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Sample records for microorganisms laboratory set

  1. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  2. Biosafety Guidelines for Handling Microorganisms in the Teaching Laboratory: Development and Rationale†

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Elizabeth A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The safe handling of microorganisms in the teaching laboratory is a top priority. However, in the absence of a standard set of biosafety guidelines tailored to the teaching laboratory, individual educators and institutions have been left to develop their own plans. This has resulted in a lack of consistency, and differing levels of biosafety practices across institutions. Influenced by the lack of clear guidelines and a recent outbreak of Salmonella infections that was traced back to teaching laboratory exposures, the Education Board of the American Society for Microbiology charged a task force to develop a uniform set of biosafety guidelines for working with microorganisms in the teaching laboratory. These guidelines represent best practices for safely handling microbes, based on the safety requirements found in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). Guidelines for safely handling microbes at both biosafety level 1 (BSL1) and biosafety level 2 (BSL2) were developed. The guidelines are brief by design for ease of use and are accompanied by an extensive appendix containing explanatory notes, sample documents, and additional resources. These guidelines provide educators with a clear and consistent way to safely work with microorganisms in the teaching laboratory. PMID:23858356

  3. Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mont Terri Rock Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauclaire, L.; McKenzie, J. A.; Schwyn, B.; Bossart, P.

    Although microorganisms have been isolated from various deep-subsurface environments, the persistence of microbial activity in claystones buried to great depths and on geological time scales has been poorly studied. The presence of in-situ microbial life in the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mesozoic claystone, 170 million years old) at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Canton Jura, Switzerland was investigated. Opalinus Clay is a host rock candidate for a radioactive waste repository. Particle tracer tests demonstrated the uncontaminated nature of the cored samples, showing their suitability for microbiological investigations. To determine whether microorganisms are a consistent and characteristic component of the Opalinus Clay Formation, two approaches were used: (i) the cultivation of indigenous micoorganisms focusing mainly on the cultivation of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and (ii) the direct detection of molecular biomarkers of bacteria. The goal of the first set of experiments was to assess the presence of cultivable microorganisms within the Opalinus Clay Formation. After few months of incubation, the number of cell ranged from 0.1 to 2 × 10 3 cells ml -1 media. The microorganisms were actively growing as confirmed by the observation of dividing cells, and detection of traces of sulfide. To avoid cultivation bias, quantification of molecular biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids) was used to assess the presence of autochthonous microorganisms. These molecules are good indicators of the presence of living cells. The Opalinus Clay contained on average 64 ng of PLFA g -1 dry claystone. The detected microbial community comprises mainly Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria as indicated by the ratio of iso/anteiso phospholipids (about 2) and the detection of large amount of β-hydroxy substituted fatty acids. The PLFA composition reveals the presence of specific functional groups of microorganisms in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  5. Laboratory and field evidence for long-term starvation survival of microorganisms in subsurface terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Murphy, Ellyn M.; Amy, P. S.; Haldeman, D. L.; Ringelberg, David B.; White, David C.

    1997-07-01

    Biogeochemical modeling of groundwater flow and nutrient flux in subsurface environments indicates that inhabitant microorganisms experience severe nutrient limitation. Using laboratory and field methods, we have been testing starvation survival in subsurface microorganisms. In microcosm experiments, we have shown that strains of two commonly isolated subsurface genera, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas, are able to maintain viability in low-nutrient, natural subsurface sediments for over one year. These non- spore-forming bacteria undergo rapid initial miniaturization followed by a stabilization of cell size. Membrane lipid phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of the Pseudomonas are consistent with adaptation to nutrient stress; Arthrobacter apparently responds to nutrient deprivation without altering membrane PLFAs. To test survivability of microorganisms over a geologic time scale, we characterized microbial communities in a sequence of unsaturated sediments ranging in age from modern to > 780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass- balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the makeup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities. These and other studies provide evidence that microorganisms can survive nutrient limitation for geologic time periods.

  6. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Murphy, E.M.; Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L.; Ringelberg, D. B. |

    1997-12-31

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  7. [Set of radiocirculographic attachments for radioisotope laboratories].

    PubMed

    Devishev, M I; Panfilova, N P; Ostrogradskaia, M G

    1980-01-01

    A set of radiocirculographic attachments is offered which serves for calibration and verification of readings taken from the apparatus during radiographic procedures. The set is designed for operation with all colimators of radiocirculographs produced in the USSR and Hungarian People's Republic. The set is able to imitate the investigation geometry, accumulation of radioactivity in the organ under study, absorption and scattering of radioactivty in the organism tissues. Series production of this device has already been initiated. PMID:7392870

  8. Strengthening laboratory systems in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Stuart S; Moore, Melinda; Meili, Robin C; Duber, Herbert C; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Sama, Preethi; Mundell, Ben; Hilborne, Lee H

    2010-09-01

    Considerable resources have been invested in recent years to improve laboratory systems in resource-limited settings. We reviewed published reports, interviewed major donor organizations, and conducted case studies of laboratory systems in 3 countries to assess how countries and donors have worked together to improve laboratory services. While infrastructure and the provision of services have seen improvement, important opportunities remain for further advancement. Implementation of national laboratory plans is inconsistent, human resources are limited, and quality laboratory services rarely extend to lower tier laboratories (eg, health clinics, district hospitals). Coordination within, between, and among governments and donor organizations is also frequently problematic. Laboratory standardization and quality control are improving but remain challenging, making accreditation a difficult goal. Host country governments and their external funding partners should coordinate their efforts effectively around a host country's own national laboratory plan to advance sustainable capacity development throughout a country's laboratory system. PMID:20716792

  9. Macroalgal decomposition: Laboratory studies with particular regard to microorganisms and meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1990-09-01

    The microbial degradation of North Sea macroalgae was studied in laboratory microcosms, containing autoclaved seawater and a mixture of equal parts of air-dried Delesseria sanguinea, Ulva lactuca, and Laminaria saccharina (red, green and brown algae, respectively). To determine the influence of different organisms on the decomposition rate (expressed in terms of algal dry weight loss relative to the material present at time zero) and their development during decomposition processes, yeast, flagellates, ciliates, nematodes and a harpacticoid copepod species were introduced to the microcosms. Results show that microbial degradation compared to the controls was enhanced in the presence of non-axenic nematodes ( Monhystera sp.) and protozoans, including bacterivorous ciliates ( Euplotes sp. and a Uronema-like sp.) and flagellates. No enhancement occurred with yeast ( Debaryomyces hansenii) or with the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae. The most rapid algal dry weight loss (78.7% after 14 d at 18°C) occurred with the addition of raw seawater sampled near benthic algal vegetation and containing only the natural microorganisms present. These consisted mainly of bacteria with different morphological properties, whereby their numbers alone (viable counts) could not be correlated with algal dry weight loss. Although no single dominant species could be determined, lemon yellow pigmented colonies were frequently found. During decomposition in all microcosms the formation of algal particles 40 400 μm was observed, which were rapidly colonized by the other organisms present.

  10. Bacterial vaginosis: prevalence in outpatients, association with some micro-organisms and laboratory indices.

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, L; Coffetti, N; Dalvai, G; Lorusso, L; Lorenzi, M

    1989-01-01

    Seven hundred and ninety three women were investigated, aged between 16 and 78 years, to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and some associated micro-organisms, and to discuss the significance of laboratory indices correlated to this pathology. BV was diagnosed on the basis of four distinct criteria: a positive result of the test for amines with 10% KOH (odour-test), the presence of clue cells on fresh microscopic examination, a pH greater than 4.5 and direct Gram stain positive (the presence of more than 40 Gram negative or Gram variable coccobacilli per microscopic field by 1000 magnifications under oil immersion). The total prevalence of BV was 20.5% (163); similar percentages were found in both fertile and pregnant women, whereas a lower percentage (12.7%) was found in menopausal women. Gardnerella vaginalis was present in 235 (29.6%) of the 793 women, in 144 (88.3%) of the 163 with BV and in 91 (14.4%) of the 630 women without BV. Mobiluncus species was present in 8.2% (65) of the total population, in 38.6% (63) of the women with BV and only in two (0.3%) of the women without BV. In the women with BV lower percentages were found for Trichomonas vaginalis, yeasts, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The absence of a definite relationship between BV and cultural isolation of G vaginalis is confirmed whereas the role played by Mobiluncus spp still has to be clarified. It is concluded that it is not necessary to screen with all four laboratory indices. Two positive indices from a panel of three (excluding pH greater than 4.5 and direct Gram stain positive in the same panel) allows the correct diagnosis of BV in almost all cases. PMID:2515148

  11. Transformations. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. The thrust of this module is to introduce the student to transformations by having the student physically transform sets of points. Heavy use of manipulatives is made to aid the student in the transforming activity. Individual sections…

  12. An investigation and evaluation on species and characteristics of pathogenic microorganisms in Chinese local hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Lü, Xiaoli; Cao, Weiping; Zhang, Chunxia; Xu, Rongfa; Meng, Xu; Chen, Keping

    2015-12-01

    There are currently great concerns about the level of bacterial contamination in hospitals, as well as resistance to antimicrobial agents. The species and characteristics of microbes in Chinese hospitals are closely related to healthcare safety and the prevention and control of infections. However, data on the exposure of patients to microbes in Chinese hospitals are limited. The present study investigated the genera of microorganisms in Chinese hospitals. We evaluated their characteristics, such as antibiotic susceptibility, tolerance to disinfectants, and toxicity, using silkworms (Bombyx mori) as an animal model. Twenty-six distinct bacterial strains were isolated, and their genera were determined by sequencing their 16S rDNA regions. Twenty-five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and six strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration testing showed that eight strains were resistant to a chlorine-containing disinfectant, and 12 strains were resistant to Povidone-iodine. Following the injection of bacterial cultures into the silkworm hemolymph, 15 strains killed all of the silkworms within 5 d. Additionally, bacterial strain 14 killed all of silkworms within 12 h with a median lethal dose of 4 × 10(4) colony-forming units/larva. This study provides useful information for healthcare safety in Chinese hospitals. PMID:26505809

  13. Integrating teaching and research in the field and laboratory settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kaseke, K. F.; Daryanto, S.; Ravi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Field observations and laboratory measurements are great ways to engage students and spark students' interests in science. Typically these observations are separated from rigorous classroom teaching. Here we assessed the potential of integrating teaching and research in the field and laboratory setting in both US and abroad and worked with students without strong science background to utilize simple laboratory equipment and various environmental sensors to conduct innovative projects. We worked with students in Namibia and two local high school students in Indianapolis to conduct leaf potential measurements, soil nutrient extraction, soil infiltration measurements and isotope measurements. The experience showed us the potential of integrating teaching and research in the field setting and working with people with minimum exposure to modern scientific instrumentation to carry out creative projects.

  14. Growth of microorganisms in Martian-like shallow subsurface conditions: laboratory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. K.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Vdovina, M. A.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Low atmospheric pressures on Mars and the lack of substantial amounts of liquid water were suggested to be among the major limiting factors for the potential Martian biosphere. However, large amounts of ice were detected in the relatively shallow subsurface layers of Mars by the Odyssey Mission and when ice sublimates the water vapour can diffuse through the porous surface layer of the soil. Here we studied the possibility for the active growth of microorganisms in such a vapour diffusion layer. Our results showed the possibility of metabolism and the reproduction of non-extremophile terrestrial microorganisms (Vibrio sp.) under very low (0.01-0.1 mbar) atmospheric pressures in a Martian-like shallow subsurface regolith.

