking by acting on the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel, and possibly on MCU, with direct consequences on actin microfilament dynamics and blastomere migration guidance. Thus, from an evolutionary point of view, the original function of Bcl-2 proteins might have been to contribute in controlling the global positioning system of blastomeres during gastrulation, a critical step in metazoan development. PMID:23942336

  5. Cytoskeletal components of Beta vulgaris root hairs in altered gravity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.

    Root hairs of Beta vulgaris are protrusions from rhizodermal cells and are characterised by plagiotropic growth. The roles of the cytoskeleton and of gravity in this growth process are being studied with the help of a clinostat. Through the use of immunocytochemical and fluorescent staining methods which reveal microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs), it was found that these cytoskeletal components of the root hairs of 4-day-old seedlings of B. vulgaris were affected by clinorotation at 2 r.p.m. In control conditions, MTs were found to be distributed evenly throughout the root hair, and an intense fluorescence due to MFs was observed at the tip of the hairs. With clinorotation, however, MTs became distributed at random, though no redistribution of MFs was observed. The latter finding conforms to the idea that MFs are responsible for tip growth. That MTs are more sensitive to altered gravity conditions is presently being tested.

  6. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Induces Rapid Cytoskeletal Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established enzyme-biomarker for prostate cancer, has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications. We aimed to determine the effects of PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) on cytoskeletal networks in prostate cancer cells. PSMA-targeted PDT resulted in rapid disruption of microtubules (α-/β-tubulin), microfilaments (actin), and intermediate filaments (cytokeratin 8/18) in the cytoplasm of LNCaP cells. The collapse of cytoplasmic microtubules and the later nuclear translocation of α-/β-tubulin were the most dramatic alternation. It is likely that these early changes of cytoskeletal networks are partly involved in the initiation of cell death. PMID:20452720

  7. Spata6 is required for normal assembly of the sperm connecting piece and tight head–tail conjunction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuiqiao; Stratton, Clifford J.; Bao, Jianqiang; Zheng, Huili; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    “Pinhead sperm,” or “acephalic sperm,” a type of human teratozoospermia, refers to the condition in which ejaculate contains mostly sperm flagella without heads. Family clustering and homogeneity of this syndrome suggests a genetic basis, but the causative genes remain largely unknown. Here we report that Spata6, an evolutionarily conserved testis-specific gene, encodes a protein required for formation of the segmented columns and the capitulum, two major structures of the sperm connecting piece essential for linking the developing flagellum to the head during late spermiogenesis. Inactivation of Spata6 in mice leads to acephalic spermatozoa and male sterility. Our proteomic analyses reveal that SPATA6 is involved in myosin-based microfilament transport through interaction with myosin subunits (e.g., MYL6). PMID:25605924

  8. [Electron microscopic studies of the gill epithelium of the amphibian teleost Periophthalmus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Storch, V

    1976-01-01

    The gill epithelium of the airdwelling fish Periophthalmus vulgaris has been studied with the electron microscope. The following celltypes can be distinguished: flat covering epithelial cells, chloride cells, mucous cells, basal cells, various leucocytes as well as a specific granule containing cell which is possibly an epithelial cell. The covering epithelial cells exhibit a relatively smooth apical surface and contain in their apical half densely packed microfilaments, pinocytotic vesicles are rare. These characteristics are not to be found in water dwelling fish and possibly represent adaptations to the air containing surroundings. In the chloride cells are numerous, especially in the basal halves of the secondary lamellae. The distal parts of the secondary lamellae the barrier for the respiratory gases measures about 0,9 micrometer. The basal cells are ribosome rich replacement cells. Two types of mucous cells occur. Individual intraepithelial nerve fibres have been observed. PMID:1036346

  9. Mechanics of Individual Keratin Bundles in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Jens-Friedrich; Möbius, Wiebke; Köster, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Along with microtubules and microfilaments, intermediate filaments are a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and play a key role in cell mechanics. In cells, keratin intermediate filaments form networks of bundles that are sparser in structure and have lower connectivity than, for example, actin networks. Because of this, bending and buckling play an important role in these networks. Buckling events, which occur due to compressive intracellular forces and cross-talk between the keratin network and other cytoskeletal components, are measured here in situ. By applying a mechanical model for the bundled filaments, we can access the mechanical properties of both the keratin bundles themselves and the surrounding cytosol. Bundling is characterized by a coupling parameter that describes the strength of the linkage between the individual filaments within a bundle. Our findings suggest that coupling between the filaments is mostly complete, although it becomes weaker for thicker bundles, with some relative movement allowed. PMID:25468348

  10. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes. PMID:24889253

  11. Impaired mechanical stability, migration and contractile capacity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckes, B.; Dogic, D.; Colucci-Guyon, E.; Wang, N.; Maniotis, A.; Ingber, D.; Merckling, A.; Langa, F.; Aumailley, M.; Delouvee, A.; Koteliansky, V.; Babinet, C.; Krieg, T.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of a vimentin network due to gene disruption created viable mice that did not differ overtly from wild-type littermates. Here, primary fibroblasts derived from vimentin-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mouse embryos were cultured, and biological functions were studied in in vitro systems resembling stress situations. Stiffness of -/- fibroblasts was reduced by 40% in comparison to wild-type cells. Vimentin-deficient cells also displayed reduced mechanical stability, motility and directional migration towards different chemo-attractive stimuli. Reorganization of collagen fibrils and contraction of collagen lattices were severely impaired. The spatial organization of focal contact proteins, as well as actin microfilament organization was disturbed. Thus, absence of a vimentin filament network does not impair basic cellular functions needed for growth in culture, but cells are mechanically less stable, and we propose that therefore they are impaired in all functions depending upon mechanical stability.

  12. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  13. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 23 gene transcription depends on actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    Fajol, Abul; Honisch, Sabina; Zhang, Bingbing; Schmidt, Sebastian; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud; Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Föller, Michael

    2016-03-01

    FGF23 regulates renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. Loss of FGF23 results in massive calcification and rapid aging. FGF23 production is stimulated by 1,25(OH)2 D3 and NFκB signaling. Here, we report that treatment of UMR106 osteoblast-like cells with 1,25(OH)2 D3 , inducing Fgf23 transcription, resulted in actin polymerization which was blocked by NFκB inhibitor wogonin. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced Fgf23 gene transcription was abolished by the actin microfilament-disrupting agent cytochalasin B, as well as by the inhibition of actin-regulating Rac1/PAK1 signaling. Our results provide strong evidence that actin redistribution regulated by the Rac1/PAK1 pathway participates in 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced Fgf23 gene transcription. PMID:26878191

  14. Spata6 is required for normal assembly of the sperm connecting piece and tight head-tail conjunction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuiqiao; Stratton, Clifford J; Bao, Jianqiang; Zheng, Huili; Bhetwal, Bhupal P; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yan, Wei

    2015-02-01

    "Pinhead sperm," or "acephalic sperm," a type of human teratozoospermia, refers to the condition in which ejaculate contains mostly sperm flagella without heads. Family clustering and homogeneity of this syndrome suggests a genetic basis, but the causative genes remain largely unknown. Here we report that Spata6, an evolutionarily conserved testis-specific gene, encodes a protein required for formation of the segmented columns and the capitulum, two major structures of the sperm connecting piece essential for linking the developing flagellum to the head during late spermiogenesis. Inactivation of Spata6 in mice leads to acephalic spermatozoa and male sterility. Our proteomic analyses reveal that SPATA6 is involved in myosin-based microfilament transport through interaction with myosin subunits (e.g., MYL6). PMID:25605924

  15. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  16. Millijoule femtosecond micro-Bessel beams for ultra-high aspect ratio machining.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sambit; Chanal, Margaux; Clady, Raphaël; Mouskeftaras, Alexandros; Grojo, David

    2015-08-20

    We report on a functional experimental design for Bessel beam generation capable of handling high-energy ultrashort pulses (up to 1.2 mJ per pulse of 50 fs duration). This allows us to deliver intensities exceeding the breakdown threshold for air or any dielectric along controlled micro-filaments with lengths exceeding 4 mm. It represents an unprecedented upscaling in comparison to recent femtosecond Bessel beam micromachining experiments. We produce void microchannels through glass substrates to demonstrate that aspect ratios exceeding 1200∶1 can be achieved by using single high-intensity pulses. This demonstration must lead to new methodologies for deep-drilling and high-speed cutting applications. PMID:26368773

  17. Anti-Cancer Effect and the Underlying Mechanisms of Gypenosides on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Han; Wang, Xiaobing; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Gypenosides (Gyp), the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. Materials and Methods The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. Conclusion The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti-tumor mechanisms

  18. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  19. Cell cytoskeletal changes effected by static compressive stress lead to changes in the contractile properties of tissue regenerative collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, K; Shah, R; Deng, D; Parkar, M; Liu, W; Knowles, J C; Buxton, P

    2013-01-01

    Static compressive stress can influence the matrix, which subsequently affects cell behaviour and the cell's ability to further transform the matrix. This study aimed to assess response to static compressive stress at different stages of osteoblast differentiation and assess the cell cytoskeleton's role as a conduit of matrix-derived stimuli. Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (D1 ORL UVA), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) and post-osteoblast/pre-osteocyte-like cells (MLO-A5) were seeded in hydrated and compressed collagen gels. Contraction was quantified macroscopically, and cell morphology, survival, differentiation and mineralisation assessed using confocal microscopy, alamarBlue® assay, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and histological stains, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated cell shape changes and favourable microfilament organisation with static compressive stress of the collagen matrix; furthermore, cell survival was greater compared to the hydrated gels. The stage of osteoblast differentiation determined the degree of matrix contraction, with MSCs demonstrating the greatest amount. Introduction of microfilament disrupting inhibitors confirmed that pre-stress and tensegrity forces were under the influence of gel density, and there was increased survival and differentiation of the cells within the compressed collagen compared to the hydrated collagen. There was also relative stiffening and differentiation with time of the compressed cell-seeded collagen, allowing for greater manipulation. In conclusion, the combined collagen chemistry and increased density of the microenvironment can promote upregulation of osteogenic genes and mineralisation; MSCs can facilitate matrix contraction to form an engineered membrane with the potential to serve as a 'pseudo-periosteum' in the regeneration of bone defects. PMID:23813054

  20. Antibodies to T- and L-isoforms of the cytoskeletal protein, fimbrin, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    De Mendonca Neto, E C; Kumar, A; Shadick, N A; Michon, A M; Matsudaira, P; Eaton, R B; Kumar, P; Schur, P H

    1992-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex network of proteins that maintain cell shape, mobility, and organelle function. Its components can be divided into three distinct classes: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Fimbrins are microfilament proteins, a family of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins. Expression of the L-fimbrin isoform is restricted to replicating blood cells and expression of the T-fimbrin isoform to replicating cells of solid tissues. Sera from normals and from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), juvenile arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, osteoarthritis, vasculitis, scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease were tested for the presence of antibodies to T- and L-fimbrin by ELISA, using purified recombinant fimbrin. The mean OD of sera from SLE patients was significantly higher than in normals (T-fimbrin, P less than 0.0001; L-fimbrin, P less than 0.001). 48 of 98 SLE sera had antibodies to T-fimbrin; 32 had antibodies to L-fimbrin; 20 had antibodies to both; 28 had only anti-T, and 12 had only anti-L-fimbrin. The mean OD for sera of the other rheumatic diseases was not significantly different from normals. The presence of either L- or T-fimbrin antibody was associated with pleuropericarditis (P = 0.015), photosensitivity (P = 0.011), and anti-Sm antibody (P = 0.010). Central nervous system SLE was associated with the presence of the L-fimbrin antibody alone (P = 0.016). There was a strong association between DR7 (but not other MHC alleles) and anti-L-fimbrin antibodies in SLE patients (chi square = 18; P less than 0.00002). No MHC association was observed with anti-T-fimbrin antibodies. Images PMID:1522211

  1. Fertilization Induces a Transient Exposure of Phosphatidylserine in Mouse Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Curia, Claudio A.; Ernesto, Juan I.; Stein, Paula; Busso, Dolores; Schultz, Richard M.; Cuasnicu, Patricia S.; Cohen, Débora J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and the requirement of PS translocation to the outer leaflet in cellular processes other than apoptosis has been demonstrated recently. In this work we investigated the occurrence of PS mobilization in mouse eggs, which express flippase Atp8a1 and scramblases Plscr1 and 3, as determined by RT-PCR; these enzyme are responsible for PS distribution in cell membranes. We find a dramatic increase in binding of flouresceinated-Annexin-V, which specifically binds to PS, following fertilization or parthenogenetic activation induced by SrCl2 treatment. This increase was not observed when eggs were first treated with BAPTA-AM, indicating that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was required for PS exposure. Fluorescence was observed over the entire egg surface with the exception of the regions overlying the meiotic spindle and sperm entry site. PS exposure was also observed in activated eggs obtained from CaMKIIγ null females, which are unable to exit metaphase II arrest despite displaying Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, PS exposure was not observed in TPEN-activated eggs, which exit metaphase II arrest in the absence of Ca2+ release. PS exposure was also observed when eggs were activated with ethanol but not with a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the Ca2+ source and concentration are relevant for PS exposure. Last, treatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts microfilaments, or jasplakinolide, which stabilizes microfilaments, prior to egg activation showed that PS externalization is an actin-dependent process. Thus, the Ca2+ rise during egg activation results in a transient exposure of PS in fertilized eggs that is not associated with apoptosis. PMID:23951277

  2. The epithelial barrier is maintained by in vivo tight junction expansion during pathologic intestinal epithelial shedding

    PubMed Central

    Marchiando, Amanda M.; Shen, Le; Graham, W. Vallen; Edelblum, Karen L.; Duckworth, Carrie A.; Guan, Yanfang; Montrose, Marshall H.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Watson, Alastair J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases intestinal epithelial cell shedding and apoptosis, potentially challenging the barrier between the gastrointestinal lumen and internal tissues. We investigated the mechanism of tight junction remodeling and barrier maintenance, as well as the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules during TNF-induced shedding. METHODS We studied wild-type and transgenic mice that express the fluorescent-tagged proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein–occludin or monomeric red fluorescent protein1–ZO-1. After injection of high doses of TNF (7.5µg, i.p.), laparotomies were performed and segments of small intestine were opened to visualize the mucosa by video confocal microscopy. Pharmacologic inhibitors and knockout mice were used to determine the roles of caspase activation, actomyosin, and microtubule remodeling and membrane trafficking in epithelial shedding. RESULTS Changes detected included redistribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occluding to lateral membranes of shedding cells. These proteins ultimately formed a funnel around the shedding cell that defined the site of barrier preservation. Claudins, E-cadherin, F-actin, myosin II, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were also recruited to lateral membranes. Caspase activity, myosin motor activity, and microtubules were required to initiate shedding, whereas completion of the process required microfilament remodeling and ROCK, MLCK, and dynamin II activities. CONCLUSIONS Maintenance of the epithelial barrier during TNF-induced cell shedding is a complex process that involves integration of microtubules, microfilaments, and membrane traffic to remove apoptotic cells. This process is accompanied by redistribution of apical junctional complex proteins to form intercellular barriers between lateral membranes and maintain mucosal function. PMID:21237166

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens alters epithelial permeability and translocates across Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens has long been considered as a psychrotrophic microorganism. Recently, we have shown that clinical strains of P. fluorescens (biovar 1) are able to adapt at a growth temperature of 37°C or above and induce a specific inflammatory response. Interestingly, a highly specific antigen of P. fluorescens, I2, is detected in the serum of patients with Crohn's disease but the possible role of this bacterium in the disease has not yet been explored. In the present study, we examined the ability of a psychrotrophic and a clinical strain of P. fluorescens to modulate the permeability of a Caco-2/TC7 intestinal epithelial model, reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, invade the target cells and translocate across the epithelium. The behaviour of these two strains was compared to that of the well known opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1. Results Both strains of P. fluorescens were found to decrease the transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2/TC7 differentiated monolayers. This was associated with an increase in paracellular permeability and F-actin microfilaments rearrangements. Moreover, the invasion and translocation tests demonstrated that the two strains used in this study can invade and translocate across the differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Conclusions The present work shows for the first time, that P. fluorescens is able to alter the intestinal epithelial barrier function by disorganizing the F-actin microfilament network. Moreover, we reveal that independently of their origins, the two P. fluorescens strains can translocate across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers by using the transcellular pathway. These findings could, at least in part, explain the presence of the P. fluorescens specific I2 antigen in the serum of patients with Crohn's disease. PMID:21110894

  4. High molecular weight tropomyosins regulate osteoclast cytoskeletal morphology.

    PubMed

    Kotadiya, Preeyal; McMichael, Brooke K; Lee, Beth S

    2008-11-01

    Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that bind to the major groove of F-actin and regulate its accessibility to actin-modifying proteins. Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. Osteoclasts, which undergo rounds of polarization and depolarization as they progress through the resorptive cycle, possess an unusual and highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton. To further define some of the actin regulatory proteins involved in osteoclast activity, we previously performed a survey of tropomyosin isoforms in resting and resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. These isoforms, Tm-2 and Tm-3, are not strongly associated with actin-rich adhesion structures, but are instead distributed diffusely throughout the cell. In this study, we found that Tm-2/3 expression occurs late in osteoclastogenesis and continues to increase as cells mature. Knockdown of these isoforms via RNA interference results in flattening and increased spreading of osteoclasts, accompanied by diminished motility and altered resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of Tm-2, but not Tm-3, caused morphological changes that include decreased spreading of the cells and induction of actin patches or stress fiber-like actin filaments, also with effects on motility and resorption. Suppression of Tm-2/3 or overexpression of Tm-2 resulted in altered distribution of gelsolin and microfilament barbed ends. These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments. PMID:18674650

  5. Nuclear Function of Subclass I Actin-Depolymerizing Factor Contributes to Susceptibility in Arabidopsis to an Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Noriko; Higaki, Takumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are conserved proteins that function in regulating the structure and dynamics of actin microfilaments in eukaryotes. In this study, we present evidence that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) subclass I ADFs, particularly ADF4, functions as a susceptibility factor for an adapted powdery mildew fungus. The null mutant of ADF4 significantly increased resistance against the adapted powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii. The degree of resistance was further enhanced in transgenic plants in which the expression of all subclass I ADFs (i.e. ADF1–ADF4) was suppressed. Microscopic observations revealed that the enhanced resistance of adf4 and ADF1-4 knockdown plants (ADF1-4Ri) was associated with the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and cell death specific to G. orontii-infected cells. The increased resistance and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in ADF1-4Ri were suppressed by the introduction of mutations in the salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways but not by a mutation in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Quantification by microscopic images detected an increase in the level of actin microfilament bundling in ADF1-4Ri but not in adf4 at early G. orontii infection time points. Interestingly, complementation analysis revealed that nuclear localization of ADF4 was crucial for susceptibility to G. orontii. Based on its G. orontii-infected-cell-specific phenotype, we suggest that subclass I ADFs are susceptibility factors that function in a direct interaction between the host plant and the powdery mildew fungus. PMID:26747284

  6. A novel multifunctional biomedical material based on polyacrylonitrile: Preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ling; Bremner, David H; Li, He-yu; Shi, Qi-quan; Wu, Jun-zi; Xiao, Rui-qiu; Zhu, Li-min

    2016-05-01

    Wet spun microfibers have great potential in the design of multifunctional controlled release materials. Curcumin (Cur) and vitamin E acetate (Vit. E Ac) were used as a model drug system to evaluate the potential application of the drug-loaded microfiber system for enhanced delivery. The drugs and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were blended together and spun to produce the target drug-loaded microfiber using an improved wet-spinning method and then the microfibers were successfully woven into fabrics. Morphological, mechanical properties, thermal behavior, drug release performance characteristics, and cytocompatibility were determined. The drug-loaded microfiber had a lobed "kidney" shape with a height of 50-100 μm and width of 100-200 μm. The addition of Cur and Vit. E Ac had a great influence on the surface and cross section structure of the microfiber, leading to a rough surface having microvoids. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the drugs were successfully encapsulated and dispersed evenly in the microfilament fiber. After drug loading, the mechanical performance of the microfilament changed, with the breaking strength improved slightly, but the tensile elongation increased significantly. Thermogravimetric results showed that the drug load had no apparent adverse effect on the thermal properties of the microfibers. However, drug release from the fiber, as determined through in-vitro experiments, is relatively low and this property is maintained over time. Furthermore, in-vitro cytocompatibility testing showed that no cytotoxicity on the L929 cells was found up to 5% and 10% respectively of the theoretical drug loading content (TDLC) of curcumin and vitamin E acetate. This study provides reference data to aid the development of multifunctional textiles and to explore their use in the biomedical material field. PMID:26952475

  7. Traffic of Secondary Metabolites to Cell Surface in the Red Alga Laurencia dendroidea Depends on a Two-Step Transport by the Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Vanessa M.; Oliveira, Louisi S.; Passos, Raoni M. F.; Viana, Nathan B.; Mermelstein, Cláudia; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pereira, Renato C.; Paradas, Wladimir C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Salgado, Leonardo T.

    2013-01-01

    In Laurencia dendroidea, halogenated secondary metabolites are primarily located in the vacuole named the corps en cerise (CC). For chemical defence at the surface level, these metabolites are intracellularly mobilised through vesicle transport from the CC to the cell periphery for posterior exocytosis of these chemicals. The cell structures involved in this specific vesicle traffic as well as the cellular structures related to the positioning and anchoring of the CC within the cell are not well known. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of cytoskeletal elements in both processes. Cellular and molecular assays were conducted to i) determine the ultrastructural apparatus involved in the vesicle traffic, ii) localise cytoskeletal filaments, iii) evaluate the role of different cytoskeletal filaments in the vesicle transport, iv) identify the cytoskeletal filaments responsible for the positioning and anchoring of the CC, and v) identify the transcripts related to cytoskeletal activity and vesicle transport. Our results show that microfilaments are found within the connections linking the CC to the cell periphery, playing an essential role in the vesicle traffic at these connections, which means a first step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. After that, the microtubules work in the positioning of the vesicles along the cell periphery towards specific regions where exocytosis takes place, which corresponds to the second step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. In addition, microtubules are involved in anchoring and positioning the CC to the cell periphery. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the expression of genes coding for actin filaments, microtubules, motor proteins and cytoskeletal accessory proteins. Genes related to vesicle traffic, exocytosis and membrane recycling were also identified. Our findings show, for the first time, that actin microfilaments and microtubules play an underlying cellular role in the

  8. In Vitro Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Gerring, Robert; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Li, Jian-Dong; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Methodology and Findings In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conclusions and Significance This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in

  9. The protein and lipid composition of the membrane of milk fat globules depends on their size.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Anggrek, Jeni; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper Arthur

    2016-06-01

    In bovine milk, fat globules (MFG) have a heterogeneous size distribution with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 15 µm. Although efforts have been made to explain differences in lipid composition, little is known about the protein composition of MFG membranes (MFGM) in different sizes of MFG. In this study, protein and lipid analyses were combined to study MFG formation and secretion. Two different sized MFG fractions (7.6±0.9 µm and 3.3±1.2 µm) were obtained by centrifugation. The protein composition of MFGM in the large and small MFG fractions was compared using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. The lipid composition and fatty acid composition of MFG was determined using HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detector and gas chromatography, respectively. Two frequently studied proteins in lipid droplet biogenesis, perilipin-2 and TIP47, were increased in the large and small MFG fractions, respectively. In the large MFG fraction, besides perilipin-2, cytoplasmic vesicle proteins (heat shock proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and Rabs), microfilaments and intermediate filament-related proteins (actin and vimentin), host defense proteins (cathelicidins), and phosphatidylinositol were higher in concentration. On the other hand, cholesterol synthesis enzymes [lanosterol synthase and sterol-4-α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)], cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine were, besides TIP47, higher in concentration in the small MFG fraction. These results suggest that vesicle proteins, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, cholesterol, and specific phospholipids play an important role in lipid droplet growth, secretion, or both. The observations from this study clearly demonstrated the difference in protein and lipid composition between small and large MFG fractions. Studying the role of these components in more detail in future experiments may lead to a better understanding of fat globule formation and secretion. PMID

  10. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking. PMID:26045497

  11. Isolation and Contraction of the Stress Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Kazuo; Kano, Yumiko; Masuda, Michitaka; Onishi, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Keigi

    1998-01-01

    Stress fibers were isolated from cultured human foreskin fibroblasts and bovine endothelial cells, and their contraction was demonstrated in vitro. Cells in culture dishes were first treated with a low-ionic-strength extraction solution and then further extracted using detergents. With gentle washes by pipetting, the nucleus and the apical part of cells were removed. The material on the culture dish was scraped, and the freed material was forced through a hypodermic needle and fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Isolated, free-floating stress fibers stained brightly with fluorescently labeled phalloidin. When stained with anti-α-actinin or anti-myosin, isolated stress fibers showed banded staining patterns. By electron microscopy, they consisted of bundles of microfilaments, and electron-dense areas were associated with them in a semiperiodic manner. By negative staining, isolated stress fibers often exhibited gentle twisting of microfilament bundles. Focal adhesion–associated proteins were also detected in the isolated stress fiber by both immunocytochemical and biochemical means. In the presence of Mg-ATP, isolated stress fibers shortened, on the average, to 23% of the initial length. The maximum velocity of shortening was several micrometers per second. Polystyrene beads on shortening isolated stress fibers rotated, indicating spiral contraction of stress fibers. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation was detected in contracting stress fibers, and a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, KT5926, inhibited isolated stress fiber contraction. Our study demonstrates that stress fibers can be isolated with no apparent loss of morphological features and that they are truly contractile organelle. PMID:9658180

  12. Altering the cellular mechanical force balance results in integrated changes in cell, cytoskeletal and nuclear shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. R.; Karp, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out with capillary endothelial cells cultured on fibronectin (FN)-coated dishes in order to analyze the mechanism of cell and nuclear shape control by extracellular matrix (ECM). To examine the role of the cytoskeleton in shape determination independent of changes in transmembrane osmotic pressure, membranes of adherent cells were permeabilized with saponin (25 micrograms/ml) using a buffer that maintains the functional integrity of contractile microfilaments. Real-time videomicroscopic studies revealed that addition of 250 microM ATP resulted in time-dependent retraction and rounding of permeabilized cells and nuclei in a manner similar to that observed in intact living cells following detachment using trypsin-EDTA. Computerized image analysis confirmed that permeabilized cells remained essentially rigid in the absence of ATP and that retraction was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner as the concentration of ATP was raised from 10 to 250 microM. Maximal rounding occurred by 30 min with projected cell and nuclear areas being reduced by 69 and 41%, respectively. ATP-induced rounding was also accompanied by a redistribution of microfilaments resulting in formation of a dense net of F-actin surrounding retracted nuclei. Importantly, ATP-stimulated changes in cell, cytoskeletal, and nuclear form were prevented in permeabilized cells using a synthetic myosin peptide (IRICRKG) that has been previously shown to inhibit actomyosin filament sliding in muscle. In contrast, both the rate and extent of cell and nuclear rounding were increased in permeabilized cells exposed to ATP when the soluble FN peptide, GRGDSP, was used to dislodge immobilized FN from cell surface integrin receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Growth inhibition and changes in morphology and actin distribution in Acetabularia acetabulum by phalloidin and phalloidin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sawitzky, H; Hanfstingl, U; Faulstich, H

    2003-03-01

    Effects on morphology and microfilament structure caused by phalloidin, phallacidin, and some semisynthetic phalloidin derivatives were studied in vegetative cells of the green alga Acetabularia acetabulum (L.) Silva. All phalloidin derivatives (except for phalloidin itself) caused growth stop of the alga after 1 day and (except for the fluorescein-labeled phalloidin) death of the cells after 4-7 days. Hair whorl tip growth and morphology as screened by light microscopy, as well as microfilament structure in tips, suggested that growth stop is correlated with a disorganization of actin filaments similar to that recently described for jasplakinolide (H. Sawitzky, S. Liebe, J. Willingale-Theune, D. Menzel, European Journal of Cell Biology 78: 424-433, 1999). Using rabbit muscle actin as a model target protein, we found that the toxic effects in vivo did not correlate with actin affinity values, suggesting that permeation through membranes must play a role. Indeed, the most lipophilic phalloidin derivatives benzoylphalloidin and dithiolanophalloidin were the most active in causing growth stop at ca. 100 microM. In comparison to the concentration of jasplakinolide required to cause similar effects (<3 microM), the two most active phalloidin derivatives exhibited an activity ca. 30 times lower. Nonetheless, lipophilic phalloidin derivatives can be used in algae, and probably also other cells, to modulate actin dynamics in vivo. In addition, we found that the fluorescent fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin is able to enter living algal cells and stains actin structures brightly. Since it does not suppress actin dynamics, we suggest fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin as a tool for studying rearrangements of actin structures in live cells, e.g., by confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:12664285

  14. Effects of glycine on phagocytosis and secretion by Kupffer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Wen; Yun, Ke-Ming; Han, De-Wu; Xu, Rui-Ling; Zhao, Yuan-Chang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of glycine on phagocytosis and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by Kupffer cells in vitro. METHODS: Kupffer cells were isolated from normal rats by collagenase digestion and Percoll density gradient differential centrifugation. After culture for 24 h, Kupffer cells were incubated in fresh Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle’s Medium containing glycine (G1: 1 mmol/L, G2: 10 mmol/L, G3: 100 mmol/L and G4: 300 mmol/L) for 3 h, then used to measure phagocytosis by a bead test, TNF-α secretion after lipopolysaccharide stimulation by radioactive immunoassay, and microfilament and microtubule expression by staining with phalloidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or a monoclonal anti-α tubulin-FITC antibody, respectively, and evaluated under a ultraviolet fluorescence microscope. RESULTS: Glycine decreased the phagocytosis of Kupffer cells at both 30 min and 60 min (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The numbers of beads phagocytosed by Kupffer cells in 30 min were 16.9 ± 4.0 (control), 9.6 ± 4.1 (G1), 12.1 ± 5.7 (G2), 8.1 ± 3.2 (G3) and 7.5 ± 2.0 (G4), and were 22.5 ± 7.9 (control), 20.1 ± 5.8 (G1), 19.3 ± 4.8 (G2), 13.5 ± 4.7 (G3) and 9.2 ± 3.1 (G4) after 60 min. TNF-α secretion by Kupffer cells in G1 (0.19 ± 0.03), G2 (0.16 ± 0.04), G3 (0.14 ± 0.03) and G4 (0.13 ± 0.05) was significantly less than that in controls (0.26 ± 0.03, P < 0.01), and the decrease in secretion was dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Microfilaments of Kupffer cells in G2, G3 and G4 groups were arranged in a disorderly manner. The fluorescence densities of microtubules in G1 (53.4 ± 10.5), G2 (54.1 ± 14.6), G3 (64.9 ± 12.1) and G4 (52.1 ± 14.2) were all lower than those in the controls (102.2 ± 23.7, P < 0.01), but the decrease in microtubule fluorescence density was not dose-dependant. CONCLUSION: Glycine can decrease the phagocytosis and secretion by Kupffer cells in vitro, which may be related to the changes in the expression of

  15. Interaction of rat Sertoli cells with a collagen lattice in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borland, K; Ehrlich, H P; Muffly, K; Dills, W L; Hall, P F

    1986-11-01

    Sertoli cells from rats aged 15, 20, and 25 d were subcultured onto collagen-coated, plastic dishes. If the collagen was released from the plastic surface by rimming, the floating rafts of collagen showed uniform shrinkage. If the collagen was allowed to remain attached to the plastic, holes appeared in the collagen with cells from rats aged 25 d but not with those of 15 d. Cells from rats aged 20 d caused fewer and smaller holes to appear. The holes were associated with the formation of clumps of spherical cells from which elongated Sertoli cells extended into the surrounding collagen to end near holes. Rhodamine-phalloidin revealed diffusely distributed actin in the spherical cells in contrast to well-developed microfilaments in the peripheral elongated cells. Addition of cytochalasin B (5 micrograms/ml) to the medium prevented contraction of the floating rafts and the development of holes in the attached collagen. In addition, cytochalasin B caused the peripheral cells to become spherical and to separate from the clumps. Moreover, rhodamine-phalloidin revealed that actin in the peripheral cells occurred as clumps without microfilaments when cytochalasin B was present. When Sertoli cells were subcultured onto silicone rubber films, the cells produced wrinkling of the rubber surface within 4 h of plating. These observations were interpreted to mean that Sertoli cells exert local tractional forces on various substrata. These forces require actin, presumably acting by a contractile mechanism. When the collagen is attached to plastic and the cells are organized into clumps with radiating elongated cells (cells from rats aged 25 d), the tractional forces in the elongated cells reorganize the collagen fibers to produce holes. When cells are uniformly distributed (cells from rats aged 15 d), holes are not formed. When the collagen is released from the plastic surface, tractional forces cause the floating rafts to shrink. These interactions of the cells with collagen are

  16. Cell shape, cytoskeletal mechanics, and cell cycle control in angiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.; Prusty, D.; Sun, Z.; Betensky, H.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    Capillary endothelial cells can be switched between growth and differentiation by altering cell-extracellular matrix interactions and thereby, modulating cell shape. Studies were carried out to determine when cell shape exerts its growth-regulatory influence during cell cycle progression and to explore the role of cytoskeletal structure and mechanics in this control mechanism. When G0-synchronized cells were cultured in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-containing defined medium on dishes coated with increasing densities of fibronectin or a synthetic integrin ligand (RGD-containing peptide), cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis all increased in parallel. To determine the minimum time cells must be adherent and spread on extracellular matrix (ECM) to gain entry into S phase, cells were removed with trypsin or induced to retract using cytochalasin D at different times after plating. Both approaches revealed that cells must remain extended for approximately 12-15 h and hence, most of G1, in order to enter S phase. After this restriction point was passed, normally 'anchorage-dependent' endothelial cells turned on DNA synthesis even when round and in suspension. The importance of actin-containing microfilaments in shape-dependent growth control was confirmed by culturing cells in the presence of cytochalasin D (25-1000 ng ml-1): dose-dependent inhibition of cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis resulted. In contrast, induction of microtubule disassembly using nocodazole had little effect on cell or nuclear spreading and only partially inhibited DNA synthesis. Interestingly, combination of nocodazole with a suboptimal dose of cytochalasin D (100 ng ml-1) resulted in potent inhibition of both spreading and growth, suggesting that microtubules are redundant structural elements which can provide critical load-bearing functions when microfilaments are partially compromised. Similar synergism between nocodazole and cytochalasin D was observed

  17. Head-neck domain of Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA2, fused with GFP produces F-actin patterns that coincide with fast organelle streaming in different plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Nadine; Holweg, Carola L

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoskeletal mechanisms that underlie organelle transport in plants are intimately linked to acto-myosin function. This function is mediated by the attachment of myosin heads to F-actin and the binding of cargo to the tails. Acto-myosin also powers vigorous cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. Class XI myosins exhibit strikingly fast velocities and may have extraordinary roles in cellular motility. Studies of the structural basis of organelle transport have focused on the cargo-binding tails of myosin XI, revealing a close relationship with the transport of peroxisomes, mitochondria, and Golgi-vesicles. Links between myosin heads and F-actin-based motility have been less investigated. To address this function, we performed localization studies using the head-neck domain of AtMYA2, a myosin XI from Arabidopsis. Results We expressed the GFP-fused head-neck domain of MYA2 in epidermal cells of various plant species and found that it associated with F-actin. By comparison to other markers such as fimbrin and talin, we revealed that the myosin-labeled F-actin was of a lower quality and absent from the fine microfilament arrays at the cell cortex. However, it colocalized with cytoplasmic (transvacuolar) F-actin in areas coinciding with the tracks of fast organelles. This observation correlates well with the proposed function of myosin XI in organelle trafficking. The fact that organelle streaming was reduced in cells expressing the GFP-MYA2-head6IQ indicated that the functionless motor protein inhibits endogenous myosins. Furthermore, co-expression of the GFP-MYA2-head6IQ with other F-actin markers disrupted its attachment to F-actin. In nuclei, the GFP-myosin associated with short bundles of F-actin. Conclusion The localization of the head of MYA2 in living plant cells, as investigated here for the first time, suggests a close linkage between this myosin XI and cytoplasmic microfilaments that support the rapid streaming of organelles such as peroxisomes

  18. Structure of the F-actin-tropomyosin complex.

    PubMed

    von der Ecken, Julian; Müller, Mirco; Lehman, William; Manstein, Dietmar J; Penczek, Pawel A; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is the major protein of muscle thin filaments, and actin microfilaments are the main component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Mutations in different actin isoforms lead to early-onset autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, and multiple variations of myopathies. In striated muscle fibres, the binding of myosin motors to actin filaments is mainly regulated by tropomyosin and troponin. Tropomyosin also binds to F-actin in smooth muscle and in non-muscle cells and stabilizes and regulates the filaments there in the absence of troponin. Although crystal structures for monomeric actin (G-actin) are available, a high-resolution structure of F-actin is still missing, hampering our understanding of how disease-causing mutations affect the function of thin muscle filaments and microfilaments. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of F-actin at a resolution of 3.7 Å in complex with tropomyosin at a resolution of 6.5 Å, determined by electron cryomicroscopy. The structure reveals that the D-loop is ordered and acts as a central region for hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that stabilize the F-actin filament. We clearly identify map density corresponding to ADP and Mg(2+) and explain the possible effect of prominent disease-causing mutants. A comparison of F-actin with G-actin reveals the conformational changes during filament formation and identifies the D-loop as their key mediator. We also confirm that negatively charged tropomyosin interacts with a positively charged groove on F-actin. Comparison of the position of tropomyosin in F-actin-tropomyosin with its position in our previously determined F-actin-tropomyosin-myosin structure reveals a myosin-induced transition of tropomyosin. Our results allow us to understand the role of individual mutations in the genesis of actin- and tropomyosin-related diseases and will serve as a strong foundation for the targeted

  19. Preferential enlargement of leukemia cells using cytoskeletal-directed agents and cell cycle growth control parameters to induce sensitivity to low frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Trendowski, Matthew; Wong, Victoria; Zoino, Joseph N; Christen, Timothy D; Gadeberg, Lauren; Sansky, Michelle; Fondy, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a form of ultrasound therapy that has been shown to preferentially damage malignant cells based on the relatively enlarged size and altered cytology of neoplastic cells in comparison to normal cells. This study sought to determine whether cytoskeletal-directed agents that either disrupt (cytochalasin B and vincristine) or rigidify (jasplakinolide and paclitaxel) microfilaments and microtubules, respectively, affect ultrasonic sensitivity. U937 human monocytic leukemia cell populations were treated with each cytoskeletal-directed agent alone, and then sonicated at 23.5 kHz under relatively low power and intensity (20-40 W; 10-20 W/cm(2)), or at 20 kHz using moderate power and intensity (60 W; 80 W/cm(2)). In addition, human leukemia lines U937, THP1, K562, and Molt-4, and the murine leukemia line L1210 were sonicated using pulsed 20 kHz ultrasound (80.6 W; 107.5 W/cm(2)) both with and without the addition of cytoskeletal-directed agents to assess whether cytoskeletal-directed agents can potentiate ultrasonic sensitivity in different leukemia lines. Human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) and leukocytes were sonicated with continuous 23.5 kHz ultrasound (20 W; 10 W/cm(2)) to determine whether this approach elicited the preferential damage of neoplastic cells over normal blood components. To determine whether ultrasonic sensitivity is exclusively dependent on cell size, leukemia cells were also enlarged via alteration of cell growth parameters including serum deprivation and re-addition, and plateau-phase subculturing. Results indicated that cytochalasin B/ultrasound treatments had the highest rates of initial U937 cell damage. The cells enlarged and partially synchronized, either by serum deprivation and re-addition or by plateau-phase subculturing and synchronous release, were not comparably sensitive to ultrasonic destruction based solely on their cell size. In addition, cytochalasin B significantly potentiated

  20. Effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome in Physarum polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuijie; Sun, Yeqing

    Some researchers suggest that the changes of cell cycle under the effect of microgravity may be associated with many serious adverse physiological changes. In the search for underlying mechanisms and possible new countermeasures, we used the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in which all the nuclei traverse the cell cycle in natural synchrony to study the effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome. In parallel, the cell cycle was analyzed in Physarum incubated (1) in altered gravity for 20 h, (2) in altered gravity for 40 h, (3) in altered gravity for 80 h, and (4) in ground controls. The cell cycle, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteome in the altered gravity and ground controls were examined. The results indicated that the duration of the G2 phase was lengthened 20 min in high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) for 20 h, and prolonged 2 h in altered gravity either for 40 h or for 80 h, whereas the duration of other phases in the cell cycle was unchanged with respect to the control. The microfilaments in G2 phase had a reduced number of fibers and a unique abnormal morphology in altered gravity for 40 h, whereas the microfilaments in other phases of cell cycle were unchanged when compared to controls. Employing classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), we examined the effect of the altered gravity on P. polycephalum proteins. The increase in the duration of G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h was accompanied by changes in the 2-DE protein profiles, over controls. Out of a total of 200 protein spots investigated in G2 phase, which were reproducible in repeated experiments, 72 protein spots were visually identified as specially expressed, and 11 proteins were up-regulated by 2-fold and 28 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold over controls. Out of a total of three low-expressed proteins in G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h, two proteins were unknown proteins, and one protein was spherulin 3b by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS

  1. Hypotonic stimulation of the Na+ active transport in frog skeletal muscle: role of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Venosa, R A

    2003-04-15

    Hypotonicity produces a marked activation of the Na+ pump in frog sartorius muscle. The increase in net Na+ efflux under hypotonic conditions occurs despite the reductions in [Na+]i that are due to fibre swelling and Na+ loss. The pump density (ouabain binding) increases not only upon reduction of the medium osmotic pressure (pi) from its normal value (pi = 1) to one-half (pi = 0.5), but also in muscles that are returned to pi = 1 after equilibration in pi = 2 medium. The equilibration in pi = 2 medium does not affect pump density. Ouabain-binding increments cannot be ascribed to a rise in the Na+-K+ exchange rate of a fixed number of pumps: they also occurred in the continued presence of a saturating concentration of ouabain (50 microM). Under those conditions, the pi = 1 pi = 0.5 transfer produced a 43 % increase in pump sites, while the pi = 2 pi = 1 transfer induced a rise of 46 %. Actinomycin D did not alter the stimulation of Na+ extrusion elicited by hypotonicity, suggesting that de novo synthesis of pumps was not involved in the increase of the apparent number of pump sites. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine (100 microM) and intermediate filaments by acrylamide (4 mM) did not alter the hypotonic effect. Likewise, genistein (100 microM), a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, did not affect significantly the hypotonic response. Microfilament-disrupting agents like cytochalasin B (5 microM) and latrunculin B (10 microM) reduced the increase in Na+ efflux induced by pi = 1 pi = 0.5 transfer by about 35 % and 72 %, respectively. Latrunculin B reduced the increases in pump density generated by pi = 1 pi = 0.5 and pi = 2 pi = 1 transfers by about 79 % and 91 %, respectively. The results suggest that the membrane stretch due to hypotonic fibre volume increase would promote a microfilament-mediated insertion of submembranous spare Na+ pumps in the sarcolemma and, consequently, the rise in active Na+ transport. PMID:12598593

  2. Structure of the F–actin–tropomyosin complex

    PubMed Central

    von der Ecken, Julian; Müller, Mirco; Lehman, William; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Penczek, Pawel A.; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is the major protein of muscle thin filaments, and actin microfilaments are the main component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Mutations in different actin isoforms lead to early-onset autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss1, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections2, and multiple variations of myopathies3. In striated muscle fibres, the binding of myosin motors to actin filaments is mainly regulated by tropomyosin and troponin4,5. Tropomyosin also binds to F-actin in smooth muscle and in non-muscle cells and stabilizes and regulates the filaments there in the absence of troponin6. Although crystal structures for monomeric actin (G-actin) are available7, a high-resolution structure of F-actin is still missing, hampering our understanding of how disease-causing mutations affect the function of thin muscle filaments and microfilaments. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of F-actin at a resolution of 3.7 ångstroms in complex with tropomyosin at a resolution of 6.5ångstroms, determined by electron cryomicroscopy. The structure reveals that the D-loop is ordered and acts as a central region for hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that stabilize the F-actin filament. We clearly identify the density corresponding to ADP and Mg2+ and explain the possible effect of prominent disease-causing mutants. A comparison of F-actin with G-actin reveals the conformational changes during filament formation and identifies the D-loop as their key mediator. We also confirm that negatively charged tropomyosin interacts with a positively charged groove on F-actin. Comparison of the position of tropomyosin in F-actin–tropomyosin with its position in our previously determined actin–tropomyosin–myosin structure8 reveals a myosin-induced transition of tropomyosin. Our results allow us to understand the role of individual mutations in the genesis of actin- and tropomyosin-related diseases and will serve as a strong

  3. Cytoplasmic Tail Regulates the Intercellular Adhesion Function of the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Balzar, Maarten; Bakker, Hellen A. M.; Briaire-de-Bruijn, Inge H.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Warnaar, Sven O.; Litvinov, Sergey V.

