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Sample records for microgravity vibration isolation

  1. A microgravity vibration isolation rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti B.; Knospe, Carl R.; Allaire, Paul E.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that the spacecraft environment deviates from a state of zero gravity due to various random as well as repetitive sources. Science experiments that require a microgravity environment must therefore be isolated from these disturbances. Active control of noncontact magnetic actuators enables such isolation. A one degree of freedom test rig has been constructed to demonstrate the isolation capability achievable using magnetic actuators. A cylindrical mass on noncontacting electromagnetic supports simulates a microgravity experiment on board an orbiter. Disturbances generated by an electrodynamic shaker are transmitted to the mass via dashpots representing umbilicals. A compact Lorentz actuator has been designed to provide attenuation of this disturbance.

  2. Payload vibration isolation in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Many in-space research experiments require the microgravity environment attainable near the center of mass of the Space Station. Disturbances to the structure surrounding an experiment may lead to vibration levels that will degrade the microgravity environment and undermine the experiment's validity. In-flight disturbances will include vibration transmission from nearby equipment and excitation from crew activity. Isolation of these vibration-sensitive experiments is required. Analytical and experimental work accomplished to develop a payload (experiment) isolation system for use in space is described. The isolation scheme allows the payload to float freely within a prescribed boundary while being kept centered with forces generated by small jets of air. The vibration criterion was a maximum payload acceleration of 10 micro-g's (9.81x10(exp -5)m/s(exp 2), independent of frequency. An experimental setup, composed of a cart supported by air bearings on a flat granite slab, was designed and constructed to simulate the microgravity environment in the horizontal plane. Experimental results demonstrate that the air jet control system can effectively manage payload oscillatory response. An analytical model was developed and verified by comparing predicted and measured payload response. The mathematical model, which includes payload dynamics, control logic, and air jet forces, is used to investigate payload response to disturbances likely to be present in the Space Station.

  3. Control issues of microgravity vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knospe, C. R.; Hampton, R. D.; Allaire, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    Active vibration isolation systems contemplated for microgravity space experiments may be designed to reach given performance requirements in a variety of ways. An analogy to passive isolation systems proves to be illustrative but lacks the flexibility as a design tool of a control systems approach and may lead to poor designs. For example, it is shown that a focus on equivalent stiffness in isolation system design leads to a controller that sacrifices robustness for performance. Control theory as applied to vibration isolation is reviewed and passive analogies are discussed. The loop shaping trade-off is introduced and used to design a single-degree-of-freedom fedback controller. An algebraic control design methodology is contrasted to loop shaping and critiqued. Multi-axis vibration isolation and the problems of decoupled single loop control are introduced through a two-degree-of-freedom example problem. It is shown that center of mass uncertainty may result in instability when decoupled single loop control is used. This results from the ill-conditioned nature of the feedback control design. The use of the Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis procedure for vibration isolation controller design is discussed.

  4. International Workshop on Vibration Isolation Technology for Microgravity Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The International Workshop on Vibration Isolation Technology for Microgravity Science Applications was held on April 23-25, 1991 at the Holiday Inn in Middleburg Heights, Ohio. The main objective of the conference was to explore vibration isolation requirements of space experiments and what level of vibration isolation could be provided both by present and planned systems on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom and by state of the art vibration isolation technology.

  5. A Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. This paper provides a tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements as well as a comparison of the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation. This paper also surveys the flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation (STABLE); the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM); and the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS).

  6. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  7. Microgravity vibration isolation research at the University of Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knospe, Carl R.; Lewis, David W.; Allan, A. Peter; Allaire, Paul E.; Humphris, Robert R.; Banerjee, Bibhuti B.; Hampton, R. David

    1992-01-01

    Research at the University of Virginia on microgravity vibration isolation is reviewed. This work falls into three areas: the one degree of freedom isolation test rig and Lorentz actuator design, multiple degree of freedom active isolation system control, and innovative actuators for long stroke, non-contacting six degree of freedom isolation. Theoretical and design issues of multiple degree of freedom isolation are discussed.

  8. Microgravity Vibration Isolation for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is being envisioned as a laboratory for experiments in numerous microgravity (micrograms) science disciplines. Predictions of the ISS acceleration environment indicate that the ambient acceleration levels ill exceed levels that can be tolerated by the science experiments. Hence, microgravity vibration isolation systems are being developed to attenuate the accelerations to acceptable levels. While passive isolation systems are beneficial in certain applications, active isolation systems are required to provide attenuation at low frequencies and to mitigate directly induced payload disturbances. To date, three active isolation systems have been successfully tested in the orbital environment. A fourth system called g-LIMIT is currently being developed for the Microgravity Science Glovebox and is manifested for launch on the UF-1 mission. This paper presents an overview of microgravity vibration isolation technology and the g-LIMIT system in particular.

  9. A TREETOPS Simulation of the STABLE Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G. S.; Whorton, M. S.; Kim, Y. K.

    1999-01-01

    As a research facility for microgravity science, the International Space Station (ISS) will be used for numerous experiments which require a quiescent acceleration environment across a broad spectrum of frequencies. For many micro-gravity science experiments, the ambient acceleration environment on ISS will significantly exceed desirable levels. The ubiquity of acceleration disturbance sources and the difficulty in characterization of these sources precludes source isolation, requiring, vibration isolation to attenuate the disturbances to an acceptable level at the experiment. To provide a more quiescent acceleration environment, a vibration isolation system named STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By LEvitation) was developed. STABLE was the first successful flight test of an active isolation device for micro-gravity science payloads and was flown on STS-73/USML-2 in October 1995. This report documents the development of the high fidelity, nonlinear, multibody simulation developed using TREETOPS which was used to design the control laws and define the expected performance of the STABLE isolation system.

  10. Microgravity Vibration Isolation System Based on Parallel Kinematic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russkin, Alexander; Postojuk, Nikolay

    The paper is devoted to the construction of an active vibration isolation system of experimental and technological equipment operating in microgravity conditions. Space experiments associated with obtaining ultrapure materials are required the residual level of microgravity vibration from mmug to mg at the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz in the experiment area. This residual level of microgravity vibration is difficult to achieve by conventional passive protection systems. To date the different types of active vibration isolation systems are constructed, such as STABLE, ARIS, MIM, g-LIMIT and MVIS, but their characteristics and geometrical parameters do not always satisfy the given technological requirements. In this paper, the mechanism with parallel kinematic constraints (MPKS) is proposed for constructing microgravity active vibration isolation system, which provides protection against vibrations in six degrees of freedom and can be scaled depending on the specific tasks. MPKS distinguishing feature is the presence of closed kinematic chain, which provide high rigidity of the structure, reduce the mass of moving parts and reduce the load on the actuator. As a result, this increases the dynamics and positioning accuracy MPKS. The proposed version of microgravity vibration isolation system consists of two main parts: the electromechanical assembly and control unit. The main specifications for the constituent parts of the system are defined. A comparative analysis of different types of actuators and sensors for electromechanical assembly is carried out. The appropriate components to provide the desired specifications are selected. There are proposed to use piezoelectric motors as actuators in electromechanical assembly. Mathematical models of MPKS with six degrees of freedom and control system are considered. The structure of the control system and controller type is selected. A mathematical model of proposed microgravity vibration isolation system is

  11. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  12. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  13. Equations of Motion for the g-LIMIT Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Whorton, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    A desirable microgravity environment for experimental science payloads may require an active vibration isolation control system. A vibration isolation system named g-LIMIT (GLovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology) is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support microgravity science experiments using the microgravity science glovebox. In this technical memorandum, the full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear equations of motion for g-LIMIT are derived. Although the motivation for this model development is control design and analysis of g-LIMIT, the equations are derived for a general configuration and may be used for other isolation systems as well.

  14. Voice Coil Actuator for Active Vibration Isolation in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, E.; Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Maddaleno, F.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Many microgravity experiments require very low levels of acceleration which cannot be achieved on the International Space Station due to the residual vibration. A vibration isolation system is then usually devised between the experiment and the space station to obtain the desired accelerations at the experiment level. The very low frequency threshold required by the isolation specifications makes passive solutions for the isolation difficult to implement. This is mainly due to the practical impossibility of achieving high values of compliance of the elastic suspension. Furthermore, the unavoidable connections of uncertain characteristics between the experiment and the space station makes the problem even more difficult to be addressed. Disturbance reduction can be performed by means of active vibration isolation, based on magnetic suspension technology acting both at rack and at scientific experiment levels. The stiffness and damping of the active suspension can be tuned by the control loop to minimise the acceleration of the payload. The mechatronic design of an active magnetic suspension for vibration isolation in microgravity has been performed by resorting to the so-called voice-coil configuration, after a preliminary trade-off analysis of the available magnetic actuators and materials. The optimisation of the actuator layout was developed with respect to the design airgap and force density (N/kg of actuator) and force resolution requirements, by demonstrating that the configuration based on Lorentz magnetic force is more suitable for the above application in terms of stability, bi- directionality of the actuation, cross coupling effects and linearity of the force. The aim of the design was the maximisation of the actuation force/mass ratio. The FEM analysis of the voice coil allowed to investigate the flux leakage and the cross coupling effects between the actuation forces along the three principal directions of the active device. A procedure for the numerical

  15. Nonintrusive inertial vibration isolation technology for microgravity space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic acceleration environment observed on Space Shuttle flights to date and predicted for the Space Station has complicated the analysis of prior microgravity experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long-term, microgravity environments. Isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements to this environment exist, but at present have not been demonstrated in flight configurations. A summary of the theoretical evaluation for two one degree-of-freedom (DOF) active magnetic isolators and their predicted response to both direct and base excitations is presented. These isolators can be used independently or in concert to isolate acceleration-sensitive microgravity space experiments, dependent on the isolation capability required for specific experimenter needs.

  16. Nonintrusive inertial vibration isolation technology for microgravity space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic acceleration environment observed on Space Shuttle flights to date and predicted for the Space Station has complicated the analysis of prior microgravity experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long-term, microgravity environments. Isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements to this environment exist, but at present have not been demonstrated in flight configurations. A summary of the theoretical evaluation for two one degree-of-freedom (DOF) active magnetic isolators and their predicted response to both direct and base excitations is presented. These isolators can be used independently or in concert to isolate acceleration-sensitive microgravity space experiments, dependent on the isolation capability required for specific experimenter needs.

  17. Low frequency vibration isolation technology for microgravity space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic acceleration environment observed on Space Shuttle flights to date and predicted for the Space Station has complicated the analysis of prior microgravity experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long-term, low-g environments. Isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements in this environment exist, but have not been demonstrated in flight configurations. This paper presents a summary of the theoretical evaluation for two one degree-of-freedom (DOF) active magnetic isolators and their predicted response to both direct and base excitations, that can be used to isolate acceleration sensitive microgravity space experiments.

  18. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  19. Development of a vibration isolation prototype system for microgravity space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, Kirk A.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of small levels of low-frequency accelerations on the space shuttle orbiters has degraded the microgravity environment for the science community. Growing concern about this microgravity environment has generated interest in systems that can isolate microgravity science experiments from vibrations. This interest has resulted primarily in studies of isolation systems with active methods of compensation. The development of a magnetically suspended, six-degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation prototype system capable of providing the needed compensation to the orbital environment is presented. A design for the magnetic actuators is described, and the control law for the prototype system that gives a nonintrusive inertial isolation response to the system is also described. Relative and inertial sensors are used to provide an inertial reference for isolating the payload.

  20. Results of the Stable Microgravity Vibration Isolation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Donald; Boucher, Robert; Schenck, David; Nurre, Gerald; Whorton, Mark; Kim, Young; Alhorn, Dean

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the STABLE microgravity isolation system developed and successfully flight tested in October 1995. A description of the hardware design and operational principles is given. A sample of the measured flight data is presented, including an evaluation of attenuation performance provided by the actively controlled electromagnetic isolation system. Preliminary analyses of flight data show that the acceleration environment aboard STABLE's isolated platform was attenuated by a factor of more than 25 between 0.1 and 100 Hz. STABLE was developed under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The flight hardware was designed, fabricated, integrated, tested, and delivered to the Cape during a five month period.

  1. Microgravity vibration isolation: Optimal preview and feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Allaire, P. E.; Lewis, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to achieve adequate low-frequency vibration isolation for certain space experiments an active control is needed, due to inherent passive-isolator limitations. Proposed here are five possible state-space models for a one-dimensional vibration isolation system with a quadratic performance index. The five models are subsets of a general set of nonhomogeneous state space equations which includes disturbance terms. An optimal control is determined, using a differential equations approach, for this class of problems. This control is expressed in terms of constant, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) feedback gains and constant feedforward (preview) gains. The gains can be easily determined numerically. They result in a robust controller and offers substantial improvements over a control that uses standard LQR feedback alone.

  2. Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  3. Active Vibration Isolation of Microgravity Experiments with Spring Umbilicals Using an Electrodynamic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, B. B.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity experiments will require active vibration isolation in the low to mid frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz. Approximately two orders of acceleration reduction (40 dB) will be required. Previous works have reported results for accelerations transmitted through the umbilical. This paper describes experimental and theoretical results for vibration isolation in one dimension (horizontal) where the simulated experiment is connected to the spacecraft by a spring umbilical. The experiment consisted of a spacecraft (shaker), experiment (mass), umbilical, accelerometer, control electronics, and Lorentz actuator. The experiment mass was supported in magnetic bearings to avoid any stiction problems. Acceleration feedback control was employed to obtain the vibration isolation. Three different spring umbilicals were employed. Acceleration reductions on the order of 40 dB were obtained over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz. Good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment.

  4. The Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount: A Dynamic Model for Optimal Controller Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Tryggvason, Bjarni V.; DeCarufel, Jean; Townsend, Miles A.; Wagar, William O.

    1997-01-01

    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) was built by the Canadian Space Agency to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels, and has been operational on the Russian Space Station Mir since May 1996. It has demonstrated good isolation performance and has supported several materials science experiments. The MIM uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation (Euler-parameter) measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of the MIM, in a form suitable for optimal controller design.

  5. Damping Mechanisms for Microgravity Vibration Isolation (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 94-07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, M. S.; Eldridge, J. T.; Ferebee, R. C.; Lassiter, J. O.; Redmon, J. W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    As a research facility for microgravity science, the International Space Station (ISS) will be used for numerous investigations such as protein crystal growth, combustion, and fluid mechanics experiments which require a quiescent acceleration environment across a broad spectrum of frequencies. These experiments are most sensitive to low-frequency accelerations and can tolerate much higher accelerations at higher frequency. However, the anticipated acceleration environment on ISS significantly exceeds the required acceleration level. The ubiquity and difficulty in characterization of the disturbance sources precludes source isolation, requiring vibration isolation to attenuate the anticipated disturbances to an acceptable level. This memorandum reports the results of research in active control methods for microgravity vibration isolation.

  6. Fluids and Materials Science Studies Utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Rodney; Tryggvason, Bjarni; Duval, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Canada's Microgravity Sciences Program (MSP) is the smallest program of the ISS partners and so can participate in only a few, highly focused projects in order to make a scientific and technological impact. One focused project involves determining the effect of accelerations (g-jitter) on scientific measurements in a microgravity environment utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM). Many experiments share the common characteristic of having a fluid stage in their process. The quality of the experimental measurements have been expected to be affected by g-jitters which has lead the ISS program to include specifications to limit the level of acceleration allowed on a subset of experimental racks. From finite element analysis (FEM), the ISS structure will not be able to meet the acceleration specifications. Therefore, isolation systems are necessary. Fluid science results and materials science results show significant sensitivity to g-jitter. The work done to date should be viewed only as a first look at the issue of g-jitter sensitivity. The work should continue with high priority such that the international science community and the ISS program can address the requirement and settle on an agreed to overall approach as soon as possible.

  7. Microgravity vibration isolation: An optimal control law for the one-dimensional case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Allaire, P. E.; Lewis, D. W.; Knospe, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Certain experiments contemplated for space platforms must be isolated from the accelerations of the platforms. An optimal active control is developed for microgravity vibration isolation, using constant state feedback gains (identical to those obtained from the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) approach) along with constant feedforward (preview) gains. The quadratic cost function for this control algorithm effectively weights external accelerations of the platform disturbances by a factor proportional to (1/omega)(exp 4). Low frequency accelerations (less than 50 Hz) are attenuated by greater than two orders of magnitude. The control relies on the absolute position and velocity feedback of the experiment and the absolute position and velocity feedforward of the platform, and generally derives the stability robustness characteristics guaranteed by the LQR approach to optimality. The method as derived is extendable to the case in which only the relative positions and velocities and the absolute accelerations of the experiment and space platform are available.

  8. Microgravity vibration isolation: An optimal control law for the one-dimensional case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Richard D.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Allaire, Paul E.; Lewis, David W.; Knospe, Carl R.

    1991-01-01

    Certain experiments contemplated for space platforms must be isolated from the accelerations of the platform. An optimal active control is developed for microgravity vibration isolation, using constant state feedback gains (identical to those obtained from the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) approach) along with constant feedforward gains. The quadratic cost function for this control algorithm effectively weights external accelerations of the platform disturbances by a factor proportional to (1/omega) exp 4. Low frequency accelerations are attenuated by greater than two orders of magnitude. The control relies on the absolute position and velocity feedback of the experiment and the absolute position and velocity feedforward of the platform, and generally derives the stability robustness characteristics guaranteed by the LQR approach to optimality. The method as derived is extendable to the case in which only the relative positions and velocities and the absolute accelerations of the experiment and space platform are available.

  9. Microgravity vibration isolation technology: Development to demonstration. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1993-01-01

    The low gravity environment provided by space flight has afforded the science community a unique area for the study of fundamental and technological sciences. However, the dynamic environment observed on space shuttle flights and predicted for Space Station Freedom has complicated the analysis of prior 'microgravity' experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long term, low gravity environments. Thus, isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements to this random environment have been developed. This dissertation deals with the design constraints imposed by acceleration sensitive, microgravity experiment payloads in the unique environment of space. A theoretical background for the inertial feedback and feedforward isolation of a payload was developed giving the basis for two experimental active inertial isolation systems developed for the demonstration of these advanced active isolation techniques. A prototype six degree of freedom digital active isolation system was designed and developed for the ground based testing of an actively isolated payload in three horizontal degrees of freedom. A second functionally equivalent system was built for the multi-dimensional testing of an active inertial isolation system in a reduced gravity environment during low gravity aircraft trajectories. These multi-input multi-output control systems are discussed in detail with estimates on acceleration noise floor performance as well as the actual performance acceleration data. The attenuation performance is also given for both systems demonstrating the advantages between inertial and non-inertial control of a payload for both the ground base environment and the low gravity aircraft acceleration environment. A future goal for this area of research is to validate the technical approaches developed to the 0.01 Hz regime by demonstrating a functional active inertial feedforward/feedback isolation system during orbital flight

  10. Microgravity Vibration Control and Civil Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark Stephen; Alhorn, Dean Carl

    1998-01-01

    Controlling vibration of structures is essential for both space structures as well as terrestrial structures. Due to the ambient acceleration levels anticipated for the International Space Station, active vibration isolation is required to provide a quiescent acceleration environment for many science experiments. An overview is given of systems developed and flight tested in orbit for microgravity vibration isolation. Technology developed for vibration control of flexible space structures may also be applied to control of terrestrial structures such as buildings and bridges subject to wind loading or earthquake excitation. Recent developments in modern robust control for flexible space structures are shown to provide good structural vibration control while maintaining robustness to model uncertainties. Results of a mixed H-2/H-infinity control design are provided for a benchmark problem in structural control for earthquake resistant buildings.

  11. Vibration isolation technology - An executive summary of systems development and demonstration. [for proposed microgravity experiments aboard STS and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, C. M.; Logsdon, K. A.; Lubomski, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    A program was organized to develop the enabling technologies needed for the use of Space Station Freedom as a viable microgravity experimental platform. One of these development programs was the Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT). This technology development program grew because of increased awareness that the acceleration disturbances present on the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter can and are detrimental to many microgravity experiments proposed for STS, and in the future, Space Station Freedom (SSF). Overall technological organization are covered of the VIT program. Emphasis is given to the results from development and demonstration of enabling technologies to achieve the acceleration requirements perceived as those most likely needed for a variety of microgravity science experiments. In so doing, a brief summary of general theoretical approaches to controlling the acceleration environment of an isolated space based payload and the design and/or performance of two prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation systems is presented.

  12. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  13. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  14. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency-weighting design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H2 or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability and performance characteristics. In practice, however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency-weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  15. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-Weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position, relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H, or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability- and performance characteristics. In practice. however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  16. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  17. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control synthesis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Manned orbiters will require active vibration isolation for acceleration-sensitive microgravity science experiments. Since umbilicals are highly desirable or even indispensable for many experiments, and since their presence greatly affects the complexity of the isolation problem, they should be considered in control synthesis. In this paper a general framework is presented for applying extended H2 synthesis methods to the three-dimensional microgravity isolation problem. The methodology integrates control and state frequency weighting and input and output disturbance accommodation techniques into the basic H2 synthesis approach. The various system models needed for design and analysis are also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of a general design philosophy for the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  18. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control synthesis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Manned orbiters will require active vibration isolation for acceleration-sensitive microgravity science experiments. Since umbilicals are highly desirable or even indispensable for many experiments, and since their presence greatly affects the complexity of the isolation problem, they should be considered in control synthesis. A general framework is presented for applying extended H2 synthesis methods to the three-dimensional microgravity isolation problem. The methodology integrates control and state frequency weighting and input and output disturbance accommodation techniques into the basic H2 synthesis approach. The various system models needed for design and analysis are also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of a general design philosophy for the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  19. The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM): A Columbus facility for improving the microgravity quality of payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. G.; Jones, D. I.; Owens, A. R.; Roberts, G.; Hadfield, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM) is a facility for providing active vibration isolation for sensitive experiments on the Columbus Attached Laboratory and the Columbus Free-Flying Laboratory. The facility is designed to be accommodated in a standard Columbus rack, and it iterfaces with existing rack utility services. The design is based on a non-contact strategy, whereby the payload 'floats' inside the rack, and its position is controlled by a number of magnetic actuators. The main advantage of using this non-contact strategy is the improved microgravity quality available. The overall design of the facility and a description of its elements are given.