  15. Quantifying the accuracy of laboratory SIP experimental set ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method has reemerged as a promising method for subsurface investigations. The sensitivity of SIP to bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties permits a wider range of hydrogeophysical and environmental applications, including monitoring of subsurface biogeochemical transformations. Improvements in instrumentation and experimental designs, along with faster acquisition capabilities and easy access to processing routines are encouraging novel applications of the method, and support quantitative interpretation of the data acquired. Motivated by recent research that focus on small scale changes, over large frequency ranges, we performed a series of experiments to identify the accuracy of common laboratory SIP experimental set ups. We performed measurements on resistor - capacitor (RC) networks, to identify the instrumentation accuracy, and also on standard laboratory columns filled with materials of known SIP response, primarily on well characterized fluids of different conductivity. Early results show small errors in the low frequency range, attributed to electrode polarization; in higher frequencies, typically above 1000 Hz, the errors may become significant limiting the meaningful interpretation of small phase angles at these frequencies. The data will be compared with published data using comparable experimental set ups, and could be used to set realistic expectations on future SIP experiments and applications. With this work we aim at developing a best practices document that can aid the SIP user in collecting meaningful and repeatable results.

  16. TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey, III

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

  17. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural Resources"; "Dreams Becoming Realities"; "Small Scale Land…

  18. Laboratory Simulation of Acute X-Ray Radiation Emitted by Stellar Explosions and Survival Conditions of Extremophilic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Galante, D.; Cockell, C.; Olsson-Francis, K.; Azua-Bustos, A.; Vicuna, R.; Pacheco, E. J.; Lage, C. A. S.; Mason, N. J.

    2010-04-01

    Irradiations of two bacterial species were performed using a white beam of synchrotron X-rays in an attempt to simulate the effects of energetic astrophysical events on these microorganisms. A fraction of cells could survive such events.

  19. Microorganism immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  20. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  1. Should a Service Setting Be Used as a Learning Laboratory? An Ethical Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sheila

    1977-01-01

    To develop better guidelines for its use, the experiential service setting is examined ethically and the conditions under which this setting can and cannot be used as a learning laboratory are specified. (TA)

  2. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    (54.5%) strains, no identification was given and for 69 (38.7%) strains, an incorrect identification was obtained. Our study demonstrates that both systems gave a high level (above 85%) of correct identification for a wide range of microorganisms. However, VITEK MS gave more misidentification when the microorganism analysed was not present in the database, compared to Bruker Biotyper. This should be taken into account when this technology is used alone for microorganism identification in a public health laboratory, where isolates received are often difficult to identify and/or unusual microorganisms. PMID:26658918

  3. VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. Role of microorganisms in emission of nitrous oxide and methane in pulse cultivated soil under laboratory incubation condition.

    PubMed

    Jena, Jyotsnarani; Ray, Sanak; Srichandan, Haragobinda; Das, Anuradha; Das, Trupti

    2013-03-01

    Soil from a pulse cultivated farmers land of Odisha, India, have been subjected to incubation studies for 40 consecutive days, to establish the impact of various nitrogenous fertilizers and water filled pore space (WFPS) on green house gas emission (N2O & CH4). C2H2 inhibition technique was followed to have a comprehensive understanding about the individual contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers towards the emission of N2O. Nevertheless, low concentration of C2H2 (5 ml: flow rate 0.1 kg/cm(2)) is hypothesized to partially impede the metabolic pathways of denitrifying bacterial population, thus reducing the overall N2O emission rate. Different soil parameters of the experimental soil such as moisture, total organic carbon, ammonium content and nitrate-nitrogen contents were measured at regular intervals. Application of external N-sources under different WFPS conditions revealed the diverse role played by the indigenous soil microorganism towards green house gas emission. Isolation of heterotrophic microorganisms (Pseudomonas) from the soil samples, further supported the fact that denitrification might be prevailing during specific conditions thus contributing to N2O emission. Statistical analysis showed that WFPS was the most influential parameter affecting N2O formation in soil in absence of an inhibitor like C2H2. PMID:24426084

  5. Setting up a CLIA-certified laboratory in a student health services clinic.

    PubMed

    Nash, K A; Ross, A

    1999-11-01

    Performing some laboratory tests on site at a student health service clinic may increase efficiency and cut costs for patients. However, with the passage of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988, many laboratories in physician offices and clinics have shut down because of increased regulatory requirements. The personnel in one SHS laboratory found that the guidelines proposed by CLIA help assure quality care and are not prohibitive. In this article, the process of applying for and receiving a CLIA certificate in the student health clinic setting is explored. PMID:10584449

  6. Nomenclature and basic concepts in automation in the clinical laboratory setting: a practical glossary.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Dalamaga, Maria; Panoutsopoulos, Konstantinos; Dima, Kleanthi

    2013-01-01

    In the early 80s, the word automation was used in the clinical laboratory setting referring only to analyzers. But in late 80s and afterwards, automation found its way into all aspects of the diagnostic process, embracing not only the analytical but also the pre- and post-analytical phase. While laboratories in the eastern world, mainly Japan, paved the way for laboratory automation, US and European laboratories soon realized the benefits and were quick to follow. Clearly, automation and robotics will be a key survival tool in a very competitive and cost-concious healthcare market. What sets automation technology apart from so many other efficiency solutions are the dramatic savings that it brings to the clinical laboratory. Further standardization will assure the success of this revolutionary new technology. One of the main difficulties laboratory managers and personnel must deal with when studying solutions to reengineer a laboratory is familiarizing themselves with the multidisciplinary and technical terminology of this new and exciting field. The present review/glossary aims at giving an overview of the most frequently used terms within the scope of laboratory automation and to put laboratory automation on a sounder linguistic basis. PMID:24409653

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of six strongly fractionating microorganisms is not affected by growth temperature under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penger, Jörn; Conrad, Ralf; Blaser, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Temperature is the major driving force for many biological as well as chemical reactions and may impact the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes. Thus, a good correlation between temperature and fractionation is observed in many chemical systems that are controlled by an equilibrium isotope effect. In contrast, biological systems that are usually controlled by a kinetic isotope effect are less well studied with respect to temperature effects and have shown contrasting results. We studied three different biological pathways (methylotrophic methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, acetogenesis by the acetyl-CoA pathway) which are characterized by very strong carbon isotope enrichment factors (-50‰ to -83‰). The microorganisms (Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanolobus zinderi, Methanothermobacter marburgensis, Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, Thermoanaerobacter kivui) exhibiting these pathways were grown at different temperatures ranging between 25 and 68 °C, and the fractionation factors were determined from 13C/12C isotope discrimination during substrate depletion and product formation. Our experiments showed that the fractionation factors were different for the different metabolic pathways but were not much affected by the different growth temperatures. Slight variations were well within the standard errors of replication and regression analysis. Our results showed that temperature had no significant effect on the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during anaerobic microbial metabolism with relatively strong isotope fractionation.

  8. Sleep disturbances from road traffic noise: A comparison between laboratory and field settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skånberg, A.; Öhrström, E.

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in the effects of noise on sleep between studies performed in the laboratory and in field settings with equal road traffic noise exposure. Fourteen subjects, living along a street with a relatively high load of road traffic and with bedroom windows facing the street, slept four nights at home and four nights in a sleep laboratory, where they were exposed to played back "home road traffic noise". Effects on sleep were evaluated by questionnaires and wrist-actigraphy. No significant differences in sleep quality were found between home and laboratory conditions on variables assessed either by questionnaires or wrist-actigraphy. It was concluded that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate the effects of road traffic noise on sleep, provided that sleep is studied with the same methods and that a homelike environment is created in the laboratory.

  9. Parallels, How Many? Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. This module was conceived as an alternative approach to the usual practice of giving Euclid's parallel postulate and then mentioning that alternate postulates would lead to an alternate geometry or geometries. Instead, the student is led…

  10. Triangle Similarity. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. The purpose of this module is to teach solution of proportions, concepts and theorems of triangle similarity, solution of the Pythagorean Theorem, solution of the isosceles right triangle, and concepts involving "rep-tile" figures as well…

  11. Coordinate Geometry. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. This module includes: (1) Pythagorean Theorem (with review of radicals); (2) Basic Coordinate Geometry (distance and midpoint, slope, slope of parallels and perpendiculars, and equation of a line); (3) Selecting Coordinates; (4) Coordinate…

  12. Classifying Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  13. Use of the nursing simulation laboratory in reentry programs: an innovative setting for updating clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Wood, R Y

    1994-01-01

    Nurses who have been inactive for five or more years are deficient in technical skills and have high levels of anxiety regarding these deficiencies. Collegiate school of nursing laboratories are ideal settings to provide skill practice, reduce fear regarding new technology, and restore confidence of returnees. This article describes the laboratory component of a clinical update course that uses principles of adult education and self-pacing through independent learning stations to teach contemporary nursing skills. A description of instructional resources and equipment used to facilitate the practice is included. PMID:8138599

  14. Summary information and data sets for NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981 - 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  15. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of tank sludges: GAAT, OHF, and combined tank sets.

    PubMed

    Spence, R D; Mattus, C H

    2004-03-01

    Highly radioactive, mixed-waste sludges that have been collected at Oak Ridge over several decades are being combined for treatment and disposal. Stabilization of the sludges in the different tank sets was tested prior to the proposed combination and treatment. This paper, which follows a previous article on the Melton Valley Storage Tank/Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank set, documents the testing of the Gunite and Associated Tank and Old Hydrofracture Facility tank sets, as well as the combined sludges of all the Oak Ridge National Laboratory tank sets; the third paper on this subject will discuss efforts to maximize the sludge loading. The grout formulations were tested in the laboratory with surrogates. A wet-sludge loading of 60wt% resulted in strong wasteforms with no free water and gave a volume increase of about 30-40vol%. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals included in the surrogate testing were silver, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, thallium, zinc, and mercury. The grout formulations stabilized these metals within the Universal Treatment Standards limits. In addition, a grout leachability index of about 10.0-12.0 was measured for both (85)Sr and (137)Cs, meeting the recommended requirement of >6.0. PMID:15036694

  16. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  17. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  18. Magnesium isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion in natural settings and in laboratory analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Rahul; Richter, Frank M.; Bruce Watson, E.; Scullard, Christian R.

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory experiments are used to document isotopic fractionation of magnesium by chemical diffusion in a silicate melt and the results compared to the magnesium isotopic composition across contacts between igneous rocks of different composition in natural settings. The natural samples are from transects from felsic to mafic rocks at Vinal Cove in the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine and from the Aztec Wash pluton in Nevada. Two laboratory diffusion couples made by juxtaposing melts made from powders of the felsic and mafic compositions sampled at Vinal Cove were annealed at about 1500 °C for 22.5 and 10 h, respectively. The transport of magnesium in the diffusion couples resulted in easily measured magnesium isotopic fractionations at the interface (δ26Mg∼1.5‰). These isotopic fractionations provide a distinctive isotopic “fingerprint” that we use to determine whether chemical gradients in natural settings where melts of different composition were juxtaposed were due to chemical diffusion. The magnesium isotopic fractionation along one profile at Vinal Cove is exactly what one would expect based on the fractionations found in the laboratory experiments. This is an important result in that it shows that the isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion found in highly controlled laboratory experiments can be found in a natural setting. This correspondence implies that chemical diffusion was the dominant process responsible for the transport of magnesium across this particular contact at Vinal Cove. A second Vinal Cove profile has a very similar gradient in magnesium concentration but with significantly less magnesium isotopic fractionation than expected. This suggests that mass transport at this location was only partly by diffusion and that some other mass transport mechanism such as mechanical mixing must have also played a role. The magnesium isotopic composition of samples from Aztec Wash shows no resolvable isotopic fractionation across the contact

  19. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ashish; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathi, Manjul; Dhingra, Renu; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns. PMID:25033845

  20. Factors in the Selection of Surface Disinfectants for Use in a Laboratory Animal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Campagna, Michael V; Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle; Treger, Janet A; Cushman, Jesse D; Grogan, Tristan R; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Lawson, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. This study was designed to identify disinfectants that are as effective as hypochlorite solutions but more acceptable for use in a laboratory animal setting. An antiviral disinfectant-efficacy assay was developed by using viral vectors that expressed green fluorescence protein as surrogates for wild-type viruses of concern in laboratory animals. Efficacy testing revealed that most of the products were highly effective when used against viral vectors in suspension. However, when the disinfectants were challenged by buffering virus in protein or drying virus on nonporous surfaces, the hypochlorite and peroxymonosulfate products performed the best. Review of safety data sheets for the agents indicated that a peroxide-based product was considerably safer than the other products tested and that the pH of most products was not conducive to disposal down a drain. Behavioral testing of Swiss Webster, C57Bl/6, and BALB/c mice showed that the hypochlorite- and peroxide-based products were clearly aversive, given that the mice consistently avoided these products. All of these factors must be considered when choosing the appropriate disinfectant. PMID:27025810