    1998-01-01

    Ep-CAM, an epithelium-specific cell-cell adhesion molecule (CAM) not structurally related to the major families of CAMs, contains a cytoplasmic domain of 26 amino acids. The chemical disruption of the actin microfilaments, but not of the microtubuli or intermediate filaments, affected the localization of Ep-CAM at the cell-cell boundaries, suggesting that the molecule interacts with the actin-based cytoskeleton. Mutated forms of Ep-CAM were generated with the cytoplasmic domain truncated at various lengths. All of the mutants were transported to the cell surface in the transfectants; however, the mutant lacking the complete cytoplasmic domain was not able to localize to the cell-cell boundaries, in contrast to mutants with partial deletions. Both the disruption of the actin microfilaments and a complete truncation of the cytoplasmic tail strongly affected the ability of Ep-CAM to mediate aggregation of L cells. The capability of direct aggregation was reduced for the partially truncated mutants but remained cytochalasin D sensitive. The tail truncation did not affect the ability of the transfectants to adhere to solid-phase-adsorbed Ep-CAM, suggesting that the ability to form stable adhesions and not the ligand specificity of the molecule was affected by the truncation. The formation of intercellular adhesions mediated by Ep-CAM induced a redistribution to the cell-cell boundaries of α-actinin, but not of vinculin, talin, filamin, spectrin, or catenins. Coprecipitation demonstrated direct association of Ep-CAM with α-actinin. Binding of α-actinin to purified mutated and wild-type Ep-CAMs and to peptides representing different domains of the cytoplasmic tail of Ep-CAM demonstrates two binding sites for α-actinin at positions 289 to 296 and 304 to 314 of the amino acid sequence. The results demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of Ep-CAM regulates the adhesion function of the molecule through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton via α-actinin. PMID:9671492

  4. Cytoplasmic tail regulates the intercellular adhesion function of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Balzar, M; Bakker, H A; Briaire-de-Bruijn, I H; Fleuren, G J; Warnaar, S O; Litvinov, S V

    1998-08-01

    Ep-CAM, an epithelium-specific cell-cell adhesion molecule (CAM) not structurally related to the major families of CAMs, contains a cytoplasmic domain of 26 amino acids. The chemical disruption of the actin microfilaments, but not of the microtubuli or intermediate filaments, affected the localization of Ep-CAM at the cell-cell boundaries, suggesting that the molecule interacts with the actin-based cytoskeleton. Mutated forms of Ep-CAM were generated with the cytoplasmic domain truncated at various lengths. All of the mutants were transported to the cell surface in the transfectants; however, the mutant lacking the complete cytoplasmic domain was not able to localize to the cell-cell boundaries, in contrast to mutants with partial deletions. Both the disruption of the actin microfilaments and a complete truncation of the cytoplasmic tail strongly affected the ability of Ep-CAM to mediate aggregation of L cells. The capability of direct aggregation was reduced for the partially truncated mutants but remained cytochalasin D sensitive. The tail truncation did not affect the ability of the transfectants to adhere to solid-phase-adsorbed Ep-CAM, suggesting that the ability to form stable adhesions and not the ligand specificity of the molecule was affected by the truncation. The formation of intercellular adhesions mediated by Ep-CAM induced a redistribution to the cell-cell boundaries of alpha-actinin, but not of vinculin, talin, filamin, spectrin, or catenins. Coprecipitation demonstrated direct association of Ep-CAM with alpha-actinin. Binding of alpha-actinin to purified mutated and wild-type Ep-CAMs and to peptides representing different domains of the cytoplasmic tail of Ep-CAM demonstrates two binding sites for alpha-actinin at positions 289 to 296 and 304 to 314 of the amino acid sequence. The results demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of Ep-CAM regulates the adhesion function of the molecule through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton via alpha

  5. [The relationship between the sympathetic nerves and immunocytes in the spleen].

    PubMed

    Saito, H

    1991-02-01

    Ever since Galen, the ancient Greek physician, said "Melancholic women develop disease more than sanguine women," it has been said that the mental condition affects the physical condition. However, there is hardly any scientific verification. About half a century ago, Selye (1936) proposed a relationship between stress and immune function, and it is becoming increasingly clear that the nervous system and immune system interact with each other. Also researchers have strongly hoped to demonstrate the existence of specific pathways by which immunocytes can be directly regulated by the nervous elements instead of by the humoral influence of immunomodulators. In this study, the author showed by electron microscopic observation how the immunocytes in the guinea pig spleen are directly innervated. The sustentacular supporting element of the guinea pig spleen is the connective tissue system which includes the capsulo-trabecular, peri-vascular and reticular systems. The latter system is composed of the outer sheath of the reticular cell or its cellular processes which have abundant microfilaments and the inner minute connective tissue space in which lamina densa-like material, collagenous fibrils, elastic fibers and nervous elements are present. The sympathetic adrenergic nerves for the spleen enter the organ, and scatter around the arterial walls. All components of the connective tissue system are continuous with each other, and the nervous elements appearing in the reticular system are the elongated ones from other connective tissue systems, especially peri-vascular connective tissue. Thus, the adrenergic nerves are more abundant in the white pulp, into which the central artery penetrates, than in the red pulp which arterioles or capillaries pass through. The minute connective tissue space of the reticular system may be called the noradrenalin (NA) canal because catecholamine released from the naked adrenergic nerve terminals in this tissue diffuses and is stored in this

  6. Invasion of HeLa 229 cells by virulent Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Ewanowich, C A; Melton, A R; Weiss, A A; Sherburne, R K; Peppler, M S

    1989-01-01

    Phase-dependent invasive behavior of Bordetella pertussis was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated HeLa cell monolayers and by transmission electron microscopy. Several mutants of B. pertussis with Tn5 or Tn5 lac inserted into various vir-regulated genes were evaluated for differences in their invasive abilities. Mutants lacking filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin, and two as yet uncharacterized vir-regulated products had levels of invasion significantly lower than that of the parent strain BP338. In contrast, invasion by mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin was significantly increased compared with that of wild-type B. pertussis. This increase in invasion was eliminated when concentrations of intracellular cyclic 3'-5' AMP were stimulated by treating HeLa cells with cholera toxin or forskolin. Entry of B. pertussis occurred through a microfilament-dependent phagocytic process, as evidenced by the marked reduction in uptake following treatment of HeLa cells with cytochalasin D. Invasion was inhibited with polyclonal anti-B. pertussis and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antisera. In addition, a monoclonal antibody against lipooligosaccharide A reduced uptake by 65.5%. The preservation of HeLa cell integrity and the limited replication of intracellular bacteria suggest that invasion may represent a means by which B. pertussis evades an active host immune response. Images PMID:2547718

  7. Aggregation of Actin and Cofilin in Identical Twins with Juvenile-Onset Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Gearing, Marla; Juncos, Jorge L.; Procaccio, Vincent; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Marino-Rodriguez, Elaine M.; Gyure, Kymberly A.; Ono, Shoichiro; Santoianni, Robert; Krawiecki, Nicolas S.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Wainer, Bruce H.

    2005-01-01

    The neuropathology of the primary dystonias is not well understood. We examined brains from identical twins with DYT1-negative, dopa-unresponsive dystonia. The twins exhibited mild developmental delays until age 12 years when they began developing rapidly progressive generalized dystonia. Genetic, metabolic, and imaging studies ruled out known causes of dystonia. Cognition was subnormal but stable until the last few years. Death occurred at ages 21 and 22 years. The brains were macroscopically unremarkable. Microscopic examination showed unusual glial fibrillary acidic protein–immunoreactive astrocytes in multiple regions and iron accumulation in pallidal and nigral neurons. However, the most striking findings were 1) eosinophilic, rod-like cytoplasmic inclusions in neocortical and thalamic neurons that were actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-immunoreactive but only rarely actin-positive; and 2) abundant eosinophilic spherical structures in the striatum that were strongly actin- and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-positive. Electron microscopy suggested that these structures represent degenerating neurons and processes; the accumulating filaments had the same dimensions as actin microfilaments. To our knowledge, aggregation of actin has not been reported previously as the predominant feature in any neurodegenerative disease. Thus, our findings may shed light on a novel neuropathological change associated with dystonia that may represent a new degenerative mechanism involving actin, a ubiquitous constituent of the cytoskeletal system. PMID:12325076

  8. Connective tissue progenitor cell growth characteristics on textured substrates.

    PubMed

    Mata, Alvaro; Boehm, Cynthia; Fleischman, Aaron J; Muschler, George F; Roy, Shuvo

    2007-01-01

    Growth characteristics of human connective tissue progenitor (CTP) cells were investigated on smooth and textured substrates, which were produced using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication technology. Human bone marrow derived cells were cultured for 9 days under conditions promoting osteoblastic differentiation on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates comprising smooth (non-patterned) surfaces (SMOOTH), 4 different cylindrical post micro-textures (POSTS) that were 7-10 microm high and 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm diameter, respectively, and channel micro-textures (CHANNELS) with curved cross-sections that were 11 microm high, 45 microm wide, and separated by 5 microm wide ridges. Standard glass-tissue culture surfaces were used as controls. Micro-textures resulted in the modification of CTP morphology, attachment, migration, and proliferation characteristics. Specifically, cells on POSTS exhibited more contoured morphology with closely packed cytoskeletal actin microfilaments compared to the more random orientation in cells grown on SMOOTH. CTP colonies on 10 gm-diameter POSTS exhibited higher cell number than any other POSTS, and a significant increase in cell number (442%) compared to colonies on SMOOTH (71%). On CHANNELS, colonies tended to be denser (229%) than on POSTS (up to 140% on 10 microm POSTS), and significantly more so compared to those on SMOOTH (104%). PMID:18019838

  9. Novel cellular evidence of oviduct secretions in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad Yasir; Lisi, Hu; Yang, Ping; Ullah, Shakeeb; Zhang, Linli; Zhang, Qian; Li, Quanfu; Ahmad, Nisar; Chen, Wei; Zeshan, Basit; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-11-01

    The oviduct is the location of fertilization and sperm storage. We examined the ultrastructure of the oviduct epithelium and its glandular secretions in the isthmus, uterus and vagina of Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium in these segments is lined with ciliated, secretory and other cells; the first two cell types span the entire epithelium, with secretory cells being predominant. The ciliated cells are characterized by the presence of a secretory vacuole that releases apocrine secretions into the lumen, whereas the secretory cells contain typical biphasic granules with both dark and light aspects. The third type of cells observed have wider proximal portion, abundant mitochondria, vacuoles, and narrow nuclei. The storage of spermatozoa is restricted to the isthmus, uterus, and vagina. In addition, the gland cells show prominent features, including the presence of granules of different shapes, sizes, and electron densities. The synthesis of these granules is described for the first time in this study. Mitochondria appear to play an important role in the formation of dense granules, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and microfilaments may also play a role in the maturation of these dense granules. After completing the maturation process, these granules are released into the lumen of the gland cells. PMID:26350585

  10. Dual roles of palladin protein in in vitro myogenesis: inhibition of early induction but promotion of myotube maturation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Uyen-Nhi; Wang, Hao-Ven

    2015-01-01

    Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro. PMID:25875253

  11. The IQGAP-related protein DGAP1 interacts with Rac and is involved in the modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Faix, J; Clougherty, C; Konzok, A; Mintert, U; Murphy, J; Albrecht, R; Mühlbauer, B; Kuhlmann, J

    1998-10-01

    DGAP1 of Dictyostelium discoideum is a cell cortex associated 95 kDa protein that shows homology to both RasGTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) and RasGAP-related proteins. When tested for RasGAP activity, recombinant DGAP1 protein did not promote the GTPase activity of human H-Ras or of Dictyostelium RasG in vitro. Instead, DGAP1 bound to Dictyostelium Rac1A and human Rac1, but not to human Cdc42. DGAP1 preferentially interacted with the activated GTP-bound forms of Rac1 and Rac1A, but did not affect the GTPase activities. Since Rho-type GTPases are implicated in the formation of specific F-actin structures and in the control of cell morphology, the microfilament system of mutants that either lack or overexpress DGAP1 has been analysed. DGAP1-null mutants showed elevated levels of F-actin that was organised in large leading edges, membrane ruffles or numerous large filopods. Expression of actin fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor the actin dynamics in these cells, and revealed that the F-actin cytoskeleton of DGAP1-null cells was rapidly re-arranged to form ruffles and filopods. Conversely, in DGAP1-overexpressing cells, the formation of cellular projections containing F-actin was largely suppressed. Measurement of cell migration demonstrated that DGAP1 expression is inversely correlated with the speed of cell motility. PMID:9739079

  12. Intraclonal heterogeneity and distinct molecular mechanisms characterize the development of t(4;14) and t(11;14) myeloma.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Melchor, Lorenzo; Hulkki, Sanna; Potter, Nicola E; Johnson, David C; Fenwick, Kerry; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Gonzalez, David; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2012-08-01

    We have used whole exome sequencing to compare a group of presentation t(4;14) with t(11;14) cases of myeloma to define the mutational landscape. Each case was characterized by a median of 24.5 exonic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations, and there was a consistently higher number of mutations in the t(4;14) group, but this number did not reach statistical significance. We show that the transition and transversion rates in the 2 subgroups are similar, suggesting that there was no specific mechanism leading to mutation differentiating the 2 groups. Only 3% of mutations were seen in both groups, and recurrently mutated genes include NRAS, KRAS, BRAF, and DIS3 as well as DNAH5, a member of the axonemal dynein family. The pattern of mutation in each group was distinct, with the t(4;14) group being characterized by deregulation of chromatin organization, actin filament, and microfilament movement. Recurrent RAS pathway mutations identified subclonal heterogeneity at a mutational level in both groups, with mutations being present as either dominant or minor subclones. The presence of subclonal diversity was confirmed at a single-cell level using other tumor-acquired mutations. These results are consistent with a distinct molecular pathogenesis underlying each subgroup and have important impacts on targeted treatment strategies. The Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial is registered under ISRCTN68454111. PMID:22573403

  13. Soybean agglutinin binding to corneal endothelial cell surfaces disrupts in situ monolayer integrity and actin organization and interferes with wound repair.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sheldon R; Wood, Meredith

    2009-03-01

    Rat corneal endothelium demonstrates cell-surface soybean agglutinin (SBA) binding during organ-culture or injury. When organ-cultured in medium containing SBA, the endothelial monolayer is disrupted because of cell-cell and cell-matrix alterations. SBA binding disorganizes the circumferential microfilament bundles (CMBs), an effect that is partially prevented by phallacidin preincubation. This disruption is reversible if tissues are returned to standard culture medium. Serum heightens SBA binding, whereas puromycin prevents it. Neither actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin inhibits SBA binding, suggesting that SBA-binding protein(s) may be post-transcriptionally regulated. During injury-induced cell migration in the presence of SBA, cellular processes are blunted and fail to extend significantly outward. By 72 h post-injury, cells of SBA-treated tissues repopulate the wound but demonstrate little association with neighboring cells. Cells migrating in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine appear normal but also fail to reassociate with other cells in the jury zone. Immunofluorescent staining for ZO-1 reveals punctuate patterns in cells of control tissues, whereas neither SBA- nor N-acetylgalactosamine-treated tissues exhibit ZO-1 staining. Terminal N-acetylgalactosamine removal fails to affect cell morphology, actin organization, or migration but prevents lectin binding. Our results suggest that SBA binding reflects the synthesis of a stress-induced protein(s) that may play a role in reestablishing cell-cell relationships during monolayer reorganization following injury. PMID:19145448

  14. On the mechanism of cell internalization of chrysotile fibers: An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Malorni, W.; Iosi, F.; Falchi, M.; Donelli, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Human breast carcinoma cells (CG5) and human laryngeal carcinoma cells (HEp-2) were exposed to 10 and 50 {mu}ml (about 5 {mu}m) chrysotile asbestos fibers. Morphological and ultrastructural changes were evaluated by means of immunocytochemistry and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The authors attention was focused on the mechanisms of cell internalization and on transport of chrysotile fibers. The fibers appeared to penetrate the cell cytoplasm and to be translocated in proximity of the nucleus. Small chrysotile fibers could also be found inside the nucleus of interphase cells. Involvement of the main cytoskeletal components, i.e., microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, in the cytotoxicity of chrysotile fibers was also evaluated. Their findings suggest that after fiber penetration, a rearrangement of the cytoskeletal apparatus occurs. It has also been observed that small fibers remain associated with the cytoskeletal framework, which can thus play a role in asbestos intracytoplasmic translocation in epithelial cells. Furthermore, after the cell has completely recovered its morphology, fiber internalization ultimately seems to lead to the formation of giant multinucleated cells. These data could be indicative of an interaction occurring between asbestos fibers and the normal mitotic process.

  15. The Presynaptic Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Physiological and Pathological Conditions: Lessons from Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome and Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias.

    PubMed

    Bodaleo, Felipe J; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the nervous system to generate neuronal networks relies on the establishment and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Synapses are composed of functionally different presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. An appropriate synaptic architecture is required to provide the structural basis that supports synaptic transmission, a process involving changes in cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin microfilaments are the main cytoskeletal components present at both presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals in glutamatergic synapses. However, in the last few years it has been demonstrated that microtubules (MTs) transiently invade dendritic spines, promoting their maturation. Nevertheless, the presence and functions of MTs at the presynaptic site are still a matter of debate. Early electron microscopy (EM) studies revealed that MTs are present in the presynaptic terminals of the central nervous system (CNS) where they interact with synaptic vesicles (SVs) and reach the active zone. These observations have been reproduced by several EM protocols; however, there is empirical heterogeneity in detecting presynaptic MTs, since they appear to be both labile and unstable. Moreover, increasing evidence derived from studies in the fruit fly neuromuscular junction proposes different roles for MTs in regulating presynaptic function in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the main findings that support the presence and roles of MTs at presynaptic terminals, integrating descriptive and biochemical analyses, and studies performed in invertebrate genetic models. PMID:27504085

  16. Staufen Recruitment into Stress Granules Does Not Affect Early mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, María G.; Tosar, Leandro J. Martinez; Loschi, Mariela; Pasquini, Juana M.; Correale, Jorge; Kindler, Stefan; Boccaccio, Graciela L.

    2005-01-01

    Staufen is a conserved double-stranded RNA-binding protein required for mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. The mammalian homologues Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 have been implicated in dendritic RNA targeting in neurons. Here we show that in rodent oligodendrocytes, these two proteins are present in two independent sets of RNA granules located at the distal myelinating processes. A third kind of RNA granules lacks Staufen and contains major myelin mRNAs. Myelin Staufen granules associate with microfilaments and microtubules, and their subcellular distribution is affected by polysome-disrupting drugs. Under oxidative stress, both Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are recruited into stress granules (SGs), which are stress-induced organelles containing transiently silenced messengers. Staufen SGs contain the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the RNA-binding proteins HuR and TIAR, and small but not large ribosomal subunits. Staufen recruitment into perinuclear SGs is paralleled by a similar change in the overall localization of polyadenylated RNA. Under the same conditions, the distribution of recently transcribed and exported mRNAs is not affected. Our results indicate that Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are novel and ubiquitous SG components and suggest that Staufen RNPs are involved in repositioning of most polysomal mRNAs, but not of recently synthesized transcripts, during the stress response. PMID:15525674

  17. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  18. A role for the cytoskeleton in STAT5 activation in MCF7 human breast cancer cells stimulated with EGF.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Perez, Mario; Salazar, Eduardo Perez

    2006-01-01

    A rapid increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins has been extensively documented in cells stimulated with cytokines and growth factors. However, the mechanisms by which these transcription factors translocate to the nucleus have not been studied in detail. Our results demonstrate that stimulation of MCF7 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted an increase in the phosphorylation of STAT5 at Tyr-694, as revealed by site-specific antibodies that recognized the phosphorylated state of this residue. In addition, EGF stimulated STAT5 nuclear translocation and an increased in STAT5 DNA binding activity. Prevention of microtubules and microfilaments polymerization induced a partial inhibition of STAT5 nuclear translocation and STAT5 DNA binding activity. However, STAT5 phosphorylation at Tyr-694 was dependent on the integrity of microtubule network and it was independent of the integrity of actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, EGF induced the formation of the associations STAT5-tubulin and STAT5-kinesin heavy chain in a fashion dependent of cytoskeleton integrity. In summary, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that cytoskeleton plays an important role in STAT5 activation and translocation into the nucleus in MCF7 cells stimulated with EGF. PMID:16765629

  19. Atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy on the cytoskeleton of permeabilised and embedded cells.

    PubMed

    Meller, Karl; Theiss, Carsten

    2006-03-01

    We describe a technical method of cell permeabilisation and embedding to study the organisation and distribution of intracellular proteins with aid of atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in identical areas. While confocal laser scanning microscopy is useful for the identification of certain proteins subsequent labelling with markers or antibodies, atomic force microscopy allows the observation of macromolecular structures in fixed and living cells. To demonstrate the field of application of this preparatory technique, cells were permeabilised, fixed, and the actin cytoskeleton was stained with phalloidin-rhodamine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to show the organisation of these microfilaments, e.g. geodesic dome structures. Thereafter, cells were embedded in Durcupan water-soluble resin, followed by UV-polymerisation of resin at 4 degrees C. This procedure allowed intracellular visualisation of the cell nucleus or cytoskeletal elements by atomic force microscopy, for instance to analyse the globular organisation of actin filaments. Therefore, this method offers a great potential to combine both microscopy techniques in order to understand and interpret intracellular protein relations, for example, the biochemical and morphological interaction of the cytoskeleton. PMID:16360280

  20. Wasp, the Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Homologue, Is Required for Cell Fate Decisions Mediated by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yaacov, Sari; Le Borgne, Roland; Abramson, Irit; Schweisguth, Francois; Schejter, Eyal D.

    2001-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins, encoded by the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene family, bridge signal transduction pathways and the microfilament-based cytoskeleton. Mutations in the Drosophila homologue, Wasp (Wsp), reveal an essential requirement for this gene in implementation of cell fate decisions during adult and embryonic sensory organ development. Phenotypic analysis of Wsp mutant animals demonstrates a bias towards neuronal differentiation, at the expense of other cell types, resulting from improper execution of the program of asymmetric cell divisions which underlie sensory organ development. Generation of two similar daughter cells after division of the sensory organ precursor cell constitutes a prominent defect in the Wsp sensory organ lineage. The asymmetric segregation of key elements such as Numb is unaffected during this division, despite the misassignment of cell fates. The requirement for Wsp extends to additional cell fate decisions in lineages of the embryonic central nervous system and mesoderm. The nature of the Wsp mutant phenotypes, coupled with genetic interaction studies, identifies an essential role for Wsp in lineage decisions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:11149916

  1. Resistance of African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Lines to Actinomycin D: Drug Uptake in 37 RC Cells After Persistent Inhibition of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Arrigo; Cassone, Antonio; Delfini, Carlo

    1979-01-01

    37 RC cells, a cultured line derived from African green monkey kidneys, survived long treatments with actinomycin D (AMD; 0.1 to 0.5 μg/ml) under strong inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis and blocking of cell division. One aspect of the complex cellular response to this treatment was a progressive lowering of the influx rate of AMD and, consequently, of its endocellular concentration, leading to a late resurgence of transcription. Overall protein synthesis decreased in AMD-treated cells, but more of the residual protein was exported to the cell surface, a fact associated with the development of numerous strands of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. The lowering of AMD influx during the treatment was not simply due to the decay of protein synthesis, and there was no evidence for a carrier-mediated transport of the drug. It was paralleled by, but seemingly not related to, modifications in cellular microtubules and microfilaments. The rate of AMD influx was restored to levels comparable to those of untreated cells by short exposure to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trypsin. It is concluded that the changes in plasma membrane of 37 RC cells, creating an obstacle to the influx of AMD after long treatment with this drug, probably consist of an accumulation and/or a different distribution of glycoproteins or other surface components on the cell surface. Images PMID:106777

  2. A novel culture morphology resulting from applied mechanical strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, R. A.; Sawyer, C.

    1997-01-01

    To demonstrate that cells both perceive and respond to external force, a strain/relaxation regimen was applied to normal human fetal and aged dermal fibroblasts cultured as monolayers on flexible membranes. The precisely controlled protocol of stretch (20% elongation of the culture membrane) at 6.67 cycles/min caused a progressive change in the monolayers, such that the original randomly distributed pattern of cells became a symmetric, radial distribution as the cell bodies aligned parallel to the applied force. High cell density interfered with the success of re-alignment in the fetal cell cultures observed, which may reflect a preference in this cell strain for cell-cell over cell-matrix contacts. The chronologically aged cells observed did not demonstrate this feature, aligning efficiently at all seeding densities examined. The role of microfilaments in force perception and transmission was investigated through the addition of cytochalasin D in graded doses. Both intercellular interactions and cytoskeletal integrity mediate the morphological response to mechanical strain.

  3. Cofilin 1 activation prevents the defects in axon elongation and guidance induced by extracellular alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Tilve, Sharada; Difato, Francesco; Chieregatti, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Impaired adult neurogenesis and axon traumatic injury participate in the severity of neurodegenerative diseases. Alpha-synuclein, a cytosolic protein involved in Parkinson’s disease, may be released from neurons, suggesting a role for excess secreted alpha-synuclein in the onset and spread of the pathology. Here we provide evidence that long term exposure of young neurons to extracellular alpha-synuclein hampers axon elongation and growth cone turning. We show that actin turnover and the rate of movement of actin waves along the axon are altered, due to alpha-synuclein-induced inactivation of cofilin. Upon laser disruption of microfilaments, healing of axons is favored by the increased phosphorylation of cofilin, however, at later time points; the defect in neurite extension prevails, being lost the regulation of cofilin activity. Importantly, overexpression of the active form of cofilin in neurons exposed to alpha-synuclein is able to restore the movement of actin waves, physiological axon elongation and growth cone turning. Our study reveals the molecular basis of alpha-synuclein-driven deficits in growth and migration of newborn neurons, and in elongation and regeneration of adult neurons. PMID:26558842

  4. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  5. Computational model for the cell-mechanical response of the osteocyte cytoskeleton based on self-stabilizing tensegrity structures.

    PubMed

    Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Balzani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which mechanical stimulation on osteocytes results in biochemical signals that initiate the remodeling process inside living bone tissue is largely unknown. Even the type of stimulation acting on these cells is not yet clearly identified. However, the cytoskeleton of osteocytes is suggested to play a major role in the mechanosensory process due to the direct connection to the nucleus. In this paper, a computational approach to model and simulate the cell structure of osteocytes based on self-stabilizing tensegrity structures is suggested. The computational model of the cell consists of the major components with respect to mechanical aspects: the integrins that connect the cell with the extracellular bone matrix, and different types of protein fibers (microtubules and intermediate filaments) that form the cytoskeleton, the membrane-cytoskeleton (microfilaments), the nucleus and the centrosome. The proposed geometrical cell models represent the cell in its physiological environment which is necessary in order to give a statement on the cell behavior in vivo. Studies on the mechanical response of osteocytes after physiological loading and in particular the mechanical response of the nucleus show that the load acting on the nucleus is rising with increasing deformation applied to the integrins. PMID:22527364

  6. Weightlessness acts on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassy, J.; Portet, S.; Beil, M.; Millot, G.; Fauvel-Lafève, F.; Gasset, G.; Schoevaert, D.

    2003-10-01

    Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces, weightlessness might act on stress-dependent cell changes. Human breast cancer cells MCF-7, flown in space in a Photon capsule, were fixed after 1.5, 22 and 48 h in orbit. Cells subjected to weightlessness were compared to 1g in-flight and ground controls. Post-flight, fluorescent labeling was performed to visualize cell proliferation (Ki-67), three cytoskeleton components and chromatin structure. Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify cycling cells and mitosis, modifications of the cytokeratin network and chromatin structure. Several main phenomena were observed in weightlessness: The perinuclear cytokeratin network and chromatin structure were looser. More cells were cycling and mitosis was prolonged. Finally, cell proliferation was reduced as a consequence of a cell-cycle blockade. Microtubules were altered in many cells. The results reported in the first point are in agreement with basic predictions of cellular tensegrity. The prolongation of mitosis can be explained by an alteration of microtubules. We discuss here the different mechanisms involved in weightlessness alteration of microtubules: i) alteration of their self-organization by reaction-diffusion processes, and a mathematical model is proposed, ii) activation or desactivation of microtubules stabilizing proteins, acting on both microtubule and microfilament networks in cell cortex.

  7. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  8. Femtosecond laser patterning of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Jeon, Hojeong; Hidai, Hirofumi; Hwang, David J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper aims at presenting a review of work at the Laser Thermal Laboratory on the microscopic laser modification of biological materials using ultrafast laser pulses. We have devised a new method for fabricating high aspect ratio patterns of varying height by using two-photon polymerization process in order to study contact guidance and directed growth of biological cells. Studies using NIH-3T3 and MDCK cells indicate that cell morphology on fiber scaffolds is influenced by the pattern of actin microfilament bundles. Cells experienced different strength of contact guidance depending on the ridge height. Cell morphology and motility was investigated on micronscale anisotropic cross patterns and parallel line patterns having different aspect ratios. A significant effect on cell alignment and directionality of migration was observed. Cell morphology and motility were influenced by the aspect ratio of the cross pattern, the grid size, and the ridge height. Cell contractility was examined microscopically in order to measure contractile forces generated by individual cells on self-standing fiber scaffolds.

  9. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  10. Structural Analysis of Alterations in Zebrafish Muscle Differentiation Induced by Simvastatin and Their Recovery with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M.; Rios, Eduardo A.; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin—a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease—during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. PMID:25786435

  11. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on the phagocytic cells of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Adaszek, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanotoxin with cytotoxic activity. It is released into water during and after cyanobacterial water blooms and thus poses a threat to the health of fish. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. In this study, we assessed the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the basic functions of phagocytic cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and the structure of microfilaments and selected cytokine expression. Phagocytic cells, isolated from fish head kidneys, were exposed to the toxin at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µg ml(-1), for up to 24 h. Cytotoxicity, detected by lactate dehydrogenase release, was observed at the highest studied concentration. A decrease in phagocytic activity and changes in actin cytoskeletal structures were observed after the cell exposure to the toxin at 0.5 and 1 µg ml(-1). Moreover, at all tested concentrations, cylindrospermopsin increased the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It also evidently influenced the expression of genes of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α and, to a minor extent, anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor-β, but had no effects on interleukin-10. The results indicated that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin is able to modify basic features of carp phagocytic cells, which might result in adverse consequences for fish health. PMID:25639895

  12. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  13. Using Cytochalasins to Improve Current Chemotherapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Trendowski, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although the amount of progress cancer therapy has made in recent years is commendable, considerable limitations still remain. Most agents preferentially target rapidly proliferating cells, thereby destroying tumorigenic growths. Unfortunately, there are many labile cells in the patient that are also rapidly dividing, ultimately perpetuating significant side effects, including immunosuppression. Cytochalasins are microfilament-directed agents most commonly known for their use in basic research to understand cytoskeletal mechanisms. However, such agents also exhibit profound anticancer activity, as indicated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. Cytochalasins appear to preferentially damage malignant cells, as shown by their minimal effects on normal epithelial and immune cells. Further, cytochalasins influence the end stages of mitosis, suggesting that such agents could be combined with microtubule-directed agents to elicit a profound synergistic effect on malignant cells. Therefore, it is likely that cytochalasins could be used to supplement current chemotherapeutic measures to improve efficacy rates, as well as decrease the prevalence of drug resistance in the clinical setting. PMID:25322987

  14. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  15. Stability of the cytoskeleton of matured buffalo oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B prior to vitrification.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Xu, H Y; Xie, L; Lu, Y Q; Yang, X G; Lu, S S; Lu, K H

    2016-06-01

    Stabilizing the cytoskeleton system during vitrification can improve the post-thaw survival and development of vitrified oocytes. The cytoskeleton stabilizer cytochalasin B (CB) has been used in cryopreservation to improve the developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. To assess the effect of pretreating matured buffalo oocytes with CB before vitrification, we applied 0, 4, 8, or 12 μg/mL CB for 30 min. The optimum concentration of CB treatment (8 μg/mL for 30 min) was then used to evaluate the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments, the expression of the cytoskeleton proteins actin and tubulin, and the developmental potential of matured oocytes that were vitrified-warmed by the Cryotop method. Western blotting demonstrated that vitrification significantly decreased tubulin expression, but that the decrease was attenuated for oocytes pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification. After warming and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oocytes that were pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification yielded significantly higher 8-cell and blastocyst rates than those that were vitrified without CB pretreatment. The values for the vitrified groups in all experiments were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the control groups. In conclusion, pretreatment with 8 μg/mL CB for 30 min significantly improves the cytoskeletal structure, expression of tubulin, and development capacity of vitrified matured buffalo oocytes. PMID:27001114

  16. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of /sup 59/Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of /sup 59/Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in /sup 59/Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models.

  17. Cytochalasin B does not block sperm penetration into denuded starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kyozuka, K; Osanai, K

    1994-05-01

    During fertilisation in starfish oocytes, the fertilisation cone develops temporarily beneath the penetrating sperm. The role of the fertilisation cone in sperm incorporation in the starfish Asterias amurensis was examined using cytochalasin B (CB). CB (2 microM) allowed sperm acrosomal process-egg plasma membrane fusion and egg activation, but inhibited the development of the fertilisation cone containing actin microfilaments. When sperm were added to intact oocytes (with the jelly coat and vitelline coat) in seawater containing CB, the sperm head did not penetrate the fertilisation membrane. Although the acrosomal process fused with egg plasma membrane, the sperm head remained outside the fertilisation membrane. On the other hand, denuded oocytes without the jelly coat and vitelline coat allowed sperm penetration even in the presence of 2 microM CB. Electron microscopy revealed that sperm organelles, including the acrosomal process, nucleus, mitochondrion and tail, were incorporated into the slightly electron-dense cytoplasm, which was similar to the cytoplasm of the fertilisation cone. These results show that the development of the fertilisation cone/actin filament complex is not essential for incorporation of the sperm, since incorporation can occur in denuded oocytes. However, the cone is required for fertilisation of intact oocytes, suggesting that this actin-filament-containing structure is necessary for getting the sperm through the outer egg coats. PMID:7874452

  18. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Hughes, Robert C.; Smith, James H.; Moreno, Daniel J.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Senturia, Stephen D.; Huber, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick.times.10 .mu.m wide.times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500.degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300.degree. C. (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H.sub.2 concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N.sub.2 /O.sub.2 mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used.

  19. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots.

  20. RAB-10 Promotes EHBP-1 Bridging of Filamentous Actin and Tubular Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peixiang; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Ou; Zhang, Jing; Gleason, Adenrele; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2016-06-01

    EHBP-1 (Ehbp1) is a conserved regulator of endocytic recycling, acting as an effector of small GTPases including RAB-10 (Rab10). Here we present evidence that EHBP-1 associates with tubular endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] enriched membranes through an N-terminal C2-like (NT-C2) domain, and define residues within the NT-C2 domain that mediate membrane interaction. Furthermore, our results indicate that the EHBP-1 central calponin homology (CH) domain binds to actin microfilaments in a reaction that is stimulated by RAB-10(GTP). Loss of any aspect of this RAB-10/EHBP-1 system in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium leads to retention of basolateral recycling cargo in endosomes that have lost their normal tubular endosomal network (TEN) organization. We propose a mechanism whereby RAB-10 promotes the ability of endosome-bound EHBP-1 to also bind to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting endosomal tubulation. PMID:27272733

  1. Morphogenetic reaggregation and luteinization of mouse preantral follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S V; Tojo, R

    1979-11-01

    Small (60-90 micrometer) and large (100-130 micrometer) preantral follicles were isolated from adult mouse ovaries by a collagenase-dissection technique. These follicles were composed of resting oocytes surrounded either by granulosa cells, only, or by granulosa and undifferentiated theca cells. Further enzymatic dissociation of primary follicles yielded monodisperse cells characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, microfilament-rich pseudopodia and only scant lipid droplets. These cells reaggregated, when explanted in stationary culture, forming epithelial cords and structures macroscopically reminiscent of native ovarian follicles. Anticipated association of follicular cells in epithelial-like monolayers was rare (less than or equal to 10% of all cultured cells). Formation and growth of both follicle-like (FLS) and cord-like (CLS) structures occurred within 24 hours of culture, continued for 14 days, and was inhibited by cytochalasin B, but not by neuraminidase. FLS and CLS, as well as cell monolayers, underwent luteinization, as indicated by the presence in the culture medium of radioimmunoassayable progesterone and by frequent cytological features suggestive of active steroidogenesis. The present report indicates that (a) specific cell affinities exist among immature follicular cells which may play a role in folliculogenesis; and (b) follicular cells are endowed, from their early developmental stages with intrinsic steroidogenic capabilities which become phenotypically expressed after escape from the intraovarian environment. PMID:532792

  2. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize.

    PubMed Central

    Blancaflor, E B; Hasenstein, K H

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots. PMID:11536803

  3. Automated detection of whole-cell mitochondrial motility and its dependence on cytoarchitectural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Chou, Philip; Eckmann, David M

    2015-07-01

    Current methodologies used for mitochondrial motility analysis tend to either overlook individual mitochondrial tracks or analyze only peripheral mitochondria instead of mitochondria in all regions of the cell. Furthermore, motility analysis of an individual mitochondrion is usually quantified by establishing an arbitrary threshold for "directed" motion. In this work, we created a custom, publicly available computational algorithm based on a previously published approach (Giedt et al., 2012. Ann Biomed Eng 40:1903-1916) in order to characterize the distribution of mitochondrial movements at the whole-cell level, while still preserving information about single mitochondria. Our technique is easy to use, robust, and computationally inexpensive. Images are first pre-processed for increased resolution, and then individual mitochondria are tracked based on object connectivity in space and time. When our method is applied to microscopy fields encompassing entire cells, we reveal that the mitochondrial net distances in fibroblasts follow a lognormal distribution within a given cell or group of cells. The ability to model whole-cell mitochondrial motility as a lognormal distribution provides a new quantitative paradigm for comparing mitochondrial motility in naïve and treated cells. We further demonstrate that microtubule and microfilament depolymerization shift the lognormal distribution in directions which indicate decreased and increased mitochondrial movement, respectively. These findings advance earlier work on neuronal axons (Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993. J Cell Sci 104:917-927) by relating them to a different cell type, applying them on a global scale, and automating measurement of mitochondrial motility in general. PMID:25678368

  4. Morphology, ultrastructure, and development of the parasitic larva and its surrounding trophamnion of Polypodium hydriforme Ussov (Coelenterata).