  20. Ground testing of a microgravity isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edberg, Donald L.; von Flotow, Andreas H.; Cha, Philip; Fisher, Bruce D.; Gann, Lisa; Roe, Andy; Soberg, Jon

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes the results of current research being carried out at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) to develop a flight-ready vibration isolation system for possible use on shuttle or space station. Measurements and predictions indicate that the natural vibration modes of these vehicles may be excited by on-board equipment and astronaut activities. These disturbances may be enough to upset the desired levels of microgravity. The MDA system consists of a very low frequency, flexible interface between a scientific payload and the orbiting host platform augmented by active acceleration feedback. The design of a system that will accommodate materials and biological experiments must take into account predicted input vibration levels, experiment services requirements, and logistic considerations. It must accommodate all these requirements while consuming the absolute minimum of the space available to the payload itself. The MDA isolator concept has been demonstrated in 3-axis testing in the laboratory and nearly meets the desired space station specifications. However, the design needs on-orbit testing to verify its performance in true space environment. This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of the design and operation of the system. NASA has notified MDA that a Phase A award for the development of a flight demonstration of our experiment will be made under its IN-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP).

  1. Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) ATD Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental advantage for performing material processing and fluid physics experiments in an orbital environment is the reduction in gravity driven phenomena. However, experience with manned spacecraft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) has demonstrated a dynamic acceleration environment far from being characterized as a 'microgravity' platform. Vibrations and transient disturbances from crew motions, thruster firings, rotating machinery etc. can have detrimental effects on many proposed microgravity science experiments. These same disturbances are also to be expected on the future space station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA), NASA Headquarters recognized the need for addressing this fundamental issue. As a result an Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project was initiated in the area of Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) to develop methodologies for meeting future microgravity science needs. The objective of the Vibration Isolation Technology ATD project was to provide technology for the isolation of microgravity science experiments by developing methods to maintain a predictable, well defined, well characterized, and reproducible low-gravity environment, consistent with the needs of the microgravity science community. Included implicitly in this objective was the goal of advising the science community and hardware developers of the fundamental need to address the importance of maintaining, and how to maintain, a microgravity environment. This document will summarize the accomplishments of the VIT ATD which is now completed. There were three specific thrusts involved in the ATD effort. An analytical effort was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to define the sensitivity of selected experiments to residual and dynamic accelerations. This effort was redirected about half way through the ATD focusing specifically on the sensitivity of

  2. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  3. Microgravity Vibration Output Testing of Space Station Rotary Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Ensuring that the mechanical equipment on Space Station does not unduly disturb the microgravity environment is of paramount importance in meeting the Station's mission. The large inertia being moved by the Space Station's solar array and thermal radiator rotary joints make them one of the largest potential disturbance sources. The present paper describes the mechanical and control system design of these joints, their disturbance producing characteristics, and analytical predictions of some key performance indicators. The component and system functional tests performed to measure the actual vibration output of the joints are detailed and the test results discussed. Results of the rotary joint test program presented here show that the joints do meet the Space Station microgravity requirements, ensuring that this unique laboratory for microgravity research will be unaffected by the operation of the largest moving machinery on board.

  4. Fluid patterns and dynamics induced by vibrations in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana

    Understanding the effects of vibrations is extremely important in microgravity environments where residual acceleration, or g-jitter, is easily generated by crew manoeuvring or machinery, and can have a significant impact on material processing systems and on-board experiments. Indeed, vibrations can dramatically affect fluid behaviour whether gravity is present or not, inducing instability in some cases while suppressing it in others. We will describe the results of investigations being conducted at the ESA affiliated Spanish User Support and Operations Centre (E-USOC) on the effect of vibrations on fluids interfaces, most notably with the forcing oriented parallel to the fluid surface. Pattern formation properties will be described in detail, and the importance of symmetry constraints and mean flows will be considered. Current exper-imental results are intriguing and have challenged existing assumptions in the field, particularly with regard to the parametric instability underlying subharmonic cross-waves. They suggest an intimate connection between Faraday waves, which are observed in vertically vibrated systems, and cross-waves, which are found in horizontally forced systems. Concurrent theoretical work, based on the analysis of reduced models, and on numerical simulations, will then be described. Finally, this research will be placed in a microgravity context and used to motivate the defini-tion of a proposed set of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments would be in the large-aspect-ratio-limit, requiring relatively high frequency but low amplitude vibrations, where comparatively little microgravity research has been done. The interest of such a microgravity experiment will be discussed, with emphasis on fluid management and the potential of vibrations to act as a kind of artificial gravity by orienting surfaces (or density contours) perpendicular to the axis of vibration.

  5. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  6. Digital control algorithms for microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A.; Wang, Y.-P.

    1993-01-01

    New digital control algorithms have been developed to achieve the desired transmissibility function for a microgravity isolation system. Two approaches have been presented for the controller design in the context of a single degree of freedom system for which an attractive electromagnet is used as the actuator. The relative displacement and the absolute acceleration of the mass have been used as feedback signals. The results from numerical studies are presented. It has been found that the resulting transmissibility is quite close to the desired function. Also, the maximum coil currents required by new algorithms are smaller than the maximum current demanded by the previously proposed lead/lag method.

  7. NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

  8. High performance rotational vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  9. Frequency Weighted H2 Control Design for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Hampton, R. David

    2004-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) exceeds the requirements of many microgravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) has been built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for microgravity science experiments. The g-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform, for mounting science payloads, from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload-acceleration, relative-position, and relative-orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current commands to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. The present work documents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for frequency-weighted H2 norms. Comparison of performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for this control design approach is included in the discussion. System performance is demonstrated in the presence of plant modeling error.

  10. Development and approach to low-frequency microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1990-01-01

    The low-gravity environment provided by space flight has afforded the science community a unique arena for the study of fundamental and technological sciences. However, the dynamic environment observed on space shuttle flights and predicted for Space Station Freedom has complicated the analysis of prior microgravity experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long-term, low-gravity environments. Thus, isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements to this random environment are being developed. The design constraints imposed by acceleration-sensitive, microgravity experiment payloads in the unique environment of space and a theoretical background for active isolation are discussed. A design is presented for a six-degree-of-freedom, active, inertial isolation system based on the baseline relative and inertial isolation techniques described.

  11. Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Spacecraft Exercise Treadmill Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fialho, Ian; Tyer, Craig; Murphy, Bryan; Cotter, Paul; Thampi, Sreekumar

    2011-01-01

    A novel, passive system has been developed for isolating an exercise treadmill device from a spacecraft in a zero-G environment. The Treadmill 2 Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (T2-VIS) mechanically isolates the exercise treadmill from the spacecraft/space station, thereby eliminating the detrimental effect that high impact loads generated during walking/running would have on the spacecraft structure and sensitive microgravity science experiments. This design uses a second stage spring, in series with the first stage, to achieve an order of magnitude higher exercise- frequency isolation than conventional systems have done, while maintaining desirable low-frequency stability performance. This novel isolator design, in conjunction with appropriately configured treadmill platform inertia properties, has been shown (by on-orbit zero-G testing onboard the International Space Station) to deliver exceedingly high levels of isolation/ stability performance.

  12. Torsional vibration isolator and method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Durrett, V.D.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a multicylinder internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and a rotatable flywheel which together define an inertial system rotating about a predetermined axis of rotation. An improvement is described here which facilitates avoiding destructive effects on the crankshaft of stress induced by torsional vibration. The method comprises an elastomeric annulus coupling means operatively interposed between the crankshaft and flywheel for coupling the crankshaft and flywheel together for rotation of the flywheel with the crankshaft. The coupling means has a torsional spring rate of less than 20,000 in lb/radian effective to permit substantial angular displacement between the flywheel and the crankshaft for isolating the rotating inertia of the flywheel from the rotating inertia of the crankshaft after engine startup. The coupling means avoids dampening while preventing torsional vibration from being transferred between the flywheel and the crankshaft.

  13. Microgravity Isolation Control System Design Via High-Order Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkolnikov, Ilya; Shtessel, Yuri; Whorton, Mark S.; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Vibration isolation control system design for a microgravity experiment mount is considered. The controller design based on dynamic sliding manifold (DSM) technique is proposed to attenuate the accelerations transmitted to an isolated experiment mount either from a vibrating base or directly generated by the experiment, as well as to stabilize the internal dynamics of this nonminimum phase plant. An auxiliary DSM is employed to maintain the high-order sliding mode on the primary sliding manifold in the presence of uncertain actuator dynamics of second order. The primary DSM is designed for the closed-loop system in sliding mode to be a filter with given characteristics with respect to the input external disturbances.

  14. Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT): A Linearized State-Space Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Calhoun, Philip C.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator Currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of g-LIMIT, in a form suitable for optimal controller design. The equations are first derived using Newton's Second Law directly, then simplified to a linear form for the purpose of controller design.

  15. Optimal Controller Design for the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David

    1998-01-01

    H2 controllers, when designed using an appropriate design model and carefully chosen frequency weightings, appear to provide robust performance and robust stability for Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM). The STS-85 flight data will be used to evaluate the H2 controllers' performance on the actual hardware under working conditions. Next, full-order H-infinity controllers will be developed, as an intermediate step, in order to determine appropriate H-infinity performance weights for use in the mixed-norm design. Finally the basic procedure outlined above will be used to develop fixed-order mixed-norm controllers for MIM.

  16. Two-Stage Passive Vibration Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Gursel, Yekta; Neville, Timothy; Bronowicki, Allen J.; Platus, David; MacDonald, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    The design and testing of a structural system were implemented to hold the optics of the planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) at positions and orientations characterized by vibrational translation and rotation errors of no more than a few nanometers or a few milliarcseconds, respectively. Much of the effort was devoted to a test bed for verifying the predicted behavior of a vibration- isolation structural subsystem working together with an active control system for positioning and orienting the SIM optics. There was considerable emphasis on the vibration-isolation subsystem, which was passive and comprised two stages. The main sources of vibration were six reaction wheels in an assembly denoted the "backpack." The first vibration-isolation stage consisted of hexapod isolator mounts - one for each reaction wheel - characterized by a natural vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The second stage was a set of three beams, disposed between the backpack and the structure that held the SIM optics, that were flexured such that they transmitted only bending loads, with a natural vibrational frequency and damping of about 5 Hz and 4 percent, respectively. Preliminary test results were presented and characterized as demonstrating the effectiveness of the two-stage vibration-isolation design.

  17. Vibration isolation technology: An executive summary of systems development and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Lubomski, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    A program was organized to develop the enabling technologies needed for the use of Space Station Freedom as a viable microgravity experimental platform. One of these development programs was the Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT). This technology development program grew because of increased awareness that the acceleration disturbances present on the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter can and are detrimental to many microgravity experiments proposed for STS, and in the future, Space Station Freedom (SSF). Overall technological organization are covered of the VIT program. Emphasis is given to the results from development and demonstration of enabling technologies to achieve the acceleration requirements perceived as those most likely needed for a variety of microgravity science experiments. In so doing, a brief summary of general theoretical approaches to controlling the acceleration environment of an isolated space based payload and the design and/or performance of two prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation systems is presented.

  18. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  19. The Microgravity Isolation Mount: A Linearized State-Space Model a la Newton and Kane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Tryggvason, Bjarni V.; DeCarufel, Jean; Townsend, Miles A.; Wagar, William O.

    1999-01-01

    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) was built by the Canadian Space Agency to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels, and has been operational on the Russian Space Station Mir since May 1996. It has demonstrated good isolation performance and has supported several materials science experiments. The MIM uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation (Euler-parameter) measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of the MIM, in a form suitable for optimal controller design. The equations are first derived using Newton's Second Law directly; then a second derivation (i.e., validation) of the same equations is provided, using Kane's approach.

  20. Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L.; Gibson, B.W.

    1992-04-01

    Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.

  1. Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L. ); Gibson, B.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.

  2. Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim

    2011-01-01

    Gravity profoundly affects the overall mechanics of the respiratory system. Functional residual capacity, when measured in sustained microgravity, is intermediate to that present in the standing and supine postures in 1G, consistent with early modeling studies. This change occurs almost exclusively through changes in the abdominal compliance and thus in the volume of the abdominal compartment, with the rib cage being relatively unaffected by gravity. Microgravity leaves vital capacity unaltered once the initial translocation of blood into the thorax is corrected by homeostatic mechanisms, but residual volume is reduced, likely through a more uniform distribution of alveolar size permitting deflation to a lower overall lung volume. Expiratory flows are unaffected by microgravity provided they are measured following normalization of the intrathoracic blood volume. During sleep in microgravity, there is an almost complete abolition of obstructive sleep apnea events. PMID:23737183

  3. Vibration Isolation, Suppression, Steering, and Pointing (VISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Rahman, Zahidul; Kedikian, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The design of a six degree of freedom flight vibration isolation suppression and steering (VISS) subsystem for a mid-wave infrared camera on the top of a spacecraft is presented. The development of a long stroke piezoelectric, redundant, compact, low stiffness and power efficient actuator is summarized. A subsystem that could be built and validated for flight within 15 months was investigated. The goals of the VISS are 20 dB vibration isolation above 2 Hz, 15 dB vibration suppression of disturbances at about 60 Hz and 120 Hz, and +/- 0.3 deg steering at 2 Hz and 4 Hz.

  4. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  5. Optimal Control Design Using an H2 Method for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Phillip C.; Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) will likely exceed the requirements of many micro-gravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for micro-gravity science experiments. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform for mounting science payloads from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current command to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. This paper presents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for both frequency-weighted H(sub 2) and H(sub infinity) norms. Comparison of the performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for these two optimal control design approaches are included in the discussion.

  6. Optimal Control Design using an H(sub 2) Method for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (G-Limit)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Hampton, R. David

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) will likely exceed the requirements of many micro-gravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for microgravity science experiments. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform for mounting science payloads from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current commands to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. This paper presents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for frequency-weighted H(sub 2) norms. Comparison of the performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for this control design approach is included in the discussion.

  7. Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

  8. Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. A.

    2008-07-01

    The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.

  9. From flow and particle transport modeling to vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Joseph Fabian

    2001-08-01

    This thesis is composed of two parts. Part I is devoted to the analysis of particle transport and deposition. In this part, flow and particle transport and deposition in a furnace and under microgravity conditions are analyzed. In the first study of Part I, fluid flow, combustion, heat and mass transfer involved in a methane/air furnace were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the flow field and thermal conditions in the furnace and to develop methods for improving its efficiency. The analysis of the combustor model was performed using an unstructured grid model developed with the Gambit grid generator of FLUENT version 5. In the second study of Part I, particle dispersion in a liquid filled box under orbital g-jitter excitation is analyzed. The study investigated particle motion experiments that were performed aboard the orbiting shuttle. The experiments have provided confusing data as to the nature of particle dispersion in the orbital environment. To obtain a better understanding of the dynamics involved, a series of numerical simulations are performed to study the dispersion of suspended particles subject to g-jitter excitations. Part II of the thesis is devoted to the analysis of vibration and vibration isolation problems. Following along the lines of vibration effecting system performance, a study of vibration isolation used to protect avionics equipment from adverse aircraft vibration environments was conducted. Passive isolation is the simplest means to achieve this goal. The system used here consisted of a circular steel ring with a lump mass on top and exposed to base excitation. Sinusoidal and filtered zero-mean Gaussian white noise were used to excite the structure and the acceleration response spectra at the top of the ring were computed. An experiment was performed to identify the natural frequencies and modal damping of the circular ring. The polished homogeneity measurement of large optics mounted in a vertical ring

  10. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  11. A 6 degree-of-freedom Lorentz force vibration isolator with nonlinear controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenn, Ralph; Johnson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    This program demonstrated the technical feasibility of constructing large-stroke magnetic suspensions that can meet the active vibration isolation requirements of Space Station. These requirements include: (1) strokes over 1 cm in all directions, (2) actuator bandwidths over 100 Hz, (3) isolator roll-off frequencies below 10(exp -2) Hertz, and (4) force capability over 1 Newton in all axes. The 100 Hz actuator bandwidth allows the suspension to reject any direct force disturbances that act on the microgravity experiment, for example forces created by cable connections. The low isolator roll-off frequency and large stroke allow the magnetic suspension to isolate the microgravity experiment from Space Station vibrations above the roll-off frequency. The capability to meet these requirements was demonstrated by designing, constructing and testing a six-degree-of-freedom, prototype magnetic suspension system that featured high-performance, Lorentz-force actuators and full multi-input, multi-output control. This prototype suspension is designed to isolate large orbiter locker experiments under typical spacecraft constraints of size, weight, and power. Suspension in the full six-degrees-of-freedom was successfully demonstrated in this program while using a gravity-force unload mechanism to simulate a space environment. The prototype isolator is capable of space-based isolation service with relatively minor modification. The use of advanced, nonlinear control algorithms were investigated on a specially designed single-degree-of-freedom testbed. This low acceleration test facility simulates the Space Station vibration isolation problem in a single horizontal axis with low-friction, air-slide support. This allowed testing at the desired microgravity levels, without the gravity bias effects that are seen in a full six-degrees-of-freedom suspension. Precision components were used to reduce residual accelerations to microgravity levels so that the effects of sensor, actuator

  12. Design-Filter Selection for H2 Control of Microgravity Isolation Systems: A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require active vibration isolation, to attain suitably low levels of background acceleration for useful experimental results. The design of state-space controllers by optimal control methods requires judicious choices of frequency-weighting design filters. Kinematic coupling among states greatly clouds designer intuition in the choices of these filters, and the masking effects of the state observations cloud the process further. Recent research into the practical application of H2 synthesis methods to such problems, indicates that certain steps can lead to state frequency-weighting design-filter choices with substantially improved promise of usefulness, even in the face of these difficulties. In choosing these filters on the states, one considers their relationships to corresponding design filters on appropriate pseudo-sensitivity- and pseudo-complementary-sensitivity functions. This paper investigates the application of these considerations to a single-degree-of-freedom microgravity vibration-isolation test case. Significant observations that were noted during the design process are presented. along with explanations based on the existent theory for such problems.

  13. Effects of vibration (G-jitters) on convection in micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Francis C.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain high quality crystals, it is desirable to maintain a diffusion-limited transport process in a planar solidification surface between the solid and the melt during the crystal growth process. Due to the presence of buoyancy-driven convection, however, this situation is difficult to maintain on Earth. The microgravity environment of an orbiting space laboratory presents an alternative worth pursuing. With reduced gravity, convections very much suppressed in a space laboratory, making the environment more conducive for growing crystals with better quality. However, a space laboratory is not immune from any undesirable disturbances. Nonuniform and transient accelerations such as vibrations, g-jitters, and impulsive accelerations exist as a result of crew activities, space maneuvering, and the operations of on-board equipment. Measurements conducted on-board a U.S. Spacelab mission showed the existence of vibrations in the frequency range of 1 to 100 Hz. It was reported that a dominant mode of 17 Hz and harmonics of 54 Hz were observed and these were attributed to antenna operations. The vibration is not limited to any single plane but exists in all directions. Some data from the Russian MIR space station indicates the existence of vibration also at this frequency range.

  14. Harvesting vibrations via 3D phononic isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psarobas, Ioannis E.; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the existence of unidirectional phononic band gaps that may span over extended regions of the Brillouin zone and can find application in trapping elastic (acoustic) waves in properly designed multilayered 3D structures. Phononic isolators operate as a result of asymmetrical wave transmission through a slab of a crystallographic phononic structure with broken mirror symmetry. Due to the use of lossless materials in the crystal, the absorption rate is dramatically enhanced when the proposed isolator is placed next to a vibrational harvesting cell. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Frequency-Weighting Filter Selection, for H2 Control of Microgravity Isolation Systems: A Consideration of the "Implicit Frequency Weighting" Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy David; Whorton, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station (ISS) have been appropriately modeled using relative position, relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency-weighting design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H2 or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability and performance characteristics. In practice, however, since there is a kinematic relationship among the various states, any frequency weighting applied to one state will implicitly weight other states. These implicit frequency-weighting effects must be considered, for intelligent frequency-weighting filter assignment. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency-weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  16. Hybrid isolation of micro vibrations induced by reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As the technology for precision satellite payloads continues to advance, the requirements for the pointing stability of the satellites are becoming extremely high. In many situations, even small amplitude disturbances generated by the onboard components may cause serious degradation in the performance of high precision payloads. In such situations, vibration isolators can be installed to reduce the vibration transmission. In this work, a hybrid vibration isolator comprising passive and active components is proposed to provide an effective solution to the vibration problems caused by the reaction wheel disturbances. Firstly, mathematical modeling and experimental study of a single axis vibration isolator having high damping and high roll-off rate for the high frequency region and active components that enhance isolation performance for narrow frequency bands are presented. This concept is then extended to multi-axis by forming Stewart platform and the performance is experimentally verified. The tests on a flexible testbed show effective vibration isolation by the proposed vibration isolator.

  17. Negative-stiffness-mechanism vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platus, David L.

    1992-02-01

    A new type of vibration isolation system offers significant improvement in performance compared with current state-of-the-art systems. The system uses negative-stiffness mechanisms to cancel the stiffness of a spring suspension. Reduction in stiffness magnifies the damping inherent in the system creating a practical means for achieving high hysteretic damping. The result is a simple, compact 6-DOF passive isolation system capable of system resonant frequencies below 0.2 Hz and first isolator resonances above 100 Hz. Resonant transmissibilities below 1.4 can be achieved with transmissibilities at the higher frequencies close to that of the ideal undamped system. The negative-stiffness mechanisms can cancel the stiffness of power cables, hoses or other lines connected to payloads. This paper develops the theory, describes typical configurations and summarizes test data with prototype systems.