  1. Factors in the Selection of Surface Disinfectants for Use in a Laboratory Animal Setting.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Michael V; Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle; Treger, Janet A; Cushman, Jesse D; Grogan, Tristan R; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Lawson, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the 'gold standard' for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. This study was designed to identify disinfectants that are as effective as hypochlorite solutions but more acceptable for use in a laboratory animal setting. An antiviral disinfectant-efficacy assay was developed by using viral vectors that expressed green fluorescence protein as surrogates for wild-type viruses of concern in laboratory animals. Efficacy testing revealed that most of the products were highly effective when used against viral vectors in suspension. However, when the disinfectants were challenged by buffering virus in protein or drying virus on nonporous surfaces, the hypochlorite and peroxymonosulfate products performed the best. Review of safety data sheets for the agents indicated that a peroxide-based product was considerably safer than the other products tested and that the pH of most products was not conducive to disposal down a drain. Behavioral testing of Swiss Webster, C57Bl/6, and BALB/c mice showed that the hypochlorite- and peroxide-based products were clearly aversive, given that the mice consistently avoided these products. All of these factors must be considered when choosing the appropriate disinfectant. PMID:27025810

  2. Social setting, intuition and experience in laboratory experiments interact to shape cooperative decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cooperative decision-making in one-shot interactions is a history-dependent dynamic process: promoting intuition versus deliberation typically has a positive effect on cooperation (dynamism) among people living in a cooperative setting and with no previous experience in economic games on cooperation (history dependence). Here, we report on a laboratory experiment exploring how these findings transfer to a non-cooperative setting. We find two major results: (i) promoting intuition versus deliberation has no effect on cooperative behaviour among inexperienced subjects living in a non-cooperative setting; (ii) experienced subjects cooperate more than inexperienced subjects, but only under time pressure. These results suggest that cooperation is a learning process, rather than an instinctive impulse or a self-controlled choice, and that experience operates primarily via the channel of intuition. Our findings shed further light on the cognitive basis of human cooperative decision-making and provide further support for the recently proposed social heuristics hypothesis. PMID:26156762

  3. Social setting, intuition and experience in laboratory experiments interact to shape cooperative decision-making.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2015-07-22

    Recent studies suggest that cooperative decision-making in one-shot interactions is a history-dependent dynamic process: promoting intuition versus deliberation typically has a positive effect on cooperation (dynamism) among people living in a cooperative setting and with no previous experience in economic games on cooperation (history dependence). Here, we report on a laboratory experiment exploring how these findings transfer to a non-cooperative setting. We find two major results: (i) promoting intuition versus deliberation has no effect on cooperative behaviour among inexperienced subjects living in a non-cooperative setting; (ii) experienced subjects cooperate more than inexperienced subjects, but only under time pressure. These results suggest that cooperation is a learning process, rather than an instinctive impulse or a self-controlled choice, and that experience operates primarily via the channel of intuition. Our findings shed further light on the cognitive basis of human cooperative decision-making and provide further support for the recently proposed social heuristics hypothesis. PMID:26156762

  4. Updated archeomagnetic data set of the past 8 millennia from the Sofia laboratory, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, M.; Boyadziev, Y.; Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Jordanova, N.; Donadini, F.

    2009-05-01

    This data brief reports the latest updates of archeomagnetic data obtained at the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory of the Geophysical Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The current data set consists of measurements from 284 Bulgarian archeological sites covering the past 8000 years. There are also 54 sites from other European regions, namely, Serbia, Kossovo, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Finland, and Russian Karelia, as well as five sites from Morocco in North Africa. The update of the archeomagnetic results consisted of a thorough revision of all geomagnetic field measurements as well as dating these measurements that were published in the original papers or in previous compilations. The updated results can be found in GEOMAGIA (http://geomagia.ucsd.edu) or as an Excel spreadsheet at the EarthRef.org Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/cgi-bin/erda.cgi?n = 946).

  5. Seismoelectric effect in a Laboratory setting for Characterizing Geological Cores saturated with either Water or Oil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismoelectric effect belongs to a wide family of Electrokinetic phenomena that arises in heterogeneous systems due to electric charge separation at interfaces. Resulting structure is called an Electric Double Layer (EDL), which is characterized by electric potential drop - Zeta potential. This parameter serves as a major characteristic of liquid-solid interface in liquid dispersion and in porous materials, including geological ones. It varies roughly (in absolute value) from 0 to 100 mV and, therefore, play a major role in the seismoelectric effect, which is proportional to it. Siesmoelectric effect offers opportunity for measuring Zeta potential in geological cores. Phase of the seismoelectric current is pore size dependent, which can be used for characterizing this parameter as well. There are currently hundreds of instruments worldwide that are based on ultrasound for characterizing heterogeneous systems. There are even ISO standards providing guidelines for these characterization techniques, but mostly for concentrated dispersions and emulsions. We are attempting to extend application of these techniques for characterizing geological cores and other porous materials. This talk will present general features of the underlying theory, experimental setup and results for geological cores and several other porous materials. Studying seismoelectric effect in laboratory setting seems to be useful not for characterization purposes only but also for its better understanding on the large scale during seismological tests. This preliminary laboratory experiments reveal factors that affect seismoelectric signal and would allow more adequate interpretation of the seismoelectric signals.

  6. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  7. Modelling adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus survival at different temperatures in laboratory and field settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field. Methods Here we apply generalised additive models to data from 351 published adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus survival experiments in the laboratory to create survival models for each species across their range of viable temperatures. These models are then adjusted to estimate survival at different temperatures in the field using data from 59 Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus field survivorship experiments. The uncertainty at each stage of the modelling process is propagated through to provide confidence intervals around our predictions. Results Our results indicate that adult Ae. albopictus has higher survival than Ae. aegypti in the laboratory and field, however, Ae. aegypti can tolerate a wider range of temperatures. A full breakdown of survival by age and temperature is given for both species. The differences between laboratory and field models also give insight into the relative contributions to mortality from temperature, other environmental factors, and senescence and over what ranges these factors can be important. Conclusions Our results support the importance of producing site-specific mosquito survival estimates. By including fluctuating temperature regimes

  8. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use. PMID:25642585

  9. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  10. Validating an Indirect Measure of Clarity of Feelings: Evidence from Laboratory and Naturalistic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lischetzke, Tanja; Angelova, Rozalina; Eid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the reliability and validity of an indirect measure of clarity of feelings that is based on response latencies (RTs) of mood ratings. Fifty-two participants completed a laboratory session and an experience-sampling week with 6 measurement occasions per day. Shorter RT of mood ratings measured in the laboratory (but not…

  11. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  12. Laboratory diagnostics in dog-mediated rabies: an overview of performance and a proposed strategy for various settings.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ong, Sivuth; Mey, Channa; Choeung, Rithy; Ly, Sowath; Bourhy, Hervé; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of dog-mediated rabies in humans and animals has greatly benefited from technical advances in the laboratory setting. Approaches to diagnosis now include the detection of rabies virus (RABV), RABV RNA, or RABV antigens. These assays are important tools in the current efforts aimed at the global elimination of dog-mediated rabies. The assays available for use in laboratories are reviewed herein, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, which vary with the types of sample analyzed. Depending on the setting, however, the public health objectives and use of RABV diagnosis in the field will also vary. In non-endemic settings, the detection of all introduced or emergent animal or human cases justifies exhaustive testing. In dog RABV-endemic settings, such as rural areas of developing countries where most cases occur, the availability of or access to testing may be severely constrained. Thus, these issues are also discussed along with a proposed strategy to prioritize testing while access to rabies testing in the resource-poor, highly endemic setting is improved. As the epidemiological situation of rabies in a country evolves, the strategy should shift from that of an endemic setting to one more suitable for a decreased rabies incidence following the implementation of efficient control measures and when nearing the target of dog-mediated rabies elimination. PMID:27005282

  13. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms. PMID:25801371

  14. The Effects of Demand Characteristics on Research Participant Behaviours in Non-Laboratory Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; de Bruin, Marijn; Witton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of demand characteristics, which involves research participants being aware of what the researcher is investigating, is well known and widely used within psychology, particularly in laboratory-based studies. Studies of this phenomenon may make a useful contribution to broader consideration of the effects of taking part in research on participant behaviour. This systematic review seeks to summarise data from studies of the effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviours in non-laboratory settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. These had to be purposely designed to evaluate possible effects of demand characteristics on at least one behavioural outcome under the autonomous control of the participants and use longitudinal study designs. Only 7 studies were included, 6 providing observational data and 1 experimental study, with 5 studies involving examination of possible effects on health behaviours. Although studies provided some evidence of effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviour, heterogeneous operationalisation of the construct, the limited number of studies and poor quality of study designs made synthesis and interpretation of study findings challenging. Conclusions/Significance Although widely accepted as important in psychology, there have been few dedicated studies of the effects of demand characteristics on research participant behaviours outside laboratory settings. This body of literature does not currently contribute to the wider study of research participation effects. A systematic review of data from laboratory-based studies is needed, as are high-quality primary studies in non-laboratory settings. We suggest that unqualified use of the term demand characteristics should be abandoned. PMID:22723942

  15. Plasma kinetic effects on interfacial mix in settings relevant to inertial confinement fusion and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Fernández, J. C.; Bang, W.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Hamilton, C. E.; Palaniyappan, S.; Santiago Cordoba, M. A.; Hegelich, B. M.; Dyer, G.; Roycroft, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mixing of high-Z/low-Z interfaces in dense plasma media is a problem of importance for understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion experiments and recent experiments at the LANL Trident facility. In this presentation, we apply the VPIC particle-in-cell code with a binary collision model to explore kinetic effects of the atomic mixing. Comparisons are made to published analytic theory and hybrid modeling results and conditions are identified under which plasma kinetic behavior may lead to anomalously rapid atomic mixing. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  16. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  17. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  18. Making Comparisons: Ratios. Topical Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lyle; And Others

    The objectives of this module on making comparisons and ratios include using ratios to compare sets of objects and expressing ratios as decimals or fractions in lowest terms. The module provides six experiments. An envelope of manipulatives accompanies each of the first three experiments. The fourth experiment requires a multispeed bicycle. The…

  19. Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…

  20. Efficacy of a Methylphenidate Transdermal System versus t.i.d. Methylphenidate in a Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Schentag, Jerome; Ballow, Charles H.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Meichenbaum, David L.; Forehand, Gregory L.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Tresco, Katy E.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Coles, Erika K.; Gonzalez, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test the efficacy and tolerability of the methylphenidate transdermal formulation (MTS) against immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in a 12-hr analog classroom setting. Method: A total of nine boys ages 6 to 9 years, medicated with MPH for ADHD, complete a within-subject, double-blind study. For the purpose of the…

  1. Automated systems for identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Stager, C E; Davis, J R

    1992-01-01

    Automated instruments for the identification of microorganisms were introduced into clinical microbiology laboratories in the 1970s. During the past two decades, the capabilities and performance characteristics of automated identification systems have steadily progressed and improved. This article explores the development of the various automated identification systems available in the United States and reviews their performance for identification of microorganisms. Observations regarding deficiencies and suggested improvements for these systems are provided. PMID:1498768

  2. The UNAM sets up the first Laboratory on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (LEMA) in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, C.; Chávez, E.; Ortíz, M. E.; Andrade, E.