    PubMed

    Raikova, E V

    1980-01-01

    The larval stage of Polypodium hydriforme is planuliform and parasitic inside the growing oocytes of acipenserid fishes. The larva has inverted germ layers and a special envelope, the trophamnion, surrounding it within the host oocyte. The trophamnion is a giant unicellular provisory structure derived from the second polar body and performing both protective and digestive functions, clearly a result of adaptation to parasitism. The trophamnion displays microvilli on its inner surface, and irregular protrusions anchoring it to the yolk on its outer surface. Its cytoplasm contains long nuclear fragments, ribosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, microfilaments, prominent Golgi bodies, primary lysosomes, and secondary lysosomes with partially digested inclusions. The cells of the larva proper are poorly differentiated. No muscular, glandular, neural, interstitial, or nematocyst-forming cells have been found. The entodermal (outer layer) cells bear flagella and contain rough endoplasmic reticulum; the ectodermal (inner layer) cells lack cilia and contain an apical layer of acid mucopolysaccharid granules. The cells of both layers contain mitochondria, microtubules, and Golgi bodies; their nuclei display large nucleoli with nucleolonema-like structure, decondensed chromatin, and some perichromatin granules. At their apical rims, the ectodermal cells from septate junctions; laterally, the cells of both layers form simple contacts and occasional interdigitations. The lateral surfaces of entodermal cells are strengthened by microtubules. PMID:6104540

  5. Roles for kinesin and myosin during cytokinesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Peter K; Valster, Aline; Molchan, Tasha; Vos, Jan W

    2002-01-01

    Cytokinesis in higher plants involves the phragmoplast, a complex cytoplasmic structure that consists of microtubules (MTs), microfilaments (MFs) and membrane elements. Both MTs and MFs are essential for cell plate formation, although it is not clear which motor proteins are involved. Some candidate processes for motor proteins include transport of Golgi vesicles to the plane of the cell plate and the spatiotemporal organization of the cytoskeletal elements in order to achieve proper deposition and alignment of the cell plate. We have focused on the kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) and, more broadly, on myosins. Using an antibody that constitutively activates KCBP, we find that this MT motor, which is minus-end directed, contributes to the organization of the spindle and phragmoplast MTs. It does not participate in vesicle transport; rather, because of the orientation of the phragmoplast MTs, it is supposed that plus-end kinesins fill this role. Myosins, on the other hand, based on their inhibition with 2,3-butanedione monoxime and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-7), are associated with the process of post-mitotic spindle/phragmoplast alignment and with late lateral expansion of the cell plate. They are also not the principal motors involved in vesicle transport. PMID:12079671

  6. Simultaneous Visualization of Peroxisomes and Cytoskeletal Elements Reveals Actin and Not Microtubule-Based Peroxisome Motility in Plants1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mathur, Neeta; Hülskamp, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisomes were visualized in living plant cells using a yellow fluorescent protein tagged with a peroxisomal targeting signal consisting of the SKL motif. Simultaneous visualization of peroxisomes and microfilaments/microtubules was accomplished in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells transiently expressing the yellow fluorescent protein-peroxi construct, a green fluorescent protein-mTalin construct that labels filamentous-actin filaments, and a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-binding domain construct that labels microtubules. The covisualization of peroxisomes and cytoskeletal elements revealed that, contrary to the reports from animal cells, peroxisomes in plants appear to associate with actin filaments and not microtubules. That peroxisome movement is actin based was shown by pharmacological studies. For this analysis we used onion epidermal cells and various cell types of Arabidopsis including trichomes, root hairs, and root cortex cells exhibiting different modes of growth. In transient onion epidermis assay and in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, an interference with the actin cytoskeleton resulted in progressive loss of saltatory movement followed by the aggregation and a complete cessation of peroxisome motility within 30 min of drug application. Microtubule depolymerization or stabilization had no effect. PMID:11891258

  7. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibl, Verena; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites. PMID:27135513

  8. Effect of weightlessness on cytoskeleton architecture and proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassy, J.; Portet, S.; Beil, M.; Millot, G.; Fauvel-Lafeve, F.; Gasset, G.; Schoevaert, D.

    Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces, weightlessness might act on stress- dependent cell changes. We hypothesized that the integration of environmental factors might induce specific cytoskeletal architecture patterns, characterized by quantitative image analysis. Human breast cancer cells MCF-7, flown in space in a Photon capsule, were fixed after 1.5, 22 and 48 h in orbit. Cells subjected to weightlessness were compared to 1g in-flight and ground controls. Post-flight, fluorescent labelings were performed to visualize cell proliferation (Ki-67), three cytoskeleton components (microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments) and chromatin structure. Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify cycling cells and mitosis, modifications of the cytokeratin network and chromatin structure. Two main phenomenons were observed in weightlessness: - The perinuclear cytokeratin network and chromatin structure were looser. Theseresults are in agreement with basic predictions of cellular tensegrity. - More cells were cycling and mitosis was prolonged. Finally, cell proliferation wasreduced as a consequence of a cell-cycle blockade. Microtubules were altered inmany cells.The prolongation of mitosis can be explained by an alteration of microtubule self-organization in weightlessness, involving reaction-diffusion processes. This couldbe considered as an example function of microtubules in gravisensing.

  9. Imaging tumour heterogeneity of the consequences of a PKCα–substrate interaction in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Weitsman, Gregory; Lawler, Katherine; Kelleher, Muireann T.; Barrett, James E.; Barber, Paul R.; Shamil, Eamon; Festy, Frederic; Patel, Gargi; Fruhwirth, Gilbert O.; Huang, Lufei; Tullis, Iain D.C.; Woodman, Natalie; Ofo, Enyinnaya; Ameer-Beg, Simon M.; Irshad, Sheeba; Condeelis, John; Gillett, Cheryl E.; Ellis, Paul A.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Coolen, Anthony C.C.; Ng, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity demands that prognostic models must be biologically driven and recent clinical evidence indicates that future prognostic signatures need evaluation in the context of early compared with late metastatic risk prediction. In pre-clinical studies, we and others have shown that various protein–protein interactions, pertaining to the actin microfilament-associated proteins, ezrin and cofilin, mediate breast cancer cell migration, a prerequisite for cancer metastasis. Moreover, as a direct substrate for protein kinase Cα, ezrin has been shown to be a determinant of cancer metastasis for a variety of tumour types, besides breast cancer; and has been described as a pivotal regulator of metastasis by linking the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. In the present article, we demonstrate that our tissue imaging-derived parameters that pertain to or are a consequence of the PKC–ezrin interaction can be used for breast cancer prognostication, with inter-cohort reproducibility. The application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded patient samples to probe protein proximity within the typically <10 nm range to address the oncological challenge of tumour heterogeneity, is discussed. PMID:25399560

  10. RAB-10 Promotes EHBP-1 Bridging of Filamentous Actin and Tubular Recycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Ou; Zhang, Jing; Gleason, Adenrele; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    EHBP-1 (Ehbp1) is a conserved regulator of endocytic recycling, acting as an effector of small GTPases including RAB-10 (Rab10). Here we present evidence that EHBP-1 associates with tubular endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] enriched membranes through an N-terminal C2-like (NT-C2) domain, and define residues within the NT-C2 domain that mediate membrane interaction. Furthermore, our results indicate that the EHBP-1 central calponin homology (CH) domain binds to actin microfilaments in a reaction that is stimulated by RAB-10(GTP). Loss of any aspect of this RAB-10/EHBP-1 system in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium leads to retention of basolateral recycling cargo in endosomes that have lost their normal tubular endosomal network (TEN) organization. We propose a mechanism whereby RAB-10 promotes the ability of endosome-bound EHBP-1 to also bind to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting endosomal tubulation. PMID:27272733

  11. Modulatory Effects of Connexin-43 Expression on Gap Junction Intercellular Communications with Mast Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pistorio, Ashey L.; Ehrlich, H. Paul

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mast cells upon aberrant wound repair and excessive fibrosis has supportive evidence, but the mechanism for these mast cell activities is unclear. It is proposed that heterocellular gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between fibroblasts and mast cells directs some fibroblast activities. An in vitro model was used employing a rodent derived peritoneal mast cell line (RMC-1) and human dermal derived fibroblasts. The influence of the expression of the gap junction channel structural protein, connexin 43 (Cx-43) on heterocellular GJIC, the expression of microtubule β-tubulin and microfilament α smooth muscle actin (SMA) were investigated. The knockdown of Cx-43 by siRNA in RMC-1 cells completely blocked GJIC between RMC-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of Cx-43 within fibroblasts only dampened GJIC between fibroblasts. It appears Cx-43 is the only expressed connexin in RMC-1 cells. Fibroblasts express other connexins that participate in GJIC between fibroblasts in the absence of Cx-43 expression. Heterocellular GJIC between RMC-1 cells and fibroblasts transformed fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, expressing α SMA within cytoplasmic stress fibers. The knockdown of Cx-43 in RMC-1 cells increased β-tubulin expression, but its knockdown in fibroblasts reduced β-tubulin expression. Knocking down the expression of Cx-43 in fibroblasts limited α SMA expression. Cx-43 participation is critical for heterocellular GJIC between mast cells and fibroblasts, which may herald a novel direction for controlling fibrosis. PMID:21328609

  12. Fibroblast response is enhanced by poly(L-lactic acid) nanotopography edge density and proximity

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Keith R; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    The development of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering applications requires careful choice of macroscale properties, such as mechanical characteristics, porosity and biodegradation. The micro- and nano-scale properties of the scaffold surface are also an important design criterion as these influence cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The cellular response is known to be affected by surface topography but the mechanisms governing this remain unclear. Homogenous poly(L-lactic acid) was textured with surface nanotopographies by two-stage replication molding of heterogeneous demixed polymer films. Initial cell adhesion was improved on nanotextured surfaces compared with smooth controls, but subsequent cell density was significantly reduced on the roughest surfaces. Improvements in cell response were found to correlate with focal contact and actin microfilament development. Cell response was found to trend both with the surface density of topography edges and with inter-topography spacing, indicating possible roles for edges stimulating cell adhesion/proliferation or for spacing to modulate the ability of integrin-ligand bonds to cluster and form focal adhesions. This study furthers understanding of the geometric properties of surface nanotopographies that affect cellular response. It is hoped that identification of the mechanisms governing cell-topography interactions will allow rule-based design of biomaterial surface to engineer specific cellular responses. PMID:17722548

  13. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    PubMed

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads. PMID:9175265

  14. The Enrichment of Histomonas meleagridis and Its Pathogen-Specific Protein Analysis: A First Step to Shed Light on Its Virulence.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh Dao Nguyen; Mast, Jan; Magez, Stefan; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Carpentier, Sebastien C

    2016-09-01

    Since the discovery of Histomonas meleagridis in 1893, the necessity of isolating pure H. meleagridis has been highlighted over the years in the battle against histomonosis. Insights into the molecular characteristics of this protozoon open possibilities to proper treatment. Axenization of H. meleagridis in vitro cultures cocultured with bacteria has been unsuccessful. Numerous unsuccessful attempts at culturing H. meleagridis axenically have reinforced the assumption that the protozoa had an obligate relationship with certain bacteria originating from the host ceca. Within these perspectives, we enriched H. meleagridis cells from a mono-eukaryotic culture copropagated with host cecal bacteria by flow cytometry. The enrichment of histomonads was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. For the first time several protein spots were successfully identified. The majority of spots were annotated as cytoskeletal proteins. Actin microfilaments are known to be a key player in cell spreading, cell adhesion, phagocytosis, signal transduction, and several other processes. Together with the identification of superoxide dismutase, the information generated from protein analysis of H. meleagridis may serve as a very first step toward understanding its pathogenesis and virulence. PMID:27610722

  15. Structure and Function of a G-actin Sequestering Protein with a Vital Role in Malaria Oocyst Development inside the Mosquito Vector*

    PubMed Central

    Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M.; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D.; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed β-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites. PMID:20083609

  16. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  17. Nanochips of Tantalum Oxide Nanodots as artificial-microenvironments for monitoring Ovarian cancer progressiveness.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Udesh; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S; Lin, Yan Ren; Hung, Yao Ching; Chen, Wen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanotopography modulates cell characteristics and cell behavior. Nanotopological cues can be exploited to investigate the in-vivo modulation of cell characteristics by the cellular microenvironment. However, the studies explaining the modulation of tumor cell characteristics and identifying the transition step in cancer progressiveness are scarce. Here, we engineered nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodot arrays of 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm as artificial microenvironments to study the modulation of cancer cell behavior. Clinical samples of different types of Ovarian cancer at different stages were obtained, primary cultures were established and then seeded on different nanochips. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to compare the morphologies and cell characteristics. Indices corresponding to cell characteristics were defined. A statistical comparison of the cell characteristics in response to the nanochips was performed. The cells displayed differential growth parameters. Morphology, Viability, focal adhesions, microfilament bundles and cell area were modulated by the nanochips which can be used as a measure to study the cancer progressiveness. The ease of fabrication of nanochips ensures mass-production. The ability of the nanochips to act as artificial microenvironments and modulate cell behavior may lead to further prospects in the markerless monitoring of the progressiveness and ultimately, improving the prognosis of Ovarian cancer. PMID:27534915

  18. Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the identification of the soluble angiogenic factors, insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, and receptor signaling pathways that mediate control of angiogenesis--the growth of blood capillaries. This review focuses on work that explores how endothelial cells integrate these chemical signals with mechanical cues from their local tissue microenvironment so as to produce functional capillary networks that exhibit specialized form as well as function. These studies have revealed that ECM governs whether an endothelial cell will switch between growth, differentiation, motility, or apoptosis programs in response to a soluble stimulus based on its ability to mechanically resist cell tractional forces and thereby produce cell and cytoskeletal distortion. Transmembrane integrin receptors play a key role in this mechanochemical transduction process because they both organize a cytoskeletal signaling complex within the focal adhesion and preferentially focus mechanical forces on this site. Molecular filaments within the internal cytoskeleton--microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments--also contribute to the cell's structural and functional response to mechanical stress through their role as discrete support elements within a tensegrity-stabilized cytoskeletal array. Importantly, a similar form of mechanical control also has been shown to be involved in the regulation of contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. Thus, the mechanism by which cells perform mechanochemical transduction and the implications of these findings for morphogenetic control are discussed in the wider context of vascular development and cardiovascular physiology.

  19. Biomechanical profile of cancer stem-like cells derived from MHCC97H cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Lingling; Zhang, Bingyu; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical properties and cytoskeletal organization of cancer cells are known to be closely related with their aggressive phenotype. In this study, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), we aimed to evaluate the mechanical property of liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and compare it with human hepatoma cells (HHCs). LCSCs were enriched from human hepatoma cell line MHCC97H through a sphere culture system. AFM nanoindentation was investigated as a method for measuring the cell stiffness, and reflecting by Young׳s modulus. Microfilament bundles of F-actin were observed with immunofluorescence staining by confocal microscopy. We found that LCSCs show lower Young׳s modulus and higher migration ability compared to MHCC97H cells. Moreover, the decrease in Young׳s modulus is accompanied with a dramatic decline in F-actin content. These results demonstrated a close relationship between the cell Young׳s modulus and metastatic potential of HHCs, which suggest that Young׳s modulus detected by AFM can be used to evaluate metastatic potential of cancer cells. PMID:26627368

  20. Electron-microscopic study of the apical region of the toad bladder epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, J; Tilles, S; Condeelis, J; Carboni, J; Meiteles, L; Franki, N; Bolon, R; Robertson, C; Hays, R M

    1984-09-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) promotes fusion of cytoplasmic tubules with the luminal membrane and delivery of particles from the tubules to the membrane. The particles are believed to be the water-conducting elements in the membrane. We have employed several scanning (SEM) and transmission electron-microscopic (TEM) techniques to study the relationship of the cytoplasmic tubules to the luminal membrane and to the apical cytoskeleton of the toad bladder epithelial cell. This paper reports the results of freeze-crack SEM and tannic acid-fixed TEM studies, as well as studies with a resinless method of embedding. Freeze-cracked epithelial cells reveal that the tubules are anchored in a matrix of cytoskeleton and granules just below the luminal membrane, and many, if not all, retain their anchorage to the matrix after ADH-induced fusion. Tannic acid-fixed specimens show that the tubules in unstimulated cells lie horizontally. Fusion appears to involve an angulation of the tubules, and this may be the major mode of ADH-induced tubule movement. There are suggestions in the tannic acid sections of filamentous attachments of tubules to the surrounding cytoskeleton. In addition there are prominent microfilament bundles running down the microvilli and a dense concentration of filaments just below the luminal membrane. The presence of these filaments is confirmed in the resinless sections, and their possible role in ADH action is discussed. PMID:6433717

  1. CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins.

    PubMed

    Biederer, T; Sudhof, T C

    2001-12-21

    Rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are involved in a variety of cellular processes from locomotion of cells to morphological alterations of the cell surface. One important question is how local interactions of cells with the extracellular space are translated into alterations of their membrane organization. To address this problem, we studied CASK, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues family of adaptor proteins. CASK has been shown to bind the erythrocyte isoform of protein 4.1, a class of proteins that promote formation of actin/spectrin microfilaments. In neurons, CASK also interacts via its PDZ domain with the cytosolic C termini of neurexins, neuron-specific cell-surface proteins. We now show that CASK binds a brain-enriched isoform of protein 4.1, and nucleates local assembly of actin/spectrin filaments. These interactions can be reconstituted on the cytosolic tail of neurexins. Furthermore, CASK can be recovered with actin filaments prepared from rat brain extracts, and neurexins are recruited together with CASK and protein 4.1 into these actin filaments. Thus, analogous to the PDZ-domain protein p55 and glycophorin C at the erythrocyte membrane, a similar complex comprising CASK and neurexins exists in neurons. Our data suggest that intercellular junctions formed by neurexins, such as junctions initiated by beta-neurexins with neuroligins, are at least partially coupled to the actin cytoskeleton via an interaction with CASK and protein 4.1. PMID:11604393

  2. Morphology of capillary-like structures in a three-dimensional aorta/collagen gel culture.

    PubMed

    Akita, M; Murata, E; Merker, H J; Kaneko, K

    1997-04-01

    The morphology of capillary-like tubes was investigated by electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) using an in vitro model of capillarogenesis (aorta/collagen type I gel). This model allowed morphological comparisons with in vivo capillaries and an evaluation of the functional maturity of the endothelium to be made. The lumina developing in vitro were demarcated by endothelial cells of varying thickness (0.1-2 microns). Pericytes were resting on the outside. The endothelial cells were characterized by contacts of varying length with tight and gap junctions and occasional indentations. The inner surface exhibited areas both with pronounced and without any endocytotic activity. In addition to a large Golgi apparatus, a varying number of cell organelles occurred depending on the thickness of the endothelium. Bundles consisting of microfilaments were often located underneath the outer cell membrane and in the vicinity of contact areas. A lamina densa was in the process of formation. The capillaries grown in vitro closely resembled those in vivo and showed a high degree of differentiation. Hence, this in vitro model allows the study of a number of functions of endothelial cells. PMID:9134083

  3. Regulation of Intracellular Structural Tension by Talin in the Axon Growth and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dingyu, Wang; Fanjie, Meng; Zhengzheng, Ding; Baosheng, Huang; Chao, Yang; Yi, Pan; Huiwen, Wu; Jun, Guo; Gang, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular tension is the most important characteristic of neuron polarization as well as the growth and regeneration of axons, which can be generated by motor proteins and conducted along the cytoskeleton. To better understand this process, we created Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension probes that can be incorporated into microfilaments to provide a real-time measurement of forces in neuron cytoskeletons. We found that our probe could be used to assess the structural tension of neuron polarity. Nerve growth factor (NGF) upregulated structural forces, whereas the glial-scar inhibitors chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and aggrecan weakened such forces. Notably, the tension across axons was distributed uniformly and remarkably stronger than that in the cell body in NGF-stimulated neurons. The mechanosensors talin/vinculin could antagonize the effect of glial-scar inhibitors via structural forces. However, E-cadherin was closely associated with glial-scar inhibitor-induced downregulation of structural forces. Talin/vinculin was involved in the negative regulation of E-cadherin transcription through the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Collectively, this study clarified the mechanism underlying intracellular tension in the growth and regeneration of axons which, conversely, can be regulated by talin and E-cadherin. PMID:26298665

  4. Twisting integrin receptors increases endothelin-1 gene expression in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Fabry, B.; Schiffrin, E. L.; Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic twisting stimulator was developed based on the previously published technique of magnetic twisting cytometry. Using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads, this device can apply mechanical stresses with varying amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and waveforms to specific cell surface receptors. Biochemical and biological responses of the cells to the mechanical stimulation can be assayed. Twisting integrin receptors with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide-coated beads increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression by >100%. In contrast, twisting scavenger receptors with acetylated low-density lipoprotein-coated beads or twisting HLA antigen with anti-HLA antibody-coated beads did not lead to alterations in ET-1 gene expression. In situ hybridization showed that the increase in ET-1 mRNA was localized in the cells that were stressed with the RGD-coated beads. Blocking stretch-activated ion channels with gadolinium, chelating Ca2+ with EGTA, or inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation with genistein abolished twist-induced ET-1 mRNA elevation. Abolishing cytoskeletal tension with an inhibitor of the myosin ATPase, with an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, or with an actin microfilament disrupter blocked twisted-induced increases in ET-1 expression. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the molecular structural linkage of integrin-cytoskeleton is an important pathway for stress-induced ET-1 gene expression.

  5. Demonstration of mechanical connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nucleoplasm that stabilize nuclear structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maniotis, A. J.; Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    We report here that living cells and nuclei are hard-wired such that a mechanical tug on cell surface receptors can immediately change the organization of molecular assemblies in the cytoplasm and nucleus. When integrins were pulled by micromanipulating bound microbeads or micropipettes, cytoskeletal filaments reoriented, nuclei distorted, and nucleoli redistributed along the axis of the applied tension field. These effects were specific for integrins, independent of cortical membrane distortion, and were mediated by direct linkages between the cytoskeleton and nucleus. Actin microfilaments mediated force transfer to the nucleus at low strain; however, tearing of the actin gel resulted with greater distortion. In contrast, intermediate filaments effectively mediated force transfer to the nucleus under both conditions. These filament systems also acted as molecular guy wires to mechanically stiffen the nucleus and anchor it in place, whereas microtubules acted to hold open the intermediate filament lattice and to stabilize the nucleus against lateral compression. Molecular connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nuclear scaffolds may therefore provide a discrete path for mechanical signal transfer through cells as well as a mechanism for producing integrated changes in cell and nuclear structure in response to changes in extracellular matrix adhesivity or mechanics.

  6. Plasticity of the brush border - the yin and yang of intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Delphine; Salomon, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The brush border on the apical surface of enterocytes is a highly specialized structure well-adapted for efficient digestion and nutrient transport, whilst at the same time providing a protective barrier for the intestinal mucosa. The brush border is constituted of a densely ordered array of microvilli, protrusions of the plasma membrane, which are supported by actin-based microfilaments and interacting proteins and anchored in an apical network of actomyosin and intermediate filaments, the so-called terminal web. The highly dynamic, specialized apical domain is both an essential partner for the gut microbiota and an efficient signalling platform that enables adaptation to physiological stimuli from the external and internal milieu. Nevertheless, genetic alterations or various pathological stresses, such as infection, inflammation, and mechanical or nutritional alterations, can jeopardize this equilibrium and compromise intestinal functions. Long-time neglected, the intestinal brush-border shall be enlightening again as the central actor of the complex but essential intestinal homeostasis. Here, we review the processes and components involved in brush border organization and discuss pathological mechanisms that can induce brush border defects and their physiological consequences. PMID:26837713

  7. Cytoskeleton alterations induced by Geodia corticostylifera depsipeptides in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Marisa; Prado, Marisa P; Konno, Katsuhiro; Naoki, Hideo; Freitas, José C; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia M

    2006-09-01

    Crude extracts of the marine sponge Geodia corticostylifera from Brazilian Coast have previously shown antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, haemolytic and neurotoxic activities. The present work describes the isolation of the cyclic peptides geodiamolides A, B, H and I (1-4) from G. corticostylifera and their anti-proliferative effects against sea urchin eggs and human breast cancer cell lineages. Its structure-activity relationship is discussed as well. In an initial series of experiments these peptides inhibited the first cleavage of sea urchin eggs (Lytechinus variegatus). Duplication of nuclei without complete egg cell division indicated the mechanism of action might be related to microfilament disruption. Further studies showed that the geodiamolides have anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines (T47D and MCF7). Using fluorescence techniques and confocal microscopy, we found evidence that the geodiamolides A, B, H and I act by disorganizing actin filaments of T47D and MCF7 cancer cells, in a way similar to other depsipeptides (such as jaspamide 5 and dolastatins), keeping the normal microtubule organization. Normal cells lines (primary culture human fibroblasts and BRL3A rat liver epithelial cells) were not affected by the treatment as tumor cells were, thus indicating the biomedical potential of these compounds. PMID:16843570

  8. Live imaging of rapid chromosome movements in meiotic prophase I in maize

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Moira J.; Pawlowski, Wojciech P.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of chromosomes to move across the nuclear space is essential for the reorganization of the nucleus that takes place in early meiotic prophase. Chromosome dynamics of prophase I have been studied in budding and fission yeasts, but little is known about this process in higher eukaryotes, where genomes and chromosomes are much larger and meiosis takes a longer time to complete. This knowledge gap has been mainly caused by difficulties in culturing isolated live meiocytes of multicellular eukaryotes. To study the nuclear dynamics during meiotic prophase in maize, we established a system to observe live meiocytes inside intact anthers. We found that maize chromosomes exhibited extremely dynamic and complex motility in zygonema and pachynema. The movement patterns differed dramatically between the two stages. Chromosome movements included rotations of the entire chromatin and movements of individual chromosome segments, which were mostly telomere-led. Chromosome motility was coincident with dynamic deformations of the nuclear envelope. Both, chromosome and nuclear envelope motility depended on actin microfilaments as well as tubulin. The complexity of the nuclear movements implies that several different mechanisms affect chromosome motility in early meiotic prophase in maize. We propose that the vigorous nuclear motility provides a mechanism for homologous loci to find each other during zygonema. PMID:19926853

  9. Macrophages Mediate the Repair of Brain Vascular Rupture through Direct Physical Adhesion and Mechanical Traction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi; Wu, Chuan; Yang, Qifen; Gao, Jing; Li, Li; Yang, Deqin; Luo, Lingfei

    2016-05-17

    Hemorrhagic stroke and brain microbleeds are caused by cerebrovascular ruptures. Fast repair of such ruptures is the most promising therapeutic approach. Due to a lack of high-resolution in vivo real-time studies, the dynamic cellular events involved in cerebrovascular repair remain unknown. Here, we have developed a cerebrovascular rupture system in zebrafish by using multi-photon laser, which generates a lesion with two endothelial ends. In vivo time-lapse imaging showed that a macrophage arrived at the lesion and extended filopodia or lamellipodia to physically adhere to both endothelial ends. This macrophage generated mechanical traction forces to pull the endothelial ends and facilitate their ligation, thus mediating the repair of the rupture. Both depolymerization of microfilaments and inhibition of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase or Rac1 activity disrupted macrophage-endothelial adhesion and impaired cerebrovascular repair. Our study reveals a hitherto unexpected role for macrophages in mediating repair of cerebrovascular ruptures through direct physical adhesion and mechanical traction. PMID:27156384

  10. Clusterin promotes the aggregation and adhesion of renal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Silkensen, J R; Skubitz, K M; Skubitz, A P; Chmielewski, D H; Manivel, J C; Dvergsten, J A; Rosenberg, M E

    1995-01-01

    The function of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein markedly induced in renal and other organ injuries, is unclear. Since renal injury is accompanied by alterations in cell attachment, it is possible that clusterin functions to promote cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. In this study, a single cell suspension of renal epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells was treated with purified human clusterin, resulting in time- and dose-dependent cell aggregation. Electron microscopy of the cell aggregates demonstrated cell junction and lumen formation. To determine the effect of clusterin on cell adhesion, tissue culture plates were coated with clusterin, fibronectin, PBS, or albumin. Clusterin and fibronectin promoted cell adhesion to the same extent. The adhesion to clusterin was dose dependent and specific, as a monoclonal antibody against clusterin inhibited cell adhesion to clusterin but not fibronectin. Perterbations of the cytoskeleton may underlie the alterations in cell attachment which occur in renal injury. Induction of clusterin mRNA was seen after disruption of both microtubules and microfilaments and after inhibition of cell-substratum interactions. In conclusion, clusterin is a potent renal epithelial cell aggregation and adhesion molecule. We speculate that clusterin functions to promote cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions which are perturbed in the setting of renal injury, thereby preserving the integrity of the renal epithelial barrier. Images PMID:8675630

  11. Sodium alginate sponges with or without sodium hyaluronate: in vitro engineering of cartilage.

    PubMed

    Miralles, G; Baudoin, R; Dumas, D; Baptiste, D; Hubert, P; Stoltz, J F; Dellacherie, E; Mainard, D; Netter, P; Payan, E

    2001-11-01

    Studies are underway to design biosystems containing embedded chondrocytes to fill osteochondral defects and to produce a tissue close to native cartilage. In the present report, a new alginate three-dimensional support for chondrocyte culture is described. A sodium alginate solution, with or without hyaluronic acid (HA), was freeze-dried to obtain large-porosity sponges. This formulation was compared with a hydrogel of the same composition. In the sponge formulation, macroscopic and microscopic studies demonstrated the formation of a macroporous network (average pore size, 174 microm) associated with a microporous one (average pore size, 250 nm). Histological and biochemical studies showed that, when loaded with HA, the sponge provides an adapted environment for proteoglycan and collagen synthesis by chondrocytes. Cytoskeleton organization was studied by three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy (CellScan EPR). Chondrocytes exhibit a marked spherical shape with a nonoriented and sparse actin microfilament network. Type II collagen was detected in both types of sponges (with or without HA) using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, the sponge formulation affords new perspectives with respect to the in vitro production of "artificial" cartilage. Furthermore, the presence of hyaluronate within the alginate sponge mimics a functional environment, suitable for the production by embedded chondrocytes of an extracellular matrix. PMID:11484190

  12. [Contractile proteins in chemical signal transduction in plant microspores].

    PubMed

    Roshchina, V V

    2005-01-01

    Involvement of contractile components in chemical signal transduction from the cell surface to the organelles was studied using unicellular systems. Neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin as well as active forms of oxygen hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl peroxide were used as chemical signals. Experiments were carried out on vegetative microspores of field horsetail Equisetum arvense and generative microspores (pollen) of amaryllis Hippeastrum hybridum treated with cytochalasin B (an inhibitor of actin polymerization in microfilaments), colchicine, and vinblastine (inhibitors of tubulin polymerization in microtubules). Both types of thus treated microspores demonstrated suppressed development, particularly, for cytochalasin B treatment. At the same time, an increased typical blue fluorescence of certain cell regions (along the cell wall and around nuclei and chloroplasts) where the corresponding contractile proteins could reside was observed. In contrast to anticontractile agents, dopamine, serotonin B, and the peroxides stimulated microspore germination. Microspore pretreatment with cytochalasin B and colchicine followed by the treatment with serotonin, dopamine, or the peroxides decreased the germination rate. Involvement of actin and tubulin in chemical signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus is proposed. PMID:16004258

  13. Annexin A2, an essential partner of the exocytotic process in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Marion; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette

    2016-06-01

    Annexin A2 is a calcium-, actin-, and lipid-binding protein implicated in exocytosis in different cell types, such as neuroendocrine cells. In chromaffin cells, cytosolic annexin A2 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon cell stimulation. Here, we review the latest evidence detailing the functional importance of annexin A2 in different stages of exocytosis. These include the recruitment of annexin A2 to the plasma membrane near soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes, the role of annexin A2 in the formation of lipid domains at exocytotic sites, and finally the annexin A2 bundling of actin microfilaments associated with chromaffin granules. These structures induce first the coalescence of lipid domains required for the formation of the exocytotic site, and in the second time, exert mechanical force on the granule to favor fusion pore expansion and squeeze the granule to facilitate catecholamine release. Annexin A2 is a calcium-, actin-, and lipid-binding protein implicated in exocytosis in different cell types, including neuroendocrine cells. Upon cell stimulation, annexin A2 translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells and bundles actin filaments associated with chromaffin granules. This promotes the formation of lipid domains required for granule docking, and facilitates catecholamine release by compressing the granule. This article is part of a mini review series on Chromaffin cells (ISCCB Meeting, 2015). PMID:27037794

  14. GRP78 clustering at the cell surface of neurons transduces the action of exogenous alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Bellani, S; Mescola, A; Ronzitti, G; Tsushima, H; Tilve, S; Canale, C; Valtorta, F; Chieregatti, E

    2014-12-01

    Mutation or multiplication of the alpha-synuclein (Syn)-encoding gene is frequent cause of early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidences point to the pathogenic role of excess Syn also in sporadic PD. Syn is a cytosolic protein, which has been shown to be released from neurons. Here we provide evidence that extracellular Syn induces an increase in surface-exposed glucose-related protein of 78 kDa (GRP78), which becomes clustered in microdomains of the neuronal plasma membrane. Upon interacting with Syn, GRP78 activates a signaling cascade leading to cofilin 1 inactivation and stabilization of microfilaments, thus affecting morphology and dynamics of actin cytoskeleton in cultured neurons. Downregulation of GRP78 abolishes the activity of exogenous Syn, indicating that it is the primary target of Syn. Inactivation of cofilin 1 and stabilization of actin cytoskeleton are present also in fibroblasts derived from genetic PD patients, which show a dramatic increase in stress fibers. Similar changes are displayed by control cells incubated with the medium of PD fibroblasts, only when Syn is present. The accumulation of Syn in the extracellular milieu, its interaction with the plasma membrane and Syn-driven clustering of GRP78 appear, therefore, responsible for the dysregulation of actin turnover, leading to early deficits in synaptic function that precede neurodegeneration. PMID:25124556

  15. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  16. Actin marker lines in grapevine reveal a gatekeeper function of guard cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Buchholz, Günther; Nick, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Resistance to abiotic and biotic stress is a central topic for sustainable agriculture, especially in grapevine, one of the field crops with the highest economic output per acreage. As early cellular factors for plant defense, actin microfilaments (AF) are of high relevance. We therefore generated a transgenic actin marker line for grapevine by expressing a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein and the second actin-binding domain of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. Based on this first cytoskeletal-marker line in grapevine, the response of AFs to phytopathogenic microorganisms could be followed in vivo. Upon inoculation with fluorescently labeled strains of phytopathogenic bacteria, actin responses were confined to the guard cells. In contrast, upon contact with zoospores of Plasmopara viticola, not only the guard cells, but also epidermal pavement cells, where no zoospores had attached responded with the formation of a perinuclear actin basket. Our data support the hypothesis that guard cells act as pacemakers of defense, dominating the responses of the remaining epidermal cells. PMID:24973589

  17. Role of cytoskeleton in differentiation of gravisensitive root sites in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G.; Kordyum, E.

    Cytoskeleton is known to be one of the elements participating in signaling reactions caused by altered gravity in plant cells. Up to date actin microfilaments (MFs) are considered mainly in respect of their involvement in statolith movement and tubulin microtubules (MTs) are investigated in respect of their participation in gravitropic plant growth response (root bending). But there are numerous data evidencing that the role of cytoskeleton in plant gravisensing is far more complex. To contribute to the issue the novel approach is proposed. In particular, since gravity is persistent factor through plant evolution it is suggested to compare the arrangement of cytoskeletal elements at the consequent developmental stages of graviperceiving (root cap) and gravireacting (cell in elongation zone) root sites both in stationary control and simulated microgravity. Special emphasis is given to MF dynamics in the process of statocyte differentiation and establishing statocyte polarity while developing from cells of root cap meristem. MTs are going to be elucidated in epidermal and cortex root cell lines originating from meristem of proper root. Root of Beta vulgaris seedling is used as an object. Methods of cytoskeleton immunohistochemistry, cytoskeleton inhibitors, plant mutant on cytoskeleton genes as well as blockers of auxin transport are intended to be applied. It is anticipated that data will be collected on the influence caused by simulated microgravity on cytoskeleton involvement in the development of plant gravisensing organs. Such an approach will not only widen our knowledge about cytoskeleton role in plant development but also in plant gravireaction.

  18. Platelets and fibrin strands during clot retraction.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, E; Korell, U; Richter, J

    1984-03-15

    The ultrastructure of platelet fibrin contacts (PFC) and the course of the strands was investigated in serial sections of retracted clots with the help of specimen tilting. We found after retraction in a test tube as well as under isometric conditions in the resonance thrombograph, after HARTERT, an uniform type of PFC. The side to side contact between platelet surface and fibrin strands displayed a 15 nm wide space which was bridged of 10 - 30 nm by filamentary structure. In each case the direction of the fibrin strands changed on contact with the platelet surface (bend). These bends recurred if the adhering strands ran over a longer distance on the platelet surface. The bends can be explained by non-directional movement of the platelets or of their pseudopodia. Microfilaments (actomyosin) which run straight in pseudopodia and often also twisted in the platelet body support this assumption. The described mechanism - contact of the thrombin activated platelets with fibrin strands and simultaneous nondirectional movement of the platelets which bind further sections of the adhering strands to their surface - would provide a more satisfactory explanation for the retraction of the clot to 1/10 of its original volume. PMID:6539004

  19. Multidrug efflux transporter activity in sea urchin embryos:Does localization provide a diffusive advantage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xianfeng; Setayeshgar, Sima; Cole, Bryan; Hamdoun, Amro; Epel, David

    2008-03-01

    Experiments have shown upregulation of multidrug efflux transporter activity approximately 30 min after fertilization in the sea urchin embryo [1]. These ATP-hydrolyzing transporter proteins pump moderately hydrophobic molecules out of the cell and represent the cell's first line of defense againstexogenous toxins. It has also been shown that transporters are moved in vesicles along microfilaments and localized to tips of microvilli prior to activation. We have constructed a geometrically realistic model of the embryo, including microvilli, to explore the functional role of this localization in the efficient elimination of toxins from the standpoint of diffusion. We compute diffusion of toxins in extracellular, membrane and intracellular spaces coupled with transporter activity, using experimentally derived values for physical parameters. For transporters uniformly distributed along microvilli and tip-localized transporters we compare regions in parameter space where each distribution provides diffusive advantage, and comment on the physically expected conditions. [1] A. M. Hamdoun, G. N. Cherr, T. A. Roepke and D. Epel, Developmental Biology 276 452 (2004).

  20. LIM Kinase Inhibitor Pyr1 Reduces the Growth and Metastatic Load of Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Chloé; Josserand, Véronique; Vollaire, Julien; Beerling, Evelyne; Petropoulos, Christos; Destaing, Olivier; Montemagno, Christopher; Hurbin, Amandine; Prudent, Renaud; de Koning, Leanne; Kapur, Reuben; Cohen, Pascale A; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Coll, Jean-Luc; van Rheenen, Jacco; Billaud, Marc; Lafanechère, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    LIM kinases (LIMK) are emerging targets for cancer therapy, and they function as network hubs to coordinate actin and microtubule dynamics. When LIMKs are inhibited, actin microfilaments are disorganized and microtubules are stabilized. Owing to their stabilizing effect on microtubules, LIMK inhibitors may provide a therapeutic strategy to treat taxane-resistant cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of LIMK inhibition on breast tumor development and on paclitaxel-resistant tumors, using a novel selective LIMK inhibitor termed Pyr1. Treatment of breast cancer cells, including paclitaxel-resistant cells, blocked their invasion and proliferation in vitro and their growth in vivo in tumor xenograft assays. The tumor-invasive properties of Pyr1 were investigated in vivo by intravital microscopy of tumor xenografts. A striking change of cell morphology was observed with a rounded phenotype arising in a subpopulation of cells, while other cells remained elongated. Notably, although Pyr1 decreased the motility of elongated cells, it increased the motility of rounded cells in the tumor. Pyr1 administration prevented the growth of metastasis but not their spread. Overall, our results provided a preclinical proof of concept concerning how a small-molecule inhibitor of LIMK may offer a strategy to treat taxane-resistant breast tumors and metastases. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3541-52. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216191

  1. Microtubule-dependent movement of symbiotic algae and granules in Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, N; Horiike, S; Oka, Y; Takahashi, T; Kosaka, T; Hosoya, H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecia demonstrate rotational cytoplasmic streaming, in which some cytoplasmic granules and organelles, including symbiotic algae, flow in a constant direction. To elucidate the mechanism of this streaming, we examined the effects of cytochalasins (cytochalasin B and D, and dihydrocytochalasin B) and nocodazole, which are reagents affecting microfilament and microtubule networks, respectively, in the cell. In previous reports, paramecia have been compressed with a coverslip to facilitate observation of cytoplasmic streaming. Here we found that the cytoplasmic streaming of paramecia was suppressed by such compression and then observed the process without compression in this work. In the presence of cytochalasins, cytoplasmic streaming was not affected. In contrast, treatment with nocodazole (10 microg/ml) resulted in discontinuation of cytoplasmic streaming in paramecia. Immunofluorescent microscopic observations by confocal microscopy revealed that the number of intracellular microtubules in nocodazole-treated cells was markedly decreased compared to that of controls. Electron microscopic observations confirmed the decrease. These results suggest that cytoplasmic microtubules play an important role in the cytoplasmic streaming of paramecia. PMID:10379834

  2. Bacterial Vegetative Insecticidal Proteins (Vip) from Entomopathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Maissa; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria produce insecticidal proteins that accumulate in inclusion bodies or parasporal crystals (such as the Cry and Cyt proteins) as well as insecticidal proteins that are secreted into the culture medium. Among the latter are the Vip proteins, which are divided into four families according to their amino acid identity. The Vip1 and Vip2 proteins act as binary toxins and are toxic to some members of the Coleoptera and Hemiptera. The Vip1 component is thought to bind to receptors in the membrane of the insect midgut, and the Vip2 component enters the cell, where it displays its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity against actin, preventing microfilament formation. Vip3 has no sequence similarity to Vip1 or Vip2 and is toxic to a wide variety of members of the Lepidoptera. Its mode of action has been shown to resemble that of the Cry proteins in terms of proteolytic activation, binding to the midgut epithelial membrane, and pore formation, although Vip3A proteins do not share binding sites with Cry proteins. The latter property makes them good candidates to be combined with Cry proteins in transgenic plants (Bacillus thuringiensis-treated crops [Bt crops]) to prevent or delay insect resistance and to broaden the insecticidal spectrum. There are commercially grown varieties of Bt cotton and Bt maize that express the Vip3Aa protein in combination with Cry proteins. For the most recently reported Vip4 family, no target insects have been found yet. PMID:26935135

  3. Lipogenic Enzymes Complexes and Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplet Formation During Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Velez-delValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2016-10-01

    Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that store triglycerides and participate in their mobilization in adipose cells. These organelles require the reorganization of some structural components, the cytoskeleton, and the activation of lipogenic enzymes. Using confocal microscopy, we analyzed the participation of cytoskeletal components and two lipogenic enzymes, fatty acid synthase and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, during lipid droplet biogenesis in differentiating 3T3-F442A cells into adipocytes. We show that subcortical actin microfilaments are extended at the basal side of the cells in parallel arrangement to the culture dish substrate, and that the microtubule network traverses the cytoplasm as a scaffold that supports the round shape of the mature adipocyte. By immunoprecipitation, we show that vimentin and perilipin1a associate during the early stages of the differentiation process for lipid droplet formation. We also report that the antibody against perilipin1 detected a band that might correspond to a modified form of the molecule. Finally, the cytosolic distribution and punctate organization of lipogenic enzymes and their co-localization in the proximity of lipid droplets suggest the existence of dynamic protein complexes involved in synthesis and storage of triglycerides. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2315-2326, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928794

  4. Mechanical behavior in living cells consistent with the tensegrity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Naruse, K.; Stamenovic, D.; Fredberg, J. J.; Mijailovich, S. M.; Tolic-Norrelykke, I. M.; Polte, T.; Mannix, R.; Ingber, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    Alternative models of cell mechanics depict the living cell as a simple mechanical continuum, porous filament gel, tensed cortical membrane, or tensegrity network that maintains a stabilizing prestress through incorporation of discrete structural elements that bear compression. Real-time microscopic analysis of cells containing GFP-labeled microtubules and associated mitochondria revealed that living cells behave like discrete structures composed of an interconnected network of actin microfilaments and microtubules when mechanical stresses are applied to cell surface integrin receptors. Quantitation of cell tractional forces and cellular prestress by using traction force microscopy confirmed that microtubules bear compression and are responsible for a significant portion of the cytoskeletal prestress that determines cell shape stability under conditions in which myosin light chain phosphorylation and intracellular calcium remained unchanged. Quantitative measurements of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors in cells also were consistent with specific a priori predictions of the tensegrity model. These findings suggest that tensegrity represents a unified model of cell mechanics that may help to explain how mechanical behaviors emerge through collective interactions among different cytoskeletal filaments and extracellular adhesions in living cells.