  18. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  19. Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenon, Dan; Boyd, Jim; Buchele, Paul; Self, Rick; Davis, Torey; Hintz, Timothy L.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. Previous work, funded by AFRL, DARPA, BMDO and others, developed technology building blocks that provide new methods to control vibrations of spacecraft. The technology of smart materials enables an unprecedented level of integration of sensors, actuators, and structures; this integration provides the opportunity for new structural designs that can adaptively influence their surrounding environment. To date, several demonstrations have been conducted to mature these technologies. Making use of recent advances in smart materials, microelectronics, Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, and Multi-Functional Structures (MFS), the Air Force Research Laboratory along with its partner DARPA, have initiated an aggressive program to develop a Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS) (patent pending) for space applications. The MVIS program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. The current effort has been awarded

  20. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for use on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    McCrory, J L; Lemmon, D R; Sommer, H J; Prout, B; Smith, D; Korth, D W; Lucero, J; Greenisen, M; Moore, J; Kozlovskaya, I; Pestov, I; Stepansov, V; Miyakinchenko, Y; Cavanagh, P R

    1999-08-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 degrees, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions. PMID:11541844

  1. The isolation limits of stochastic vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopse, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.

    1993-01-01

    The vibration isolation problem is formulated as a 1D kinematic problem. The geometry of the stochastic wall trajectories arising from the stroke constraint is defined in terms of their significant extrema. An optimal control solution for the minimum acceleration return path determines a lower bound on platform mean square acceleration. This bound is expressed in terms of the probability density function on the significant maxima and the conditional fourth moment of the first passage time inverse. The first of these is found analytically while the second is found using a Monte Carlo simulation. The rms acceleration lower bound as a function of available space is then determined through numerical quadrature.

  2. NIST torsion oscillator viscometer response: Performance on the LeRC active vibration isolation platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1992-01-01

    Critical point viscosity measurements are limited to their reduced temperature approach to T(sub c) in an Earth bound system, because of density gradients imposed by gravity. Therefore, these classes of experiments have been proposed as good candidates for 'microgravity' science experiments where this limitation is not present. The nature of these viscosity measurements dictate hardware that is sensitive to low frequency excitations. Because of the vibratory acceleration sensitivity of a torsion oscillator viscometer, used to acquire such measurements, a vibration isolation sensitivity test was performed on candidate 'microgravity' hardware to study the possibility of meeting the stringent oscillatory sensitivity requirements of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) torsion oscillator viscometer. A prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation system, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used as the isolation system. The ambient acceleration levels of the platform were reduced to the noise floor levels of its control sensors, about one microgravity in the 0.1 to 10 Hz bandwidth.

  3. Design of a Long-Stroke Noncontact Electromagnetic Actuator for Active Vibration Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti; Allaire, Paul E.

    1996-01-01

    A long-stroke moving coil Lorentz Actuator was designed for use in a microgravity vibration isolation experiment. The final design had a stroke of 5.08 cm (2 in) and enough force capability to isolate a mass of the order of 22.7-45.4 kg. A simple dynamic magnetic circuit analysis, using an electrical analog, was developed for the initial design of the actuator. A neodymium-iron-boron material with energy density of 278 T-kA/m (35 MGOe) was selected to supply the magnetic field. The effect of changes in the design parameters of core diameter, shell outer diameter, pole face length, and coil wire layers were investigated. An extensive three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to accurately determine linearity with regard to axial position of the coil and coil current levels. The actuator was constructed and tested on a universal testing machine. Example plots are shown, indicating good linearity over the stroke of approximately 5.08 cm (2 in) and a range of coil currents from -1.5 A to +1.5 A. The actuator was then used for the microgravity vibration isolation experiments, described elsewhere.

  4. The thermo-vibrational convection in microgravity condition. Ground-based modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzgin, A. V.; Putin, G. F.; Harisov, A. F.

    In 1995-2000 at orbital station "Mir" has been carried out the series of experiments with the equipment "Alice" for the studying regimes of heat transfer in the supercritical fluids under influence inertial microaccelerations. The experiments have found out existence of the thermo-vibrational and thermo-inertial convective movements in the real weightlessness[1] and controlling microgravity fields[2]. However regarding structures of thermovibrational convection the results of experiments have inconsistent character. Therefore carrying out the ground-based modeling of the given problem is actually. In this work in laboratory conditions were investigated the thermo-vibrational convective movements from the dot heat source at high-frequency vibrations of the cavity with the fluid and presence quasi-static microacceleration. As the result of ground-based modeling, the regimes of convective flows, similar observed in the space experiment are received. Evolution of the convective structures and the spatial-temporary characteristics of movements are investigated in a wide range of the problem parameters. The control criteria and its critical value are determined. The received results well coordinated to the data of space experiments and allow adding and expanding representation about thermo-vibrational effects in conditions of real weightlessness and remove the contradictions concerning structures thermo-vibrational convective flows, received at the analysis of the given orbital experiments. The research described in this publication was made possible in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and Administration of Perm Region, Russia, under grant 04-02-96038, and Award No. PE-009-0 of the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (CRDF). A.V. Zyuzgin, A. I. Ivanov, V. I. Polezhaev, G. F. Putin, E. B. Soboleva Convective Motions in Near-Critical Fluids under Real Zero-Gravity Conditions. Cosmic Research

  5. Utilizing Controlled Vibrations in a Microgravity Environment to Understand and Promote Microstructural Homogeneity During Floating-Zone Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    1999-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in floating-zone configurations utilizing silicone oil and nitrate salts that mechanically induced vibration effectively minimizes detrimental, gravity independent, thermocapillary flow. The processing parameters leading to crystal improvement and aspects of the on-going modeling effort are discussed. Plans for applying the crystal growth technique to commercially relevant materials, e.g., silicon, as well as the value of processing in a microgravity environment are presented.

  6. Performance estimates for electrostrictive vibration isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Regelbrugge, M.E.; Carrier, A.C.; Wright, M.J.; Yiu, Y.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explores the use of electrostrictive ceramic actuators for vibration suppression applications. The effects of nonlinear electromechanical transductance characteristics of these actuators are quantified with respect to their simulated performance in an active, micro-vibration isolator. Of particular interest is the performance of the actuator under a linear control law when the required actuator stroke becomes significantly nonlinear with respect to control-signal voltage. Nonlinearities resulting from operation both below and at actuator saturation levels are examined via time-domain simulations. Three principal effects are noted. First, actuator authority is reduced as control-signal levels increase to large fractions of the actuator capability. Second, even low-amplitude, linear control produces harmonics in the output motion due to the nonlinear actuator transductance. These harmonics worsen as the actuator is driven to saturation. Finally, control authority is significantly reduced as the actuator is driven to saturation levels. The results of this study show that electrostrictive actuators can be used very effectively under simple, linear control up to roughly 90% of their stoke capability.

  7. EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

    Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

  8. Parameters design of vibration isolation platform for control moment gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhang; Jingrui, Zhang; Shijie, Xu

    2012-12-01

    Vibration isolation is a direct and effective approach to improve the ultra-precise pointing capability of a high resolution remote sensing satellite. In this paper, a passive multi-strut vibration isolation platform for the control moment gyroscopes in a pyramid configuration on a satellite is adopted and the parameter design of this platform is discussed. The first step constructs a whole satellite dynamic model including the control moment gyroscopes and the vibration isolation platform with Newton-Euler method, while the analytical control moment gyroscopes disturbance model is derived. The transmissibility matrix of the vibration isolation platform is then obtained, and the frequency domain characteristics of the platform are described, with its influence on the attitude control system analyzed. The third part presents the parameter design method of the vibration isolation platform based on the frequency domain characteristics mentioned above. The stiffness and damping coefficients of this platform are subsequently selected with the above mentioned method. Finally, using these parameters, the performance of the vibration isolation platform on the satellite is testified by integrated simulations. The study shows that parameters of this platform selected based on this method not only satisfy the requirement of vibration isolation but also guarantee that the closed-loop attitude control system remains sufficiently stable.

  9. Vibration isolation via a scissor-like structured platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuting; Jing, Xingjian; Xu, Jian; Cheng, Li

    2014-04-01

    More and more attentions are attracted to the analysis and design of nonlinear vibration control/isolation systems for better isolation performance. In this study, an isolation platform with n-layer scissor-like truss structure is investigated to explore novel design of passive/semi-active/active vibration control/isolation systems and to exploit potential nonlinear benefits in vibration suppression. Due to the special scissor-like structure, the dynamic response of the platform has inherent nonlinearities both in equivalent damping and stiffness characteristics (although only linear components are applied), and demonstrates good loading capacity and excellent equilibrium stability. With the mathematical modeling and analysis of the equivalent stiffness and damping of the system, it is shown that: (a) the structural nonlinearity in the system is very helpful in vibration isolation, (b) both equivalent stiffness and damping characteristics are nonlinear and could be designed/adjusted to a desired nonlinearity by tuning structural parameters, and (c) superior vibration isolation performances (e.g., quasi-zero stiffness characteristics etc.) can be achieved with different structural parameters. This scissor-like truss structure can potentially be employed in different engineering practices for much better vibration isolation or control.

  10. Effective vibration isolation system for perfect-crystal neutron interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perfect-crystal neutron interferometers are subject to degradation of their performance caused by vibrational accelerations. It is shown that the most seriously offending accelerations are rotational, and an effective and simple vibration isolation system that has been developed at the MIT Neutron Diffraction Laboratory is described.

  11. PI Microgravity Services Role for International Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During the ISS era, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project will provide to principal investigators (PIs) microgravity environment information and characterization of the accelerations to which their experiments were exposed during on orbit operations. PIMS supports PIs by providing them with microgravity environment information for experiment vehicles, carriers, and locations within the vehicle. This is done to assist the PI with their effort to evaluate the effect of acceleration on their experiments. Furthermore, PIMS responsibilities are to support the investigators in the area of acceleration data analysis and interpretation, and provide the Microgravity science community with a microgravity environment characterization of selected experiment carriers and vehicles. Also, PIMS provides expertise in the areas of microgravity experiment requirements, vibration isolation, and the implementation of requirements for different spacecraft to the microgravity community and other NASA programs.

  12. Mechanisms of the Space Active Vibration Isolation (SAVI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The Space Active Vibration Isolation (SAVI) is a concept for vibration isolation of one body from another with simultaneous precise control in 6 Degrees Of Freedom (DOF). SAVI achieves this using a combination of electromechanical linear actuators and magnetic actuators. Other mechanisms of interest include a structure for simulating the body being pointed, an apparatus to simulate the body that is the vibration source, and mechanisms to off-load the weight of each of these two bodies from the experiment to approximate a zero-g condition. A SAVI was built and tested to demonstrate these capabilities.

  13. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Tania I; Appleby, Nancy; Raya, Michael; Bailey, Leonard; Hasaniya, Nahidh; Stodieck, Louis; Kearns-Jonker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05). Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation). These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors. The effect of

  14. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  15. Performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Jiubin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Tong

    2015-02-01

    A performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) that applied in the wafer stage of lithography is proposed in this work. The wafer stage of lithography is a dual-stage actuator system, including a long-stroke stage (LS) and a short-stroke stage (SS). In order to achieve the nanometer level positioning the isolator is designed to reduce the transmission of LS excitations to SS. In addition, considering the SS with six degrees of freedom and required to keep a strict constant temperature environment, the isolator need to have two functions, including the decoupling for vertical to horizontal and gravity compensation. In this isolator, a biaxial hinge was designed to decouple vertical rotation freedom, and a gas bearing was designed to decouple horizontal motion. The stiffness and damping of the pneumatic vibration isolator were analyzed. Besides, an analysis of the natural frequency and vibration transmissibility of the isolator is presented. In the end, the results show that vibration transmission is reduced significantly by the isolator and natural frequency can be lower than 0.6 Hz. This means that experimental results accord with the prediction model.

  16. On the transmissibilities of nonlinear vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Brennan, Michael J.; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    Transmissibility is a key parameter to quantify the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Under harmonic excitation, the force transmissibility of a linear vibration isolation system is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the force transmitted to the host structure and the excitation force amplitude, and the displacement transmissibility is the ratio between the displacement amplitude of the payload and that of the base. For a nonlinear vibration isolation system, the force or the displacement responses usually have more frequency components than the excitation. For a harmonic excitation, the response may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. Therefore, the amplitude ratio cannot well define the transmissibility. The root-mean-square ratio of the response to the excitation is suggested to define the transmissibility. The significance of the modified transmissibility is highlighted in a nonlinear two-stage vibration isolation system consisting of two linear spring connected linear vibration isolators with two additional horizontal linear springs. Harmonic balance method (HBM) is applied to determine the responses with the fundamental and third harmonic. Numerical simulations reveal that chaos may occur in the responses. In both cases, the modified transmissibility works while the original definition cannot be applied to chaotic response.

  17. Microgravity testing a surgical isolation containment system for Space Station use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Sanford M.; Rock, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated hazards for crewmembers in future long term space flights may result in a variety of injuries including trauma and burns. Management of these injuries will require special techniques because of the lack of gravity, limitations of space and environmental restrictions. A small surgical isolation containment system was developed and tested in microgravity. The chamber provided both protection of the injury and of the cabin environment and is felt to be the most effective means of trauma and burn care in future Health Maintenance Facilities planned for prolonged space exposure.

  18. Vibration isolation and pressure compensation apparatus for sensitive instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averill, R. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system for attenuating the inherent vibration associated with a mechanical refrigeration unit employed to cryogenically cool sensitive instruments used in measuring chemical constituents of the atmosphere is described. A modular system including an instrument housing and a reaction bracket with a refrigerator unit floated there between comprise the instrumentation system. A pair of evacuated bellows that "float' refrigerator unit and provide pressure compensation at all levels of pressure from seal level to the vacuum of space. Vibration isolators and when needed provide additional vibration damping for the refrigerator unit. A flexible thermal strap (20 K) serves to provide essentially vibration free thermal contact between cold tip of the refrigerator unit and the instrument component mounted on the IDL mount. Another flexible strap (77 K) serves to provide vibration free thermal contact between the TDL mount thermal shroud and a thermal shroud disposed about the thermal shaft.

  19. Development of active vibration isolation system for precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Z.; Lin, W. J.; Yang, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    It is a common understanding by manufacturers of precision machines that vibrations are a potentially disastrous threat to precision and throughput. To satisfy the quest for more stable processes and tighter critical dimension control in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, active vibration control becomes increasingly important for high-precision equipment developers. This paper introduced the development of an active vibration isolation system for precision machines. Innovative mechatronic approaches are investigated that can effectively suppress both environmental and payload-generated vibration. In this system, accelerometers are used as the feedback sensor, voice coil motors are used to generate the counter force, and a TI DSP controller is used to couple sensor measurements to actuator forces via specially designed control algorithms in real-time to counteract the vibration disturbances. Experimental results by using the developed AVI prototype showed promising performance on vibration attenuation. It demonstrated a reduction of the settling time from 2s to 0.1s under impulsive disturbances; and a vibration attenuation level of more than 20dB for harmonic disturbances. The technology can be used to suppress vibration for a wide range of precision machines to achieve fast settling time and higher accuracy.

  20. Development of active vibration isolation system for precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Z.; Lin, W. J.; Yang, G. L.

    2010-03-01

    It is a common understanding by manufacturers of precision machines that vibrations are a potentially disastrous threat to precision and throughput. To satisfy the quest for more stable processes and tighter critical dimension control in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, active vibration control becomes increasingly important for high-precision equipment developers. This paper introduced the development of an active vibration isolation system for precision machines. Innovative mechatronic approaches are investigated that can effectively suppress both environmental and payload-generated vibration. In this system, accelerometers are used as the feedback sensor, voice coil motors are used to generate the counter force, and a TI DSP controller is used to couple sensor measurements to actuator forces via specially designed control algorithms in real-time to counteract the vibration disturbances. Experimental results by using the developed AVI prototype showed promising performance on vibration attenuation. It demonstrated a reduction of the settling time from 2s to 0.1s under impulsive disturbances; and a vibration attenuation level of more than 20dB for harmonic disturbances. The technology can be used to suppress vibration for a wide range of precision machines to achieve fast settling time and higher accuracy.

  1. Optimal design of a snubbed vibration isolator for vibration sensitive electrooptic payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Djerassy, Shlomo; Babitsky, Vladimir

    2008-04-01

    Low frequency vibration isolation of airborne gyrostabilised electrooptic payloads is an ultimate and life proven solution aimed at improving their imagery performance primarily during relatively quiet cruise flight. This portion of airborne mission is characterised by rather moderate environmental conditions, under which the vibration mounts operate mostly in a linear working range within the predefined working rattle space thus delivering their best performance. Compliant snubbers are the indispensable emergency components in such vibration protection arrangements coming into play during exposure to environmental extremes typical for the relatively short periods of the airborne mission such as take-off, landing, weapon application, etc. Their primarily objective is to safely protect the above soft vibration mounts from bottoming and disintegration without developing ruining impulsive accelerations compromising the integrity of the payload frame and the internal fragile components mounted upon it. The optimal approach to designing such a snubbed vibration isolator delivering a fail-safe environment for both payload frame and critical components subject to the tight constraints imposed on size, weight and price does not seem to exist. It is the author's intention to devise such an optimal design approach and to demonstrate its application to low frequency vibration mounted electro-optic payload comprising the vibration sensitive Integrated Dewar-Detector-Cooler Assembly.

  2. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  3. Dual stage passive vibration isolation for optical interferometer missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowicki, Allen J.; MacDonald, Rhonda; Gürsel, Yekta; Goullioud, Renaud; Neville, Timothy; Platus, David L.

    2003-02-01

    Future space-based optical instruments such as the Space Interferometer Mission have vibration-induced error allocations at the levels of a few nano-meters and milli-arc-seconds. A dual stage passive isolation approach has been proposed using isolation first at the vibration-inducing reaction wheels, and a second isolation layer between the bus portion of the space vehicle (the backpack) and the optical payload. The development of the backpack isolator is described, with unit transmissibility results for individual isolator struts. The dual stage isolation approach is demonstrated on a dynamically feature-rich, 7-meter structural testbed (STB3). A new passive suspension that mitigates ground vibrations above 0.4 Hz has been integrated into the testbed. A series of OPD performance predictions have been made using measured transfer functions. These indicate that the 5-nm dynamic OPD allocation is within reach using the dual isolator approach. Demonstrating these low response levels in a noisy air environment has proven to be difficult. We are sequentially executing a plan to mitigate acoustic transmission between backpack and flight structure, as well as developing techniques to mitigate effects of background acoustic noise.

  4. Performance of a Smart Vibration Isolator for Precision Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Carrier, Alain; Dickson, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Under the ARPA SMS Partnership Program for Synthesis and Processing of Smart Materials, Lockheed Missiles and Space company, Inc. has developed a demonstration prototype vibration cancelling mount using electrostrictive ceramic and shape-memory alloy actuators. Shape-memory actuators provide an adaptive-passive, self-damping support for isolation, while the electrostrictive actuators are employed to provide force and position control. The demonstration device was designed to address generic requirements for vibration stabilization of precision spacecraft instruments. It is reconfigurable to operate in any of four modes; passive isolation, active-passive isolation using force cancellation, active precision positioning, and active disturbance rejection. The presentation summarizes design of the device design and results of experimental evaluations of the device in isolation (active and passive) and positioning modes. Rejection of payload-borne disturbances is also discussed with reference to predictions from experimentally calibrated simulations. Finally, avenues for further development and refinement of the device are discussed.

  5. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Rutherford, J. M.; Wikus, P.; Oakley, P.; Porter, F. S.; McCammon, D.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded, sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer that will allow high precision measurements of velocity structure, ionization state and elemental composition of extended astrophysical systems. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to maintain the temperature of the detectors during launch. There are several vibration damping stages to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, which causes heating during launch. Each stage should be more rigid than the outer stages to achieve vibrational isolation. We describe a major design effort to tune the resonance frequencies of these vibration isolation stages to reduce heating problems prior to the projected launch in the summer of 2014.

  6. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Rutherford, J. M.; Wikus, P.; Oakley, P.; Porter, Frederick S.; McCammon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded, sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer that will allow high precision measurements of velocity structure, ionization state and elemental composition of extended astrophysical systems. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to maintain the temperature of the detectors during launch. There are several vibration damping stages to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, which causes heating during launch. Each stage should be more rigid than the outer stages to achieve vibrational isolation. We describe a major design effort to tune the resonance frequencies of these vibration isolation stages to reduce heating problems prior to the projected launch in the summer of 2014.

  7. Need for and benefits of launch vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicos, Andrew S.; Johnson, Conor D.; Davis, L. Porter

    1997-05-01

    Spacecraft designs are driven by the necessity of the spacecraft to survive being launched into orbit. This launch environment consists of structure-borne vibrations transmitted to the payload through the payload attach fitting (PAF) and acoustic excitation. Here we present a discussion on the need for and benefit of isolating the structure-borne vibrations. If the PAF were replaced with an isolator with the correct characteristics the potential benefits would be significant. These benefits include reduced spacecraft structural weight and cost, as well as increased life and reliability. This paper presents an overview of the problem of vibration on a launch vehicle payload and the benefits that an isolating PAF would provide. The structure-borne vibrations experienced by a spacecraft during launch are made up of transient, shock, and periodic oscillations originating in the engines, pyrotechnic separation systems, and from aerodynamic loading. Any isolation system used by the launch vehicle must satisfy critical launch vehicle constraints on weight, cost, and rattle space. A discussion of these points is presented from the perspective of both a launch vehicle manufacturer and a spacecraft manufacturer/user.

