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Sample records for microhole wireless steering

  1. Microhole Wireless Steering While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    John Macpherson; Thomas Gregg

    2007-12-31

    A background to Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies (CT-BHA) is given, and the development of a bi-directional communications and power module (BCPM)component is described. The successful operation of this component in both the laboratory and field environment is described. The primary conclusion of this development is that the BCPM component operates as anticipated within the CT-BHA, and significantly extends the possibility of drilling with coiled tubing in the microhole environment.

  2. Microhole Smart Steering and Logging While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    John Macpherson; Mathias Moeller; Thomas Gregg; Roland Chemali

    2006-06-30

    A background to Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies (CT-BHA) is given, and the development of a resistivity measurement component, and a rib-steering motor component, is described. The successful operation of these components in both the laboratory and field environment is described. The primary conclusion of this development is that both components operate as anticipated within the CT-BHA, and significantly extend the possibility of drilling with coiled tubing in the microhole environment.

  3. Imaging and steering an optical wireless nanoantenna link.

    PubMed

    Dregely, Daniel; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus; Engheta, Nader; Totzeck, Michael; Giessen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Optical nanoantennas tailor the transmission and reception of optical signals. Owing to their capacity to control the direction and angular distribution of optical radiation over a broad spectral range, nanoantennas are promising components for optical communication in nanocircuits. Here we measure wireless optical power transfer between plasmonic nanoantennas in the far-field and demonstrate changeable signal routing to different nanoscopic receivers via beamsteering. We image the radiation pattern of single-optical nanoantennas using a photoluminescence technique, which allows mapping of the unperturbed intensity distribution around plasmonic structures. We quantify the distance dependence of the power transmission between transmitter and receiver by deterministically positioning nanoscopic fluorescent receivers around the transmitting nanoantenna. By adjusting the wavefront of the optical field incident on the transmitter, we achieve directional control of the transmitted radiation over a broad range of 29°. This enables wireless power transfer from one transmitter to different receivers. PMID:24993946

  4. Imaging and steering an optical wireless nanoantenna link

    PubMed Central

    Dregely, Daniel; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus; Engheta, Nader; Totzeck, Michael; Giessen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Optical nanoantennas tailor the transmission and reception of optical signals. Owing to their capacity to control the direction and angular distribution of optical radiation over a broad spectral range, nanoantennas are promising components for optical communication in nanocircuits. Here we measure wireless optical power transfer between plasmonic nanoantennas in the far-field and demonstrate changeable signal routing to different nanoscopic receivers via beamsteering. We image the radiation pattern of single-optical nanoantennas using a photoluminescence technique, which allows mapping of the unperturbed intensity distribution around plasmonic structures. We quantify the distance dependence of the power transmission between transmitter and receiver by deterministically positioning nanoscopic fluorescent receivers around the transmitting nanoantenna. By adjusting the wavefront of the optical field incident on the transmitter, we achieve directional control of the transmitted radiation over a broad range of 29°. This enables wireless power transfer from one transmitter to different receivers. PMID:24993946

  5. MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. ALBRIGHT

    2000-09-01

    Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors, large conventional-diameter wells are no longer necessary for obtaining subsurface information. Furthermore, microholes offer an environment for improved substance measurement. The combination of deep microholes having diameters of 1-3/8 in. at their terminal depth and 7/8-in. diameter logging tools will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization and monitoring.

  6. Free-space transmission with passive 2D beam steering for multi-gigabit-per-second per-beam indoor optical wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chin Wan; Cao, Zizheng; Tangdiongga, Eduward; Koonen, Ton

    2016-08-22

    In order to circumvent radio spectrum congestion, we propose an innovative system which can provide multiple infrared optical wireless beams simultaneously where each beam supports multi-gigabit-per-second communication. Scalable two-dimensional beam steering by means of wavelength tuning is proposed. A passive beam-steering module constructed with cascaded reflection gratings is designed for simultaneous multi-user coverage. We experimentally characterized the beam-steered system and thoroughly evaluated the performance of steered channels using the spectrally efficient and robust discrete multitone modulation in a bandwidth-limited system deploying 10 GHz telecom transceivers. This study reports the achievement of at least 37 Gbps free-space transmission per beam over a distance of up to 2 m over 5.61° × 12.66° scanning angles. PMID:27557201

  7. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  8. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was

  9. Transparent film with inverted conical microholes array for reflection enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Biao; Liu, Hongzhong; Jiang, Weitao; Chen, Bangdao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Liu, Xiaokang

    2016-04-01

    PDMS has been widely utilized for microfluidic chips and microchannel detections, as its good optical properties are the prerequisite to achieve accurate and efficient detection. However, it is difficult to obtain effective information for opaque liquids. With the development of microchannel detection for wider fields, it is imperative to obtain more comprehensive information of the observed objects by integrating high transmission with enhanced reflection. This article investigates reflection enhancement by Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film with inverted conical microholes array. PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array is fabricated by replication from the silicon mold with inverted microcones array which is prepared by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch tool. The monolayer PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array shows a two-fold effectively increase in reflection, approximately up to 15%, at a broad wavelength range of 637-1131 nm and 1214-1350 nm, compared with bare PDMS film. In addition, the reflection can be further enhanced by multilayered lamination of PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array, and the enhancement is also dependent on the lamination way, i.e., for bilayer laminations, the maximum reflection enhancement occurs when with face-to-back lamination, and 32.79% larger than that with back-to-face lamination. From the experiments, the maximum reflectivity of 8-layered PDMS films can obtain 64.4% while the maximum reflectivity of monolayer PDMS film barely has 17.5%. The transparent film with inverted conical microholes array for reflection enhancement may find a variety of applications in optical devices, microchips, and energy conservation technologies etc.

  10. Investigation on Machining Accuracy of Micro-Holes with Ultrasound Disturbed Electrolyte in Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Yuanzhe; Wang, Yesheng

    In the paper micro-holes are machined in electrochemical machining (ECM) with the passivating electrolyte disturbed by ultrasound. Based on the Faraday's law, theoretical model of the inter-electrode gap and the mechanism of ultrasonic effect are investigated. Moreover experiments on comparison of ECM micro-holes and ultrasonic assisted ECM micro-holes are carried out, and results show that the distribution of the inter-electrode gap and the localization of anodic dissolution are improved with the passivating electrolyte disturbed by ultrasound. Finally precision micro-holes have been obtained successfully.

  11. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  12. 3-D aluminum nanostructure with microhole array synthesized by femtosecond laser radiation for enhanced light extinction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications. PMID:24225364

  13. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

    2006-05-09

    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of

  14. Development of a multiple-microhole aerostatic air bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Ho, Chi-Chung; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-09-01

    New types of aerostatic air bearing and linear slide systems have been developed. The prototype of a multiple-microhole, instead of a porous-type, air bearing was developed and the surface roughness was improved by finished process. Instead of the conventional drilling process, the air bearing pads were fabricated by using microfabrication technology in this research. The spectral element method was employed to simulate the pressure distribution of air bearing and a comparison was made with experimental results. A granite straight edge was used as linear slide to guide the moving table that was supported by the developed air bearing system. A laser interferometer system was used to assess the performance of the stage.

  15. Postquantum Steering.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Brunner, Nicolas; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vértesi, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of postquantum nonlocality, i.e., the existence of nonlocal correlations that are stronger than any quantum correlations but nevertheless consistent with the no-signaling principle, has deepened our understanding of the foundations of quantum theory. In this work, we investigate whether the phenomenon of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a different form of quantum nonlocality, can also be generalized beyond quantum theory. While post-quantum steering does not exist in the bipartite case, we prove its existence in the case of three observers. Importantly, we show that postquantum steering is a genuinely new phenomenon, fundamentally different from postquantum nonlocality. Our results provide new insight into the nonlocal correlations of multipartite quantum systems. PMID:26588364

  16. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the

  17. A novel technique for micro-hole forming on skull with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Daoguo; Hao, Weidong; Wu, Tiecheng; Wu, Song; Li, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Micro-hole opening on skull is technically challenging and is hard to realize by micro-drilling. Low-stiffness of the drill bit is a serious drawback in micro-drilling. To deal with this problem, a novel ultrasonic vibration assisted micro-hole forming technique has been developed. Tip geometry and vibration amplitude are two key factors affecting the performance of this hole forming technique. To investigate their effects, experiment was carried out with 300μm diameter tools of three different tip geometries at three different vibration amplitudes. Hole forming performance was evaluated by the required thrust force, dimensional accuracy, exit burr and micro-structure of bone tissue around the generated hole. Based on the findings from current study, the 60° conically tipped tool helps generate a micro-hole of better quality at a smaller thrust force, and it is more suitable for hole forming than the 120° conically tipped tool and the blunt tipped tool. As for the vibration amplitude, when a larger amplitude is used, a micro-hole of better quality and higher dimensional accuracy can be formed at a smaller thrust force. Findings from this study would lay a technical foundation for accurately generating a high-quality micro-hole on skull, which enables minimally invasive insertion of a microelectrode into brain for neural activity measuring. PMID:26698192

  18. Influence of laser parameters on quality of microholes and process efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuer, A.; Kunz, C.; Kraus, M.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Ingildeev, D.; Hermanutz, F.

    2014-03-01

    To enable the direct-spinning process of super-micro fibres (< 0.5 dtex) suitable for novel medical, hygienical and technical products microhole arrays with diameters down to 25 μm in very high quality are required. Using ultrashort pulses together with a helical drilling optics microholes with high accuracy were manufactured in metals of a thickness in the range of 0.3 mm. However, the required process time for a single microhole ranges up to several ten seconds. Simple energy balance considerations show that higher averaged powers - either achieved with larger pulse energies or an increased repetition rate - considerable reduce the process time. In this case plasma formation and heat accumulation show an increased formation of melt and recast. Thus, the objective is to increase the productivity while maintaining consistent quality of the microholes. With this aim, the influence of pulse energy and repetition rate on the borehole geometry, processing quality and process efficiency was investigated for helical drilling. In the present research work a TruMicro 5250 laser source (tp = 8 ps, λ=515 nm, fR=800 kHz) was used. To determine the process time of the microhole the transmitted laser radiation was recorded. A systematic evaluation of the process quality and process time dependent on pulse energy and repetition rate will be presented in this contribution. First laser manufactured spinning nozzles with microhole diameters down to 25 μm processed in 0.24 mm thick AuPt alloy were used to fabricate unique super-micro fibres with yarn counts down to 0.2 dtex.

  19. Silicon microhole arrays architecture for stable and efficient photoelectrochemical cells using ionic liquids electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Ling; Li, Junnan; Zhao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Silicon microhole arrays (SiMHs) structure is constructed and fabricated by a low-cost maskless anodic etching process, which is applied as the photoanode for the silicon photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. The depths of silicon microhole arrays can be independently controlled by the etching time. The light-scattering properties are also investigated. Additionally, surface morphology analysis show that large hole diameters of SiMHs is very favourable for the full-filling of ionic liquids electrolyte. Therefore, better electrochemical contact as well as high ionic conductivity of the ionic liquids electrolyte renders the PEC SiMHs solar cells to exhibit more excellent performance. After optimization, the maximum PCE could be achieved at 4.04% for the SiMHs cell. The performance of the SiMHs cell is highly comparable to that of silicon nanowires cell. More importantly, the liquid-state electrolyte is confined in the unique microhole structure, which can obviously prevent the leakage of the ionic liquids electrolyte, resulting in much better long-term stability than the reference devices. These preliminary results validate the concept of interpenetrating networks with semiconductor structure/ILs junction to develop stable and efficient PEC cells.

  20. Progressive retinal detachment secondary to juxtapapillary microholes in association with type 3 posterior staphylomas

    PubMed Central

    Dinah, Christiana B; Vaideanu-Collins, Daniela; Steel, David HW

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study describes a novel subtype of retinal detachment occurring in eyes with pathological myopia associated with type 3 posterior staphyloma and discusses the management options. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of seven patients who presented with unilateral symptomatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment secondary to nasal juxtapapillary microholes. Results All seven patients had pathological myopia and an associated peripapillary type 3 posterior staphyloma. They all presented with symptoms of acute posterior vitreous detachment and had progressive retinal detachment. All cases were discovered to have a single juxtapapillary hole less than 1 disc diameter from the optic-nerve head, within areas of nasal chorioretinal atrophy. The microholes were identified intraoperatively in six of seven cases, with one case identified preoperatively on optical coherence tomography. In the four most recent cases, successful retinal reattachment was achieved with vitrectomy and C2F6 gas tamponade. The remaining three cases were managed with vitrectomy and silicone oil. Conclusion Seven patients with pathological myopia, type 3 posterior staphyloma, and progressive retinal detachment secondary to juxtapapillary microholes are presented in this paper. High clinical suspicion is required to identify these breaks. Successful retinal reattachment with pars plana vitrectomy and long-acting gas is possible. PMID:24959066

  1. Monogamy of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Antony; Jennings, David; Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Wiseman, Howard

    The quantum steering ellipsoid formalism naturally extends the Bloch vector picture for qubits to provide a visualisation of two-qubit systems. If Alice and Bob share a correlated state then a local measurement by Bob steers Alice's qubit inside the Bloch sphere; given all possible measurements by Bob, the set of states to which Alice can be steered form her steering ellipsoid. We apply the formalism to a three-party scenario and find that steering ellipsoid volumes obey a simple monogamy relation. This gives us a novel derivation of the well-known CKW (Coffman-Kundu-Wootters) inequality for entanglement monogamy. The geometric perspective also identifies a new measure of quantum correlation, `obesity', and a set of `maximally obese' states that saturate the steering monogamy bound. These states are found to have extremal quantum correlation properties that are significant in the steering ellipsoid picture and for the study of two-qubit states in general.

  2. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 μm and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  3. Universal Steering Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest.

  4. Universal Steering Criteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-19

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest. PMID:26943513

  5. LIPSS formed on the sidewalls of microholes in stainless steel trepanned by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Youwang; Fan, Nannan; Lu, Yunpeng; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cong; Xia, Zhendong; Duan, Ji'an; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Jianying; Luo, Zhi; Yin, Kai

    2016-07-01

    In order to take advantage of microhole fluidynamics, laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) orientation should offer the lowest angle γ as possible with respect to hole axis. Investigations have been performed to explore the morphology of LIPSS formed on the sidewalls of microholes by circularly polarized femtosecond laser trepanning. The period of LIPSS on average was smaller than laser wavelength. The energy density of laser beam generally affected the processing effect. Experiments showed that the angle of the LIPSS decreases with increasing single pulse energy. However, increasing trepanning speed led to a decreasing in LIPSS angle.

  6. Ultrasonic vibration assisted electro-discharge machining of microholes in Nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, H. Y.

    2003-09-01

    An ultrasonic vibration has been superposed on the normal electrode movement to increase the flushing effect during a micro electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. A systematic study on the effects of ultrasonic vibration on the EDM performance for fabricating microholes in Nitinol has been completed. The introduction of ultrasonic vibration to the micro-EDM process has increased the machining efficiency more than 60 times, without significantly increasing the electrode wear. Numerical simulation reveals that the efficiency improvement is attributed to the strong stirring effect caused by ultrasonic vibration, which results in an excellent flushing in the micro-EDM process.

  7. Automotive power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

  8. A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bart Patton

    2007-09-30

    This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

  9. Model predicting the microhole profiles of laser drilling processes in carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Frank F.; Pilkington, Richard D.

    2000-06-01

    Laser induced ablation of materials has became an extremely important area of research and application. The laser sources for ablation cover the wavelengths from ultraviolet (most are excimer lasers), visible (copper vapor lasers, argon ion lasers) to the infrared (Nd:YAG lasers, CO2 lasers). The laser material processing technique is intensely used in both the electronic and aerospace industries. In this paper, a new theoretical model describing laser microhole drilling processes in carbon fiber composites (CFC) has been developed, which can predict the profiles ofthe microholes for certain incident beam profiles. The calculated results for several specific incident beams will be presented in this paper. We show how the peak fluence, the beam diameter, and the material parameters (absorption coefficient, threshold ablation fluence) affect the hole shapes. Although the model is specific to CFC, it can be applied to any other laser micromachining process for materials such as polyimide, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) etc. We not only present a new method to model the drilling hole profiles but also explain why hole drilling will stop under certain circumstances in the low fluence regime for polymers and fiber reinforced composites. The model explains tapered wall formation and stabilized drilling, from which, high efficient laser drilling and cutting can be predicted in low fluence regimes. This new model is suitable for most well defined beams and materials such as polymers, fiber CFC, glass fiber composites and some ceramics.

  10. Three-axis accelerometer package for slimhole and microhole seismic monitoring and surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1997-01-07

    The development of microdrilling technology, nominally defined as drilling technology for 1-in.-diameter boreholes, shows potential for reducing the cost of drilling monitoring wells. A major question that arises in drilling microholes is if downhole logging and monitoring in general--and downhole seismic surveying in particular--can be conducted in such small holes since the inner working diameter of such a seismic tool could be as small as 0.31 in. A downhole three-component accelerometer package that fits within a 031-in. inner diameter tube has been designed, built, and tested. The package consists of three orthogonally mounted Entran EGA-125-5g piezoresistive silicon micromachined accelerometers with temperature compensation circuitry, downhole amplification, and line drivers mounted in a thin-walled aluminum tube. Accelerometers are commercially available in much smaller package sizes than conventional geophones, but the noise floor is significantly higher than that for the geophones. Cross-well tests using small explosives showed good signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded waveform at various receiver depths with a 1,50-ft source-receiver well separation. For some active downhole surveys, the accelerometer unit would clearly be adequate. It can be reasonably assumed, however, that for less energetic sources and for greater well separations, the high accelerometer noise floor is not acceptable. By expanding the inner working diameter of a microhole seismic tool to 0.5 in., other commercial accelerometers can be used with substantially lower noise floors.

  11. Micro-Hole Multi-Point Punching System Using Punch and Die Made by EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomfield, Mark; Mori, Toshihiko; Mikuriya, Teruaki; Tachibana, Kazushi

    In this research a multi-point micro punch and die system was developed. The process of electric discharge machining (EDM) was used to produce both the punch and die. The punches were machined from a 5 mm diameter tungsten and a 10 mm diameter tool steel round rods by wire electric discharge machining (WEDM), using a 200 µm diameter wire electrode. The die holes were made using the punch as the electrode. The EDM process of the holes was carried out on a newly developed desktop EDM machine. The punch and die placed on a micro-die set and then on a micro press were used to produce micro-holes using an automatic control system developed for this process. Experiments to produce 50 µm to 67 µm square micro-holes on 50 µm thick aluminum, 30 µm thick copper and 20 µm thick stainless steel foils were conducted. The capabilities of multi-point punching using the tungsten punch and a tool steel punch were examined and tungsten was chosen as the material of choice for making the punch tool. A scanning electron microscope confirmed that the holes produced are clean, and the sheared surfaces smooth. The punch tool showed no signs of deformation or cracks even after repeated punching.

  12. Temporal steering inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Nan; Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Shin-Liang; Ota, Yukihiro; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-01

    Quantum steering is the ability to remotely prepare different quantum states by using entangled pairs as a resource. Very recently, the concept of steering has been quantified with the use of inequalities, leading to substantial applications in quantum information and communication science. Here, we highlight that there exists a natural temporal analog of the steering inequality when considering measurements on a single object at different times. We give nontrivial operational meaning to violations of this temporal inequality by showing that it is connected to the security bound in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and thus may have applications in quantum communication.

  13. Current focusing and steering

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Ben H.; Litvak, Leonid M.

    2008-01-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed. PMID:18501539

  14. Mechanisms of microhole formation on glasses by an abrasive slurry jet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Nguyen, T.; Pang, K. L.

    2009-02-15

    Abrasive jet micromachining is considered as a promising precision processing technology for brittle materials such as silicon substrates and glasses that are increasingly used in various applications. In this paper, the mechanisms of microhole formation on brittle glasses by an abrasive slurry jet are studied based on the viscous flow and erosion theories. It is shown that the hole cross section is characterized by a ''W'' shape and can be classified into three zones caused, respectively, by jet direct impact, viscous flow, and turbulent flow induced erosion. An analysis of the surface morphology shows that ductile-mode erosion is dominant. The effect of process parameters on material removal is studied which shows that increasing the pressure and erosion time increases the hole depth, but has little effect on the hole diameter.

  15. Final Technical Report for “A Heliportable Sonic Drilling Platform for Microhole Drilling and Exploration”

    SciTech Connect

    Lucon, Peter

    2008-05-05

    The Phase I objectives were fully achieved the execution of a program that included the: • Development of a comprehensive model of the sonic drill technology and interaction of the dynamic drilling parameters with the impedance of the earth. • Operation and measurement of the sonic drilling process in the field at full scale. • Comparison of the analytical and experimental results to form an objective and quantified approach to describe the fundamental phenomena and to develop a methodology for automated control of the sonic drilling process. • Conceptual design of a modular sonic drilling system that can be transported to remote sites by helicopter. As a result, the feasibility of a commercially viable sonic drilling technology that can produce microholes up to 1,500 feet in depth, and that is field deployable to remote, environmentally sensitive sites via a helicopter, has been demonstrated.

  16. Development of Radar Navigation and Radio Data Transmission for Microhole Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk; Gerald L. Stolarczyk; Larry Icerman; John Howard; Hooman Tehrani

    2007-03-25

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research and development (R&D) work performed by Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract Number DE-FC26-04NT15477. This work involved the development of radar navigation and radio data transmission systems for integration with microhole coiled tubing bottom hole assemblies. Under this contract, Stolar designed, fabricated, and laboratory and field tested two advanced technologies of importance to the future growth of the U.S. oil and gas industry: (1) real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of coiled tubing drilling in hydrocarbon reservoirs and (2) two-way inductive radio data transmission on coiled tubing for real-time, subsurface-to-surface data transmission. The operating specifications for these technologies are compatible with 3.5-inch boreholes drilled to a true vertical depth (TVD) of 5,000 feet, which is typical of coiled tubing drilling applications. These two technologies (i.e., the Stolar Data Transmission System and Drill String Radar) were developed into pre-commercial prototypes and tested successfully in simulated coiled tubing drilling conditions. Integration of these two technologies provides a real-time geosteering capability with extremely quick response times. Stolar is conducting additional work required to transition the Drill String Radar into a true commercial product. The results of this advanced development work should be an important step in the expanded commercialization of advanced coiled tubing microhole drilling equipment for use in U.S. hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. 52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view from starboard looking aft. Photograph by Jet Lowe, April 1988. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  19. Methodologies for steering clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  20. Steering in bicycles and motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajans, J.

    2000-07-01

    Steering a motorcycle or bicycle is counterintuitive; to turn right, you must steer left initially, and vice versa. You can execute this initially counter-directed turn by turning the handlebars explicitly (called counter-steering) or by throwing your hips to the side. Contrary to common belief, gyroscopic forces play only a limited role in balancing and steering [D. E. H. Jones, Phys. Today 23 (4), 34-40 (1970)].

  1. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter...