  5. Tumor Suppressor Activity of Profilin Requires a Functional Actin Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Wittenmayer, Nina; Jandrig, Burkhard; Rothkegel, Martin; Schlüter, Kathrin; Arnold, Wolfgang; Haensch, Wolfgang; Scherneck, Siegfried; Jockusch, Brigitte M.

    2004-01-01

    Profilin 1 (PFN1) is a regulator of the microfilament system and is involved in various signaling pathways. It interacts with many cytoplasmic and nuclear ligands. The importance of PFN1 for human tissue differentiation has been demonstrated by the findings that human cancer cells, expressing conspicuously low PFN1 levels, adopt a nontumorigenic phenotype upon raising their PFN1 level. In the present study, we characterize the ligand binding site crucial for profilin's tumor suppressor activity. Starting with CAL51, a human breast cancer cell line highly tumorigenic in nude mice, we established stable clones that express PFN1 mutants differentially defective in ligand binding. Clones expressing PFN1 mutants with reduced binding to either poly-proline-stretch ligands or phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate, but with a functional actin binding site, were normal in growth, adhesion, and anchorage dependence, with only a weak tendency to elicit tumors in nude mice, similar to controls expressing wild-type PFN1. In contrast, clones expressing a mutant with severely reduced capacity to bind actin still behaved like the parental CAL51 and were highly tumorigenic. We conclude that the actin binding site on profilin is instrumental for normal differentiation of human epithelia and the tumor suppressor function of PFN1. PMID:14767055

  6. Antisense-induced messenger depletion corrects a COL6A2 dominant mutation in Ullrich myopathy.

    PubMed

    Gualandi, Francesca; Manzati, Elisa; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Passarelli, Chiara; Bovolenta, Matteo; Pellegrini, Camilla; Perrone, Daniela; Squarzoni, Stefano; Pegoraro, Elena; Bonaldo, Paolo; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    Collagen VI gene mutations cause Ullrich and Bethlem muscular dystrophies. Pathogenic mutations frequently have a dominant negative effect, with defects in collagen VI chain secretion and assembly. It is agreed that, conversely, collagen VI haploinsufficiency has no pathological consequences. Thus, RNA-targeting approaches aimed at preferentially inactivating the mutated COL6 messenger may represent a promising therapeutic strategy. By in vitro studies we obtained the preferential depletion of the mutated COL6A2 messenger, by targeting a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), cistronic with a dominant COL6A2 mutation. We used a 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate (2'OMePS) antisense oligonucleotide covering the SNP within exon 3, which is out of frame. Exon 3 skipping has the effect of depleting the mutated transcript via RNA nonsense-mediated decay, recovering the correct collagen VI secretion and restoring the ability to form an interconnected microfilament network into the extracellular matrix. This novel RNA modulation approach to correcting dominant mutations may represent a therapeutic strategy potentially applicable to a great variety of mutations and diseases. PMID:22992134

  7. Targeting p35/Cdk5 Signalling via CIP-Peptide Promotes Angiogenesis in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Qi, Jie; Pennucci, Roberta; Bolton, David; Matou, Sabine; Ali, Kamela; Tsai, Li-Huei; Krupinski, Jerzy; Petcu, Eugene B.; Montaner, Joan; Al Baradie, Raid; Caccuri, Francesca; Caruso, Arnaldo; Alessandri, Giulio; Kumar, Shant; Rodriguez, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose; Slevin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) is over-expressed in both neurons and microvessels in hypoxic regions of stroke tissue and has a significant pathological role following hyper-phosphorylation leading to calpain-induced cell death. Here, we have identified a critical role of Cdk5 in cytoskeleton/focal dynamics, wherein its activator, p35, redistributes along actin microfilaments of spreading cells co-localising with p(Tyr15)Cdk5, talin/integrin beta-1 at the lamellipodia in polarising cells. Cdk5 inhibition (roscovitine) resulted in actin-cytoskeleton disorganisation, prevention of protein co-localization and inhibition of movement. Cells expressing Cdk5 (D144N) kinase mutant, were unable to spread, migrate and form tube-like structures or sprouts, while Cdk5 wild-type over-expression showed enhanced motility and angiogenesis in vitro, which was maintained during hypoxia. Gene microarray studies demonstrated myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2C) as a substrate for Cdk5-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. MEF2C showed nuclear co-immunoprecipitation with Cdk5 and almost complete inhibition of differentiation and sprout formation following siRNA knock-down. In hypoxia, insertion of Cdk5/p25-inhibitory peptide (CIP) vector preserved and enhanced in vitro angiogenesis. These results demonstrate the existence of critical and complementary signalling pathways through Cdk5 and p35, and through which coordination is a required factor for successful angiogenesis in sustained hypoxic condition. PMID:24098701

  8. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans by human cultured macrophages. Requirements for multiple complement receptors and actin.

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, S M; Tabuni, A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the receptors on human cultured macrophages (MO-M phi) responsible for binding encapsulated and isogenic mutant acapsular strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, and whether such binding leads to a phagocytic event. Both strains required opsonization with complement components in normal human serum in order for binding to occur. Binding of the acapsular, but not the encapsulated, strain led to phagocytosis. MAb directed against any of the three defined complement receptors (CR) on MO-M phi (CR1, CR3, and CR4) profoundly inhibited binding of serum-opsonized encapsulated (and to a lesser extent acapsular) organisms to MO-M phi. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated migration of CR to the area of the cryptococcal binding site. Trypsin and elastase inhibited binding of encapsulated and, to a lesser extent, acapsular yeasts to MO-M phi. Binding of encapsulated C. neoformans was profoundly inhibited by incubation in the cold or by inhibitors of receptor capping and actin microfilaments. Thus, multiple CR appear to contribute to binding of serum-opsonized encapsulated C. neoformans by MO-M phi. Binding is an energy-dependent process that requires conformational changes in actin yet does not lead to phagocytosis of the organism. In contrast, energy is not required for binding of acapsular yeasts by MO-M phi and binding triggers phagocytosis. Images PMID:1991837

  9. Mitochondrial dynamics and their intracellular traffic in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamochi, T; Hashimoto, S; Amo, A; Goto, H; Yamanaka, M; Inoue, M; Nakaoka, Y; Morimoto, Y

    2016-08-01

    Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes. PMID:26364763

  10. The sertolian epithelium in the testis of men affected by 'Sertoli-cell-only syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Tedde, G; Montella, A; Fiocca, D; Delrio, A N

    1993-01-01

    Because of the architectural complexity of the seminiferous epithelium, the Sertoli cell is extremely difficult to study. The individual cellular constituents of the tubular wall are intimately associated with one another; especially Sertoli cells and germinal cells are tightly connected. As implied by the name, Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS) is characterized by the presence of only Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubule. The absence of germinal cells makes this condition ideal for the morphological study of Sertoli cell. Testicular biopsy specimens of subjects affected by SCOS were studied under light and electron microscopy. The Sertoli cells appeared to be morphologically normal, except for their shape, that appears to be columnar as result of the complete absence of the germinal cells. The cellular outlines were irregular, particularly at the base, but the cytoplasm contained normal organelles and inclusions. The presence of both pale and dark elements was evident. These differences in staining reflect the variability in concentration of glycogen particles and intermediate microfilaments in the cytoplasm. In spite of these differences between Sertoli cells in SCOS and those in normal subjects, SCOS represents a satisfactory model for the morphological and functional analysis of the Sertoli cells. PMID:7694556

  11. Morphological characterization of a newly established human osteosarcoma cell line, HS-Os-1, revealing its distinct osteoblastic nature.

    PubMed

    Sonobe, H; Mizobuchi, H; Manabe, Y; Furihata, M; Iwata, J; Hikita, T; Oka, T; Ohtsuki, Y; Goto, T

    1991-01-01

    A newly established human osteosarcoma cell line, HS-Os-1, from an osteoblastic tumor arising in the left humerus of an 11-year-old girl was morphologically characterized in vitro and in vivo. HS-Os-1 cells in a monolayer have been maintained for more than 2 years since the initial cultivation, and were round or polygonal in shape with marked pleomorphism. Their cytoplasm was strongly positive for specific markers of osteoblasts, such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Tumors induced in nude mice by HS-Os-1 cell inoculation at passage 12 or 23 revealed typical histological features of osteoblastic osteosarcoma, similar to those observed in the original tumor, producing prominent osteoid matrix with calcification. Ultrastructurally, HS-Os-1 cells in vitro and tumor cells in vivo showed similar well-developed, markedly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes and microfilaments in their cytoplasm. Additionally, many collagen fibers associated with deposition of electron-dense material were detected in the stroma featuring osteoid matrix. Thus, the HS-Os-1 cell line was shown to exhibit its osteoblastic nature in vitro and in vivo, and therefore might become an extremely useful tool for various pathomorphological investigations on human osteosarcomas. PMID:1679269

  12. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line, HS-Os-1 derived from an osteoblastic type of human osteosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Sonobe, H; Mizobuchi, H; Manabe, Y; Furihata, M; Iwata, J; Hikita, T; Kiuna, O; Tanimoto, T; Oka, T; Ohtsuki, Y

    1990-06-01

    A new human cell line, HS-Os-1, derived from a case of osteoblastic osteosarcoma arising in the humerus of an 11-year-old girl was established. Light microscopically, HS-Os-1 cells growing in a monolayer (in vitro) were pleomorphic, intermingled with a few multinucleated giant ones, and positive with alkaline phosphatase reaction. In the transplanted tumors in athymic nude mice (in vivo), atypical spindle or polygonal cells densely proliferated with prominent osteoid formation and even calcification. HS-Os-1 cells, both in vitro and in vivo, were mostly positive for vimentin and a few for S-100 protein. Ultrastructurally, HS-Os-1 cells in vitro and in vivo also revealed essentially the same features as the eccentrically located, euchromatin-rich nuclei with prominent nucleoli, a lot of well-developed, irregularly-dilated rough endoplasmic reticula, polysomes and microfilaments in the cytoplasm. Namely, HS-Os-1 cells fully expressed and possessed morphological characteristics as osteoblastic nature during the cultivation and heterotransplantation. This cell line, therefore, proved to be extremely useful to search for human osteosarcomas. PMID:2085479

  13. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  14. Microtubule Polymerization Functions in Hypersensitive Response and Accumulation of H2O2 in Wheat Induced by the Stripe Rust

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinjie; Xu, Yuanliu

    2016-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Suwon 11 with an incompatible race, CYR23, wheat leaves were treated with microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin, before inoculation. The results showed that the frequency of infection sites with hypersensitive response occurrence was significantly reduced, and hypersensitive cell death in wheat leaves was suppressed compared to the control. In addition, the frequency and the incidence of infected cells with H2O2 accumulation were also reduced after the treatment with oryzalin. Those results indicated that microtubules are related to hypersensitive response and H2O2 accumulation in wheat induced by the stripe rust, and depolymerization of microtubules reduces the resistance of plants to pathogen infection in incompatible interaction, suggesting that microtubules play a potential role in the expression of resistance of wheat against the stripe rust fungus. PMID:27610380

  15. Cortical microtubule labeling: insight of AFH14 in non-dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Li, Yanhua; Shen, Yuan; Ren, Haiyun

    2010-12-01

    We recently reported that AFH14 participated in microtubule and actin filament interaction in cell division, and the AFH14 (FH1FH2) was important to the directly binding activity of microtubules and microfilaments. To preliminarily understand the function and localization of AFH14 in non-dividing cells, we overexpressed FH1FH2-RFP in onion epidermal cells, and found a fluorescence labeled filamentous network. The result of double labeling with different cytoskeleton reporter proteins indicated that FH1FH2-RFP co-localized with cortical microtubules. Treatment of cells expressing FH1FH2-RFP with cytoskeleton disrupting drugs confirms that FH1FH2-RFP binds to microtubules. Moreover, the binding of FH1FH2-RFP to microtubules were revealed to be dynamic by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiment. Time-lapse confocal microscopy showed that FH1FH2-RFP could display a dynamics similar to the microtubule dynamic instability. These data suggest that FH1FH2 domain may lead AFH14 function on cortical microtubules in non-dividing cells, and FH1FH2-RFP may be utilized as a microtubule reporter protein in living onion epidermal cells. PMID:21139436

  16. Rapid Mass Movement of Chloroplasts during Segment Formation of the Calcifying Siphonalean Green Alga, Halimeda macroloba

    PubMed Central

    Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth of new segments was visualised by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy and by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimetry. Apical colourless proto-segments were initiated on day 1, and formed a loose network of non-calcified, non-septate filaments, containing no chloroplasts. Rapid greening was initiated at dusk by i) the mass movement of chloroplasts into these filaments from the parent segment and ii) the growth of new filaments containing chloroplasts. Greening was usually complete in 3–5 h and certainly before dawn on day 2 when the first signs of calcification were apparent. Mass chloroplast movement took place at a rate of ∼0.65 µm/s. Photosynthetic yield and rate remained low for a period of 1 to several hours, indicating that the chloroplasts were made de novo. Use of the inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin d indicated that the movement process is dependent on both microtubules and microfilaments. Significance This unusual process involves the mass movement of chloroplasts at a high rate into new segments during the night and rapid calcification on the following day and may be an adaptation to minimise the impact of herbivorous activity. PMID:21750703

  17. In vitro culture of hFOB1.19 osteoblast cells on TGF-β1-SF-CS three-dimensional scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    TONG, SHUANG; XUE, LEI; XU, DA-PENG; LIU, ZI-MEI; DU, YANG; WANG, XU-KAI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the biocompatibility of transforming growth factor-β1-silk fibroin-chitosan (TGF-β1-SF-CS) scaffolds. In order to provide an ideal scaffold for use in bone tissue engineering, TGF-β1 was introduced into the SF-CS scaffold in order to reconstruct a three dimensional scaffold, following which hFOB1.19 osteoblast cells were seeded onto TGF-β1-SF-CS and SF-CS scaffolds. On the TGF-β1-SF-CS and SF-CS scaffolds, the cell adhesion rate increased in a time-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the cells grew actively and exhibited normal morphological features with multiple fissions, and granular and filamentous substrates were observed surrounding the cells. In addition, the cell microfilaments were closely connected with the scaffolds. The cells exhibited attached growth on the surfaces of the scaffolds, however, the growth also extended into the scaffolds. Cell Counting Kit-8 and ALP analyses revealed that TGF-β1 significantly promoted the growth and proliferation of the hFOB1.19 osteoblast cells in the SF-CS scaffolds, and the enhancement of osteoblast cell proliferation and activity by TGF-β1 occurred in a time-dependent manner. The TGF-β1-SF-CS composite material may offer potential as an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26530112

  18. Myofibroblast secretome and its auto-/paracrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Bomb, Ritin; Heckle, Mark R; Sun, Yao; Mancarella, Salvatore; Guntaka, Ramareddy V; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2016-05-01

    Myofibroblasts (myoFb) are phenotypically transformed, contractile fibroblast-like cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin microfilaments. They are integral to collagen fibrillogenesis with scar tissue formation at sites of repair irrespective of the etiologic origins of injury or tissue involved. MyoFb can persist long after healing is complete, where their ongoing turnover of collagen accounts for a progressive structural remodeling of an organ (a.k.a. fibrosis, sclerosis or cirrhosis). Such persistent metabolic activity is derived from a secretome consisting of requisite components in the de novo generation of angiotensin (Ang) II. Autocrine and paracrine signaling induced by tissue AngII is expressed via AT1 receptor ligand binding to respectively promote: i) regulation of myoFb collagen synthesis via the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1-Smad pathway; and ii) dedifferentiation and protein degradation of atrophic myocytes immobilized and ensnared by fibrillar collagen at sites of scarring. Several cardioprotective strategies in the prevention of fibrosis and involving myofibroblasts are considered. They include: inducing myoFb apoptosis through inactivation of antiapoptotic proteins; AT1 receptor antagonist to interfere with auto-/paracrine myoFb signaling or to induce counterregulatory expression of ACE2; and attacking the AngII-AT1R-TGF-β1-Smad pathway by antibody or the use of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. PMID:26818589

  19. Weightlessness influences the cytoskeleton and ROS level in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Wang; Lina, Qu; Yingxian, Li; Qi, Li; Lei, Bi; Yinghui, Li

    During Spaceflight the nerve system of astronauts was obviously influenced To investigate how gravity effects nerve system the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were taken as research object By utilizing clinostat and parabolic flight for the model of gravity changing the level of reactive oxygen species was assayed in different time under simulated microgravity the cytomorphology and cytoskeleton of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were also observed after parabolic flight and clinostat by the conventional and the confocal laser scanning microscope The data showed that ROS level was enhanced and the cytoskeleton was damaged which microfilaments and microtubules were highly disorganized the cell shape was deteriorated under simulated microgravity indicating the relativity between the ROS level fluctuating and cytoskeleton changing It illuminates signal transduction disturbed by oxidative stress also regulates the cytoskeleton changing in SH-SY5Y cells The results suggest the cytoskeleton which is the receptor for sensing gravity was also regulated by cellular redox state which clues on the complexity of cell for self-adjusting to gravity changing

  20. Intermediate Filaments: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular protein filaments intermediate in size between actin microfilaments and microtubules are composed of a surprising variety of tissue specific proteins commonly interconnected with other filamentous systems for mechanical stability and decorated by a variety of proteins that provide specialized functions. The sequence conservation of the coiled-coil, alpha-helical structure responsible for polymerization into individual 10 nm filaments defines the classification of intermediate filament proteins into a large gene family. Individual filaments further assemble into bundles and branched cytoskeletons visible in the light microscope. However, it is the diversity of the variable terminal domains that likely contributes most to different functions. The search for the functions of intermediate filament proteins has led to discoveries of roles in diseases of the skin, heart, muscle, liver, brain, adipose tissues and even premature aging. The diversity of uses of intermediate filaments as structural elements and scaffolds for organizing the distribution of decorating molecules contrasts with other cytoskeletal elements. This review is an attempt to provide some recollection of how such a diverse field emerged and changed over about 30 years. PMID:17493611

  1. PHBV/PAM Scaffolds with Local Oriented Structure through UV Polymerization for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM) inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100 μm increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance. PMID:24579074

  2. A possible role of actin in the mechanical control of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S C

    1989-01-01

    Sail-sheet Cultures (SSC) are those in which the cells are i) grown within the meshes of inert grids ii) exposed to nutrients from most sides iii) attached to one another only at the edges like sail of a yacht (hence, the name 'sail-sheet') and iv) have the advantage of three-dimensional structure similar to an in vivo situation. We grew fibroblasts from chicken heart explants as SSC and studied the effect of mechanical stretching on the F-actin content of these cells. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of tension on the cell cycle may be channeled through the microfilaments. Data from this preliminary study suggested that short-term mechanical stretching of sail-sheets, using low frequency tension (1.0 Hz), diminishes F-actin. Thus, it may be possible to relate the decrease in the F-actin content of these cells to the slowing down of their locomotory activity, possible rounding up, and division. This study might contribute to the understanding of the mechanical control of the cell cycle and be of relevance in the phenomena such as healing of wounds and control of the cell division in tumors. PMID:2620166

  3. Apicomplexans pulling the strings: manipulation of the host cell cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Helena; Hemphill, Andrew; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division. The ability of apicomplexans to modulate the cytoskeleton to their own advantage is clearly beneficial. We here review different aspects of the interactions of apicomplexans with the three main cytoskeletal filament types, provide information on the currently known parasite effector proteins and respective host cell targets involved, and how these interactions modulate the host cell physiology. Some of these findings could provide novel targets that could be exploited for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. PMID:27041483

  4. Cell invasion and survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli within cultured human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Fabiana; da Silva, Rita Ifuoe K; Vargas-Stampe, Thaís L Z; Cerqueira, Aloysio M F; Andrade, João R C

    2013-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause severe human infections and their virulence abilities are not fully understood. Cattle are a key reservoir, and the terminal rectum is the principal site of bacterial carriage. Most STEC possess a pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Nonetheless, LEE-negative STEC have been associated with disease. We found that invasion of LEE-positive and LEE-negative strains was higher for human enterocytic cell lines and for undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Intracellular bacteria could be detected as early as 5 min after infection and transmission electron microscopy showed bacteria within membrane-bound vacuoles. STEC invasion depended on actin microfilaments and protein kinases. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacterial entry was not associated with membrane ruffling. Absence of macropinocytosis or actin rearrangement at the entry points suggests a zipper-like entry mechanism. Disruption of the tight junction by EGTA enhanced invasion of Caco-2 monolayers, and bacterial invasion mostly proceeded through the basolateral pole of enterocytes. STEC persisted within Caco-2 cells for up to 96 h without cell death and bacterial viability increased after 48 h, suggesting intracellular multiplication. The relatively harmless intracellular localization of STEC can be an efficient strategy to prevent its elimination from the bovine intestinal tract. PMID:23704791

  5. Ezrin tunes T-cell activation by controlling Dlg1 and microtubule positioning at the immunological synapse

    PubMed Central

    Lasserre, Rémi; Charrin, Stéphanie; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Duong, Tarn; Perrault, Nathalie; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine; Arpin, Monique; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling is triggered and tuned at immunological synapses by the generation of signalling complexes that associate into dynamic microclusters. Microcluster movement is necessary to tune TCR signalling, but the molecular mechanism involved remains poorly known. We show here that the membrane-microfilament linker ezrin has an important function in microcluster dynamics and in TCR signalling through its ability to set the microtubule network organization at the immunological synapse. Importantly, ezrin and microtubules are important to down-regulate signalling events leading to Erk1/2 activation. In addition, ezrin is required for appropriate NF-AT activation through p38 MAP kinase. Our data strongly support the notion that ezrin regulates immune synapse architecture and T-cell activation through its interaction with the scaffold protein Dlg1. These results uncover a crucial function for ezrin, Dlg1 and microtubules in the organization of the immune synapse and TCR signal down-regulation. Moreover, they underscore the importance of ezrin and Dlg1 in the regulation of NF-AT activation through p38. PMID:20551903

  6. Pharmacological targeting of actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization ameliorates chronic kidney disease in diverse animal models

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Mario; Teng, Beina; Gu, Changkyu; Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Kasaikina, Marina; Pham, Vincent A.; Hanke, Nils; Rong, Song; Gueler, Faikah; Schroder, Patricia; Tossidou, Irini; Park, Joon-Keun; Staggs, Lynne; Haller, Hermann; Erschow, Sergej; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Wei, Changli; Chen, Chuang; Tardi, Nicholas; Hakroush, Samy; Selig, Martin K.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Merscher, Sandra; Reiser, Jochen; Sever, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes represents a common pathway in the pathogenesis of proteinuria across a spectrum of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The GTPase dynamin has been implicated in the maintenance of cellular architecture in podocytes through its direct interaction with actin. Furthermore, the propensity of dynamin to oligomerize into higher-order structures in an actin-dependent manner and to crosslink actin microfilaments into higher order structures have been correlated with increased actin polymerization and global organization of the actin cytoskeleton in the cell. We found that use of the small molecule Bis-T-23, which promotes actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization and thus increased actin polymerization in injured podocytes, was sufficient to improve renal health in diverse models of both transient kidney disease and of CKD. In particular, administration of Bis-T-23 in these renal disease models restored the normal ultrastructure of podocyte foot processes, lowered proteinuria, lowered collagen IV deposits in the mesangial matrix, diminished mesangial matrix expansion and extended lifespan. These results further establish that alterations in the actin cytoskeleton of kidney podocytes is a common hallmark of CKD, while also underscoring the significant regenerative potential of injured glomeruli and that targeting the oligomerization cycle of dynamin represents an attractive potential therapeutic target to treat CKD. PMID:25962121

  7. Statistics of Active Transport in Xenopus Melanophores Cells

    PubMed Central

    Snezhko, Alexey; Barlan, Kari; Aranson, Igor S.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2010-01-01

    The transport of cell cargo, such as organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm, is determined by cooperative action of molecular motors stepping along polar cytoskeletal elements. Analysis of transport of individual organelles generated useful information about the properties of the motor proteins and underlying cytoskeletal elements. In this work, for the first time (to our knowledge), we study collective movement of multiple organelles using Xenopus melanophores, pigment cells that translocate several thousand of pigment granules (melanosomes), spherical organelles of a diameter of ∼1 μm. These cells disperse melanosomes in the cytoplasm in response to high cytoplasmic cAMP, while at low cAMP melanosomes cluster at the cell center. Obtained results suggest spatial and temporal organization, characterized by strong correlations between movement of neighboring organelles, with correlation length of ∼4 μm and pair lifetime ∼5 s. Furthermore, velocity statistics revealed strongly non-Gaussian velocity distribution with high velocity tails demonstrating exponential behavior suggestive of strong velocity correlations. Depolymerization of vimentin intermediate filaments using a dominant-negative vimentin mutant or actin with cytochalasin B reduced correlation of behavior of individual particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that steric repulsion is dominant, but both intermediate filaments and actin microfilaments are involved in dynamic cross-linking organelles in the cytoplasm. PMID:21081069

  8. [Cytoskeletal control of cell length regulation].

    PubMed

    Kharitonova, M A; Levina, C M; Rovenskii, I A

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that mouse embryo fibroblasts and human foreskin diploid fibroblasts of AGO 1523 line cultivated on specially prepared substrates with narrow (15 +/- 3 microns) linear adhesive strips were elongated and oriented along the strips, but the mean lengths of the fibroblasts of each type on the strips differed from those on the standard culture substrates. In contrast to the normal fibroblasts, the length of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with inactivated gene-suppresser Rb responsible for negative control of cell proliferation (MEF Rb-/-), ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF Rb-/-ras), or normal rat epitheliocytes of IAR2 line significantly exceeded those of the same cells on the standard culture substrates. The results of experiments with the drugs specifically affecting the cytoskeleton (colcemid and cytochalasin D) suggest that the constant mean length of normal fibroblasts is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between two forces: centripetal tension of contractile actin-myosin microfilaments and centrifugal force generated by growing microtubules. This cytoskeletal mechanism is disturbed in MEF Rb-/- or MEF Rb-/-ras, probably, because of an impaired actin cytoskeleton and also in IAR2 epitheliocytes due to the different organization of the actin-myosin system in these cells, as compared to that in the fibroblasts. PMID:11862697

  9. Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces cytoskeletal changes and surface blebbing in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Donelli, G; Fabbri, A; Fiorentini, C

    1996-01-01

    Certain strains of the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis are known to produce an enterotoxin of about 20 kDa which is able to induce a fluid response in ligated intestinal loops and a cytotoxic response in HT-29 cells. It presents protease activity, belonging to a family of metalloproteases termed metzincins. In order to investigate the mode of action of the enterotoxin in cultured cells, we performed a study with HT-29 cells, using both fluoresence and electron microscopy. Treated cells underwent morphological changes, mainly consisting of the retraction of the cell body and the formation of numerous blebs on the cell surface. The microfilament system was reorganized, the F-actin being condensed as a ring at the cell periphery, whereas other cell organelles appeared to be unaffected. All these changes, clearly visible after 3 h of exposure to the toxin, were reversed within 24 h of treatment. By inhibiting the protease activity of the toxin with specific metal chelators, the cytoskeletal effects were also prevented. Thus, B. fragilis enterotoxin appears to act on cells by reversibly modifying the actin cytoskeleton, an effect probably dependent on its proteolytic activity. PMID:8557328

  10. A polarized cell model for Chikungunya virus infection: entry and egress of virus occurs at the apical domain of polarized cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei Jin; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has resulted in several outbreaks in the past six decades. The clinical symptoms of Chikungunya infection include fever, skin rash, arthralgia, and an increasing incidence of encephalitis. The re-emergence of CHIKV with more severe pathogenesis highlights its potential threat on our human health. In this study, polarized HBMEC, polarized Vero C1008 and non-polarized Vero cells grown on cell culture inserts were infected with CHIKV apically or basolaterally. Plaque assays, viral binding assays and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated apical entry and release of CHIKV in polarized HBMEC and Vero C1008. Drug treatment studies were performed to elucidate both host cell and viral factors involved in the sorting and release of CHIKV at the apical domain of polarized cells. Disruption of host cell myosin II, microtubule and microfilament networks did not disrupt the polarized release of CHIKV. However, treatment with tunicamycin resulted in a bi-directional release of CHIKV, suggesting that N-glycans of CHIKV envelope glycoproteins could serve as apical sorting signals. PMID:24587455

  11. Cllmodulin in tip-growing plant cells, visualized by fluorescing calmodulin-binding phenothiazines.

    PubMed

    Haußer, I; Herth, W; Reiss, H D

    1984-09-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) was visualized light-microscopically by the fluorescent CaM inhibitors fluphenazine and chlorpromazine, both phenothiazines, during polar tip growth of pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum, root hairs of Lepidium sativum, moss caulonema of Funaria hygrometrica, fungal hyphae of Achlya spec. and in the alga Acetabularia mediterranea, as well as during multipolar tip growth in Micrasterias denticulata. Young pollen tubes and root hairs showed tip fluorescence; at later stages and in the growing parts of the other subjects the fluorescence was almost uniform. After treatment with cytochalasin B, punctuate fluorescence occurred in the clear zone adjacent to the tip of pollen tubes. The observations indicate that there is CaM in all our tested systems detectable with this method. It may play a key role in starting polar growth. As in pollen tubes, CaM might be in part associated with the microfilament network at the tip, and thus regulate vesicle transport and cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:24253945

  12. Forming a tough shell via an intracellular matrix and cellular junctions in the tail epidermis of Oikopleura dioica (Chordata: Tunicata: Appendicularia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishino, Atsuo; Hirose, Euichi

    2011-08-01

    A postanal tail is a major synapomorphy of the phylum Chordata, which is composed of three subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Tunicata (Urochordata). Among tunicates, appendicularians are the only group that retains the tail in the adult, and the adult tail functions in locomotion and feeding in combination with a cellulose-based house structure. Given the phylogenetic position of tunicates, the appendicularian adult tail may possess ancestral features of the chordate tail. We assess the ultrastructural development of the tail epidermis of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. The epidermis of the larval tail is enclosed by the larval envelope, which is a thin sheet similar to the outer tunic layer of ascidian larvae. The epidermis of the adult tail seems to bear no tunic-like cellulosic integuments, and the tail fin is a simple folding of the epidermis. Every epidermal cell, except for the triangular cells at the edge of the tail fin, has a conspicuous matrix layer of fibrous content in the apical cytoplasm without enclosing membranes. The epidermis of the larval tail does not have a fibrous matrix layer, suggesting the production of the layer during larval development and metamorphosis. Zonulae adhaerentes firmly bind the epidermal cells of the adult tail to one another, and the dense microfilaments lining the cell borders constitute a mechanical support for the cell membranes. The intracellular matrix, cell junctions, and cytoskeletons probably make the tail epidermis a tough, flexible shell supporting the active beating of the oikopleuran adult tail.

  13. Microtubule Polymerization Functions in Hypersensitive Response and Accumulation of H2O2 in Wheat Induced by the Stripe Rust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xinjie; Xu, Yuanliu; Ma, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Suwon 11 with an incompatible race, CYR23, wheat leaves were treated with microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin, before inoculation. The results showed that the frequency of infection sites with hypersensitive response occurrence was significantly reduced, and hypersensitive cell death in wheat leaves was suppressed compared to the control. In addition, the frequency and the incidence of infected cells with H2O2 accumulation were also reduced after the treatment with oryzalin. Those results indicated that microtubules are related to hypersensitive response and H2O2 accumulation in wheat induced by the stripe rust, and depolymerization of microtubules reduces the resistance of plants to pathogen infection in incompatible interaction, suggesting that microtubules play a potential role in the expression of resistance of wheat against the stripe rust fungus. PMID:27610380

  14. [Input and output channels of quantum biocomputers].

    PubMed

    Minina, S V; Liberman, E A

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that "Quantum Molecular" computer of a neuron consists of the cell cytoskeleton serving as calculating media and input ionic channel sending a hypersound signal to observe these media. The sound spreads through the media travelling along microtubules and microfilaments and switching between those via molecular bridges which serve as elementary switches. The whole system works like a wave guiding net connecting input ionic channels (which generate different sound signals) and output ionic channels (which are controlled by the processed sound signals). Thus the output of such systems depends on the input (controlled by synaptic activity) and on the construction and state of these calculating media. We think that the sound waves spreading through different calculating media solve different physical problems. The construction of the calculating part of the cytoskeleton, according to the hypothesis, is different in different neurons. It is defined by special protein which is produced by DNA, RNA and protein molecular word processor (during brain development and, may be, education). We comment on how the existence of an extremal computer produces an impact on physics and mathematics exemplified by the optimality principle as substitution of physical relativity principle for a complex problem. PMID:1693290

  15. Manufacturing of Three-dimensionally Microstructured Nanocomposites through Microfluidic Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors. PMID:24686754

  16. Regulation of hyphal morphogenesis by cdc42 and rac1 homologues in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Virag, Aleksandra; Lee, Maurice P; Si, Haoyu; Harris, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    The ability of filamentous fungi to form hyphae requires the establishment and maintenance of a stable polarity axis. Based on studies in yeasts and animals, the GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 are presumed to play a central role in organizing the morphogenetic machinery to enable axis formation and stabilization. Here, we report that Cdc42 (ModA) and Rac1 (RacA) share an overlapping function required for polarity establishment in Aspergillus nidulans. Nevertheless, Cdc42 appears to have a more important role in hyphal morphogenesis in that it alone is required for the timely formation of lateral branches. In addition, we provide genetic evidence suggesting that the polarisome components SepA and SpaA function downstream of Cdc42 in a pathway that may regulate microfilament formation. Finally, we show that microtubules become essential for the establishment of hyphal polarity when the function of either Cdc42 or SepA is compromised. Our results are consistent with the action of parallel Cdc42 and microtubule-based pathways in regulating the formation of a stable axis of hyphal polarity in A. nidulans. PMID:18005099

  17. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. ); Ojakian, G.K. )

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  18. Effects of the in vitro administered ethanol and lipopolysaccharide toxin on membrane properties, intracellular free calcium and phagocytic function of isolated rat kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Victorov, A.; Smith, T.; Abril, E.; Hamlin, E.; Earnest, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Low concentrations of ethanol slightly stimulated phagocytosis of cultured Kupffer cells (KC), producing practically no effect on membrane microviscosity and cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}. On the contrary, high concentrations of ethanol significantly suppressed phagocytic function, increased fluidity of membrane lipids and caused a sustained rise in (Ca{sup 2}){sub i}; above the resting level of 41-85 nM. Treatment of KC with colchicine and cytochalasin B dramatically destructurized the plasma membrane lipids. Short term preincubation of KC with high doses of alcohol stimulated the disordering effects of both drugs, suggesting direct interaction of ethanol with microtubule and microfilament structures. The authors hypothesize that ethanol impairs phagocytosis of KC by concerted actions on membrane lipid fluidity, cytosolic free Ca{sup 2+} and functioning of cytoskeleton. On the other hand, incubation of KC with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced no changes in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}; or plasma membrane fluidity but reduced by several fold the fluidizing effect of subsequently added ethanol. They suggested that low doses of LPS, by activating second messengers other than Ca{sup 2+}, alter the functioning of the cytoskeleton and cause reorganization of the plasma membrane thus making KC membranes more resistent to the fluidizing action of ethanol and partially restoring the phagocytic function.

  19. Augmented stress fiber arrays after cytopharmacologic disassembly of microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Godman, G.C.; Tannenbaum, J.; Brett, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    Disruption of microtubules (mt) of bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells, and normal and transformed fibroblasts, by exposure to 2.5 ..mu..M colchicine; 12 ..mu..M vinblastine; or 1 ..mu..M nocodazole, for 5 or 20 hrs results in aggregation of vimentin-intermediate filament (IF) and the development of markedly augmented stress fiber (SF) arrays. After disassembly of mt, confluent BAE, with circumferential marginal microfilament bands and few central SF, develop dense ribbon-like SF arrays, and spontaneously transformed fibroblasts (tHmf-e), which before treatment are apolar or epithelioid and have few or no SF, acquire extensive organized SF arrays. The axially oriented SF span the entire cell length and terminate in vinculin-containing adhesion plaques, polarizing these cells. The visible increase in SF associated actin is not accompanied by an increase either in actin synthesis (determined from electropherograms after pulse labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine), or content (DNAse I assay for total cell actin). The reorganization of actin into SF and the development of vinculin adhesion plaques is independent of protein synthesis and occurs in the presence of cycloheximide (10 ..mu..g/ml). These results suggest a role for mt and IF in the regulation of the organizational state of the actin-based cytoskeleton.

  20. Endocytosis of heat-denatured albumin by cultured rat Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Purified Kupffer cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation of sinusoidal cells isolated by pronase treatment of the rat liver. The endocytosis of radioactively labeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin (CA /sup 125/I) was investigated in maintenance cultures of the purified Kupffer cells. The endocytic capacity of the cells was studied during 4 days of culture. Maximum uptake was observed after 24 hr of culture, with a gradual decline during the following days. When the uptake was measured after incubation with increasing concentrations of CA /sup 125/I, a saturation effect was observed. This finding and the observed high rate of uptake are strong indications that receptor sites on the cell membrane are involved in the mechanism of endocytosis. The uptake of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was inhibited by the metabolic inhibitors fluoride and antimycin A, indicating that endocytosis of CA /sup 125/I is dependent on energy derived from both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism of internalization may also require the action of microfilaments as well as intact microtubules, since both cytochalasin B and colchicine inhibited the uptake of CA /sup 125/I. The intracellular degradation of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by chloroquine but not by colchicine. The degradation of ingested CA /sup 125/I occurred within the Kupffer cell lysosomes.

  1. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  2. Adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of G-actin by botulinum C2 toxin increases endothelial permeability in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, N; Polley, M; Seybold, J; Schnittler, H; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Aktories, K

    1991-01-01

    The endothelial cytoskeleton is believed to play an important role in the regulation of endothelial permeability. We used botulinum C2 toxin to perturb cellular actin and determined its effect on the permeability of endothelial cell monolayers derived from porcine pulmonary arteries. The substrate for botulinum C2 toxin is nonmuscle monomeric actin which becomes ADP-ribosylated. This modified actin cannot participate in actin polymerization and, in addition, acts as a capping protein. Exposure of endothelial cell monolayers to botulinum C2 toxin resulted in a dose- (3-100 ng/ml) and time-dependent (30-120 min) increase in the hydraulic conductivity and decrease in the selectivity of the cell monolayers. The effects of C2 toxin were accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent increase in ADP-ribosylatin of G-actin. G-Actin content increased and F-actin content decreased time- and dose-dependently in C2 toxin-treated endothelial cells. Phalloidin which stabilizes filamentous actin prevented the effects of botulinum C2 toxin on endothelial permeability. Botulinum C2 toxin induced interendothelial gaps. The effects occurred in the absence of overt cell damage and were not reversible within 2 h. The data suggest that the endothelial microfilament system is important for the regulation of endothelial permeability. Images PMID:2022729

  3. Recovery of Elasticity of Aged Human Epithelial Cells In-Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Iyer, Swaminathan; Woodworth, Craig

    2006-03-01

    We recently found a considerable increase in rigidity of human epithelial cells during ageing in-vitro. This is important because the loss in elasticity of epithelial tissues with ageing contributes to many human diseases. We also found that cultured cells had three distinct regions of rigidity, and that the increase in rigidity correlated with an increase in density of cytoskeletal fibres. However, it was not clear which type of fibre was important. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and imunofluorescence microscopy were used in this study to characterize aging human epithelial cells in vitro, both before and after treatment with cytochalasin B. We found that the fibres associated with increased rigidity were mostly F-actin microfilaments. Furthermore, using cytochalasin B, a chemical that inhibits polymerization of F-actin, we restored the rigidity of old cells to the young level in all three areas of rigidity simultaneously. In conclusion, these results clarify how the cell mechanics changes during aging in vitro, and they may be relevant for treatment of age-related loss of elasticity in epithelial tissues. The trials of this new treatment are in progress.