  8. Nineteenth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurements Group meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The 19th MGMG meeting was held 11-13 July 2000 at the Sheraton Airport Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 44 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; 8 of the attendees were international representatives from Japan, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Germany. Twenty-seven presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, vehicle characterization, and microgravity outreach and education. The meeting participants also toured three microgravity-related facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda, which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation, which indicate the authors' name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been Included here

  9. Variable-Tension-Cord Suspension/Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemarette, Mark L.; Boston, Joshua; RInks, Judith; Felice, Pat; Stein, Tim; Payne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A system for mechanical suspension and vibration isolation of a machine or instrument is based on the use of Kevlar (or equivalent aromatic polyamide) cord held in variable tension between the machine or instrument and a surrounding frame. The basic concept of such a tensioned-cord suspension system (including one in which the cords are made of aromatic polyamide fibers) is not new by itself; what is new here is the additional provision for adjusting the tension during operation to optimize vibration- isolation properties. In the original application for which this system was conceived, the objective is to suspend a reciprocating cryocooler aboard a space shuttle and to prevent both (1) transmission of launch vibrations to the cryocooler and (2) transmission of vibrations from the cryocooler to samples in a chamber cooled by the cryocooler. The basic mechanical principle of this system can also be expected to be applicable to a variety of other systems in which there are requirements for cord suspension and vibration isolation. The reciprocating cryocooler of the original application is a generally axisymmetric object, and the surrounding frame is a generally axisymmetric object with windows (see figure). Two cords are threaded into a spoke-like pattern between attachment rings on the cryocooler, holes in the cage, and cord-tension- adjusting assemblies. Initially, the cord tensions are adjusted to at least the level necessary to suspend the cryocooler against gravitation. Accelerometers for measuring vibrations are mounted (1) on the cold tip of the cryocooler and (2) adjacent to the cage, on a structure that supports the cage. During operation, a technician observes the accelerometer outputs on an oscilloscope while manually adjusting the cord tensions in an effort to minimize the amount of vibration transmitted to and/or from the cryocooler. A contemplated future version of the system would include a microprocessor-based control subsystem that would include cord

  10. Vibration isolation system for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kunz, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Vibration Isolation System for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is studied. Included are discussions of the various concepts, design goals, concerns, and the proposed configuration for the Vibration Isolation System.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a nonlinear mechanical vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Chen, Li-Qun; Brennan, Michael J.; Yang, Tiejun; Ding, Hu; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the effect that a stochastic resonance can have on a vibration isolation system. Rather than reducing the transmitted force, it is shown that it is possible to significantly mask the component of the force transmitted though the isolator, when the system is excited harmonically. This can be achieved by adding a very low intensity of random noise to the harmonic excitation force. The nonlinear mechanical vibration isolation system used in the study consists of a vertical linear spring in parallel with two horizontal springs, which are configured so that the potential energy of the system has a double-well. Prior to the analytical and numerical study, an experiment to demonstrate stochastic resonance in a mechanical system is described.

  12. Design of a vibration isolation system for a cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Lillian; Tait, Steven; Trevino, Maurice

    1991-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations generated during exercise using the cycle ergometer onboard the Space Shuttle are disrupting sensitive microgravity experiments. The design team is asked by NASA/USRA to generate alternatives for the design of a vibration isolation system for the cycle ergometer. It is the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a vibration isolation system for an exercise cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle. In the development of alternative designs, the design team emphasizes passive systems as opposed to active control systems. This decision is made because the team feels that passive systems are less complex than active control systems, external energy sources are not required, and mass is reduced due to the lack of machinery such as servomotors or compressors typical of active control systems. Eleven alternative designs are developed by the design team. From these alternatives, three active control systems are included to compare the benefits of active and passive systems. Also included in the alternatives is an isolation system designed by an independent engineer that was acquired late in the project. The eight alternatives using passive isolation systems are narrowed down by selection criteria to four considered to be the most promising by the design team. A feasibility analysis is performed on these four passive isolation systems. Based on the feasibility analysis, a final design solution is chosen and further developed. From the development of the design, the design team has concluded that passive systems are not effective at isolating vibrations for the low frequencies considered for this project. Recommendations are made for guidelines of passive isolation design and application of such systems.

  13. A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio

    2011-01-01

    One of the major technical problems deep-space optical communication (DSOC) systems need to solve is the isolation of the optical terminal from vibrations produced by the spacecraft navigational control system and by the moving parts of onboard instruments. Even under these vibration perturbations, the DSOC transceivers (telescopes) need to be pointed l000 fs of times more accurately than an RF communication system (parabolic antennas). Mechanical resonators have been extensively used to provide vibration isolation for groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne payloads. The effectiveness of these isolation systems is determined mainly by the ability of designing a mechanical oscillator with the lowest possible resonant frequency. The Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (LFVIP), developed during this effort, aims to reduce the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillators into the sub-Hertz region in order to maximize the passive isolation afforded by the 40 dB/decade roll-off response of the resonator. The LFVIP also provides tip/tilt functionality for acquisition and tracking of a beacon signal. An active control system is used for platform positioning and for dampening of the mechanical oscillator. The basic idea in the design of the isolation platform is to use a passive isolation strut with an approximately equal to 100-mHz resonance frequency. This will extend the isolation range to lower frequencies. The harmonic oscillator is a second-order lowpass filter for mechanical disturbances. The resonance quality depends on the dissipation mechanisms, which are mainly hysteretic because of the low resonant frequency and the absence of any viscous medium. The LFVIP system is configured using the well-established Stewart Platform, which consists of a top platform connected to a base with six extensible struts (see figure). The struts are attached to the base and to the platform via universal joints, which permit the extension and contraction of the struts. The

  14. Evaluation of actuators for the SDOF and MDOF active microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The University of Virginia examined the design of actuators for both single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) active microgravity isolation systems. For SDOF systems, two actuators were considered: a special large gap magnetic actuator and a large stroke Lorentz actuator. The magnetic actuator was viewed to be of greater difficulty than the Lorentz actuator with little compelling technical advantage and was dropped from consideration. A Lorentz actuator was designed and built for the SDOF test rig using magnetic circuit and finite element analysis. The design and some experimental results are discussed. The University also examined the design of actuators for MDOF isolation systems. This includes design of an integrated 1 cm gap 6-DOF noncontacting magnetic suspension system and of a 'coarse' follower which permits the practical extension of magnetic suspension to large strokes. The proposed 'coarse' actuator was a closed kinematic chain manipulator known as a Stewart Platform. The integration of the two isolation systems together, the isolation tasks assigned to each, and possible control architectures were also explored. The results of this research are examined.

  15. Evaluation of actuators for the SDOF and MDOF active microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University of Virginia examined the design of actuators for both single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) active microgravity isolation systems. For SDOF systems, two actuators were considered: a special large gap magnetic actuator and a large stroke Lorentz actuator. The magnetic actuator was viewed to be of greater difficulty than the Lorentz actuator with little compelling technical advantage and was dropped from consideration. A Lorentz actuator was designed and built for the SDOF test rig using magnetic circuit and finite element analysis. The design and some experimental results are discussed. The University also examined the design of actuators for MDOF isolation systems. This includes design of an integrated 1 cm gap 6-DOF noncontacting magnetic suspension system and of a 'coarse' follower which permits the practical extension of magnetic suspension to large strokes. The proposed 'coarse' actuator was a closed kinematic chain manipulator known as a Stewart Platform. The integration of the two isolation systems together, the isolation tasks assigned to each, and possible control architectures were also explored. The results of this research are examined.

  16. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, M. E.; Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Goldfinger, D.; Wikus, P.; McCammon, D.; Oakley, P.

    2016-08-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer designed to enable high precision measurements of extended astrophysical systems. To perform high energy resolution measurements and capture unprecedented spectra of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, Micro-X must maintain tight temperature control. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to prevent heating of the detectors due to the vibrational loads on the rocket skin during launch. Several stages of vibration damping systems are implemented to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, each stage more rigid than the last. We describe recent redesign efforts to improve this vibration isolation by tuning the resonant frequencies of the various stages to minimize heating prior to the projected launch in 2016.

  17. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, M. E.; Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Goldfinger, D.; Wikus, P.; McCammon, D.; Oakley, P.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer designed to enable high precision measurements of extended astrophysical systems. To perform high energy resolution measurements and capture unprecedented spectra of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, Micro-X must maintain tight temperature control. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to prevent heating of the detectors due to the vibrational loads on the rocket skin during launch. Several stages of vibration damping systems are implemented to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, each stage more rigid than the last. We describe recent redesign efforts to improve this vibration isolation by tuning the resonant frequencies of the various stages to minimize heating prior to the projected launch in 2016.

  18. Launch vehicle payload adapter design with vibration isolation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gareth R.; Fadick, Cynthia M.; Fram, Bryan J.

    2005-05-01

    Payloads, such as satellites or spacecraft, which are mounted on launch vehicles, are subject to severe vibrations during flight. These vibrations are induced by multiple sources that occur between liftoff and the instant of final separation from the launch vehicle. A direct result of the severe vibrations is that fatigue damage and failure can be incurred by sensitive payload components. For this reason a payload adapter has been designed with special emphasis on its vibration isolation characteristics. The design consists of an annular plate that has top and bottom face sheets separated by radial ribs and close-out rings. These components are manufactured from graphite epoxy composites to ensure a high stiffness to weight ratio. The design is tuned to keep the frequency of the axial mode of vibration of the payload on the flexibility of the adapter to a low value. This is the main strategy adopted for isolating the payload from damaging vibrations in the intermediate to higher frequency range (45Hz-200Hz). A design challenge for this type of adapter is to keep the pitch frequency of the payload above a critical value in order to avoid dynamic interactions with the launch vehicle control system. This high frequency requirement conflicts with the low axial mode frequency requirement and this problem is overcome by innovative tuning of the directional stiffnesses of the composite parts. A second design strategy that is utilized to achieve good isolation characteristics is the use of constrained layer damping. This feature is particularly effective at keeping the responses to a minimum for one of the most important dynamic loading mechanisms. This mechanism consists of the almost-tonal vibratory load associated with the resonant burn condition present in any stage powered by a solid rocket motor. The frequency of such a load typically falls in the 45-75Hz range and this phenomenon drives the low frequency design of the adapter. Detailed finite element analysis is

  19. Use of a Slick-Plate as a Contingency Exercise Surface for the Treadmill With Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    The treadmill with vibration isolation system (TVIS) was developed to counteract cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neurovestibular deconditioning during long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). However, recent hardware failures have necessitated the development of a short-term, temporary contingency exercise countermeasure for TVIS until nominal operations could be restored. The purpose of our evaluation was twofold: 1) to examine whether a slick-plate/contingency exercise surface (CES) could be used as a walking/running surface and could elicit a heart rate (HR) greater than or equal to 70% HR maximum and 2) to determine the optimal hardware configuration, in microgravity, to simulate running/walking in a 1-g environment. One subject (male) participated in the slick surface evaluation and two subjects (one male, one female) participated in the microgravity evaluation of the slick surface configuration. During the slick surface evaluation, the subject was suspended in a parachute harness and bungee cord configuration to offset the subject#s body weight. Using another bungee cord configuration, we added a vertical load back to the subject, who was then asked to run for 20 minutes on the slick surface. The microgravity evaluation simulated the ISS TVIS, and we evaluated two different slick surfaces (Teflon surface and an aluminum surface coated with Tufram) for use as a CES. We evaluated each surface with the subject walking and running, with and without a handrail, and while wearing either socks or nylon booties over shoes. In the slick surface evaluation, the subject ran for 20 minutes and reached a maximum HR of 170 bpm. In the microgravity evaluation, the subjects chose the aluminum plate coated with Tufram as the CES, while wearing a pair of nylon booties over running shoes and using a handrail, as the optimal hardware configuration.

  20. Vibration isolation by exploring bio-inspired structural nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijing; Jing, Xingjian; Bian, Jing; Li, Fengming; Allen, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the limb structures of animals/insects in motion vibration control, a bio-inspired limb-like structure (LLS) is systematically studied for understanding and exploring its advantageous nonlinear function in passive vibration isolation. The bio-inspired system consists of asymmetric articulations (of different rod lengths) with inside vertical and horizontal springs (as animal muscle) of different linear stiffness. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the proposed LLS reveal that, (a) the system has very beneficial nonlinear stiffness which can provide flexible quasi-zero, zero and/or negative stiffness, and these nonlinear stiffness properties are adjustable or designable with structure parameters; (b) the asymmetric rod-length ratio and spring-stiffness ratio present very beneficial factors for tuning system equivalent stiffness; (c) the system loading capacity is also adjustable with the structure parameters which presents another flexible benefit in application. Experiments and comparisons with existing quasi-zero-stiffness isolators validate the advantageous features above, and some discussions are also given about how to select structural parameters for practical applications. The results would provide an innovative bio-inspired solution to passive vibration control in various engineering practice. PMID:26448392

  1. Magnetic Actuators and Suspension for Space Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knospe, Carl R.; Allaire, Paul E.; Lewis, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The research on microgravity vibration isolation performed at the University of Virginia is summarized. This research on microgravity vibration isolation was focused in three areas: (1) the development of new actuators for use in microgravity isolation; (2) the design of controllers for multiple-degree-of-freedom active isolation; and (3) the construction of a single-degree-of-freedom test rig with umbilicals. Described are the design and testing of a large stroke linear actuator; the conceptual design and analysis of a redundant coarse-fine six-degree-of-freedom actuator; an investigation of the control issues of active microgravity isolation; a methodology for the design of multiple-degree-of-freedom isolation control systems using modern control theory; and the design and testing of a single-degree-of-freedom test rig with umbilicals.

  2. Shock and vibration isolation for cyclic exercise in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.

    1992-01-01

    A unique feature of undisturbed space flight is vibration and weight free environments not available on Earth. On long flights, exercise and especially locomotor exercise will be required if the crew is to function in a relatively normal fashion and avoid lengthy rehabilitation on return to Earth. Exercise forces in the low frequency range can amount to 2 to 3 times crew body weight in the frequency range most critical to material science. Therefore, the amount of isolation will need to be orders of magnitude greater than present techniques. The following is a brief rationale of the need for these exercises and a description of exercise forces. Current isolation means and their deficiencies will be described, and a method capable of providing the isolation proposed and work to date will be mentioned.

  3. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  4. Microgravity Disturbance Predictions in the Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, M.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will focus on the approach used to characterize microgravity disturbances in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), currently scheduled for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2005. Microgravity experiments contained within the CIR are extremely sensitive to vibratory and transient disturbances originating on-board and off-board the rack. Therefore, several techniques are implemented to isolate the critical science locations from external vibration. A combined testing and analysis approach is utilized to predict the resulting microgravity levels at the critical science location. The major topics to be addressed are: 1) CIR Vibration Isolation Approaches, 2) Disturbance Sources and Characterization, 3) Microgravity Predictive Modeling, 4) Science Microgravity Requirements, 6) Microgravity Control, and 7) On-Orbit Disturbance Measurement. The CIR is using the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS) to isolate the rack from offboard rack disturbances. By utilizing this system, CIR is connected to the U.S. Lab module structure by either 13 or 14 umbilical lines and 8 spring / damper isolators. Some on-board CIR disturbers are locally isolated by grommets or wire ropes. CIR's environmental and science on board support equipment such as air circulation fans, pumps, water flow, air flow, solenoid valves, and computer hard drives cause disturbances within the rack. These disturbers along with the rack structure must be characterized to predict whether the on-orbit vibration levels during experimentation exceed the specified science microgravity vibration level requirements. Both vibratory and transient disturbance conditions are addressed. Disturbance levels/analytical inputs are obtained for each individual disturber in a "free floating" condition in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Microgravity Emissions Lab (MEL). Flight spare hardware is tested on an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) basis. Based on test and analysis, maximum disturbance level

  5. Design of vibration isolation systems using multiobjective optimization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design of vibration isolation systems is considered using multicriteria optimization techniques. The integrated values of the square of the force transmitted to the main mass and the square of the relative displacement between the main mass and the base are taken as the performance indices. The design of a three degrees-of-freedom isolation system with an exponentially decaying type of base disturbance is considered for illustration. Numerical results are obtained using the global criterion, utility function, bounded objective, lexicographic, goal programming, goal attainment and game theory methods. It is found that the game theory approach is superior in finding a better optimum solution with proper balance of the various objective functions.

  6. Enhanced shock and vibration isolator for the attenuation of low-frequency vibration and high-frequency pyroshock loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Youn, Se-Hyun; Jeong, Ho-Kyung; Jang, Young-Soon

    2011-11-01

    Launch vehicles, satellites and aircrafts often experience harsh vibration and pyroshock loads during the flight including maneuvering and separation events, which may cause the malfunction of equipped electronic devices. Furthermore, this minor malfunction can generate catastrophic failure of the whole mission. To prevent malfunction of the electronic devices from severe shock and vibration loads, elastomeric isolators are commonly applied between the electronic device and the equipment bay structure in the aerospace fields. However, this rubber type elastomeric material is vulnerable to the low-frequency vibration load which involves large amount of displacement due to its low stiffness. Recently, the present authors proposed new type of isolator, called as pseudoelastic hybrid mesh isolator. This talk introduces the key features of this new pseudoelastic hybrid mesh isolator which shows better isolation performance throughout all frequency range than conventional isolators.

  7. Enhanced shock and vibration isolator for the attenuation of low-frequency vibration and high-frequency pyroshock loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Youn, Se-Hyun; Jeong, Ho-Kyung; Jang, Young-Soon

    2012-04-01

    Launch vehicles, satellites and aircrafts often experience harsh vibration and pyroshock loads during the flight including maneuvering and separation events, which may cause the malfunction of equipped electronic devices. Furthermore, this minor malfunction can generate catastrophic failure of the whole mission. To prevent malfunction of the electronic devices from severe shock and vibration loads, elastomeric isolators are commonly applied between the electronic device and the equipment bay structure in the aerospace fields. However, this rubber type elastomeric material is vulnerable to the low-frequency vibration load which involves large amount of displacement due to its low stiffness. Recently, the present authors proposed new type of isolator, called as pseudoelastic hybrid mesh isolator. This talk introduces the key features of this new pseudoelastic hybrid mesh isolator which shows better isolation performance throughout all frequency range than conventional isolators.

  8. Relaxation paths for single modes of vibrations in isolated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoular, R.

    2006-06-01

    A numerical simulation of vibrational excitation of molecules was devised and used to excite computational models of common molecules into a prescribed, pure, normal vibration mode in the ground electronic state, with varying, controllable energy content. The redistribution of this energy (either non-chaotic or irreversible IVR) within the isolated, free molecule is then followed in time with a view to determining the coupling strength between modes. This work was triggered by the need to predict the general characters of the infrared spectra to be expected from molecules in interstellar space, after being excited by photon absorption or reaction with a radical. It is found that IVR from a pure normal mode is very 'restricted' indeed at energy contents of one mode quantum or so. However, as this is increased, or when the excitation is localized, our approach allows us to isolate, describe and quantify a number of interesting phenomena, known to chemists and in nonlinear mechanics, but difficult to demonstrate experimentally: frequency dragging, mode locking or quenching or, still, instability near a potential surface crossing, the first step to generalized chaos as the energy content per mode is increased.

  9. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  10. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  11. Umbilical Stiffness Matrix Characterization and Testing for Microgravity Science Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes efforts of testing and analysis of various candidate cables and umbilicals for International Space Station microgravity science payloads. The effects of looping, large vs. small displacements, and umbilical mounting configurations were assessed. A 3-DOF stepper motor driven fixture was used to excite the umbilicals. Forces and moments were directly measured in all three axes with a 6-DOF load cell in order to derive suitable stiffness matrices for design and analysis of vibration isolation controllers. Data obtained from these tests were used to help determine the optimum type and configuration of umbilical cables for the International Space Station microgravity science glovebox (MSG) vibration isolation platform. The data and procedures can also be implemented into control algorithm simulations to assist in validation of actively controlled vibration isolation systems. The experimental results of this work are specific in support of the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) isolation platform, to be located in the microgravity science glovebox aboard the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module.

  12. Vibration isolation using six degree-of-freedom quasi-zero stiffness magnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Cazzolato, Benjamin; Robertson, William S. P.; Zander, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    In laboratories and high-tech manufacturing applications, passive vibration isolators are often used to isolate vibration sensitive equipment from ground-borne vibrations. However, in traditional passive isolation devices, where the payload weight is supported by elastic structures with finite stiffness, a design trade-off between the load capacity and the vibration isolation performance is unavoidable. Low stiffness springs are often required to achieve vibration isolation, whilst high stiffness is desired for supporting payload weight. In this paper, a novel design of a six degree of freedom (six-dof) vibration isolator is presented, as well as the control algorithms necessary for stabilising the passively unstable maglev system. The system applies magnetic levitation as the payload support mechanism, which realises inherent quasi-zero stiffness levitation in the vertical direction, and zero stiffness in the other five dofs. While providing near zero stiffness in multiple dofs, the design is also able to generate static magnetic forces to support the payload weight. This negates the trade-off between load capacity and vibration isolation that often exists in traditional isolator designs. The paper firstly presents the novel design concept of the isolator and associated theories, followed by the mechanical and control system designs. Experimental results are then presented to demonstrate the vibration isolation performance of the proposed system in all six directions.

  13. A method of isolating treadmill shock and vibration on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    A major problem is currently felt to exist in the implementation of materials processing on a spacecraft. Crystal growers place requirements of one micro-g or less on the vehicle. Simple math produces startling figures for such a restriction e.g., for each ton of vehicle mass with 10(-6) g acceleration limit; Perturbing Force limit, F = .002 lb. For each 10(5) lbs F = 0.1 lb. For each 10(6) lbs F = 1.0 lb. Forces generated by normal human movement on spacecraft of 5x10(5) pounds weight are on an order-of-magnitude greater than allowed by this specification and forces generated by locomotion on a treadmill are more than two orders-of-magnitude greater. Other exercises and normal onboard functions generate forces in between. To accommodate many essential functions it is obvious that even on a vehicle as large as Space Station, a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in force is required. Commonly used passive shock and vibration isolation devices are complex, heavy, and also would have difficulty meeting the requirements. However, by a new arrangement, adequate isolation can be obtained. Isolation of the treadmill will be treated since it is considered the most significant disturbance at this time.

  14. Note: A three-dimension active vibration isolator for precision atom gravimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Min-Kang; Xiong, Xin; Chen, Le-Le; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-15

    An ultra-low frequency active vibration isolator, simultaneously suppressing three-dimensional vibration noise, is demonstrated experimentally. The equivalent natural period of the isolator is 100 s and 12 s for the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively. The vibration noise in the vertical direction is about 50 times reduced during 0.2 and 2 Hz, and 5 times reduced in the other two orthogonal directions in the same frequency range. This isolator is designed for atom gravimeters, especially suitable for the gravimeter whose sensitivity is limited by vibration couplings.