  2. Femtosecond laser direct writing of microholes on roughened ZnO for output power enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhigang; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Du, Jihe; Wang, Ming; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2016-08-01

    A significant enhancement of light extraction efficiency from InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with microhole arrays and roughened ZnO was experimentally demonstrated. The roughened ZnO was fabricated using an Ar and H2 plasma treatment of ZnO films pre-coated on a p-GaN layer. When followed by a femtosecond laser direct writing technique, a periodic array of microholes could be added to the surface. The diameter of the microhole was varied by changing the output power of the femtosecond laser. Compared to conventional LEDs on the same wafer, the output power of LEDs with roughened ZnOs and a microhole (diameter of 2 μm) array was increased by 58.4% when operated with an injection current of 220 mA. Moreover, it was found that LEDs fabricated with roughened ZnO and the microhole array had similar current-voltage (I-V) characteristics to those of conventional LEDs and no degrading effect was observed. PMID:27472594

  3. Output power enhancement from ZnO nanorods piezoelectric nanogenerators by Si microhole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Roqibul Hasan, Md; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of output power from a ZnO nanorod (NR)-based piezoelectric nanogenerator by using Si microhole (Si-μH) arrays. The depth-controlled Si-μH arrays were fabricated by using the deep reactive ion etching method. The ZnO NRs were grown along the Si-μH surface, in holes deeper than 20 μm. The polymer layer, polydimethylsiloxane, which acts a stress diffuser and electrical insulator, was successfully penetrated into the deep Si-μH arrays. Optical investigations show that the crystalline quality of the ZnO NRs on the Si-μH arrays was not degraded, even though they were grown on the deeper Si-μH arrays. As the depth of the Si-μH arrays increase from 0 to 20 μm, the output voltage was enhanced by around 8.1 times while the current did not increase. Finally, an output power enhancement of ten times was obtained. This enhancement of the output power was consistent with the increase in the surface area, and was mainly attributed to the accumulation of the potentials generated by the series-connected ZnO NR-based nanogenerators, whose number increases as the depth of the Si-μH increases.

  4. Experimental Study of Characteristics of Micro-Hole Porous Skins for Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of micro-hole porous skins for the turbulent skin friction reduction technology called the micro-blowing technique (MBT) were assessed experimentally at Mach 0.4 and blowing fractions from zero to 0.005. The objective of this study was to provide guidelines for the selection of porous plates for MBT. The hole angle, pattern, diameter, aspect ratio, and porosity were the parameters considered for this study. The additional effort to angle and stagger the holes was experimentally determined to be unwarranted in terms of skin friction benefit; therefore, these parameters were systematically eliminated from the parametric study. The impact of the remaining three parameters was evaluated by fixing two parameters at the reference values while varying the third parameter. The best hole-diameter Reynolds number was found to be around 400, with an optimum aspect ratio of about 6. The optimum porosity was not conclusively discerned because the range of porosities in the test plates considered was not great enough. However, the porosity was estimated to be about 15 percent or less.

  5. Laser beam steering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  6. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    SciTech Connect

    Khuat, Vanthanh; Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  7. Steering characteristics of motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shigeru; Shiozawa, Souichi; Shinagawa, Akinori; Kishi, Tomoaki

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the results of a steady-state cornering test using a sport-touring motorcycle and the analysis of those test results are presented. This test was conducted as an activity in our efforts to realise a quantitative development method for motorcycles. The measurement data from this test include measurement results for tyre force, tyre moment, and tyre slip angle that have not been practically addressed in the research of motorcycles, in addition to normal measurement results for velocity, steering angle, steering torque, roll angle, etc. Until now research on motorcycle dynamics characteristics has indicated that 'there is a strong relationship between the motorcycle dynamics characteristics and the tyre slip angle'. However, since it is difficult to take highly precise measurements of the motorcycle's tyre slip angle during actual riding, especially when the motorcycle is tilted during cornering, such measurements have been avoided, cf. [H. Ishii and Y. Tezuka, Considerations of turning performance for motorcycle, SETC (1997), pp. 383-389]. Nevertheless, in this research we attempted to measure the tyre slip angle and also attempted to investigate in detail the dynamics characteristics and tyre characteristics during riding. Until now there has not been an adequate investigation conducted under a variety of riding conditions, but it is the aim of this research to show that it is possible to measure the tyre slip angle with a reasonable accuracy. It is our opinion that this will open a new path to a more detailed investigation of the motorcycle's dynamics characteristics. In addition, we conducted measurements using not only the normal rider's lean angle (lean-with posture), but also measurements in the case where the rider's lean angle was intentionally changed, in order to investigate the effects that a change in the rider's posture has on the variation in the measurement results of the motorcycle's dynamics. Furthermore, we then compared these

  8. Steering Maps and Their Application to Dimension-Bounded Steering.

    PubMed

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Uola, Roope; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-03-01

    The existence of quantum correlations that allow one party to steer the quantum state of another party is a counterintuitive quantum effect that was described at the beginning of the past century. Steering occurs if entanglement can be proven even though the description of the measurements on one party is not known, while the other side is characterized. We introduce the concept of steering maps, which allow us to unlock sophisticated techniques that were developed in regular entanglement detection and to use them for certifying steerability. As an application, we show that this allows us to go beyond even the canonical steering scenario; it enables a generalized dimension-bounded steering where one only assumes the Hilbert space dimension on the characterized side, with no description of the measurements. Surprisingly, this does not weaken the detection strength of very symmetric scenarios that have recently been carried out in experiments. PMID:26991159

  9. Holographic memory using beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  10. Quantum coherence of steered states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  11. Quantum coherence of steered states

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214

  12. Towards a cellular multi-parameter analysis platform: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on microhole-array chips.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Christian M; Moosdijk, Stefan V D; Thielecke, Hagen; Velten, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highly-sensitive analysis systems based on cellular multi-parameter are needed in the diagnostics. Therefore we improved our previously developed chip platform for another additional analysis method, the fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique used in the diagnostics to determine the localization and the presence or absence of specific DNA sequence. To improve this labor- and cost-intensive method, we reduced the assay consumption by a factor of 5 compared to the standard protocol. Microhole chips were used for making the cells well addressable. The chips were fabricated by semiconductor technology on the basis of a Silicon wafer with a thin deposited silicon nitride layer (Si(3)N(4)). Human retina pigment epithelia (ARPE-19) cells were arrayed on 5-μm holes of a 35 × 35 microhole-array by a gently negative differential pressure of around 5 mbar. After 3 hours of incubation the cells were attached to the chip and the FISH protocol was applied to the positioned cells. A LabView software was developed to simplify the analysis. The software automatically counts the number of dots (positive labeled chromosome regions) as well as the distance between adjacent dots. Our developed platform reduces the assay consumption and the labor time. Furthermore, during the 3 hours of incubation non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods like Raman- and impedance-spectroscopy can be applied. PMID:22256298

  13. Bioinspired active whisker sensor for geometry detection of high aspect ratio microholes with simultaneous actuation and sensing capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Feng; Ling, Shih-Fu

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a whisker transducer (WT)—inspired by a rat’s vibrissal tactile location perception—that can be used to detect the geometry of high aspect ratio microholes. The WT acts as both the actuator that generates whisking movement and the sensor that detects the mechanical impedance at its tip. This unique, simultaneous actuation-and-sensing capability is achieved through a 2 × 2 transduction matrix model that characterizes both the forward actuation and backward sensing functions of the transducer. The WT imitates a rat’s vibrissal location perception when driven by a special signal with a low-frequency component and a high-frequency component. The low-frequency component plays the role of the ‘whisking signal,’ encoding the whisker position over time, and the high-frequency component plays the role of the ‘touch signal,’ encoding the onset time of mechanical contact. The combination of these two signals allows the WT to detect the location of an object. The proposed transducer and location detection algorithm are validated using a miniature prototype fabricated through micro-EDM process. The achieved geometry measurement capability is of high linearity (R2 > 0.99) and low measurement uncertainty (200 nm). Its potential application in detecting the taper of high aspect ratio microholes is also demonstrated.

  14. Steer assistance for teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Olivier; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane

    2005-05-01

    Giat Industries, expert in combat system, designs and integrates the technologies (electrical network, mechanical design, ergonomic and mobility command and control) for the French military and civil robotic. One of the main problems of current robotics is to treat the lack of operator's perception due to teleoperation. The article details the assistance for the steer control part of mobility command and control. The purpose of the assistance is to secure the vehicle, to insure the continuity of the command (in particular for tracked vehicle equipped of hydrostatic steering group), and to adapt the command (to use all the range of the command even at high speed and to adapt the speed to the desired curve). The advantage of the system presented in the article is to filter the order first and to transmit to the actuators only safe orders preserving the vehicle. This approach transforms the telepilot's order watching and correction problem, to a telepilot's order filtering problem. We pass here, from a logical "a posteriori" to a logical of "a priori" processing. The assistance includes: a model of the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and an open loop, some feed forward with appropriate filters and a closed loop. The article presents the result of the command studies from time simulation to "man on the loop" simulation. This system, at present time applied to the French Observation Robot demonstrator SYRANO (developped for the DGA-French Defence Procurement Agency), is the subject of a patent.

  15. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  16. Steering Bell-diagonal states

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250

  17. Steering Bell-diagonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality.

  18. Steering Bell-diagonal states.

    PubMed

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250

  19. Levels of steering control: Reproduction of steering-wheel movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godthelp, H.

    1982-01-01

    A schematic description of the steering control process is presented. It is shown that this process can be described in terms of levels of control. Level of control will depend on driver's skill in making use of 'clever' strategies which may be related to knowledge about the path to follow (input) and/or the vehicle under control. This knowledge may be referred to as an internal model of a particular task element. Internal information, as derived from these internal models will probably be used together with proprioceptive feedback. It is hypothesized that the efficiency of the higher levels of control will be dependent on the accuracy of both the internal and proprioceptive information. Based on this research philosophy a series of experiments is carried out. Two primary experiments were done in order to analyse subjects' ability to reproduce steering-wheel positions and movements without visual feedback. Steering-wheel angle amplitude, steering force and movement frequency were involved as independent variables.

  20. Apparatus for controlling steering power in power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakushi, S.; Matsubara, H.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling a steering power in a power steering system which is used in an automobile. The apparatus consists of: a main pump which supplies a first hydraulic coil to the power steering system to operate the same; an oil pressure reaction chamber for controlling the steering power; a subpump of a reduced size smaller than that of the main pump for supplying a second hydraulic oil to the oil pressure reaction chamber to operate the same; a first oil path interconnecting the subpump and oil pressure reaction chamber to each other for flowing the second hydraulic oil through the first oil path; an oil tank; a second oil path branched from the first oil path and connected to the oil tank; a first control valve means disposed in the second oil path for raising the hydraulic pressure of the oil pressure reaction chamber in response to an increase in the running speed of the automobile so as to control the oil pressure reaction chamber to increase the steering power; and a second control valve means connected in parallel relationship with the first control valve means for changing the steering power in response to the hydraulic pressure of the first hydraulic oil supplied from the main pump.

  1. Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Wang, Q; Tessema, N; Jiao, Y; van den Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-06-15

    Optical true time delay (OTTD) is an attractive way to realize microwave beam steering (MBS) due to its inherent features of broadband, low-loss, and compactness. In this Letter, we propose a novel OTTD approach named cyclic additional optical true time delay (CAO-TTD). It applies additional integer delays of the microwave carrier frequency to achieve spectral filtering but without disturbing the spatial filtering (beam steering). Based on such concept, a broadband MBS scheme for high-capacity wireless communication is proposed, which allows the tuning of both spectral filtering and spatial filtering. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. PMID:24978496

  2. Vortex soliton motion and steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry

    1996-10-01

    Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.

  3. Wireless Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of the Internet and laptops help Carnegie Mellon University students carry out sophisticated research anywhere on campus. How the university became a wireless community is discussed. (GR)

  4. Holographic memory using beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  5. Loophole-free Quantum Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelow, Sven; Wittmann, Bernhard; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-02-01

    Experiments testing quantum mechanics have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, a conclusive test that simultaneously closes all major loopholes (the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes) remains an open challenge. An important class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ``steering.'' Schr"odinger introduced this term for entanglement seemingly allowing to remotely steer the state of a distant system [1]. Einstein called this ``spooky action at a distance.'' Steering was recently formalized by deriving steering inequalities allowing experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free steering experiment [2]. We use entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories and close all loopholes by a large separation, ultra-fast switching and quantum random number generation, and high, overall detection efficiency. Beside its foundational importance loop-hole-free steering is relevant for is relevant for device-independent certification of quantum entanglement. [4pt] [1] E. Schr"odinger, Proc. Camb. , Phil. Soc. 31, 553 (1935) [0pt] [2] B. Wittmann, S. Ramelow, F. Steinlechner, N. K. Langford, N. Brunner, H. Wiseman, R. Ursin, A. Zeilinger, arXiv:1111.0760, (2011)

  6. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  7. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  8. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  9. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  10. Steering capaciflector sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T. (Inventor); Mcconnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A capacitive type proximity sensor having substantial range and sensitivity between a machine and an intruding object in the immediate vicinity of the machine and having a steerable sensing field has an outer electrical conductor on the machine forming one electrode of a sensor capacitor, the other electrode is the object. The outer conductor is a thin sheet of conductive material with a pair (or more) of intermediate electrical conductors located between the outer conductor and the machine. The pair of intermediate electrical conductors are in close proximity to each other and together form a surface having a size substantially larger than the outer conductor to act as a shield for reducing the parasitic capacitance between the outer conductor and the machine and to steer the sensor field. The pair of intermediate conductors are thin sheets of conductive material substantially wider than the first conductor. The outer and pair of intermediate conductors are attached to a surface on the machine in electrical isolation and with no gaps between the conductors and no gap between the surface and the pair of intermediate conductors. The outer and pair of intermediate conductors are also in conformance with each other and the surface of the machine, and the surface of the machine acts as a ground plane. Variable gain voltage follower circuits are used for coupling, in phase, the instantaneous voltage at the outer electrical conductor to the pair of intermediate electrical conductors and a signal generator is coupled to the outer conductor and is responsive to the capacitance of the sensor capacitor for generating a control signal to the machine.

  11. Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  12. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  13. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or slipping. The system shall not leak. The power steering system shall have sufficient fluid in the... following parameters: Steering wheel diameter Manual steering system Power steering system 406 mm or less... rotation for manual steering systems, and 30 degrees angular rotation for power steering systems....

  14. Wireless Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  15. Wireless Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)

  16. Steering magnet design for a limited space

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Fite, J.; Lodestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.

    2009-05-04

    We compare two extreme designs of steering magnets. The first one is a very thin steering magnet design which occupies only 6 mm in length and can be additionally installed as needed. The other is realized by applying extra coil windings to a quadrupole magnet and does not consume any length. The properties and the features of these steering magnets are discussed.

  17. Remote manipulator system steering capability for SVDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    Details of the remote manipulator system steering capability to be implemented into the space vehicle dynamics simulator are reported. The resolve rate law is included as part of the overall steering capability. The steering model includes three automatic modes, four manual augmented modes, and a single joint rate mode.

  18. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems...

  19. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  20. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  1. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  2. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping... Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the steering apparatus is inspected and operationally tested to determine...

  4. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping... Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the steering apparatus is inspected and operationally tested to determine...

  5. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  6. The JPL mechanically steered antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Bell, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and developed a mechanically steered antenna for tracking satellites in a mobile environment. This antenna was used to track an L-band beacon on the MARISAT satellite. A description of the antenna and the results of the satellite experiment are given.

  7. Direct investigation of the ablation rate evolution during laser drilling of high-aspect-ratio micro-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Sibillano, Teresa; Columbo, Lorenzo L.; Di Niso, Francesca; Ancona, Antonio; Dabbicco, Maurizio; De Lucia, Francesco; Lugarà, Pietro M.; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2012-03-01

    The recent development of ultrafast laser ablation technology in precision micromachining has dramatically increased the demand for reliable and real-time detection systems to characterize the material removal process. In particular, the laser percussion drilling of metals is lacking of non-invasive techniques able to monitor into the depth the spatial- and time-dependent evolution all through the ablation process. To understand the physical interaction between bulk material and high-energy light beam, accurate in-situ measurements of process parameters such as the penetration depth and the removal rate are crucial. We report on direct real time measurements of the ablation front displacement and the removal rate during ultrafast laser percussion drilling of metals by implementing a contactless sensing technique based on optical feedback interferometry. High aspect ratio micro-holes were drilled onto steel plates with different thermal properties (AISI 1095 and AISI 301) and Aluminum samples using 120-ps/110-kHz pulses delivered by a microchip laser fiber amplifier. Percussion drilling experiments have been performed by coaxially aligning the diode laser probe beam with the ablating laser. The displacement of the penetration front was instantaneously measured during the process with a resolution of 0.41 μm by analyzing the sawtooth-like induced modulation of the interferometric signal out of the detector system.

  8. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Kim, Janggil; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam

    2015-02-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate.

  9. Effects of macro- and micro-hole milling parameters on Al2O3 ceramics using an ultraviolet laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, W. T.; Tseng, S. F.; Chung, C. K.; Huang, K. C.; Chen, M. F.

    2013-06-01

    Ceramics are commonly used as substrates in electrically insulated integrated circuit, printed circuit board, and lightemitting diode industries because of their excellent dielectric and thermal properties. However, brittle materials (e.q., ceramic alumina, sapphire, glass, and silicon wafer) are difficult to fabricate using wheel tools. Laser material processes are preferred over traditional methods because they allow noncontact processing, avoid tool wear problems, and achieve high speed, high accuracy, and high resolution. Laser material processes also exhibit minimal residual thermal effects and residual stress. This study investigated the laser drilling of Al2O3 ceramic material (with a thickness of 380 μm and hole diameters of 200, 300, and 500 μm, respectively) by using a laser milling method. The macro- and micro-hole milling performance depended on various parameters including the galvanometric scan speed and milling time. A 3D confocal laser scanning microscope and a field-emission scanning electron microscope were used to measure the surface morphology, taper angle, and melted residual height of the machined surface after laser milling. The edge quality and roundness of laser milling were also observed using image-processing edge-detection technology.

  10. HANFORD BERYLLIUM STEERING GROUP CHARTER

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT, E.R.

    2003-11-19

    The purpose of the Beryllium Steering Group (BSG) is to (1) provide a forum for discussion of beryllium issues and concerns among Hanford prime contractors and DOE; (2) review proposed changes in prime contractor Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Programs (CBDPP) to determine if these changes will result in significant impacts to other contractors and their employees; (3) review proposed changes to Beryllium Hanford Facilities List prior to updating of this list.

  11. An LSPR fiber optic sensor based on in-line micro-holes fabricated by a second harmonic 400nm femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiko; Goya, Kenji; Seki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have proposed a novel type of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) fiber optic sensor based on in-line/pico-liter micro-holes which can be experimentally fabricated into the fiber waveguide by using a second harmonic 400 nm femtosecond laser. A repetitive pulse train of 1 kHz with a pulse width of 350 fs was irradiated onto a MMGI fiber optic to make three holes that penetrate through the fiber core and work as spectroscopic-microfluidic flow cells. In order to induce the interaction between transmitted light and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) adhered on the inner surface of the flow cells, micro-holes were designed to be the width of approximately 50 μm, along a direction perpendicular to an optical axis of an optical fiber. GNPs with approximately 100 nm of particle diameter adhered onto the inner surface according to 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane treatment. The transmitted light through the micro-holes was obtained by optical instruments consisted of a white light source and an optical spectrum analyzer. In order to obtain the reference spectrum, the optical spectrum was acquired before dipping the sensor into the GNPs solution. After 30 min of immersing the sensor portion into the GNPs solution, the optical spectrum was also obtained. The reference spectrum which was considered as the baseline, was set to zero and then, the absorbance spectrum was calculated. The absorbance peak at a wavelength of 537 nm occurred in an air condition in the sensing area, which seemed like the resonance peak based on the LSPR.

  12. Experimental characterization of a micro-hole drilling process with short micro-second pulses by a CW single-mode fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander G.; Reeves, Nicholas; Rajule, Nilesh

    2014-04-01

    Laser ablation with pulse durations in a few microseconds is a viable solution for micro-hole drilling applications which require large material removal rate (MRR) with moderate hole quality. However, the body of work regarding short microsecond laser drilling/ablation is small. The objective of this paper is to experimentally characterize this short micro-second laser micro-hole drilling technique using a 300 W, CW, single-mode fiber laser. This CW fiber laser is controlled to produce modulated pulses from 1 μs to 8 μs and these modulated laser pulses have a unique profile which contains an initial spike with a peak power of 1500 W for 1 μs, followed by the steady state power of 300 W. Because of its excellent beam quality, the laser beam produced by this fiber laser can be focused to a small spot size of 10 μm to achieve very high power density up to 1.9 GW/cm2. With one single laser pulse at approximately 1 μs, a blind hole of 167 μm in depth and 23 μm in opening diameter can be created in a stainless substrate. The experimental characterization of this micro-hole drilling process includes laser control, laser beam characterization, hole formation, photodiode measurements of the vapor intensity, high-speed photography of vapor/plasma formation, and spectroscopic measurements of plasma. The results show that, due to very high irradiance of the fiber laser beam, the absorbed energy not only is sufficient to melt and vaporize the material, but also is able to dissociate vapor into intense plasma at temperatures over 16,000 K. The hole drilling mechanism by this short microsecond laser ablation is due to a combination of adiabatic evaporation and ejection of fine droplets.

  13. Background-free, highly sensitive surface-enhanced IR absorption of rhodamine 6G molecules deposited onto an array of microholes in thin silver film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, Pavel N.; Gonchukov, Sergey A.; Ionin, Andrey A.; Khmelnitskii, Roman A.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Nguyen, Trang T. H.; Rudenko, Andrey A.; Saraeva, Irina N.; Zayarny, Dmitry A.

    2016-05-01

    Selective IR absorption at 1261 cm-1 enhanced by 455 times, was demonstrated for rhodamine 6G molecules, covering a 2D-photonic crystal, represented by a regular array of 4-micron wide holes in a 30 nm thick silver film on a CaF2 substrate. The reference absorption lines were taken near 2900 cm-1, where the IR radiation is freely channeling through the microholes, indicating the reference substrate coverage by the dye molecules for its relative internal calibration. The limit of background-free detection for the analyte was determined at the level ~10-2 monolayer.

  14. Self-organized micro-holes on titania based sol-gel films under continuous direct writing with a continuous wave ultraviolet laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhti, S.; Destouches, N.; Gamet, E.; Reynaud, S.; CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 18 Rue Pr. Lauras F-42000 Saint-Etienne; University of Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42000 Saint-Etienne ; Balan, L.

    2013-05-27

    The microstructuring of titania based sol-gel films is investigated by direct writing with a continuous wave ultraviolet laser beam emitting at 244 nm. Depending on the exposure conditions, the films exhibit a volume expansion, a volume shrinkage, a self-shaped delamination, or are damaged. This paper is mainly focused on the regime where spontaneous local delamination occurs, which corresponds to a narrow range of laser irradiances and writing speeds. In this regime, self-organized round-shape micro-holes opened on the substrate are generated.

  15. Detecting genuine multipartite entanglement in steering scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaratnam, C.

    2016-05-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a form of quantum nonlocality which is intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. EPR steering is a resource for quantum key distribution that is device independent on only one side in that it certifies bipartite entanglement when one party's device is not characterized while the other party's device is fully characterized. In this work, we introduce two types of genuine tripartite EPR steering, and derive two steering inequalities to detect them. In a semi-device-independent scenario where only the dimensions of two parties are assumed, the correlations which violate one of these inequalities also certify genuine tripartite entanglement. It is known that Alice can demonstrate bipartite EPR steering to Bob if and only if her measurement settings are incompatible. We demonstrate that quantum correlations can also detect tripartite EPR steering from Alice to Bob and Charlie, even if Charlie's measurement settings are compatible.