  4. Rottlerin Inhibits Lonicera japonica-Induced Photokilling in Human Lung Cancer Cells through Cytoskeleton-Related Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    You, Bang-Jau; Wu, Yang-Chang; Bao, Bo-Ying; Wu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Ya-Win; Chang, Yu-Hao; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that many apoptotic signaling pathways, such as Rho family, PKC family, MAP kinase family, and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, were triggered by Lonicera japonica extracts and irradiation in CH27 cells. Rottlerin, a PKCδ -selective inhibitor, reversed the photoactivated Lonicera japonica extract-induced decrease in PKCδ protein expression and change in cell morphology in this study. In addition, rottlerin inhibited the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced decrease in protein expression of Ras, ERK, p38, PKCα, and PKCε, which are the kinases of prosurvival signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that pretreatment with rottlerin prevented actin microfilaments and microtubules from damage during the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell death. Furthermore, the promotion of the cytoskeleton-related signaling cascade following rottlerin by upregulation of cytoskeleton-related mediators (p38, HSP27, FAK, paxillin, and tubulin) and molecules of downstream of F-actin (mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway) reduces CH27 cell death, indicating that cytoskeleton is the potential target in the photoactivated Lonicera japonicaextract-induced photokilling of CH27 cells. PMID:21331326

  5. Microgravity effects during fertilization, cell division, development, and calcium metabolism in sea urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the role of microgravity during fertilization, early development, cytoskeletal organization, and skeletal calcium deposition in a model development system: the sea urchin eggs and embryos. While pursuing these objectives, we have also helped to develop, test, and fly the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) system. Cells were fixed at preselected time points to preserve the structures and organelles of interest with regards to cell biology events during development. The protocols used for the analysis of the results had been developed during the earlier part of this research and were applied for post-flight analysis using light and (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The structures of interest are: microtubules during fertilization, cell division, and cilia movement; microfilaments during cell surface restructuring and cell division; centrosomes and centrioles during cell division, cell differentiation, and cilia formation and movement; membranes, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chromosomes at all stages of development; and calcium deposits during spicule formation in late-stage embryos. In addition to further explore aspects important or living in space, several aspects of this research are also aimed at understanding diseases that affect humans on Earth which may be accelerated in space.

  6. Disruption of the three cytoskeletal networks in mammalian cells does not affect transcription, translation, or protein translocation changes induced by heat shock.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, W J; Feramisco, J R

    1985-01-01

    Mammalian cells show a complex series of transcriptional and translational switching events in response to heat shock treatment which ultimately lead to the production and accumulation of a small number of proteins, the so-called heat shock (or stress) proteins. We investigated the heat shock response in both qualitative and quantitative ways in cells that were pretreated with drugs that specifically disrupt one or more of the three major cytoskeletal networks. (These drugs alone, cytochalasin E and colcemid, do not result in induction of the heat shock response.) Our results indicated that disruption of the actin microfilaments, the vimentin-containing intermediate filaments, or the microtubules in living cells does not hinder the ability of the cell to undergo an apparently normal heat shock response. Even when all three networks were simultaneously disrupted (resulting in a loose, baglike appearance of the cells), the cells still underwent a complete heat shock response as assayed by the appearance of the heat shock proteins. In addition, the major induced 72-kilodalton heat shock protein was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm into its proper location in the nucleus and nucleolus irrespective of the condition of the three cytoskeletal elements. Images PMID:4040602

  7. Exclusion of candidate genes in a family with arterial tortuosity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardella, Rita; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Assanelli, Deodato; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Barlati, Sergio; Colombi, Marina

    2004-04-30

    Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare hereditary disorder with variable clinical presentation including tortuosity and elongation of the major arteries, often associated with pulmonary artery stenosis, pulmonary hypertension, and skin and joint laxity, suggestive of a connective tissue disorder. ATS is transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode, but the causal gene is unknown. We report an Italian pedigree with three inbred families in which five patients show signs of ATS. In particular, four adult patients present arterial tortuosity and elongation of the main arteries. Two of these patients, with the most severe degree of arterial tortuosity, also show severe peripheral stenosis of the main pulmonary artery. The fifth young patient shows a severe pulmonary valve stenosis in the absence of arterial tortuosity. All patients show signs of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): soft skin with abundant subcutaneous tissue and joint laxity, hernias, and disorganization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of fibronectin (FN) and of actin microfilaments in cultured skin fibroblasts. Linkage analysis of the genes involved in EDS and other connective tissue disorders, excluded COL1A1, COL1A2, COL2A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL5A2, COL5A3, COL6A1, COL6A2, ADAMTS2, ELN, FN1, TNXA, and TNXB as candidate genes in the family under study, thus indicating that ATS is a distinct clinical and molecular entity. PMID:15054833

  8. Automorphosis of higher plants on a 3-D clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.; Masuda, Y.

    On a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, various plant organs developed statocytes capable of responding to the gravity vector. The graviresponse of primary roots of garden cress and maize grown on the clinostat was the same as the control roots, whereas that of maize coleoptiles was reduced. When maize seedlings were grown in the presence of 10^-4 M gibberellic acid and kinetin, the graviresponse of both roots and shoots was suppressed. The corresponding suppression of amyloplast development was observed in the clinostatted and the hormone-treated seedlings. Maize roots and shoots showed spontaneous curvatures in different portions on the 3-D clinostat. The hormone treatment did not significantly influence such an automorphic curvature. When the root cap was removed, maize roots did not curve gravitropically. However, the removal suppressed the automorphic curvatures only slightly. On the other hand, the removal of coleoptile tip did not influence its graviresponse, whereas the spontaneous curvature of decapitated coleoptiles on the clinostat was strongly suppressed. Also, cytochalasin B differently affected the gravitropic and the automorphic curvatures of maize roots and shoots. From these results it is concluded that the graviperception and the early processes of signal transmission are unnecessary for automorphoses under simulated microgravity conditions. Moreover, the results support the view that the amyloplasts act as statoliths probably via an interaction with microfilaments.

  9. Columella cells revisited: novel structures, novel properties, and a novel gravisensing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehelin, L. A.; Zheng, H. Q.; Yoder, T. L.; Smith, J. D.; Todd, P.

    2000-01-01

    A hundred years of research has not produced a clear understanding of the mechanism that transduces the energy associated with the sedimentation of starch-filled amyloplast statoliths in root cap columella cells into a growth response. Most models postulate that the statoliths interact with microfilaments (MF) to transmit signals to the plasma membrane (or ER), or that sedimentation onto these organelles produces the signals. However, no direct evidence for statolith-MF links has been reported, and no asymmetric structures of columella cells have been identified that might explain how a root turned by 90 degrees knows which side is up. To address these and other questions, we have (1) quantitatively examined the effects of microgravity on the size, number, and spatial distribution of statoliths; (2) re-evaluated the ultrastructure of columella cells in high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted roots; and (3) followed the sedimentation dynamics of statolith movements in reoriented root tips. The findings have led to the formulation of a new model for the gravity-sensing apparatus of roots, which envisages the cytoplasm pervaded by an actin-based cytoskeletal network. This network is denser in the ER-devoid central region of the cell than in the ER-rich cell cortex and is coupled to receptors in the plasma membrane. Statolith sedimentation is postulated to disrupt the network and its links to receptors in some regions of the cell cortex, while allowing them to reform in other regions and thereby produce a directional signal.

  10. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    1997-01-01

    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  11. PLURIPETALA mediates ROP2 localization and stability in parallel to SCN1 but synergistically with TIP1 in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Chai, Sen; Ge, Fu-Rong; Feng, Qiang-Nan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Prenylation, the post-translational attachment of prenyl groups to substrate proteins, can affect their distribution and interactomes. Arabidopsis PLURIPETALA (PLP) encodes the shared α subunit of two heterodimeric protein isoprenyltransferases, whose functional loss provides a unique opportunity to study developmental and cellular processes mediated by its prenylated substrates, such as ROP GTPases. As molecular switches, the distribution and activation of ROPs are mediated by various factors, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GTPase activating proteins, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs), prenylation, and S-acylation. However, how these factors together ensure that dynamic ROP signalling is still obscure. We report here that a loss-of-function allele of PLP resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation of ROP2 in root hairs and reduced its stability. Consequently, two downstream events of ROP signalling, i.e. actin microfilament (MF) organization and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), were compromised. Genetic, cytological and biochemical evidence supports an additive interaction between prenylation and RhoGDI1/SCN1 in ROP2 distribution and stability whereas PLP acts synergistically with the protein S-acyl transferase TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 during root hair growth. By using root hair growth as a model system, we uncovered complex interactions among prenylation, RhoGDIs, and S-acylation in dynamic ROP signalling. PMID:27037800

  12. Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Claveria, F G; Cruz, M J

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts obtained from Philippine water buffaloes revealed the presence of the commonly reported macroscopic species, Sarcocystis fusiformis, and the microscopic species Sarcocystis levinei (Dissanaike A, Kan S. Studies on Sarcocystis in Malaysia. I: Sarcocystis levinei n.sp. from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Z Parasitenkd 1978;55:127-38), (Huong L, Dubey J, Uggla A. Redescription of Sarcocystis levinei Dissanaike and Kan, 1978 (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol 1997;83:1148-52). The globular to oval microscopic cysts commonly observed in the muscles of the diaphragm and neck exhibit compartmentalized arrangement of zoites with septal partitions and measure 13-48 microns in diameter. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of sarcocyst bears minute and hair-like villar protrusions measuring 2.3-2.75 microns long emanating at certain distances from the primary cyst wall and lack microfilaments. Villar protrusions have expanded to dome-shaped base measuring 0.33-1.6 microns long by 0.22-1.0 micron wide, and intermediate and tapering distal segments bent approximately 90 degrees and run parallel to the cyst surface. The distal segments at some areas join to form conical tufts. The primary cyst wall bears numerous prominent undulations that are arranged in small clusters. The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. PMID:11227764

  13. Mechanophysical Stimulations of Mucin Secretion in Cultures of Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Even-Tzur Davidovich, Nurit; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2011-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells secret mucins and are exposed in vivo to airflow-induced mechanophysical stresses, including wall shear stress (WSS), temperature, and humidity. In this work, human nasal epithelial cells cultured under air-liquid interface conditions were subjected to fields of airflow-induced oscillatory WSS at different temperature and humidity conditions. Changes in mucin secretion due to WSS were measured and the role of the cytoskeleton in mucin secretion was explored. Mucin secretion significantly increased in response to WSS in a magnitude-dependent manner with respect to static cultures and independently of the airflow temperature and humidity. In static cultures, mucin secretion decreased at high humidity with or without elevation of the temperature with respect to cultures at a comfortable climate. In cultures exposed to WSS, mucin secretion increased at high temperature with respect to cultures at comfortable climate conditions. The polymerization of actin microfilaments was shown to increase mucin secretion under WSS, whereas the dynamics of microtubule polymerization did not affect secretion. In conclusion, the data in this study show that mucin secretion is sensitive to oscillatory WSS as well as high temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:21689518

  14. Actin Filaments Are Involved in the Coupling of V0-V1 Domains of Vacuolar H+-ATPase at the Golgi Complex.

    PubMed

    Serra-Peinado, Carla; Sicart, Adrià; Llopis, Juan; Egea, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that actin-depolymerizing agents promote the alkalization of the Golgi stack and thetrans-Golgi network. The main determinant of acidic pH at the Golgi is the vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase), whose V1domain subunitsBandCbind actin. We have generated a GFP-tagged subunitB2construct (GFP-B2) that is incorporated into the V1domain, which in turn is coupled to the V0sector. GFP-B2 subunit is enriched at distal Golgi compartments in HeLa cells. Subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation, and inversal FRAP experiments show that the actin depolymerization promotes the dissociation of V1-V0domains, which entails subunitB2translocation from Golgi membranes to the cytosol. Moreover, molecular interaction between subunitsB2andC1and actin were detected. In addition, Golgi membrane lipid order disruption byd-ceramide-C6 causes Golgi pH alkalization. We conclude that actin regulates the Golgi pH homeostasis maintaining the coupling of V1-V0domains of V-ATPase through the binding of microfilaments to subunitsBandCand preserving the integrity of detergent-resistant membrane organization. These results establish the Golgi-associated V-ATPase activity as the molecular link between actin and the Golgi pH. PMID:26872971

  15. Graviresponses in fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D.

    Although the orientation of mycelial hyphal growth is usually independent of the gravity vector, individual specialised hyphae can show response to gravity. This is exemplified by the sporangiophore of Phycomyces, but the most striking gravitropic reactions occur in mushroom fruit bodies. During the course of development of a mushroom different tropisms predominate at different times; the young fruit body primordium is positively phototropic, but negative gravitropism later predominates. The switch between tropisms has been associated with meiosis. The spore-bearing tissue is positively gravitropic and responds independently of the stem. Bracket polypores do not show tropisms but exhibit gravimorphogenetic responses: disturbance leads to renewal of growth producing an entirely new fruiting structure. Indications from both clinostat and space flown experiments are that the basic form of the mushroom (overall tissue arrangement of stem, cap, gills, hymenium, veil) is established independently of the gravity vector although maturation, and especially commitment to the meiosis-sporulation pathway, requires the normal gravity vector. The gravity perception mechanism is difficult to identify. The latest results suggest that disturbance of cytoskeletal microfilaments is involved in perception (with nuclei possibly being used as statoliths), and Ca^2+-mediated signal transduction may be involved in directing growth differentials.

  16. The Presynaptic Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Physiological and Pathological Conditions: Lessons from Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome and Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias

    PubMed Central

    Bodaleo, Felipe J.; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the nervous system to generate neuronal networks relies on the establishment and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Synapses are composed of functionally different presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. An appropriate synaptic architecture is required to provide the structural basis that supports synaptic transmission, a process involving changes in cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin microfilaments are the main cytoskeletal components present at both presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals in glutamatergic synapses. However, in the last few years it has been demonstrated that microtubules (MTs) transiently invade dendritic spines, promoting their maturation. Nevertheless, the presence and functions of MTs at the presynaptic site are still a matter of debate. Early electron microscopy (EM) studies revealed that MTs are present in the presynaptic terminals of the central nervous system (CNS) where they interact with synaptic vesicles (SVs) and reach the active zone. These observations have been reproduced by several EM protocols; however, there is empirical heterogeneity in detecting presynaptic MTs, since they appear to be both labile and unstable. Moreover, increasing evidence derived from studies in the fruit fly neuromuscular junction proposes different roles for MTs in regulating presynaptic function in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the main findings that support the presence and roles of MTs at presynaptic terminals, integrating descriptive and biochemical analyses, and studies performed in invertebrate genetic models. PMID:27504085

  17. Long-distance communication by specialized cellular projections during pigment pattern development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Dae Seok; Bain, Emily J; Patterson, Larissa B; Grout, Megan E; Parichy, David M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene activity are essential for evolutionary diversification. Yet, elucidating the cellular behaviors that underlie modifications to adult form remains a profound challenge. We use neural crest-derived adult pigmentation of zebrafish and pearl danio to uncover cellular bases for alternative pattern states. We show that stripes in zebrafish require a novel class of thin, fast cellular projection to promote Delta-Notch signaling over long distances from cells of the xanthophore lineage to melanophores. Projections depended on microfilaments and microtubules, exhibited meandering trajectories, and stabilized on target cells to which they delivered membraneous vesicles. By contrast, the uniformly patterned pearl danio lacked such projections, concomitant with Colony stimulating factor 1-dependent changes in xanthophore differentiation that likely curtail signaling available to melanophores. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of cellular communication, roles for differentiation state heterogeneity in pigment cell interactions, and an unanticipated morphogenetic behavior contributing to a striking difference in adult form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12401.001 PMID:26701906

  18. α-Synuclein and Its A30P Mutant Affect Actin Cytoskeletal Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vítor L.; Bellani, Serena; Giannandrea, Maila; Yousuf, Malikmohamed; Valtorta, Flavia; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    The function of α-synuclein, a soluble protein abundant in the brain and concentrated at presynaptic terminals, is still undefined. Yet, α-synuclein overexpression and the expression of its A30P mutant are associated with familial Parkinson's disease. Working in cell-free conditions, in two cell lines as well as in primary neurons we demonstrate that α-synuclein and its A30P mutant have different effects on actin polymerization. Wild-type α-synuclein binds actin, slows down its polymerization and accelerates its depolymerization, probably by monomer sequestration; A30P mutant α-synuclein increases the rate of actin polymerization and disrupts the cytoskeleton during reassembly of actin filaments. Consequently, in cells expressing mutant α-synuclein, cytoskeleton-dependent processes, such as cell migration, are inhibited, while exo- and endocytic traffic is altered. In hippocampal neurons from mice carrying a deletion of the α-synuclein gene, electroporation of wild-type α-synuclein increases actin instability during remodeling, with growth of lamellipodia-like structures and apparent cell enlargement, whereas A30P α-synuclein induces discrete actin-rich foci during cytoskeleton reassembly. In conclusion, α-synuclein appears to play a major role in actin cytoskeletal dynamics and various aspects of microfilament function. Actin cytoskeletal disruption induced by the A30P mutant might alter various cellular processes and thereby play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. PMID:19553474

  19. Histologic and ultrastructural alterations of a xenografted human colon adenocarcinoma after treatment with titanocene dichloride.

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the antitumor agent titanocene dichloride on the morphologic appearance of a heterotransplanted human colon adenocarcinoma was investigated. The first alterations in tumor cells manifested 12 h after administration of a single dose (40 mg/kg) and consisted of nuclear changes, such as chromatin condensation, enlargement of the nuclear envelope, structural changes of the nucleoli, and formation of segmented nuclei 12 h later; bundles of microfilaments, lipid droplets and inclusion bodies, often containing cellular debris, occurred in the cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic virus particles of type A were detectable. They were obviously extruded into the extracellular space by a budding process and became extracellular virus particles of type C. Within 24 h after treatment, the mitotic index decreased from 2.5% to 0.3%. Whereas after administration of a single dose, recovery phenomena took place between 2 and 4 days, the severe destruction induced by 3-fold doses of titanocene dichloride (3 X 30 mg/kg), was apparently not reversible. These results confirm the tumor-inhibiting potency of titanocene dichloride against human colon adenocarcinoma and underline the discriminatory power of morphologic studies in the preclinical evaluation of cytostatic drugs against heterotransplanted human tumors. PMID:3384842

  20. Impacts of aluminum on the cytoskeleton of the maize root apex. short-term effects on the distal part of the transition zone

    PubMed

    Sivaguru; Baluska; Volkmann; Felle; Horst

    1999-03-01

    Using monoclonal tubulin and actin antibodies, Al-mediated alterations to microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs) were shown to be most prominent in cells of the distal part of the transition zone (DTZ) of an Al-sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar. An early response to Al (1 h, 90 μM) was the depletion of MTs in cells of the DTZ, specifically in the outermost cortical cell file. However, no prominent changes to the MT cytoskeleton were found in elongating cells treated with Al for 1 h in spite of severe inhibition of root elongation. Al-induced early alterations to actin MFs were less dramatic and consisted of increased actin fluorescence of partially disintegrated MF arrays in cells of the DTZ. These tissue- and development-specific alterations to the cytoskeleton were preceded by and/or coincided with Al-induced depolarization of the plasma membrane and with callose formation, particularly in the outer cortex cells of the DTZ. Longer Al supplies (>6 h) led to progressive enhancements of lesions to the MT cytoskeleton in the epidermis and two to three outer cortex cell files. Our data show that the cytoskeleton in the cells of the DTZ is especially sensitive to Al, consistent with the recently proposed specific Al sensitivity of this unique, apical maize root zone. PMID:10069846

  1. Cytoskeletal proteins in gastric H/sup +/ secretion: cAMP dependent phosphorylation, immunolocalization, and protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Cuppoletti, J.; Sachs, G.; Malinowska, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The rabbit gastric parietal cell is an excellent model for the study of regulation of secretion and the role of cytoskeleton in secretion. Changes in morphology (appearance of expanded secretory canaliculi lined with microvilli) accompany H/sup +/ secretion stimulated by histamine (cAMP mediated). Parietal cells contain immunoreactive tubulin and are highly enriched in F-actin at secretory canaliculi, detected with fluorescently labelled phallacidin. They have previously shown increased protein phosphorylation in histamine-stimulated purified parietal cells concommitant with increases in H/sup +/ secretion. They report here possible functions of the phosphoproteins. Four of these proteins of apparent size on SDS PAGE of 24, 30, 48 and 130 Kd were membrane associated. /sup 125/I-actin binding to three proteins (24, 30 and 48 Kd) was shown using overlays. A 130 Kd protein reacted with anti-vinculin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots, and was immunolocalized at secretory canaliculi. As a working hypothesis, parietal cells possess membrane-associated proteins which change their state of phosphorylation upon stimulation of H/sup +/. These proteins may be cytoskeletal elements involved in regulation of H/sup +/ secretion. The 130 Kd vinculin-like protein may serve a microfilament-membrane linking role.

  2. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions. PMID:25386101

  3. [Early histoenzymologic and ultrastructural changes induced by adrenalin-thyroxine and fat diet in rabbit aorta (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Brohon, J; Sterne, J

    1976-03-01

    The first stages of the atherosclerotic lesions induced in the rabbit aorta by adrenalin- thyroxine, with (or without) an hypercholesterolic diet, have been studied on the 6th, 13th, and 22nd day. Major parietal changes, barely demonstrable with light microscopic standard techniques, were detected, as soon as the 6th day, by electronmicroscopy and histoenzymology. These changes were probably due solely to the hormonal treatment. In the early stage, they consisted of some fragmentations of the elastic sheets and some smooth muscle cell lysis. The oxidative and ATPase activities were greatly reduced. The increased lysosomal hydrolase actitivities of the outer layers of the vessel could be related in the increased vascular permeability and consecutive increased perfusion gradient induced by these lesions. Later, an obvious repair process was seen. The smooth muscle cells bearing numerous processes were bound by many microfilaments and by some elastic material. The energetic enzymatic activities were increased. The part taken by the lipidic diet in these changes, apart from the increase of the esterase activity, did not seem yet of significance in this first stage of atherosclerosis. However, one cannot exclude that the intensively accumulating lipids might, at some later stages, potentiate the consequences of the vascular lesions or impede the repair process. PMID:176772

  4. Glycolytic inhibitors 2-deoxyglucose and 3-bromopyruvate synergize with photodynamic therapy respectively to inhibit cell migration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaolan; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong; Zhang, Ting; Mai, Bingjie; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-06-01

    Most cancer cells have the specially increased glycolytic phenotype, which makes this pathway become an attractive therapeutic target. Although glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) has been demonstrated to potentiate the cytotoxicity of photodynamic therapy (PDT), the impacts on cell migration after the combined treatment has never been reported yet. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of glycolytic inhibitors 2-DG and 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) combined with Ce6-PDT on cell motility of Triple Negative Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. As determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium-bromide-Tetraz-olium (MTT) assay, more decreased cell viability was observed in 2-DG + PDT and 3-BP + PDT groups when compared with either monotherapy. Under optimal conditions, synergistic potentiation on cell membrane destruction and the decline of cell adhesion and cells migratory ability were observed in both 2-DG + PDT and 3-BP + PDT by electron microscope observation (SEM), wound healing and trans-well assays. Besides, serious microfilament network collapses as well as impairment of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were notably improved after the combined treatments by immunofluorescent staining. These results suggest that 2-DG and 3-BP can both significantly potentiated Ce6-PDT efficacy of cell migration inhibition. PMID:25631472

  5. Effects of spaceflight conditions on fertilization and embryogenesis in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Sommer, L.; Levine, H.; Anderson, K.; Runco, M.; Kemp, R.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. Calcium and cytoskeletal events were investigated within sea urchin embryos which were cultured in space under both microgravity and 1 g conditions. Embryos were fixed at time-points ranging from 3 h to 8 days after fertilization. Investigative emphasis was placed upon: (1) sperm-induced calcium-dependent exocytosis and cortical granule secretion, (2) membrane fusion of cortical granule and plasma membranes; (3) microfilament polymerization and microvilli elongation; and (5) embryonic development into morula, blastula, gastrula, and pluteus stages. For embryos cultured under microgravity conditions, the processes of cortical granule discharge, fusion of cortical granule membranes with the plasma membrane, elongation of microvilli and elevation of the fertilization coat were reduced in comparison with embryos cultured at 1 g in space and under normal conditions on Earth. Also, 4% of all cells undergoing division in microgravity showed abnormalities in the centrosome-centriole complex. These abnormalities were not observed within the 1 g flight and ground control specimens, indicating that significant alterations in sea urchin development processes occur under microgravity conditions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Yeast mitochondria contain ATP-sensitive, reversible actin-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarino, D A; Boldogh, I; Smith, M G; Rosand, J; Pon, L A

    1994-01-01

    Sedimentation assays were used to demonstrate and characterize binding of isolated yeast mitochondria to phalloidin-stabilized yeast F-actin. These actin-mitochondrial interactions are ATP sensitive, saturable, reversible, and do not depend upon mitochondrial membrane potential. Protease digestion of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins or saturation of myosin-binding sites on F-actin with the S1 subfragment of skeletal myosin block binding. These observations indicate that a protein (or proteins) on the mitochondrial surface mediates ATP-sensitive, reversible binding of mitochondria to the lateral surface of microfilaments. Actin copurifies with mitochondria during subcellular fractionation and is released from the organelle upon treatment with ATP. Thus, actin-mitochondrial interactions resembling those observed in vitro may also exist in intact yeast cells. Finally, a yeast mutant bearing a temperature-sensitive mutation in the actin-encoding ACT1 gene (act1-3) displays temperature-dependent defects in transfer of mitochondria from mother cells to newly developed buds during yeast cell mitosis. Images PMID:7812049

  7. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on the functions of osteoblasts on implant surfaces with different topographies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; An, Yanxin; Li, Feijiang; Li, Dongmei; Jing, Da; Guo, Tianwen; Luo, Erping; Ma, Chufan

    2014-02-01

    The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is a promising approach to promote osteogenesis. However, few studies have reported the effects of this technique on the osseointegration of endosseous implants, especially with regard to different implant topographies. We focused on how the initial interaction between cells and the titanium surface is enhanced by a PEMF and the possible regulatory mechanisms in this study. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on three types of titanium surfaces (Flat, Micro and Nano) under PEMF stimulation or control conditions. Protein adsorption was significantly increased by the PEMF. The number of osteoblasts attached to the surfaces in the PEMF group was substantially greater than that in the control group after 1.5h incubation. PEMF stimulation oriented the osteoblasts perpendicular to the electromagnetic field lines and increased the number of microfilaments and pseudopodia formed by the osteoblasts. The cell proliferation on the implant surfaces was significantly promoted by the PEMF. Significantly increased extracellular matrix mineralization nodules were observed under PEMF stimulation. The expression of osteogenesis-related genes, including BMP-2, OCN, Col-1,ALP, Runx2 and OSX, were up-regulated on all the surfaces by PEMF stimulation. Our findings suggest that PEMFs enhance the osteoblast compatibility on titanium surfaces but to different extents with regard to implant surface topographies. The use of PEMFs might be a potential adjuvant treatment for improving the osseointegration process. PMID:24140610

  8. Modulation of C-nociceptive Activities by Inputs from Myelinated Fibers.

    PubMed

    Wan-Ru, Duan; Yi-Kuan, Xie

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of neuropathic pain caused by demyelination, a rapid-onset, completed but reversible demyelination of peripheral A-fibers and neuropathic pain behaviors in adult rats by single injection of cobra venom into the sciatic nerve, was created. Microfilament recording revealed that cobra venom selectively blocked A-fibers, but not C-fibers. Selective blockade of A-fibers may result from A-fiber demyelination at the site of venom injection as demonstrated by microscope examination. Neuropathic pain behaviors including inflammatory response appeared almost immediately after venom injection and lasted about 3 weeks. Electrophysiological studies indicated that venom injection induced loss of conduction in A-fibers, increased sensitivity of C-polymodal nociceptors to innocuous stimuli, and triggered spontaneous activity from peripheral and central terminals of C-fiber nociceptors. Neurogenic inflammatory responses were also observed in the affected skin via Evans blue extravasation experiments. Both antidromic C-fiber spontaneous activity and neurogenic inflammation were substantially decreased by continuous A-fiber threshold electric stimuli applied proximally to the venom injection site. The data suggest that normal activity of peripheral A-fibers may produce inhibitory modulation of C-polymodal nociceptors. Removal of inhibition to C-fiber polymodal nociceptors following demyelination of A-fibers may result in pain and neurogenic inflammation in the affected receptive field. PMID:26900061

  9. Movers and shakers: cell cytoskeleton in cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fife, C M; McCarroll, J A; Kavallaris, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the greatest number of cancer deaths. Metastatic disease, or the movement of cancer cells from one site to another, is a complex process requiring dramatic remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton. The various components of the cytoskeleton, actin (microfilaments), microtubules (MTs) and intermediate filaments, are highly integrated and their functions are well orchestrated in normal cells. In contrast, mutations and abnormal expression of cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an important role in the ability of cancer cells to resist chemotherapy and metastasize. Studies on the role of actin and its interacting partners have highlighted key signalling pathways, such as the Rho GTPases, and downstream effector proteins that, through the cytoskeleton, mediate tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. An emerging role for MTs in tumour cell metastasis is being unravelled and there is increasing interest in the crosstalk between key MT interacting proteins and the actin cytoskeleton, which may provide novel treatment avenues for metastatic disease. Improved understanding of how the cytoskeleton and its interacting partners influence tumour cell migration and metastasis has led to the development of novel therapeutics against aggressive and metastatic disease. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24 PMID:24665826

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqian; Wang, Hongbin; Lai, Chengjun; Wang, Lu; Deng, Yulin

    2013-02-01

    Microgravity is one of the most important features in spaceflight. Previous evidence has shown that neurophysiological impairment signs occurred under microgravity. The present study was undertaken to explore the change in protein abundance in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were grown in a microgravity environment. The comparative proteomic method based on the (18)O labeling technique was applied to investigate the up-regulated proteins and down-regulated proteins in SH-SY5Y under simulated microgravity. Twenty-two differentially abundant proteins were quantified in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell microfilament network was disrupted under simulated microgravity, which was determined by the immunocytochemistry. The concentration of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and free Ca2+ ion significantly increased, and the level of ATP significantly decreased under simulated microgravity. However, there was no obvious cell apoptosis observed under simulated microgravity. These results provide new molecular evidence for the change in protein abundance in SH-SY5Y cells under simulated microgravity, which might unfold biological mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures to deal with microgravity-related neurological problems. We believe that the state-of-the-art proteomic assay may be a means by which aerospace scientists will begin to understand the underlying mechanisms of space life activities at the protein level. PMID:23421552

  11. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1986-01-01

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 .mu.m thick and from 150 to 200 .mu.m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  12. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1983-12-29

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 ..mu..m thick and from 150 to 200 ..mu..m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dieleectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  13. Microminiature coaxial cable and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1989-01-01

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 .mu.m thick and from 150 to 200 .mu.m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately, the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microspheres to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  14. Microminiature coaxial cable and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1989-03-28

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately, the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microspheres to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  15. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1986-04-08

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  16. Identification of regions within the Legionella pneumophila VipA effector protein involved in actin binding and polymerization and in interference with eukaryotic organelle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bugalhão, Joana N; Mota, Luís Jaime; Franco, Irina S

    2016-02-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein VipA is an actin nucleator that co-localizes with actin filaments and early endosomes in infected macrophages and which interferes with organelle trafficking when expressed in yeast. To identify the regions of VipA involved in its subcellular localization and functions, we ectopically expressed specific VipA mutant proteins in eukaryotic cells. This indicated that the characteristic punctate distribution of VipA depends on its NH2 -terminal (amino acid residues 1-133) and central coiled-coil (amino acid residues 133-206) regions, and suggested a role for the COOH-terminal (amino acid residues 206-339) region in association with actin filaments and for the NH2 -terminal in co-localization with early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro assays showed that the COOH-terminal region of VipA is necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, and is essential but insufficient to induce microfilament formation. Assays in yeast revealed that the NH2 and the COOH-terminal regions, and possibly an NPY motif within the NH2 region of VipA, are necessary for interference with organelle trafficking. Overall, this suggests that subversion of eukaryotic vesicular trafficking by VipA involves both its ability to associate with early endosomes via its NH2 -terminal region and its capacity to bind and polymerize actin through its COOH-terminal region. PMID:26626407

  17. Detection of fibrils associated with Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, W J; Burgdorfer, W; Wray, G P

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of the "halozone" formed at the interface between the spotted fever agent Rickettsia rickettsii and the cytoplasm of persistently infected cultured vole cells (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In sections of epoxy-embedded specimens stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, the halozone appeared clear and devoid of ultrastructural features. However, when unembedded preparations of whole infected cells were examined at 1,000 kV, fine structural features were observed within the halozone. These features, associated with the rickettsial outer membrane, were more clearly detectable when the infected cells were extracted with the detergent Triton X-100 before fixation. Under such conditions, long extensions of the rickettsial outer membrane, microfilament-like structures attached to that membrane, and extensive attachments between adjacent rickettsiae were seen. The fine structural features within the rickettsial halozone were also seen at 75 kV when unembedded sections were prepared from polyethylene glycol-embedded specimens. Thus, epoxy-embedding medium obscures the fine structural features within the halozone surrounding the rickettsiae in infected cells. Images PMID:6411620

  18. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  19. Pharmacological targeting of actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization ameliorates chronic kidney disease in diverse animal models.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Mario; Teng, Beina; Gu, Changkyu; Shchedrina, Valentina A; Kasaikina, Marina; Pham, Vincent A; Hanke, Nils; Rong, Song; Gueler, Faikah; Schroder, Patricia; Tossidou, Irini; Park, Joon-Keun; Staggs, Lynne; Haller, Hermann; Erschow, Sergej; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Wei, Changli; Chen, Chuang; Tardi, Nicholas; Hakroush, Samy; Selig, Martin K; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Merscher, Sandra; Reiser, Jochen; Sever, Sanja

    2015-06-01

    Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes represents a common pathway in the pathogenesis of proteinuria across a spectrum of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The GTPase dynamin has been implicated in the maintenance of cellular architecture in podocytes through its direct interaction with actin. Furthermore, the propensity of dynamin to oligomerize into higher-order structures in an actin-dependent manner and to cross-link actin microfilaments into higher-order structures has been correlated with increased actin polymerization and global organization of the actin cytoskeleton in the cell. We found that use of the small molecule Bis-T-23, which promotes actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization and thus increased actin polymerization in injured podocytes, was sufficient to improve renal health in diverse models of both transient kidney disease and CKD. In particular, administration of Bis-T-23 in these renal disease models restored the normal ultrastructure of podocyte foot processes, lowered proteinuria, lowered collagen IV deposits in the mesangial matrix, diminished mesangial matrix expansion and extended lifespan. These results further establish that alterations in the actin cytoskeleton of kidney podocytes is a common hallmark of CKD, while also underscoring the substantial regenerative potential of injured glomeruli and identifying the oligomerization cycle of dynamin as an attractive potential therapeutic target to treat CKD. PMID:25962121

  20. An update on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alisertib, a selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Durlacher, Cameron T; Li, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Xiao-Wu; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Human Aurora kinases, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA), B (AURKB), and C (AURKC), play an essential role in mitotic events such as monitoring of the mitotic checkpoint, creation of bipolar mitotic spindle and alignment of centrosomes on it, also regulating centrosome separation, bio-orientation of chromosomes and cytokinesis. AURKA and AURKB are key regulators of mitosis and centrosome via polymerizing microfilaments and controlling chromatid segregation. In particular, AURKA plays critical roles in the regulation of mitotic entry, centrosome function, bipolar spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. AURKA has been found to be overexpressed in various solid and haematological cancers and has been linked with poor prognosis. Its important role in cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has brought the focus to search for potent and selective AURKA inhibitors for cancer treatment. MLN8237, also known as alisertib, is one selective AURKA inhibitor that has shown remarkable anticancer effects in preclinical studies. Alisertib exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic properties. Alisertib has generally showed good partial response rates of 4-52% and good safety profiles in Phase I and II trials when it is solely administered as well as combined with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, the multicentre, randomized Phase III study of alisertib in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been discontinued due to unsatisfactory efficacy. The low risk of side effects, accessibility, and effectiveness of alisertib makes it a new promising anticancer therapy and further mechanistic and clinical studies are warranted. PMID:26999067

  1. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  2. Gravisensing in single-celled systems: characean rhizoids and protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M.

    Gravitropically tip-growing cell types are attractive unicellular model systems for investigating the mechanisms and the regulation of gravitropism. Especially useful for studying the mechanisms of positive and negative gravitropic tip-growth are characean rhizoids and protonemata. They originate from the same cell type, show the same overall cell shape, cytoplasmic zonation, arrangement of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, use statoliths for gravisensing, but show opposite gravitropism. In both cell types, actin microfilaments are complexly organized in the apical dome, where a dense spherical actin array is colocalized with spectrin-like epitopes and a unique endoplasmic reticulum aggregate, the structural center of the Spitzenkörper. The opposite gravitropic responses seem to be based on differences in the actin-organized anchorage of the Spitzenkörper and the actin-mediated transport of statoliths. In negatively gravitropic (upward bending) protonemata, the statoliths-induced drastic upward shift of the cell tip is preceded by a relocalization of dihydropyridine-binding calcium channels and of the apical calcium gradient to the upper flank (bending by bulging). Such relocalizations have not been observed in positively gravitropically responding (downward growing) rhizoids in which statoliths sedimentation is followed by differential flank growth (bending by bowing). This paper reviews the current knowledge and hypotheses on the mechanisms of the opposite gravitropic responses in characean rhizoids and protonemata.