    2013-05-01

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system is being installed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (IFUNAM) with support of CONACYT and UNAM. The AMS system is based on a tandetron accelerator of 1MV purchased from the High Voltage Engineering Europe B.V., Amersfoort, the Netherlands. Mass spectrometry experiments will be conducted at the AMS laboratory (LEMA), for analysis of 14 C and other isotopes as the 10Be, 26Al, 129I and Pu. This is a highly sensitive technique that allows to measure concentrations up to one part in 1015 from different nuclei. LEMA is the first laboratory in Mexico of its kind and the second in Latin America, after Brazil. The first research line of LEMA is to apply AMS for dating with 14C. Once the dating methodologies will be implemented, we will incorporate the analysis of other radioisotopes in research projects in different areas such as the Geophysical and Environmental sciences. In this presentation, the AMS system as well as details on the sample preparation will be described. Also, results from installation and acceptance tests will be presented.

  3. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  4. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  5. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  6. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use.

    PubMed

    Kilinc Balci, F Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  7. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  8. Psychosocial stress based on public speech in humans: is there a real life/laboratory setting cross-adaptation?

    PubMed

    Jezova, D; Hlavacova, N; Dicko, I; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2016-07-01

    Repeated or chronic exposure to stressors is associated with changes in neuroendocrine responses depending on the type, intensity, number and frequency of stress exposure as well as previous stress experience. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to real-life psychosocial stressors related to public performance can cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress induced by public speech under laboratory setting. The sample consisted of 22 healthy male volunteers, which were either actors, more precisely students of dramatic arts or non-actors, students of other fields. The stress task consisted of 15 min anticipatory preparation phase and 15 min of public speech on an emotionally charged topic. The actors, who were accustomed to public speaking, responded with a rise in salivary cortisol as well as blood pressure to laboratory public speech. The values of salivary cortisol, systolic blood pressure and state anxiety were lower in actors compared to non-actors. Unlike non-actors, subjects with experience in public speaking did not show stress-induced rise in the heart rate. Evaluation of personality traits revealed that actors scored significantly higher in extraversion than the subjects in the non-actor group. In conclusion, neuroendocrine responses to real-life stressors in actors can partially cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress under laboratory setting. The most evident adaptation was at the level of heart rate responses. The public speech tasks may be of help in evaluation of the ability to cope with stress in real life in artists by simple laboratory testing. PMID:27376171

  9. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices. PMID:22043254

  10. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices. PMID:22043254

  11. The laboratory confirmation of suspected measles cases in settings of low measles transmission: conclusions from the experience in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Vance; Rota, Jennifer; Izurieta, Héctor; Carrasco, Peter; Bellini, William

    2004-01-01

    The Americas have set a goal of interrupting indigenous transmission of measles using a strategy developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This strategy includes recommendations for vaccination activities to achieve and sustain high immunity in the population and is complemented by sensitive epidemiological surveillance systems developed to monitor illnesses characterized by febrile rash, and to provide effective virological and serological surveillance. A key component in ensuring the success of the programme has been a laboratory network comprising 22 national laboratories including reference centres. Commercially available indirect enzyme immunoassay kits (EIA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM)-class antibodies are currently being used throughout the region. However, because there are few or no true measles cases in the region, the positive predictive value of these diagnostic tests has decreased. False-positive results of IgM tests can also occur as a result of testing suspected measles cases with exanthemata caused by Parvovirus B19, rubella and Human herpesvirus 6, among others. In addition, as countries maintain high levels of vaccination activity and increased surveillance of rash and fever, the notification of febrile rash illness in recently vaccinated people can be anticipated. Thus, managers in the measles elimination programme must be prepared to address the interpretation of a positive result of a laboratory test for measles IgM when clinical and epidemiological data may indicate that the case is not measles. The interpretation of an IgM-positive test under different circumstances and the definition of a vaccine-related rash illness in a setting of greatly reduced, or absent, transmission of measles is discussed. PMID:15640921

  12. Evidence-based approach to the maintenance of laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Robert; Keane, Allison

    2010-07-01

    Much of the laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings is out-of-service. The most commonly cited reasons are (1) a lack of spare parts and (2) a lack of highly trained technicians. However, there is little data to support these hypotheses, or to generate evidence-based solutions to the problem. We studied 2,849 equipment-repair requests (of which 2,529 were out-of-service medical equipment) from 60 resource-poor hospitals located in 11 nations in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Central America. Each piece of equipment was analyzed by an engineer or an engineering student and a repair was attempted using only locally available materials. If the piece was placed back into service, we assumed that the engineer's problem analysis was correct. A total of 1,821 pieces of medical equipment were placed back into service, or 72%, without requiring the use of imported spare parts. Of those pieces repaired, 1,704 were sufficiently documented to determine what knowledge was required to place the equipment back into service. We found that six domains of knowledge were required to accomplish 99% of the repairs: electrical (18%), mechanical (18%), power supply (14%), plumbing (19%), motors (5%), and installation or user training (25%). A further analysis of the domains shows that 66% of the out-of-service equipment was placed back into service using only 107 skills covering basic knowledge in each domain; far less knowledge than that required of a biomedical engineer or biomedical engineering technician. We conclude that a great majority of laboratory and medical equipment can be put back into service without importing spare parts and using only basic knowledge. Capacity building in resource-poor settings should first focus on a limited set of knowledge; a body of knowledge that we call the biomedical technician's assistant (BTA). This data set suggests that a supported BTA could place 66% of the out-of-service laboratory and medical equipment in their hospital back

  13. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  14. Development and validation of an app-based cell counter for use in the clinical laboratory setting

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Alexander C.; Davis, Jessica L.; Jan, Max; McCulloch, Charles E.; Buelow, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For decades cellular differentials have been generated exclusively on analog tabletop cell counters. With the advent of tablet computers, digital cell counters – in the form of mobile applications (“apps”) – now represent an alternative to analog devices. However, app-based counters have not been widely adopted by clinical laboratories, perhaps owing to a presumed decrease in count accuracy related to the lack of tactile feedback inherent in a touchscreen interface. We herein provide the first systematic evidence that digital cell counters function similarly to standard tabletop units. Methods: We developed an app-based cell counter optimized for use in the clinical laboratory setting. Paired counts of 188 peripheral blood smears and 62 bone marrow aspirate smears were performed using our app-based counter and a standard analog device. Differences between paired data sets were analyzed using the correlation coefficient, Student's t-test for paired samples and Bland–Altman plots. Results: All counts showed excellent agreement across all users and touch screen devices. With the exception of peripheral blood basophils (r = 0.684), differentials generated for the measured cell categories within the paired data sets were highly correlated (all r ≥ 0.899). Results of paired t-tests did not reach statistical significance for any cell type (all P > 0.05), and Bland–Altman plots showed a narrow spread of the difference about the mean without evidence of significant outliers. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that no systematic differences exist between cellular differentials obtained via app-based or tabletop counters and that agreement between these two methods is excellent. PMID:25722942

  15. Micro-organ device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); von Gustedt-Gonda, legal representative, Iris (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  16. Micro-Organ Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  17. The Current Testing Protocols for Biomechanical Evaluation of Lumbar Spinal Implants in Laboratory Setting: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Doulgeris, James J.; Lee, William E.; Shea, Thomas M.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro biomechanical investigations have become a routinely employed technique to explore new lumbar instrumentation. One of the most important advantages of such investigations is the low risk present when compared to clinical trials. However, the best use of any experimental data can be made when standard testing protocols are adopted by investigators, thus allowing comparisons among studies. Experimental variables, such as the length of the specimen, operative level, type of loading (e.g., dynamic versus quasistatic), magnitude, and rate of load applied, are among the most common variables controlled during spinal biomechanical testing. Although important efforts have been made to standardize these protocols, high variability can be found in the current literature. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify the current trends in the protocols reported for the evaluation of new lumbar spinal implants under laboratory setting. PMID:25785272

  18. Measuring micro-organism gas production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

  19. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  20. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  1. Microorganisms in Food--Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, S.

    1980-01-01

    Described are laboratory methods for enumerating microorganisms in food. These methods are utilized to determine if foods are potentially hazardous to the consumer due to high concentrations of microorganisms. Discussed are indicator organisms, including coliforms, interococci, yeasts, and molds; food poisoning organisms (staphylococci and…

  2. Micro-Organ Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steven R.; Leslie, Julia; Chang, Robert C.; Starly, Binil; Sun, Wei; Culbertson, Christopher; Holtorf, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organ devices (MODs) are being developed to satisfy an emerging need for small, lightweight, reproducible, biological-experimentati on apparatuses that are amenable to automated operation and that imp ose minimal demands for resources (principally, power and fluids). I n simplest terms, a MOD is a microfluidic device containing a variety of microstructures and assemblies of cells, all designed to mimic a complex in vivo microenvironment by replicating one or more in vivo micro-organ structures, the architectures and composition of the extr acellular matrices in the organs of interest, and the in vivo fluid flows. In addition to microscopic flow channels, a MOD contains one or more micro-organ wells containing cells residing in microscopic e xtracellular matrices and/or scaffolds, the shapes and compositions o f which enable replication of the corresponding in vivo cell assembl ies and flows.

  3. Microorganisms and Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)

  4. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Raman, Babu; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Podar, Mircea; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  5. Laboratory assessment of a gravity-fed ultrafiltration water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Naranjo, Jaime; Frauchiger, Daniel; Gerba, Charles

    2009-05-01

    Interventions to improve water quality, particularly when deployed at the household level, are an effective means of preventing endemic diarrheal disease, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. We assessed the microbiologic performance of a novel water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings. The device employs a backwashable hollow fiber ultrafiltration cartridge and is designed to mechanically remove enteric pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan cysts from drinking water without water pressure or electric power. In laboratory testing through 20,000 L (approximately 110% of design life) at moderate turbidity (15 nephelometric turbidity unit [NTU]), the device achieved log(10) reduction values of 6.9 for Escherichia coli, 4.7 for MS2 coliphage (proxy for enteric pathogenic viruses), and 3.6 for Cryptosporidium oocysts, thus exceeding levels established for microbiological water purifiers. With periodic cleaning and backwashing, the device produced treated water at an average rate of 143 mL/min (8.6 L/hour) (range 293 to 80 mL/min) over the course of the evaluation. If these results are validated in field trials, the deployment of the unit on a wide scale among vulnerable populations may make an important contribution to public health efforts to control intractable waterborne diseases. PMID:19407130

  6. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  7. Detecting the presence of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Judd R. (Inventor); Stoner, Glenn E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium which is in contact with a measuring electrode and a reference electrode and detecting a change in potential between the electrodes caused by the presence of the microorganisms in the medium with a high impedance potentiometer.