  16. Vehicle Steering control: A model of learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiley, A.; Reid, L.; Fraser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of strategies were postulated to describe the process of learning steering control. Vehicle motion and steering control data were recorded for twelve novices who drove an instrumented car twice a week during and after a driver training course. Car-driver describing functions were calculated, the probable control structure determined, and the driver-alone transfer function modelled. The data suggested that the largest changes in steering control with learning were in the way the driver used the lateral position cue.

  17. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. PMID:26310799

  18. Classical communication cost of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Aolita, Leandro; Brunner, Nicolas; Gallego, Rodrigo; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Quantum steering is observed when performing appropriate local measurements on an entangled state. Here we discuss the possibility of simulating classically this effect, using classical communication instead of entanglement. We show that infinite communication is necessary for exactly simulating steering for any pure entangled state, as well as for a class of mixed entangled states. Moreover, we discuss the communication cost of steering for general entangled states, as well as approximate simulation. Our findings reveal striking differences between Bell nonlocality and steering and provide a natural way of measuring the strength of the latter.

  19. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  20. Thin-film solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells and a rear surface etched with light trapping micro-hole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaroh; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    A light trapping effect in GaAs p-i-n solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the i-layer was demonstrated by applying a light scattering texture to the rear surface of the cell. A thin-film MQW solar cell was successfully fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) to grow an inverted n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) structure; this structure was then transferred to a Si support substrate to prevent optical loss due to free carrier absorption. For the light scattering texture, the use of both the wet-etched micro-hole arrayed SiO2 dielectric layer on the rear surface of the cell and the secondarily etched micro hole array on the GaAs layer was attempted. On the SiO2 layer, the micro hole array pattern was obtained by the radio frequency sputtering of the layer followed by wet etching with photolithographic patterning. On the GaAs layer, the micro-hole array pattern was obtained by direct etching through a SiO2 template. Compared with the light scattering effects of the micro-hole-arrayed SiO2 layer, the secondarily etched GaAs rear contact layer showed a significant improvement in external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the wavelength range from 855 to 1000 nm that corresponds to the photon absorption wavelength in MQWs.

  1. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... steering axle wheels in the straight ahead position, turn the steering wheel in one direction until there... are correctly adjusted. Grasp the front and rear of a tire and attempt to turn the tire and wheel assemble left and right. If the free movement at the front or rear tread of the tire exceeds the...

  2. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for...

  3. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for...

  4. 46 CFR 169.251 - Steering apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering apparatus. 169.251 Section 169.251 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.251 Steering apparatus. At each inspection for...

  5. Wireless control and selection of forces and torques - towards wireless engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyvat, M.; Hafner, C.; Leuthold, J.

    2014-07-01

    Powering and manipulating translational and rotational motions of objects wirelessly, and controlling several objects independently is of significant importance in numerous fields such as robotics, medicine, biology, fluid dynamics, optics. We propose a method based on coupled LC resonators, to control objects selectively by steering the frequency of an external magnetic field. This concept does not need any magnetic materials and it brings a rich variety of features concerning forces and torques. We theoretically and experimentally show that the forces can be enhanced by the interaction of resonators and that both direction and magnitude of forces can be controlled by the frequency of the applied external magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate interesting rotational effects, such as bi-directionally controllable torques, controllable stable orientations, and spinning, which leads to a wirelessly powered motor.

  6. Wireless control and selection of forces and torques - towards wireless engines

    PubMed Central

    Boyvat, M.; Hafner, C.; Leuthold, J.

    2014-01-01

    Powering and manipulating translational and rotational motions of objects wirelessly, and controlling several objects independently is of significant importance in numerous fields such as robotics, medicine, biology, fluid dynamics, optics. We propose a method based on coupled LC resonators, to control objects selectively by steering the frequency of an external magnetic field. This concept does not need any magnetic materials and it brings a rich variety of features concerning forces and torques. We theoretically and experimentally show that the forces can be enhanced by the interaction of resonators and that both direction and magnitude of forces can be controlled by the frequency of the applied external magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate interesting rotational effects, such as bi-directionally controllable torques, controllable stable orientations, and spinning, which leads to a wirelessly powered motor. PMID:25034467

  7. Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

    2011-10-01

    When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

  8. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  9. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  10. Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we design and study a highly sensitive beam steering device that integrates a spiral plasmonic antenna with a subwavelength metallic waveguide. The short effective wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode supported by the metallic waveguide is exploited to dramatically miniaturize the device and improve the sensitivity of the beam steering. Through introducing a tiny displacement of feed point with respect to the geometrical center of the spiral plasmonic antenna, the direction of the radiation can be steered at considerably high angles. Simulation results show that steering angles of 8°, 17° and 34° are obtainable for a displacement of 50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Benefiting from the reduced device size and the shorter SPP wavelength, the beam steering sensitivity of the beam steering is improved by 10-fold compared with the case reported previously. This miniature plasmonic beam steering device may find many potential applications in quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:25091405

  11. Community Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  12. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  13. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1)...

  14. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  16. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann

    1995-01-01

    A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.

  17. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623... Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven steering... system must automatically resume operation after an electric power outage. (b) Control of...

  18. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623... Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven steering... system must automatically resume operation after an electric power outage. (b) Control of...

  19. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  20. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  1. Nonmechanical beam steering using optical phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Thomas E.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Curt, Petersen F.; Bonnett, James; Prather, Dennis W.

    2011-11-01

    Beam steering is an enabling technology for establishment of ad hoc communication links, directed energy for infrared countermeasures, and other in-theater defense applications. The development of nonmechanical beam steering techniques is driven by requirements for low size, weight, and power, and high slew rate, among others. The predominant beam steering technology currently in use relies on gimbal mounts, which are relatively large, heavy, and slow, and furthermore create drag on the airframes to which they are mounted. Nonmechanical techniques for beam steering are currently being introduced or refined, such as those based on liquid crystal spatial light modulators; however, drawbacks inherent to some of these approaches include narrow field of regard, low speed operation, and low optical efficiency. An attractive method that we explore is based on optical phased arrays, which has the potential to overcome the aforementioned issues associated with other mechanical and nonmechanical beam steering techniques. The optical array phase locks a number of coherent optical emitters in addition to applying arbitrary phase profiles across the array, thereby synthesizing beam shapes that can be steered and utilized for a diverse range of applications.

  2. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  3. View aft of compartment D23, aft steering station; note steering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View aft of compartment D-23, aft steering station; note steering unit with crosshead and shaft bearing supports. Note framing supports for armored protective deck at top of photo. (p60) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Evaluation Method for Steer Assist Feeling around Steering Center and Control Design on EPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniwa, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Yasuo

    In this research, a method of designing an EPS control system that achieved a good steer feeling without using an actual vehicle was examined. Firstly, evaluation functions to evaluate steer feeling theoretically were set. And it was described that steer feelings such as “inertial feeling” and “viscous feeling” could be expressed by the evaluation functions. Secondly, a target characteristic that made the steer feeling good was determined on the evaluation function, and control methods to theoretically achieve this target characteristic were described. Finally, the designed control system was installed in an EPS vehicle. As a result, it was confirmed that the steer feeling in an actual vehicle was fine with no “inertial and viscous feeling”.

  5. Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi

    2014-08-01

    The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are obtained, and the concept of collective tripartite quantum steering, recently introduced by He and Reid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 250403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.250403], is clearly explored. It is found that both bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are sensitive functions of the initial state of the modes and distinctly different steering behavior could be observed depending on whether the modes were initially in a thermal state or not. For the modes initially in a vacuum state, the bipartite and tripartite steering occur simultaneously over the entire interaction time. This indicates that collective tripartite steering cannot be achieved. The collective steering can be achieved for the modes initially prepared in a thermal state. We find that the initial thermal noise is more effective in destroying the bipartite rather than the tripartite steering which, on the other hand, can persist even for a large thermal noise. For the initial vacuum state of a steered mode, the tripartite steering exists over the entire interaction time even if the steering modes are in very noisy thermal states. When the steered mode is initially in a thermal state, it can be collectively steered by the other modes. There are thresholds for the average number of the thermal photons above which the existing tripartite steering appears as the collective steering. Finally, we point out that the collective steering may provide a resource in a hybrid quantum network for quantum secret sharing

  6. Aeroelastic Tailoring via Tow Steered Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    The use of tow steered composites, where fibers follow prescribed curvilinear paths within a laminate, can improve upon existing capabilities related to aeroelastic tailoring of wing structures, though this tailoring method has received relatively little attention in the literature. This paper demonstrates the technique for both a simple cantilevered plate in low-speed flow, as well as the wing box of a full-scale high aspect ratio transport configuration. Static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are obtained for both cases. The impact of various tailoring choices upon the aeroelastic performance is quantified: curvilinear fiber steering versus straight fiber steering, certifiable versus noncertifiable stacking sequences, a single uniform laminate per wing skin versus multiple laminates, and identical upper and lower wing skins structures versus individual tailoring.

  7. Multipass Steering Protocols at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Bodenstein; Michael Tiefenback

    2007-06-22

    The CEBAF recirculating accelerator consists of two CW superconducting RF linacs, through which an electron beam is accelerated for up to 5 passes. Focusing and steering elements affect each pass differently, requiring a multipass steering protocol to correct the orbits. Perturbations include lens misalignments (including long-term ground motion), BPM offsets, and focusing and steering from RF fields inside the cavities. A previous treatment of this problem assumed all perturbations were localized at the quadrupoles and the absence of x-y coupling. Having analyzed the problem and characterized the solutions, we developed an empirical iterative protocol to compare against previous results in the presence of skew fields and cross-plane coupling. We plan to characterize static and acceleration-dependent components of the beam line perturbations to allow systematic and rapid configuration of the accelerator at different linac energy gains.

  8. Unbounded Violation of Quantum Steering Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, M.; Rutkowski, A.; Yin, Z.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-10-01

    We construct steering inequalities that exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and the uncertainty relation. To this end, we apply mutually unbiased bases and anticommuting observables, known to exhibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anticommuting observables we are able to obtain a dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. Thus far, there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities cannot be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.

  9. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  10. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing. PMID:27137318

  11. Hybrid Beamforming and Steering With Reconfigurable Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Thomenius, Kai E.; Fisher, Rayette; Carson, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable arrays offer an advantage over traditional ultrasound arrays because of their flexibility in channel selection. To improve ultrasound beamforming and coverage through beam steering, we propose a hybrid beamforming technique to elongate the depth of focus of transmit beams and a method of element selection that improves steering capabilities that take advantage of array reconfigurability using annular rings. A local minimization technique to optimize the hybrid aperture is discussed in this paper. The chosen hybrid apertures covering four focal zones result in improved range in depth of focus when compared with pure spherical beams via point spread functions (PSF) and lesion signal-tonoise ratio (LSNR) calculations. Improvements were statistically significant at focal depth extremes. Our method of beam steering utilizing a quantized phase delay selection to minimize delay errors indicated better performance by removing an artifact present with traditional ringed element selection. PMID:20529707

  12. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G.; Beazley, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  13. Influence of different shoulder-elbow configurations on steering precision and steering velocity in automotive context.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic design requirements are needed to develop optimum vehicle interfaces for the driver. The majority of the current specifications consider only anthropometric conditions and subjective evaluations of comfort. This paper examines specific biomechanical aspects to improve the current ergonomic requirements. Therefore, a research which involved 40 subjects was carried out to obtain more knowledge in the field of steering movement while driving a car. Five different shoulder-elbow joint configurations were analyzed using a driving simulator to find optimum posture for driving in respect of steering precision and steering velocity. Therefore, a 20 s precision test and a test to assess maximum steering velocity over a range of 90° steering motion have been conducted. The results show that driving precision, as well as maximum steering velocity, are significantly increased in mid-positions (elbow angles of 95° and 120°) compared to more flexed (70°) or extended (145° and 160°) postures. We conclude that driver safety can be enhanced by implementing these data in the automotive design process because faster and highly precise steering can be important during evasive actions and in accident situations. In addition, subjective comfort rating, analyzed with questionnaires, confirmed experimental results. PMID:25168195

  14. A computer algorithm for automatic beam steering

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, E.

    1992-06-01

    Beam steering is done by modifying the current in a trim or bending magnet. If the current change is the right amount the beam can be made to bend in such a manner that it will hit a swic or BPM downstream from the magnet at a predetermined set point. Although both bending magnets and trim magnets can be used to modify beam angle, beam steering is usually done with trim magnets. This is so because, during beam steering the beam angle is usually modified only by a small amount which can be easily achieved with a trim magnet. Thus in this note, all steering magnets will be assumed to be trim magnets. There are two ways of monitoring beam position. One way is done using a BPM and the other is done using a swic. For simplicity, beam position monitoring in this paper will be referred to being done with a swic. Beam steering can be done manually by changing the current through a trim magnet and monitoring the position of the beam downstream from the magnet with a swic. Alternatively the beam can be positioned automatically using a computer which periodically updates the current through a specific number of trim magnets. The purpose of this note is to describe the steps involved in coming up with such a computer program. There are two main aspects to automatic beam steering. First a relationship between the beam position and the bending magnet is needed. Secondly a beamline setup of swics and trim magnets has to be chosen that will position the beam according to the desired specifications. A simple example will be looked at that will show that once a mathematical relationship between the needed change of the beam position on a swic and the change in trim currents is established, a computer could be programmed to calculate and update the trim currents.

  15. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has been removed. Vertical shaft is connected to flying bridge steering wheel. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  18. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-22

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing. PMID:27152778

  19. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing.

  20. Design and fabrication of wireless remotely readable MEMS accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1997-11-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a 'dummy' in automobile crash test.

  1. Design and fabrication of wireless remotely readable MEMS based microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Vellekoop, M. J.

    1997-12-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer can be used for applications such as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash tests.

  2. Vibration Isolation, Suppression, Steering, and Pointing (VISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Rahman, Zahidul; Kedikian, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The design of a six degree of freedom flight vibration isolation suppression and steering (VISS) subsystem for a mid-wave infrared camera on the top of a spacecraft is presented. The development of a long stroke piezoelectric, redundant, compact, low stiffness and power efficient actuator is summarized. A subsystem that could be built and validated for flight within 15 months was investigated. The goals of the VISS are 20 dB vibration isolation above 2 Hz, 15 dB vibration suppression of disturbances at about 60 Hz and 120 Hz, and +/- 0.3 deg steering at 2 Hz and 4 Hz.

  3. Steering in spin tomographic probability representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Markovich, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    The steering property known for two-qubit state in terms of specific inequalities for the correlation function is translated for the state of qudit with the spin j = 3 / 2. Since most steering detection inequalities are based on the correlation functions we introduce analogs of such functions for the single qudit systems. The tomographic probability representation for the qudit states is applied. The connection between the correlation function in the two-qubit system and the single qudit is presented in an integral form with an intertwining kernel calculated explicitly in tomographic probability terms.

  4. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel R; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator, and as the cell rotates during the forward motion, the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model, and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark. PMID:25589576

  5. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel R.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator, and as the cell rotates during the forward motion, the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model, and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark. PMID:25589576

  6. Warming Up to Wireless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    In districts big and small across the U.S., students, teachers, and administrators alike have come to appreciate the benefits of wireless technology. Because the technology delivers Internet signals on airborne radio frequencies, wireless networking allows users of all portable devices to move freely on a school's campus and stay connected to the…

  7. More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.

  8. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without further restriction under this subpart....

  9. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  10. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate in accordance with 9 CFR part 86 and without further... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers....

  11. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  12. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  14. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  15. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  16. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  17. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  18. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  19. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary means of steering. 182.620 Section 182.620... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a vessel must be provided with an auxiliary means of...

  20. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  1. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  2. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  3. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about proposed apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). Discusses design of digital beam-steering control subsystem and, in particular, that part of design pertaining to digital compensation for frequency response of steering mirror.

  4. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven...

  5. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven...

  6. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven...

  7. Governing Knowledge: Research Steering and Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozga, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the "quality" debate in education research is not so much about quality as about creating the conditions in which research and knowledge production in the field of education can be managed and steered. The criticisms of research in education have destabilised the field and promoted its closer dependence on and alignment…

  8. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is a perceptible movement of the wheel. If a point on the steering wheel rim moves more than the... Free Play Nominal bead diameter or rim size (inches) Play (inches) 16 or less 1/4 16.01 through 18.00...

  9. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is a perceptible movement of the wheel. If a point on the steering wheel rim moves more than the... Free Play Nominal bead diameter or rim size (inches) Play (inches) 16 or less 1/4 16.01 through 18.00...

  10. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is a perceptible movement of the wheel. If a point on the steering wheel rim moves more than the... Free Play Nominal bead diameter or rim size (inches) Play (inches) 16 or less 1/4 16.01 through 18.00...

  11. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is a perceptible movement of the wheel. If a point on the steering wheel rim moves more than the... Free Play Nominal bead diameter or rim size (inches) Play (inches) 16 or less 1/4 16.01 through 18.00...

  12. Controlled Structures Technology Steering Committee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on controlled structures technology presented at the steering committee workshop on 22-23 Jan. 1992 are included. Topics addressed include: interferometer testbed; middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment; middeck active control experiment; multivariable identification for control; strain actuated aeroelastic control; sensor/actuator technology development; input command shaping; and other research projects. A description of the organization and committee are included.

  13. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  14. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism. (d) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall... alignment setting. (1) Inspection procedure. Verify that toe-in or toe-out is not greater than 1.5 times the values listed in the vehicle manufacturer's service specification for alignment settings as measured by...

  15. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism. (d) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall... alignment setting. (1) Inspection procedure. Verify that toe-in or toe-out is not greater than 1.5 times the values listed in the vehicle manufacturer's service specification for alignment settings as measured by...

  16. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism. (d) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall... alignment setting. (1) Inspection procedure. Verify that toe-in or toe-out is not greater than 1.5 times the values listed in the vehicle manufacturer's service specification for alignment settings as measured by...

  17. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... binding or jamming in the steering gear mechanism. (d) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall... alignment setting. (1) Inspection procedure. Verify that toe-in or toe-out is not greater than 1.5 times the values listed in the vehicle manufacturer's service specification for alignment settings as measured by...

  18. Ultramaneuverable steering control algorithms for terrain transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrie, Mel W.; Koch, Ralf; Bahl, Vikas; Cripps, Don

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems has built several vehicles with ultra-maneuverable steering capability. Each drive wheel on the vehicle can be independently set at any angle with respect to the vehicle body and the vehicles can rotate or translate in any direction. The vehicles are expected to operate on a wide range of terrain surfaces and problems arise in effectively controlling changes in wheel steering angles as the vehicle transitions from one extreme running surface to another. Controllers developed for smooth surfaces may not perform well on rough or 'sticky' surfaces and vice versa. The approach presented involves the development of a model of the steering motor with the static and viscous friction of the steering motor load included. The model parameters are then identified through a series of environmental tests using a vehicle wheel assembly and the model thus obtained is used for control law development. Four different robust controllers were developed and evaluated through simulation and vehicle testing. The findings of this development will be presented.

  19. Steering a robot with vanishing points

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, R.; Ansari, N.; Bani-Hashemi, A.R.

    1993-08-01

    The paper analyzes the use of vanishing points for steering a robot. Parallel lines in the environment of the robot are used to compute vanishing points which serve as a reference for guiding the robot. To accomplish the steering task, three subtasks are performed: detection of straight lines, computation of vanishing points, and robot steering using vanishing points. Straight lines are detected by employing a high precision edge detector and a line-fitting algorithm. The cross product method introduced by Magee and Aggarwal is modified to make the detection of vanishing points appropriate for an indoor environment. Properties of vanishing points under camera rotation and translation are derived. Using these properties, the location of the vanishing points can serve as a reference for steering the robot. A model of the robot environment is defined, summarizing the minimum number of constraints necessary for the method to work. Finally, the limitations as well as the advantage of using vanishing points in robot navigation are discussed.

  20. Wireless nanosensor network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyukjun; Kegley, Lauren; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2009-03-01

    Many types of wireless modules are being developed to enhance wireless performance with low power consumption, compact size, high data rates, and wide range coverage. However trade-offs must be taken into consideration in order to satisfy all aspects of wireless performance. For example, in order to increase the data rate and wide range coverage, power consumption should be sacrificed. To overcome these drawbacks, the paper presents a wireless client module which offers low power consumption along with a wireless receiver module that has the strength to provide high data rates and wide range coverage. Adopting Zigbee protocol in the wireless client module, the power consumption performance is enhanced so that it plays a part of the mobile device. On the other hand, the wireless receiver module, as adopting Zigbee and Wi-Fi protocol, provides high data rate, wide range coverage, and easy connection to the existing Internet network so that it plays a part of the portable device. This module demonstrates monitoring of gait analysis. The results show that the sensing data being measured can be monitored in any remote place with access to the Internet network.

  1. Digital wireless control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power lockout switches. The environment, safety, and health (ES&H) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) SP471970 is intended as a guide when working with the DWCS. This report describes the Digital Wireless Control System and outlines each component's theory of operation and its relationship to the system.

  2. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  3. Steering system for a train of rail-less vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Voight, Edward T.

    1983-01-01

    A steering system for use with a multiple vehicle train permits tracking without rails of one vehicle after another. This system is particularly useful for moving conveyor systems into and out of curved paths of room and pillar underground mine installations. The steering system features an elongated steering bar pivotally connected to each of adjacent vehicles at end portions of the bar permitting angular orientation of each vehicle in respect to the steering bar and other vehicles. Each end portion of the steering bar is linked to the near pair of vehicle wheels through wheel yoke pivot arms about king pin type pivots. Movement of the steering bar about its pivotal connection provides proportional turning of the wheels to effect steering and tracking of one vehicle following another in both forward and reverse directions.

  4. Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Ponoum, Ratcharit; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-05-31

    The article discusses wireless sensor technologies for building energy monitoring and control. This article, also, addresses wireless sensor networks as well as benefits and challenges of using wireless sensors. The energy savings and market potential of wireless sensors are reviewed.

  5. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  6. Mirrors Steer NASA in the Right Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left Hand Design completed the production of the fine-steering mirror technology through 1995 Phase I and 1996 Phase II SBIR contracts with JPL's Interferometric Astronomy group. Presently, the work resulting from the collaboration with NASA represents the company's main line of products for the commercial sector. Aerospace-related applications include: image motion compensation; interceptor seekers for the U.S. Army and Navy; Earth observation and resource monitoring from spacecraft and airborne platforms; space astronomy; helicopter-based surveillance; and interferometric metrology. Left Hand Design's fine-steering mirrors have also penetrated the commercial marketplace with non-aerospace applications, including laser communications, video cameras, infrared inspection, solar observatories, and bathymeters. These cost-effective, commercial mirrors perform a variety of functions, such as scanning, alignment, chopping, tracking, pointing, and beam stabilization. Potential future applications include laser surgery and photolithography.

  7. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories.