  3. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail. PMID:26909348

  4. Osmotically induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) changes in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Morris, M R; Doull, I J; Hallett, M B

    2001-02-01

    Cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in neutrophils was measured by ratiometric fluorometry of intracellular fura2. Increasing the extracellular osmolarity, by either NaCl (300-600 mM) or sucrose (600-1200 mM), caused a rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) (Delta(max) approximately equal to 600 nM). This was not due to cell lysis as the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration was reversed by restoration of isotonicity and a second rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) could be provoked by repeating the change in extracellular osmolarity. Furthermore, the rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration occurred in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), demonstrating that release of intracellular fura2 into the external medium did not occur. The osmotically-induced rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) was not inhibited by either the phospholipase C-inhibitor U73122, or the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B, suggesting that neither signalling via inositol tris-phosphate or the cytoskeletal system were involved. However, the rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) may have resulted from a reduction in neutrophil water volume in hyperosmotic conditions. As these rises in cytosolic Ca(2+) (Delta(max) approximately equal to 600 nM) were large enough to provoke changes in neutrophil activity, we propose that conditions which removes cell water may similarly elevate cytosolic free Ca(2+) to physiologically important levels. PMID:11341979

  5. Induced Secondary Structure and Polymorphism in an Intrinsically Disordered Structural Linker of the CNS: Solid-State NMR and FTIR Spectroscopy of Myelin Basic Protein Bound to Actin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mumdooh A.M.; Bamm, Vladimir V.; Shi, Lichi; Steiner-Mosonyi, Marta; Dawson, John F.; Brown, Leonid; Harauz, George; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein (MBP) is a peripheral membrane protein that maintains the structural integrity of the myelin sheath of the central nervous system by conjoining the cytoplasmic leaflets of oligodendrocytes and by linking the myelin membrane to the underlying cytoskeleton whose assembly it strongly promotes. It is a multifunctional, intrinsically disordered protein that behaves primarily as a structural stabilizer, but with elements of a transient or induced secondary structure that represent binding sites for calmodulin or SH3-domain-containing proteins, inter alia. In this study we used solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the conformation of 18.5 kDa MBP in association with actin microfilaments and bundles. FTIR spectroscopy of fully 13C,15N-labeled MBP complexed with unlabeled F-actin showed induced folding of both protein partners, viz., some increase in β-sheet content in actin, and increases in both α-helix and β-sheet content in MBP, albeit with considerable extended structure remaining. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that MBP in MBP-actin assemblies is structurally heterogeneous but gains ordered secondary structure elements (both α-helical and β-sheet), particularly in the terminal fragments and in a central immunodominant epitope. The overall conformational polymorphism of MBP is consistent with its in vivo roles as both a linker (membranes and cytoskeleton) and a putative signaling hub. PMID:19134474

  6. Actin-curcumin interaction: insights into the mechanism of actin polymerization inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gopa; Chakravarty, Devlina; Hazra, Joyita; Dhar, Jesmita; Poddar, Asim; Pal, Mahadeb; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Surolia, Avadhesha; Bhattacharyya, Bhabatarak

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin, derived from rhizomes of the Curcuma longa plant, is known to possess a wide range of medicinal properties. We have examined the interaction of curcumin with actin and determined their binding and thermodynamic parameters using isothermal titration calorimetry. Curcumin is weakly fluorescent in aqueous solution, and binding to actin enhances fluorescence several fold with a large blue shift in the emission maximum. Curcumin inhibits microfilament formation, which is similar to its role in inhibiting microtubule formation. We synthesized a series of stable curcumin analogues to examine their affinity for actin and their ability to inhibit actin self-assembly. Results show that curcumin is a ligand with two symmetrical halves, each of which possesses no activity individually. Oxazole, pyrazole, and acetyl derivatives are less effective than curcumin at inhibiting actin self-assembly, whereas a benzylidiene derivative is more effective. Cell biology studies suggest that disorganization of the actin network leads to destabilization of filaments in the presence of curcumin. Molecular docking reveals that curcumin binds close to the cytochalasin binding site of actin. Further molecular dynamics studies reveal a possible allosteric effect in which curcumin binding at the "barbed end" of actin is transmitted to the "pointed end", where conformational changes disrupt interactions with the adjacent actin monomer to interrupt filament formation. Finally, the recognition and binding of actin by curcumin is yet another example of its unique ability to target multiple receptors. PMID:25564154

  7. Cytoskeletal and mitochondrial properties of bovine oocytes obtained by Ovum Pick-Up: the effects of follicle stimulation and in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Matoba, Satoko; Inaba, Yasushi; Nakai, Michiko; Imai, Kei; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Follicle stimulation by follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is known to improve developmental competence of bovine oocytes obtained by Ovum Pick-Up (OPU); however, the exact factors in oocytes affected by this treatment have remained unclear. We compared in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes obtained at the immature stage from cows by OPU either without or with stimulation with FSH (non-stimulated and stimulated OPU, respectively) to those obtained by superstimulation and in vivo maturation in terms of cytoskeleton morphology, mitochondrial distribution, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and H2 O2 levels at the metaphase-II stage and intracellular Ca(2+) levels after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Confocal microscopy after immunostaining revealed reduced size of the meiotic spindle, associated with increased tendencies of microfilament degradation and insufficient mitochondrial re-distribution in non-stimulated OPU-derived IVM oocytes compared with those collected by stimulated OPU, which in turn resembled in vivo matured oocytes. However, there was no difference in mitochondrial functions between oocytes obtained by stimulated or non-stimulated OPU in terms of ATP content, cytoplasmic H2 O2 levels, base Ca(2+) levels and the frequencies and amplitudes of Ca(2+) oscillations after IVF. Larger size of metaphase spindles in oocytes obtained by stimulated OPU may reflect and potentially contribute to their high developmental competence. PMID:26154026

  8. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  9. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  10. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance. PMID:22853175

  11. The Plant-Specific Actin Binding Protein SCAB1 Stabilizes Actin Filaments and Regulates Stomatal Movement in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Mao, Tonglin; Qu, Xiaolu; Cao, Wanhong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wei; He, Liu; Li, Sidi; Ren, Sulin; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhu, Guoli; Huang, Shanjin; Ye, Keqiong; Yuan, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Microfilament dynamics play a critical role in regulating stomatal movement; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. We report here the identification and characterization of STOMATAL CLOSURE-RELATED ACTIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (SCAB1), an Arabidopsis thaliana actin binding protein. Plants lacking SCAB1 were hypersensitive to drought stress and exhibited reduced abscisic acid-, H2O2-, and CaCl2-regulated stomatal movement. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that SCAB1 binds, stabilizes, and bundles actin filaments. SCAB1 shares sequence similarity only with plant proteins and contains a previously undiscovered actin binding domain. During stomatal closure, actin filaments switched from a radial orientation in open stomata to a longitudinal orientation in closed stomata. This switch took longer in scab1 plants than in wild-type plants and was correlated with the delay in stomatal closure seen in scab1 mutants in response to drought stress. Our results suggest that SCAB1 is required for the precise regulation of actin filament reorganization during stomatal closure. PMID:21719691

  12. The centrosome is a dynamic structure that ejects PCM flares.

    PubMed

    Megraw, Timothy L; Kilaru, Sandhya; Turner, F Rudolf; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2002-12-01

    The Drosophila Centrosomin (Cnn) protein is an essential core component of centrosomes in the early embryo. We have expressed a Cnn-GFP fusion construct in cleavage stage embryos, which rescues the maternal effect lethality of cnn mutant animals. The localization patterns seen with GFP-Cnn are identical to the patterns we see by immunofluorescent staining with anti-Cnn antibodies. Live imaging of centrosomes with Cnn-GFP reveals surprisingly dynamic features of the centrosome. Extracentrosomal particles of Cnn move radially from the centrosome and frequently change their direction. D-TACC colocalized with Cnn at these particles. We have named these extrusions 'flares'. Flares are dependent on microtubules, since disruption of the microtubule array severs the movement of these particles. Movement of flare particles is cleavage-cycle-dependent and appears to be attributed mostly to their association with dynamic astral microtubules. Flare activity decreases at metaphase, then increases at telophase and remains at this higher level of activity until the next metaphase. Flares appear to be similar to vertebrate PCM-1-containing 'centriolar satellites' in their behavior. By injecting rhodamine-actin, we observed that flares extend no farther than the actin cage. Additionally, disruption of the microfilament array increased the extent of flare movement. These observations indicate that centrosomes eject particles of Cnn-containing pericentriolar material that move on dynamic astral microtubules at a rate that varies with the cell cycle. We propose that flare particles play a role in organizing the actin cytoskeleton during syncytial cleavage. PMID:12415014

  13. Phagocytic activity and hyperpolarizing responses in L-strain mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Y; Tsuchiya, W; Yada, T; Yano, J; Yawo, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Fibroblastic L cells not only respond with a slow hyperpolarizing potential change to a mechanical or electrical stimulus but also show spontaneous, repetitive hyperpolarizations (i.e. membrane potential oscillation). 2. Almost all the cells can actively take up latex beads whose surfaces were treated by U.V. irradiation. 3. Non-phagocytic L cells hardly showed hyperpolarizing responses, while hyperpolarizing responses were obtained in all the phagocytic L cells. The exposure of the cell surface to beads, however, did not trigger the generation of hyperpolarizing responses. 4. Metabolic inhibitors, low temperature and cytochalasin B inhibited both the uptake of beads and the hyperpolarizing responses. 5. Increasing the external concentration of Ca2+ induced a remarkable stimulation of the phagocytosis of beads. Mg2+ and Ba2+, which inhibited hyperpolarizing responses due to competition for Ca2+ sites on the outer surface of the membrane, significantly suppressed the uptake of beads. 6. Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, inhibited not only hyperpolarizing membrane responses but also ingestion of beads. 7. It is concluded that the Ca2+ inflow on the hyperpolarizing membrane responses is closely associated with the phagocytic activity in L cells, probably through activation of the microfilament assembly. Images Plate 1 PMID:7024506

  14. Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Fabricated via Bioextrusion for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Marco; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Cometa, Stefania; Alderighi, Michele; Bártolo, Paulo Jorge; Chiellini, Federica

    2009-01-01

    The most promising approach in Tissue Engineering involves the seeding of porous, biocompatible/biodegradable scaffolds, with donor cells to promote tissue regeneration. Additive biomanufacturing processes are increasingly recognized as ideal techniques to produce 3D structures with optimal pore size and spatial distribution, providing an adequate mechanical support for tissue regeneration while shaping in-growing tissues. This paper presents a novel extrusion-based system to produce 3D scaffolds with controlled internal/external geometry for TE applications.The BioExtruder is a low-cost system that uses a proper fabrication code based on the ISO programming language enabling the fabrication of multimaterial scaffolds. Poly(ε-caprolactone) was the material chosen to produce porous scaffolds, made by layers of directionally aligned microfilaments. Chemical, morphological, and in vitro biological evaluation performed on the polymeric constructs revealed a high potential of the BioExtruder to produce 3D scaffolds with regular and reproducible macropore architecture, without inducing relevant chemical and biocompatibility alterations of the material. PMID:20126577

  15. Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Fabricated via Bioextrusion for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Marco; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Cometa, Stefania; Alderighi, Michele; Bártolo, Paulo Jorge; Chiellini, Federica

    2009-01-01

    The most promising approach in Tissue Engineering involves the seeding of porous, biocompatible/biodegradable scaffolds, with donor cells to promote tissue regeneration. Additive biomanufacturing processes are increasingly recognized as ideal techniques to produce 3D structures with optimal pore size and spatial distribution, providing an adequate mechanical support for tissue regeneration while shaping in-growing tissues. This paper presents a novel extrusion-based system to produce 3D scaffolds with controlled internal/external geometry for TE applications.The BioExtruder is a low-cost system that uses a proper fabrication code based on the ISO programming language enabling the fabrication of multimaterial scaffolds. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) was the material chosen to produce porous scaffolds, made by layers of directionally aligned microfilaments. Chemical, morphological, and in vitro biological evaluation performed on the polymeric constructs revealed a high potential of the BioExtruder to produce 3D scaffolds with regular and reproducible macropore architecture, without inducing relevant chemical and biocompatibility alterations of the material. PMID:20126577

  16. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  17. Spectra fishing twine entanglement of a bottlenose dolphin: a case study and experimental modeling.

    PubMed

    Barco, Susan G; D'Eri, Linda R; Woodward, Becky L; Winn, Jeremy P; Rotstein, David S

    2010-09-01

    We report here the first documented case of a cetacean fatality from entanglement in recreational Spectra fishing twine. Spectra twine is a relatively new microfilament braided twine that is marketed to replace nylon monofilament twine in rod and reel fisheries. Following the case of this entangled bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), we conducted tests with Spectra and comparable monofilament twines on Tursiops tissue from stranded animals to compare the abrasion properties of the twines. We found that Spectra twine was significantly more abrasive on bottlenose dolphin fluke tissue than a similar strength and diameter monofilament. With the same forces applied, the Spectra twine cut deeper than the monofilament, exhibiting a linear relationship with force applied where the monofilament appeared to reach a maximum depth of penetration of approximately 2 mm. These tests may explain why this bottlenose dolphin was so severely debilitated from carrying a relatively light load of twine over a short period of time (20 days). Future public and corporate outreach will be essential to minimize the effect that this increasingly popular fishing twine will have on non-target species. PMID:20553857

  18. [BETA-III TUBULIN AS A POTENTIAL TARGET FOR BLOCKING INVASIVE GROWTH OF MALIGNANT EPITHELIAL TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Portyanko, A S; Akalovich, S T; Doroshenko, T M

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is the first step of metastatic cascade in the growth of malignant tumors. The mobility of cells, which is a necessary factor of the invasive growth of malignant tumors, is closely linked to the dynamic structure of cytoskeleton. An important role in cell motility is played by microtubules and actin microfilaments. Microtubules consist of tubulin--a heterodimer comprising α and β subunits, which can be represented by different isotypes. The appearance of beta-III tubulin in a tumor is essential for chemoresistance and prognosis of some tumors in humans. This study focuses on determining the possibility of using beta-III tubulin as a target molecule for the suppression of invasive growth. It is established that blocking of the beta-III tubulin expression in colorectal cancer cells does not affect their viability, but reduces the cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix by 40% for HT-29 (∂ = 0.0044) and by 15% (p = 0.0436) for HCT 116) and produces a four-fold decrease in the invasive activity (p = 0.0000 and 0.0001, respectively). These facts allow considering beta-III tubulin as a target molecule in the development of antitumor drugs. PMID:26591579

  19. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  20. Electron tomography of paranodal septate-like junctions and the associated axonal and glial cytoskeletons in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nans, Andrea; Einheber, Steven; Salzer, James L; Stokes, David L

    2011-03-01

    The polarized domains of myelinated axons are specifically organized to maximize the efficiency of saltatory conduction. The paranodal region is directly adjacent to the node of Ranvier and contains specialized septate-like junctions that provide adhesion between axons and glial cells and that constitute a lateral diffusion barrier for nodal components. To complement and extend earlier studies on the peripheral nervous system, electron tomography was used to image paranodal regions from the central nervous system (CNS). Our three-dimensional reconstructions revealed short filamentous linkers running directly from the septate-like junctions to neurofilaments, microfilaments, and organelles within the axon. The intercellular spacing between axons and glia was measured to be 7.4 ± 0.6 nm, over twice the value previously reported in the literature (2.5-3.0 nm). Averaging of individual junctions revealed a bifurcated structure in the intercellular space that is consistent with a dimeric complex of cell adhesion molecules composing the septate-like junction. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into the structural organization of CNS paranodes and suggest that, in addition to providing axo-glial adhesion, cytoskeletal linkage to the septate-like junctions may be required to maintain axonal domains and to regulate organelle transport in myelinated axons. PMID:21259318

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Tropodithietic Acid on Mammalian Clonal Cell Lines of Neuronal and Glial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Heidi; Vocke, Farina; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The marine metabolite tropodithietic acid (TDA), produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria, is known for its broad antimicrobial activity. TDA is of interest not only as a probiotic in aquaculture, but also because it might be of use as an antibacterial agent in non-marine or non-aquatic environments, and thus the potentially cytotoxic influences on eukaryotic cells need to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to investigate its effects on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a cells and OLN-93 cells as model systems for nerve cells and glia. The data show that in both cell lines TDA exerted morphological changes and cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 0.3–0.5 µg/mL (1.4–2.4 µM). Furthermore, TDA caused a breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, and the induction of the small heat shock protein HSP32/HO-1, which is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress. The cytotoxic effects were accompanied by an increase in intracellular Ca2+-levels, the disturbance of the microtubule network, and the reorganization of the microfilament system. Hence, mammalian cells are a sensitive target for the action of TDA and react by the activation of a stress response resulting in cell death. PMID:26633426

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Tropodithietic Acid on Mammalian Clonal Cell Lines of Neuronal and Glial Origin.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Heidi; Vocke, Farina; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    The marine metabolite tropodithietic acid (TDA), produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria, is known for its broad antimicrobial activity. TDA is of interest not only as a probiotic in aquaculture, but also because it might be of use as an antibacterial agent in non-marine or non-aquatic environments, and thus the potentially cytotoxic influences on eukaryotic cells need to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to investigate its effects on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a cells and OLN-93 cells as model systems for nerve cells and glia. The data show that in both cell lines TDA exerted morphological changes and cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 0.3-0.5 µg/mL (1.4-2.4 µM). Furthermore, TDA caused a breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, and the induction of the small heat shock protein HSP32/HO-1, which is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress. The cytotoxic effects were accompanied by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+)-levels, the disturbance of the microtubule network, and the reorganization of the microfilament system. Hence, mammalian cells are a sensitive target for the action of TDA and react by the activation of a stress response resulting in cell death. PMID:26633426

  3. HHF35, a muscle-actin-specific monoclonal antibody. I. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, T.; Tippens, D.; Gordon, D.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to muscle cell actin isotypes was produced and characterized. Immunocytochemical analysis of methanol-Carnoy's-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissue revealed that this antibody, termed HHF35, reacts with skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and myoepithelial cells, but is nonreactive with endothelial, epithelial, neural, or connective tissue cells. When assayed by indirect immunofluorescence, HHF35 reacts with microfilament bundles from various cultured mammalian smooth muscle cells, but does not react with cultured human dermal fibroblasts or various epithelial tumor cell lines. In one-dimensional gel electrophoresis immunoblot experiments this antibody detects a 42-kd polypeptide from tissue extracts of uterus, ileum, aorta, diaphragm, and heart and extract from smooth muscle cells. The antibody also reacts with a comigrating 42-kd band of highly purified rabbit skeletal muscle actin. HHF35 is nonreactive on immunoblots of extracts from all tested nonmuscle cell extracts. Immunoelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting performed in the presence of urea and reducing agents reveals recognition of the alpha isoelectrophoretic variant of actin from skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle sources and of the gamma variant from smooth muscle sources. Because HHF35 reacts with virtually all muscle cells, it will be useful as a marker for muscle and muscle-derived cells. Images Figure 1 p55-a Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3544852

  4. N-WASP Is Required for Stabilization of Podocyte Foot Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Christoph; Baumhakl, Lisa; Salou, Sarah; Conzelmann, Ann-Christin; Meyer, Charlotte; Helmstädter, Martin; Wrede, Christoph; Grahammer, Florian; Eimer, Stefan; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Walz, Gerd; Snapper, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Alteration of cortical actin structures is the common final pathway leading to podocyte foot process effacement and proteinuria. The molecular mechanisms that safeguard podocyte foot process architecture and maintain the three-dimensional actin network remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which promotes actin nucleation, is required to stabilize podocyte foot processes. Mice lacking N-WASP specifically in podocytes were born with normal kidney function but developed significant proteinuria 3 weeks after birth, suggesting an important role for N-WASP in maintaining foot processes. In addition, inducing deletion of N-WASP in adult mice resulted in severe proteinuria and kidney failure. Electron microscopy showed an accumulation of electron-dense patches of actin and strikingly altered morphology of podocyte foot processes. Although basic actin-based processes such as cell migration were not affected, primary cultures of N-WASP–deficient podocytes revealed significant impairment of dynamic actin reorganization events, including the formation of circular dorsal ruffles. Taken together, our findings suggest that N-WASP–mediated actin nucleation of branched microfilament networks is specifically required for the maintenance of foot processes, presumably sustaining the mechanical resistance of the filtration barrier. PMID:23471198

  5. Ultrastructure of quick-frozen and freeze-substituted chick osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    AKISAKA, TOSHITAKA; MIYAJI, TAKIO; YOSHIDA, HISAHO; INOUE, MEGUMI

    1997-01-01

    For comparison with chemically fixed osteoclasts, we prepared chick osteoclasts by quick freezing followed by freeze-substitution. In spite of technical difficulties this demonstrated that osteoclasts can be satisfactorily frozen in situ by the metal contact method. Ultrastructural differences were revealed between conventional fixation and quick freezing. Compared with conventional fixation, the quick freezing method appeared to improve preservation: (1) a discrete trilaminar plasma membrane and other intracellular membranes showed a smooth profile without undulation or rupture; (2) cytoskeletal components appeared to be clearer, straighter, and more numerous; (3) the interior of the ruffled finger contained interconnected lattice structures whereas highly organised microfilaments were seen in the clear zone; (4) well developed tubulovesicular structures (TVSs) that branched or anastomosed with each other were revealed in the cytoplasm; (5) the contents of intracellular membrane systems including the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex were stained to a various extent; (6) vesicles and vacuoles were much smaller, round and well-defined with electron-dense contents; (7) crystalline structures were seen at the extracellular channels of the ruffled border, in the lumen of TVSs, and in vesicles; (8) in some instances mitochondrial granules were visible; (9) within the resorptive lacuna, osteoclasts adhered to the degraded bone matrix without any intervening empty space. PMID:9147229

  6. Statistics of active transport in Xenopus melanophores cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Barlan, K.; Aranson, I. S.; Gelfand, V. I.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-11-01

    The transport of cell cargo, such as organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm, is determined by cooperative action of molecular motors stepping along polar cytoskeletal elements. Analysis of transport of individual organelles generated useful information about the properties of the motor proteins and underlying cytoskeletal elements. In this work, for the first time (to our knowledge), we study collective movement of multiple organelles using Xenopus melanophores, pigment cells that translocate several thousand of pigment granules (melanosomes), spherical organelles of a diameter of {approx} 1 {micro}m. These cells disperse melanosomes in the cytoplasm in response to high cytoplasmic cAMP, while at low cAMP melanosomes cluster at the cell center. Obtained results suggest spatial and temporal organization, characterized by strong correlations between movement of neighboring organelles, with correlation length of {approx} 4 {micro}m and pair lifetime {approx} 5 s. Furthermore, velocity statistics revealed strongly non-Gaussian velocity distribution with high velocity tails demonstrating exponential behavior suggestive of strong velocity correlations. Depolymerization of vimentin intermediate filaments using a dominant-negative vimentin mutant or actin with cytochalasin B reduced correlation of behavior of individual particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that steric repulsion is dominant, but both intermediate filaments and actin microfilaments are involved in dynamic cross-linking organelles in the cytoplasm.

  7. Effects of glucocorticoids on the interaction of lymphoblastoid cells with human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maca, R D; Fry, G L; Hakes, A D

    1978-08-01

    The adhesive characteristics of cultured acute lymphocytic leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM), lymphoma cells (Raji), and freshly isolated acute lymphocytic leukemia cells to human cultured endothelial cells were studied. An assay system was used whereby these neoplastic cells were allowed to interact with endothelial cells while being continuously agitated on a rocking platform. All cell lines adhered significantly to the endothelium monolayers. This process appeared not to be dependent upon intact microtubular or microfilament function. Likewise, removing surface sialic acid from either cell type did not alter this process. In contrast incubating the endothelial cells for 24 or 48 hr with dexamethasone decreased adhesiveness of either CCRF-CEM or Raji cells to the endothelial cells by approximately 40%. Incubating these cells with hydrocortisone instead of dexamethasone for 48 hr was equally as effective in altering the endothelial cell adhesiveness. The decreased adhesiveness could be blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that this altered adhesiveness of the endothelial cells involves protein synthesis, presumably of a surface protein. We suggest that this assay system may provide a means to evaluate other agents that can alter the surface characteristics of endothelial cells, which may have important implications in various disease states such as inflammation, thrombogenesis, and metastatic disease. PMID:276420

  8. Nanochips of Tantalum Oxide Nanodots as artificial-microenvironments for monitoring Ovarian cancer progressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Udesh; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S.; Lin, Yan Ren; Hung, Yao Ching; Chen, Wen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanotopography modulates cell characteristics and cell behavior. Nanotopological cues can be exploited to investigate the in-vivo modulation of cell characteristics by the cellular microenvironment. However, the studies explaining the modulation of tumor cell characteristics and identifying the transition step in cancer progressiveness are scarce. Here, we engineered nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodot arrays of 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm as artificial microenvironments to study the modulation of cancer cell behavior. Clinical samples of different types of Ovarian cancer at different stages were obtained, primary cultures were established and then seeded on different nanochips. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to compare the morphologies and cell characteristics. Indices corresponding to cell characteristics were defined. A statistical comparison of the cell characteristics in response to the nanochips was performed. The cells displayed differential growth parameters. Morphology, Viability, focal adhesions, microfilament bundles and cell area were modulated by the nanochips which can be used as a measure to study the cancer progressiveness. The ease of fabrication of nanochips ensures mass-production. The ability of the nanochips to act as artificial microenvironments and modulate cell behavior may lead to further prospects in the markerless monitoring of the progressiveness and ultimately, improving the prognosis of Ovarian cancer. PMID:27534915

  9. Cytoskeletal reorganization and TPA differently modify AP-1 to induce the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene in LLC-PK1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J S; von der Ahe, D; Kiefer, B; Nagamine, Y

    1993-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is an extracellular protease and expressed in various cells that exhibit dynamic changes in cell morphology, suggesting a link between cytoskeletal reorganization (CSR) and uPA expression. CSR can be induced by pharmacological agents, such as by colchicine for microtubule cytoskeleton and by cytochalasin for microfilament cytoskeleton. Using these agents, we previously showed that CSR induced the uPA gene in LLC-PK1 cells independently of the protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Here we show that the induction of the uPA gene by CSR is mediated by the activation of c-Jun which interacts with an AP-1-like site located 2 kb upstream of the uPA gene. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces the uPA gene through the same elements, but additionally utilizes an adjacent PEA3 element and induces c-fos. Furthermore, CSR induces a greater accumulation and a more pronounced phosphorylation of c-Jun than TPA induction. AP-1 is a positive regulator of growth and oncogenesis, and CSR is an integral part of these processes. Our results provide a view how CSR and AP-1 could be coupled in these processes. We also show that TPA and CSR act synergistically, suggesting a model where an initial activation signal could be amplified by CSR. Images PMID:8346015

  10. A new assay for invasion of HeLa 229 cells by Bordetella pertussis: effects of inhibitors, phenotypic modulation, and genetic alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C K; Roberts, A L; Finn, T M; Knapp, S; Mekalanos, J J

    1990-01-01

    Invasion and intracellular survival of Bordetella pertussis in HeLa 229 cells was studied by a new assay that utilizes polymyxin B instead of gentamicin to rapidly kill extracellular organisms. Invasion measured by this assay was time and temperature dependent and was inhibited by the microfilament drug cytochalasin D. The invasion process was also dependent on a functional vir locus (also known as bvg), the positive regulator of virulence gene expression in B. pertussis. Four spontaneous Vir- phase variants of B. pertussis and a mutant with a transposon insertion mutation in the vir locus did not invade. Cells that were environmentally modulated and thus did not express virulence determinants also did not invade. Two Vir- mutants, a vir-directed plasmid insertion mutant and a UV-light-induced mutant, were capable of invasion, although they did not produce other known virulence factors such as pertussis toxin and hemolysin but did produce small amounts of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and the 69-kilodalton outer membrane protein. None of 70 Tn5 IS50L::phoA (TnphoA) insertion mutants of strain Bp18323 (including three mutants defective in FHA) tested showed any reproducible defect in invasion. A mutant carrying a site-directed deletion mutation in FHA was also capable of invasion in our assay. These data suggest that there is redundancy in the invasion functions of B. pertussis and that one or more of these are coordinately regulated with FHA and the 69-kilodalton outer membrane protein more tightly than with other vir-activated gene products. Images PMID:2370104

  11. Relationship between expression of serendipity alpha and cellularisation of the Drosophila embryo as revealed by interspecific transformation.

    PubMed

    Ibnsouda, S; Schweisguth, F; de Billy, G; Vincent, A

    1993-10-01

    A dramatic reorganization of the cytoskeleton underlies the cellularisation of the syncytial Drosophila embryo. Formation of a regular network of acto-myosin filaments, providing a structural framework, and possibly a contractile force as well, appears essential for the synchronous invagination of the plasma membrane between adjacent nuclei. The serendipity alpha (sry alpha) gene is required for this complete reorganization of the microfilaments at the onset of membrane invagination. We compare here the structure and expression of sry alpha between D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura and D. melanogaster. Interspersion of evolutionarily highly conserved and divergent regions is observed in the protein. One such highly conserved region shows sequence similarities to a motif found in proteins of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family. Four 7-13 bp motifs are conserved in the 5' promoter region; two of these are also found, and at the same position relative to the TATA box, in nullo, another zygotic gene recently shown to be involved in cellularisation. The compared patterns of expression of D. melanogaster sry alpha and nullo, and D. pseudoobscura sry alpha reveal a complex regulation of the spatiotemporal accumulation of their transcripts. The D. pseudoobscura sry alpha gene is able to rescue the cellularisation defects associated with a complete loss of sry alpha function in D. melanogaster embryos, even though species-specific aspects of its expression are maintained. Despite their functional homologies, the D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura sry alpha RNAs have different subcellular localisations, suggesting that this specific localization has no conserved role in targeting the sry alpha protein to the apical membranes. PMID:8287797

  12. Simulated Microgravity Alters Actin Cytoskeleton and Integrin-Mediated Focal Adhesions of Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovic, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cytoskeletal alterations occur in several cell types including lymphocytes, glial cells, and osteoblasts, during spaceflight and under simulated microgravity (SMG) (3, 4). One potential mechanism for cytoskeletal gravisensitivity is disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin interactions. Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell-matrix interaction composed of integrins and the diversity of focal adhesion-associated cytoplasmic proteins including vinculin, talin, α-actinin, and actin filaments (4, 5). Integrins produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMG on F-actin cytoskeleton structure, vinculin focal adhesions, expression of some integrin subtypes and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs). Simulated microgravity was produced by 3D-clinostat (Dutch Space, Netherlands). Staining of actin fibers with TRITC-phalloidin showed reorganization even after 30 minutes of simulated microgravity. The increasing of cells number with abnormal F-actin was observed after subsequent terms of 3D-clinorotation (6, 24, 48, 120 hours). Randomization of gravity vector altered dimensional structure of stress fibers and resulted in remodeling of actin fibers inside the cells. In addition, we observed vinculin redistribution inside the cells after 6 hours and prolonged terms of clinorotation. Tubulin fibers in a contrast with F-actin and vinculin didn't show any reorganization even after long 3Dclinorotation (120 hours). The expression of integrin α2 increased 1,5-6-fold in clinorotated hMSCs. Also we observed decrease in number of VCAM-1-positive cells and changes in expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that SMG leads to microfilament and adhesion alterations of hMSCs most probably associated with involvement of some integrin subtypes.

  13. RNA-dependent association with myosin IIA promotes F-actin-guided trafficking of the ELAV-like protein HuR to polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Doller, Anke; Schulz, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The role of the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) in stabilization and translation of AU-rich elements (ARE) containing mRNAs is well established. However, the trafficking of HuR and bound mRNA cargo, which comprises a fundamental requirement for the aforementioned HuR functions is only poorly understood. By administering different cytoskeletal inhibitors, we found that the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-triggered accumulation of cytoplasmic HuR by Angiotensin II (AngII) is an actin-myosin driven process functionally relevant for stabilization of ARE-bearing mRNAs. Furthermore, we show that the AngII-induced recruitment of HuR and its bound mRNA from ribonucleoprotein particles to free and cytoskeleton bound polysomes strongly depended on an intact actomyosin cytoskeleton. In addition, HuR allocation to free and cytoskeletal bound polysomes is highly sensitive toward RNase and PPtase and structurally depends on serine 318 (S318) located within the C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM3). Conversely, the trafficking of the phosphomimetic HuRS318D, mimicking HuR phosphorylation at S318 by the PKCδ remained PPtase resistant. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with truncated HuR proteins revealed that the stimulus-induced association of HuR with myosin IIA is strictly RNA dependent and mediated via the RRM3. Our data implicate a microfilament dependent transport of HuR, which is relevant for stimulus-induced targeting of ARE-bearing mRNAs from translational inactive ribonucleoprotein particles to polysomes. PMID:23921630

  14. Role of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Regulating EHD2 Plasma Membrane Localization

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura C.; Caplan, Steve; Naslavsky, Naava

    2013-01-01

    The four mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHD1-EHD4) play pivotal roles in endocytic membrane trafficking. While EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4 associate with intracellular tubular/vesicular membranes, EHD2 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Currently, little is known about the regulation of EHD2. Thus, we sought to define the factors responsible for EHD2’s association with the plasma membrane. The subcellular localization of endogenous EHD2 was examined in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy. Although EHD partner proteins typically mediate EHD membrane recruitment, EHD2 was targeted to the plasma membrane independent of two well-characterized binding proteins, syndapin2 and EHBP1. Additionally, the EH domain of EHD2, which facilitates canonical EHD protein interactions, was not required to direct overexpressed EHD2 to the cell surface. On the other hand, several lines of evidence indicate that the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a crucial role in regulating EHD2 subcellular localization. Pharmacologic perturbation of PIP2 metabolism altered PIP2 plasma membrane distribution (as assessed by confocal microscopy), and caused EHD2 to redistribute away from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressed EHD2 localized to PIP2-enriched vacuoles generated by active Arf6. Finally, we show that although cytochalasin D caused actin microfilaments to collapse, EHD2 was nevertheless maintained at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, cytochalasin D induced relocalization of both PIP2 and EHD2 to actin aggregates, supporting a role of PIP2 in controlling EHD2 subcellular localization. Altogether, these studies emphasize the significance of membrane lipid composition for EHD2 subcellular distribution and offer new insights into the regulation of this important endocytic protein. PMID:24040268

  15. Vg1RBP phosphorylation by Erk2 MAP kinase correlates with the cortical release of Vg1 mRNA during meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Git, Anna; Allison, Rachel; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Nebreda, Angel R.; Houliston, Evelyn; Standart, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus Vg1RBP is a member of the highly conserved IMP family of four KH-domain RNA binding proteins, with roles in RNA localization, translational control, RNA stability, and cell motility. Vg1RBP has been implicated in localizing Vg1 mRNAs to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis, in a process mediated by microtubules and microfilaments, and in migration of neural crest cells in embryos. Using c-mos morpholino, kinase inhibitors, and constitutely active recombinant kinases we show that Vg1RBP undergoes regulated phosphorylation by Erk2 MAPK during meiotic maturation, on a single residue, S402, located between the KH2 and KH3 domains. Phosphorylation temporally correlates with the release of Vg1 mRNA from its tight cortical association, assayed in lysates in physiological salt buffers, but does not affect RNA binding, nor self-association of Vg1RBP. U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, prevents Vg1RBP cortical release and Vg1 mRNA solubilization in meiotically maturing eggs, while injection of MKK6-DD, a constitutively activated MAP kinase kinase, promotes the release of both Vg1RBP and Vg1 mRNA from insoluble cortical structures. We propose that Erk2 MAP kinase phosphorylation of Vg1RBP regulates the protein:protein-mediated association of Vg1 mRNP with the cytoskeleton and/or ER. Since the MAP kinase site in Vg1RBP is conserved in several IMP homologs, this modification also has important implications for the regulation of IMP proteins in somatic cells. PMID:19376927

  16. Activated kRas protects colon cancer cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis; the role of p53 and p21

    PubMed Central

    Escandell, José M.; Kaler, Pawan; Recio, M. Carmen; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Ríos, José-Luis; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    Cucurbitacins have been shown to inhibit proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine their biological activity in colon cancer cell lines that do not harbor activated STAT3, the key target of cucurbitacin. In order to establish the role of activated kRas in the responsiveness of cells to cucurbitacins, we performed experiments in isogenic colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and Hke-3, which differ only by the presence of an activated kRas allele. We compared the activity of 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin B (DHCB) and cucurbitacin R (CCR), two cucurbitacins that we recently isolated, with cucurbitacin I (CCI), a cucurbitacin with established antitumorigenic activity. We showed that cucurbitacins induced dramatic changes in the cytoskeleton (collapse of actin and bundling of tubulin microfilaments), inhibited proliferation and finally induced apoptosis of both HCT116 and Hke3 cells. However, the presence of oncogenic k-Ras significantly decreased the sensitivity of cells to the three cucurbitacins tested, CCR, DHCB and CCI. We confirmed that mutational activation of kRas protects cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis using nontransfromed intestinal epithelial cells with inducible expression of k-RasV12. Cucurbitacins induced the expression of p53 and p21 predominantly in HCT116 cells that harbor mutant Ras. Using HCT116 cells with targeted deletion of p53 or p21 we confirmed that p53 and p21 protect cells from apoptosis induced by cucurbitacins. These results demonstrated that sensitivity of human colon cancer cell lines to cucurbitacins depends on the kRas and p53/p21 status, and established that cucurbitacins can exert antitumorigenic activity in the absence of activated STAT3. PMID:18561895

  17. Activated kRas protects colon cancer cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis: the role of p53 and p21.

    PubMed

    Escandell, José M; Kaler, Pawan; Recio, M Carmen; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Ríos, José-Luis; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-07-15

    Cucurbitacins have been shown to inhibit proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine their biological activity in colon cancer cell lines that do not harbor activated STAT3, the key target of cucurbitacin. In order to establish the role of activated kRas in the responsiveness of cells to cucurbitacins, we performed experiments in isogenic colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and Hke-3, which differ only by the presence of an activated kRas allele. We compared the activity of 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin B (DHCB) and cucurbitacin R (CCR), two cucurbitacins that we recently isolated, with cucurbitacin I (CCI), a cucurbitacin with established antitumorigenic activity. We showed that cucurbitacins induced dramatic changes in the cytoskeleton (collapse of actin and bundling of tubulin microfilaments), inhibited proliferation and finally induced apoptosis of both HCT116 and Hke-3 cells. However, the presence of oncogenic kRas significantly decreased the sensitivity of cells to the three cucurbitacins tested, CCR, DHCB and CCI. We confirmed that mutational activation of kRas protects cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis using nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells with inducible expression of kRasV12. Cucurbitacins induced the expression of p53 and p21 predominantly in HCT116 cells that harbor mutant Ras. Using HCT116 cells with targeted deletion of p53 or p21 we confirmed that p53 and p21 protect cells from apoptosis induced by cucurbitacins. These results demonstrated that sensitivity of human colon cancer cell lines to cucurbitacins depends on the kRas and p53/p21 status, and established that cucurbitacins can exert antitumorigenic activity in the absence of activated STAT3. PMID:18561895

  18. Mitochondria as Sub-cellular Targets of Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom; Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation including alpha particles and heavy ions is the major type of radiation find in space and is considered a potential health risk for astronauts. Even though the chance that these high LET particles traversing through the cytoplasm of cells is higher than that through the nuclei, the contribution of targeted cytoplasmic irradiation, to the induction of genomic instability and other chromosomal damages induced by high LET radiation is not known. Mitochondria are the sole energy center of a cell and normal mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that move along microtubules or microfilaments and continuously fuse and divide in healthy cells. A balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is essential to maintain normal mitochondrial function. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation by high LET alpha particles induced DNA oxidative damage and double strand breaks in wild type rho+ human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in autophagy and micronuclei, which is an indication of genomic instability, together with the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathways in rho+ SAE cells. In contrast, SAE cells with depleted mitochondrial DNA (rho0) and, therefore, no oxidative metabolic functions, exhibited a significantly lower response to these same endpoints examined after cytoplasmic irradiation with high LET alpha particles. The results indicate that normal mitochondrial function is essential in mediating radiation induced genotoxic damages in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the findings may shed some light in the design of countermeasures for space radiation protection.