  8. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  9. Obtaining Valid Laboratory Data in Clinical Trials Conducted in Resource Diverse Settings: Lessons Learned from a Microbicide Phase III Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crucitti, Tania; Fransen, Katrien; Maharaj, Rashika; Tenywa, Tom; Massinga Loembé, Marguerite; Murugavel, Kailapuri Gangatharan; Mendonca, Kevin; Abdellati, Said; Beelaert, Greet; Van Damme, Lut

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade several phase III microbicides trials have been conducted in developing countries. However, laboratories in resource constrained settings do not always have the experience, infrastructure, and the capacity to deliver laboratory data meeting the high standards of clinical trials. This paper describes the design and outcomes of a laboratory quality assurance program which was implemented during a phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the candidate microbicide Cellulose Sulfate 6% (CS) [1]. Methodology In order to assess the effectiveness of CS for HIV and STI prevention, a phase III clinical trial was conducted in 5 sites: 3 in Africa and 2 in India. The trial sponsor identified an International Central Reference Laboratory (ICRL), responsible for the design and management of a quality assurance program, which would guarantee the reliability of laboratory data. The ICRL provided advice on the tests, assessed local laboratories, organized trainings, conducted supervision visits, performed re-tests, and prepared control panels. Local laboratories were provided with control panels for HIV rapid tests and Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) amplification technique. Aliquots from respective control panels were tested by local laboratories and were compared with results obtained at the ICRL. Results Overall, good results were observed. However, discordances between the ICRL and site laboratories were identified for HIV and CT/NG results. One particular site experienced difficulties with HIV rapid testing shortly after study initiation. At all sites, DNA contamination was identified as a cause of invalid CT/NG results. Both problems were timely detected and solved. Through immediate feedback, guidance and repeated training of laboratory staff, additional inaccuracies were prevented. Conclusions Quality control guidelines when applied in field laboratories ensured the reliability and validity of final study data

  10. A review on laboratory tests’ utilization: A trigger for cutting costs and quality improvement in health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Meidani, Zahra; Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Farrokhian, Alireza; Haghighat, Masomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the role of laboratory tests as a central part of controlling health expenditure, this study intends to investigate laboratory tests overutilization in Iran to pave the way for future interventions. Methods: Inappropriate laboratory utilization was reviewed in a cross-sectional survey through the retrospective analysis of 384 medical records at a tertiary center. To pave the way for future intervention, overutilization tests were classified into two categories, inappropriate and inefficient, and then they were analyzed. Frequency analysis was used to analysis patient’s age, gender, hospital wards, length of stay, and diagnosis as well as inappropriate test and inefficient tests. Results: A total of 143 (1.50 %) of the tests were inefficient and was ordered due to laboratory errors including hemolysis, inefficient sampling, or absurd results. 2522 (26.40%) of the tests were inappropriate and stem from failure to meet medical/clinical appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: Whereas, inappropriate test ordering was more frequent than inefficient tests, the initial improvement strategy should focus on physicians’ test ordering behavior through conducting proper teaching strategies, ongoing audit and educational feedback, implementing health information technology tools and employing laboratory practice guidelines (LPGs) and testing algorithms. Conducting continuous quality improvement cycle for laboratory services and training of personnel involved in blood sampling is recommended for inefficient tests. PMID:27493909

  11. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ward, Donald E.; Shockley, Keith R.; Chang, Lara S.; Levy, Ryan D.; Michel, Joshua K.; Conners, Shannon B.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus , the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus , and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima . An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putativemore » proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.« less

  12. Gravitaxis in unicellular microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hader, D P

    1999-01-01

    Orientation of organisms with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth has been studied for more than 100 years in a number of unicellular microorganisms including flagellates and ciliates. Several hypotheses have been developed how the weak stimulus is perceived. Intracellular statoliths have been found to be involved in gravitaxis of Loxodes, while no specialized organelles have been detected in other ciliates, e.g. Paramecium. Also in the slime mold Physarum no specialized gravireceptors have been identified yet. In the flagellate Euglena gracilis the whole cell body, which is denser than the surrounding medium, seems to act as a statolith pressing onto the lower membrane where it activates mechanosensitive ion channels. Similar results were obtained for the ciliate Paramecium. In contrast to the flagellate Euglena, several ciliates have been found to show gravikinesis, which is defined as a dependence of the swimming velocity on the direction of movement in the gravity field. PMID:11542630

  13. Gravitaxis in unicellular microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.

    1999-01-01

    Orientation of organisms with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth has been studied for more than 100 years in a number of unicellular microorganisms including flagellates and ciliates. Several hypotheses have been developed how the weak stimulus is perceived. Intracellular statoliths have been found to be involved in gravitaxis of Loxodes, while no specialized organelles have been detected in other ciliates, e.g. Paramecium. Also in the slime mold Physarum no specialized gravireceptors have been identified yet. In the flagellate Euglena gracilis the whole cell body, which is denser than the surrounding medium, seems to act as a statolith pressing onto the lower membrane where it activates mechanosensitive ion channels. Similar results were obtained for the ciliate Paramecium. In contrast to the flagellate Euglena, several ciliates have been found to show gravikinesis, which is defined as a dependence of the swimming velocity on the direction of movement in the gravity field.

  14. Robustness of NMR-based metabolomics to generate comparable data sets for olive oil cultivar classification. An inter-laboratory study on Apulian olive oils.

    PubMed

    Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification. PMID:26776024

  15. Active Learning: A Small Group Histology Laboratory Exercise in a Whole Class Setting Utilizing Virtual Slides and Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodgood, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning…

  16. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  17. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  18. [Setting up a department of molecular pathology in oncology in a pathology laboratory (LPCE, CHU de Nice)].

    PubMed

    Long, Elodie; Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Lespinet, Virgine; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Bordone, Olivier; Gavric-Tanga, Virginie; Washetine, Kevin; Gaziello, Marie-Clotilde; Mauro, Virginie; Lassalle, Sandra; Selva, Eric; Zahaf, Katia; Santini, José; Castillo, Laurent; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Vénissac, Nicolas; Mouroux, Jérôme; Otto, Josiane; Poudenx, Michel; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Hofman, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The advent of targeted therapies and personalized medicine in oncology has led in France to the settlement and organisation of a network of hospital molecular genetic platforms under the impetus of the National Cancer Institute (INCa). These platforms are, according to the concerned sites, integrated or not in pathology laboratories. The development of molecular biology methods, the choice of the procedures, the establishment of sample workflow, the quality control and the selection of the genomic alterations to be detected on each platform, have been left to the discretion of the different laboratories. Based on calls for project made by the INCa, hospital molecular genetic platforms were able to adapt their activity according to the assigned budgets. While the presence of some genomic alterations (i.e. KRAS gene mutations in metastatic colon adenocarcinoma or EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas), may lead to administration of targeted therapies under the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA), others are associated with therapeutic clinical trials. However, increasing number of MAA for new molecules targeting genomic alterations is likely in the near future. In this context, it is necessary to quickly adapt the organisation of work of the hospital pathology laboratories performing molecular biology tests in order to meet the growing demand of oncologists in the field of targeted therapies. The purpose of this article is to describe the different steps of the settlement of a molecular genetic platform in an academic pathology laboratory (LPCE, CHU de Nice) and to show the experience of this laboratory specifically oriented on the support of the morphological and molecular diagnosis of lung cancer, thyroid cancer and malignant melanoma. PMID:23472893

  19. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  20. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M. E.; Gueli, A. M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  1. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  2. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

  3. Following the Rules Set by Accreditation Agencies and Governing Bodies to Maintain In-Compliance Status: Applying Critical Thinking Skills When Evaluating the Need for Change in the Clinical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Karen M; Levy, Kimberly Y; Reese, Erika M

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining an in-compliance clinical laboratory takes continuous awareness and review of standards, regulations, and best practices. A strong quality assurance program and well informed leaders who maintain professional networks can aid in this necessary task. This article will discuss a process that laboratories can follow to interpret, understand, and comply with the rules and standards set by laboratory accreditation bodies. PMID:26945880

  4. Leakage of CO2 from sub-seafloor CO2 storage sites to the seabed; Impacts on sediment microorganisms and geochemical parameters during in situ and laboratory leakage experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigstad, L. J.; Hannisdal, B.; Hoffmann, F. U.; Sweetman, A. K.; Baumberger, T.; Eickmann, B.; Røy, H.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1996, 14 million tons of CO2 extracted from natural gas have been injected into the Utsira Formation, a saline aquifer at ~1000 m depth in the North Sea. The injected CO2 covers today an area of 4 x 2 km2. At present, there are three international treaties protecting the oceans, and all three allow CO2 storage in sub-seabed geological formations. One of these, the EU Directive 2009/31, states that monitoring must take place before, during and after CO2 storage in order to detect leakage of CO2 and significant adverse effects on the surrounding environment. However, few environmental studies have investigated the potential impacts of a CO2 leakage on the microbial life and geochemical conditions in seafloor sediment. To remedy this, we performed two experiments with abrupt CO2 acidification on the top 10 cm of the seafloor close to the North Sea storage site: 1) One laboratory CO2 acidification experiment on undisturbed sediment cores from the seafloor overlying the CO2 storage site (80 m water depth). The continuous flow of CO2 acidified seawater (pH 6.4) with 20 000 μatm pCO2 over the cores lasted for 1.5 months with sediment core terminations at regular intervals. 2) In situ CO2 acidification experiments carried out on the seafloor at 350 m water depth, with life span of 40 hours and exposure to 20 000 μatm pCO2. Both experiments showed increased O2 consumption in the water overlying the CO2 acidified sediment relative to the control sediment, indicating a rise in metabolic activity due to the treatment. After about 12 hours of acidification and throughout the laboratory experimental period, an increase in macrofauna burial activity could be seen, with dead/dying macrofauna appearing on the sediment surface. The pyrosequencing amplicon dataset obtained after bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplification (RNA level) was subjected to multivariate analyses (PCA, NMDS), revealing changes in the active community on phylum, class and OTU levels. Changes were

  5. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Mccoy, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  6. Validation of Rapid Point-of-Care (POC) Tests for Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Field and Laboratory Settings in the Gambia, Western Africa

    PubMed Central

    Njai, Harr Freeya; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Sanneh, Bakary; Ferguson, Lynne; Ndow, Gibril; Mendy, Maimuna; Sow, Amina; Lo, Gora; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Tanaka, Junko; Taal, Makie; D'alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Point-of-care tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could be an ideal tool for a large-scale HBV screening/treatment program in SSA. Using data from the PROLIFICA (Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa) program, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of three point-of-care tests (Determine, Vikia, and Espline) for the detection of HBsAg in the field or a laboratory setting in the Gambia. In the field, we used finger-prick whole blood for the Determine and Vikia tests and dried blood spots for the reference standard test (AxSYM HBsAg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]). In the laboratory we used serum for the Determine, Espline, and reference test (Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay). Of 773 participants recruited at the community and 227 known chronic HBV carriers (1,000 subjects in total), 293 were positive for HBsAg. The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine test were 88.5% and 100% in the field and 95.3% and 93.3% in the laboratory setting, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 99.8% for the Vikia test (in the field) and 93.9% and 94.7% for the Espline test (in the laboratory). There was no evidence that one kit was better than another. Most of the patients with false-negative results (18/19) were classified as inactive chronic carriers. In summary, the three point-of-care tests had acceptable ranges of diagnostic accuracy. These tests may represent accurate, rapid, and inexpensive alternatives to serology testing for the screening of HBV infection at field level in SSA. PMID:25631805

  7. Sensor arrays for detecting microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Freund, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A sensor array for detecting a microorganism comprising first and second sensors electrically connected to an electrical measuring apparatus, wherein the sensors comprise a region of nonconducting organic material and a region of conducting material compositionally that is different than the nonconducting organic material and an electrical path through the regions of nonconducting organic material and the conducting material. A system for identifying microorganisms using the sensor array, a computer and a pattern recognition algorithm, such as a neural net are also disclosed.