  8. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Bartosik, Hannes; Cornelis, Karel; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wenninger, Jorg

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  9. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface. PMID:27216944

  10. EPR Steering inequalities with Communication Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Sándor; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the communication cost of reproducing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering correlations arising from bipartite quantum systems. We characterize the set of bipartite quantum states which admits a local hidden state model augmented with c bits of classical communication from an untrusted party (Alice) to a trusted party (Bob). In case of one bit of information (c = 1), we show that this set has a nontrivial intersection with the sets admitting a local hidden state and a local hidden variables model for projective measurements. On the other hand, we find that an infinite amount of classical communication is required from an untrusted Alice to a trusted Bob to simulate the EPR steering correlations produced by a two-qubit maximally entangled state. It is conjectured that a state-of-the-art quantum experiment would be able to falsify two bits of communication this way. PMID:26880376

  11. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Rachel; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator and as the cell rotates during forward motion the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. In the dark, our model shows emergent run-and-tumble behavior and we see switching between directed phototaxis and run-and-tumble when we switch the light on and off.

  12. EPR Steering inequalities with Communication Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Sándor; Vértesi, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the communication cost of reproducing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering correlations arising from bipartite quantum systems. We characterize the set of bipartite quantum states which admits a local hidden state model augmented with c bits of classical communication from an untrusted party (Alice) to a trusted party (Bob). In case of one bit of information (c = 1), we show that this set has a nontrivial intersection with the sets admitting a local hidden state and a local hidden variables model for projective measurements. On the other hand, we find that an infinite amount of classical communication is required from an untrusted Alice to a trusted Bob to simulate the EPR steering correlations produced by a two-qubit maximally entangled state. It is conjectured that a state-of-the-art quantum experiment would be able to falsify two bits of communication this way.

  13. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  14. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories. PMID:26627125

  15. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  16. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J.

    2016-07-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system.

  17. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  18. A Wireless World: Charles County Public Schools Makes Wireless Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Wireless connectivity in schools is all the rage, and many school systems have at least gotten their feet wet with a wireless lab or a few portable laptop carts. But Bijaya Devkota, the chief information officer of Charles County Public Schools, has done what many school systems only dream of--implemented universal wireless access throughout his…

  19. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-07-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  20. 78 FR 15062 - Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 4, 2013. AGENCY...: Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc. (the ``Corporation''), Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Ltd. (the ``Subsidiary''), and Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. (``Cohen & Steers'' or the ``Advisor'')....

  1. Steering and Suspension Systems. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the fifth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Seventeen units cover: steering system design; diagnosing steering systems problems; inspecting and replacing steering linkage components; manual and power steering gear service; manual and power rack and pinion steering gear service; power…

  2. Two-dimensional wavelength routing for transparent optical wireless networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haiyan; Liang, Kefei; Sheard, Stephen J.; O'Brien, Dominic C.; Faulkner, Grahame E.

    2005-08-01

    In this article a novel system architecture that uses a combination of wavelength and spatial diversity for indoor infrared wireless communications is presented. This configuration promises to fully exploit the available bandwidth of optics and demonstrate all-optical networking. Electronic processing is restricted to mobile terminals, with base stations potentially remaining passive, without any conversion between optics and electronics. For the downlink, multiple transmitter beams with different wavelengths are steered from the fiber infrastructure through the base station to mobile terminals located in different positions. An optimum combination of diffractive optics and reflective optics (a diffraction grating and an array of mirrors) can flexibly steer each transmitter beam and enable full control over the required coverage pattern. For the uplink, in the transmitter, another grating and an array of mirrors can direct multiple beams upward from different mobile users toward the base station. System simulation shows that the downlink has the potential to approach 10 Gbit/s, while maintaining wide-area coverage (such as in a room of 3m×4m×4m) with the help of fine optical tracking. System modeling indicates that the uplink is more susceptible to power losses than the downlink, but the utilization of dynamic beam steering in the uplink can suppress power losses to a tolerable level (e.g. below 30dB). An array of 16 mirrors has been designed to implement point-to-point beam steering in a room of 3m×1m×1m. Two-dimensional coverage patterns measured at a distance of 0.5 m and 1.5 m coincide with simulation results. Operation at 1 Gbit/s has been demonstrated successfully for tracking in two dimensions.

  3. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  4. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  5. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  6. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed...

  7. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  8. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed...

  9. Certifying single-system steering for quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Lambert, Neill; Chiu, Ching-Yi; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d -dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which we find are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out "false-steering" scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. We also show that these steering conditions also have applications in quantum computation, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the nonlocal EPR variant of these conditions also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation, secure entanglement-based quantum communication, and genuine multipartite EPR steering.

  10. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  11. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  12. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  13. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  14. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  15. 46 CFR 131.845 - Instructions for shift of steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specify that each steering wheel or lever, and each rudder, must be amidships before any shift of steering gear or steering stations. (d) Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch used during any...

  16. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  17. Steering electromagnetic beams with conical curvature singularities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2015-10-15

    We describe how the transformation-optics technique can be used to design an effective medium mimicking the conical curvature singularity. Anholonomic coordinate transformation gives rise to linear topological defects that break the rotational symmetry. The bending and splitting of the optical beams are found analytically and numerically, depending on the incident direction and the topological charge. Beyond their practical applications to omnidirectional beam steering for photonics, our findings set forth an attractive realm to simulate the relevant physical phenomena in the optical laboratory. PMID:26469619

  18. Auto-steering apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.

    2007-03-13

    A vehicular guidance method involves providing a user interface using which data can be input to establish a contour for a vehicle to follow, the user interface further configured to receive information from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), determining cross track and offset data using information received from the DGPS, generating control values, using at least vehicular kinematics, the cross track, and the offset data, and providing an output to control steering of the vehicle, using the control values, in a direction to follow the established contour while attempting to minimize the cross track and the offset data.

  19. Steering trajectories in magnetically actuated colloidal propellers.

    PubMed

    Tierno, P; Sagués, F

    2012-08-01

    Microscale colloidal doublets composed of DNA-linked paramagnetic particles and floating close to a surface are able to propel in viscous fluids when subjected to external precessing magnetic fields. We show here that for certain values of the precession angle, the composite particles can be steered into tilted rather than linear trajectories characterized by a non-vanishing lateral velocity during motion. We extend the original model developed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 218304 (2008) in order to explain this phenomenon, by including high-order corrections in the expansion of the director field and demonstrate the validity of this approach by comparing the analytical results with the experimental data. PMID:22872443

  20. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Weber, John Mark; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Pan, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  1. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  2. Building the Wireless Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerraughty, James F.; Shanafelt, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    This prototype is a continuation of a series of wireless prototypes which began in August 2001 and was reported on again in August 2002. This is the final year of this prototype. This continuation allowed Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA) to refine the existing WLAN for the Saint…

  3. 46 CFR 169.826 - Steering, communications and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering, communications and control. 169.826 Section 169.826 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.826 Steering, communications and...

  4. 46 CFR 169.826 - Steering, communications and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering, communications and control. 169.826 Section 169.826 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.826 Steering, communications and...

  5. Steering into the Curve: Getting Real in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Dozens and dozens of little deaths occur in college classrooms each day as teachers, mostly because of fear, steer themselves and their students away from what is alive and real and toward what is dead, safe, and boring. In this paper, I use a collection of stories to describe a practice that enlivens classroom dynamics that I call "Steering Into…

  6. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  7. 36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and Co. of Baltimore) and steering gear box taken from on top of Aft Cabin. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  8. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6 Section 78.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers....

  9. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers. (a) This section applies to each foreign tanker of 10,000 gross tons or more, except a public...

  10. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Methods and Results: Individual feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) gain were determined from animals fed the same ration, within two contemporary groups of steers. BW gain was regressed on F...

  11. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  12. Dynamic two-dimensional beam-pattern steering technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-01-01

    A dynamic two-dimensional laser-beam-pattern steering technique using photorefractive holograms in conjunction with electrically addressed spatial light modulators is proposed and investigated. The experimental results demonstrate the dynamic steering of random combinations of basis beam patterns. The proposed method has the advantages of random beam-pattern combination, good beam intensity uniformity, and higher diffraction efficiency compared with conventional methods.

  13. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers....S.C. 2101(38) or as a tank vessel by 46 U.S.C. 2101(39). (c) Each tanker constructed on or...

  14. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers....S.C. 2101(38) or as a tank vessel by 46 U.S.C. 2101(39). (c) Each tanker constructed on or...

  15. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers....S.C. 2101(38) or as a tank vessel by 46 U.S.C. 2101(39). (c) Each tanker constructed on or...

  16. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers. 164.39 Section 164.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers. (a) This section applies to each...

  17. Theory and experimental research on six-track steering vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongwei, Yao; Guoqiang, Wang; Rui, Guo; Xuefei, Li

    2013-02-01

    The structural characteristics and steering behaviour of a six-track vehicle are described in this paper. Kinematic analysis for skid steering of a six-track vehicle under steady-state conditions on firm ground is conducted, with the relationship between thrust force and speed instantaneous centre of the track-terrain interface taken into consideration. A mechanical model for steady steering of a six-track vehicle is also presented based on the kinematic analysis. In this model, the steering inaccuracy and efficiency are defined to evaluate steering performance. The steering performance of a six-track vehicle is numerically simulated to analyse the effect of the structural parameters and deflection angles on tracks. A virtual prototype model is established based on the multi-body dynamics software RecurDyn for steering simulation and the findings coincide well with theoretical results. The theory and the virtual prototype simulations presented are verified by a power test of a bucket-wheel excavator. The method for analysing the steering performance of a six-track vehicle proposed in this paper provides a basis for designing a six-track vehicle.

  18. Soil inoculation steers restoration of terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wubs, E R Jasper; van der Putten, Wim H; Bosch, Machiel; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Many natural ecosystems have been degraded because of human activities(1,2) and need to be restored so that biodiversity is protected. However, restoration can take decades and restoration activities are often unsuccessful(3) because of abiotic constraints (for example, eutrophication, acidification) and unfavourable biotic conditions (for example, competition or adverse soil community composition). A key question is what manageable factors prevent transition from degraded to restored ecosystems and what interventions are required for successful restoration(2,4). Experiments have shown that the soil community is an important driver of plant community development(5-8), suggesting that manipulation of the soil community is key to successful restoration of terrestrial ecosystems(3,9). Here we examine a large-scale, six-year-old field experiment on ex-arable land and show that application of soil inocula not only promotes ecosystem restoration, but that different origins of soil inocula can steer the plant community development towards different target communities, varying from grassland to heathland vegetation. The impact of soil inoculation on plant and soil community composition was most pronounced when the topsoil layer was removed, whereas effects were less strong, but still significant, when the soil inocula were introduced into intact topsoil. Therefore, soil inoculation is a powerful tool to both restore disturbed terrestrial ecosystems and steer plant community development. PMID:27398907

  19. Steering a mobile robot in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Mei C.; Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Using computer vision for mobile robot navigation has been of interest since the 1960s. This interest is evident in even the earliest robot projects: at SRI International (`Shakey') and at the Stanford University (`Stanford Cart'). These pioneering projects provided a foundation for late work but fell far short of providing real time solutions. Since the mid 1980s, the ARPA sponsored ALV and UGV projects have established a need for real time navigation. To achieve the necessary speed, some researchers have focused on building faster hardware; others have turned to the use of new computational architectures, such as neural nets. The work described in this paper uses another approach that has become known as `perceptual servoing.' Previously reported results show that perceptual servoing is both fast and accurate when used to steer vehicles equipped with precise odometers. When the instrumentation on the vehicle does not give precise measurements of distance traveled, as could be the case for a vehicle traveling on ice or mud, new techniques are required to accommodate the reduced ability to make accurate predictions about motion and control. This paper presents a method that computes estimates of distance traveled using landmarks and path information. The new method continues to perform in real time using modest computational facilities, and results demonstrate the effects of the new implementation on steering accuracy.

  20. Internal models direct dragonfly interception steering.

    PubMed

    Mischiati, Matteo; Lin, Huai-Ti; Herold, Paul; Imler, Elliot; Olberg, Robert; Leonardo, Anthony

    2015-01-15

    Sensorimotor control in vertebrates relies on internal models. When extending an arm to reach for an object, the brain uses predictive models of both limb dynamics and target properties. Whether invertebrates use such models remains unclear. Here we examine to what extent prey interception by dragonflies (Plathemis lydia), a behaviour analogous to targeted reaching, requires internal models. By simultaneously tracking the position and orientation of a dragonfly's head and body during flight, we provide evidence that interception steering is driven by forward and inverse models of dragonfly body dynamics and by models of prey motion. Predictive rotations of the dragonfly's head continuously track the prey's angular position. The head-body angles established by prey tracking appear to guide systematic rotations of the dragonfly's body to align it with the prey's flight path. Model-driven control thus underlies the bulk of interception steering manoeuvres, while vision is used for reactions to unexpected prey movements. These findings illuminate the computational sophistication with which insects construct behaviour. PMID:25487153

  1. Visual analysis and steering of flooding simulations.

    PubMed

    Ribičić, Hrvoje; Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Blöschl, Günter; Gröller, Eduard

    2013-06-01

    We present a visualization tool for the real-time analysis of interactively steered ensemble-simulation runs, and apply it to flooding simulations. Simulations are performed on-the-fly, generating large quantities of data. The user wants to make sense of the data as it is created. The tool facilitates understanding of what happens in all scenarios, where important events occur, and how simulation runs are related. We combine different approaches to achieve this goal. To maintain an overview, data are aggregated and embedded into the simulation rendering, showing trends, outliers, and robustness. For a detailed view, we use information-visualization views and interactive visual analysis techniques. A selection mechanism connects the two approaches. Points of interest are selected by clicking on aggregates, supplying data for visual analysis. This allows the user to maintain an overview of the ensemble and perform analysis even as new data are supplied through simulation steering. Unexpected or unwanted developments are detected easily, and the user can focus the exploration on them. The solution was evaluated with two case studies focusing on placing and testing flood defense measures. Both were evaluated by a consortium of flood simulation and defense experts, who found the system to be both intuitive and relevant. PMID:23559514

  2. ICESat-2 ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a beam steering mechanism (BSM) used to accurately guide a laser on the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) down to Earth in order to measure elevation. It describes the main components in the BSM that allows it to perform and meet stringent requirements. Requirements of the BSM include two-axis steering of the transmitted laser beam, +-5000 uRad mechanical motion in each axis, and 1.5 uRad RMS pointing stability among many other requirements. The BSM uses four voice coil actuators in order to locate the mirror at the angle we need. There are four Differential Position Sensors that determine the position and angle of the mirror at all times. These sensors were verified through optical testing in both ambient and thermal conditions. Testing and extensive analyses were performed on the two-axis flexure throughout the program to check flexure thickness, positive margins, and infinite life. The mirror mount design has been modified to eliminate radial preload, while incorporating a titanium wave spring to provide an axial preload of 10.8N. The BSM underwent multiple tests in order to verify all components work as required under various conditions.

  3. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gertis, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this ``detection loophole'' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ˜62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  4. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geoff; de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date, all experimental tests with single-photon states have relied on post selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavourable events in losses. Here we close this 'detection loophole' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition-edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ~62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 s.d.s. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  5. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  6. A Sensible Approach to Wireless Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, S. Faruq

    2002-01-01

    Discusses radio frequency (R.F.) wireless technology, including industry standards, range (coverage) and throughput (data rate), wireless compared to wired networks, and considerations before embarking on a large-scale wireless project. (EV)

  7. Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Eickhoff, J

    2012-06-01

    Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for

  8. Beam steering in the SLC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, J.C.; Lee, M.J.; Ross, M.C.; Seeman, J.T.; Stiening, R.F.; Woodley, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    In order to control emittance growth due to transverse wakefields it will be necessary to transport electrons and positrons through the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac to within a hundred ..mu..m of the centers of the linac irises. Beam centering will be accomplished using computer routines to read stripline beam position monitors and in turn correct the orbits with dipole magnets. Several different steering algorithms have been investigated using electrons in the first third of the SLC linac lattice. The most promising scheme is a cascade of modified ''three-bumps'' in conjunction with long spanning harmonic corrections. General features of the orbit correcting software are discussed along with the mathematical recipes for correction. Experimental results and a discussion of future plans are presented.

  9. Beam steering in the SLC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, J.C.; Lee, M.J.; Ross, M.C.; Seeman, J.T.; Stiening, R.F.; Woodley, M.D.

    1985-10-01

    In order to control emittance growth due to transverse wakefields it will be necessary to transport electrons and positrons through the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac to within a hundred ..mu..m of the centers of the linac irises. Beam centering will be accomplished using computer routines to read stripline beam position monitors and in turn correct the orbits with dipole magnets. Several different steering algorithms have been investigated using electrons in the first third of the SLC linac lattice. The most promising scheme is a cascade of modified ''three-bumps'' in conjunction with long spanning harmonic corrections. General features of the orbit correcting software are discussed along with the mathematical recipes for correction. Experimental results and a discussion of future plans are presented.

  10. Fast steering mirror for laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbach, Harald; Schmid, Manfred

    2005-07-01

    Future multimedia satellites require communication at large bandwidth which can be achieved by means of optical communication links. TESAT Spacecom is currently developing a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT) for such applications under DLR contract. EADS Astrium is developing and building the mechanisms for Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking (PAT) of the laser beam between two Laser Communication Terminals. Based on this development work the development of mechanism H/W to be flown on TerraSar X is currently under way. After a short description of the general arrangement of the Mechanisms inside the LCT, the paper describes the design of the fast steering mirrors (FSM) reflecting the critical requirements and the solutions how to achieve them.

  11. Compact, low power precision beam steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deweerd, Herman

    1991-02-01

    Attention is given to a family of single-mirror two-axis beam steering systems (TABS) developed for fine pointing control of an optical beam. The requirement is to control the line of sight of the optical system on board such a platform with sufficient bandwidth to overcome the perturbations and thus maintain the laser communication link between two satellites. The armature is supported on its center of gravity on a gimble. A balanced design is achieved with the mirror and tachometer magnets on one side of the gimbal and the torque magnets on the other. A negative magnetic spring constant which compensates for the angular restraining effects of the flexure bearings without any radial stiffness consequences is incorporated.

  12. New twist to steering. [Magnus effect rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The new vessel steering system is based on The Magnus Effect which is defined in simplified terms; if a vertical cylinder immersed in water is rotated, it produces a force at right angles to the direction of the water flowing past it. The Magnus Effect rotor needs only sufficient torque to overcome bearing and surface friction forces, so that the power requirements are very low. Further energy savings are realized because the rotor can develop maximum turning force or can return to zero in a few seconds. Tests with these cylindrical rudders have been conducted to verify the hydrodynamic theory. This concept is in the preliminary stages of development. Results are expected soon from field testing on an 1800-hp pushboat working four barges on the Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama and Mississippi.

  13. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-03-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  14. Ka-Band Beam Steering Reflectarray Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, James O.; Fan, Lu; Chang, Kai; Huang, John

    1999-01-01

    A one-meter diameter, 32 GHz active microstrip reflectarray capable of electronic beam steering has been studied. The 15_500 element array consists of rnicrostrip patch antennas, microstrip phase shifters, and dc bias lines. Specifically, the study focused on the solid-state devices and dc bias layouts for scanning the beam linearly 45 from boresight using 2-bit phase shifters. Three configurations are recommended for the reflectarray with integrated 2-bit phase shifters where the total substrate and cladding mass varies from 8 kg to 14 kg. Additionally, dc power requirements for p-i-n diodes in 1-bit, 2-bit and 3-bit phase shifting circuits are approximately 19 W, 19 W, and 39 W, respectively. The dc power requirement for phase shifters using passive MESFETs is much less than 1 W.

  15. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  16. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  17. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  18. The need for speed: global optic flow speed influences steering.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Mole, Callum D; Merat, Natasha; Wilkie, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    How do animals follow demarcated paths? Different species are sensitive to optic flow and one control solution is to maintain the balance of flow symmetry across visual fields; however, it is unclear whether animals are sensitive to changes in asymmetries when steering along curved paths. Flow asymmetries can alter the global properties of flow (i.e. flow speed) which may also influence steering control. We tested humans steering curved paths in a virtual environment. The scene was manipulated so that the ground plane to either side of the demarcated path produced larger or smaller asymmetries in optic flow. Independent of asymmetries and the locomotor speed, the scene properties were altered to produce either faster or slower globally averaged flow speeds. Results showed that rather than being influenced by changes in flow asymmetry, steering responded to global flow speed. We conclude that the human brain performs global averaging of flow speed from across the scene and uses this signal as an input for steering control. This finding is surprising since the demarcated path provided sufficient information to steer, whereas global flow speed (by itself) did not. To explain these findings, existing models of steering must be modified to include a new perceptual variable: namely global optic flow speed. PMID:27293789

  19. Prevention of coordinated eye movements and steering impairs driving performance.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, D E; Chattington, M; Anglesea, M; Ashford, D G; Wilson, M; Keil, D

    2005-06-01

    When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside kerb before turning the steering wheel. Eye movements and steering are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which means that the oculomotor controller can assist the neural centres controlling steering. This optimum coordination is observed for all drivers; but despite being the preferred solution to the motor-control problem of successfully steering along a winding road, the question remains as to how crucial such coordinated eye and steering movements are for driving performance. Twenty subjects repeatedly drove a simulated stage of the World Rally Championship, aiming to complete the course in the fastest possible time. For the first six repetitions they used the usual coordination of eye movements and steering; for drives 7--12 they were instructed to fixate on a small spot in the centre of the screen (centre gaze). Prevention of coordination in this way impaired their performance (drives 6 and 7 compared), dramatically increasing their time taken to complete the course, equivalent to slipping 19 places down the leader board in the actual rally stage. This indicates that the usual pattern of eye movements correlated with steering is crucial for driving performance. Further experiments are suggested to reveal whether any attentional demand associated with keeping the eyes still contributes to the loss in performance. PMID:15841399

  20. Common underlying steering curves for motorcycles in steady turns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangaraju Karanam, Venkata; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2011-06-01

    We study the steady turn behaviours of some light motorcycle models on circular paths, using the commercial software package ADAMS-Motorcycle. Steering torque and steering angle are obtained for several path radii and a range of steady forward speeds. For path radii much greater than motorcycle wheelbase, and for all motorcycle parameters including tyre parameters held fixed, dimensional analysis can predict the asymptotic behaviour of steering torque and angle. In particular, steering torque is a function purely of lateral acceleration plus another such function divided by path radius. Of these, the first function is numerically determined, while the second is approximated by an analytically determined constant. Similarly, the steering angle is a function purely of lateral acceleration, plus another such function divided by path radius. Of these, the first is determined numerically while the second is determined analytically. Both predictions are verified through ADAMS simulations for various tyre and geometric parameters. In summary, steady circular motions of a given motorcycle with given tyre parameters can be approximately characterised by just one curve for steering torque and one for steering angle.