  19. Ultrastructure, ZIO-staining and chromaffinity of gerbil pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Chau, Y P; Liao, K K; Kao, M H; Huang, B N; Kao, Y S; Lu, K S

    1994-11-01

    The ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the gerbil pineal gland were studied by the conventional electron microscopy, zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) staining and chromaffin reaction. Conventional electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of gerbil pinealocytes are similar to other rodents, i.e., irregular cell contour with numerous cytoplasmic processes, round or oval nucleus and prominent nucleoli, elongated mitochondria with flattened and tubular cristae and dense matrix, well-developed Golgi apparatus and its associated structures, abundant elements of endoplasmic reticulum--both smooth and rough varieties, and bundles of microfilament and microtubule in the cytoplasm. Some pinealocyte processes contain numerous small clear and "slightly coated" vesicles. Numerous profiles of varicosities containing small dense-cored and clear vesicles were frequently encountered. After ZIO treatment, ZIO staining was preferentially localized in the cytoplasm of some, but not all, of the gerbil pinealocytes. Numerous small clear vesicles (30-50 nm in diameter) in the process of the pinealocytes or in the varicosities of the nerve fibers showed strong ZIO-philia. After chromaffin reaction treatment, the number and electron density of small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the profiles of nerve varicosities increased and this indicates that some of the small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the varicosities are reactive. It is thus concluded that (1) the vesicles in the pinealocytes may be rich in cystine and/or cysteine and possibly the organelle is involved in the sequestering calcium ion during the calcification of the pineal concretions, and (2) the small dense-cored and clear vesicles in the nerve fibers in the gerbil pineal parenchyma may contain both serotonin and primary biogenic amines. PMID:7530780

  20. Scutellarin promotes microglia-mediated astrogliosis coupled with improved behavioral function in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Yuan, Yun; Lu, Jia; Li, Hong E; Zhao, Min; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Chun-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Scutellarin, an anti-inflammatory agent, has been reported to suppress microglia activation. It promotes astrocytic reaction but through activated microglia. Here we sought to determine more specifically the outcomes of scutellarin treatment in reactive astrocytes in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). GFAP, MAP-2 and PSD-95 expression was assessed in reactive astrocytes in scutellarin injected MCAO rats. Expression of BDNF, NT-3 and IGF-1, and cell cycle markers cyclin-D1/B1 was also evaluated. In vitro, the above-mentioned proteins were also investigated in TNC 1 and primary astrocytes, treated respectively with conditioned medium from BV-2 microglia with or without pretreatment of scutellarin and lipopolysaccharide. Behavioral study was conducted to ascertain if scutellarin would improve the neurological functions of MCAO rats. In MCAO, reactive astrocytes in the penumbral areas were hypertrophic bearing long extending processes; expression of all the above-mentioned markers was markedly augmented. When compared to the controls, TNC1/primary astrocytes responded vigorously to conditioned medium derived from BV-2 microglia treated with scutellarin + lipopolysaccharide as shown by enhanced expression of all the above markers by Western and immunofluorescence analysis. By electron microscopy, hypertrophic TNC1 astrocytes in this group showed abundant microfilaments admixed with microtubules. In MCAO rats given scutellarin treatment, neurological scores were significantly improved coupled with a marked decrease in infarct size when compared with the matching controls. It is concluded that scutellarin is neuroprotective and that it can amplify astrogliosis but through activated microglia. Scutellarin facilitates tissue remodeling in MCAO that maybe linked to improvement of neurological functions. PMID:27105682

  1. LIPS database with LIPService: a microscopic image database of intracellular structures in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracellular configuration is an important feature of cell status. Recent advances in microscopic imaging techniques allow us to easily obtain a large number of microscopic images of intracellular structures. In this circumstance, automated microscopic image recognition techniques are of extreme importance to future phenomics/visible screening approaches. However, there was no benchmark microscopic image dataset for intracellular organelles in a specified plant cell type. We previously established the Live Images of Plant Stomata (LIPS) database, a publicly available collection of optical-section images of various intracellular structures of plant guard cells, as a model system of environmental signal perception and transduction. Here we report recent updates to the LIPS database and the establishment of a database table, LIPService. Description We updated the LIPS dataset and established a new interface named LIPService to promote efficient inspection of intracellular structure configurations. Cell nuclei, microtubules, actin microfilaments, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, endosomes, Golgi bodies, and vacuoles can be filtered using probe names or morphometric parameters such as stomatal aperture. In addition to the serial optical sectional images of the original LIPS database, new volume-rendering data for easy web browsing of three-dimensional intracellular structures have been released to allow easy inspection of their configurations or relationships with cell status/morphology. We also demonstrated the utility of the new LIPS image database for automated organelle recognition of images from another plant cell image database with image clustering analyses. Conclusions The updated LIPS database provides a benchmark image dataset for representative intracellular structures in Arabidopsis guard cells. The newly released LIPService allows users to inspect the relationship between organellar three-dimensional configurations

  2. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with

  3. Differing strategies of patterning of follicular cells in higher and lower brachycerans (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Jablonska, Anna; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2005-10-01

    In all higher dipterans (Brachycera), including the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, each egg chamber (ovarian follicle) consists of a group (clone) of germ cells (one oocyte and 15 accompanying nurse cells) that is surrounded by a layer of somatic mesodermal follicular cells (FCs). As oogenesis progresses the initially uniform FCs diversify into several morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations. In D. melanogaster some of these subpopulations, e.g., border, centripetal, and dorsolateral cells, undertake coordinated migration or rearrangement over the surface of the germ cells. During the final stages of oogenesis these subpopulations participate in the formation of a complex, regionally specialized eggshell. In representatives of lower brachycerans (Orthorrhapha), only FCs that undertake active, directed migration are the border cells. These cells originate at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicle and migrate between the nurse cells to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Reduced motility of FCs in lower brachycerans results in the absence of certain FC subpopulations in their egg chambers and subsequent simplicity of their eggshells. We found that the lack of some FC subpopulations coincided with the appearance of lamellipodium-like protrusions of the oocyte. These protrusions penetrated between the apposing membranes of nurse and FCs and partially enveloped the nurse cell compartment. Analysis of whole-mount preparations stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin revealed that the protrusions contained microfilaments and that their tips were equipped with actin-rich filopodium-like processes. We also found that in some lower brachycerans (representatives of the family Rhagionidae), the FCs located at the posterior pole of the oocyte, became enlarged and morphologically similar to the anterior border cells. These findings indicate that in higher dipterans the processes leading to the formation of a functional egg are variable and often markedly

  4. Criteria for the diagnosis of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma). A histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S; Phillips, G E; Pieterse, A S; Milios, J

    1986-10-01

    Thirteen cases of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma) were reviewed with the aim of defining the morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural criteria for diagnosis. The tumour cells were characterized by their scanty cytoplasm, generally small uniform nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin and multiple small nucleoli. Nuclear shapes varied from round to spindle, with larger and pleomorphic forms predominating in 2 tumours. A striking feature seen in 12 tumours was the occurrence of a "ball-in-mitt" pattern represented by 1 or 2 crescentic tumour cells closely wrapped around an oval cell. Staining for neuron-specific enolase was the most consistent marker of the tumour and the characteristic juxtanuclear globular staining for keratin and cytokeratin and the occasional coexpression of neurofilament set this tumour apart from other cutaneous neoplasms, in particular, metastatic carcinoid tumours and oat cell carcinoma from the lung. The fine structural features of note were striking paranuclear or juxtanuclear whorls of intermediate filaments, seen in 7 cases, the presence of variable numbers of membrane-bound dense core granules of 80-150 nm diameter in all cases and cytoplasmic spinous or microvillous projections containing microfilaments in 4 cases. Less consistent characteristics of primary endocrine carcinomas of the skin included cell moulding, argyrophilia and immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, VIP and calcitonin. The high frequency of vessel invasion in this series is in keeping with the high rate of local recurrence, lymph node metastases and visceral dissemination reported. The distinction from other similar appearing tumours in the skin is discussed. PMID:2434904

  5. Toward angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds with type I collagen and adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Geun; Bak, Seon Young; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Woo; Min, Seon Ok

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Stem cell therapies for liver disease are being studied by many researchers worldwide, but scientific evidence to demonstrate the endocrinologic effects of implanted cells is insufficient, and it is unknown whether implanted cells can function as liver cells. Achieving angiogenesis, arguably the most important characteristic of the liver, is known to be quite difficult, and no practical attempts have been made to achieve this outcome. We carried out this study to observe the possibility of angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds. Methods This study used adipose tissue-derived stem cells that were collected from adult patients with liver diseases with conditions similar to the liver parenchyma. Specifically, microfilaments were used to create an artificial membrane and maintain the structure of an artificial organ. After scratching the stomach surface of severe combined immunocompromised (SCID) mice (n=4), artificial scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and type I collagen were implanted. Expression levels of angiogenesis markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and CD105 were immunohistochemically assessed after 30 days. Results Grossly, the artificial scaffolds showed adhesion to the stomach and surrounding organs; however, there was no evidence of angiogenesis within the scaffolds; and VEGF, CD34, and CD105 expressions were not detected after 30 days. Conclusions Although implantation of cells into artificial scaffolds did not facilitate angiogenesis, the artificial scaffolds made with type I collagen helped maintain implanted cells, and surrounding tissue reactions were rare. Our findings indicate that type I collagen artificial scaffolds can be considered as a possible implantable biomaterial. PMID:26155277

  6. The Legionella pneumophila Chaperonin - An Unusual Multifunctional Protein in Unusual Locations.

    PubMed

    Garduño, Rafael A; Chong, Audrey; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Allan, David S

    2011-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, high temperature protein B (HtpB), was discovered as a highly immunogenic antigen, only a few years after the identification of L. pneumophila as the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. As its counterparts in other bacterial pathogens, HtpB did not initially receive further attention, particularly because research was focused on a few model chaperonins that were used to demonstrate that chaperonins are essential stress proteins, present in all cellular forms of life and involved in helping other proteins to fold. However, chaperonins have recently attracted increasing interest, particularly after several reports confirmed their multifunctional nature and the presence of multiple chaperonin genes in numerous bacterial species. It is now accepted that bacterial chaperonins are capable of playing a variety of protein folding-independent roles. HtpB is clearly a multifunctional chaperonin that according to its location in the bacterial cell, or in the L. pneumophila-infected cell, plays different roles. HtpB exposed on the bacterial cell surface can act as an invasion factor for non-phagocytic cells, whereas the HtpB released in the host cell can act as an effector capable of altering organelle trafficking, the organization of actin microfilaments and cell signaling pathways. The road to discover the multifunctional nature of HtpB has been exciting and here we provide a historical perspective of the key findings linked to such discovery, as well as a summary of the experimental work (old and new) performed in our laboratory. Our current understanding has led us to propose that HtpB is an ancient protein that L. pneumophila uses as a key molecular tool important to the intracellular establishment of this fascinating pathogen. PMID:21713066

  7. Axis establishment and microtubule-mediated waves prior to first cleavage in Beroe ovata.

    PubMed

    Houliston, E; Carré, D; Johnston, J A; Sardet, C

    1993-01-01

    The single axis (oral-aboral) and two planes of symmetry of the ctenophore Beroe ovata become established with respect to the position of zygote nucleus formation and the orientation of first cleavage. Bisection of Beroe eggs at different times revealed that differences in egg organisation are established in relation to the presumptive oral-aboral axis before first cleavage. Lateral fragments produced after but not before the time of first mitosis developed into larvae lacking comb-plates on one side. Time-lapse video demonstrated that waves of cytoplasmic reorganisation spread through the layer of peripheral cytoplasm (ectoplasm) of the egg during the 80 minute period between pronuclear fusion and first cleavage, along the future oral-aboral axis. These waves are manifest as the progressive displacement and dispersal of plaques of accumulated organelles around supernumerary sperm nuclei, and a series of surface movements. Their timing and direction of propagation suggest they may be involved in establishing cytoplasmic differences with respect to the embryonic axis. Inhibitor experiments suggested that the observed cytoplasmic reorganisation involves microtubules. Nocodazole and taxol, which prevent microtubule turnover,blocked plaque dispersal and reduced surface movements. The microfilament-disrupting drug cytochalasin B did not prevent plaque dispersal but induced abnormal surface contractions. We examined changes in microtubule organisation using immunofluorescence on eggs fixed at different times and in live eggs following injection of rhodamine-tubulin. Giant microtubule asters become associated with each male pronucleus after the end of meiosis. Following pronuclear fusion they disappear successively, those nearest the zygote nucleus shrinking first, to establish gradients of aster size within single eggs. Regional differences in microtubule behaviour around the time of mitosis were revealed by brief taxol treatment, which induced the formation of small

  8. The reorganization of cytoskeletal fibre systems in spreading porcine endothelial cells in cultures.

    PubMed

    Kalnins, V I; Subrahmanyan, L; Gotlieb, A I

    1981-04-01

    Porcine aortic endothelial cells spreading on a glass substrate undergo characteristic changes in shape which can be classified into four distinct stages. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in cell spreading, we have examined the distribution of microtubules (MT), microfilaments (MF), and intermediate filaments (IF) at each of these stages by using immunofluorescence and antisera specific for tubulin, tropomyosin, myosin, and vimentin. The small round Stage I cells showed diffuse staining with four antisera. In the more flattened spreading Stage II cells, MT and IF were first observed in the perinuclear region while fibres straining positively for tropomyosin and myosin were first seen along the cell margin. Later the MT began to radiate out in all directions from the perinuclear region while the IF became localized in a region on one side of the nucleus. In the very flat Stage III cells with a circular outline, additional MT could be seen along and parallel to cell margin while the IF emanating from the perinuclear region and the tropomyosin and myosin positive fibres became concentrically distributed around the nucleus. In the very flat asymmetric Stage IV cells, both the MT and IF radiated out from the perinuclear region towards the cell periphery while most of the tropomyosin and myosin-positive fibres became reorganized so that they ran parallel to the edges of the cell. In addition several loci from which a number of the tropomyosin and myosin-containing fibres radiated also appeared at this stage. These results indicate that during spreading each of the three major fibre systems undergo extensive and specific reorganization which is well coordinated with changes in cell shape. PMID:7195338

  9. Cytotoxicity of Thirdhand Smoke and Identification of Acrolein as a Volatile Thirdhand Smoke Chemical That Inhibits Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Weng, Nikki J-H; Schick, Suzaynn F; Sleiman, Mohamad; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Ibarra, Allison; Talbot, Prue

    2016-03-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a mixture of chemicals that remain on indoor surfaces after smoking has ceased. These chemicals can be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed dermally, and thus could impact human health. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and mode of action of fresh and aged THS, the toxicity of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in THS, and the molecular targets of acrolein, a VOC in THS. Experiments were done using mouse neural stem cells (mNSC), human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF), and lung A549 epithelial cells. THS-exposed cotton cloth was extracted in Dulbecco's Eagle Medium and caused cytotoxicity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. THS extracts induced blebbing, immotility, vacuolization, cell fragmentation, severing of microfilaments and depolymerization of microtubules in mNSC. Cytotoxicity was inversely related to headspace volume in the extraction container and was lost upon aging, suggesting that VOCs in THS were cytotoxic. Phenol, 2',5'-dimethyl furan and acrolein were identified as the most cytotoxic VOCs in THS, and in combination, their cytotoxicity increased. Acrolein inhibited proliferation of mNSC and hPF and altered expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Twenty-four hours of treatment with acrolein decreased expression of transcription factor Dp-1, a factor needed for the G1 to S transition in the cell cycle. At 48 h, WEE1 expression increased, while ANACP1 expression decreased consistent with blocking entry into and completion of the M phase of the cell cycle. This study identified acrolein as a highly cytotoxic VOC in THS which killed cells at high doses and inhibited cell proliferation at low doses. PMID:26719373

  10. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. PMID:25784147

  11. Modulation of the extracellular matrix patterning of thrombospondins by actin dynamics and thrombospondin oligomer state

    PubMed Central

    Hellewell, Andrew L.; Gong, Xianyun; Schärich, Karsten; Christofidou, Elena D.; Adams, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are evolutionarily-conserved, secreted glycoproteins that interact with cell surfaces and extracellular matrix (ECM) and have complex roles in cell interactions. Unlike the structural components of the ECM that form networks or fibrils, TSPs are deposited into ECM as arrays of nanoscale puncta. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for the patterning of TSPs in ECM are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether the mechanisms of TSP patterning in cell-derived ECM involves actin cytoskeletal pathways or TSP oligomer state. From tests of a suite of pharmacological inhibitors of small GTPases, actomyosin-based contractility, or actin microfilament integrity and dynamics, cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide treatment of cells were identified to result in altered ECM patterning of a model TSP1 trimer. The strong effect of cytochalasin D indicated that mechanisms controlling puncta patterning depend on global F-actin dynamics. Similar spatial changes were obtained with endogenous TSPs after cytochalasin D treatment, implicating physiological relevance. Under matched experimental conditions with ectopically-expressed TSPs, the magnitude of the effect was markedly lower for pentameric TSP5 and Drosophila TSP, than for trimeric TSP1 or dimeric Ciona TSPA. To distinguish between the variables of protein sequence or oligomer state, we generated novel, chimeric pentamers of TSP1. These proteins accumulated within ECM at higher levels than TSP1 trimers, yet the effect of cytochalasin D on the spatial distribution of puncta was reduced. These findings introduce a novel concept that F-actin dynamics modulate the patterning of TSPs in ECM and that TSP oligomer state is a key determinant of this process. PMID:26182380

  12. Self-assembly and photocatalytic activity of branched silicatein/silintaphin filaments decorated with silicatein-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Link, Thorben; Markl, Julia S; Müller, Werner E G; Renkel, Jochen; Korzhev, Michael; Wiens, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental mechanisms of biomineralization and their translation into innovative synthetic approaches have yielded promising perspectives for the fabrication of biomimetic and bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. In siliceous sponges, the enzyme silicatein catalyzes the polycondensation of molecular precursors to nano-structured SiO2 that is deposited on self-assembled filaments consisting of the two silicatein isoforms (silicatein-α and -β) and the scaffold protein silintaphin-1. Due to its broad substrate specificity silicatein is also able to convert in vitro various other precursors to non-biogenic materials (e.g., hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide [TiBALDH] and subsequent polycondensation to titania [TiO2]). In the present approach, silicatein was bioengineered to carry a protein tag (Arg-tag) that confers binding affinity to TiO2. Then, by combining Arg-tagged silicatein-α with silicatein-β and silintaphin-1, self-assembled branched hybrid protein microfilaments were fabricated. Upon subsequent incubation with TiBALDH the filaments were decorated with TiO2 and assayed for photocatalytic activity through photodegradation of the dye methylene blue. This is the first approach that considers concomitant application of two silicatein isoforms for the synthesis of bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. It is also the first time that the biocatalytic activity of the enzymes has been combined with both the structure-providing properties of silintaphin-1 and a TiO2 affinity protein tag to fabricate self-assembled branched protein filaments as template for a silicatein-synthesized TiO2 photocatalyst. The TiO2-decorated filaments might be explored as a practical alternative to approaches where biotemplates have to be laboriously isolated from their original biological source prior to TiO2 immobilization. PMID:27151092

  13. Internalization of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 by Bovine Rectal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Wang, Jing; Lim, Ji Youn; Davitt, Christine; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) causes human diarrheal disease and healthy cattle are its primary reservoir. O157 colonize the bovine epithelial mucosa at the recto-anal junction (RAJ). Previous studies show that O157 at this site are not eliminated by aggressive interventions including applications of O157-specific lytic bacteriophages and other bactericidal agents. We hypothesize that some O157 at the RAJ mucosa are protected from these killing agents by host cell internalization. To test this hypothesis, rectal biopsies from O157 culture positive and negative cattle were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. GFP-labeled bacteria were found located deep within the tissue crypts and a small number of O157 were recovered from rectal biopsies after gentamicin treatment. Primary bovine rectal epithelial (PBRE) cell cultures were incubated with O157 and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. Strains ATCC 43895, 43894, Sakai, and WSU180 entered the PBRE cells with different levels of efficiency ranging from 0.18 to 19.38% of the inocula. Intracellular bacteria were confirmed to be within membrane-bounded vacuoles by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D curtailed internalization of O157 indicating internalization was dependent on eukaryotic microfilament assembly. Strain ATCC 43895 exhibited the highest efficiency of internalization and survived for at least 24 h within PBRE cells. Deletion mutation of intimin or its receptor in ATCC 43895 did not reduce bacterial internalization. This strain produced more biofilm than the others tested. Retrospective analysis of cattle challenged with two O157 strains, showed ATCC 43895, the most efficient at host cell internalization, was most persistent. PMID:21687423

  14. Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells ☆

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Subra

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial growth in research into how changes in the biomechanical and biophysical properties of cells and subcellular structures influence, and are influenced by, the onset and progression of human diseases. This paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding, nascent field of research that deals with the biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells. The review begins with some key observations on the biology of cancer cells and on the role of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubule biopolymer cytoskeletal components in influencing cell mechanics, locomotion, differentiation and neoplastic transformation. In order to set the scene for mechanistic discussions of the connections among alterations to subcellular structures, attendant changes in cell deformability, cytoadherence, migration, invasion and tumor metastasis, a survey is presented of the various quantitative mechanical and physical assays to extract the elastic and viscoelastic deformability of cancer cells. Results available in the literature on cell mechanics for different types of cancer are then reviewed. Representative case studies are presented next to illustrate how chemically induced cytoskeletal changes, biomechanical responses and signals from the intracellular regions act in concert with the chemomechanical environment of the extracellular matrix and the molecular tumorigenic signaling pathways to effect malignant transformations. Results are presented to illustrate how changes to cytoskeletal architecture induced by cancer drugs and chemotherapy regimens can significantly influence cell mechanics and disease state. It is reasoned through experimental evidence that greater understanding of the mechanics of cancer cell deformability and its interactions with the extracellular physical, chemical and biological environments offers enormous potential for significant new developments in disease diagnostics, prophylactics, therapeutics and drug

  15. Rapid and dynamic subcellular reorganization following mechanical stimulation of Arabidopsis epidermal cells mimics responses to fungal and oomycete attack

    PubMed Central

    Hardham, Adrienne R; Takemoto, Daigo; White, Rosemary G

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant cells respond to the presence of potential fungal or oomycete pathogens by mounting a basal defence response that involves aggregation of cytoplasm, reorganization of cytoskeletal, endomembrane and other cell components and development of cell wall appositions beneath the infection site. This response is induced by non-adapted, avirulent and virulent pathogens alike, and in the majority of cases achieves penetration resistance against the microorganism on the plant surface. To explore the nature of signals that trigger this subcellular response and to determine the timing of its induction, we have monitored the reorganization of GFP-tagged actin, microtubules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes in Arabidopsis plants – after touching the epidermal surface with a microneedle. Results Within 3 to 5 minutes of touching the surface of Arabidopsis cotyledon epidermal cells with fine glass or tungsten needles, actin microfilaments, ER and peroxisomes began to accumulate beneath the point of contact with the needle. Formation of a dense patch of actin was followed by focusing of actin cables on the site of contact. Touching the cell surface induced localized depolymerization of microtubules to form a microtubule-depleted zone surrounding a dense patch of GFP-tubulin beneath the needle tip. The concentration of actin, GFP-tubulin, ER and peroxisomes remained focused on the contact site as the needle moved across the cell surface and quickly dispersed when the needle was removed. Conclusion Our results show that plant cells can detect the gentle pressure of a microneedle on the epidermal cell surface and respond by reorganizing subcellular components in a manner similar to that induced during attack by potential fungal or oomycete pathogens. The results of our study indicate that during plant-pathogen interactions, the basal defence response may be induced by the plant's perception of the physical force exerted by the pathogen as it attempts to

  16. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2016-02-01

    Spatial memory depends on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to aging. This vulnerability has implications for the impairment of navigation capacities in older people, who may show a marked drop in performance of spatial tasks with advancing age. Contemporary understanding of long-term memory formation relies on molecular mechanisms underlying long-term synaptic plasticity. With memory acquisition, activity-dependent changes occurring in synapses initiate multiple signal transduction pathways enhancing protein turnover. This enhancement facilitates de novo synthesis of plasticity related proteins, crucial factors for establishing persistent long-term synaptic plasticity and forming memory engrams. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of memory traces formation; however, the identity of plasticity related proteins is still evasive. In this study, we investigated protein turnover in mouse hippocampus during long-term spatial memory formation using the reference memory version of radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm. We identified 1592 proteins, which exhibited a complex picture of expression changes during spatial memory formation. Variable linear decomposition reduced significantly data dimensionality and enriched three principal factors responsible for variance of memory-related protein levels at (1) the initial phase of memory acquisition (165 proteins), (2) during the steep learning improvement (148 proteins), and (3) the final phase of the learning curve (123 proteins). Gene ontology and signaling pathways analysis revealed a clear correlation between memory improvement and learning phase-curbed expression profiles of proteins belonging to specific functional categories. We found differential enrichment of (1) neurotrophic factors signaling pathways, proteins regulating synaptic transmission, and actin microfilament during the first day of the learning curve; (2) transcription and translation machinery, protein

  17. Translocation and clustering of endosomes and lysosomes depends on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Matteoni, R; Kreis, T E

    1987-09-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence labeling of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells with antibodies recognizing a lysosomal glycoprotein (LGP 120; Lewis, V., S.A. Green, M. Marsh, P. Vihko, A. Helenius, and I. Mellman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1839-1847) reveals that lysosomes accumulate in the region around the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). This clustering of lysosomes depends on microtubules. When the interphase microtubules are depolymerized by treatment of the cells with nocodazole or during mitosis, the lysosomes disperse throughout the cytoplasm. Lysosomes recluster rapidly (within 30-60 min) in the region of the centrosomes either upon removal of the drug, or, in telophase, when repolymerization of interphase microtubules has occurred. During this translocation process the lysosomes can be found aligned along centrosomal microtubules. Endosomes and lysosomes can be visualized by incubating living cells with acridine orange. We have analyzed the movement of these labeled endocytic organelles in vivo by video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy. Translocation of endosomes and lysosomes occurs along linear tracks (up to 10 microns long) by discontinuous saltations (with velocities of up to 2.5 microns/s). Organelles move bidirectionally with respect to the MTOC. This movement ceases when microtubules are depolymerized by treatment of the cells with nocodazole. After nocodazole washout and microtubule repolymerization, the translocation and reclustering of fluorescent organelles predominantly occurs in a unidirectional manner towards the area of the MTOC. Organelle movement remains unaffected when cells are treated with cytochalasin D, or when the collapse of intermediate filaments is induced by microinjected monoclonal antivimentin antibodies. It can be concluded that translocation of endosomes and lysosomes occurs along microtubules and is independent of the intermediate filament and microfilament networks. PMID:3308906

  18. Comparison of Myofibroblasts Between Solid/Multicystic Ameloblastoma and Unicystic Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Sadhana; Narayan, Thondikulam Venakataraman; Jayaram, Ranjita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microenvironment is crucial for the maintenance of cellular functions and tissue integrity suggesting that cancer-induced changes in the stroma may contribute to cancer invasion and its biological behaviour. One of the major constituent of the tumour stroma is myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are differentiated host fibroblasts that express α-Sma as cytoplasmic microfilaments. They are considered as one of the modified stromal component which in recent years have been thought to have a role in the invasion and aggressive behaviour of odontogenic tumours too. Aim To detect immunohistochemically the presence of myofibroblasts in solid/multicystic ameloblastoma and in unicystic ameloblastoma and to see if a relationship exists between the frequency and pattern of distribution of myofibroblasts and the behaviour of ameloblastomas. Materials and Methods Ten cases each of solid/multicystic ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma were stained immunohistochemically for vimentin, α-SMA and desmin. The frequency and pattern of distribution of myofibroblasts in the two study groups were analysed and then compared with clinical and radiographic features of pain and cortical perforation respectively. Results Immunohistochemical reaction for α-SMA (alpha Smooth Muscle Actin) showed positive cells in the stroma of both solid/multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas. The mean number of myofibroblasts was more in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) compared to Solid/Multicystic Ameloblastoma (SMA). Myofibroblasts expression was dense and arranged in the form of fascicles with indistinct cell borders in one case of follicular ameloblastoma, two cases of plexiform ameloblastoma and in a focal area of one case of type 1UA. In all other cases where the expression was noted, the myofibroblasts were spindle in shape with distinct cell boundaries. Conclusion The results of the study indicate that myofibroblasts alone may not play a role in the behaviour of ameloblastomas. This

  19. Characterization, cloning and immunolocalization of a coronin homologue in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Bayle, D; Brugerolle, G

    2000-06-01

    On adhesion to host cells the flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis switches to an amoeboid form rich in actin microfilaments. We have undertaken the identification of actin-associated proteins that regulate actin dynamics. A monoclonal antibody 4C12 raised against a cytoskeletal fraction of T. vaginalis labeled a protein doublet at circa 50 kDa. These two bands were recognized by the antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum coronin. During cell extraction and actin polymerization, T. vaginalis coronin cosedimented with F-actin. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the protein doublet was separated into two sets of isoforms covering two Ip zones around 6 and 7. By screening a T. vaginalis library with 4C12, two clones Cor 1 and Cor 2 were isolated. This gene duplicity is a particularity among unicellular organisms examined. The complete sequence of the gene Cor 1 encodes a 435-residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa and Ip of 5.58. The incomplete sequence Cor 2 was very similar but with a more basic calculated Ip than Cor 1 on the same region. T. vaginalis coronin had 50% similarity with the coronin family, possessing the five WD-repeats and a leucine zipper in its C-terminal part. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that coronin mainly colocalized with actin at the periphery of the adherent amoeboid cells. However, coronin labeling displayed patches within a reticular array. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the coronin labeling in the actin-rich microfilamentous fringe beneath the plasma membrane, with accumulation in phagocytic zones and pseudopodial extensions. In T. vaginalis, one of the first emerging lineage of eukaryotes, coronin seems to play an important role in actin dynamics and may be a downstream target of a signaling mechanism for the cytoskeleton reorganization. PMID:10928457

  20. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTOR) pathway modulates blood-testis barrier (BTB) function through F-actin organization and gap junction.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-09-01

    mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is one of the most important signaling molecules in mammalian cells which regulates an array of cellular events, ranging from cell metabolism to cell proliferation. Based on the association of mTOR with the core component proteins, such as Raptor or Rictor, mTOR can become the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) or mTORC2, respectively. Studies have shown that during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, mTORC1 promotes remodeling and restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in vitro and in vivo, making the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier "leaky"; whereas mTORC2 promotes BTB integrity, making the Sertoli cell TJ-barrier "tighter". These contrasting effects, coupled with the spatiotemporal expression of the core signaling proteins at the BTB that confer the respective functions of mTORC1 vs. mTORC2 thus provide a unique mechanism to modulate BTB dynamics, allowing or disallowing the transport of biomolecules and also preleptotene spermatocytes across the immunological barrier. More importantly, studies have shown that these changes to BTB dynamics conferred by mTORC1 and mTORC2 are mediated by changes in the organization of the actin microfilament networks at the BTB, and involve gap junction (GJ) intercellular communication. Since GJ has recently been shown to be crucial to reboot spermatogenesis and meiosis following toxicant-induced aspermatogenesis, these findings thus provide new insightful information regarding the integration of mTOR and GJ to regulate spermatogenesis. PMID:26957088

  1. Engulfment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: revealing distinct processes of bacterial entry by individual carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule family receptors.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Shannon E; Liao, Edward H; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2004-05-01

    Individual Neisseria gonorrhoeae colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein variants can bind up to four different carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule (CEACAM) receptors. Most human cells encountered by gonococci express a combination of CEACAM receptors, thereby complicating the elucidation of intracellular signaling pathways triggered by individual receptors. Here, we compare the process of bacterial engulfment by a panel of stably transfected HeLa epithelial cell lines expressing each CEACAM receptor in isolation. CEACAM1 and CEACAM3 each contain proteinaceous transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains; however, the processes of neisserial uptake mediated by these receptors differ with respect to their susceptibilities to both tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the actin microfilament-disrupting agent cytochalasin D. Neisserial uptake mediated by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 was not significantly affected by any of a broad spectrum of inhibitors tested. However, cleavage of the GPI anchor by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C reduced bacterial uptake by HeLa cells expressing CEACAM5, consistent with a single zipper-like mechanism of uptake mediated by this receptor. Regardless of the CEACAM receptor expressed, internalized gonococci were effectively killed by a microtubule-dependent process that required acidification of the bacterium-containing phagosome. Given the phase-variable nature of neisserial Opa proteins, these results indicate that the mechanism of bacterial engulfment and the cellular response to gonococcal infection depend on both the receptor specificities of the neisserial Opa protein variants expressed and the spectrum of CEACAM receptors present on target cells, each of which determines the combination of receptors ultimately engaged. PMID:15102784

  2. The Actin Binding Domain of βI-Spectrin Regulates the Morphological and Functional Dynamics of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Michael W.; Cai, Xiang; Stone, Michele R.; Bloch, Robert J.; Thompson, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Actin microfilaments regulate the size, shape and mobility of dendritic spines and are in turn regulated by actin binding proteins and small GTPases. The βI isoform of spectrin, a protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to membrane proteins, is present in spines. To understand its function, we expressed its actin-binding domain (ABD) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. The ABD of βI-spectrin bundled actin in principal dendrites and was concentrated in dendritic spines, where it significantly increased the size of the spine head. These effects were not observed after expression of homologous ABDs of utrophin, dystrophin, and α-actinin. Treatment of slice cultures with latrunculin-B significantly decreased spine head size and decreased actin-GFP fluorescence in cells expressing the ABD of α-actinin, but not the ABD of βI-spectrin, suggesting that its presence inhibits actin depolymerization. We also observed an increase in the area of GFP-tagged PSD-95 in the spine head and an increase in the amplitude of mEPSCs at spines expressing the ABD of βI-spectrin. The effects of the βI-spectrin ABD on spine size and mEPSC amplitude were mimicked by expressing wild-type Rac3, a small GTPase that co-immunoprecipitates specifically with βI-spectrin in extracts of cultured cortical neurons. Spine size was normal in cells co-expressing a dominant negative Rac3 construct with the βI-spectrin ABD. We suggest that βI-spectrin is a synaptic protein that can modulate both the morphological and functional dynamics of dendritic spines, perhaps via interaction with actin and Rac3. PMID:21297961

  3. Ultrastructural and tissue-culture studies on the role of fibronectin, collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the migration of neural crest cells in the fowl embryo.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, D F; Gibbins, I L; Sauter, J; Wallenfels, B; Wütz, R

    1982-01-01

    The initial migration of neural crest (NC) cells into cell-free space was studied by transmission electron microscopy at trunk levels of fowl embryos, some of which were fixed in the presence of ruthenium red. Migrating NC cells occurred in zones which contained fewer ruthenium-red stained 15-40nm diameter granules than other regions. The ruthenium-red stained granules were linked by similarly stained thin (greater than 3nm diameter) microfibrils. The granules resemble proteoglycan and the microfibrils may be hyaluronate. NC cells contacted thicker (greater than 10 nm diameter) fibrils and interstitial bodies, which did not require ruthenium red for visualization. Cytoplasmic microfilaments were sometimes aligned at the point of contact with the extracellular fibrils, which may be fibronectin and collagen. Phase-contrast time-lapse videotaping and scanning electron microscopy showed that NC cells of the fowl embryo in vitro migrated earlier and more extensively on glass coated with fibronectin-rich fibrous material and adsorbed fibronectin molecules than on glass coated with collagen type I (fibres and adsorbed molecules). NC cells became completely enmeshed in fibronectin-rich fibres, but generally remained on the surface of collagen-fibre gels. When given a choice, NC cells strongly preferred fibronectin coatings to plain glass, and plain glass to dried collagen gels. NC cells showed a slight preference for plain glass over glass to which collagen was adsorbed. Addition to the culture medium of hyaluronate (initial conc. 20 mg/ml), chondroitin (5 mg/ml) and fully sulphated chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate (up to 10 mg/ml) did not drastically alter NC cell migration on fibronectin-rich fibrous substrates. PMID:7034954

  4. Placental Syncytium Forms a Biophysical Barrier against Pathogen Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zeldovich, Varvara B.; Clausen, Casper H.; Bradford, Emily; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Maltepe, Emin; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Bakardjiev, Anna I.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal syncytiotrophoblasts form a unique fused multinuclear surface that is bathed in maternal blood, and constitutes the main interface between fetus and mother. Syncytiotrophoblasts are exposed to pathogens circulating in maternal blood, and appear to have unique resistance mechanisms against microbial invasion. These are due in part to the lack of intercellular junctions and their receptors, the Achilles heel of polarized mononuclear epithelia. However, the syncytium is immune to receptor-independent invasion as well, suggesting additional general defense mechanisms against infection. The difficulty of maintaining and manipulating primary human syncytiotrophoblasts in culture makes it challenging to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of host defenses in this unique tissue. Here we present a novel system to study placental pathogenesis using murine trophoblast stem cells (mTSC) that can be differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts and recapitulate human placental syncytium. Consistent with previous results in primary human organ cultures, murine syncytiotrophoblasts were found to be resistant to infection with Listeria monocytogenes via direct invasion and cell-to-cell spread. Atomic force microscopy of murine syncytiotrophoblasts demonstrated that these cells have a greater elastic modulus than mononuclear trophoblasts. Disruption of the unusually dense actin structure – a diffuse meshwork of microfilaments - with Cytochalasin D led to a decrease in its elastic modulus by 25%. This correlated with a small but significant increase in invasion of L. monocytogenes into murine and human syncytium. These results suggest that the syncytial actin cytoskeleton may form a general barrier against pathogen entry in humans and mice. Moreover, murine TSCs are a genetically tractable model system for the investigation of specific pathways in syncytial host defenses. PMID:24348256

  5. Statin-induced impairment of monocyte migration is gender-related.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Anna; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Maselli, Angela; Vona, Rosa; Anticoli, Simona; Panusa, Alessia; Malorni, Walter; Matarrese, Paola

    2014-12-01

    Statins, widely used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, have been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects independently of their cholesterol-lowering action, such as anti-inflammatory activity. A gender disparity has been observed in their cholesterol lowering activity as well as in response to these "off label" effects. Monocytes play a central role in atherosclerotic disease and, more in general, in inflammatory responses, through their chemotactic function and cytokine production. On these bases, in the present work, we examined the effect of statins on homeostasis and migration properties of freshly isolated monocytes from male and female healthy donors. Two prototypic natural and synthetic statins with different polarity, that is, type 1 and type 2 statins, have been considered: simvastatin and atorvastatin. Freshly isolated monocytes from peripheral blood of male and female healthy donors were treated with these drugs in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Results obtained indicated that the polar statin efficiently inhibited chemotaxis of monocytes more than the apolar statin and that this effect was more significantly induced in cells from females than in cells from males. Dissecting the mechanisms involved, we found that these results could mainly be due to differential effects on: (i) the release of key cytokines, for example, MCP-1 and TNF-α; (ii) the maintenance of the redox homeostasis; (iii) a target activity on microfilament network integrity and function. All in all these results could suggest a reappraisal of "off-label" effects of statins taking into account either their chemical structure, that is, molecular polarity, or the gender issue. PMID:24777636

  6. Monitoring intermediate filament assembly by small-angle x-ray scattering reveals the molecular architecture of assembly intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Anna V.; Kreplak, Laurent; Wedig, Tatjana; Mücke, Norbert; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V.

    2006-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), along with microtubules, microfilaments, and associated cross-bridging proteins, constitute the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. While crystallographic data on the dimer representing the elementary IF “building block” have recently become available, little structural detail is known about both the mature IF architecture and its assembly pathway. Here, we have applied solution small-angle x-ray scattering to investigate the in vitro assembly of a 53-kDa human IF protein vimentin at pH 8.4 by systematically varying the ionic strength conditions, and complemented these experiments by electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. While a vimentin solution in 5 mM Tris·HCl (pH 8.4) contains predominantly tetramers, addition of 20 mM NaCl induces further lateral assembly evidenced by the shift of the sedimentation coeficient and yields a distinct octameric intermediate. Four octamers eventually associate into unit-length filaments (ULFs) that anneal longitudinally. Based on the small-angle x-ray scattering experiments supplemented by crystallographic data and additional structural constraints, 3D molecular models of the vimentin tetramer, octamer, and ULF were constructed. Within each of the three oligomers, the adjacent dimers are aligned exclusively in an approximately half-staggered antiparallel A11 mode with a distance of 3.2–3.4 nm between their axes. The ULF appears to be a dynamic and a relatively loosely packed structure with a roughly even mass distribution over its cross-section. PMID:17050693

  7. Characterization of the mammalian septin H5: distinct patterns of cytoskeletal and membrane association from other septin proteins.