  8. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  9. Adsorption of Sr by immobilized microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    Wastewaters from numerous industrial and laboratory operations can contain toxic or undesirable components such as metal ions, which must be removed before discharge to surface waters. Adsorption processes that have high removal efficiencies are attractive methods for removing such contaminants. For economic operations, it is desirable to have an adsorbent that is selective for the metal contaminant of interest, has high capacity for the contaminant, has rapid adsorption kinetics, can be economically produced, and can be regenerated to a concentrated waste product or decomposed to a low-volume waste. Selected microorganisms are potentially useful adsorbents for these applications because they can be inexpensive, have high selectivities, and have high capacities for adsorption of many heavy metals, which are often problems in a variety of industries. A laboratory-scale packed column containing microbial cells immobilized within a gelatin matrix has been prepared, and its application to removal of Sr from a simulated wastewater is described. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG Assay in the Diagnostic Laboratory Setting for Assessment of Immune Status

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Uwe; Knotek, Frank; Bunn, Kristina; Strobel, Sirpa; Dietz, Klaus; Enders, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Rubella in early pregnancy bears a high risk for congenital defects (e.g., cataracts, hearing loss, and heart disease) and for long-term sequelae in the newborn. Despite implementation of vaccination programs in many regions, the threat of devastating consequences from congenital rubella virus infection remains and careful screening of maternal immune status before and during pregnancy helps to reduce the risk. This study compared the performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay with that of other assays routinely used for screening. Samples from 1,090 women undergoing routine antenatal care were tested using the Elecsys and Enzygnost Rubella IgG assays and the hemagglutination inhibition test. Samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of <32 (n = 148) were additionally tested using the Vidas, AxSYM, Liaison, and Architect Rubella IgG assays. Agreement of qualitative results from the Elecsys, Enzygnost, and hemagglutination inhibition assays was good in all samples. All assays showed 100.0% specificity. In samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of <32, the Elecsys, AxSYM, and Enzygnost assays showed higher sensitivity (>90.0%) than the other immunoassays (78.6 to 82.4%). The Elecsys assay reported significantly higher rubella virus IgG levels than the other immunoassays across the whole set of 1,090 samples, with the largest bias and deviation from limits of agreement in Bland-Altman analysis. In conclusion, the Elecsys assay is highly sensitive and specific with regard to qualitative results and suitable for routine automated screening. However, given the considerable variation between quantitative results from different immunoassays, testing methods should be documented and the same assay used throughout an individual's antenatal follow-up wherever possible. PMID:23345585

  11. Effect of two commercial herbicides on life history traits of a human disease vector, Aedes aegypti, in the laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alexandra; Murrell, Ebony G; Klein, Talan; Noden, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    Some mosquito species utilize the small niches of water that are abundant in farmland habitats. These niches are susceptible to effects from agricultural pesticides, many of which are applied aerially over large tracts of land. One principal form of weed control in agricultural systems involves the development of herbicide-tolerant crops. The impact of sub-agricultural levels of these herbicides on mosquito survival and life-history traits of resulting adults have not been determined. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two commercial herbicides (Beyond and Roundup) on the survivorship, eclosion time, and body mass of Aedes aegypti. First instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to varying concentrations (270, 550 and 820 μg/m(2) of glyphosate and 0.74, 1.49, 2.24 μL imazamox/m(2)), all treatments being below recommended application rates, of commercial herbicides in a controlled environment and resulting adult mosquitoes were collected and weighed. Exposure to Roundup had a significant negative effect on A. aegypti survivorship at medium and high sub-agricultural application concentrations, and negatively affected adult eclosion time at the highest concentration. However, exposure to low concentrations of Beyond significantly increased A. aegypti survivorship, although adult female mass was decreased at medium sub-agricultural concentrations. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of two different herbicides, which can occur in rural larval habitats as a result of spray drift, can affect the same species of mosquito in both positive and negative ways depending on the herbicide applied. The effects of commercial herbicides on mosquito populations could have an important effect on disease transmission within agricultural settings, where these and other herbicides are extensively applied to reduce weed growth. PMID:26965703

  12. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  13. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  14. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  15. How microorganisms avoid phagocyte attraction.

    PubMed

    Bestebroer, Jovanka; De Haas, Carla J C; Van Strijp, Jos A G

    2010-05-01

    Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to modulate the host immune system to increase their survival and propagation in the host. Their presence in the host is not only revealed by self-produced peptides but also through host-derived chemokines and active complement fragments. These so-called chemoattractants are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on leukocyte cell membranes. Activation of GPCRs triggers leukocyte activation and guides their recruitment to the site of infection. Therefore, GPCRs play a central role in leukocyte trafficking leading to microbial clearance. It is therefore not surprising that microorganisms are able to sabotage this arm of the immune response. Different microorganisms have evolved a variety of tactics to modulate GPCR activation. Here, we review the mechanisms and proteins used by major human pathogens and less virulent microorganisms that affect GPCR signaling. While viruses generally produce receptor and chemoattractant mimics, parasites and bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bordetella pertussis secrete proteins that affect receptor signaling, directly antagonize receptors, cleave stimuli, and even prevent stimulus generation. As the large arsenal of GPCR modulators aids prolonged microbial persistence in the host, their study provides us a better understanding of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:20059549

  16. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste. PMID:23047084

  17. BIOCONCENTRATION OF TOXAPHENE BY MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses (glc) of extracts from whole cultures (medium and microorganisms) gave the same 'fingerprint' chromatogram as the control, indicating that toxaphene was not degraded even after extended periods of time. The insecticide was also added to autoclaved cultures of bacteria, f...

  18. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from blood cultures, set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Chihiro; Kasahara, Mayumi; Nakata, Chiyo; Munakata, Machiko; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2007-02-01

    A study was made of the antimicrobial susceptibility to and efficacy of various kinds of antimicrobial agents against 179 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from blood cultures at Kansai Medical University Hospital from 1990 through 2004. The annual detection rate was highest in 1994, at 22 strains (6.5%). There were 9 multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.0%). Among 14 antimicrobial agents tested for measurements, ciprofloxacin (CPFX) showed the best minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 value, of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by pazufloxacin (PZFX) and biapenem (BIPM), each at 0.5 microg/ml. When the period of 15 years was divided into three stages, the MIC50 value for each antimicrobial agent was highest in the middle stage (1995 to 1999). Assuming that the percentage of sensitive strains according to the breakpoints set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) represents the antimicrobial susceptibility rate, amikacin (AMK) showed the best value, of 85.5%. According to the sepsis breakpoint set by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC), the efficacy of CPFX showed the highest rate (77.1%) of all the antimicrobial agents tested. Among beta-lactams, BIPM showed the highest efficacy rate, of 67.0%. When the efficacy rates were compared with each other, the difference in efficacy rate between the breakpoint set by the CLSI and the sepsis breakpoint set by the JSC was large for beta-lactams. Comparisons made based on the CLSI criteria showed no difference in cross-resistance rates between CPFX, meropenem (MEPM), and BIPM. However, when comparisons were made using the JSC sepsis breakpoint, MEPM showed a cross-resistance rate of 87.8%, while the rate for BIPM was lower, at 56.1%, with the chi2 test showing a significant difference, at P = 0.0014. In accordance with the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics theory that has been advocated, breakpoints which are more suitable for the clinical setting in Japan should

  19. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  20. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  1. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  2. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fairlamb, Alan H; Gow, Neil A R; Matthews, Keith R; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies. PMID:27572976

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made from 6/90--3/91 toward completion of our project, Phylogenetic Relationships among subsurface microorganisms. 16S rRNA was sequenced, and based on the sequence the SMCC isolates were assigned to preliminary groups. Microorganisms were obtained at various depths at the Savannah River Site, including the Surface (0 m), Congaree (91 m), and Middendorf (244 m, 259 m, 265 m). Sequence data from four isolates from the Congaree formation indicate these microorganisms can be divided into Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Three 16S rRNA probes were synthesized based on sequence data. The synthesized probes were tested through in situ hybridization. Optimal conditions for in situ hybridization were determined. Because stability of RNA-DNA hybrids is dependent on hybridization stringency, related organisms can be differentiated using a single probe under different strigencies. The results of these hybridizations agree with results obtained by Balkwill and Reeves using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The RNA content of a cell reflects its metabolic state. Cells which are starved for four days are not detectable with the homologous 16S rRNA probe. However, within 15 minutes of refeeding, detectable rRNA appeared. This suggests that organisms which are undetectable in environmental samples due to starvation may be detectable after addition of nutrients. Stepwise addition of specific nutrients could indicate which nutrients are rate limiting for growth. Preliminary experiments with soil samples from the Hanford Site indicate indigenous microorganisms can be detected by oligionucleotide probes. Further, using multiple probes based on universal sequences increases the number of organisms detected. Double label experiments, using a rhodamine-labelled oligionucleotide probe with free coumarin succinimidyl ester will allow simultaneous detection of total bacteria and specific 16S rRNA containing bacteria. 4 tabs. (MHB)

  4. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; John, J.; Castro, V. A.; Cruz, P.; Buttner, L. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including (1) the host#s susceptibility, (2) the host#s exposure to the infectious disease agent, and (3) the concentration of the infectious agent, and (4) the characteristics of the infectious agent. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire#s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The first accomplishment of the SWAB experiment was the incorporation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. The use of this molecular technique has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to conventional methodology. This increased efficiency in bacterial speciation provides a better understanding of the microbial ecology and the potential risk to the crew. Additional SWAB studies focused on the use of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequencebased

  5. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420 Section 725.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient...

  6. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420 Section 725.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient...

  7. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420 Section 725.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient...

  8. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  9. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420 Section 725.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient...

  10. Predatory Microorganisms Would Help Reclaim Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjaminson, Morris A.; Lehrer, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater-reclamation systems of proposed type use predatory, nonpathogenic microorganisms to consume pathogenic microorganisms. Unlike some other wastewater-reclamation systems, these systems do not require use of toxic chemicals, intense heat, or ionizing radiation (conductivity rays or ultraviolet) to destroy microorganisms.

  11. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  12. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section 725.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism...

  13. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... examine and identify bacteria and other microorganisms. Molecular biology technologists perform complex protein and nucleic acid tests ... medical laboratory scientist degree, includes courses in chemistry, biology, microbiology, math, and statistics. Coursework emphasizes laboratory skills, ...

  14. Metagenomics for studying unculturable microorganisms: cutting the Gordian knot

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Patrick D; Handelsman, Jo

    2005-01-01

    More than 99% of prokaryotes in the environment cannot be cultured in the laboratory, a phenomenon that limits our understanding of microbial physiology, genetics, and community ecology. One way around this problem is metagenomics, the culture-independent cloning and analysis of microbial DNA extracted directly from an environmental sample. Recent advances in shotgun sequencing and computational methods for genome assembly have advanced the field of metagenomics to provide glimpses into the life of uncultured microorganisms. PMID:16086859

  15. Tolerance of sewage treatment plant microorganisms to mosquitocides.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Olson, M A; Hester, P G; Moore, J J

    1993-12-01

    Beneficial protozoa and rotifers collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Panama City, FL, were tested for tolerance to 11 commonly used mosquito larvicides and adulticides in the laboratory. The acute effects were assessed using selected concentrations of the adulticides fenthion, malathion, naled, permethrin, and resmethrin; and the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, diflubenzuron, larviciding oil, methoprene, and temephos for the following microorganism taxa: ameoboids, flagellates, free-swimming ciliates, stalked ciliates, and rotifers. PMID:8126488

  16. High-pressure inactivation of dried microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, V; Perrier-Cornet, J-M; Marecat, A; Gervais, P

    2008-01-01

    Dried microorganisms are particularly resistant to high hydrostatic pressure effects. In this study, the survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied under pressure applied in different ways. Original processes and devices were purposely developed in our laboratory for long-term pressurization. Dried and wet yeast powders were submitted to high-pressure treatments (100-150 MPa for 24-144 h at 25 degrees C) through liquid media or inert gas. These powders were also pressurized after being vacuum-packed. In the case of wet yeasts, the pressurization procedure had little influence on the inactivation rate. In this case, inactivations were mainly due to hydrostatic pressure effects. Conversely, in the case of dried yeasts, inactivation was highly dependent on the treatment scheme. No mortality was observed when dried cells were pressurized in a non-aqueous liquid medium, but when nitrogen gas was used as the pressure-transmitting fluid, the inactivation rate was found to be between 1.5 and 2 log for the same pressure level and holding time. Several hypotheses were formulated to explain this phenomenon: the thermal effects induced by the pressure variations, the drying resulting from the gas pressure release and the sorption and desorption of the gas in cells. The highest inactivation rates were obtained with vacuum-packed dried yeasts. In this case, cell death occurred during the pressurization step and was induced by shear forces. Our results show that the mechanisms at the origin of cell death under pressure are strongly dependent on the nature of the pressure-transmitting medium and the hydration of microorganisms. PMID:17573691

  17. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrifugation, fractioning, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). In addition, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The SIP experiments indicated bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes (family Ruminococcaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (genus Sphingopyxis) were the dominant MTBE degraders. Previous studies have suggested a role for Firmicutes in anaerobic MTBE degradation; however, the putative MTBE-degrading microorganism in the current study is a novel MTBE-degrading phylotype within this phylum. Two archaeal phylotypes (genera Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum) were also enriched in the heavy fractions, and these organisms may be responsible for minor amounts of MTBE degradation or for the uptake of metabolites released from the primary MTBE degraders. Currently, limited information exists on the microorganisms able to degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions. This work represents the first application of DNA-based SIP to identify anaerobic MTBE-degrading microorganisms in laboratory microcosms and therefore provides a valuable set of data to definitively link identity with anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:22327600

  18. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24742299

  19. An integrated approach for assessing the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles to phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M L; Miller, A Z; Rogerio-Candelera, M A; Mirão, J; Cerqueira Alves, L; Veiga, J P; Águas, H; Pereira, S; Lyubchyk, A; Macedo, M F

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-based methodology was designed to assess the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles. The experimental set-up consisted of multiple steps: manufacturing of pristine and artificially aged glazed tiles, enrichment of phototrophic microorganisms, inoculation of phototrophs on glazed tiles, incubation under optimal conditions and quantification of biomass. In addition, tile intrinsic properties were assessed to determine which material properties contributed to tile bioreceptivity. Biofilm growth and biomass were appraised by digital image analysis, colorimetry and chlorophyll a analysis. SEM, micro-Raman and micro-particle induced X-ray emission analyses were carried out to investigate the biodeteriorating potential of phototrophic microorganisms on the glazed tiles. This practical and multidisciplinary approach showed that the accelerated colonization conditions allowed different types of tile bioreceptivity to be distinguished and to be related to precise characteristics of the material. Aged tiles showed higher bioreceptivity than pristine tiles due to their higher capillarity and permeability. Moreover, biophysical deterioration caused by chasmoendolithic growth was observed on colonized tile surfaces. PMID:26900634

  20. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  1. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  2. Identification of micro-organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    Manual presents detailed laboratory procedures for identifying aerobic or microaerobic bacteria, yeast or yeastible organisms, and filamentous fungi and conducting other microbiological or immunological evaluations of samples taken from human subjects. Standardized procedures should be useful to researchers and clinicians in laboratories, hospitals and other biological test facilities.