  15. Electromagnetically levitated vibration isolation system for the manufacturing process of silicon monocrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Yano, Kenichi; Mizuno, Takayuki

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a study on an Electromagnetically Levitated Vibration Isolation System (ELVIS) for isolation control of large-scale vibration. This system features no mechanical contact between the isolation table and the installation floor, using a total of four electromagnetic actuators which generate magnetic levitation force in the vertical and horizontal directions. The configuration of the magnet for the vertical direction is designed to prevent any generation of restoring vibratory force in the horizontal direction. The isolation system is set so that vibration control effects due to small earthquakes can be regulated to below 5(gal) versus horizontal vibration levels of the installation floor of up t 25(gal), and those in the horizontal relative displacement of up to 30 (mm) between the floor and levitated isolation table. In particular, studies on the relative displacement between the installation floor and the levitated isolation table have been made for vibration control in the horizontal direction. In case of small-scale earthquakes (Taft wave scaled: max. 25 gal), the present system has been confirmed to achieve a vibration isolation to a level below 5 gal. The vibration transmission ratio of below 1/10 has been achieved versus continuous micro-vibration (approx. one gal) in the horizontal direction on the installation floor.

  16. Vibration and shock isolation performance of a pressure-limited hydraulic damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hong; Rakheja, S.; Sankar, T. S.

    1989-01-01

    A pressure-limited hydraulic damper is proposed to achieve variable damping within a vibration isolation system. The variation in damping parameters is achieved passively by limiting the pressure differential across the damper piston, using pressure relief valves. The pressure-limited hydraulic damper is modeled as a non-linear dynamical system incorporating control valve dynamics. The significance of the pressure differential across the damper piston is discussed in view of vibration isolation, and a methodology for estimation of a suitable value of the limiting pressure is proposed. The vibration and shock isolation characteristics of the passive pressure-limited damper are investigated through computer simulation. The vibration and shock isolation performance of the proposed damper is compared to those of passive and semi-active "on-off" vibration isolators. A comparison of the simulation results reveals that the vibration and shock isolation performance of the pressure-limited damper is superior to that of a conventional passive damper, and is comparable to that of a semi-active "on-off" damper. The proposed pressure-limited damper can be realised passively and does not require the sophisticated control devices and feedback instrumentation essential for a semi-active "on-off" vibration isolation system.

  17. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    The International Microgravity Measurements Group annual meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The twentieth MGMG meeting was held 7-9 August 2001 at the Hilton Garden Inn Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 35 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; eight of the attendees were international representatives from Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Russia. Seventeen presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, and microgravity outreach. Two working sessions were included in which a demonstration of ISS acceleration data processing and analyses were performed with audience participation. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation which indicate the author's name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been included here.

  18. Development of a variable stiffness spring for adaptive vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronje, Johan M.; Heyns, P. S.; Theron, Nico J.; Loveday, Philip W.

    2004-07-01

    Variable stiffness springs allow vibration absorbers and isolators to adapt to changing operating conditions. This paper describes the development of such a spring. The spring was a compound leaf spring and variable stiffness was achieved by separating the two leaf springs using a wax actuator. In the selected design, each spring consisted of an outer (220mm in diameter) and an inner ring connected by three radial beams. A paraffin wax actuator was chosen to affect the separation of the leaf springs. This actuator consisted of a small copper cup containing paraffin wax. When the wax is heated, it changes from a solid to a liquid with an associated volume change that is used to drive an output shaft. A hot-air gun was used to heat and cool the wax actuator. It was found that the wax actuator could produce an 8mm separation of the springs, which increased the stiffness of the spring by 2.7 times, exceeding the typical requirement for adaptive absorbers and isolators. The loss factor, of the variable stiffness spring, was less than 0.12. The measured response times for the open-loop system were 82s and 109s for heating and cooling respectively. A linear sliding potentiometer was used to measure the spring separation and proportional and derivative feedback control was used to control the current supplied to the heating element thus reducing the response time to less than 30s for small step changes. Further improvement in response time could be achieved by more directly heating and cooling of the paraffin wax in the actuator.

  19. A programmable broadband low frequency active vibration isolation system for atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhou, Lin; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2014-09-01

    Vibration isolation at low frequency is important for some precision measurement experiments that use atom interferometry. To decrease the vibrational noise caused by the reflecting mirror of Raman beams in atom interferometry, we designed and demonstrated a compact stable active low frequency vibration isolation system. In this system, a digital control subsystem is used to process and feedback the vibration measured by a seismometer. A voice coil actuator is used to control and cancel the motion of a commercial passive vibration isolation platform. With the help of field programmable gate array-based control subsystem, the vibration isolation system performed flexibly and accurately. When the feedback is on, the intrinsic resonance frequency of the system will change from 0.8 Hz to about 0.015 Hz. The vertical vibration (0.01-10 Hz) measured by the in-loop seismometer is reduced by an additional factor of up to 500 on the basis of a passive vibration isolation platform, and we have proved the performance by adding an additional seismometer as well as applying it in the atom interferometry experiment. PMID:25273709

  20. Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimasi, F. P.; Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined.

  1. Prototyping a compact system for active vibration isolation using piezoelectric sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui; Wang, Chun; Li, Liufeng; Chen, Lisheng

    2013-05-01

    Being small in size and weight, piezoelectric transducers hold unique positions in vibration sensing and control. Here, we explore the possibility of building a compact vibration isolation system using piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The mechanical resonances of a piezoelectric actuator around a few kHz are suppressed by an order of magnitude via electrical damping, which improves the high-frequency response. Working with a strain gauge located on the piezoelectric actuator, an auxiliary control loop eliminates the drift associated with a large servo gain at dc. Following this approach, we design, optimize, and experimentally verify the loop responses using frequency domain analysis. The vibration isolation between 1 Hz and 200 Hz is achieved and the attenuation peaks at 60 near vibration frequency of 20 Hz. Restrictions and potentials for extending the isolation to lower vibration frequencies are discussed.

  2. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  3. Analysis of a Near-Free-Floating Vibration Isolation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regehr, M.

    2015-02-01

    Pointing control for deep-space lasercom is expected to be challenging because, for the apertures and wavelengths contemplated (of order 20 cm and 1 micrometer, respectively), the width of the beam transmitting data to Earth will be of order a few microradians. To address this challenge, JPL and others have been developing a vibration isolation system in which the lasercom telescope is nearly free-floating next to the spacecraft, being physically connected to the spacecraft only by a set of flexible wires and fibers referred to as an umbilical. The telescope's position relative to the spacecraft is sensed by noncontact sensors and the telescope is controlled by noncontact (voice coil) actuators. The telescope pointing error, relative to Earth, is also sensed by a pointing detector in the telescope, which images an Earth-based laser beacon. The telescope moves in six degrees of freedom, of which two (pitch and yaw) are the pointing of the telescope, and are of principal importance. This article describes a controller for controlling the telescope, and a simplified method of analyzing the closed-loop behavior of the system. Several mechanisms for cross-coupling between the degrees of freedom are present, including off-diagonal elements in the umbilical spring constant matrix, and the telescope having significant products of inertia; as a result, the dynamics of the closed-loop system are described by a full 6 by 6 transfer matrix. Approximations that take into account only one or two cross-coupling mechanisms at a time, however, and which result in block-diagonal models for the system, provide excellent agreement with the full model. These approximations provide insight useful for designing the controller, and numerical models indicate that a controller designed using these approximations provides performance that meets pointing requirements.

  4. Description of the traction characteristics of the neodymium compensators of the automatic vibration isolations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurova, E. G.; Panchenko, Y. V.; Gurov, M. G.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the method of calculation of neodymium magnets was presented. The calculation of the neodymium magnets characteristics and stiffness correctors of the vibration isolator according to the requirements for vibration isolation devices with stiffness compensators was performed. This research has been performed with the support of the President scholarship for young scientists, order No. 184 of Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation of the 10th of March 2015.

  5. Quaternion representations of stiffness and momentum of the forces, acting in vibration isolating systems with stiffness compensators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurova, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    This research is devoted to development of the spatial vibration isolation devices. The description of the vibration isolation systems has been presented through quaternions of the forces, momentums, and stiffness. The considered method allows taking into account the stochastic vibrations and describes it with the help of the hypercomplex numbers. The theory suggests the development of the vibration isolation devices, which have traction characteristics with zero stiffness area. To obtain such area in traction characteristic, a spatial vibration isolator is presented as a resilient element and the stiffness compensator, which is connected in parallel with it.

  6. Synthesis of a system with active vibration isolation, considering the vibroacoustical characteristics of the source and of the isolated object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkin, M. D.; Yelezov, V. G.; Yablonskiy, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The efficiency and resistance of an active vibration isolation system (AVI) are analyzed for the case of unidirectional vibrations of a mass on a spring, with a damper, resting on a rigid base. The effect of certain vibroacoustical characteristics of real objects on AVI resistance and synthesis of AVI, which are effective over a wide frequency band are considered. A numerical analysis of the response of a mechanical system with AVI features is presented.

  7. ElectroMagnetic Vibration isolation and stabilization system theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdar, Hosein

    Vibration isolation is undoubtedly one of the most efficient methods of Structural Control. The ElectroMagnetic Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (EMVISS) proposed here is the very first vibration isolation that could provide six Degrees-of-Freedom (DOF) vibration isolation. In this dissertation, after discussion on the conventional vibration isolation systems (for both seismic and non-seismic applications) and current electromagnetic actuation systems, development of EMVISS will be discussed in detail. Finding a configuration that results in satisfying results, understanding the mechanical and electromagnetic dynamics of the system, and designing appropriate controllers for different modes of EMVISS are explained in detail. The proposed system could function on very reasonably sized batteries and this independency from the grid is an important advantage. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using different series of hybrid simulations. The promising results obtained from these thorough simulations could possibly bring a new generation of active structural control methods for seismic protection of nonstructural components (NSC), specific parts of structures, or the structure as a whole. Application of EMVISS could also easily be extended to non-seismic vibration control.

  8. Design and analysis of an intelligent vibration isolation platform for reaction/momentum wheel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Yong; Li, Dong-Xu

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on design and analysis of an intelligent vibration isolation platform for reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) and momentum wheel assemblies (MWAs). A passive platform consisting of four folded beams is designed and analysed for MWAs. A simple and effective mathematical model is developed for the system consisting of the platform and MWAs, and this model is used to investigate the passive vibration isolation performance. Further development is performed to produce an intelligent platform for RWAs, with piezoelectric sensors and actuators bonded to the vertical beams. The flywheel imbalance and impulse load are assumed to be input disturbances for the investigation of the active vibration isolation performance by the finite element method (FEM). The simulation results show that the passive vibration isolation platform is particularly effective for the suppression of a high frequency range vibration for MWAs, and the intelligent platform using velocity feedback control effectively attenuates the dynamic amplification of amplitude at resonance for RWAs. Thus, it is concluded that the passive platform can be used as a vibration isolation platform for MWAs and that the intelligent one can be used for RWAs.

  9. Vibration Isolation for Launch of a Space Station Orbital Replacement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Pendleton, Scott C.; James, George H., III; Mimovich, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Delivery of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) to on-orbit destinations such a the International Space Station (ISS) and the Hubble Space Telescope is an important component of the space program. ORUs are integrated on orbit with space assets to maintain and upgrade functionality. For ORUs comprised of sensitive equipment, the dynamic launch environment drives design and testing requirements, and high frequency random vibrations are generally the cause for failure. Vibration isolation can mitigate the structure-borne vibration environment during launch, and hardware has been developed that can provide a reduced environment for current and future launch environments. Random vibration testing of one ORU to equivalent Space Shuttle launch levels revealed that its qualification and acceptance requirements were exceeded. An isolation system was designed to mitigate the structure-borne launch vibration environment. To protect this ORU, the random vibration levels at 50 Hz must be attenuated by a factor of two and those at higher frequencies even more. Design load factors for Shuttle launch are high, so a metallic load path is needed to maintain strength margins. Isolation system design was performed using a finite element model of the ORU on its carrier with representative disturbance inputs. Iterations on the modelled to an optimized design based on flight proven SoftRide MultiFlex isolators. Component testing has been performed on prototype isolators to validate analytical predictions.

  10. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part I: Theory, analysis, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    Two basic engineering strategies for the protection of equipment and structures from damages caused by seismic shock and vibration loadings are, namely, strengthening and isolation. They work on almost totally different principles; the strengthening strategy aims primarily at increasing the capacity or the ability of the structure to withstand the dynamic loading by incorporating additional structural materials and components, while the isolation strategy focuses on reducing the demand or the transmitted loading on the structure by adding an isolator or isolation system between the structure and the source of the loading. The isolation strategy is often used for filtering out unwanted vibrations and noises. In practice, the isolation strategy has the advantage of not depending on alterations to the isolated structure and is often the preferred method for applications in equipment and in some structures.

  11. A novel magnetorheological elastomer isolator with negative changing stiffness for vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Sun, S. S.; Du, H.; Li, W. H.; Alici, G.; Deng, H. X.

    2014-10-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomers (MREs) have attracted notable credits in the development of smart isolators and absorbers due to their controllable stiffness and damping properties. For the purpose of mitigating unwanted structural and/or machinery vibrations, the traditional MRE-based isolators have been generally proven effective because the MR effect can increase the stiffness when the magnetic field is strengthened. This study presents a novel MRE isolator that experienced reduced stiffness when the applied current was increased. This innovative work was accomplished by applying a hybrid magnet (electromagnet and permanent magnets) onto a multilayered MRE structure. To characterise this negative changing stiffness concept, a multilayered MRE isolator with a hybrid magnet was first designed, fabricated and then tested to measure its properties. An obvious reduction of the effective stiffness and natural frequency of the proposed MRE isolator occurred when the current was continuously adjusted. This device could also work as a conventional MRE isolator as its effective stiffness and natural frequency also increased when a negative current was applied. Further testing was carried out on a one-degree-of-freedom system to assess how effectively this device could isolate vibration. In this experiment, two cases were considered; in each case, the vibration of the primary system was obviously attenuated under ON-OFF control logic, thus demonstrating the feasibility of this novel design as an alternative adaptive vibration isolator.

  12. Study of providing omnidirectional vibration isolation to entire space shuttle payload packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. S.; Robinson, G. D.; Weber, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques to provide omnidirectional vibration isolation for a space shuttle payload package were investigated via a reduced-scale model. Development, design, fabrication, assembly and test evaluation of a 0.125-scale isolation model are described. Final drawings for fabricated mechanical components are identified, and prints of all drawings are included.

  13. A new vibration isolation bed stage with magnetorheological dampers for ambulance vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Hee Dong; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    The vibration experienced in an ambulance can lead to secondary injury to a patient and discourage a paramedic from providing emergency care. In this study, with the goal of resolving this problem, a new vibration isolation bed stage associated with magnetorheological (MR) dampers is proposed to ensure ride quality as well as better care for the patient while he/she is being transported. The bed stage proposed in this work can isolate vibrations in the vertical, rolling and pitching directions to reflect the reality that occurs in the ambulance. Firstly, an appropriate-sized MR damper is designed based on the field-dependent rheological properties of MR fluid, and the damping force characteristics of a MR damper are evaluated as a function of the current. A mechanical model of the proposed vibration isolation bed stage is then established to derive the governing equations of motion. Subsequently, a sliding mode controller is formulated to control the vibrations caused from the imposed excitation signals; those signals are directly measured using a real ambulance subjected to bump-and-curve road conditions. Using the controller based on the dynamic motion of the bed stage, the vibration control performance is evaluated in both the vertical and pitch directions. It is demonstrated that the magnitude of the vibration in the patient compartment of the ambulance can be significantly reduced by applying an input current to the MR dampers installed for the new bed stage.

  14. Study on the auto-leveling adjustment vibration isolation system for the ultra-precision machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiCong; Li, ZengQiang; Zhao, XueSen; Sun, Tao; Zhang, KunPeng

    2014-08-01

    The requirement of the vibration isolation system for ultra-precision machine tool was extremely stringent. However, most of the isolation systems currently cannot meet the requirement. Therefore, it is urgently needed to design a new vibration isolation system to fulfill the strict vibration capability required by ultra-precision machine tool. In this paper the structure and principle of the conventional vibration isolation systems composed of air springs were first elucidated thoroughly. Based on these knowledge, we have designed a vibration isolation system with the function of auto-leveling adjustment for a home-made ultra-precision machine tool. The capability of vibration isolation system was validated by an experimental method, in which acceleration-frequency curves were recorded. And post data processing including the analyzing the cut-off frequency and amplitude attenuation were followed. The experimental results demonstrated that the air spring vibration isolation system designed in this paper has the capability to effectively isolate the vibration from the ground: it has a higher attenuation ratio for vibration with a frequency beyond 3 Hz, which preferably meet the vibration isolation requirement of the ultra-precision machine tool.

  15. Passive vibration isolation for SITELLE's closed cycle cooled cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baril, Marc; Benedict, Tom; Barrick, Gregory; Ho, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    The SITELLE Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer system being developed by l'Université Laval at ABB-Bomem will require two identical CCD detector systems. Our requirements for the cryogenic system for these cameras are: cooling to below 190 K, extremely low vibrational input from the cryogenic system (<1 mg RMS from 0-2 kHz), hands-off operation over long periods of time and low original capital outlay and continued operation cost. These constraints drove towards the selection of a Polycold PCC cooled system which exhibits relatively low vibrational noise and can efficiently achieve the required cooling power in our target temperature range. This paper will present work performed to passively mitigate high frequency vibrations imparted by the Polycold PCC cryo-head on the detector cryostat.

  16. Control of elasticity in cast elastomeric shock/vibration isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L.; Bright, C.

    1974-01-01

    Elasticity is determined by isolators physical dimensions and by type of elastomer used. Once elastomer is selected and cast between two concentric tubes of device, isolator elasticity will remain fixed. Isolators having same dimensions can be built to different elasticity requirements using same elastomer.

  17. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young's modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz-97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method. PMID:27370507

  18. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young's modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz-97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  19. Positioning and Microvibration Control by Electromagnets of an Air Spring Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Katsuhide; Cui, Weimin; Haga, Takahide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Yano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Active positioning and microvibration control has been attempted by electromagnets equipped in a bellows-type, air-spring vibration isolation system. Performance tests have been carried out to study the effects. The main components of the system's isolation table were four electromagnetic actuators and controllers. The vibration isolation table was also equipped with six acceleration sensors for detecting microvibration of the table. The electromagnetic actuators were equipped with bellows-type air springs for passive support of the weight of the item placed on the table, with electromagnets for active positioning, as well as for microvibration control, and relative displacement sensors. The controller constituted a relative feedback system for positioning control and an absolute feedback system for vibration isolation control. In the performance test, a 1,490 kg load (net weight of 1,820 kg) was placed on the vibration isolation table, and both the positioning and microvibration control were carried out electromagnetically. Test results revealed that the vibration transmission was reduced by 95%.

  20. Design, fabrication and testing of two electrohydraulic vibration isolation systems for helicopter environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two electrohydraulic vibration isolation systems were designed and fabricated to reduce the vertical vibrations transmitted to the XH-51N research helicopter cabin at the blade passage frequency (18 Hz) and its first harmonic (36 Hz). Hydraulic power and electrical control are provided to two separate servoactuators from a common power supply and control electronics package located behind the pilot's seat. One servoactuator is installed between the cabin and fuselage and replaces an existing passive spring. A second servoactuator is mounted between the existing seat and cabin floor. Both servoactuators incorporate a mechanical failsafe design. The control electronics circuitry provides automatic tracking of the blade passage frequency. Results of laboratory, environmental and ground vibration tests employing an XH-51A stripped down helicopter fuselage show that the active cabin isolator reduces the vertical vibrations transmitted from the fuselage attachment point to the cabin attachment point at 18 and 36 Hz (or as an alternative, 6 Hz) by better than 90 percent.

  1. Hardware interface for isolation of vibrations in flexible manipulators: Development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas; Ghosh, David

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) is addressing the problem of isolating the vibrations of the Shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS) from its end-effector and/or payload by modeling an RMS flat-floor simulator with a dynamic payload. Analysis of the model can lead to control techniques that will improve the speed, accuracy, and safety of the RMS in capturing satellites and eventually facilitate berthing with the space station. Rockwell International Corporation, also involved in vibration isolation, has developed a hardware interface unit to isolate the end-effector from the vibrations of an arm on a Shuttle robotic tile processing system (RTPS). To apply the RTPS isolation techniques to long-reach arms like the RMS, engineers have modeled the dynamics of the hardware interface unit with simulation software. By integrating the Rockwell interface model with the NASA LaRC RMS simulator model, investigators can study the use of a hardware interface to isolate dynamic payloads from the RMS. The interface unit uses both active and passive compliance and damping for vibration isolation. Thus equipped, the RMS could be used as a telemanipulator with control characteristics for capture and berthing operations. The hardware interface also has applications in industry.

  2. Study of liquid viscosity dampers in octo-strut platform for whole-spacecraft vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likun, Liu; Gangtie, Zheng; Wenhu, Huang

    2006-05-01

    Whole-spacecraft vibration isolation is a direct and effective technique toward improving the dynamic environment that a spacecraft experiences during its journey to the orbit. Liquid viscosity dampers are the major component of an octo-strut vibration isolation platform for isolating the vibration of the whole spacecraft. To study the model and influence factors of the damper on the performance of the platform, a three-parameter dynamic model of the single strut is built, in which the effective elasticity of the liquid volume as a part of the strut is represented by a spring in series with the damper. By modeling the vibration isolation platform with Newton-Euler method, the design parameters of a single strut are defined by achieving optimal isolation performance along the longitudinal direction. From numerical analysis results with a rigid spacecraft and a flexible spacecraft on the top of the platform, it is found that the elasticity of the liquid volume is a key factor in defining the transmissibility. With a proper choice of the effective elasticity of the liquid volume, a better isolation performance than the commonly used two-parameter strut can be obtained.

  3. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  4. Development of the Vibration Isolation System for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebuhr, Jason H.; Hagen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Vibration Isolation System for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device from conceptual design to lessons learned. Maintaining a micro-g environment on the International Space Station requires that experiment racks and major vibration sources be isolated. The challenge in characterizing exercise loads and testing the system in the presence of gravity led to a decision to qualify the system by analysis. Available data suggests that the system is successful in attenuating loads, yet there has been a major component failure and several procedural issues during its 3 years of operational use.