    PubMed

    Xie, H; Surka, M; Howard, J; Trimble, W S

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling cytokinesis during yeast budding and animal cell fission appear quite different, yet both require members of the septin protein family. Mammalian homologs of this novel family of GTPases have been identified but little is known about their properties or functions. Using an antibody specific for the mammalian septin H5, we show that this protein is expressed at distinct levels in a variety of tissues. Tissue expression levels in different tissues did not coincide with those of the only previously characterized mammalian septin Nedd5. H5, like Nedd5, localizes to the cleavage furrow in mitotic fibroblast cells but in non-mitotic cells these proteins associate with actin filaments in different ways. Nedd5 predominantly localizes with stress fibers, but only associates with central portions of the microfilament bundles. In contrast, H5 associates with the entire length of the stress fibers and the cortical actin network. Conditions that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton also disrupt the filamentous patterns of both Nedd5 and H5, resulting in a punctate cytoplasmic pattern. Cell fractionation revealed that H5 co-fractionated with actin, while Nedd5 was predominantly restricted to the membrane fraction. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that although H5 will co-precipitate with Nedd5, the precipitation is not quantitative. Taken together, these results not only show that H5 behaves like a septin, but also demonstrate that individual septin proteins have distinct properties, suggesting that they may play different roles in cytokinesis and in other stages of the cell cycle. PMID:10340703

  8. Toxicants target cell junctions in the testis: Insights from the indazole-carboxylic acid model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C Yan

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous types of junctions in the seminiferous epithelium which are integrated with, and critically dependent on the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton. These include the basal tight junctions between Sertoli cells that form the main component of the blood–testis barrier, the basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and basal tubulobulbar complexes (basal TBC) between Sertoli cells; as well as apical ES and apical TBC between Sertoli cells and the developing spermatids that orchestrate spermiogenesis and spermiation. These junctions, namely TJ, ES, and TBC interact with actin microfilament-based cytoskeleton, which together with the desmosomal junctions that interact with the intermediate filament-based cytoskeleton plus the highly polarized microtubule-based cytoskeleton are working in concert to move spermatocytes and spermatids between the basal and luminal aspect of the seminiferous epithelium. In short, these various junctions are structurally complexed with the actin- and microtubule-based cytoskeleton or intermediate filaments of the Sertoli cell. Studies have shown toxicants (e.g., cadmium, bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), phthalates, and glycerol), and some male contraceptives under development (e.g., adjudin, gamendazole), exert their effects, at least in part, by targeting cell junctions in the testis. The disruption of Sertoli–Sertoli cell and Sertoli–germ cell junctions, results in the loss of germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium. Adjudin, a potential male contraceptive under investigation in our laboratory, produces loss of spermatids from the seminiferous tubules through disruption of the Sertoli cell spermatid junctions and disruption of the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton. The molecular and structural changes associated with adjudin administration are described, to provide an example of the profile of changes caused by disturbance of Sertoli-germ cell and also Sertoli cell-cell junctions. PMID:26413399

  9. Oogenesis in the Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wan, Fang-Hao; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex has invaded several parts of the world in the past 30 years and replaced native whitefly populations in the invaded regions, including certain areas of China. One of the possible reasons for the invasion is that MEAM1 whiteflies are more fecund than native species. However, the factors that affect the reproduction of the B. tabaci cryptic species are not clearly known. The regulation of oogenesis is thought to be one of the essential processes for egg formation and ovary development and could affect its population dynamics. In this study, the ovariole structure and oogenesis of the MEAM1 species complex was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Telotrophic ovarioles were observed in the MEAM1 species complex. Each ovariole had two well defined regions: the tropharium and the vitellarium. The tropharium always had more than ten trophocytes. The development of a single oocyte in the vitellarium has four phases: oocyte formation, previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. Two arrested oocytes, follicular cells and uncompleted oocytes were separated from the tropharium by microtubule and microfilaments. Early previtellogenesis oocytes absorbed nutrients and endosymbiont bacteria through a nutritive cord. However, the vitellogenesis of oocytes transmitted Vg through both the nutritive cord and the space between follicular cells. Each mature oocyte with deposited yolk proteins had only one bacteriocyte and was surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. The oogenesis in the B. tabaci MEAM1 species complex concluded with the differentiation of oocytes, the transport of yolk and endosymbionts as well as the development and maturation of oocytes. This result provides important information that further defines the regulation of oogenesis in the B. tabaci complex. PMID:26826802

  10. Narrow-band UVB radiation promotes dendrite formation by activating Rac1 in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wu-Qing; Wu, Jin-Feng; Xiao, Xiao-Qing; Xiao, Qin; Wang, Jing; Zuo, Fu-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Melanocytes are found scattered throughout the basal layer of the epidermis. Following hormone or ultraviolet (UV) light stimulation, the melanin pigments contained in melanocytes are transferred through the dendrites to the surrounding keratinocytes to protect against UV light damage or carcinogenesis. This has been considered as a morphological indicator of melanocytes and melanoma cells. Small GTPases of the Rho family have been implicated in the regulation of actin reorganization underlying dendrite formation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. It has been proven that ultraviolet light plays a pivotal role in melanocyte dendrite formation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process has not been fully elucidated. The effect of small GTPases, such as Rac1 and RhoA, on the morphology of B16 melanoma cells treated with narrow-band UVB radiation was investigated. The morphological changes were observed under a phase contrast microscope and the F-actin microfilament of the cytoskeleton was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. The pull-down assay was performed to detect the activity of the small GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. The morphological changes were evident, with globular cell bodies and increased numbers of tree branch-like dendrites. The cytoskeletal F-actin appeared disassembled following narrow-band UVB irradiation of B16 melanoma cells. Treatment of B16 melanoma cells with narrow-band UVB radiation resulted in the activation of Rac1 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, the present study may provide a novel method through which narrow-band UVB radiation may be used to promote dendrite formation by activating the Rac1 signaling pathway, resulting in F-actin rearrangement in B16 melanoma cells. PMID:24649261

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase κ and SHP-1 are involved in the regulation of cell-cell contacts at adherens junctions in the exocrine pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Schnekenburger, J; Mayerle, J; Krüger, B; Buchwalow, I; Weiss, F U; Albrecht, E; Samoilova, V E; Domschke, W; Lerch, M M

    2005-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that cell contacts between pancreatic acinar cells dissociate early in pancreatitis and that this is a prerequisite for the development of pancreatic oedema. Here we studied the underlying mechanism. Methods: Employing experimental caerulein induced pancreatitis in vivo and isolated pancreatic acini ex vivo, in conjunction with protein chemistry, morphology, and electron microscopy, we determined whether cell contact regulation in the pancreas requires or involves: (1) changes in cadherin-catenin protein expression, (2) tyrosine phosphorylation of adhesion proteins, or (3) alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. Results: During initial cell-cell contact dissociation at adherens junctions, expression of adhesion proteins remained stable. At time points of dissociated adherens junctions, the cadherin-catenin complex was found to be tyrosine phosphorylated and internalised. The receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)κ was constitutively associated with the cadherin-catenin complex at intact cell contacts whereas following the dissociation of adherens junctions, the internalised components of the cadherin-catenin complex were tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with the cytosolic PTP SHP-1. In isolated acini, inhibition of endogenous protein tyrosine phosphatases alone was sufficient to induce dissociation of adherens junctions analogous to that found with supramaximal caerulein stimulation. Dissociation of actin microfilaments had no effect on adherens junction integrity. Conclusions: These data identify tyrosine phosphorylation as the key regulator for cell contacts at adherens junctions and suggest a definitive role for the protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPκ and SHP-1 in the regulation, maintenance, and restitution of cell adhesions in a complex epithelial organ such as the pancreas. PMID:15987791

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Stomatal Cytoskeletal Patterns during the Activation of Immune Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shimono, Masaki; Higaki, Takumi; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically viewed as primarily functioning in the regulation of gas and water vapor exchange, it is now evident that stomata serve an important role in plant immunity. Indeed, in addition to classically defined functions related to cell architecture and movement, the actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a central component of the plant immune system, underpinning not only processes related to cell shape and movement, but also receptor activation and signaling. Using high resolution quantitative imaging techniques, the temporal and spatial changes in the actin microfilament array during diurnal cycling of stomatal guard cells has revealed a highly orchestrated transition from random arrays to ordered bundled filaments. While recent studies have demonstrated that plant stomata close in response to pathogen infection, an evaluation of stimulus-induced changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics during immune activation in the guard cell, as well as the relationship of these changes to the function of the actin cytoskeleton and stomatal aperture, remains undefined. In the current study, we employed quantitative cell imaging and hierarchical clustering analyses to define the response of the guard cell actin cytoskeleton to pathogen infection and the elicitation of immune signaling. Using this approach, we demonstrate that stomatal-localized actin filaments respond rapidly, and specifically, to both bacterial phytopathogens and purified pathogen elicitors. Notably, we demonstrate that higher order temporal and spatial changes in the filament array show distinct patterns of organization during immune activation, and that changes in the naïve diurnal oscillations of guard cell actin filaments are perturbed by pathogens, and that these changes parallel pathogen-induced stomatal gating. The data presented herein demonstrate the application of a highly tractable and quantifiable method to assign transitions in actin filament organization to the activation of immune signaling in

  13. Latrunculin B effects on trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelial morphology in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sabanay, Ilana; Tian, Baohe; Gabelt, B'Ann T; Geiger, Benjamin; Kaufman, Paul L

    2006-02-01

    To determine the mechanism of latrunculin B (LAT-B)-induced decrease in outflow resistance and the effect of LAT-B on the cornea, structural changes of the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the corneal endothelium following LAT-B were studied in the live monkey eye. LAT-B (0.5 microM) and vehicle were administered by anterior chamber exchange and infusion with cationized and non-cationized gold solution in opposite eyes. The eyes were fixed by infusing Ito's solution and enucleated. Anterior segments were quadrisected and embedded in Epon-Embed 812. Morphology of the TM and the corneal endothelium was studied by light and electron microscopy. LAT-B-induced morphological changes in the TM included: (1) loss of microfilament integrity in cells, especially in TM cells on the collagen beams; (2) development of numerous cytoplasmic projections of the sub-canalicular cells (SUB); (3) reorganization of intermediate filaments in Schlemm's canal inner wall (IW) cells; (4) massive 'ballooning' of the juxtacanalicular (JXT) region, leading to a substantial expansion of the space between the IW of Schlemm's canal and the trabecular collagen beams; and (5) retention of extracellular matrix (ECM), trapped between the SUB cell layer and IW cells. No detrimental effects on tight junctions, giant vacuoles, and cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions were observed. Endocytosis of gold particles was not affected. Morphology of the corneal endothelium of the LAT-B-treated eye was unchanged. In conclusion, TM changes in the LAT-B-treated eye suggest that the expansion of the JXT space may account for the decrease in outflow resistance induced by latrunculins. The outflow-effective concentration of LAT-B administered intracamerally does not significantly affect the corneal endothelium. PMID:16054137

  14. Dichloromethane-methanol extract from Borassus aethiopumn mart. (Arecaceae) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, J; Rouet-benzineb, P; Devaud, H; Nikiema, J B; Lompo, M; Nacoulma, O G; Guissou, I P; Bado, A

    2011-05-15

    Borassus aetihiopum MART (Arecaceae) is a plant used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases (bronchitis, laryngitis, antiseptic). In particular, their male inflorcscences were reported to exhibit cicatrizing, antiseptic and fungicidal properties. In the present study, the biological activity of E2F2, an apolar extract from Borassus aethiopum male inflorescence was investigated on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical screening was carried according to methodology for chemical analysis for vegetable drugs. Cells proliferation was determined by the MTT assay and cells cycle distribution was analysed by using laser flow cytometer (Beckman coulter). The cytoskeleton organisation was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (Zess). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E2F2 extract revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes and saponosids. E2F2 extract (1 microg and 100 microg mL(-1)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Flow Cytometric analysis of E2F2-treated HT29 cells showed that hypoploïd cell population (sub G1 phase) increased with processing time exposures. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis revealed a disrupt actin microfilaments network in E2F2 treated-cells with a significant reduction in actin stress fibres and appearance of a random, non-oriented distribution of focal adhesion sites. These data indicate that E2F2 extract has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms of action of E2F2 extract. PMID:22097093

  15. Evaluation of UV radiation-induced toxicity and biophysical changes in various skin cells with photo-shielding molecules.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-09-21

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) triggers many complex events in different types of skin cells, including benign, malignant and normal cells. Chromophores present in these cells play a crucial role in various cellular processes. Unprecedented methods are required for the real-time monitoring of changes in an in vitro model exposed to intermittent mild and intense UVR to determine the mechanisms underlying cell degeneration and the effects of unexpected toxic, agonist and antagonist agents. This study reports the analytical application of a whole cell-based sensor platform for examining the biophysical effects of UVR. We used human keratinocyte, melanocyte and fibroblast cell lines to determine the normal, pathological and protective roles of UVR. In addition, we examined the real-time morphological, biophysical and biomechanical changes associated with cell degeneration induced by UVR at 254 and 365 nm. Information on UVR-induced changes in the cytoskeleton ultrastructure, cellular integrity, cell spreading area, actin microfilament distribution inflammation, microtubule damage, membrane damage, rupture and death was characterized by examining the loss or increase in biophysical and biomechanical properties of these cells. All cells exposed to UVR at 254 and 365 nm showed a significant increase in surface roughness and stiffness in a time-dependent manner. UVR-induced toxicity in differently pigmented skin cells was compared with that in cells pretreated with melanin, keratin and basic fibroblast growth factor to analyze the shielding efficiency of these agents. Melanin exerted a significant shielding effect compared to the other two agents. The biophysical and biomechanical information obtained in this study could advance our understanding of the UVR-induced degeneration process, and help in developing new interventions strategies. PMID:26247629

  16. Effects of G6PD activity inhibition on the viability, ROS generation and mechanical properties of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zishui; Jiang, Chengrui; Feng, Yi; Chen, Rixin; Lin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Han, Luhao; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Hongyi; Guo, Yibin; Jiang, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been revealed to be involved in the efficacy to anti-cancer therapy but the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency. In our study, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and shRNA technology were used for inhibiting the activity of G6PD of cervical cancer cells. Peak Force QNM Atomic Force Microscopy was used to assess the changes of topography and biomechanical properties of cells and detect the effects on living cells in a natural aqueous environment. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe cell morphology. Moreover, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe the alterations in cytoskeleton to explore the involved mechanism. When G6PD was inhibited by DHEA or RNA interference, the abnormal Young's modulus and increased roughness of cell membrane were observed in HeLa cells, as well as the idioblasts. Simultaneously, G6PD deficiency resulted in decreased HeLa cells migration and proliferation ability but increased ROS generation inducing apoptosis. What's more, the inhibition of G6PD activity caused the disorganization of microfilaments and microtubules of cytoskeletons and cell shrinkage. Our results indicated the anti-cervix cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency may be involved with the decreased cancer cells migration and proliferation ability as a result of abnormal reorganization of cell cytoskeleton and abnormal biomechanical properties caused by the increased ROS. Suppression of G6PD may be a promising strategy in developing novel therapeutic methods for cervical cancer. PMID:27217331

  17. A novel method for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis BCG trafficking with recombinant BCG expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Y; Szilvasi, A; Chen, X; DeWolf, W C; O'Donnell, M A

    1996-01-01

    To better understand intracellular and extracellular trafficking of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) when used as an intravesical agent in the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, recombinant BCG (rBCG) expressing the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created. When the MB49.1 murine TCC cell line was incubated with GFP-expressing rBCG, internalization of the pathogen could be directly visualized by UV microscopy and quantitated by flow cytometry. The in vitro internalization of the GFP rBCG by the bladder tumor cells was temperature dependent, occurring most readily at 37 degrees C and being severely inhibited at 4 degrees C. Optimum internalization was achieved in vitro at a 10:1 BCG-to-tumor cell ratio over 24 h during which approximately 16% of the tumor cells became infected. Cytochalasin B, a phagocytosis inhibitor, abrogated the ingestion by almost 100% at a concentration of 200 micrograms/ml, indicating that contractile microfilaments likely played an important role in this process. By using mitomycin, a DNA cross-linking reagent, to inhibit proliferation of MB49.1 cells, clearance of about 40% of the green rBCG was achieved by 3 days postinfection. No significant difference between the GFP rBCG and wild-type BCG was observed in the ability to induce the expression of cell membrane proteins of major histocompatibility classes I and II, ICAM-I and -II, B7-1 and -2, of Fas from MB49.1 cells or cytokine production from mouse spleen cells. These results indicate that GFP rBCG may serve as a useful substitute for wild-type BCG in future studies of in vivo trafficking experimental and clinical immunotherapy. PMID:8914772

  18. F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N- ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin- membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein "ponticulin" from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge. PMID:3312238

  19. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Aarti; Lambrechts, Anja; Le thi Hao; Le, Thanh T.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Ampe, Christophe; Burghes, Arthur H.M.; Morris, Glenn E. . E-mail: glenn.morris@rjah.nhs.uk

    2005-09-10

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with {beta}-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins.

  20. Silencing the Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc Transferase Reduces Proliferation, Adhesion, and Migration of Cancer and Fetal Human Colon Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Baldini, Steffi F; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein, we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically decreased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of migration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disorganize microfilament, microtubule, and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migratory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biological properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells. PMID:27252680

  1. Colonization of germ-free mice with a mixture of three lactobacillus strains enhances the integrity of gut mucosa and ameliorates allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Kozakova, Hana; Schwarzer, Martin; Tuckova, Ludmila; Srutkova, Dagmar; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Rosiak, Ilona; Hudcovic, Tomas; Schabussova, Irma; Hermanova, Petra; Zakostelska, Zuzana; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-03-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical trials and animal experiments have shown that probiotic bacteria are promising tools for allergy prevention. Here, we analyzed the immunomodulatory properties of three selected lactobacillus strains and the impact of their mixture on allergic sensitization to Bet v 1 using a gnotobiotic mouse model. We showed that Lactobacillus (L.) rhamnosus LOCK0900, L. rhamnosus LOCK0908 and L. casei LOCK0919 are recognized via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) receptors and stimulate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to produce cytokines in species- and strain-dependent manners. Colonization of germ-free (GF) mice with a mixture of all three strains (Lmix) improved the intestinal barrier by strengthening the apical junctional complexes of enterocytes and restoring the structures of microfilaments extending into the terminal web. Mice colonized with Lmix and sensitized to the Bet v 1 allergen showed significantly lower levels of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a and an elevated total IgA level in the sera and intestinal lavages as well as an increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level compared with the sensitized GF mice. Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells from the Lmix-colonized mice showed the significant upregulation of TGF-β after in vitro stimulation with Bet v 1. Our results show that Lmix colonization improved the gut epithelial barrier and reduced allergic sensitization to Bet v 1. Furthermore, these findings were accompanied by the increased production of circulating and secretory IgA and the regulatory cytokine TGF-β. Thus, this mixture of three lactobacillus strains shows potential for use in the prevention of increased gut permeability and the onset of allergies in humans. PMID:25942514

  2. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    PubMed

    Grin, Boris; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Wedig, Tatjana; Cleland, Megan M; Tsai, Lester; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects. PMID:22720028

  3. Arabidopsis RhoGDIs Are Critical for Cellular Homeostasis of Pollen Tubes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qiang-Nan; Kang, Hui; Song, Shi-Jian; Ge, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Li, En; Li, Sha

    2016-01-01

    Rhos of plants (ROPs) play a key role in plant cell morphogenesis, especially in tip-growing pollen tubes and root hairs, by regulating an array of intracellular activities such as dynamic polymerization of actin microfilaments. ROPs are regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs), GTPase activating proteins (RopGAPs), and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs). RopGEFs and RopGAPs play evolutionarily conserved function in ROP signaling. By contrast, although plant RhoGDIs regulate the membrane extraction and cytoplasmic sequestration of ROPs, less clear are their positive roles in ROP signaling as do their yeast and metazoan counterparts. We report here that functional loss of all three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GDIs (tri-gdi) significantly reduced male transmission due to impaired pollen tube growth in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that ROPs were ectopically activated at the lateral plasma membrane of the tri-gdi pollen tubes. However, total ROPs were reduced posttranslationally in the tri-gdi mutant, resulting in overall dampened ROP signaling. Indeed, a ROP5 mutant that was unable to interact with GDIs failed to induce growth, indicating the importance of the ROP-GDI interaction for ROP signaling. Functional loss of GDIs impaired cellular homeostasis, resulting in excess apical accumulation of wall components in pollen tubes, similar to that resulting from ectopic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate signaling. GDIs and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate may antagonistically coordinate to maintain cellular homeostasis during pollen tube growth. Our results thus demonstrate a more complex role of GDIs in ROP-mediated pollen tube growth. PMID:26662604

  4. Monocytic Cells Become Less Compressible but More Deformable upon Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ravetto, Agnese; Wyss, Hans M.; Anderson, Patrick D.; den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Monocytes play a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis. During the process of inflammation, circulating monocytes become activated in the blood stream. The consequent interactions of the activated monocytes with the blood flow and endothelial cells result in reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins, in particular of the microfilament structure, and concomitant changes in cell shape and mechanical behavior. Here we investigate the full elastic behavior of activated monocytes in relation to their cytoskeletal structure to obtain a better understanding of cell behavior during the progression of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Methods and Results The recently developed Capillary Micromechanics technique, based on exposing a cell to a pressure difference in a tapered glass microcapillary, was used to measure the deformation of activated and non-activated monocytic cells. Monitoring the elastic response of individual cells up to large deformations allowed us to obtain both the compressive and the shear modulus of a cell from a single experiment. Activation by inflammatory chemokines affected the cytoskeletal organization and increased the elastic compressive modulus of monocytes with 73–340%, while their resistance to shape deformation decreased, as indicated by a 25–88% drop in the cell’s shear modulus. This decrease in deformability is particularly pronounced at high strains, such as those that occur during diapedesis through the vascular wall. Conclusion Overall, monocytic cells become less compressible but more deformable upon activation. This change in mechanical response under different modes of deformation could be important in understanding the interplay between the mechanics and function of these cells. In addition, our data are of direct relevance for computational modeling and analysis of the distinct monocytic behavior in the circulation and the extravascular space. Lastly, an understanding of the changes of monocyte

  5. Hypocrellin-B acetate as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme-assisted cell photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Croce, A C; Fasani, E; Bottone, M G; De Simone, U; Santin, G; Pellicciari, C; Bottiroli, G

    2011-11-01

    Photosensitizing molecules (PSs) undergo chemico-physical changes upon addition of suitable substituents, influencing both their photophysical properties and their ability to accumulate into cells. Once inside the cells, the modified PS acts as a fluorogenic substrate: the added substituent is removed by a specific enzyme, restoring the native PS in subcellular sensitive sites. We investigated the photophysical properties and interaction with HeLa cells of Hypocrellin-B (HypB), as native molecule and upon acetate-group addition (HypB-Ac). Chemical modification alters both absorption and fluorescence features of HypB; consequently, the dynamics of the enzyme hydrolysis of HypB-Ac can be monitored through restoring the native HypB spectral properties. At the cellular level, only the HypB emission signal was detected within 5 min of incubation with either HypB or HypB-Ac, allowing a direct comparison of the time courses of their intracellular accumulation. Plateau values were reached within 15 min of incubation with both compounds, the emission signals being significantly higher in HypB-Ac than in HypB treated cells. Consistently, imaging showed a rapid appearance of red fluorescence in the cytoplasm, with more abundant bright spots in HypB-Ac treated cells. Both compounds did not induce dark toxicity at concentrations up to 1 × 10(-6) M, while upon irradiation at 480 nm phototoxicity was significantly higher for cells exposed to HypB-Ac than for HypB-loaded cells. These findings suggest an improved efficacy of acetylated HypB to be internalized by cells through membrane trafficking, with a preferential interaction of the photoactive molecules on sensitive intracellular sites. After irradiation, in HypB-Ac treated cells, prominent disorganization of several cytoplasmic organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, microfilaments and microtubules were observed. PMID:21894341

  6. Effects of bromodeoxyuridine on DNA and cytoskeleton of primitive blood cells differentiating after exposure in a chick embryo in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotna, Bozena; Linhartova, Irena; Viklicky, Vladimir

    1997-12-01

    Three-day-old chick embryos were exposed intra-amniotically to bromodeoxyuridine within the range of teratogenic doses. Using comet assay, a significant damage of DNA was demonstrated in blood cells 3 h after the treatment. While the damage seemed to be partially repaired within 12 h, new peak of DNA fragmentation detected on incubation day 4 implied an apoptotic elimination of impaired cells. More frequent occurrence of macrophages in blood samples from BrdU treated embryos supports this assumption. The differentiating blood cells, however, did not exhibit any remarkable injury of cytoskeleton biogenesis. Nevertheless, an improved experimental procedure revealed the existence of intermediate 'wreath' stage preceding the consolidation of tubulin bundles into marginal band of chicken erythroblasts already within the course of embryonic period. The more, even the mature cells of primitive erhthroid series retained the visible bundles of radial microtubules attached to MTOC. Actin labeling disclosed in many primitive erythroblasts the special lace arrangement of microfilaments growing from nucleus surface while the rest of cells exhibited only a diffuse staining through cytoplasm, concentrated sometimes in area of marginal band. Such distribution was characteristic for mature form of primitive and definitive erythrocytes. The expression of vimentin in erythroid cells was very weak and quite different from patterns of adult definitive erythrocytes. The labeling was noticed only around the nucleus till incubation day 10 when implication of fiber growth through cytoplasm was detected. Conventional hematological analysis performed on incubation day 10 revealed in blood of BrdU treated embryos the lower incidence of definitive erythrocytes in favor of immature forms resulting probably from death of cells in consequence of primary DNA damage. Such effect could be associated with development of myelodysplastic syndrome in later life.

  7. Phorbol diesters and transferrin modulate lymphoblastoid cell transferrin receptor expression by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, O.; Phillips, J.L.; Boldt, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) by activated lymphocytes is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Regulation of TfR expression, therefore, is a mechanism by which the lymphocyte's proliferative potential may be directed and controlled. The authors studied mechanisms by which lymphoblastoid cells modulate TfR expression during treatment with phorbol diesters or iron transferrin (FeTf), agents which cause downregulation of cell surface TfR. Phorbol diester-induced TfR downregulation occurred rapidly, being detectable at 2 min and reaching maximal decreases of 50% by 15 min. It was inhibited by cold but not by agents that destabilize cytoskeletal elements. Furthermore, this downregulation was reversed rapidly by washing or by treatment with the membrane interactive agent, chlorpromazine. In contrast, FeTf-induced TfR downregulation occurred slowly. Decreased expression of TfR was detectable only after 15 min and maximal downregulation was achieved after 60 min. Although FeTf-induced downregulation also was inhibited by cold, it was inhibited in addition by a group of microtubule destabilizing agents (colchicine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin) or cytochalasin B, a microfilament inhibitor. Furthermore, FeTf-induced downregulation was not reversed readily by washing or by treatment with chlorpromazine. Phorbol diesters cause TfR downregulation by a cytoskeleton-independent mechanism. These data indicate that TfR expression is regulated by two independent mechanisms in lymphoblastoid cells, and they provide the possibility that downregulation of TfR by different mechanisms may result in different effects in these cells.

  8. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM SVI-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37, followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4. Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations.

  9. Cytoskeletal changes in podocytes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, I.; Sakai, T.; Kimura, K.; Tomino, Y.; Kriz, W.

    1996-01-01

    Foot process effacement represents the most characteristic change in podocyte phenotype under a great variety of experimental as well as human glomerulopathies. It consists in simplification up to a total disappearance of an interdigitating foot process pattern. Finally, podocytes affix to the glomerular basement membrane by outspread epithelial sheets. Structural and immunocytochemical techniques were applied to analyze the cytoskeletal changes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis. Three days after injection of the anti-glomerular-basement-membrane serum an interdigitating foot process pattern was almost fully lost; more than 90 percent of the outer glomerular capillary surface were covered by expanded sheets of podocyte epithelium that contain a highly organized cytoskeleton adhering to the basal cell membrane. Structurally, this cytoskeleton consists of an interwoven network of microfilaments with regularly distributed dense bodies, which obviously serve as cross-linkers within this network. Immunocytochemically, the expression of actin, alpha-actinin, and pp44 (a specific podocyte protein normally associated with the cytoskeleton of foot processes) were increased in this structure; alpha-actinin was especially prominent in the dense bodies. The results are consistent with the view that foot process effacement represents an adaptive change in cell shape including hypertrophy of the contractile apparatus, reinforcing the supportive role of podocytes. Several factors associated with increased distending forces to podocytes may underlie this phenotype change including loss of mesangial support, elevated glomerular pressures, and impairment of GBM substructure as well as of podocyte-GBM-contacts. Twenty-eight days after serum injection a remodeling of the foot process pattern was seen. It appears that this restitution depends on a preceding repair of mesangial support function to glomerular capillaries. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure

  10. Rapid neurite outgrowth in neurosecretory cells and neurons is sustained by the exocytosis of a cytoplasmic organelle, the enlargeosome.

    PubMed

    Racchetti, Gabriella; Lorusso, Anna; Schulte, Carsten; Gavello, Daniela; Carabelli, Valentina; D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2010-01-15

    Neurite outgrowth is known as a slow (days) process occurring in nerve cells and neurons during neurotrophin treatment and upon transfer to culture, respectively. Using Y27632, a drug that induces activation of Rac1, a downstream step of the neurotrophin signaling cascade, we have identified a new form of outgrowth, which is rapid (<1 hour) and extensive (>500 microm(2) surface enlargement/single cell/first hour). However, this outgrowth takes place only in cells (PC12-27 and SH-SY5Y cells, and embryonic and neonatal neurons) rich in an exocytic organelle, the enlargeosome. Golgi vesicles, TGN vesicles and endosomes are not involved. The need for enlargeosomes for plasma-membrane expansion was confirmed by the appearance of their marker, Ahnak, at the cell surface and by the dependence of neurite outgrowth on VAMP4, the vSNARE of enlargeosome exocytosis. In enlargeosome-rich cells, VAMP4 downregulation also attenuated the slow outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Similar to NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in enlargeosome-lacking cells, the new, rapid, Y27632-induced process required microtubules. Other properties of neurite outgrowth in cells lacking enlargeosomes - such as dependence on VAMP7, on microfilaments, on gene transcription and on protein synthesis, and blockade of mitoses and accumulation of neuronal markers - were not evident. The enlargeosome-sustained process might be useful for the rapid neurite outgrowth at peculiar stages and/or conditions of nerve and neuronal cells. However, its properties and its physiological and pathological role remain to be investigated. PMID:20026640

  11. F-actin dampens NLRP3 inflammasome activity via Flightless-I and LRRFIP2

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Danielle; Fickentscher, Céline; de Moerloose, Philippe; Brandt, Karim J.

    2016-01-01

    NLRP3 and ASC are able to form a large multimeric complex called inflammasome in response to a number danger signals. The NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent maturation of pro-IL-1β into active IL-1β. Although the mechanisms regulating the formation and activity of NLRP3 inflammasome are yet not fully elucidated, data suggest that the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome requires microtubules to induce the proximity of ASC and NLRP3. In this study we show that microfilaments (F-actin) inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activity and interact with NLRP3 and ASC. We demonstrate that the inhibition depends on the actin polymerization state but not on the active polymerization process. In ATP- or nigericin-activated macrophages, our data further indicate that Flightless-I (FliI) and leucine-rich repeat FliI-interaction protein 2 (LRRFIP2) are required for the co-localization of NLRP3, ASC and F-actin. We also established that the ability of Ca2+ to accentuate the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome is abrogated in FliI- and LRRFIP2-knockdown macrophages, suggesting that Ca2+ signaling requires the presence of FliI and LRRFIP2. Accordingly, we observed that Ca2+/FliI-dependent severing of F-actin suppresses F-actin/FliI/LRRFIP2-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition leading to increase IL-1β production. Altogether, our results unveil a new function of F-actin in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activity strengthening the importance of cytoskeleton in the regulation of inflammation. PMID:27431477

  12. Altered Lipid Homeostasis in Sertoli Cells Stressed by Mild Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Vallés, Ana S.; Aveldaño, Marta I.; Furland, Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is known to be vulnerable to temperature. Exposures of rat testis to moderate hyperthermia result in loss of germ cells with survival of Sertoli cells (SC). Because SC provide structural and metabolic support to germ cells, our aim was to test the hypothesis that these exposures affect SC functions, thus contributing to germ cell damage. In vivo, regularly repeated exposures (one of 15 min per day, once a day during 5 days) of rat testes to 43°C led to accumulation of neutral lipids. This SC-specific lipid function took 1–2 weeks after the last of these exposures to be maximal. In cultured SC, similar daily exposures for 15 min to 43°C resulted in significant increase in triacylglycerol levels and accumulation of lipid droplets. After incubations with [3H]arachidonate, the labeling of cardiolipin decreased more than that of other lipid classes. Another specifically mitochondrial lipid metabolic function, fatty acid oxidation, also declined. These lipid changes suggested that temperature affects SC mitochondrial physiology, which was confirmed by significantly increased degrees of membrane depolarization and ROS production. This concurred with reduced expression of two SC-specific proteins, transferrin, and Wilms' Tumor 1 protein, markers of SC secretion and differentiation functions, respectively, and with an intense SC cytoskeletal perturbation, evident by loss of microtubule network (α-tubulin) and microfilament (f-actin) organization. Albeit temporary and potentially reversible, hyperthermia-induced SC structural and metabolic alterations may be long-lasting and/or extensive enough to respond for the decreased survival of the germ cells they normally foster. PMID:24690895

  13. Colonization of germ-free mice with a mixture of three lactobacillus strains enhances the integrity of gut mucosa and ameliorates allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, Hana; Schwarzer, Martin; Tuckova, Ludmila; Srutkova, Dagmar; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Rosiak, Ilona; Hudcovic, Tomas; Schabussova, Irma; Hermanova, Petra; Zakostelska, Zuzana; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical trials and animal experiments have shown that probiotic bacteria are promising tools for allergy prevention. Here, we analyzed the immunomodulatory properties of three selected lactobacillus strains and the impact of their mixture on allergic sensitization to Bet v 1 using a gnotobiotic mouse model. We showed that Lactobacillus (L.) rhamnosus LOCK0900, L. rhamnosus LOCK0908 and L. casei LOCK0919 are recognized via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) receptors and stimulate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to produce cytokines in species- and strain-dependent manners. Colonization of germ-free (GF) mice with a mixture of all three strains (Lmix) improved the intestinal barrier by strengthening the apical junctional complexes of enterocytes and restoring the structures of microfilaments extending into the terminal web. Mice colonized with Lmix and sensitized to the Bet v 1 allergen showed significantly lower levels of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a and an elevated total IgA level in the sera and intestinal lavages as well as an increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level compared with the sensitized GF mice. Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells from the Lmix-colonized mice showed the significant upregulation of TGF-β after in vitro stimulation with Bet v 1. Our results show that Lmix colonization improved the gut epithelial barrier and reduced allergic sensitization to Bet v 1. Furthermore, these findings were accompanied by the increased production of circulating and secretory IgA and the regulatory cytokine TGF-β. Thus, this mixture of three lactobacillus strains shows potential for use in the prevention of increased gut permeability and the onset of allergies in humans. PMID:25942514

  14. Establishment and characterization of two primary breast cancer cell lines from young Indian breast cancer patients: mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandrangi, Santhi Latha; Raju Bagadi, Sarangadhara Appala; Sinha, Navin Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Dada, Rima; Lakhanpal, Meena; Soni, Abha; Malvia, Shreshtha; Simon, Sheeba; Chintamani, Chintamani; Mohil, Ravindar Singh; Bhatnagar, Dinesh; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Two novel triple negative breast cancer cell lines, NIPBC-1 and NIPBC-2 were successfully established from primary tumors of two young breast cancer patients aged 39 and 38 years respectively, diagnosed as infiltrating duct carcinoma of breast. Characterization of these cell lines showed luminal origin with expression of epithelial specific antigen and cytokeratin 18 and presence of microfilaments and secretary vesicles, microvilli, tight junctions and desmosomes on ultra-structural analysis. Both the cell lines showed anchorage independent growth and invasion of matrigel coated membranes. Karyotype analysis showed aneuploidy, deletions and multiple rearrangements in chromosomes 7, 9, X and 11 and isochromosomes 17q in both the cell lines. P53 mutational analysis revealed no mutation in the coding region in both the cell lines; however NIPBC-2 cell line showed presence of heterozygous C/G polymorphism, g.417 C > G (NM_000546.5) resulting in Arg/Pro allele at codon 72 of exon 4. Screening for mutations in BRCA1&2 genes revealed presence of three heterozygous polymorphisms in exon 11 of BRCA1 and 2 polymorphisms in exons 11, and14 of BRCA2 gene in both the cell lines. Both the cell lines showed presence of CD 44+/24-breast cancer stem cells and capability of producing mammosphere on culture. The two triple negative breast cancer cell lines established from early onset breast tumors can serve as novel invitro models to study mechanisms underlying breast tumorigenesis in younger age group patients and also identification of new therapeutic modalities targeting cancer stem cells. PMID:24502646

  15. Differential lipid binding of vinculin isoforms promotes quasi-equivalent dimerization.

    PubMed

    Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Rangarajan, Erumbi S; Brown, David T; Izard, Tina

    2016-08-23

    The main cause of death globally remains debilitating heart conditions, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which are often due to mutations of specific components of adhesion complexes. Vinculin regulates these complexes and plays essential roles in intercalated discs that are necessary for muscle cell function and coordinated movement and in the development and function of the heart. Humans bearing familial or sporadic mutations in vinculin suffer from chronic, progressively debilitating DCM that ultimately leads to cardiac failure and death, whereas autosomal dominant mutations in vinculin can also provoke HCM, causing acute cardiac failure. The DCM/HCM-associated mutants of vinculin occur in the 68-residue insert unique to the muscle-specific, alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin, termed metavinculin (MV). Contrary to studies that suggested that phosphoinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) only induces vinculin homodimers, which are asymmetric, we show that phospholipid binding results in a domain-swapped symmetric MV dimer via a quasi-equivalent interface compared with vinculin involving R975. Although one of the two PIP2 binding sites is preserved, the symmetric MV dimer that bridges two PIP2 molecules differs from the asymmetric vinculin dimer that bridges only one PIP2 Unlike vinculin, wild-type MV and the DCM/HCM-associated R975W mutant bind PIP2 in their inactive conformations, and R975W MV fails to dimerize. Mutating selective vinculin residues to their corresponding MV residues, or vice versa, switches the isoform's dimeric constellation and lipid binding site. Collectively, our data suggest that MV homodimerization modulates microfilament attachment at muscular adhesion sites and furthers our understanding of MV-mediated cardiac remodeling. PMID:27503891

  16. Osteogenic differentiation on DLC-PDMS-h surface.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Antti; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sillat, Tarvo; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis was that anti-fouling diamond-like carbon polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) surface impairs early and late cellular adhesion and matrix-cell interactions. The effect of hybrid surface on cellular adhesion and cytoskeletal organization, important for osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), where therefore compared with plain DLC and titanium (Ti). hMSCs were induced to osteogenesis and followed over time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and hydroxyapatite (HA) staining. SEM at 7.5 hours showed that initial adherence and spreading of hMSC was poor on DLC-PDMS-h. At 5 days some hMSC were undergoing condensation and apoptotic fragmentation, whereas cells on DLC and Ti grew well. DAPI-actin-vinculin triple staining disclosed dwarfed cells with poorly organized actin cytoskeleton-focal complex/adhesion-growth substrate attachments on hybrid coating, whereas spread cells, organized microfilament bundles, and focal adhesions were seen on DLC and in particular on Ti. Accordingly, at day one ToF-SIMS mass peaks showed poor protein adhesion to DLC-PDMS-h compared with DLC and Ti. COL1A1, ALP, OP mRNA levels at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and/or 28 and lack of HA deposition at day 28 demonstrated delayed or failed osteogenesis on DLC-PDMS-h. Anti-fouling DLC-PDMS-h is a poor cell adhesion substrate during the early protein adsorption-dependent phase and extracellular matrix-dependent late phase. Accordingly, some hMSCs underwent anoikis-type apoptosis and failed to complete osteogenesis, due to few focal adhesions and poor cell-to-ECM contacts. DLC-PDMS-h seems to be a suitable coating for non-integrating implants/devices designed for temporary use. PMID:24574187

  17. PeakForce Tapping resolves individual microvilli on living cells.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Hermann; Medalsy, Izhar; Hu, Shuiqing; Slade, Andrea L; Shaw, James E

    2016-02-01

    Microvilli are a common structure found on epithelial cells that increase the apical surface thus enhancing the transmembrane transport capacity and also serve as one of the cell's mechanosensors. These structures are composed of microfilaments and cytoplasm, covered by plasma membrane. Epithelial cell function is usually coupled to the density of microvilli and its individual size illustrated by diseases, in which microvilli degradation causes malabsorption and diarrhea. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to study the topography and morphology of living cells. Visualizing soft and flexible structures such as microvilli on the apical surface of a live cell has been very challenging because the native microvilli structures are displaced and deformed by the interaction with the probe. PeakForce Tapping® is an AFM imaging mode, which allows reducing tip-sample interactions in time (microseconds) and controlling force in the low pico-Newton range. Data acquisition of this mode was optimized by using a newly developed PeakForce QNM-Live Cell probe, having a short cantilever with a 17-µm-long tip that minimizes hydrodynamic effects between the cantilever and the sample surface. In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time the visualization of the microvilli on living kidney cells with AFM using PeakForce Tapping. The structures observed display a force dependence representing either the whole microvilli or just the tips of the microvilli layer. Together, PeakForce Tapping allows force control in the low pico-Newton range and enables the visualization of very soft and flexible structures on living cells under physiological conditions. PMID:26414320

  18. Vascular disrupting activity of combretastatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Porcù, Elena; Salvador, Alessia; Primac, Irina; Mitola, Stefania; Ronca, Roberto; Ravelli, Cosetta; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Vedaldi, Daniela; Romagnoli, Romeo; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-08-01

    Tubulin binding agents (TBAs) are drugs commonly used in cancer therapy as antimitotics. In the last years it has been described that TBAs, like combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), present also vascular disrupting activity and among its derivatives we identified three analogues endowed with potent microtubule depolymerizing activity, higher than that of the lead compound. In this paper we have investigated the anti-vascular activity of these derivatives. We tested the anti-angiogenic effects in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in vivo in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and in a syngeneic tumor mouse model. The three molecules, compound 1: 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole; compound 2: (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole, compound-3 (4-amino-2-p-tolylaminothiazol-5-yl)-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-methanone) showed a moderate effect on the growth of HUVEC cells at concentrations below 200nM. At lower concentrations (5-20nM), in particular compound 2, they induced inhibition of capillary tube formation, inhibition of endothelial cell migration and affected endothelial cell morphology as demonstrated by the alteration of the microfilaments network. Moreover, they also increased permeability of HUVEC cells in a time dependent manner. In addition, compounds 1 and 3, as well as the reference compound CA-4, inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and in addition compound 3 prevented the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK. In CAM assay, both compounds 2 and 3 efficiently counteracted the strong angiogenic response induced by bFGF, even at the lowest concentration used (1pmol/egg). Moreover in a syngenic mouse model, compounds 1-3 after a single i.p. injection (30mg/kg), showed a stronger reduction of microvascular density. Altogether our results identified these derivatives as potential new vascular disrupting agents candidates. PMID:27235861

  19. Influence of phosphorylation on isoform composition and function of a microtubule-associated protein from developing Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Macrae, T H

    1995-01-01

    A novel 49 kDa protein, which exhibits nucleotide-dependent cross-linking of microtubules in vitro and localizes to ordered microtubule arrays by immunofluorescent staining, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the brine shrimp, Artemia. Electrophoretic analysis involving isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gels, supplemented by staining of Western blots with affinity-purified antibody, revealed that the 49 kDa protein consists of five isoforms with pI values of 6.0-6.2. The amount of 49 kDa protein increased slightly, but its isoform composition did not change significantly, during development of Artemia gastrula to third-instar larvae. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase caused the 49 kDa protein to undergo a mobility shift on gel electrophoresis, and, by use of an antibody to phosphoserine, at least two isoforms of the protein were shown to be phosphorylated. The serine phosphate, presumably added by a post-translational mechanism, did not influence binding of the 49 kDa protein to microtubules. Under conditions in which microtubules were cross-linked, the 49 kDa protein failed to interact with actin filaments. Our results demonstrate that the 49 kDa protein, like other structural microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and MAP2, is composed of several isoforms, some of which are phosphorylated. This protein has the potential to regulate the spatial distribution of microtubules within cells but does not link microfilaments to one another or to microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7733878

  20. Calcium and actin in the saga of awakening oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Luigia Limatola, Nunzia; Chun, Jong T.

    2015-04-24

    The interaction of the spermatozoon with the egg at fertilization remains one of the most fascinating mysteries of life. Much of our scientific knowledge on fertilization comes from studies on sea urchin and starfish, which provide plenty of gametes. Large and transparent, these eggs have served as excellent model systems for studying egg activation and embryo development in seawater, a plain natural medium. Starfish oocytes allow the study of the cortical, cytoplasmic and nuclear changes during the meiotic maturation process, which can also be triggered in vitro by hormonal stimulation. These morphological and biochemical changes ensure successful fertilization of the eggs at the first metaphase. On the other hand, sea urchin eggs are fertilized after the completion of meiosis, and are particularly suitable for the study of sperm–egg interaction, early events of egg activation, and embryonic development, as a large number of mature eggs can be fertilized synchronously. Starfish and sea urchin eggs undergo abrupt changes in the cytoskeleton and ion fluxes in response to the fertilizing spermatozoon. The plasma membrane and cortex of an egg thus represent “excitable media” that quickly respond to the stimulus with the Ca{sup 2+} swings and structural changes. In this article, we review some of the key findings on the rapid dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton in the oocyte/egg cortex upon hormonal or sperm stimulation and their roles in the modulation of the Ca{sup 2+} signals and in the control of monospermic fertilization. - Highlights: • Besides microtubules, microfilaments may anchor the nucleus to oocyte surface. • The cortical Ca{sup 2+} flash and wave at fertilization mirror electrical membrane change. • Artificial egg activation lacks microvilli extension in the perivitelline space. • Calcium is necessary but not sufficient for cortical granules exocytosis. • Actin cytoskeleton modulates Ca{sup 2+} release at oocyte maturation

  1. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  2. Brush cells in the human duodenojejunal junction: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Morroni, Manrico; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Cinti, Saverio

    2007-01-01

    Brush cells have been identified in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract mucosa of many mammalian species. In humans they are found in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal apparatus, in both the stomach and the gallbladder. The function of brush cells is unknown, and most morphological data have been obtained in rodents. To extend our knowledge of human brush cells, we performed an ultrastructural investigation of human small intestine brush cells. Six brush cells identified in five out of more than 300 small intestine biopsies performed for gastrointestinal tract disorders were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Five brush cells were located on the surface epithelium and one in a crypt. The five surface brush cells were characterized by a narrow apical pole from which emerged microvilli that were longer and thicker than those of enterocytes. The filamentous core extended far into the cell body without forming the terminal web. Caveolae were abundant. Filaments were in the form of microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Cytoplasmic projections containing filaments were found on the basolateral surface of brush cells. In a single cell, axons containing vesicles and dense core granules were in close contact both with the basal and the lateral surface of the cell. The crypt brush cell appeared less mature. We concluded that human small intestine brush cells share a similar ultrastructural biology with those of other mammals. They are polarized and well-differentiated cells endowed with a distinctive cytoskeleton. The observation of nerve fibres closely associated with brush cells, never previously described in humans, lends support to the hypothesis of a receptor role for these cells. PMID:17509089

  3. Silencing the Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc Transferase Reduces Proliferation, Adhesion, and Migration of Cancer and Fetal Human Colon Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Baldini, Steffi F.; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein, we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically decreased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of migration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disorganize microfilament, microtubule, and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migratory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biological properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells. PMID:27252680

  4. The Biphasic Increase of PIP2 in the Fe