  1. Displaying optic flow to simulate locomotion: Comparing heading and steering

    PubMed Central

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Wilkie, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Optic flow can be used by humans to determine their direction of heading as well as controlling steering. Dot-flow displays have been widely used to investigate these abilities but it is unclear whether photorealistic textures would provide better information for controlling high-speed steering. Here, we examine the accuracy of heading judgements from dot-flow displays of different densities and luminance and then compare to a scene containing a textured ground. We then examine steering behaviour using these same displays to determine whether accurate heading conditions necessarily equate to successful steering. Our findings suggest that the bright dense dot-flow displays led to equivalent performance as the ground texture when judging heading, and this was also true when steering. The intermediate dot-flow conditions (with fewer and faded dots) revealed that some conditions that led to accurate heading judgements were insufficient for accurate steering. It seems, therefore, that heading perception should not be considered synonymous with successful steering control, and displays that support one ability will not necessarily support the other. PMID:24349692

  2. The need for speed: global optic flow speed influences steering

    PubMed Central

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Mole, Callum D.; Merat, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    How do animals follow demarcated paths? Different species are sensitive to optic flow and one control solution is to maintain the balance of flow symmetry across visual fields; however, it is unclear whether animals are sensitive to changes in asymmetries when steering along curved paths. Flow asymmetries can alter the global properties of flow (i.e. flow speed) which may also influence steering control. We tested humans steering curved paths in a virtual environment. The scene was manipulated so that the ground plane to either side of the demarcated path produced larger or smaller asymmetries in optic flow. Independent of asymmetries and the locomotor speed, the scene properties were altered to produce either faster or slower globally averaged flow speeds. Results showed that rather than being influenced by changes in flow asymmetry, steering responded to global flow speed. We conclude that the human brain performs global averaging of flow speed from across the scene and uses this signal as an input for steering control. This finding is surprising since the demarcated path provided sufficient information to steer, whereas global flow speed (by itself) did not. To explain these findings, existing models of steering must be modified to include a new perceptual variable: namely global optic flow speed. PMID:27293789

  3. Wireless Seismometer for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Clougherty, Brian; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the seismic activity of Venus is critical to understanding its composition and interior dynamics. Because Venus has an average surface temperature of 462 C and the challenge of providing cooling to multiple seismometers, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents progress towards a seismometer sensor with wireless capabilities for Venus applications. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by a 1 cm movement of a ferrite probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 80 MHz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator sensor system at 420 C, which correlates to a 10 kHz mm sensitivity when the ferrite probe is located at the optimum location in the coil.

  4. Mixture steering law design for control moment gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JingRui; Luo, Yang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the singularities of a spacecraft using control moment gyros (CMGs) to do the large angle maneuvers, a new mixture steering law is proposed to avoid the singularities. According to this method, if the CMGs are far away from the singularity, the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse steering law (MP) is used directly. If the CMGs are close to the singularity, instead of solving the inverse matrix, a set of optimal gimbal angles are sought for the singular measurement to reach the maximum, which can avoid the singularities. Simulations show that the designed steering law enables the spacecraft to carry out the large angle maneuver and avoid the singularities simultaneously.

  5. Quantitative relations between measurement incompatibility, quantum steering, and nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Skrzypczyk, P.

    2016-05-01

    The certification of Bell nonlocality or quantum steering implies the use of incompatible measurements. Here we make this connection quantitative. We show how to strengthen robustness-based steering and nonlocality quantifiers in order that they give strong lower bounds to previously proposed incompatibility quantifiers. Our results can be seen from two perspectives. On the one hand, they can be used to estimate how much steering or nonlocality can be demonstrated with a given set of measurements. On the other hand, they give one-sided device-independent and device-independent ways of estimating measurement incompatibility.

  6. Laser Beam Steering/shaping for Free Space Optical Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; McManamon, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D Optical Phased Array (OPA) antenna based on a Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCoS) device can be considered for use in free space optical communication as an active beam controlling device. Several examples of the functionality of the device include: beam steering in the horizontal and elevation direction; high resolution wavefront compensation in a large telescope; and beam shaping with the computer generated kinoform. Various issues related to the diffraction efficiency, steering range, steering accuracy as well as the magnitude of wavefront compensation are discussed.

  7. Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple scheme to perform simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single complex phase mask. By designing the phase mask, the propagation directions of demultiplexed beams can be arbitrarily steered. System experiments using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-32QAM) signals over two OAM modes are carried out by using a two-mode complex phase mask. Moreover, demultiplexing of sixteen OAM modes and arbitrary demultiplexed beam steering are also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:26503167

  8. Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple scheme to perform simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single complex phase mask. By designing the phase mask, the propagation directions of demultiplexed beams can be arbitrarily steered. System experiments using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-32QAM) signals over two OAM modes are carried out by using a two-mode complex phase mask. Moreover, demultiplexing of sixteen OAM modes and arbitrary demultiplexed beam steering are also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:26503167

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 196.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering engineroom, relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering...

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their length. Other systems and arrangements of steering gear will be acceptable if the Commanding...

  11. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their length. Other systems and arrangements of steering gear will be acceptable if the Commanding...

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their length. Other systems and arrangements of steering gear will be acceptable if the Commanding...

  13. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  14. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  15. A novel estimating method for steering efficiency of the driver with electromyography signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Ji, Xuewu; Hayama, Ryouhei; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2014-05-01

    The existing research of steering efficiency mainly focuses on the mechanism efficiency of steering system, aiming at designing and optimizing the mechanism of steering system. In the development of assist steering system especially the evaluation of its comfort, the steering efficiency of driver physiological output usually are not considered, because this physiological output is difficult to measure or to estimate, and the objective evaluation of steering comfort therefore cannot be conducted with movement efficiency perspective. In order to take a further step to the objective evaluation of steering comfort, an estimating method for the steering efficiency of the driver was developed based on the research of the relationship between the steering force and muscle activity. First, the steering forces in the steering wheel plane and the electromyography (EMG) signals of the primary muscles were measured. These primary muscles are the muscles in shoulder and upper arm which mainly produced the steering torque, and their functions in steering maneuver were identified previously. Next, based on the multiple regressions of the steering force and EMG signals, both the effective steering force and the total force capacity of driver in steering maneuver were calculated. Finally, the steering efficiency of driver was estimated by means of the estimated effective force and the total force capacity, which represented the information of driver physiological output of the primary muscles. This research develops a novel estimating method for driver steering efficiency of driver physiological output, including the estimation of both steering force and the force capacity of primary muscles with EMG signals, and will benefit to evaluate the steering comfort with an objective perspective.

  16. View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; helmsman or observer viewed action through narrow opening at top of photo. (p57) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. View from port side of alternate steering station forward of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from port side of alternate steering station forward of flag house on superstructure deck. (p29) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 54. Starboard profile of steering gear, wood housing has been ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Starboard profile of steering gear, wood housing has been removed showing mechanism. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Micromachined actuators/sensors for intratubular positioning/steering

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen; Trevino, Jimmy C.

    1998-01-01

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems.

  1. Micromachined actuators/sensors for intratubular positioning/steering

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.; Trevino, J.C.

    1998-06-30

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems. 14 figs.

  2. A null-steering viewpoint of interferometric SAR

    SciTech Connect

    BICKEL,DOUGLAS L.

    2000-05-02

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) extends the two-dimensional imaging capability of traditional synthetic aperture radar to three-dimensions by using an aperture in the elevation plane to estimate the 3-D structure of the target. The operation of this additional aperture can be viewed from a null-steering point of view, rather than the traditional phase determination point of view. Knowing that IFSAR can be viewed from the null-steering perspective allows one to take advantage of the mathematical foundation developed for null-steering arrays. In addition, in some problems of interest in IFSAR the null-steering perspective provides better intuition and suggests alternative solutions. One example is the problem of estimating building height where layover is present.

  3. Lane-keeping benefits of practical rear axle steer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daniel Eugene

    2014-04-01

    The classic two-degree-of-freedom yaw-plane or 'bicycle' vehicle model is augmented with two additional states to describe lane-keeping behaviour and further augmented with an additional control input to steer the rear axle. A simple driver model is hypothesised where the driver closes a loop on a projected lateral lane position. The driver can select the preview distance to compensate driver/vehicle dynamics, consistent with the 'cross-over' model found in the literature. A rear axle steer control law is found to be a function of the front axle steering input and vehicle speed that exhibits stability similar to a positive-real system, while at the same time improving the ability of the driver/vehicle system to track a complex curved lane and improving steady-state manoeuvrability. The theoretically derived control law bears similarity to practical embodiments allowing a deeper understanding of the functional value of steering a rear axle.

  4. 42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donges, E.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.

  6. Quantum steering ellipsoids, extremal physical states and monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Antony; Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Wiseman, Howard; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-08-01

    Any two-qubit state can be faithfully represented by a steering ellipsoid inside the Bloch sphere, but not every ellipsoid inside the Bloch sphere corresponds to a two-qubit state. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for when the geometric data describe a physical state and investigate maximal volume ellipsoids lying on the physical-unphysical boundary. We derive monogamy relations for steering that are strictly stronger than the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters (CKW) inequality for monogamy of concurrence. The CKW result is thus found to follow from the simple perspective of steering ellipsoid geometry. Remarkably, we can also use steering ellipsoids to derive non-trivial results in classical Euclidean geometry, extending Euler's inequality for the circumradius and inradius of a triangle.

  7. Fine-grained Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Tanumoy; Kaplan, Marc; Majumdar, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    We derive a steering inequality based on a fine-grained uncertainty relation to capture Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for bipartite systems. Our steering inequality improves over previous ones since it can experimentally detect all steerable two-qubit Werner state with only two measurement settings on each side. According to our inequality, pure entangled states are maximally steerable. Moreover, by slightly changing the setting, we can express the amount of violation of our inequality as a function of their violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. Finally, after deriving a monogamy relation we prove that the amount of violation of our steering inequality is, up to a constant factor, a lower bound on the key rate of a one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution protocol secure against individual attacks.

  8. 41. After steering hydraulic mechanism from starboard side. Mechanism built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. After steering hydraulic mechanism from starboard side. Mechanism built by the Superior Iron Works Co., Elizabeth, New Jersey, Lidgerwood Mfg Co. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  9. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignano, Domenic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  10. Unpowered wireless ultrasound tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Farshad; Huang, Haiying

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an unpowered wireless ultrasound tomography system is presented. The system consists of two subsystems; the wireless interrogation unit (WIU) and three wireless nodes installed on the structure. Each node is designed to work in generation and sensing modes, but operates at a specific microwave frequency. Wireless transmission of the ultrasound signals between the WIU and the wireless nodes is achieved by converting ultrasound signals to microwave signals and vice versa, using a microwave carrier signal. In the generation mode, both a carrier signal and an ultrasound modulated microwave signal are transmitted to the sensor nodes. Only the node whose operating frequency matches the carrier signal will receive these signals and demodulate them to recover the original ultrasound signal. In the sensing mode, a microwave carrier signal with two different frequency components matching the operating frequencies of the sensor nodes is broadcasted by the WIU. The sensor nodes, in turn, receive the corresponding carrier signals, modulate it with the ultrasound sensing signal, and wirelessly transmit the modulated signal back to the WIU. The demodulation of the sensing signals is performed in the WIU using a digital signal processing. Implementing a software receiver significantly reduces the complexity and the cost of the WIU. A wireless ultrasound tomography system is realized by interchanging the carrier frequencies so that the wireless transducers can take turn to serve as the actuator and sensors.

  11. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    PubMed

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  12. Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, A.; Dragoman, D.; Iftimie, S.

    2012-07-15

    We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials' parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.

  13. Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A.; Dragoman, D.; Iftimie, S.

    2012-07-01

    We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials' parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.

  14. Views of wireless network systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Effective design choices for skid-steering robotic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aakash K.; Rosenblum, Mark

    2004-12-01

    One of the major problems with any robotic vehicle is inefficient use of available power. This research explores in detail the locomotion, power dynamics and performance of a skid steered robotic vehicle and develops techniques to derive efficient design parameters of the vehicle in order to achieve optimal performance by minimizing the power losses/consumption. Three categories of design variables describe the vehicle and its dynamics; variables that describe the vehicle, variables that describe the surface on which it runs and variables that describe the vehicle"s motion. Two major constituent components of power losses/consumption of the vehicle are - losses in skid steer turning, and losses in rolling. Our focus is on skid steering, we present a detailed analysis of skid steering for different turning modes; elastic mode steering, half-slip steering, skid turns, low radius turns, and zero radius turns. Each of the power loss components is modeled from physics in terms of the design variables. The effect of design variables on the total power losses/consumption is then studied using simulated data for different types of surfaces i.e. hard surfaces and muddy surfaces. Finally, we make suggestions about efficient vehicle design choices in terms of the design variables.

  16. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wireless Metering Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... (EERE) requests comments on the draft version of the Wireless Power Meter Challenge Specification. This... development of new technologies in the wireless electric metering space. DATES: Comments on the Wireless...

  17. Wireless Technology in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walery, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Many schools begin implementing wireless technology slowly by creating wireless "hotspots" on the fly. This is accomplished by putting a wireless access point on a cart along with a set of wireless laptop computers. A teacher can then wheel the cart anywhere in the school that has a network drop, plug the access point in and have an instant…

  18. A wireless ballistocardiographic chair.

    PubMed

    Junnila, Sakari; Akhbardeh, Alireza; Barna, Laurentiu C; Defee, Irek; Varri, Alpo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless ballistocardiographic chair developed for the Proactive Health Monitoring project in the Institute of Signal Processing. EMFi sensors are used for BCG measurement and IEEE 802.15.4 RF link for radio communication between the chair and a PC. The chair measures two BCG signals from the seat and the backrest and a rough ECG signal from the armrests of the chair. The R-spike of the ECG signal can be used as a synchronisation point to extract individual BCG cardiac cycles. Also, two developed methods for extracting BCG cycles without using a reference ECG signal are presented and compared. PMID:17946348

  19. Deployable wireless Fresnel lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for enhancing the gain of a wireless signal are provided. In at least one specific embodiment, the apparatus can include a screen comprised of one or more electrically conductive regions for reflecting electromagnetic radiation and one or more non-conductive regions for permitting electromagnetic radiation therethrough. The one or more electrically conductive regions can be disposed adjacent to at least one of the one or more non-conductive regions. The apparatus can also include a support member disposed about at least a portion of the screen. The screen can be capable of collapsing by twisting the support member in opposite screw senses to form interleaved concentric sections.

  20. Wireless Headset Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

    1995-01-01

    System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

  1. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  2. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  3. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh

    2012-06-01

    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  4. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-03-01

    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  5. Backwards planning approach for rapid attitude maneuvers steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbin, D.

    Remote sensing satellites are often built with payloads that do not include line of sight steering mechanisms. In cases, when frequent line of sight retargeting is required, there is a need for efficient actuators and control schemes that would support rapid attitude manoeuvring together with adequate pointing accuracy and stability between the manoeuvres. Within this frame, this research develops the Backwards Planning approach as one of the possible control methods for rapid manoeuvring. The method is based on state feedback and combines time efficient together with straight forward computation flow. Novel efficient methods to execute the Backwards Planning Control in the 3D attitude space are proposed here. The methods refer both for the first saturated control phase of the manoeuvre and for the last braking phase. The actuators used for the spacecraft control in this research are either Reaction Wheels (RWs) or Single Gimbal Control Moments Gyros (SGCMGs) or both of them together. The advantage of the SGCMG is in rapid rotational manoeuvring, but their application for high quality pointing requires very accurate gimbal mechanisms. On the other hand, RWs are usually more suitable for accurate pointing, but their torque to power performance is inferior in manoeuvring. It is shown that the coordination of SGCMGs and RWs together enables to draw more performance from the SGCMGs in terms of agility and meet the pointing requirements between manoeuvres where only the RWs are used. Novel SGCMG steering laws are suggested as well. While the steering laws determine the required angular rate for each gimbal, most steering laws are defined in the angular momentum domain and output the gimbals angular rates to produce a given required torque or angular momentum increment. This research however, practices a novel steering law in the gimbal angles domain. While both steering laws turn to be dynamically equivalent for small control signals, as in the steady state, it is shown

  6. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  7. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  8. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt W.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  9. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  10. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

  11. Ultrasonic wireless health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Lionel; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Guy, Philippe; Yuse, Kaori; Monnier, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The integration of autonomous wireless elements in health monitoring network increases the reliability by suppressing power supplies and data transmission wiring. Micro-power piezoelectric generators are an attractive alternative to primary batteries which are limited by a finite amount of energy, a limited capacity retention and a short shelf life (few years). Our goal is to implement such an energy harvesting system for powering a single AWT (Autonomous Wireless Transmitter) using our SSH (Synchronized Switch Harvesting) method. Based on a non linear process of the piezoelement voltage, this SSH method optimizes the energy extraction from the mechanical vibrations. This AWT has two main functions : The generation of an identifier code by RF transmission to the central receiver and the Lamb wave generation for the health monitoring of the host structure. A damage index is derived from the variation between the transmitted wave spectrum and a reference spectrum. The same piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting function and the Lamb wave generation, thus reducing mass and cost. A micro-controller drives the energy balance and synchronizes the functions. Such an autonomous transmitter has been evaluated on a 300x50x2 mm 3 composite cantilever beam. Four 33x11x0.3 mm 3 piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting and for the wave lamb generation. A piezoelectric sensor is placed at the free end of the beam to track the transmitted Lamb wave. In this configuration, the needed energy for the RF emission is 0.1 mJ for a 1 byte-information and the Lamb wave emission requires less than 0.1mJ. The AWT can harvested an energy quantity of approximately 20 mJ (for a 1.5 Mpa lateral stress) with a 470 μF storage capacitor. This corresponds to a power density near to 6mW/cm 3. The experimental AWT energy abilities are presented and the damage detection process is discussed. Finally, some envisaged solutions are introduced for the implementation of the required data

  12. Laser beam steering for GRACE Follow-On intersatellite interferometry.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Daniel; Stede, Gunnar; Müller, Vitali; Gerberding, Oliver; Bandikova, Tamara; Sheard, Benjamin S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    The GRACE Follow-On satellites will use, for the first time, a Laser Ranging Interferometer to measure intersatellite distance changes from which fluctuations in Earth's geoid can be inferred. We have investigated the beam steering method that is required to maintain the laser link between the satellites. Although developed for the specific needs of the GRACE Follow-On mission, the beam steering method could also be applied to other intersatellite laser ranging applications where major difficulties are common: large spacecraft separation and large spacecraft attitude jitter. The beam steering method simultaneously coaligns local oscillator beam and transmitted beam with the laser beam received from the distant spacecraft using Differential Wavefront Sensing. We demonstrate the operation of the beam steering method on breadboard level using GRACE satellite attitude jitter data to command a hexapod, a six-degree-of-freedom rotation and translation stage. We verify coalignment of local oscillator beam/ transmitted beam and received beam of better than 10 μrad with a stability of 10 μrad/ √Hz in the GRACE Follow-On measurement band of 0.002...0.1 Hz. Additionally, important characteristics of the beam steering setup such as Differential Wavefront Sensing signals, heterodyne efficiency, and suppression of rotation-to-pathlength coupling are investigated and compared with analysis results. PMID:25321987

  13. Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime. PMID:27411853

  14. Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-07-01

    Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.

  15. Controls on channel steering by tectonics in sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paola, C.; Straub, K. M.; Kim, W.

    2009-04-01

    Channel steering refers to the ability of spatial variations in uplift or subsidence to influence the migration, spatial distribution, and/or path direction of channels. We report the results of three experiments on channel steering under conditions of average net deposition. The experiments were done in the University of Minnesota Experimental EarthScape basin, which via its programmable subsiding floor can be used to create a wide variety of patterns of space-time subsidence. Underpinning the experimental program is the idea that the first-order control on tectonic channel steering is a ratio of two fundamental time scales: the time needed for lateral tectonic tilting to produce a slope comparable to the mean streamwise slope of the channel system; and the time needed for the channel system to occupy a fixed, large fraction of the basin surface. The experiments cover a wide range of values of this time-scale ratio, and also include cases with pure deposition (subsidence only) as well as mixed erosion and deposition (relative uplift and subsidence). Lateral tectonic patterns included a simple trough and a more complex geometry patterned after a relay ramp system. Overall, we find that the time scale ratio exerts the expected control: steering is weakest, for either tectonic geometry, when the channels are ‘fast' relative to the tectonics. But steering effects are manifested in different ways, depending on the geometry and possibly the history of the system.

  16. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  17. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-09

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  18. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  19. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  20. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  1. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-22

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the

  2. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-11-19

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the

  3. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  4. Free energy reconstruction from steered dynamics without post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Athenes, Manuel; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2010-09-20

    Various methods achieving importance sampling in ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories enable one to estimate free energy differences and, by maximum-likelihood post-processing, to reconstruct free energy landscapes. Here, based on Bayes theorem, we propose a more direct method in which a posterior likelihood function is used both to construct the steered dynamics and to infer the contribution to equilibrium of all the sampled states. The method is implemented with two steering schedules. First, using non-autonomous steering, we calculate the migration barrier of the vacancy in Fe-{alpha}. Second, using an autonomous scheduling related to metadynamics and equivalent to temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, we accurately reconstruct the two-dimensional free energy landscape of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster as a function of an orientational bond-order parameter and energy, down to the solid-solid structural transition temperature of the cluster and without maximum-likelihood post-processing.

  5. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  6. A propulsion and steering control system for the Mars rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a propulsion and steering control system for the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute prototype autonomous Mars roving vehicle is presented. The vehicle is propelled and steered by four independent electric motors. The control system must regulate the speeds of the motors so they work in unison during turns and on irregular terrain. An analysis of the motor coordination problem on irregular terrain, where each motor must supply a different torque at a different speed is presented. A procedure was developed to match the output of each motor to the varying load. A design for the control system is given. The controller uses a microprocessor which interprets speed and steering commands from an off-board computer, and produces the appropriate drive voltages for the motors.

  7. Steering laws for double-gimbal control-moment gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winder, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Derivation of CMG steering laws was considered. The type of CMG considered was a double gimbal one which has a constant magnitude momentum vector. The equations for the generation of torque of an inertially fixed CMG are presented. To realize a particular commanded torque, the gimbal rates of the CMG must be specified. These gimbal rates are shown to be functions of gimbal angle orientation and the commanded torque. The conventional cross-product steering law was derived by minimizing a function which was the square of the magnitude of the error between the commanded torque and the realizable torque of the gyro. This steering law was severely dependent upon the inner gimbal angle. When the inner gimbal reaches 90 degrees, the cross product law requires infinite outer gimbal rates to realize finite torque values.

  8. Laser steering of particle beams: Refraction and reflection ofparticle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Dodd, E.; Lee, S.; Hemker, R.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.

    1999-11-01

    The co-propagation of an intense particle beam with an ionizing laser beam in a working gas/plasma is considered. When the axes of the laser and particle beam are not aligned, then asymmetric plasma lensing results in a net dipole field acting on the particle beam. The particle beam can be steered or bent (as well as focused) by steering the laser. An analogy is made between the bending of the particle beam by collective effects at a plasma boundary and the refraction or reflection of light at an interface. This mechanism of particle steering may be of interest in applications for which permanent magnets are inconvenient of a fast turn on is required. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations and relevance to a recent experiment are discussed.

  9. Diffraction Efficiency of Thin Film Holographic Beam Steering Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Charles M.; Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip J.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic holography has been demonstrated as a method for correcting aberrations in space deployable optics, and can also be used to achieve high-resolution beam steering in the same environment. In this paper, we consider some of the factors affecting the efficiency of these devices. Specifically, the effect on the efficiency of a highly collimated beam from the number of discrete phase steps per period is considered for a blazed thin film beam steering grating. The effect of the number of discrete phase steps per period on steering resolution is also considered. We also present some result of Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations of light propagating through liquid crystal "blazed" gratings. Liquid crystal gratings are shown to spatially modulate both the phase and amplitude of the propagating light.