  3. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  4. Swimming of a Ciliated Microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2013-11-01

    We propose a 2D model to consider the locomotion of a ciliated microorganism in a viscous fluid. The model consists of a circular body whose boundary is covered by a finite number of cilia. Stokes paradox does not hold due to the self-propelling nature of the organism. Using a regularized Stokeslet method, we determine numerically the time-dependent swimming motion for prescribed kinematics (undulatory beat) of the individual cilium. Phase differences between neighboring cilia result in metachronal waves characteristic of biological cilia. We compare our results based on the discrete cilia approach with the envelope model proposed by JR Blake. We then study the net locomotion as function of the metachronal wave. We find that, for a given geometry and cilia density, there is an optimal wave number (phase difference) for locomotion in terms of velocity of propulsion and efficiency.

  5. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  6. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case. PMID:7946115

  7. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  8. [Instrumental technics for the detection of microorganisms in brewing].

    PubMed

    Orive, M

    1995-03-01

    Although modern production techniques keep microorganism levels very low in both finished beer and in beer process, there is still concern about early detection and prevention of accidental proliferation of brewery spoilage microorganisms. Traditional microbiological techniques can detect such low levels, but no results are obtained before 3 to 6 days of incubation. That is why rapid or even "instant" techniques are a main objective of research in the brewing industry. In this work, some instrumental techniques (DEFT, MMCF, impedance, pH, immunology and PCR based techniques, bioluminometry) are described and considered from the point of view of their regular use in brewery Microbiological Quality Assurance Laboratories. Real case experiences are brought forward. PMID:7546445

  9. FIELD CALIBRATION OF SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING FATE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...

  10. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS AND PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes and evaluates research from several laboratories that deals with the detection of ecological effects induced through exposure of microbes or plants to genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) and microbial pest control agents (MPCAS) . The development o...

  11. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, O.; Sudo, R.

    1980-05-01

    The biodegradation of PCB's by microorganisms and the degradation pathway of PCB's are investigated. Experimental methods and materials are described. Only several strains of bacteria, Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and soil microorganisms were able to decompose PCB's. A possible relationships between the structure and biodegradability of related biphenyl compounds was examined. (5 diagrams, 11 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)

  12. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  13. Lantibiotic production by pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Karen M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2012-09-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesised, post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram positive bacteria, many which have broad-ranging antimicrobial activities. Lantibiotics have long been the subject of investigation with a view to their application as food preservatives or chemotherapeutic agents for clinical and veterinary medicine, while the associated biosynthetic machinery has been employed for peptide engineering purposes. However, although many lantibiotics are produced by generally regarded as safe or food-grade bacteria, it is increasingly apparent that a number of Gram positive pathogens, including strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus faecalis, also produce these compounds. It is proposed that production of these antimicrobials may provide the associated microorganisms with a competitive advantage when colonizing/infecting a host, thereby enhancing the virulence of the producing strain. Here we review the production of lantibiotics by these pathogens and discuss how their production may contribute to their disease-causing potential. PMID:22708496

  14. Pathogenic Microorganisms and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunsaier; Li, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. No effective screening methods exist, and available treatment modalities do not effectively treat the disease. Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Accumulating reports have demonstrated that there is an association between pathogenic microorganisms and pancreatic cancer. Summary A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that microbiota are likely to influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. This review summarizes the literature on studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer. Key Message Helicobacter pylori infection may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer; chronic hepatitis virus and oral microbiota may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Practical Implications Considering the worldwide burden of the disease, the association between microbiota and pancreatic cancer in this review may provide new ideas to prevent and treat pancreatic cancer more efficiently. Further studies in this direction are urgently needed. PMID:26673459

  15. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Akano, T.; Fukatsu, K.; Miyasaka, H. |

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogen is a clean energy alternative to the fossil fuels, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a stable system for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen using photosynthetic microorganisms. Our system consists of the following three stages: (1) Photosynthetic starch accumulation in green microalgae (400 L x2); (2) Dark anaerobic fermentation of the algal starch biomass to produce hydrogen and organic compounds (155 L x2); and (3) Further conversion of the organic compounds to produce hydrogen using photosynthetic bacteria (three types of reactors, parallel plate, raceway, and tubular). We constructed a test plant of this process at Nankoh power plant of Kansai Electric Power Company in Osaka, Japan, and carried out a series of tests using CO{sub 2} obtained from a chemical absorption pilot-plant. The photobiological hydrogen production process used a combination of a marine alga, Chlamydomonas sp. MGA 161 and marine photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas sp. W-1S. The dark anaerobic fermentation of algal starch biomass was also investigated. Sustained and stable starch accumulation, starch degradation in the algal cell, and hydrogen production from algal fermentation and photosynthetic bacteria in the light were demonstrated during several experiments. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  17. Comparison of the identification and ease of use of two alarm sound sets by critical and acute care nurses with little or no music training: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M

    2015-07-01

    The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets. PMID:25735731

  18. Performance evaluation of the latest fully automated hematology analyzers in a large, commercial laboratory setting: a 4-way, side-by-side study.

    PubMed

    Bourner, G; Dhaliwal, J; Sumner, J

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-Dynacare is a Canadian-based community laboratory partnership formed in the mid-1990s through the merger of 3 prominent Ontario medical diagnostic laboratories. Laboratory Corporation of America acquired an interest in the GD partnership in mid 2002. We service more than 10,000 community-based Canadian clinicians, hospital partners, and private clients with an integrated customer-focused system that includes specimen collection, transportation, and results reporting services. With more than 1,700 highly qualified medical, technical, and support staff and a network of laboratories, Gamma Dynacare aims to be at the forefront of technological innovation to better service the clinician base and ultimately deliver better patient care. We were looking for a hematology analyzer that would allow. (1) standardization throughout Ontario in our 4 largest sites and (2) better performance to effectively handle aged samples and minimize slide review. To select the best, most productive hematology analyzer for our environment, it was decided to perform a side-by-side comparison of the top hematology analyzers from Abbott (Cell-Dyn 3500), Beckman Coulter (LH 750), Bayer (Advia 120), and Sysmex (XE 2100), utilizing the same samples. CBC, differential and reticulocyte parameters were all evaluated according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) and established hematology analyzer evaluation guidelines. We assessed each analyzer for precision, linearity, carryover, stability, differential capabilities, slide review rates, and throughput (clean bench studies). Two hundred samples were assessed for differential and morphology flagging on each analyzer using the reference 400 cell manual differential for comparison. Throughput was assessed by analyzing 700 consecutive samples representative of our workload mix. Stability studies at 24 hours showed that the Beckman Coulter LH 750 was least affected by EDTA, effect with minimal changes in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hematocrit. Both

  19. Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

  20. PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED MICROORGANISMS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated the effects of blending and chemical addition before analysis of the concentration of microorganisms in stormwater runoff to determine whether clumped or particle-associated organisms play a significant role. All organisms, except for Escherichia coli, ...

  1. Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, J. T.; Choi, S. J.; Kim, H. S.; Park, W. K.; Han, S. T.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, D. S.; Ahn, Y. H.

    2014-05-01

    Microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria cause many human diseases and therefore rapid and accurate identification of these substances is essential for effective treatment and prevention of further infections. In particular, contemporary microbial detection technique is limited by the low detection speed which usually extends over a couple of days. Here we demonstrate that metamaterials operating in the terahertz frequency range shows promising potential for use in fabricating the highly sensitive and selective microbial sensors that are capable of high-speed on-site detection of microorganisms in both ambient and aqueous environments. We were able to detect extremely small amounts of the microorganisms, because their sizes are on the same scale as the micro-gaps of the terahertz metamaterials. The resonant frequency shift of the metamaterials was investigated in terms of the number density and the dielectric constants of the microorganisms, which was successfully interpreted by the change in the effective dielectric constant of a gap area.

  2. [Secretion of proteolytic enzymes by three phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteinases from three phytopathogenic microorganisms that belong to different fungal families and cause diseases in potatoes were studied and characterized. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum were shown to secrete serine proteinases. An analysis of the substrate specificity of these enzymes and their sensitivity to synthetic and protein inhibitors allowed us to refer them to trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases. The correlation between the trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases depended on the composition of the culture medium, particularly on the form of the nitrogen source. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out. In contrast to basidiomycetes R. solani, ascomycetes F. culmorum and oomycetes P. infestans produced a similar set of exoproteinases, although they had more distant phylogenetic positions. This indicated that the secretion of serine proteinases by various phytopathogenic microorganisms also depended on their phylogenetic position. These results allowed us to suggest that exoproteinases from phytopathogenic fungi play a different role in pathogenesis. They may promote the adaptation of fungi if the range of hosts is enlarged. On the other hand, they may play an important role in the survival of microorganisms in hostile environements outside their hosts. PMID:25508654

  3. [Secretion of proteolytic enzymes by three phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kudriavtseva, N N; Sof'in, A V; Revina, T A; Gvozdeva, E L; Ievleva, E V; Valueva, T A

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteinases from three phytopathogenic microorganisms that belong to different fungal families and cause diseases in potatoes were studied and characterized. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum were shown to secrete serine proteinases. An analysis of the substrate specificity of these enzymes and their sensitivity to synthetic and protein inhibitors allowed us to refer them to trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases. The correlation between the trypsin- and subtilisin-like proteinases depended on the composition of the culture medium, particularly on the form of the nitrogen source. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out. In contrast to basidiomycetes R. solani, ascomycetes F. culmorum and oomycetes P. infestans produced a similar set of exoproteinases, although they had more distant phylogenetic positions. This indicated that the secretion of serine proteinases by various phytopathogenic microorganisms also depended on their phylogenetic position. These results allowed us to suggest that exoproteinases from phytopathogenic fungi play a different role in pathogenesis. They may promote the adaptation of fungi if the range of hosts is enlarged. On the other hand, they may play an important role in the survival of microorganisms in hostile environements outside their hosts. PMID:25474875

  4. Microorganisms in desert rocks: the edge of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Wierzchos, Jacek; de los Ríos, Asunción; Ascaso, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge on microbial communities inhabiting endolithic habitats in the arid and hyper-arid regions of our planet. In these extremely dry environments, the most common survival strategy is to colonize the interiors of rocks. This habitat provides thermal buffering, physical stability, and protection against incident UV radiation, excessive photosynthetically active radiation, and freeze-thaw events. Above all, through water retention in the rocks' network of pores and fissures, moisture is made available. Some authors have argued that dry environments pose the most extreme set of conditions faced by microorganisms. Microbial cells need to withstand the biochemical stresses created by the lack of water, along with temperature fluctuations and/or high salinity. In this review, we also address the variety of ways in which microorganisms deal with the lack of moisture in hyper-arid environments and point out the diversity of microorganisms that are able to cope with only the scarcest presence of water. Finally, we discuss the important clues to the history of life on Earth, and perhaps other places in our solar system, that have emerged from the study of extreme microbial ecosystems. PMID:23844476