  5. A method of transmissibility design for dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Joon

    2009-06-01

    Dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolators have a wide range of applications for vibration isolation of vibration-sensitive equipment. Recent advances in precision machine tools and instruments such as medical devices and those related to nano-technology require better isolation performance, which can be efficiently achieved by precise modeling- and design- of the isolation system. This paper discusses an efficient transmissibility design method of a pneumatic vibration isolator wherein a complex stiffness model of a dual-chamber pneumatic spring developed in our previous study is employed. Three design parameters, the volume ratio between the two pneumatic chambers, the geometry of the capillary tube connecting the two pneumatic chambers, and, finally, the stiffness of the diaphragm employed for prevention of air leakage, were found to be important factors in transmissibility design. Based on a design technique that maximizes damping of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring, trade-offs among the resonance frequency of transmissibility, peak transmissibility, and transmissibility in high frequency range were found, which were not ever stated in previous researches. Furthermore, this paper discusses the negative role of the diaphragm in transmissibility design. The design method proposed in this paper is illustrated through experimental measurements.

  6. A magnetorheological fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator allowing independently adjustable stiffness and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaocong; Jing, Xingjian; Cheng, Li

    2011-08-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator (MrEPI) with hybrid and compact connection of pneumatic spring and MR damping elements is proposed in this study. The proposed MrEPI system allows independent nonlinear stiffness and damping control with considerable maneuverable ranges. Meanwhile, it allows convenient switching between different passive and active vibration control modes, thus providing more flexibility and versatility in applications. To demonstrate the advantageous dynamic performance of the MrEPI, a nonlinear non-dimensional dynamic model is developed with full consideration of the nonlinear elements involved. A systematic analysis is therefore conducted which can clearly reveal the influence on system output performance caused by each physically important parameter and provide a useful insight into the analysis and design of nonlinear vibration isolators with pneumatic and MR elements.

  7. On the Isolation of Science Payloads from Spacecraft Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W.; Horta, Lucas G.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    The remote sensing of the Earth's features from space requires precision pointing of scientific instruments. To this end, the NASA Langley Research Center has been involved in developing numerous controlled structures technologies. This paper describes one of the more promising technologies for minimizing pointing jitter, namely, payload isolation. The application of passive and active payload mounts for attenuation of pointing jitter of the EOS AM-1 spacecraft is discussed. In addition, analysis and ground tests to validate the performance of isolation mounts using a scaled dynamics model of the EOS AM-1 spacecraft are presented.

  8. Effect of structural flexibility on the design of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous analyses of the design of vibration-isolating mounts for a rear-mounted engine to decouple linear and rotational oscillations are extended to take into account flexibility of the engine-mount structure. Equations and curves are presented to allow the design of mount systems and to illustrate the results for a range of design conditions.

  9. A combined dynamic analysis method for geometrically nonlinear vibration isolators with elastic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie

    2016-08-01

    A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.

  10. Modeling and analysis of a negative stiffness magnetic suspension vibration isolator with experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Li, Qiang; Xu, Dengfeng; Hu, Chuxiong; Zhang, Ming

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a negative stiffness magnetic suspension vibration isolator (NSMSVI) using magnetic spring and rubber ligaments. The positive stiffness is obtained by repulsive magnetic spring while the negative stiffness is gained by rubber ligaments. In order to study the vibration isolation performance of the NSMSVI, an analytical expression of the vertical stretch force of the rubber ligament is constructed. Experiments are carried out, which demonstrates that the analytical expression is effective. Then an analytical expression of the vertical stiffness of the rubber ligament is deduced by the derivative of the stretch force of the rubber ligament with respect to the displacement of the inner magnetic ring. Furthermore, the parametric study of the magnetic spring and rubber ligament are carried out. As a case study, the size dimensions of the magnetic spring and rubber ligament are determined. Finally, an NSMSVI table was built to verify the vibration isolation performance of the NSMSVI. The transmissibility curves of the NSMSVI are subsequently calculated and tested by instruments. The experimental results reveal that there is a good consistency between the measured transmissibility and the calculated ones, which proves that the proposed NSMSVI is effective and can realize low-frequency vibration isolation. PMID:23020420

  11. Modeling and analysis of a negative stiffness magnetic suspension vibration isolator with experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu; Li, Qiang; Xu, Dengfeng; Hu, Chuxiong; Zhang, Ming

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a negative stiffness magnetic suspension vibration isolator (NSMSVI) using magnetic spring and rubber ligaments. The positive stiffness is obtained by repulsive magnetic spring while the negative stiffness is gained by rubber ligaments. In order to study the vibration isolation performance of the NSMSVI, an analytical expression of the vertical stretch force of the rubber ligament is constructed. Experiments are carried out, which demonstrates that the analytical expression is effective. Then an analytical expression of the vertical stiffness of the rubber ligament is deduced by the derivative of the stretch force of the rubber ligament with respect to the displacement of the inner magnetic ring. Furthermore, the parametric study of the magnetic spring and rubber ligament are carried out. As a case study, the size dimensions of the magnetic spring and rubber ligament are determined. Finally, an NSMSVI table was built to verify the vibration isolation performance of the NSMSVI. The transmissibility curves of the NSMSVI are subsequently calculated and tested by instruments. The experimental results reveal that there is a good consistency between the measured transmissibility and the calculated ones, which proves that the proposed NSMSVI is effective and can realize low-frequency vibration isolation.

  12. A small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Mu, Wenjun; Zhang, Luyang; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    A magneto-rheological bearing (MRB) is proposed to improve the vibration isolation performance of a floating slab track system. However, it's difficult to carry out the test for the full-scale track vibration isolation system in the laboratory. In this paper, the research is based on scale analysis of the floating slab track system, from the point view of the dimensionless of the dynamic characteristics of physical quantity, to establish a small scale test bench system for the MRBs. A small scale MRB with squeeze mode using magneto-rheological grease is designed and its performance is tested. The major parameters of a small scale test bench are obtained according to the similarity theory. The force transmissibility ratio and the relative acceleration transmissibility ratio are selected as evaluation index of system similarity. Dynamics of these two similarity systems are calculated by MATLAB experiment. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the prototype and scale models have good similarity. Further, a test bench is built according to the small-scale model parameter analysis. The experiment shows that the bench testing results are consistency with that of theoretical model in evaluating the vibration force and acceleration. Therefore, the small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system based on similarity theory reveals the isolation performance of a real slab track prototype system.

  13. The interior working mechanism and temperature characteristics of a fluid based micro-vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhao, Shougen; Wu, Dafang; Jing, Xingjian

    2016-01-01

    Micro-vibration isolation is a hot topic in spacecraft vibration control, and fluid based vibration isolators alternatively provide a good and reliable solution to this challenging issue. In this paper, a novel fluid based micro-vibration isolator (FBMVI) is investigated. According to its inherent working principle and deformation pattern, the generation mechanisms of the damping and stiffness characteristics are derived, which are nonlinear functions of the environmental temperature. Then a lumped parameter model which is expressed by the physical design parameters (PDPs) is constructed, and the corresponding performance objective indices (POIs) are also obtained by applying the equivalence of mechanical impedance. Based on the finite element analysis of the internal damping component, a single variable method is further adopted to carry out the parametric study, and the influences of each PDP on the POIs are analyzed in details. Finally, experiments are conducted to identify the variation of fluid bulk modulus with the outside environmental temperature, and to validate the performance of the isolator under different temperature environments. The tested results show great consistence compared with the predicted tendencies of the parametric study. The results of this study can provide a very useful insight into and/or an important guidance for the design and application of this type of FBMVIs in engineering practice.

  14. Effectiveness of a passive-active vibration isolation system with actuator constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lingling; Sun, Wei; Song, Kongjie; Hansen, Colin H.

    2014-05-01

    In the prediction of active vibration isolation performance, control force requirements were ignored in previous work. This may limit the realization of theoretically predicted isolation performance if control force of large magnitude cannot be supplied by actuators. The behavior of a feed-forward active isolation system subjected to actuator output constraints is investigated. Distributed parameter models are developed to analyze the system response, and to produce a transfer matrix for the design of an integrated passive-active isolation system. Cost functions comprising a combination of the vibration transmission energy and the sum of the squared control forces are proposed. The example system considered is a rigid body connected to a simply supported plate via two passive-active isolation mounts. Vertical and transverse forces as well as a rotational moment are applied at the rigid body, and resonances excited in elastic mounts and the supporting plate are analyzed. The overall isolation performance is evaluated by numerical simulation. The simulation results are then compared with those obtained using unconstrained control strategies. In addition, the effects of waves in elastic mounts are analyzed. It is shown that the control strategies which rely on unconstrained actuator outputs may give substantial power transmission reductions over a wide frequency range, but also require large control force amplitudes to control excited vibration modes of the system. Expected power transmission reductions for modified control strategies that incorporate constrained actuator outputs are considerably less than typical reductions with unconstrained actuator outputs. In the frequency range in which rigid body modes are present, the control strategies can only achieve 5-10 dB power transmission reduction, when control forces are constrained to be the same order of the magnitude as the primary vertical force. The resonances of the elastic mounts result in a notable increase

  15. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  16. Model-free fuzzy control of a magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation system: analysis and experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Peidong; Wang, Yuan; Liao, Guanyao; Yu, Miao

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of micro-vibration control of a precision vibration isolation system with a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator and fuzzy control strategy. Firstly, a polyurethane matrix MRE isolator working in the shear-compression mixed mode is introduced. The dynamic characteristic is experimentally tested, and the range of the frequency shift and the model parameters of the MRE isolator are obtained from experimental results. Secondly, a new semi-active control law is proposed, which uses isolation structure displacement and relative displacement between the isolation structure and base as the inputs. Considering the nonlinearity of the MRE isolator and the excitation uncertainty of an isolation system, the designed semi-active fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is independent of a system model and is robust. Finally, the numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the FLC with single-frequency and multiple-frequency excitation, respectively, and the experimental results show that the acceleration transmissibility is reduced by 54.04% at most, which verifies the effectiveness of the designed semi-active FLC. Moreover, the advantages of the approach are demonstrated in comparison to the passive control and ON-OFF control.

  17. Inner structural vibration isolation method for a single control moment gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Zixi; Zhang, Yao; Tang, Liang; Guan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Assembling and manufacturing errors of control moment gyros (CMG) often generate high frequency vibrations which are detrimental to spacecrafts with high precision pointing requirement. In this paper, some design methods of vibration isolation between CMG and spacecraft is dealt with. As a first step, the dynamic model of the CMG with and without supporting isolation structures is studied and analyzed. Subsequently, the frequency domain analysis of CMG with isolation system is performed and the effectiveness of the designed system is ascertained. Based on the above studies, an adaptive design suitable with appropriate design parameters are carried out. A numerical analysis is also performed to understand the effectiveness of the system and the comparison made. The simulation results clearly indicate that when the ideal isolation structure was implemented in the spacecraft, the vibrations generated by the rotor were found to be greatly reduced, while the capacity of the output torque was not lost, which means that the isolation system will not affect the performance of attitude control.

  18. Modeling and dynamic properties of dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. S.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    The dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture (SALiM) vibration isolator, mainly proposed for vibration isolation of heavy machines with low frequency, consists of four principle parts: SALiM working media including elastic elements and incompressible oil, multi-layers bellows container, rigid reservoir and the oil tube connecting the two vessels. The isolation system under study is governed by a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) nonlinear equation including quadratic damping. Simplifying the nonlinear damping into viscous damping, the equivalent stiffness and damping model is derived from the equation for the response amplitude. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation reveal that the isolator's stiffness and damping have multiple properties with different parameters, among which the effects of exciting frequency, vibrating amplitude, quadratic damping coefficient and equivalent stiffness of the two chambers on the isolator's dynamics are discussed in depth. Based on the boundary characteristics of stiffness and damping and the main causes for stiffness hardening effect, improvement strategies are proposed to obtain better dynamic properties. At last, experiments were implemented and the test results were generally consistent with the theoretical ones, which verified the reliability of the nonlinear dynamic model.

  19. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beker, M. G. Bertolini, A.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.; Brand, J. F. J. van den; Bulten, H. J.

    2014-03-15

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system.

  20. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems.

    PubMed

    Beker, M G; Bertolini, A; van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Hennes, E; Rabeling, D S

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system. PMID:24689604

  1. Novel Euler-LaCoste linkage as a very low frequency vertical vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosain, M. A.; Sirr, A.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2012-08-01

    LaCoste linkage vibration isolators have shown excellent performance for ultra-low frequency vertical vibration isolation. However, such isolators depend on the use of conventional pre-stressed coil springs, which suffer from creep. Here, we show that compressional Euler springs can be configured to create a stable tension unit for use in a LaCoste structure. In a proof of concept experiment, we demonstrate a vertical resonance frequency of 0.15 Hz in an Euler-LaCoste configuration with 200 mm height. The system enables the use of very low creep maraging steel as spring elements to eliminate the creep while minimising spring mass and reducing the effect of parasitic resonances. Larger scale systems with optimized Euler spring boundary conditions should achieve performance suitable for applications on third generation gravitational wave detectors such as the proposed Einstein telescope.

  2. A NASA/Industry/University Partnership for Development of Dual-Use Vibration Isolation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    A partnership is described that was formed as a result of a NASA university grant for the study of wire rope vibration isolation systems. Vibration isolators of this type are currently used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and engine test facility, and have potential application in the international space station and other space vehicles. Wire rope isolators were considered for use on the Hubble Space Telescope and the military has used wire rope technology extensively. The desire of the wire rope industry to expand sales in commercial markets coupled with results of the prior NASA funded study, led to the formation of a partnership including NASA, the university involved in the research grant, and a small company that designs wire rope systems. Goals include the development of improved mathematical models and a designers handbook to facilitate the use of the new modeling tools.

  3. Novel Euler-LaCoste linkage as a very low frequency vertical vibration isolator.

    PubMed

    Hosain, M A; Sirr, A; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2012-08-01

    LaCoste linkage vibration isolators have shown excellent performance for ultra-low frequency vertical vibration isolation. However, such isolators depend on the use of conventional pre-stressed coil springs, which suffer from creep. Here, we show that compressional Euler springs can be configured to create a stable tension unit for use in a LaCoste structure. In a proof of concept experiment, we demonstrate a vertical resonance frequency of 0.15 Hz in an Euler-LaCoste configuration with 200 mm height. The system enables the use of very low creep maraging steel as spring elements to eliminate the creep while minimising spring mass and reducing the effect of parasitic resonances. Larger scale systems with optimized Euler spring boundary conditions should achieve performance suitable for applications on third generation gravitational wave detectors such as the proposed Einstein telescope. PMID:22938333

  4. Dynamic characteristics of vibration isolation platforms considering the joints of the struts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Zixi; Zhang, Yao

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the dynamic characteristics of the impacts and corresponding frictions generated by the clearances of joints of vibration isolation platforms for control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) on spacecraft. A contact force model is applied using a nonlinear contact force model, and the frictions in the joints are considered in the dynamic analysis. First, the dynamic characteristics of a single isolation strut with spherical joints were studied, and joints with different initial clearance sizes were separately analyzed. Then, dynamic models of the vibration isolation platform for a CMG cluster with both perfect joints and joints with clearances were established. During the numeral simulation, joints with different elastic moduli were used to study the nonlinear characteristics. Finally, the distributions of the collision points, which can serve as a reference for the reliability and lifetime of a platform, were given.

  5. Nonlinear analysis, design and vibration isolation for a bilinear system with time-delayed cubic velocity feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Chen, Q.

    2014-03-01

    This paper combines cubic nonlinearity and time delay to improve the performance of vibration isolation. Nonlinear dynamics properties, design methodology and isolation performance are studied for a piecewise bilinear vibration isolation system with the time-delayed cubic velocity feedback control. By the multi-scale perturbation method, the equivalent stiffness and damping are first defined to interpret the effect of feedback control loop on dynamics behaviours, such as frequency island phenomenon. Then, a design criterion is proposed to suppress the jump phenomenon induced by the saddle-node bifurcation. With the purpose of obtaining the desirable vibration isolation performance, stability conditions are obtained to find appropriate feedback parameters including gain and time delay. Last, the influence of the feedback parameters on vibration transmissibility is assessed. Results show that the strategy developed in this paper is practicable and feedback parameters are significant factors to alter dynamics behaviours, and more importantly, to improve the isolation effectiveness for the bilinear isolation system.

  6. On the analysis of a high-static-low-dynamic stiffness vibration isolator with time-delayed cubic displacement feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chun; Li, Shunming; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Xingxing

    2016-09-01

    The cubic displacement feedback with time delay is proposed in this paper to improve the isolation performance of the high-static-low-dynamic stiffness (HSLDS) vibration isolator. First of all, the frequency response of the controlled HSLDS vibration isolator is obtained by using the multiple scales method and further verified by numerical simulation. Multi-valued responses, jump phenomenon and frequency island could coexist and their stabilities are analysed. Then, the effects of feedback gain and time delay on the frequency response are studied. The jump avoidance condition is obtained with the purpose of eliminating the adverse effects of excitation frequency fluctuation. Finally, the force transmissibility is defined to evaluate the isolation performance of the controlled HSLDS vibration isolator. The results show that with feedback parameters properly designed, such feedback control can play the role of damping force and the controlled HSLDS vibration isolator outperforms the passive counterpart.

  7. Band stop vibration suppression using a passive X-shape structured lever-type isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Chen, Zhaobo

    2016-02-01

    In the paper, band-stop vibration suppression property using a novel X-shape structured lever-type isolation system is studied. The geometrical nonlinear property of an X-shape supporting structure is used to improve the band-stop characteristics in the low frequency range of the lever-type vibration isolator. With the dynamics modeling of this hybrid structural system, it is shown that the proposed hybrid vibration system has very beneficial nonlinear stiffness and damping properties which are helpful to achieve much wider stop bandwidth. Theoretical results demonstrate that the anti-resonant frequencies, width and magnitude of the stop band can all be flexibly designed with structural parameters, and the parameters of the X-shape supporting structure are very critical for designing the band-stop frequency to achieve excellent low-frequency isolation performance. The results in the study provide a new approach to the design of the passive vibration suppression system in the low frequency region.

  8. Six-degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation using a Stewart platform mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Zheng; Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    The design and control problems of a class of multidegree-of-freedom vibration isolation systems (VISs) based on a Stewart platform mechanism are studied. A prototype of a six-degree-of-freedom VIS for precision control of a wide range of space-based structures implemented in Intelligent Automation, Inc. is described. The feasibility of using a Stewart platform to achieve 6-degree-of-freedom vibration control in space applications is shown. A new Terfenol-D actuator characterized by significantly longer stroke than any commercially available Terfenol-D actuator and direct flux and strain sensors integral to the actuator is described.

  9. Microgravity Control Integration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, J.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    2002-01-01

    To verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks during any ISS microgravity period, a control integration process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are assisting the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids Combustion Facility (FCF) in this process. The major topics to be addressed in this paper are: 1) ISS Program Microgravity Requirements, 2) Rack Microgravity Control Approaches, 3) Integration Process Flow, 4) Required ISS Program Inputs, 5) Facility Analytical Work, 6) Facility Testing Work, 7) Facility Output to ISS Program, and 8) Verification &Validation Process. The ISS payload microgravity requirements are given in PIRN 110H to the ISS Program document SSP 57000. These requirements are based on being a "good neighbor" by limiting the payload disturbances on the environment of adjacent rack payloads during ISS microgravity periods. The ARIS PIRN, which is still pending ISS Program approval, addresses onboard rack disturbances being transmitted to offboard locations and specific ARIS items such as rack sway space and accelerometer saturation. To meet the facilities' microgravity requirements, various active or passive isolation approaches can be utilized. These include the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS), the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS), damping material inserted into the four external ARIS snubber cups, or local isolation at the individual onboard rack disturbers. ARIS utilizes a controller specifically tuned for the facility and eight pushrods, which will coordinate the racks movement in the low frequency range (.01 Hz to 2 Hz). PaRIS utilizes eight spring / dampers to isolate the rack from the ISS module structure at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Local onboard rack isolation approaches involve the use of damping materials, isolation grommets, or wire rope isolators for

  10. ENIDINE: Vibration and seismic isolation technologies for power generation station applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zemanek, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    ENIDINE Inc. is a world leader in the design and manufacture of shock and vibration mounts. Founded in 1966, the company has two manufacturing facilities, employs over 300 people and supports a worldwide network of distributors and representatives. ENIDINE Inc. is part of the ENIDINE Corporate Group which owns a number of companies that design and manufacture Hydraulic/Pneumatic cylinders, Electromechanical devices, Hydraulic Control Valves and a number of Industrial Distribution companies throughout Europe. In total, the ENIDINE Corporate Group has over 900 employees with annual sales of over $100 million. ENIDINE shock and vibration mounts are used to isolate the vibration of missiles from their guidance systems, pumps from hospital operating equipment and off shore oil rigs, from the shock energy of waves in the North Sea. ENIDINE products can be found on all Boeing and McDonnell Douglas aircraft, as well as many electronic and weapons systems on board Navy ships.

  11. The vibration isolation design for the transducers cabling of the SCHENBERG detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J. L.; Aguiar, O. D.; Velloso, W. F., Jr.; Vieira, S. J.

    2006-02-01

    Although the transducers coaxial cabling will not have any mechanical contact with the Brazilian spherical antenna surface, and so there will not be any vibration noise transmission from the laboratory to the antenna through this path, it is not desirable that this cabling be submitted to vibration in the frequency range of the antenna operation. The reason for that is because "microphonic" noise produced in the cabling before the preamplifiers can become dominant. In order to solve this problem we have designed a structure formed by small cilinders connected by cylindrical bars, which has no resonance in the frequency range of interest and works as a vibration isolation system. This structure was designed using a finite element model and the Msc/Nastran software.

  12. Analysis of a high Tc superconducting levitation system with vibration isolation control

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaya, Kosuke

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a method for controlling vibrations of a levitated high Tc superconducting body subjected to base disturbances. To have the control forces, an actuator consisting of a permanent magnet with an electromagnet was presented. The analytical solution for calculating levitation forces due to the permanent magnet and the control currents in the electromagnet was obtained. The levitation forces obtained coincide with the previously published results. The equation of motion of the levitated body subjected to base disturbances under the control was presented. Nonlinear vibrations of the body were first discussed; then the method of vibration isolation control using the direct disturbance cancellation combining the velocity feedback control was investigated. Numerical calculations were carried out for the levitation forces, with respect to the levitated body subjected to harmonic or pulse base excitations. It was clarified that the present method is valid for controlling nonlinear systems like the magnetic levitated superconducting body.