  10. Locally excitable Cdc42 signals steer cells during chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils and other amoeboid cells chemotax by steering their front towards chemoattractant. While Ras, Rac, Cdc42, and RhoA small GTPases all regulate chemotaxis, it has been unclear how they spatiotemporally control polarization and steering. Using fluorescence biosensors in neutrophil-like PLB-985 cells and photorelease of chemoattractant, we show that local Cdc42 signals, but not those of Rac, RhoA or Ras, precede cell turning during chemotaxis. Furthermore, preexisting local Cdc42 signals in morphologically unpolarized cells predict the future direction of movement upon uniform stimulation. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerization uncovers recurring local Cdc42 activity pulses, suggesting that Cdc42 has the excitable characteristic of the compass activity proposed in models of chemotaxis. Globally, Cdc42 antagonizes RhoA, and maintains a steep spatial activity gradient during migration, while Ras and Rac form shallow gradients. Thus, chemotactic steering and de novo polarization are both directed by locally excitable Cdc42 signals. PMID:26689677

  11. Volumetric imaging with an amplitude-steered array.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Catherine H; Hughes, W Jack; O'Brien, William D

    2002-12-01

    Volumetric acoustic imaging is desirable for the visualization of underwater objects and structures; however, the implementation of a volumetric imaging system is difficult due to the high channel count of a fully populated two-dimensional array. Recently, a linear amplitude-steered array with a reduced electronics requirement was presented, which is capable of collecting a two-dimensional set of data with a single transmit pulse. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the linear amplitude-steered array and associated image formation algorithms for collecting and displaying volumetric data; that is, proof of principle of the amplitude-steering concept and the associated image formation algorithms is demonstrated. Range and vertical position are obtained by taking advantage of the frequency separation of a vertical linear amplitude-steered array. The third dimension of data is obtained by rotating the array such that the mainlobe is mechanically steered in azimuth. Data are collected in a water tank at the Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory for two targets: a ladder and three pipes. These data are the first experimental data collected with an amplitude-steered array for the purposes of imaging. The array is 10 cm in diameter and is operated in the frequency range of 80 to 304 kHz. Although the array is small for high-resolution imaging at these frequencies, the rungs of the ladder are recognizable in the images. The three pipes are difficult to discern in two of the projection images; however, the pipes separated in range are clear in the image showing vertical position versus range. The imaging concept is demonstrated on measured data, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. PMID:12508995

  12. Volumetric imaging with an amplitude-steered array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Catherine H.; Hughes, W. Jack; O'Brien, William D.

    2002-12-01

    Volumetric acoustic imaging is desirable for the visualization of underwater objects and structures; however, the implementation of a volumetric imaging system is difficult due to the high channel count of a fully populated two-dimensional array. Recently, a linear amplitude-steered array with a reduced electronics requirement was presented, which is capable of collecting a two-dimensional set of data with a single transmit pulse. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the linear amplitude-steered array and associated image formation algorithms for collecting and displaying volumetric data; that is, proof of principle of the amplitude-steering concept and the associated image formation algorithms is demonstrated. Range and vertical position are obtained by taking advantage of the frequency separation of a vertical linear amplitude-steered array. The third dimension of data is obtained by rotating the array such that the mainlobe is mechanically steered in azimuth. Data are collected in a water tank at the Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory for two targets: a ladder and three pipes. These data are the first experimental data collected with an amplitude-steered array for the purposes of imaging. The array is 10 cm in diameter and is operated in the frequency range of 80 to 304 kHz. Although the array is small for high-resolution imaging at these frequencies, the rungs of the ladder are recognizable in the images. The three pipes are difficult to discern in two of the projection images; however, the pipes separated in range are clear in the image showing vertical position versus range. The imaging concept is demonstrated on measured data, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results.

  13. 77 FR 61748 - Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling AGENCY: Office... public meeting of the Federal Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM) will convene to discuss the latest developments in environmental modeling applications, tools...

  14. 76 FR 69769 - Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling... the Federal Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM) will convene to discuss the latest developments in environmental modeling applications, tools and frameworks...

  15. Dynamic Curvature Steering Control for Autonomous Vehicle: Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Amri Mazlan, Saiful

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses the design of dynamic curvature steering control for autonomous vehicle. The lateral control and longitudinal control are discussed in this paper. The controller is designed based on the dynamic curvature calculation to estimate the path condition and modify the vehicle speed and steering wheel angle accordingly. In this paper, the simulation results are presented to show the capability of the controller to track the reference path. The controller is able to predict the path and modify the vehicle speed to suit the path condition. The effectiveness of the controller is shown in this paper whereby identical performance is achieved with the benchmark but with extra curvature adaptation capabilites.

  16. Compact holographic memory using E - O beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George; Hanan, Jay

    2002-01-01

    An innovative holographic memory system has been developed at JPL for high-density and high speed data storage in a space environment. This system ulitlizes a newly developed electro-optic (E-O) beam steering technology for beam steering to enable high-speed random access memory read/write without moving parts. Recently, a compact CD-sized holographic memory broadboard has been developed and demonstrated for holographic data storage adn retrieval. Detail technical progress will be presented in this paper.

  17. The Evolvement of Automobile Steering System Based on TRIZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinjun; Zhang, Shuang

    Products and techniques pass through a process of birth, growth, maturity, death and quit the stage like biological evolution process. The developments of products and techniques conform to some evolvement rules. If people know and hold these rules, they can design new kind of products and forecast the develop trends of the products. Thereby, enterprises can grasp the future technique directions of products, and make product and technique innovation. Below, based on TRIZ theory, the mechanism evolvement, the function evolvement and the appearance evolvement of automobile steering system had been analyzed and put forward some new ideas about future automobile steering system.

  18. 46 CFR 58.25-70 - Steering-gear control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering-gear control systems. 58.25-70 Section 58.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-70 Steering-gear control systems. (a) Each power-driven steering-gear system must be...

  19. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  20. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot-finished beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven Angus crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on pasture- vs. feedlot-finishing beef steers on fatty acid (FA) composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A completely randomized design with repeated measures was used with steers arranged into 3 treatments...

  1. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  2. 7 CFR 59.101 - Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.101 Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  3. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  4. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  5. 7 CFR 59.101 - Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.101 Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  6. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  7. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  8. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  9. 7 CFR 59.101 - Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.101 Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  10. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  11. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 130.140... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.140 Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more gross tons must have a means of steering that...

  12. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 130.140... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.140 Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more gross tons must have a means of steering that...

  13. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 130.140... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.140 Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more gross tons must have a means of steering that...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 97.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering... gear. Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch which is used during the changeover shall...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-55 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 78.47-55... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-55 Instructions for changing steering gear..., relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear. Each...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-15 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. 78... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-15 Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. (a) On all vessels making a voyage of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear,...

  17. Evaluation of endocrine and immune disruption of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate the endocrine response of steers administered an immune challenge utilizing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). Animals: Twelve crossbred steers (228.82 ± 22.15 kg BW) Procedures: Steers fitted with indwelling rectal probes and randomly assigned to a Control (CON) ...

  18. 46 CFR 32.35-10 - Steering apparatus on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering apparatus on tank vessels-TB/ALL. 32.35-10..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-10 Steering apparatus on tank vessels—TB/ALL. Tank vessels shall be provided with steering apparatus as required by part 58 of subchapter...

  19. 46 CFR 32.35-10 - Steering apparatus on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering apparatus on tank vessels-TB/ALL. 32.35-10..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-10 Steering apparatus on tank vessels—TB/ALL. Tank vessels shall be provided with steering apparatus as required by part 58 of subchapter...

  20. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  1. Health measures in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for health measures following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior to BVDV challenge, steer...

  2. International Polar Year Youth Steering Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Church, A.; Kuhn, T.; Raymond, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2006-12-01

    The International Youth Steering Committee is made up of youth representatives from around the world, from science, social science, aboriginal and arts backgrounds and ranging in education from new faculty to high school. The YSC serves as a voice for youth on polar issues and empower youth to get involved in issues facing the Polar Regions. YSC is working to draw the World's attention to the poles and act as a force for positive change. An International YSC website has been developed which will provide a forum where youth will be able to communicate with each other globally and get involved in IPY and YSC programs. One of these programs is the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). This conference, which will take place in May 2008, will bring together youth from around the world to focus on polar issues. Young polar researchers are being recruited to design educational materials based on their work for another YSC project, Polar Contests. YSC has partnered with Students on Ice (SOI), a non-profit organization who will be providing a series of nine SOI- IPY YSC expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic over the course of IPY, allowing hundreds of students from around the world to experience the Polar Regions first-hand, learn from experts working in these areas and become inspired to work for their continued protection. We are also sponsoring an opportunity for youth from around the world to connect with and interview the participants of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the results of that will ultimately be presented in book or documentary form at the close of IPY. The YSC has partnered with the science fiction educational book series, Tales of the Wonder Zone, to release Polaris; A Celebration of Polar Science, in which youth and professional authors from around the world submitted stories based on an IPY fifty years in the future. The final part of the YSC is to provide a forum and activities that will allow early career scientists to

  3. VCSEL arrays for optical wireless systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Katsuhisa; Nitatori, Koichi; Iwamoto, Takashi; Miura, Takamitsu; Sakai, Masahisa

    2001-05-01

    Now we have studied the development of the optical devices used in optical wireless communication systems. For optical wireless systems, the emitted light should have an intensity distribution in the shape of a pill-box. Use of VCSEL array was believed to allow the emitted light to have pill-box distribution and we performed the study concerning the optimum VCSEL array for optical wireless systems. This article describes the development of the VCSEL array for optical wireless systems.

  4. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  5. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships... communication and the signaling appliances between the bridge or pilothouse and engine room shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships... communication and the signaling appliances between the bridge or pilothouse and engine room shall be...

  7. Optic flow asymmetries bias high-speed steering along roads.

    PubMed

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Shire, Katy A; Mole, Callum D; Gardner, Peter H; Merat, Natasha; Wilkie, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    How do animals and insects use visual information to move through the world successfully? Optic flow, the pattern of motion at the eye, is a powerful source of information about self-motion. Insects and humans are sensitive to the global pattern of optic flow and try to maintain flow symmetry when flying or walking. The environments humans encounter, however, often contain demarcated paths that constrain future trajectories (e.g., roads), and steering has been successfully modeled using only road edge information. Here we examine whether flow asymmetries from a textured ground plane influences humans steering along demarcated paths. Using a virtual reality simulator we observed that different textures on either side of the path caused predictable biases to steering trajectories, consistent with participants reducing flow asymmetries. We also generated conditions where one textured region had no flow (either the texture was removed or the textured region was static). Despite the presence of visible path information, participants were biased toward the no-flow region consistent with reducing flow asymmetries. We conclude that optic flow asymmetries can lead to biased locomotor steering even when traveling along demarcated paths. PMID:23988389

  8. Low cost, electronically steered phased array for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaced, phased array antenna developed for general aviation satellite communications applications. The antenna design satisfies all INMARSAT Aeronautical SDM requirements. Unique features of this antenna include an integral LNA and diplexer, integral phase shifters which are shared among the array faces, a serial beam steering interface and low manufacturing cost.

  9. Magnetic steering of a helicon double layer thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Cox, W.; Laine, R.; MacLellan, P.

    2008-11-01

    The ion beam generated by a helicon double layer has been electrically steered up to 20° off axis by using a solenoid placed normal to the two axial solenoids of the helicon plasma source without significantly changing the beam exhaust velocity.

  10. Magnetic steering of a helicon double layer thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Cox, W.; Laine, R.; MacLellan, P.

    2008-11-17

    The ion beam generated by a helicon double layer has been electrically steered up to 20 deg. off axis by using a solenoid placed normal to the two axial solenoids of the helicon plasma source without significantly changing the beam exhaust velocity.

  11. Linac Alignment Algorithm: Analysis on 1-to-1 Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    In a linear accelerator, it is important to achieve a good alignment between all of its components (such as quadrupoles, RF cavities, beam position monitors et al.), in order to better preserve the beam quality during acceleration. After the survey of the main linac components, there are several beam-based alignment (BBA) techniques to be applied, to further optimize the beam trajectory and calculate the corresponding steering magnets strength. Among these techniques the most simple and straightforward one is the one-to-one (1-to-1) steering technique, which steers the beam from quad center to center, and removes the betatron oscillation from quad focusing. For a future linear collider such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), the initial beam emittance is very small in the vertical plane (flat beam with {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 20-40nm), which means the alignment requirement is very tight. In this note, we evaluate the emittance growth with one-to-one correction algorithm employed, both analytically and numerically. Then the ILC main linac accelerator is taken as an example to compare the vertical emittance growth after 1-to-1 steering, both from analytical formulae and multi-particle tracking simulation. It is demonstrated that the estimated emittance growth from the derived formulae agrees well with the results from numerical simulation, with and without acceleration, respectively.

  12. Efficacy and Limitations of Research Steering in Different Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeber, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Higher education reforms informed by the managerial paradigm aim at increasing the capability of the university leadership to steer research activity, with no substantial variation across the disciplines. However, literature points out the limitations of universities to act as strategic actors, as well as the differences between the disciplines…

  13. Parametric amplification of soliton steering in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A

    2004-05-15

    We report on the effect of parametric amplification of spatial soliton swinging in Kerr-type nonlinear media with longitudinal and transverse periodic modulation of the linear refractive index. The parameter areas are found where the soliton center motion is analogous to the motion of a parametrically driven pendulum. This effect has potential applications for controllable soliton steering. PMID:15181999

  14. Steering and Suspension Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the steering and suspension specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units contain materials…

  15. Steering the South African Higher Education Sector towards Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, Isaac; De Villiers, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which funding is used to steer the public higher education sector towards meeting the social, political and economic imperatives of post-1994 South Africa. It argues that the design of the funding framework influenced the direction of higher education after 1994, and that funding mechanisms explicitly or…

  16. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  17. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  18. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships... and tested by an officer of the nautical school ship within a period of not more than 12 hours...

  19. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships... and tested by an officer of the nautical school ship within a period of not more than 12 hours...

  20. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships... and tested by an officer of the nautical school ship within a period of not more than 12 hours...

  1. Beam steering at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, R.O.

    1983-08-01

    Instability of the vertical synchrotron beam position in the experimental lines at SSRL has motivated the continuing development of its steering control system. Recent improvements have increased its ability to compensate for long term position drift and to suppress low frequency beam oscillation induced by ground motion. A description of the new system and an analysis of its performance is presented.

  2. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  3. Liquid Crystal-based Beam Steering Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Wang, Xinghua; Pishnyak, Oleg; Kreminska, Liubov; Golovin, Andrii

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal-based beam steering devices can provide electronic beam scanning to angles above 1 milliradian, sub-microradian beam pointing accuracy, as well as wave-front correction to maintain output optical beam quality. The liquid crystal technology effort will be summarized, and the potential application of the resulting devices to NASA space-based scenarios will be described.

  4. Analytic Steering: Inserting Context into the Information Dialog

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Brown, Shyretha D.; Nakamura, Grant C.

    2011-10-23

    An analyst’s intrinsic domain knowledge is a primary asset in almost any analysis task. Unstructured text analysis systems that apply un-supervised content analysis approaches can be more effective if they can leverage this domain knowledge in a manner that augments the information discovery process without obfuscating new or unexpected content. Current unsupervised approaches rely upon the prowess of the analyst to submit the right queries or observe generalized document and term relationships from ranked or visual results. We propose a new approach which allows the user to control or steer the analytic view within the unsupervised space. This process is controlled through the data characterization process via user supplied context in the form of a collection of key terms. We show that steering with an appropriate choice of key terms can provide better relevance to the analytic domain and still enable the analyst to uncover un-expected relationships; this paper discusses cases where various analytic steering approaches can provide enhanced analysis results and cases where analytic steering can have a negative impact on the analysis process.

  5. Bilateral ‘gut-tie’ in a recently castrated steer

    PubMed Central

    Haruna, Julius A.; Ortenburger, Art

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Small intestinal obstruction caused by 2 fibrous bands was found in a steer. Distended small intestine was palpable per rectum. Each band was located bilaterally between the caudal abdominal wall and the pelvic inlet. The compromised portion of intestine was considered nonviable and the animal was euthanized. PMID:16579042

  6. Semiconductor Laser With Two-Dimensional Beam Steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Modification of monolithic semiconductor injection laser capable of one-dimensional electronic beam steering enables deflection of beam in second direction. Such laser chip provides beam pointing or raster scanning for applications in optical communications, data processing, image scanning, and optical ranging.

  7. Wireless Andrew: Everywhere You Want To Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futhey, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Describes the wireless local area network at Carnegie Mellon University. Highlights include classroom applications, particularly in the Business School; the use of laptop computers configured with wireless technology; handheld computers, including use for testing; and assuring appropriate uses of wireless technology. (LRW)

  8. 77 FR 64446 - Wireless Microphones Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Docket No. 02-380, Second Memorandum Opinion and Order, 75 FR 75814, 25 FCC Rcd 18661 (2010) (TV White... Rulemaking, 75 FR 3622, 75 FR 3682, 25 FCC Rcd 643 (2010) (Wireless Microphones Order and Wireless... Memorandum Opinion and Order, 77 FR 29236, 27 FCC Rcd 3692 (2012). Background In the Wireless...

  9. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  10. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  11. Comparing Ultrasound and Mechanical Steering in a Biodiesel Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.; Ferreira, Jerusa R. L.

    The analysis of the kinetics of the transesterification reaction is crucial to compare different routes or routes with different catalysts or reaction accelerators. The use of ultrasound is considereda method for accelerating the biodiesel production. However, little effort has been done and is reported in the literature about how and under what conditions the use of ultrasound really speeds up the process, or the conditions under which its use is unnecessary or even harmful, burdening the process. Two dissimilar energy injections into a typical route were tested: ultrasound (@ 1 MHz and no heating) and mechanical steering (with heating), both applied in an 8:1 ratio of soybean oil and methanol, adding 1% of KOH as catalyzer. As results, during the first 10 minutes of reaction ultrasound showed unbearable effect on the transesterification, whilst mechanical steering and heating achieved almost 70% of conversion ratio. However, during the following 10 minutes, the mechanical steering and heating got nothing more than 80% of conversion, a considerable less efficient process than ultrasound assisted one, which achieved more than 90%. The straightforward explanation is that ultrasound continually inserts energy in a slower rate, what can result in a more stable conversion scenario. On the other hand, mechanical steering and heating provides more energy at a glance, but cannot push the final conversion rate beyond a limit, as the transesterification is a double-way chemical process. The instability mechanical steering and heating settles in the reaction medium pulls the components back to their original states more than pushes than to the converted equilibrium state of the matter.

  12. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  13. Evolutionary games in wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Tembine, Hamidou; Altman, Eitan; El-Azouzi, Rachid; Hayel, Yezekael

    2010-06-01

    We consider a noncooperative interaction among a large population of mobiles that interfere with each other through many local interactions. The first objective of this paper is to extend the evolutionary game framework to allow an arbitrary number of mobiles that are involved in a local interaction. We allow for interactions between mobiles that are not necessarily reciprocal. We study 1) multiple-access control in a slotted Aloha-based wireless network and 2) power control in wideband code-division multiple-access wireless networks. We define and characterize the equilibrium (called evolutionarily stable strategy) for these games and study the influence of wireless channels and pricing on the evolution of dynamics and the equilibrium. PMID:19963703

  14. Wireless Communications in Reverberant Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measel, Ryan Thomas

    Implementation of WLANs in reverberant environments, such as industrial facilities, naval vessels, aircraft, and spacecraft, has proven challenging, because rich electromagnetic scattering can degrade link quality through multipath interference. As a result, the adoption of Wireless LANs in these environments has been slow. Previous studies concerning reverberant environments have focused on characterizing electromagnetic properties for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility testing. Little attention has been given to the performance of wireless communications. In this effort, the effect of electromagnetic reverberance on wireless communications is investigated in order to assess the feasibility of WLAN deployment. Work centered around two experimental measurement campaigns. The first campaign was performed in coupled reverberation chambers. The reverberation chambers provided a controllable environment which was configured to emulate the reverberance of below-deck spaces on a naval vessel. The process for quantifying and configuring the electromagnetic properties of a reverberation chamber is presented. The second campaign was performed on a naval vessel. Experimentation was conducted in a variety of locations on the ship. Locations were selected to represent a wide range of practical environments. Across both campaigns, several environment and node parameters were evaluated: level of reverberance, cavity coupling (effective aperture size), and LOS versus NLOS links. Additionally, advanced physical layer schemes and reconfigurable antennas are presented as methods to improve performance and mitigate multipath interference. To perform this work, a measurement platform and testing protocol were developed for systematic characterization of wireless communications in reverberant environments. The primary contributions of this work are empirical characterization of wireless communications in reverberant environments, approaches to improving the performance of

  15. Crossbred steer temperament as yearlings and whole genome association of steer temperament as yearlings and calf temperament post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Boldt, C R; Funkhouser, R R; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O

    2016-04-01

    cattle often have the reputation for a poor or dangerous temperament. Identification of genomic regions that associate with temperament of such cattle may be useful for genetic improvement strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate subjective temperament scores (1 to 9; higher scores indicated more unfavorable temperament) for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament of one-half steers in feedlot conditions at 1 yr of age and compare those scores of those steers when evaluated approximately 1 mo postweaning, and conduct whole genome association analyses using SNP markers and the temperament traits of those steers at 1 yr of age and for temperament traits of all calves at weaning. Contemporary groups ( < 0.001) were steers born in the same year and season, and fed in the same feedlot pen. Aggressiveness of steers at 1 yr of age was not associated with aggressiveness at weaning (linear regression coefficient did not differ from 0; = 0.96), but regressions of all other yearling scores of steers on the scores at weaning were positive (coefficients ranged from 0.26 ± 0.04 to 0.32 ± 0.04; < 0.001). Estimates of Pearson correlation coefficients (using unadjusted values and residual values) of the different traits measured at 1 yr of age were large ( > 0.63; < 0.008) except for aggressiveness with nervousness, flightiness, or gregariousness, which did not differ from 0 ( > 0.1). Five SNP on BTA 1, 24, and 29 had suggestive associations (0.17 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, or flightiness at evaluation postweaning and 13 SNP on 11 chromosomes had suggestive associations (0.07 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, or overall temperament score of steers at 1 yr of age. Genes close to these loci with roles in neural systems of various organisms included synaptotagmin 4 (BTA 24), FAT atypical cadhedrin 3 (BTA 29), tubulin tyrosine ligase-like 1 (BTA 5

  16. Wireless Technologies Implications for Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhr, Peter L; Manges, Wayne W; Schweitzer, Patrick; Kagan, Hesh

    2010-01-01

    Wireless technologies have advanced well beyond simple SCADA radio systems and point-to-point links. The current applications supported by industrial-grade wireless sensors and systems range from field measurements (classic I/O) to voice, video, asset tracking, mobile operators, etc. Which such a wide array of supported applications, the belief that wireless technology will only impact power systems in terms of wireless sensors is shortsighted. This paper, coauthored by a group of individuals intimately involved in the general realm of industrial wireless , presents a simple snapshot of current radio technologies that are used (or seriously contemplated for use) in power systems.

  17. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  18. WIRELESS FOR A NUCLEAR FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D; Joe Cordaro, J

    2007-03-28

    The introduction of wireless technology into a government site where nuclear material is processed and stored brings new meaning to the term ''harsh environment''. At SRNL, we are attempting to address not only the harsh RF and harsh physical environment common to industrial facilities, but also the ''harsh'' regulatory environment necessitated by the nature of the business at our site. We will discuss our concepts, processes, and expected outcomes in our attempts to surmount the roadblocks and reap the benefits of wireless in our ''factory''.

  19. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  20. Wireless Ways: Business and Personal Applications of Wireless Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Art Technology Group (ATG), an electronic business and customer management company, and the work they have done with wireless technology. Highlights include designing virtual offices and supporting the resulting virtual community; the mobility it allows; problems with bandwidth; and display issues. (LRW)

  1. Wireless communication and their mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaki, Shozo

    2015-05-01

    Mobile phone and smart phone are penetrating into social use. To develop these system, various type of theoretical works based on mathematics are done, such as radio propagation theory, traffic theory, security coding and wireless device etc. In this speech, I will mention about the related mathematics and problems in it.

  2. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  3. Wireless transmission by plasmonic antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Juan M.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Rose, Aaron H.; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    Radio frequency (RF) communication is fundamental to many modern technologies. The idea of a simple rescaling of RF theory to the visible frequency range is not a direct issue, due in part to the finite conductivity in the optical range of commonly-used metals (e.g. Ag, Au). In this context, wireless communication using plasmonic antennas is a very recent concept with potential importance in an on-chip technology application. Here, we propose a plasmonic antenna system capable of wireless transmission-at-a-distance equivalent to at least four free-space wavelengths from the emitter. We demonstrate that it is possible to transmit information with maximum signal strength of -6.9 dB at three free-space wavelengths with a signal-to-noise ratio of -13 dB, good enough to be considered as an efficient wireless system. Theoretical calculations agree with our experimental results and open the possibility to future optimizations of the proposed plasmonic wireless system.

  4. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  5. Gigabit Wireless for Network Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedel, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Uninterrupted, high-bandwidth network connectivity is crucial for higher education. Colleges and universities increasingly adopt gigabit wireless solutions because of their fiber-equivalent performance, quick implementation, and significant return on investment. For just those reasons, Rush University Medical Center switched from free space optics…

  6. Underwater optical wireless communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  7. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  8. The Wireless Student & the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville (SUNY-Morrisville) developed with IBM called ThinkPad University that integrates computers into the teaching and learning environment. Explains a partnership with Raytheon that provides wireless connectivity; and discusses changes in…

  9. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  10. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  11. LUMINOSITY OPTIMIZATION USING AUTOMATED IR STEERING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.D'OTTAVIO,T.

    2004-07-05

    The goal of the RHIC 2004 Au-Au run was to maximize the achieved integrated luminosity. One way is to increase beam currents and minimize beam transverse emittances. Another important ingredient is the minimization of time spent on activities postponing the declaration of ''physics conditions'', i.e. stable beam conditions allowing the experimental detectors to take data. Since collision rates are particularly high in the beginning of the store the integrated luminosity benefits considerably from any minute saved early in the store. In the RHIC run 2004 a new IR steering application uses luminosity monitor signals as a feedback for a fully automated steering procedure. This report gives an overview of the used procedure and summarizes the achieved results.

  12. Conceptual design of a beam steering lens through transformation electromagnetics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, based on transformation electromagnetics, the design procedure of a lens antenna, which steers the radiated beam of a patch array, is presented. Laplace's equation is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual space and the physical space. The two dimensional (2D) design method can be extended to a potential three-dimensional (3D) realization, and with a proper parameter simplification, the lens can be further realized by common metamaterials or isotropic graded refractive index (GRIN) materials. Full wave simulations are performed to validate the proposed concept. It is observed that by placing the lens on a feeding source, we are able to steer the radiation emitted by the latter source. PMID:26074547

  13. Pregastric esterase in milk sham fed to adult jersey steers.

    PubMed

    Leidy, R B; Russell, R W; Wise, G H

    1975-04-01

    Pregastric esterase activity was detected in reconstituted nonfat milk sham fed from a nipple pail to two 4-yr-old rumen-fistualted steers. Lipolytic activity, determined in a medium containing 5% tri-n-butyrin, averaged 8.6 plus or minus .4 lipase units. Further assays, in which activitiy was measured by free fatty acids released from a condensed milk substrate, averaged 166.9 plus or minus 9.2 mumol. These values are higher than those noted for young calves, indicating that secretion of pregastric esterase may persist in cattle beyond calfhood. Esterase activity in one of the steers fed whole milk until he was 2 yr of age showed no marked residual effect of earlier intake of milk fat. PMID:1127162

  14. Light steering in a strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Hu Wei; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    With a strongly nonlocal model, we present an analytical solution of the coherent interaction of two Gaussian beams with an arbitrary phase difference and arbitrary incident angles. Numerical simulations show that the analytical solution can describe the interaction of two Gaussian beams very well in the strongly nonlocal case. It is theoretically shown that one can steer lights in strongly nonlocal media by tuning the incident conditions of coherently interacting beams like the phase difference between beams and their relative amplitude.

  15. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Kim W.; Turman, Bobby N.; Kaye, Ronald J.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  16. Detecting the existence of an invisibility cloak using temporal steering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Chao, Ching-Shiang; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2015-01-01

    An invisibility cloak provides a way to hide an object under the detection of waves. A good cloak guides the incident waves through the cloaking shell with few distortion. Even if one day a nearly perfect cloak is built, some important quantum effects, such as dephasing of the electron spin or photon polarization, may still remain. In this work, we consider the possibility that using the temporal steering of these degrees of freedom to detect the existence of an invisibility cloak. PMID:26493048

  17. Detecting the existence of an invisibility cloak using temporal steering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Chao, Ching-Shiang; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2015-01-01

    An invisibility cloak provides a way to hide an object under the detection of waves. A good cloak guides the incident waves through the cloaking shell with few distortion. Even if one day a nearly perfect cloak is built, some important quantum effects, such as dephasing of the electron spin or photon polarization, may still remain. In this work, we consider the possibility that using the temporal steering of these degrees of freedom to detect the existence of an invisibility cloak. PMID:26493048

  18. Detecting the existence of an invisibility cloak using temporal steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Chao, Ching-Shiang; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2015-10-01

    An invisibility cloak provides a way to hide an object under the detection of waves. A good cloak guides the incident waves through the cloaking shell with few distortion. Even if one day a nearly perfect cloak is built, some important quantum effects, such as dephasing of the electron spin or photon polarization, may still remain. In this work, we consider the possibility that using the temporal steering of these degrees of freedom to detect the existence of an invisibility cloak.

  19. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  20. Computer simulation of space station computer steered high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The mathematical modeling and programming of a complete simulation program for a space station computer-steered high gain antenna are described. The program provides for reading input data cards, numerically integrating up to 50 first order differential equations, and monitoring up to 48 variables on printed output and on plots. The program system consists of a high gain antenna, an antenna gimbal control system, an on board computer, and the environment in which all are to operate.

  1. Steering magnet power supply control system for the TRISTAN AR

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, T.; Endo, K.; Fukuma, H.; Kabe, A.; Ozaki, T.

    1985-10-01

    The closed orbit distortion of TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) is corrected by the steering magnets (correction dipole magnets). These magnets are excited by the bipolar power supplies with the rated power of about 1 KVA. The power supplies are controlled remotely through the serial camac dataway. The camac modules which include the microprocessor are developed for this system and these modules send out the reference current patterns to the individual power supply.

  2. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry. PMID:21546675

  3. Method for obtaining proper injection steering into the LAMPF DTL

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarcyk, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    A portion of the LAMPF tune-up procedure involves properly steering beam from the 750 keV, low energy beam transport (LEBT) into Tank 1 of the 201.25 MHz drift tube linac (DTL). The previous method relied on a lengthy and somewhat arbitrary search over input beam trajectory parameters to obtain the desired result. A new algorithm is presented which produces a well centered beam in Tank 1 while significantly reducing the amount of time spent on this process.

  4. Catheter steering using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Viviane; Gosselin, Frederick P; Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    A catheter is successfully bent and steered by applying magnetic gradients inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system (MRI). One to three soft ferromagnetic spheres are attached at the distal tip of the catheter with different spacing between the spheres. Depending on the interactions between the spheres, progressive or discontinuous/jumping displacement was observed for increasing magnetic load. This phenomenon is accurately predicted by a simple theoretical dipole interaction model. PMID:21096567

  5. Erasmus Darwin's improved design for steering carriages and cars.

    PubMed

    King-Hele, Desmond

    2002-01-01

    Carriage journeys in England during the eighteenth century were notoriously dangerous. Rutted and pot-holed roads exacerbated the deficiencies in steering, springing and stability. In 1758 the young Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802; F. R. S. 1761) was travelling about 10,000 miles a year in visits to patients from his house at Lichfield. To alleviate the danger and discomfort of his journey, he developed a design for improved carriage steering and stability, which he road-tested over 20,000 miles on two carriages. In 1765 Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744-1817; F. R. S. 1718) heard about Darwin's design, urged the Society of Arts to enquire about it, and then visited Darwin himself. With the aid of manuscripts from the Archive of the Royal Society of Arts and elsewhere, I offer a reconstruction of Darwin's improved method of steering, which relies on four jointed rods, initially in the form of an isosceles trapezium. The mechanism was reinvented more than 50 years later, and came to be used widely in early modern cars. PMID:11949679

  6. Imperfection Insensitivity Analyses of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that serve as failure initiators. For the tow-steered shells, their circumferential variation in axial stiffness may have suppressed this sensitivity to imperfections, leading to the agreement noted between tests and analyses. To investigate this further, a numerical investigation was performed in this study using geometric imperfections measured from both shells. Finite element models of both shells were analyzed first without, and then, with measured imperfections that were then, superposed in different orientations around the shell longitudinal axis. Small variations in both the axial prebuckling stiffness and global buckling load were observed for the range of imperfections studied here, which suggests that the tow steering, and resulting circumferentially varying axial stiffness, may result in the test-analysis correlation observed for these shells.

  7. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac.

  8. Experimental measurement-device-independent verification of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Sacha; Hall, Michael J. W.; Bennet, Adam J.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2015-01-01

    Bell non-locality between distant quantum systems—that is, joint correlations which violate a Bell inequality—can be verified without trusting the measurement devices used, nor those performing the measurements. This leads to unconditionally secure protocols for quantum information tasks such as cryptographic key distribution. However, complete verification of Bell non-locality requires high detection efficiencies, and is not robust to typical transmission losses over long distances. In contrast, quantum or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a weaker form of quantum correlation, can be verified for arbitrarily low detection efficiencies and high losses. The cost is that current steering-verification protocols require complete trust in one of the measurement devices and its operator, allowing only one-sided secure key distribution. Here we present measurement-device-independent steering protocols that remove this need for trust, even when Bell non-locality is not present. We experimentally demonstrate this principle for singlet states and states that do not violate a Bell inequality.

  9. Hybrid silicon free-space source with integrated beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Bovington, J. T.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2013-02-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phase arrays are desirable as a means of implementing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and free-space communication links without the need for moving parts, thus alleviating vulnerabilities due to vibrations and inertial forces. Implementing such an approach in silicon photonic integrated circuits is particularly desirable in order to take advantage of established CMOS processing techniques while reducing both device size and packaging complexity. In this work we demonstrate a free-space diode laser together with beam steering implemented on-chip in a silicon photonic circuit. A waveguide phased array, surface gratings, a hybrid III-V/silicon laser and an array of hybrid III/V silicon amplifiers were fabricated on-chip in order to achieve a fully integrated steerable free-space optical source with no external optical inputs, thus eliminating the need for fiber coupling altogether. The chip was fabricated using a modified version of the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB, with modifications in order to incorporate diodes within the waveguide layer as well as within the III-V gain layer. Beam steering across a 12° field of view with +/-0.3° accuracy and 1.8°x0.6° beam width was achieved, with background peaks suppressed 7 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions.

  10. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    PubMed

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires. PMID:9331861

  11. The effect of supplementing rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids on marbling in early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Mangrum, K S; Tuttle, G; Duckett, S K; Sell, G S; Krehbiel, C R; Long, N M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation with a rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids (FA) source improved marbling deposition in early-weaned steers. All steers (Angus, = 23; Angus × Hereford, = 24) were weaned at 150 ± 5 d of age. Steers were blocked by BW and breed and then randomly assigned to either control (CON; average 1.5 kg of corn gluten feed [CGF], = 23) or isocaloric supplementation containing a rumen undegradable fat source (RUF; 200 g of Megalac-R added to an average of 1.06 kg of CGF, = 24) offered 5 d/wk for 110 d. All steers had ad libitum access to pastures throughout treatment and received supplements individually. Steer BW and blood samples were collected at 0, 55, and 110 d of supplementation, and real-time ultrasound measurements were collected at d 110. Following treatment, steers were transported to Oklahoma State University for finishing and subsequent harvesting at a commercial plant. All data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS either as repeated measures or ANOVA depending on parameters. There were no significant changes in BW from the beginning of treatment to harvest due to treatment. Ultrasound data showed that RUF steers tended ( = 0.08) to have more i.m. fat than CON at d 110. Serum concentrations of FA showed a treatment × day interaction ( < 0.02) for 16:0, 18:0, 18:1-9, 18:2, 20:4, and total FA. These specific FA concentrations slightly increased in CON steers, but there was a more pronounced increase in the concentration of these FA across the supplementation period in RUF steers. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were increased ( < 0.01) on d 55 and 110 in RUF steers compared with those in CON steers. Serum leptin concentration in RUF steers was greater ( < 0.01) than CON steers at d 110. After harvest, RUF carcasses had greater ( = 0.01) marbling scores than those of CON carcasses. All other carcass measures were similar between treatments. The percentage of total

  12. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  13. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  14. Analysis of Roll Steering for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, Dylan, M.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nothing is more vital to a spacecraft than power. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) uses that power to provide a safe, reliable, and, most importantly, fuel efficient means to propel a spacecraft to its destination. The power performance of an SEP vehicle s solar arrays and electrical power system (EPS) is largely influenced by the environment in which the spacecraft is operating. One of the most important factors that determines solar array power performance is how directly the arrays are pointed to the sun. To get the most power from the solar arrays, the obvious solution is to point them directly at the sun at all times. Doing so is not a problem in deep space, as the environment and pointing conditions that a spacecraft faces are fairly constant and are easy to accommodate, if necessary. However, large and sometimes rapid variations in environmental and pointing conditions are experienced by Earth orbiting spacecraft. SEP spacecraft also have the additional constraint of needing to keep the thrust vector aligned with the velocity vector. Thus, it is important to analyze solar array power performance for any vehicle that spends an extended amount of time orbiting the Earth, and to determine how much off-pointing can be tolerated to produce the required power for a given spacecraft. This paper documents the benefits and drawbacks of perfectly pointing the solar arrays of an SEP spacecraft spiraling from Earth orbit, and how this might be accomplished. Benefits and drawbacks are defined in terms of vehicle mass, power, volume, complexity, and cost. This paper will also look at the application of various solar array pointing methods to future missions. One such pointing method of interest is called roll steering . Roll steering involves rolling the entire vehicle twice each orbit. Roll steering, combined with solar array gimbal tracking, is used to point the solar arrays perfectly towards the sun at all points in the orbit, while keeping the vehicle thrusters aligned

  15. Wireless optical links for avionics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric; Koshinz, Dennis; Krug, William; Hager, Harold

    2011-06-01

    Recently there has been strong interest in wireless optical (WO) communication link applications in airplanes and avionics platforms for size, weight, power, cost, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction. Wireless optical link has additional advantage of providing network security because the optical signal from wireless optical link is well confined within an airplane or avionics vehicle. In this paper we discuss some potential wireless optical link applications in commercial airplanes and the challenges in the implementation of wireless optical links for these applications. We will present our experimental results on using white LED (WLED), visible laser source and free-space small-form-factor (SFF) optical transceivers to demonstrate the viability of applying wireless optical links in avionics platforms.

  16. Performance Analysis of IIUM Wireless Campus Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Latif, Suhaimi; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Anwar, Farhat

    2013-12-01

    International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is one of the leading universities in the world in terms of quality of education that has been achieved due to providing numerous facilities including wireless services to every enrolled student. The quality of this wireless service is controlled and monitored by Information Technology Division (ITD), an ISO standardized organization under the university. This paper aims to investigate the constraints of wireless campus network of IIUM. It evaluates the performance of the IIUM wireless campus network in terms of delay, throughput and jitter. QualNet 5.2 simulator tool has employed to measure these performances of IIUM wireless campus network. The observation from the simulation result could be one of the influencing factors in improving wireless services for ITD and further improvement.

  17. Consistent Steering System using SCTP for Bluetooth Scatternet Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaya, R.; Sadasivam, V.; Kanthavel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wireless communication is the best way to convey information from source to destination with flexibility and mobility and Bluetooth is the wireless technology suitable for short distance. On the other hand a wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Using Bluetooth piconet wireless technique in sensor nodes creates limitation in network depth and placement. The introduction of Scatternet solves the network restrictions with lack of reliability in data transmission. When the depth of the network increases, it results in more difficulties in routing. No authors so far focused on the reliability factors of Scatternet sensor network's routing. This paper illustrates the proposed system architecture and routing mechanism to increase the reliability. The another objective is to use reliable transport protocol that uses the multi-homing concept and supports multiple streams to prevent head-of-line blocking. The results show that the Scatternet sensor network has lower packet loss even in the congestive environment than the existing system suitable for all surveillance applications.

  18. Nonseparability and steerability of two-qubit states from the geometry of steering outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. Chau; Vu, Thanh

    2016-07-01

    When two qubits, A and B , are in an appropriate state, Alice can remotely steer Bob's system B into different ensembles by making different measurements on A . This famous phenomenon is known as quantum steering, or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. Importantly, quantum steering establishes the correspondence not only between a measurement on A (made by Alice) and an ensemble of B (owned by Bob) but also between each of Alice's measurement outcomes and an unnormalized conditional state of Bob's system. The unnormalized conditional states of B corresponding to all possible measurement outcomes of Alice are called Alice's steering outcomes. We show that, surprisingly, the four-dimensional geometry of Alice's steering outcomes completely determines both the nonseparability of the two-qubit state and its steerability from her side. Consequently, the problem of classifying two-qubit states into nonseparable and steerable classes is equivalent to geometrically classifying certain four-dimensional skewed double cones.

  19. Quantification of Einstein-Podolski-Rosen steering for two-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. C. S.; Angelo, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    In the last few years, several criteria to identify Einstein-Podolski-Rosen steering have been proposed and experimentally implemented. On the operational side, however, the evaluation of the steerability degree of a given state has shown to be a difficult task and only a few results are known. In this work, we propose a measure of steering that is based on the maximal violation of well-established steering inequalities. Applying this approach to two-qubit states, we managed to derive simple closed formulas for steering in the two- and three-measurement scenarios. We also provide closed formulas for quantifiers of Bell nonlocality in the respective scenarios. Finally, we show that our measures of steering verify the entanglement-steering-nonlocality hierarchy and reproduce results reported so far.

  20. Objectification of steering feel around straight-line driving for vehicle/tyre design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsik; Yoon, Yong-San

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the objectification techniques for the assessment of steering feel including {on-centre} feel and steering response by measurement data. Here, new objective parameters are developed by considering not only the process by which the steering feel is evaluated subjectively but also by the ergonomic perceptive sensitivity of the driver. In order to validate such objective parameters, subjective tests are carried out by professional drivers. Objective measurements are also performed for several cars at a proving ground. The linear correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings and the objective parameters are calculated. As one of new objective parameters, steering wheel angle defined by ergonomic perception sensitivity shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center responses. Newly defined steering torque curvature also shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center effort. These correlation results conclude that the subjective assessment of steering feel can be successfully explained and objectified by means of the suggested objective parameters.

  1. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  2. Automated alignment system for optical wireless communication systems using image recognition.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Paul; Weiss, Alexander; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter, we describe the realization of a tracked line-of-sight optical wireless communication system for indoor data distribution. We built a laser-based transmitter with adaptive focus and ray steering by a microelectromechanical systems mirror. To execute the alignment procedure, we used a CMOS image sensor at the transmitter side and developed an algorithm for image recognition to localize the receiver's position. The receiver is based on a self-developed optoelectronic integrated chip with low requirements on the receiver optics to make the system economically attractive. With this system, we were able to set up the communication link automatically without any back channel and to perform error-free (bit error rate <10⁻⁹) data transmission over a distance of 3.5 m with a data rate of 3 Gbit/s. PMID:24978803

  3. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... and Battery Packs; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of certain claims... importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or...

  4. Wireless Sensor Needs Defined by SBIR Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the needs for wireless sensor technology from various U.S. government agencies as exhibited by an analysis of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) solicitations. It would appear that a multi-agency group looking at overlapping wireless sensor needs and technology projects is desired. Included in this presentation is a review of the NASA SBIR process, and an examination of some of the SBIR projects from NASA, and other agencies that involve wireless sensor development

  5. Deformation effect simulation and optimization for double front axle steering mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jungang; Zhang, Siqin; Yang, Qinglong

    2013-03-01

    This paper research on tire wear problem of heavy vehicles with Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism from the flexible effect of Steering Mechanism, and proposes a structural optimization method which use both traditional static structural theory and dynamic structure theory - Equivalent Static Load (ESL) method to optimize key parts. The good simulated and test results show this method has high engineering practice and reference value for tire wear problem of Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism design.

  6. Suppression of beam steering in an injection-locked laser diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.R. )

    1991-12-09

    Experimental measurements were made to demonstrate that the degree of beam steering in an injection-locked laser diode array is related to the divergence of the master laser beam. For a collimated master laser beam the beam steering was suppressed. The injection-locked laser diode array beam steers with the master laser wavelength because only a portion of the divergent master laser beam satisfies the round trip mode condition.

  7. Packaging consideration of two-dimensional polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results were also reported.

  8. 46 CFR 35.20-10 - Steering gear test-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear test-T/ALL. 35.20-10 Section 35.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-10 Steering gear test—T/ALL. On all tankships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  9. Wireless magnetothermal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ritchie; Romero, Gabriela; Christiansen, Michael G; Mohr, Alan; Anikeeva, Polina

    2015-03-27

    Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, we demonstrate minimally invasive and remote neural excitation through the activation of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 by magnetic nanoparticles. When exposed to alternating magnetic fields, the nanoparticles dissipate heat generated by hysteresis, triggering widespread and reversible firing of TRPV1(+) neurons. Wireless magnetothermal stimulation in the ventral tegmental area of mice evoked excitation in subpopulations of neurons in the targeted brain region and in structures receiving excitatory projections. The nanoparticles persisted in the brain for over a month, allowing for chronic stimulation without the need for implants and connectors. PMID:25765068

  10. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference. PMID:25868265

  11. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  12. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  13. Wireless augmented reality communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The system of the present invention is a highly integrated radio communication system with a multimedia co-processor which allows true two-way multimedia (video, audio, data) access as well as real-time biomedical monitoring in a pager-sized portable access unit. The system is integrated in a network structure including one or more general purpose nodes for providing a wireless-to-wired interface. The network architecture allows video, audio and data (including biomedical data) streams to be connected directly to external users and devices. The portable access units may also be mated to various non-personal devices such as cameras or environmental sensors for providing a method for setting up wireless sensor nets from which reported data may be accessed through the portable access unit. The reported data may alternatively be automatically logged at a remote computer for access and viewing through a portable access unit, including the user's own.