  13. Improving of the operation efficiency of the vehicle due to using of the neodymium magnets inside the vibration isolation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurova, E. G.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the isolation suspension with stiffness compensator based on neodymium magnets is suggested. It was found that the passive vibration isolators not completely sufficient of modern requirement of the vibration isolation. It was determined that the neodymium magnets with the same initial parameters are most effective in comparison with DC current electromagnets. The mathematical model of the vibration isolation suspension has been developed. In this research the traction characteristics for given magnets are presented. Also the design of the vibration isolation suspension with compensator of the stiffness based on neodymium magnets has been developed. This research has been performed under support of the President scholarship for young scientists under the order of Russian Federation Ministry of the education and science No 184 from 10th of March 2015.

  14. Strategy for designing broadband vibration isolation systems through exactly solvable models of graded elastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Ka Ki; Chan, Wai Soen; Yu, Kin Wah

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the need of seismic base isolation, we have proposed a strategy to design vibration isolation systems to achieve near-zero amplitude vibration under external excitations over a broad frequency band. The strategy combines two ideas from previous works: (i) zeros assignment for broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials [Sun, and Yu (2012)]; and (ii) the localization of vibrational modes in graded elastic networks [Xiao, Yakubo, and Yu (2006)]. Firstly, we aim to assign zeros (anti-resonance frequencies) over an operating frequency band. Starting from an exactly solvable model of zigzag diatomic chains, we demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between the zeros and one type of the masses after solving the models. Hence, the zeros can be assigned at will by tuning the masses. Secondly, in order to achieve further vibrational suppression by gradon localization, a band overlapping picture is applied to tune the rest of the masses to an optimal value. The results can be generalized to 2D and 3D structures for more realistic applications.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Vibration Isolation and Vernier Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, Daniel J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS), originally developed in the mid 1970's for pointing and vibration isolation of space experiments. The hardware was developed for NASA Langley Research Center by Sperry Flight Systems (now Honeywell Satellite Systems), was delivered to NASA in 1983. Recently, the hardware was loaned to Old Dominion University (ODU). The ASPS includes coarse gimbal assemblies and a Vernier Pointing Assembly (VPA) that utilize magnetic suspension to provide noncontacting vibration isolation and vernier pointing of the payload. The VPA is the main focus of this research. At ODU, the system has been modified such that it can now be operated in a l-g environment without a gravity offload. Suspension of the annular iron rotor in five degrees-of-freedom has been achieved with the use of modern switching power amplifiers and a digital controller implemented on a 486-class PC.

  16. Scavenging vibration energy from seismically isolated bridges using an electromagnetic harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiuchen; Loong, Chengning; Chang, Chih-Chen; Dimitrakopoulos, Elias G.

    2014-04-01

    The increasing worldwide efforts in securing renewable energy sources increase incentive for civil engineers to investigate whether the kinetic energy associated with the vibration of larger-scale structures can be harvested. Such a research remains challenging and incomplete despite that hundreds of related articles have been published in the last decade. Base isolation is one of the most popular means of protecting a civil engineering structure against earthquake forces. Seismic isolation hinges on the decoupling of the structure from the shaking ground, hence protecting the structure from stress and damage during an earthquake excitation. The low stiffness isolator inserted between the structure and the ground dominates the response leading to a structural system of longer vibration period. As a consequence of this period shift, the spectral acceleration is reduced, but higher response displacements are produced. To mitigate this side effect, usually isolators are combined with the use of additional energy dissipation. In this study, the feasibility of scavenging the need-to-be dissipated energy from the isolator installed in a seismically isolated bridge using an electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester is investigated. The EM energy harvester consists of an energy harvesting circuit and a capacitor for energy storage. A mathematical model for this proposed EM energy harvester is developed and implemented on an idealized base-isolated single-degree-of-freedom system. The effect of having this EM energy harvester on the performance of this seismic isolated system is analyzed and discussed. The potential of installing such an EM energy harvester on a seismically isolated bridge is also addressed.

  17. Development of variable-damping isolator using bio-metal fiber for reaction wheel vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Ung; Izawa, Katsuhiko; Taniwaki, Shigemune

    2005-10-01

    This study focuses on the basic characteristics of a variable-damping isolator using a bio-metal fiber (BMF) valve to enhance the pointing performance of optical equipment on-board satellites. A variable-damping BMF valve isolator for isolating disturbances induced by reaction-wheel operation has been designed and fabricated. The opening and closing of the valve to change the damping of the isolator is implemented by using characteristic variation of the bio-metal fiber to the input electric current. The BMF isolator fabricated in this study has the advantages of being a simple variable-damping device with low power consumption, unlike conventional variable-damping devices, such as solenoid-valve-type oil dampers and ER or MR dampers. This paper presents the basic characteristics of the BMF isolator obtained from dynamic tests of the isolator.

  18. Bifurcations and chaos of a vibration isolation system with magneto-rheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Ning; Min, Fuhong; Yan, Wei; Wang, Enrong

    2016-03-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) damper possesses inherent hysteretic characteristics. We investigate the resulting nonlinear behaviors of a two degree-of-freedom (2-DoF) MR vibration isolation system under harmonic external excitation. A MR damper is identified by employing the modified Bouc-wen hysteresis model. By numerical simulation, we characterize the nonlinear dynamic evolution of period-doubling, saddle node bifurcating and inverse period-doubling using bifurcation diagrams of variations in frequency with a fixed amplitude of the harmonic excitation. The strength of chaos is determined by the Lyapunov exponent (LE) spectrum. Semi-physical experiment on the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system is proposed. We trace the time history and phase trajectory under certain values of frequency of the harmonic excitation to verify the nonlinear dynamical evolution of period-doubling bifurcations to chaos. The largest LEs computed with the experimental data are also presented, confirming the chaotic motion in the experiment. We validate the chaotic motion caused by the hysteresis of the MR damper, and show the transitions between distinct regimes of stable motion and chaotic motion of the 2-DoF MR vibration isolation system for variations in frequency of external excitation.

  19. Multi-direction vibration isolation with quasi-zero stiffness by employing geometrical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuting; Jing, Xingjian

    2015-10-01

    The study proposes a novel vibration isolator with 3D quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) property. The remarkable feature of the proposed system is to apply symmetrically scissor-like structures (SLS) in the horizontal directions, together with a traditional spring-mass-damper system assembled vertically with positive stiffness. With the mathematical modeling of the proposed system, it is shown that the stiffness and damping properties are nonlinear due to nonlinear geometric relations within the SLSs and both can be adjusted via structural parameters of the system. Theoretical analysis with the harmonic balance method reveals that the system can demonstrate QZS property in 3 directions, and can achieve much better 3D vibration isolation performance, including high-static and quasi-zero-dynamic stiffness, and much larger displacement range around equilibrium, compared with an existing QZS system in the literature. The results provide a novel and significant multi-direction vibration isolation method using structural nonlinearity with noticeable performance but using only passive elements.

  20. Influence of uncertainty and excitation amplitude on the vibration characteristics of rubber isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqian, Chen; Zhanpeng, Shen; Qinshu, He; Qiang, Du; Xin'en, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Rubber isolators are widely used in engineering structures, which often exhibit some nonlinearity and uncertainty properties subjected to different environment exciting. In order to study the nonlinear characteristic and uncertainty of a rubber isolator system, the sin-sweep vibration tests with different base exciting level are carried out firstly. Then a single freedom degree mass-spring-damper model is introduced to simplify the rubber isolator system. In the theory model, the spring and the damper are represented by polynomial functions of the relative displacement. The coefficients in the functions are identified by the test data, while the uncertainties of the coefficients are quantified by the principal components analysis (PCA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The major resonant frequencies and the damping ratios of the isolation system are calculated according to the theory model, the amplitude-frequency nonlinear characteristics are simulated by Runge-Kutta numerical method. The simulation results agree well with the experimental results, which indicate that the nonlinear model and the uncertainty quantifying results are feasible to predict the vibration characteristic and uncertainty of the isolation systems.

  1. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude. PMID:19947744

  2. Vibration control of platform structures with magnetorheological elastomer isolators based on an improved SAVS law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao-Dong; Suo, Si; Lu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration control of platform structures with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolators. Firstly, a novel MRE isolator design is put forward based on the mechanical properties of MREs, and subsequently a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) dynamic model and a multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) dynamic model for platform systems incorporating such isolators are developed. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional on–off control law, an improved semi-active variable stiffness (SAVS) control law is proposed. The proposed SAVS scheme makes full use of the continuously variable stiffness of MREs, and it takes into account the influence of the sampling interval such that the field-dependent restoring force is made to do negative work during the whole sampling interval as far as possible. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the improved SAVS control law can achieve better vibration-control effectiveness than the on–off control law. The comparative results are discussed through examining the mechanisms of these two control laws in light of the power spectral density and the energy input. For an MDOF platform a simplified approach is proposed to combine the local response signals with an equivalent SDOF representation to generate the control parameters for individual isolators, and the effectiveness of such a scheme is also verified through numerical simulation.

  3. Effective suppression of pneumatic vibration isolators by using input-output linearization and time delay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pyung-hun; Ki Han, Dong; Shin, Yun-ho; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new state space representation of pneumatic vibration isolators (PVIs) and a design of a robust control, Time Delay Control (TDC), based on it. The new state space model, derived by using the input-output linearization method, is of the phase variable form with the air mass-flow as the control input. This model offers a framework that enables simultaneous suppression of both seismic vibration and direct disturbance (or payload disturbance) with an accelerometer only. Based on this model, TDC is designed and verified with experiments on a single chamber PVI with an accelerometer only. In the experiment, the PVI with TDC successfully suppresses seismic vibration and direct disturbance, both individually and simultaneously. Faced with seismic vibration, the transmissibility of the PVI with TDC has virtually no resonance peak at low frequency; under direct disturbance, the former achieves a 68 percent reduction in settling time of the latter. The final analysis of experimental result shows that TDC effectively estimates the modeling error along with other uncertainties and cancels them, while achieving desired closed-loop dynamics.

  4. Development of stewart platforms for active vibration isolation and precision pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Benli

    2007-07-01

    Vibration isolation and extreme precision pointing is needed for future space telescopes, imaging sensors, laser communication, space-borne optical interferometer, and other sensitive payloads which have increased performance, depending on sustained sub-microradian pointing accuracy and stability. However, the vibration sources are increased due to the large flexible structures, truss-type structures and motion devices. The spatial Stewart platform (hexapod), built by smart materials and smart structures, is a promising way to address these issues, especially for the six degree-of-freedom control purpose, since the platform offers several advantages over the serial counterparts and other methods. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), University of Washington, the Hexapod Research Group of University of Wyoming, CSA Engineering Inc, Honeywell Satellite Systems Operation and other groups have done a lot of research, this paper provides a representative look at the state-of-the-art technology and research in active vibration isolation and precision pointing applied in space.

  5. Magnetic force driven six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using a phase compensated velocity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongdae; Park, Kyihwan; Kim, Sangyoo

    2009-04-15

    A six-axis active vibration isolation system (AVIS) is developed using voice coil actuators. Point contact configuration is employed to have an easy assembly of eight voice coil actuators to an upper and a base plates. The velocity sensor, using an electromagnetic principle that is commonly used in the vibration control, is investigated since its phase lead characteristic causes an instability problem for a low frequency vibration. The performances of the AVIS are investigated in the frequency domain and finally validated by comparing with the passive isolation system using the atomic force microscope images.

  6. Energy transfer dynamics in isolated and colliding highly vibrationally excited molecules. Technical report, November 1991-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, F.F.; Randunsky, M.B.; Booze, J.A.; Govoni, D.B.; Fritz, M.D.

    1995-03-15

    The flow of energy in molecules, either isolated or colliding, is fundamental to complex phenomena occurring in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, molecular lasers, plasmas, and a host of other environments containing energetic species. The authors have developed, proven, and applied a technique that combines vibrational overtone excitation, to prepare highly vibrationally excited initial states, and time-resolved spectroscopic detection, to probe the evolution of the prepared state, for studying energy transfer in vibrationally energized molecules. Their experiments on acetylene have demonstrated the power of this approach for learning about otherwise inaccessible vibrations in electronically excited molecules, for determining the pathways of intramolecular energy transfer in isolated molecules, and for measuring fully state-resolved rotational and vibrational energy transfer rates in collisions.

  7. Robust Control Design for Vibration Isolation of an Electron Beam Projection Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Hong, Min-Feng; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes vibration control for an electron beam projection lithography (EPL) system. Two kinds of disturbances should be considered for an EPL: load disturbances from the machine and ground disturbances from the environment. However, the suspension settings for insulating these two disturbances conflict with each other. Therefore, we propose a double-layer optical table and apply disturbance response decomposing (DRD) techniques to independently control the disturbances. We use a passive control structure to isolate the ground disturbances, and an active control structure to suppress load disturbances. In addition, symmetric transformation is applied to decouple a full optical table into bounce/pitch and roll/warp half-table models, which can be further decoupled into quarter-table models to simplify controller design. Finally, we apply robust control techniques to design active controllers. From both simulation and experimental results, the designed H∞ robust controllers are proven effective in reducing EPL system vibrations.

  8. Vibrational characterization of the 1:1 iodine-benzene complex isolated in solid krypton.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tiina; Hulkko, Eero; Kiljunen, Toni; Pettersson, Mika

    2008-06-12

    The structure and properties of a 1:1 iodine-benzene complex isolated in an inert krypton matrix at low temperature have been studied with infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy and with MP2 calculations. The structure of the ground-state complex is found to be unsymmetric, and the I-I vibrational frequency is found to be red-shifted by 3.94 cm(-1) upon complexation. The experimental data agree well with computational results, leading to the conclusion that the I2-Bz complex structure is not axial but of above-bond type, identically with other halogen-benzene complexes. PMID:18489172

  9. Directional algorithms for the frequency isolation problem in undamped vibrational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Julio; Egaña, Juan C.

    2016-06-01

    A new algorithm is presented to solve the frequency isolation problem for vibrational systems with no damping: given an undamped mass-spring system with resonant eigenvalues, the system must be re-designed, finding some close-by non-resonant system at a reasonable cost. Our approach relies on modifying masses and stiffnesses along directions in parameter space which produce a maximal variation in the resonant eigenvalues, provided the non-resonant ones do not undergo large variations. The algorithm is derived from first principles, implemented, and numerically tested. The numerical experiments show that the new algorithms are considerably faster and more robust than previous algorithms solving the same problem.

  10. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  11. Coupling of Excitons and Discrete Acoustic Phonons in Vibrationally Isolated Quantum Emitters.

    PubMed

    Werschler, Florian; Hinz, Christopher; Froning, Florian; Gumbsheimer, Pascal; Haase, Johannes; Negele, Carla; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Seletskiy, Denis V

    2016-09-14

    The photoluminescence emission by mesoscopic condensed matter is ultimately dictated by the fine-structure splitting of the fundamental exciton into optically allowed and dipole-forbidden states. In epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nonradiative equilibration between the fine-structure levels is mediated by bulk acoustic phonons, resulting in asymmetric spectral broadening of the excitonic luminescence. In isolated colloidal quantum dots, spatial confinement of the vibrational motion is expected to give rise to an interplay between the quantized electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. In most cases, however, zero-dimensional colloidal nanocrystals are strongly coupled to the substrate such that the charge relaxation processes are still effectively governed by the bulk properties. Here we show that encapsulation of single colloidal CdSe/CdS nanocrystals into individual organic polymer shells allows for systematic vibrational decoupling of the semiconductor nanospheres from the surroundings. In contrast to epitaxially grown quantum dots, simultaneous quantization of both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom results in a series of strong and narrow acoustic phonon sidebands observed in the photoluminescence. Furthermore, an individual analysis of more than 200 compound particles reveals that enhancement or suppression of the radiative properties of the fundamental exciton is controlled by the interaction between fine-structure states via the discrete vibrational modes. For the first time, pronounced resonances in the scattering rate between the fine-structure states are directly observed, in good agreement with a quantum mechanical model. The unambiguous assignment of mediating acoustic modes to the observed scattering resonances complements the experimental findings. Thus, our results form an attractive basis for future studies on subterahertz quantum opto-mechanics and efficient laser cooling at the nanoscale. PMID:27550902

  12. Development and performance study of a magnetic aerostatic vibration isolation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Keng-Ning; Huang, Kuang-Yuh

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents our development of a compact and magnetic-aerostatic vibration isolation platform for small equipments such as AFM-system, which combines the electromagnetic and aerostatic principles to create a semiactive damping effect. For the aerostatic principle, the concept of cap-shaped bearing form is applied to combine radial and axial bearings inside a cap-shaped air film to enhance the bearing capacity. The axial aerostatic bearing provides the main supporting force for the vibration isolation platform, and the radial aerostatic bearing creates frictionless and accurate guide for the platform. The electromagnetic coil is used to generate attractive force to counterbalance the axial aerostatic bearing force. Through this force counterbalance, not only the axial bearing stiffness can be minimized but also the axial position of the platform can be precisely controlled. In the axial positioning control, a hall element and a magnet are used to realize a non-contact displacement measurement with less loading effect. Besides, the robust PID control algorithm is chosen as the main core of the positioning control. For optimization and performance verification, finite element analyses and experiments are carried out to comprehend its electromagnetic and aerostatic effects.

  13. Reduction of vibration and noise radiation of an underwater vehicle due to propeller forces using periodically layered isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yubao; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Liu, Yaozong; Wen, Xisen

    2014-07-01

    Using periodic structure theory, the suppression of vibration and noise radiation from an underwater vehicle due to excitation from propeller forces is investigated. The underwater vehicle is modelled in two parts (the hull and the propeller/shafting system). A model of the propeller/shafting system is constructed using a modular approach and considers the propeller, shaft, thrust bearing, isolation structure and foundation. Different forms of isolator are considered - a simple spring-damper system, a continuous rod and a periodically layered structure. The dynamic properties of the underwater vehicle and the isolation performances of various isolators are compared and analysed. The stop band properties of the periodic isolator are used to enhance the passive control performance. Furthermore, an integrated isolation device is proposed that consists of the periodic isolator and a dynamic absorber, and its isolation performance is investigated. The effects of the absorber parameters on the performance of the integrated device are also analysed. Finally, the radiated sound pressure is calculated to verify the attenuation. The numerical results show that the vibration and noise radiation are greatly attenuated in the stop bands. By optimising the design of the periodic isolators and its integrated structures, the suppression of the vibration and noise radiation can be improved effectively.

  14. Microgravity Program strategic plan, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The all encompassing objective of the NASA Microgravity Program is the use of space as a lab to conduct research and development. The on-orbit microgravity environment, with its substantially reduced buoyancy forces, hydrostatic pressures, and sedimentation, enables the conduction of scientific studies not possible on Earth. This environment allows processes to be isolated and controlled with an accuracy that cannot be obtained in the terrestrial environment. The Microgravity Science and Applications Div. has defined three major science categories in order to develop a program structure: fundamental science, including the study of the behavior of fluids, transport phenomena, condensed matter physics, and combustion science; materials science, including electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics; and biotechnology, focusing on macromolecular crystal growth as well as cell and molecular science. Experiments in these areas seek to provide observations of complex phenomena and measurements of physical attributes with a precision that is enabled by the microgravity environment.

  15. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  16. Active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures for a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danh, Le Thanh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures (NSS) for a vehicle seat in low excitation frequencies is proposed, which is named as an active system with NSS. Here, the negative stiffness structures (NSS) are used to minimize the vibratory attraction of a vehicle seat. Owing to the time-varying and nonlinear behavior of the proposed system, it is not easy to build an accurate dynamic for model-based controller design. Thus, an adaptive intelligent backstepping controller (AIBC) is designed to manage the system operation for high-isolation effectiveness. In addition, an auxiliary control effort is also introduced to eliminate the effect of the unpredictable perturbations. Moreover, a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model is utilized to estimate the optimal gain of the auxiliary control effort. Final control input and the adaptive law for updating coefficients of the approximate series can be obtained step by step using a suitable Lyapunov function. Afterward, the isolation performance of the proposed system is assessed experimentally. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed controller for the proposed system is also compared with that of the traditional backstepping controller (BC). The experimental results show that the isolation effectiveness of the proposed system is better than that of the active system without NSS. Furthermore, the undesirable chattering phenomenon in control effort is quite reduced by the estimation mechanism. Finally, some concluding remarks are given at the end of the paper.

  17. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  18. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a quasi-zero stiffness vibration isolator with cam-roller-spring mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiaxi; Wang, Xinlong; Xu, Daolin; Bishop, Steve

    2015-06-01

    The property of quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) of vibration isolation system (VIS) could be realized by using the conceptual design of cam-roller-spring mechanisms (CRSMs). We develop this idea into a physical prototype and study its vibration isolation performance. A piecewise nonlinear dynamic model is formulated in the consideration of possible disengagement between the cam and roller. The analytical solution of the amplitude-frequency relationship is derived by using the averaging method and further verified by numerical simulations. The effects of excitation force and system damping on the force transmissibility are investigated. A particular behavior of this type of QZS isolator, very differ from existing ones, is that the peak transmissibility and starting frequency of isolation never overshoots those of the linear counterpart no matter how large the excitation amplitude is. The prototype is tested and the experimental results show that the QZS isolator outperforms the linear counterpart.