  14. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  15. Self-Powered Wireless Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    NASA's integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) program offers the potential to improve aeronautical safety, reduce cost and improve performance by utilizing networks of wireless sensors. Development of sensor systems for engine hot sections will provide real-time data for prognostics and health management of turbo-engines. Sustainable power to embedded wireless sensors is a key challenge for prolong operation. Harvesting energy from the environment has emerged as a viable technique for power generation. Thermoelectric generators provide a direct conversion of heat energy to electrical energy. Micro-power sources derived from thermoelectric films are desired for applications in harsh thermal environments. Silicon based alloys are being explored for applications in high temperature environments containing oxygen. Chromium based p-type Si/Ge alloys exhibit Seebeck coefficients on the order of 160 micro V/K and low thermal conductance of 2.5 to 5 W/mK. Thermoelectric properties of bulk and thin film silicides will be discussed

  16. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.

    2006-10-31

    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  17. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  18. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  19. Studies of non-linear optical effects for agile beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachss, F.; McMichael, I.; Yeh, P.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this program is the demonstration of a new technique for massless beam steering of high energy laser radiation. Using the effect of nonlinear electrostriction in acousto-optic devices, we show large improvements in diffraction efficiency and resolution. These results are obtained through the development of a novel geometry for acousto-optic beam steering and of a prototype device designed to take advantage of this geometry. Theoretical and experimental results of this effort establish the validity of large aperture, high frequency nonlinear acousto-optic beam steering. The results are found to be applicable to steering of high power laser beams.

  20. Live animal performance, carcass traits, and meat palatability of calf- and yearling-fed cloned steers.

    PubMed

    Harris, J J; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B; Mies, W L; Hale, D S; Koohmaraie, M; Savell, J W

    1997-04-01

    Two groups of Brangus steers produced by nuclear transplantation cloning were used in parallel studies investigating the impact of calf- and yearling-feeding. The first group (n = 8) were fed as calves (CF; n = 4) or yearlings (YF; n = 4) to a constant age end point of 16 mo. The second group (n = 10) were fed as calves (CF; n = 5) or yearlings (YF; n = 5) to a constant live weight end point (530 kg). When slaughtered at the same age, CF and YF steers did not differ (P > .05) in feedlot ADG, but the CF steers were heavier and had higher dressing percentages, numeric yield grades, and quality grades (P < .05). Top loin steaks from the groups of steers did not differ (P > .05) in palatability traits. When fed to a constant live weight, the YF steers gained more rapidly (P < .05) and had lower (P < .05) numeric yield grades than did CF steers. Again CF steers had higher (P < .05) dressing percentages. There was no difference (P > .05) between the treatments in carcass quality grade or meat palatability characteristics. Thus, when finished to a constant weight end point, YF steers gained more rapidly, with no adverse effects on carcass quality grade or palatability traits; however, CF steers consistently produced higher dressing percentages, largely due to greater external fatness. PMID:9110211

  1. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic and conventional dairy steers were evaluated and compared for fatty acid profiles, meat quality, sensory attributes, and consumer acceptance. Bull calves (n=49) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups: conventional (CONV), organic (ORG, pasture + concentrate), or grass-fed organic (GRS) and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN) between March and May 2011. The CONV steers (n=16) were fed a diet that contained 80% concentrate and 20% forage, and ORG steers (n=16) were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and organic protein supplement. Furthermore, ORG steers consumed at least 30% of diet dry matter of high-quality organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers (n=17) consumed 100% forage from pasture during the grazing season and high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. The ORG steers had fat that was greater in oleic acid (C18:1) than the GRS and CONV steers (47.1, 36.1, and 39.9%, respectively). The GRS steers (21.9%) were lower for monounsaturated fat than the ORG (42.1%) and CONV (40.4%) steers. Furthermore, the GRS steers tended to have greater n-3 fat and had lower n-6 fat than the ORG and CONV steers. Consequently, the GRS (1.4%) steers had a lower n-6-to-n-3 fat ratio than the ORG (12.9%) and CONV (10.0%) steers. The GRS (2.6 kg) steers had steaks that were not different for Warner-Bratzler shear force than ORG (2.3 kg) steaks; however, the GRS steaks tended to have greater shear force than the CONV (2.0 kg) steaks. The 3 steer group had steaks that were not different for color brightness (L*; 0 = black and 100 = white) and yellowness/blueness (b*; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values; however, the GRS (10.5) steaks had lower redness/greenness (a*; positive values = red and negative values = green) values than CONV (14.5) steaks. For sensory attributes (0- to 120-point scale), no

  2. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Myer, P R; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C

    2015-11-01

    Apart from the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding the structure and function of bacterial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and their association with beef cattle feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Within 2 contemporary groups of steers, individual feed intake and BW gain were determined from animals fed the same diet. Within both of 2 contemporary groups, BW was regressed on feed intake and 4 steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled ( = 16/group). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the cecal content using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were detected among quadrants, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any differences among quadrants for microbial communities within the cecum. The relative abundances of microbial populations and operational taxonomic units revealed significant differences among feed efficiency groups ( < 0.05). Firmicutes was the dominant cecal phylum in all groups and accounted for up to 81% of the populations among samples. Populations were also dominated by families Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Clostridiaceae, with significant shifts in the relative abundance of taxa among feed efficiency groups, including families Ruminococcaceae ( = 0.040), Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.020), Erysipelotrichaceae ( = 0.046), and Clostridiaceae ( = 0.043) and genera ( = 0.049), ( = 0.044), ( = 0.042), ( = 0.040), ( = 0.042), and ( = 0.042). The study identified cecal microbial associations with feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This study suggests an association of the cecum microbial community with bovine feed efficiency at the 16S level. PMID:26641052

  3. A Study on the Steering Strategy for the Master Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Yin, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    A physical realization of UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) produced by the master clock system in a time laboratory is named UTC(k). In order to make the deviation of UTC(k) from UTC as small as possible, and keep high short-term and long-term frequency stabilities as well, a new steering algorithm is proposed, and the detailed algorithm is as follows: Firstly, a stable reference time scale (TA) for real-time monitoring UTC(NTSC) is introduced. The time scale algorithm generating TA, which is computed as a weighted average of about 22 free-running atomic clocks at National Time Service Center (NTSC), is based on the ALGOS algorithm. And the weighting procedure has been designed to optimize the short-term frequency stability of the scale. Secondly, the frequency offset is calculated. (1) The frequency of the master clock in the next time interval is calculated; (2) The phase difference between TA and UTC(NTSC) is deducted; (3) The final frequency offset is generated on the basis of above steps. A software is compiled according to this algorithm. The results calculated with the software are sent to the microphase stepper automatically, so that the time signal derived from the steered master clock can be accurate, meanwhile its stability is not influenced. Finally, the test results show that the new master clock steering strategy can control the phase offset within ±{15 ns}, meanwhile it can also improve its short-term stability on the condition that its long-term one is not influenced.

  4. A Study on the Steering Strategy for the Master Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Yin, Dong-Shan

    2015-01-01

    A physical realization of UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) by the master clock system in a time laboratory is named UTC(k). In order to make the deviation of UTC(k) from UTC as small as possible, and keep high short-term and long-term frequency stabilities as well, a new steering algorithm is proposed, and the detailed algorithm is as follows: Firstly, a stable reference time scale (TA) for real-time monitoring UTC(NTSC) is introduced. The time scale algorithm for generating TA, which is computed as a weighted average of about 22 free-running atomic clocks at the National Time Service Center (NTSC), is based on the ALGOS algorithm. And the weighting procedure is designed to optimize the short-term frequency stability of the scale. Secondly, the frequency offset is calculated. (1) The frequency of the master clock in the next time interval is calculated; (2) The phase difference between TA and UTC(NTSC) is deducted; (3) The final frequency offset is generated on the basis of above steps. A software is compiled according to this algorithm. The results calculated with the software are sent to the microphase stepper automatically, so that the time signal derived from the steered master clock can be accurate, meanwhile its stability is not influenced. Finally, the experimental result shows that the new master clock steering strategy can control the phase offset within ±15 ns, meanwhile it can also improve its short-term stability on the condition that its long-term one is not influenced.

  5. Electrostatic Steering Accelerates C3d:CR2 Association.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rohith R; Huber, Gary A; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-25

    Electrostatic effects are ubiquitous in protein interactions and are found to be pervasive in the complement system as well. The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) has evolved to become a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Electrostatic interactions have been suggested to be the driving factor for the association of the C3d:CR2 complex. In this study, we investigate the effects of ionic strength and mutagenesis on the association of C3d:CR2 through Brownian dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the formation of the C3d:CR2 complex is ionic strength-dependent, suggesting the presence of long-range electrostatic steering that accelerates the complex formation. Electrostatic steering occurs through the interaction of an acidic surface patch in C3d and the positively charged CR2 and is supported by the effects of mutations within the acidic patch of C3d that slow or diminish association. Our data are in agreement with previous experimental mutagenesis and binding studies and computational studies. Although the C3d acidic patch may be locally destabilizing because of unfavorable Coulombic interactions of like charges, it contributes to the acceleration of association. Therefore, acceleration of function through electrostatic steering takes precedence to stability. The site of interaction between C3d and CR2 has been the target for delivery of CR2-bound nanoparticle, antibody, and small molecule biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutics. A detailed knowledge of the physicochemical basis of C3d:CR2 association may be necessary to accelerate biomarker and drug discovery efforts. PMID:27092816

  6. Rumen Microbiome from Steers Differing in Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cattle rumen has a diverse microbial ecosystem that is essential for the host to digest plant material. Extremes in body weight (BW) gain in mice and humans have been associated with different intestinal microbial populations. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbiome of the cattle rumen among steers differing in feed efficiency. Two contemporary groups of steers (n=148 and n=197) were fed a ration (dry matter basis) of 57.35% dry-rolled corn, 30% wet distillers grain with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, 4.25% supplement, and 0.4% urea for 63 days. Individual feed intake (FI) and BW gain were determined. Within contemporary group, the four steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled (n=16/group) from the bivariate distribution of average daily BW gain and average daily FI. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the harvested bovine rumen fluid samples using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were indicated, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any separation of microbial communities within the rumen. However, the abundances of relative microbial populations and operational taxonomic units did reveal significant differences with reference to feed efficiency groups. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all ruminal groups, with significant population shifts in relevant ruminal taxa, including phyla Firmicutes and Lentisphaerae, as well as genera Succiniclasticum, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Prevotella. This study suggests the involvement of the rumen microbiome as a component influencing the efficiency of weight gain at the 16S level, which can be utilized to better understand variations in microbial ecology as well as host factors that will improve feed efficiency. PMID:26030887

  7. Rumen microbiome from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Myer, Phillip R; Smith, Timothy P L; Wells, James E; Kuehn, Larry A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2015-01-01

    The cattle rumen has a diverse microbial ecosystem that is essential for the host to digest plant material. Extremes in body weight (BW) gain in mice and humans have been associated with different intestinal microbial populations. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbiome of the cattle rumen among steers differing in feed efficiency. Two contemporary groups of steers (n=148 and n=197) were fed a ration (dry matter basis) of 57.35% dry-rolled corn, 30% wet distillers grain with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, 4.25% supplement, and 0.4% urea for 63 days. Individual feed intake (FI) and BW gain were determined. Within contemporary group, the four steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled (n=16/group) from the bivariate distribution of average daily BW gain and average daily FI. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the harvested bovine rumen fluid samples using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were indicated, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any separation of microbial communities within the rumen. However, the abundances of relative microbial populations and operational taxonomic units did reveal significant differences with reference to feed efficiency groups. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all ruminal groups, with significant population shifts in relevant ruminal taxa, including phyla Firmicutes and Lentisphaerae, as well as genera Succiniclasticum, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Prevotella. This study suggests the involvement of the rumen microbiome as a component influencing the efficiency of weight gain at the 16S level, which can be utilized to better understand variations in microbial ecology as well as host factors that will improve feed efficiency. PMID:26030887

  8. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  9. Mechanically-Steered, Mobile Satellite-Tracking Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. J.; Berner, J. B.; Jamnejad, V.; Woo, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    Signal from satellite tracked in moving vehicle. L-band, mechanically-steered, medium-gain antenna part of prototype radio equipment mounted in vehicle to demonstrate concept of land-mobile/satellite communication system. Provides such services as mobile telephone, voice or alphanumeric dispatch, paging, position-location information, and low-rate data transmission, for users within continental United States and Alaska. Antenna rotated mechanically until it finds direction from which maximum signal comes. Rate sensors provide inertial frame of reference during acquisition, so antenna locks onto signal even when vehicle turning.

  10. Laser stability and beam steering in a nonregular polygonal cavity.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bryn E; Stedman, Geoffrey E; Dunn, Robert W

    2002-03-20

    Two laser stability criteria or lasing conditions for cavity geometry based on the standard ABCD matrix analysis and the Bilger and Stedman analysis [Appl. Opt. 26, 3710 (1987)] are reconciled. Beam steering from mirror misalignment is discussed similarly, generalizing the Bilger and Stedman analysis to nonregular polygons by extending the standard ABCD matrix analysis to 3 x 3 matrices, which facilitates the thorough design of large rectangular ring lasers and is applied to a number of existing or planned ring lasers with perimeters of 77-120 m. PMID:11921797

  11. Secure Continuous Variable Teleportation and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiongyi; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Adesso, Gerardo; Reid, Margaret D.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the resources needed for secure teleportation of coherent states. We extend continuous variable teleportation to include quantum teleamplification protocols that allow nonunity classical gains and a preamplification or postattenuation of the coherent state. We show that, for arbitrary Gaussian protocols and a significant class of Gaussian resources, two-way steering is required to achieve a teleportation fidelity beyond the no-cloning threshold. This provides an operational connection between Gaussian steerability and secure teleportation. We present practical recipes suggesting that heralded noiseless preamplification may enable high-fidelity heralded teleportation, using minimally entangled yet steerable resources.

  12. Field Emitter Magnetic Sensor with Steered Focused Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaescu, Dan; Filip, Valeriu; Itoh, Junji

    2001-04-01

    A novel field emission magnetic sensor is proposed and its operation is theoretically analyzed. The sensor comprises a dual-gate wedge field emitter with a split gate having the double role of focusing and steering the electron beam. The electron beam deflection due to the Lorentz force is compensated by appropriate potentials applied to this electrode. The modeling results have been obtained using the Simion 3D 7.0 software package. The device has high sensitivity and its operation is not influenced by fluctuations in the emission current. Arrangements of mutually normal wedge emitters can be used for two-dimensional magnetic field sensing.

  13. Mechanically-steered disk antenna for mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarrick, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a low-profile disk antenna for vehicular mounting that accommodates L-Band (1525-1660.5 MHz) mobile satellite service requirements. The antenna uses a rotatable printed circuit array mechanically-steered in azimuth via an external tracking system. A shaped elevation beam inherent to the antenna design provides continuous coverage with a minimum gain of 9 dBic between elevation angles of 25-degrees and 60-degrees measured above the horizon. A brief background on the theory, design, and performance for this antenna is discussed.

  14. Modeling and simulation of the beam steering unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiayun; Li, Xiaoping; He, Xin; Wang, Jinchun

    2015-03-01

    Production lithography is undergoing a technology shift, and the requirements of beam delivery system (BDS) are increasing which also raises the precision requirements of the beam steering units (BSU) in BDS. In essence, the BSU is a two rotational degree of freedom platform. In this paper, a BSU based on 3-RPS flexure parallel mechanism is proposed. By analyzing the relationship between the unit's dimensions and mechanics, a mathematical model is built. Then the BSU with a balance between lower stress of the flexure hinges and higher accuracy of the unit can be got by optimizing the dimensions with the mathematical model. Finally a simulation is conducted to verify the design.

  15. Optical beam steering using a 2D MEMS scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétremand, Yves; Clerc, Pierre-André; Epitaux, Marc; Hauffe, Ralf; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, N. F.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and operation principle of an optical beam steerer for laser fiber coupling based on a MEMS device. The MEMS chip consists on a bi-dimensional movable platform based on uni-dimensional comb drive actuation. An optical lens is assembled onto the mobile platform to focus and steer the light comping from a laser diode and couple it into an optical fiber. Assembly of a complete system and measurements were performed and compared to simulation results. Both the trajectory of the MEMS and resonance frewquency measurements agree with the simulated ones.

  16. Secure Continuous Variable Teleportation and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    PubMed

    He, Qiongyi; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Adesso, Gerardo; Reid, Margaret D

    2015-10-30

    We investigate the resources needed for secure teleportation of coherent states. We extend continuous variable teleportation to include quantum teleamplification protocols that allow nonunity classical gains and a preamplification or postattenuation of the coherent state. We show that, for arbitrary Gaussian protocols and a significant class of Gaussian resources, two-way steering is required to achieve a teleportation fidelity beyond the no-cloning threshold. This provides an operational connection between Gaussian steerability and secure teleportation. We present practical recipes suggesting that heralded noiseless preamplification may enable high-fidelity heralded teleportation, using minimally entangled yet steerable resources. PMID:26565449

  17. Wireless Laptops and Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolson, Stephanie Diane

    2001-01-01

    Describes experiences at St. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley (Missouri) with the use of wireless technology and a local area network for library bibliographic instruction. Discusses faculty input and attitudes; technical challenges; and experiences at other community colleges that have found wireless connections more economical than…

  18. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  19. Wireless power transfer to a cardiac implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghoek; Ho, John S.; Chen, Lisa Y.; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2012-08-01

    We analyze wireless power transfer between a source and a weakly coupled implant on the heart. Numerical studies show that mid-field wireless powering achieves much higher power transfer efficiency than traditional inductively coupled systems. With proper system design, power sufficient to operate typical cardiac implants can be received by millimeter-sized coils.

  20. Tips for Implementing a Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walery, Darrell

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a quick start guide to provide educators with the basic points to consider before installing a wireless network in the school. Since many school districts have already implemented wireless networks, there is a lot of information available online to assist in the process.

  1. Evaluation of wireless data communications at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1995-01-01

    This project is motivated by the need for temporary or emergency provisioning of LAN service at KSC. The main goal of the project was to evaluate existing wireless bridge equipment in the KSC environment. Wireless bridge equipment can be used to make a wireless connection between two remotely located LAN segments. This report describes the experimental setup used to evaluate the equipment, including antenna connections, workstation connections, bridge software and workstation software The rangefinder program on the bridge was used to gather data about how the RF propagation environment at KSC affects the performance of the wireless bridge. Data was gathered for indoor as well as outdoor propagation. The report concludes with recommendations on how to take into account the particular terrain and building structures at KSC to design future applications of wireless bridges.

  2. Steering law for parallel mounted double-gimbaled control moment gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Parallel mounting of double-gimbaled control moment gyros (DG CMG) is discussed in terms of simplification of the steering law. The steering law/parallel mounted DG CMG is considered to be a 'CMG kit' applicable to any space vehicle where the need for DG CMG's has been established.

  3. 76 FR 70130 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Agencies represented as members of...

  4. 78 FR 54248 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... Agency (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Member agencies include: EPA; the...

  5. 75 FR 66092 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Agencies represented as members of...

  6. Alterations in the somatotrophic axis during an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral (IBRV) challenge in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects IBRV has on immunological and physiological parameters of cattle, 12 Angus crossbred steers (228.82 ± 22.15 kg) were randomly assigned to either a Control group or an IBRV challenged group. Prior to the challenge steers were fitted with an indwelling rectal probe, BW were rec...

  7. Method for controlling a vehicle with two or more independently steered wheels

    DOEpatents

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1995-03-28

    A method is described for independently controlling each steerable drive wheel of a vehicle with two or more such wheels. An instantaneous center of rotation target and a tangential velocity target are inputs to a wheel target system which sends the velocity target and a steering angle target for each drive wheel to a pseudo-velocity target system. The pseudo-velocity target system determines a pseudo-velocity target which is compared to a current pseudo-velocity to determine a pseudo-velocity error. The steering angle targets and the steering angles are inputs to a steering angle control system which outputs to the steering angle encoders, which measure the steering angles. The pseudo-velocity error, the rate of change of the pseudo-velocity error, and the wheel slip between each pair of drive wheels are used to calculate intermediate control variables which, along with the steering angle targets are used to calculate the torque to be applied at each wheel. The current distance traveled for each wheel is then calculated. The current wheel velocities and steering angle targets are used to calculate the cumulative and instantaneous wheel slip and the current pseudo-velocity. 6 figures.

  8. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 130.140... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.140 Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Except as provided in § 128.110 of this subchapter, each OSV of 100 GRT...

  9. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... gear, controls, and communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the...

  10. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for...

  11. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for...

  12. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests. 185.320 Section 185.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.320 Steering gear, controls, and communication...

  13. PRELIMINARY GRAZING STUDIES WITH RUMEN-FISTULATED STEERS AT SELECTED NUCLEAR-TEST SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rumen-fistulated steers (steers with a capped tube inserted into a permanent surgical opening into the stomach) were allowed to graze the fallout zones of six selected nuclear-test sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. Ingesta samples were analyzed for radionuclid...

  14. Inverse free steering law for small satellite attitude control and power tracking with VSCMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S. I.; Asghar, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACSs) for small satellite, has opened a new dimension to more complex and demanding space missions. This paper presents a new inverse free steering approach for integrated power and attitude control systems using variable-speed single gimbal control moment gyroscope. The proposed inverse free steering law computes the VSCMG steering commands (gimbal rates and wheel accelerations) such that error signal (difference in command and output) in feedback loop is driven to zero. H∞ norm optimization approach is employed to synthesize the static matrix elements of steering law for a static state of VSCMG. Later these matrix elements are suitably made dynamic in order for the adaptation. In order to improve the performance of proposed steering law while passing through a singular state of CMG cluster (no torque output), the matrix element of steering law is suitably modified. Therefore, this steering law is capable of escaping internal singularities and using the full momentum capacity of CMG cluster. Finally, two numerical examples for a satellite in a low earth orbit are simulated to test the proposed steering law.

  15. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  16. Mineral retention of serially slaughtered Holstein steers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein steers (n = 115; 449 ± 20 kg) were utilized in a serial harvest trial measuring Ca, P, Mg, K, and S retention. A baseline group of 5 steers was harvested after 226 days on feed, which was designated d 0. Remaining cattle were assigned to 11 harvest groups, with slaughter every 28 d. Prio...

  17. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management…

  18. Relationship of leptin concentrations with feed intake, growth, and efficiency in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of serum leptin concentrations with production measures including DMI, ADG, G:F as well as carcass characteristics in genetically diverse finishing beef steers. Three cohorts of steers (n = 473 total) were individually fed a finishin...

  19. Hybrid Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in an atom-optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Huatang; Sun, Lihui

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering manifests a type of quantum correlations intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. In this paper we propose a scheme for realizing hybrid atom-mechanical quantum steering in the steady-state regime. In our scheme, an optomechanical two-mode cavity is coupled to a distant ensemble of double-λ atoms in a cascade way, which induces the dissipative interaction between the mechanics and the internal atomic states. We show that strong cavity dissipation can lead to two-way atom-mechanical steering and the optimal steering exhibited in an approximate two-mode squeezed-vacuum atom-mechanical state. Moreover, we find that for the present cascade coupling scheme, the one-way steering from the mechanical oscillator to the atoms is achievable under certain conditions, while the reverse one-way steering is impossible to obtain. The reason for achieving the asymmetric steering is analyzed and the effect of mechanical thermal noise on the steering is also studied.

  20. 46 CFR 35.20-10 - Steering gear test-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steering gear test-T/ALL. 35.20-10 Section 35.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-10 Steering gear test—T/ALL. On all tankships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the...