  20. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  1. Experimental validation and testing of components for active damping control for micromachined mechanical vibration isolation filters using electrostatic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert; Flowers, George; Sanders, Nicole; Horvath, Roland; Johnson, Wayne; Kranz, Michael; Whitley, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Missiles, rockets and certain types of industrial machinery are exposed extreme vibration environments, with high frequency/amplitude mechanical vibrations which may be detrimental to components that are sensitive to these high frequency mechanical vibrations, such as MEMS gyroscopes and resonators, oscillators and some micro optics. Exposure to high frequency mechanical vibrations can lead to a variety of problems, from reduced sensitivity and an increased noise floor to the outright mechanical failure of the device. One approach to mitigate such effects is to package the sensitive device on a micromachined vibration isolator tuned to the frequency range of concern. In this regard, passive micromachined silicon lowpass filter structures (spring-mass-damper) have been developed and demonstrated. However, low damping (especially if operated in near-vacuum environments) and a lack of tunability after fabrication has limited the effectiveness and general applicability of such systems. Through the integration of a electrostatic actuator, a relative velocity sensor and the passive filter structure, an active micromachined mechanical lowpass vibration isolation filter can be realized where the damping and resonant frequency can be tuned. This paper presents the development and validation of a key component of the micromachined active filter, a sensor for measuring the relative velocity between micromachined structures.

  2. Stability and chaotification of vibration isolation floating raft systems with time-delayed feedback control.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, D L; Fu, Y M; Zhou, J X

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the stability of a two-dimensional vibration isolation floating raft system with a time-delayed feedback control. Based on the generalized Sturm criterion, the critical control gain for the delay-independent stability region and critical time delays for the stability switches are derived. The critical conditions can provide a theoretical guidance of chaotification design for line spectra reduction. Numerical simulations verify the correctness of the approach. Bifurcation analyses reveal that chaotification is more likely to occur in unstable region defined by these critical conditions, and the stiffness of the floating raft and mass ratio are the sensitive parameters to reduce critical control gain. PMID:21974650

  3. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  4. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control.

  5. Evaluating the Vibration Isolation of Soft Seat Cushions Using AN Active Anthropodynamic Dummy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEWIS, C. H.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Seat test standards require human subjects to be used for measuring the vibration isolation of vehicle seats. Anthropodynamic dummies, based on passive mass-spring- damper systems, have been developed for testing seats but their performance has been limited at low excitation magnitudes by non-linear phenomena, such as friction in the mechanical components that provide damping. The use of an electrodynamic actuator to generate damping forces, controlled by feedback from acceleration and force transducers, may help to overcome these limitations and provide additional benefits. The transmissibilities of five foam cushions have been measured using an actively controlled anthropodynamic dummy, in which damping and spring forces were supplied by an electrodynamic actuator. The dummy could be set up to approximate alternative single-degree-of-freedom and two-degree-of-freedom apparent mass models of the seated human body by varying motion feedback parameters. Cushion transmissibilities were also measured with nine human subjects, having an average seated weight similar to the dummy. At frequencies greater than 4 Hz, mean cushion transmissibilities measured with subjects were in closer agreement with the transmissibilities obtained with a two degree-of-freedom dummy than with a single degree-of-freedom dummy. However, at frequencies between 2 and 4 Hz, cushion transmissibilities obtained with the two-degree-of-freedom dummy showed consistently larger differences from mean transmissibilities with subjects than single-degree-of-freedom dummies, indicating a need for further development of human apparent mass models to account for the effects of magnitude and spectral content of the input motion. Vertical vibration isolation efficiencies (SEAT values) of the five foams were measured with four input motions, including three motions measured in a car. The SEAT values obtained using the active dummy were highly correlated with the median SEAT values obtained with the nine human

  6. Time-domain filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithms for active isolation of frequency-fluctuating vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; He, Lin; Shuai, Chang-geng; Wang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A time-domain filtered-x Newton narrowband algorithm (the Fx-Newton algorithm) is proposed to address three major problems in active isolation of machinery vibration: multiple narrowband components, MIMO coupling, and amplitude and frequency fluctuations. In this algorithm, narrowband components are extracted by narrowband-pass filters (NBPF) and independently controlled by multi-controllers, and fast convergence of the control algorithm is achieved by inverse secondary-path filtering of the extracted sinusoidal reference signal and its orthogonal component using L×L numbers of 2nd-order filters in the time domain. Controller adapting and control signal generation are also implemented in the time domain, to ensure good real-time performance. The phase shift caused by narrowband filter is compensated online to improve the robustness of control system to frequency fluctuations. A double-reference Fx-Newton algorithm is also proposed to control double sinusoids in the same frequency band, under the precondition of acquiring two independent reference signals. Experiments are conducted with an MIMO single-deck vibration isolation system on which a 200 kW ship diesel generator is mounted, and the algorithms are tested under the vibration alternately excited by the diesel generator and inertial shakers. The results of control over sinusoidal vibration excited by inertial shakers suggest that the Fx-Newton algorithm with NBPF have much faster convergence rate and better attenuation effect than the Fx-LMS algorithm. For swept, frequency-jumping, double, double frequency-swept and double frequency-jumping sinusoidal vibration, and multiple high-level harmonics in broadband vibration excited by the diesel generator, the proposed algorithms also demonstrate large vibration suppression at fast convergence rate, and good robustness to vibration with frequency fluctuations.

  7. Advanced magnetic suspensions for vibration isolation and fast-attitude control of space-based generic pointing mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosley, Robert W.; Trivedi, Anil N.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced magnetic suspension for vibration isolation and fast-attitude control of space-based generic pointing mounts (GPM) is presented in the form of viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: design criteria for GPM; GPM system features; GPM performance characteristics; GPM functional block diagram; and other applications for generic magnetic suspension technologies.

  8. A nonlinear spring mechanism incorporating a bistable composite plate for vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. D.; Neild, S. A.; Wagg, D. J.; Weaver, P. M.; Carrella, A.

    2013-11-01

    The High Static Low Dynamic Stiffness (HSLDS) concept is a design strategy for a nonlinear anti-vibration mount that seeks to increase isolation by lowering the natural frequency of the mount whilst maintaining the same static load bearing capacity. It has previously been proposed that an HSLDS mount could be implemented by connecting linear springs in parallel with the transverse flexure of a composite bistable plate — a plate that has two stable shapes between which it may snap. Using a bistable plate in this way will lead to lightweight and efficient designs of HSLDS mounts. This paper experimentally demonstrates the feasibility of this idea. Firstly, the quasi-static force-displacement curve of a mounted bistable plate is determined experimentally. Then the dynamic response of a nonlinear mass-spring system incorporating this plate is measured. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to theoretical predictions based on the measured force-displacement curve, and the system shows a greater isolation region and a lower peak response to base excitation than the equivalent linear system.

  9. Effects of carbon dioxide on isolated droplet combustion for sooting and non-sooting fuels in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Shinji; Furuta, Tomoya; Nagashima, Yoshiaki; Segawa, Daisuke; Kadota, Toshikazu

    The combustion behavior of ethanol, n-buthanol and n-decane droplets in high concentration of CO2 was experimentally investigated at atmospheric pressure in microgravity. Experiments were performed during a fall of the experimental setup at 1 s drop tower with the total height of 9 m. The initial droplet diameter was ranged from about 0.3 to 0.8 mm. Detail measurements of the projected image of the droplet are conducted by using a high speed video camera and the effective droplet diameter squared are calculated from the surface area of the rotating body of the projected object. Effects of ambient carbon dioxide on unsteady behavior of the instantaneous burning rate for sooting and non-sooting droplet flames were investigated. The behavior of the instantaneous burning rate clearly showed events of the initial thermal expansion, ignition and subsequent burning of the fuel droplet, and it was different from the behavior predicted by d2 law. These fundamental behaviors for ethanol, n-buthanol and n-decane were shown in air and high concentrations of ambient carbon dioxide. In the case of n-decane (sooting fuel), the change in the burning rate after ignition was great while it was small in the case of ethanol. A stepwise increase in the burning rate after ignition could be clearly seen for n-decane droplet when initial droplet diameter was large although the tendency was not observed for ethanol. However, this stepwise behavior disappeared in high concentration of ambient carbon dioxide. In high concentration of ambient carbon dioxide, non-luminous flame was formed. The mitigation of soot production by ambient carbon dioxide was clearly observed and this effect was greater for the smaller droplet.

  10. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  11. The Microgravity Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    The Microgravity Demonstrator is a tool used to create microgravity conditions in the classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions in order to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. The manual is…

  12. Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration on isolated and tandem circular cylinders fitted with strakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkischko, I.; Meneghini, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The effect of varying the geometric parameters of helical strakes on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is investigated in this paper. The degree of oscillation attenuation or even suppression is analysed for isolated circular cylinder cases. How a cylinder fitted with strakes behaves when immersed in the wake of another cylinder in tandem arrangement is also investigated and these results are compared to those with a single straked cylinder. The experimental tests are conducted at a circulating water channel facility and the cylindrical models are mounted on a low-damping air bearing elastic base with one degree-of-freedom, restricted to oscillate in the transverse direction to the channel flow. Three strake pitches (p) and heights (h) are tested: p=5, 10, 15d, and h=0.1, 0.2, 0.25d. The mass ratio is 1.8 for all models. The Reynolds number range is from 1000 to 10 000, and the reduced velocity varies up to 21. The cases with h=0.1d strakes reduce the amplitude response when compared to the isolated plain cylinder, however the oscillation still persists. On the other hand, the cases with h=0.2, 0.25d strakes almost completely suppress VIV. Spanwise vorticity fields, obtained through stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (SDPIV), show an alternating vortex wake for the p=10d and h=0.1d straked cylinder. The p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder wake has separated shear layers with constant width and no roll-up close to the body. The strakes do not increase the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity compared to the isolated plain cylinder. However, they deflect the flow in the out-of-plane direction in a controlled way, which can prevent the vortex shedding correlation along the span. In order to investigate the wake interference effect on the strake efficiency, an experimental arrangement with two cylinders in tandem is employed. The centre-to-centre distance for the tandem arrangement varies from 2 to 6. When the downstream p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder is immersed in the

  13. Development of a novel multi-layer MRE isolator for suppression of building vibrations under seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Sun, Shuaishuai; Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua; Du, Haiping; Alici, Gursel; Nakano, Masami

    2016-03-01

    Protecting civil engineering structures from uncontrollable events such as earthquakes while maintaining their structural integrity and serviceability is very important; this paper describes the performance of a stiffness softening magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator in a scaled three storey building. In order to construct a closed-loop system, a scaled three storey building was designed and built according to the scaling laws, and then four MRE isolator prototypes were fabricated and utilised to isolate the building from the motion induced by a scaled El Centro earthquake. Fuzzy logic was used to output the current signals to the isolators, based on the real-time responses of the building floors, and then a simulation was used to evaluate the feasibility of this closed loop control system before carrying out an experimental test. The simulation and experimental results showed that the stiffness softening MRE isolator controlled by fuzzy logic could suppress structural vibration well.

  14. Vibrational communication and reproductive isolation in the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rafael L; Sullivan, Laura E; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2004-03-01

    Sexual communication can contribute to population divergence and speciation because of its effect on assortative mating. We examined the role of communication in assortative mating in the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers. These plant-feeding insects are a well studied case of sympatric speciation resulting from shifts to novel host-plant species. Shifting to hosts with different phenologies causes changes in life-history timing. In concert with high host fidelity, these changes reduce gene flow between populations on ancestral and novel hosts and facilitate a rapid response to divergent natural selection. However, some interbreeding can still occur because of partial overlap of mating periods. Additional behavioral mechanisms resulting in reproductive isolation may thus be important for divergence. In E. binotata, mating pairs form after an exchange of plant-borne vibrational signals. We used playback experiments to examine the relevance of inter- and intraspecific variation in male advertisement signals for female mate choice in a member of the E. binotata species complex. Female signals given in response to male signals provided a simple and reliable assay. Male species and male individual identity were important determinants of female responses. Females failed to respond to the signals of the two most closely related species in the complex, but they responded strongly to the signals of conspecific males, as well as to those of the most basal species in the complex. Communication systems in the E. binotata species complex can therefore play a role in reproductive isolation. Female responses were influenced by among-individual variation in male signals and females, suggesting the involvement of sexual selection in the evolution of these communication systems. PMID:15119440

  15. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qianqian; Yue, Honghao; Liu, Rongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Ding, Liang; Liang, Tian; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-01-01

    High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms. PMID:26287203

  16. Modeling and new equipment definition for the vibration isolation box equipment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sani, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Our MSAD-funded research project is to provide numerical modeling support for the VIBES (Vibration Isolation Box Experiment System) which is an IML2 flight experiment being built by the Japanese research team of Dr. H. Azuma of the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory. During this reporting period, the following have been accomplished: A semi-consistent mass finite element projection algorithm for 2D and 3D Boussinesq flows has been implemented on Sun, HP And Cray Platforms. The algorithm has better phase speed accuracy than similar finite difference or lumped mass finite element algorithms, an attribute which is essential for addressing realistic g-jitter effects as well as convectively-dominated transient systems. The projection algorithm has been benchmarked against solutions generated via the commercial code FIDAP. The algorithm appears to be accurate as well as computationally efficient. Optimization and potential parallelization studies are underway. Our implementation to date has focused on execution of the basic algorithm with at most a concern for vectorization. The initial time-varying gravity Boussinesq flow simulation is being set up. The mesh is being designed and the input file is being generated. Some preliminary 'small mesh' cases will be attempted on our HP9000/735 while our request to MSAD for supercomputing resources is being addressed. The Japanese research team for VIBES was visited, the current set up and status of the physical experiment was obtained and ongoing E-Mail communication link was established.

  17. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qianqian; Yue, Honghao; Liu, Rongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Ding, Liang; Liang, Tian; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-01-01

    High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms. PMID:26287203

  18. Spectroscopy of isolated PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface: Vibrational spectra and azimuthal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Mathias; Paulheim, Alexander; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-02-01

    Small amounts of the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) were vacuum deposited on epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100). The use of a low substrate temperature (20 K) during deposition hampered molecular diffusion resulting in isolated monomers on the surface. Fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy performed on these monomers yielded highly resolved spectra with narrow lines corresponding to individual vibronic modes. This high resolution in our spectra is caused by a very small inhomogeneous broadening due to well-defined adsorption sites of the molecule on the substrate. Indeed, by polarization dependent fluorescence spectroscopy we show that the flat-lying molecules exhibit a preferred azimuthal orientation on the surface, the long molecular axis being oriented along the [011] or the equivalent [0bar{1}1] direction of the substrate. Furthermore, the high resolution in the spectra allowed a detailed analysis of the vibronic modes. The vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule are very similar to those of the free PTCDA molecule, but due to the presence of the substrate additional low energy modes which are relevant for the full understanding of the spectra couple to the transition.

  19. Spectroscopy of isolated PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface: vibrational spectra and azimuthal orientation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mathias; Paulheim, Alexander; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-02-14

    Small amounts of the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) were vacuum deposited on epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100). The use of a low substrate temperature (20 K) during deposition hampered molecular diffusion resulting in isolated monomers on the surface. Fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy performed on these monomers yielded highly resolved spectra with narrow lines corresponding to individual vibronic modes. This high resolution in our spectra is caused by a very small inhomogeneous broadening due to well-defined adsorption sites of the molecule on the substrate. Indeed, by polarization dependent fluorescence spectroscopy we show that the flat-lying molecules exhibit a preferred azimuthal orientation on the surface, the long molecular axis being oriented along the [011] or the equivalent [011] direction of the substrate. Furthermore, the high resolution in the spectra allowed a detailed analysis of the vibronic modes. The vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule are very similar to those of the free PTCDA molecule, but due to the presence of the substrate additional low energy modes which are relevant for the full understanding of the spectra couple to the transition. PMID:23425484

  20. Enzyme Kinetics in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. C.; Licata, V. J.

    2010-04-01

    The kinetics of some enzymes have been found to be enhanced by the microgravity environment. This is a relatively small effect, but is sufficient to have physiological effects and to impact pharmaceutical therapy in microgravity.

  1. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: performance in a 72 m Fabry Perot cavity.

    PubMed

    Barriga, P; Dumas, J C; Woolley, A A; Zhao, C; Blair, D G

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration of vibration isolation and suspension systems, which have been developed with view to application in the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory. In order to achieve optimal performance at low frequencies new components and techniques have been combined to create a compact advanced vibration isolator structure. The design includes two stages of horizontal preisolation and one stage of vertical preisolation with resonant frequencies approximately 100 mHz. The nested structure facilitates a compact design and enables horizontal preisolation stages to be configured to create a superspring configuration, where active feedback can enable performance close to the limit set by seismic tilt coupling. The preisolation stages are combined with multistage three-dimensional (3D) pendulums. Two isolators suspending mirror test masses have been developed to form a 72 m optical cavity with finesse approximately 700 in order to test their performance. The suitability of the isolators for use in suspended optical cavities is demonstrated through their ease of locking, long term stability, and low residual motion. An accompanying paper presents the local control system and shows how simple upgrades can substantially improve residual motion performance. PMID:19947743

  2. The Microgravity Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The Demonstrator is a tool to create microgravity conditions in your classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions and to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. A wealth of back-round material on free-fall, microgravity, and micro-gravity sciences is available in two educational documents available through the NASA Teacher Resource Centers: Microgravity-Activity Guide for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, and The Mathematics of Microgravity. The remainder of this manual is divided into five sections. The first explains how to put the Microgravity Demonstrator together. The next section introduces the individual demonstrations and discusses the underlying physical science concepts. Following that are detailed steps for conducting each demonstration to make your use of the Demonstrator most effective. Next are some ideas on how to make your own Microgravity Demonstrator. The last section is a tips and troubleshooting guide for video connections and operations. If you have one of the NASA Microgravity Demonstrators, this entire manual should be useful. If you have a copy of the Microgravity Demonstrator Videotape and would like to use that as a teaching tool, the Demonstrations and Scientific Background section of this manual will give you insight into the science areas studied in microgravity.

  3. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  4. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei

    2015-05-07

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  5. Electronic and vibrational spectra of matrix isolated anthracene radical cations - Experimental and theoretical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin; Talbi, Dahbia; Parisel, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves

    1993-01-01

    The IR vibrational and visible/UV electronic absorption spectra of the anthracene cation, An(+), were studied experimentally, in argon matrices at 12 K, as well as theoretically, using ab initio calculations for the vibrational modes and enhanced semiempirical methods with configuration interaction for the electronic spectra. It was found that both approaches predicted well the observed photoelectron spectrum. The theoretical IR intensities showed some remarkable differences between neutral and ionized species (for example, the CH in-plane bending modes and CC in-plane stretching vibrations were predicted to increase by several orders of magnitude upon ionization). Likewise, estimated experimental IR intensities showed a significant increase in the cation band intensities over the neutrals. The implication of these findings for the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations are responsible for the unidentified IR emission bands from interstellar space is discussed.

  6. Thermal connection and vibrational isolation: an elegant solution for two problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frajuca, C.; Bortoli, F. S.; Magalhaes, N. S.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2016-05-01

    Schenberg is a detector of gravitational waves resonant mass type, with a central frequency of operation of 3200 Hz. Transducers located on the surface of the resonating sphere, according to a distribution half-dodecahedron, are used to monitor a strain amplitude. To improve the performance of the detector it is essential to decrease the temperature, then it will be cooled down, this temperature could reach as low as 50 mK. This refrigerator produces vibration noise that could compromise the performance of Schenberg detector. In this work we the study such vibration noise and how it could be minimized proposing a new connection from the dilution refrigerator to the sphere suspension. The vibration attenuation is studied by finite element modeling (FEM) and an attenuation higher than 1024 is found, higher enough to note compromise the performance of Schenberg detector.

  7. New findings and instrumentation from the NASA Lewis microgravity facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of fundamental combustion and fluid physics in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. The microgravity environment enables a new range of experiments to be performed since: buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated; normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated; gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated; and larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible. Unexpected phenomena have been observed, with surprising frequency, in microgravity experiments, raising questions about the degree of accuracy and completeness of the classical understanding. An overview is provided of some new phenomena found through ground-based, microgravity research, the instrumentation used in this research, and plans for new instrumentation.

  8. Passive Isolators for use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Gattis, Christy

    2003-01-01

    The value of the International Space Station (ISS) as a premier microgravity environment is currently at risk due to structure-borne vibration. The vibration sources are varied and include crew activities such as exercising or simply moving from module to module, and electro- mechanical equipment such as fans and pumps. Given such potential degradation of usable microgravity, anything that can be done to dampen vibration on-orbit will significantly benefit microgravity users. Most vibration isolation schemes, both active and passive, have proven to be expensive - both operationally and from the cost of integrating isolation systems into primary/secondary structural interfaces (e.g., the ISS module/rack interface). Recently, passively absorptive materials have been tested at the bolt interfaces between the operating equipment and support structure (secondary/tertiary structural interfaces). The results indicate that these materials may prove cost-effective in mitigating the vibrational problems of the ISS. We report herein tests of passive absorbers placed at the interface of a vibration-inducing component: the Development Distillation Assembly, a subassembly of the Urine Processing Assembly, which is a rotating centrifuge and cylinder assembly attached to a mounting plate. Passive isolators were installed between this mounting plate and its support shelf. Three materials were tested: BISCO HT-800, Sorbothane 30 and Sorbothane 50, plus a control test with a hard shim. In addition, four distinct combinations of the HT-800 and Sorbothane 50 were tested. Results show a significant (three orders of magnitude) reduction of transmitted energy, as measured in power spectral density (PSD), using the isolation materials. It is noted, however, that passive materials cannot prevent the transmission of very strong forces or absorb the total energy induced from structural resonances.

  9. Vibration isolation of beam structure using hybrid mount associated with rubber and piezoactuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sung-Ryong

    2003-08-01

    A hybrid mount featuring elastic rubber and piezoelectric material is proposed and applied to the vibration control of a beam structure subjected to high frequency excitations. A mechanical model of the proposed hybrid mount is derived, and then the frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness of rubber and the voltage-dependent stroke of piezoactuator are verified experimentally. After formulating a mathematical model of the beam structure associated with the hybrid mount and the passive rubber mounts, a robust sliding mode controller is designed to attenuate vibration of the beam structure. The controller is experimentally realized and control responses such as accelerations of the beam structure and force transmission through the hybrid mount and rubber mounts are presented in frequency domain.

  10. Material research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langbein, D.

    1984-01-01

    A popular discussion is given of microgravity effects in engineering and medicine gained from Skylab experience. Areas covered include crystal growing, liquid surface properties, diffusion, ferromagnetism, and emulsions.