  5. To what extent is clinical and laboratory information used to perform medication reviews in the nursing home setting? the CLEAR study

    PubMed Central

    Mestres Gonzalvo, Carlota; Hurkens, Kim PGM; de Wit, Hugo AJM; van Oijen, Brigit PC; Janknegt, Rob; Schols, Jos MGA; Mulder, Wubbo J; Verhey, Frans R; Winkens, Bjorn; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent laboratory data, actual medication, medical history, and/or drug indication influence the quality of medication reviews for nursing home patients. Methods Forty-six health care professionals from different fields were requested to perform medication reviews for three different cases. Per case, the amount of information provided varied in three subsequent stages: stage 1, medication list only; stage 2, adding laboratory data and reason for hospital admission; and stage 3, adding medical history/drug indication. Following a slightly modified Delphi method, a multidisciplinary team performed the medication review for each case and stage. The results of these medication reviews were used as reference reviews (gold standard). The remarks from the participants were scored, according to their potential clinical impact, from relevant to harmful on a scale of 3 to −1. A total score per case and stage was calculated and expressed as a percentage of the total score from the expert panel for the same case and stage. Results The overall mean percentage over all cases, stages, and groups was 37.0% when compared with the reference reviews. For one of the cases, the average score decreased significantly from 40.0% in stage 1, to 30.9% in stage 2, and 27.9% in stage 3; no significant differences between stages was found for the other cases. Conclusion The low performance, against the gold standard, of medication reviews found in the present study highlights that information is incorrectly used or wrongly interpreted, irrespective of the available information. Performing medication reviews without using the available information in an optimal way can have potential implications for patient safety. PMID:26056459

  6. On-chip continuous monitoring of motile microorganisms on an ePetri platform†

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Mukherjee, Nandini; Yang, Changhuei

    2012-01-01

    Self-imaging Petri dish platforms with microscopy resolution, which we term as ePetri, can significantly streamline cell cultures and/or other longitudinal biological studies. In this paper, we demonstrate high resolution imaging and long term culture of motile microorganisms in a specialized ePetri platform by taking advantage of the inherent motion. By applying a superresolution algorithm to a set of low-resolution images of the microorganisms as they move across the sensing area of a Complementary metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor chip, we can render an improved resolution image of the microorganisms. We perform longitudinal study of Euglena gracilis cultured in an ePetri platform and image based analysis on the motion and morphology of the cells. As a miniaturized and automated culture monitoring platform, this ePetri technology can greatly improve studies and experiments with motile microorganisms. PMID:22522781

  7. Experimental scale and dimensionality requirements for reproducing and studying coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes in the intermediate scale laboratory settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautz, Andrew; Illangasekare, Tissa; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Helmig, Rainer; Heck, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Past investigations of coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes have been constrained to two extremes, small laboratory bench-scale and field scale testing. In recognition of the limitations of studying the scale-dependency of these fundamental processes at either extreme, researchers have recently begun to promote the use of experimentation at intermediary scales between the bench and field scales. A requirement for employing intermediate scale testing to refine heat and mass transport theory regarding land-atmosphere-vegetative processes is high spatial-temporal resolution datasets generated under carefully controlled experimental conditions in which both small and field scale phenomena can be observed. Field experimentation often fails these criteria as a result of sensor network limitations as well as the natural complexities and uncertainties introduced by heterogeneity and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Laboratory experimentation, which is used to study three-dimensional (3-D) processes, is often conducted in 2-D test systems as a result of space, instrumentation, and cost constraints. In most flow and transport problems, 2-D testing is not considered a serious limitation because the bypassing of flow and transport due to geo-biochemical heterogeneities can still be studied. Constraining the study of atmosphere-soil-vegetation interactions to 2-D systems introduces a new challenge given that the soil moisture dynamics associated with these interactions occurs in three dimensions. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed as evermore intricate and specialized experimental apparatuses like the climate-controlled wind tunnel-porous media test system at CESEP are being constructed and used for these types of studies. The purpose of this study is to therefore investigate the effects of laboratory experimental dimensionality on observed soil moisture dynamics in the context of bare-soil evaporation and evapotranspiration

  8. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

  9. Ordinary stoichiometry of extraordinary microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Neveu, M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Anbar, A D; Elser, J J

    2016-01-01

    All life on Earth seems to be made of the same chemical elements in relatively conserved proportions (stoichiometry). Whether this stoichiometry is conserved in settings that differ radically in physicochemical conditions (extreme environments) from those commonly encountered elsewhere on the planet provides insight into possible stoichiometries for putative life beyond Earth. Here, we report measurements of elemental stoichiometry for extremophile microbes from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Phototrophic and chemotrophic microbes were collected in locations spanning large ranges of temperature (24 °C to boiling), pH (1.6-9.6), redox (0.1-7.2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen), and nutrient concentrations (0.01-0.25 mg L(-1) NO2-, 0.7-12.9 mg L(-1) NO3-, 0.01-42 mg L(-1) NH4 (+), 0.003-1.1 mg L(-1) P mostly as phosphate). Despite these extreme conditions, the microbial cells sampled had a major and trace element stoichiometry within the ranges commonly encountered for microbes living in the more moderate environments of lakes and surface oceans. The cells did have somewhat high C:P and N:P ratios that are consistent with phosphorus (P) limitation. Furthermore, chemotrophs and phototrophs had similar compositions with the exception of Mo content, which was enriched in cells derived from chemotrophic sites. Thus, despite the extraordinary physicochemical and biological diversity of YNP environments, life in these settings, in a stoichiometric sense, remains much the same as we know it elsewhere. PMID:26311124

  10. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  11. Active microorganisms as drivers of dynamic processes in soil: integration of basic teaching into research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally lecture courses, seminars and even practical training are disconnected from real experimental studies and from ongoing research projects. As a result students passively participate in lectures and are helpless when they come to the laboratory to prepare their BSc or MSc theses. We introduce a training course, which is developed for Bachelor students to integrate the basic knowledge on soil microbiology and modern microbiological methods in ecological studies. The training course is focused on the importance of active microbial biomass as biogeochemical driver of soil processes. According to our concept soil functioning is closely related to and depends on the microbial activities, and only active microorganisms drive all processes. Despite this importance of active microorganisms, the most of methods are focused on the estimation of the total microbial biomass and fail to evaluate its activity. Our course demonstrates how the active physiological state of soil microorganisms can be related to the activity indicators such as respiration, molecular biomarkers and viable cell compartments (ATP, PLFA, RNA) determined in situ in soil. Each lecture begins with the set of provocative questions "What is wrong?" which help students to activate their knowledge from previous lectures. Information on on-going soil incubation experiments is integrated in the lectures as a special block. The students are required not only to learn the existing methods but to compare them and to evaluate critically the applicability of these methods to explain the results of on-going experiments. The seminars foreseen within training course are focused on critical discussions of the protocols and their adaptations to current experimental tasks. During practical part of training courses the students are associated in small research groups with a certain ecological tasks. Each group uses soil sub-samples from ongoing experiments and thus, the experimental data obtaining during the

  12. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The “strongest need” for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either “agreed” that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their

  13. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  14. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. PMID:18949817

  15. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  16. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  17. Inactivation of microorganisms by electrohydraulic shock.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, S E; Speck, M L

    1967-09-01

    The electrohydraulic shock treatment of microorganisms was accomplished by discharging high-voltage electricity (8 to 15 kv) across an electrode gap below the surface of aqueous suspensions of the microorganisms. This treatment was effective in destroying Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis, and bacteriophage specific for S. cremoris ML1. The presence of added protein in bacterial suspensions resulted in reduced bactericidal action. Water subjected to electrohydraulic treatment retained a certain amount of toxicity when copper-core electrodes were used to apply the treatment. This was caused by copper liberated from the electrode during electrohydraulic discharge. PMID:4965615

  18. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  19. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Giver, L. J.; White, M. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  20. Performance Evaluation of the Becton Dickinson FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Instrument in a Laboratory and Typical Field Clinic Setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Lindi-Marie; Moodley, Keshendree; Glencross, Deborah Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The BD-FACSPresto™ CD4 is a new, point-of-care (POC) instrument utilising finger-stick capillary blood sampling. This study evaluated its performance against predicate CD4 testing in South Africa. Methods Phase-I testing: HIV+ patient samples (n = 214) were analysed on the Presto™ under ideal laboratory conditions using venous blood. During Phase-II, 135 patients were capillary-bled for CD4 testing on FACSPresto™, performed according to manufacturer instruction. Comparative statistical analyses against predicate PLG/CD4 method and industry standards were done using GraphPad Prism 6. It included Bland-Altman with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and percentage similarity with coefficient of variation (%CV) analyses for absolute CD4 count (cells/μl) and CD4 percentage of lymphocytes (CD4%). Results In Phase-I, 179/217 samples yielded reportable results with Presto™ using venous blood filled cartridges. Compared to predicate, a mean bias of 40.4±45.8 (LOA of -49.2 to 130.2) and %similarity (%CV) of 106.1%±7.75 (7.3%) was noted for CD4 absolute counts. In Phase-2 field study, 118/135 capillary-bled Presto™ samples resulted CD4 parameters. Compared to predicate, a mean bias of 50.2±92.8 (LOA of -131.7 to 232) with %similarity (%CV) 105%±10.8 (10.3%), and 2.87±2.7 (LOA of -8.2 to 2.5) with similarity of 94.7±6.5% (6.83%) noted for absolute CD4 and CD4% respectively. No significant clinical differences were indicated for either parameter using two sampling methods. Conclusion The Presto™ produced remarkable precision to predicate methods, irrespective of venous or capillary blood sampling. A consistent, clinically insignificant over-estimation (5–7%) of counts against PLG/CD4 and equivalency to FACSCount™ was noted. Further field studies are awaited to confirm longer-term use. PMID:27224025

  1. Enhanced Characterization of Microorganisms in the Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the space shuttles are enclosed environments where crewmembers may spend long periods of time. Currently, crewmembers spend approximately a period of 6 months in the ISS. It is known that these prolonged stays in space may result in weakening of the immune system. Therefore, exposure to opportunistic pathogens or high concentrations of environmental microorganisms may compromise the health of the crew. The detection of biocontaminants in spacecraft environments utilizes culture-based methodology, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium. Culturable bacteria and fungi have been the only allergens studied; the more potent allergens, such as those from dust mites, have never been tested for in spacecraft environments. In addition, no attempts have been made to monitor microbial toxins in spacecrafts. The present study utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) as a novel approach for monitoring microorganisms in the spacecraft environment. QPCR is a molecular biology technique that does not rely on the physiological state of the organisms for identification, thereby enabling detection of both culturable and non-culturable organisms. In this project, specific molecular primers and probes were utilized for the detection and quantitation of two fungi of concern in indoor environments, Aspergillus fumigatus and Stachybotrys chartarum. These organisms were selected because of the availability of PCR primers and probes, and to establish the sample processing and analysis methodology that may be employed with additional organisms. Purification methods and QPCR assays were optimized for the detection of these organisms in air, surface, and water; and sample processing and analysis protocols were developed. Preliminary validation of these protocols was conducted in the laboratory with air, surface, and water samples seeded with known

  2. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  3. Microorganism lipid droplets and biofuel development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingmei; Zhang, Congyan; Shen, Xipeng; Zhang, Xuelin; Cichello, Simon; Guan, Hongbin; Liu, Pingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids as a source of energy and carbon. However, recent research has emerged that the organelle is involved in lipid synthesis, transportation, and metabolism, as well as mediating cellular protein storage and degradation. With the exception of multi-cellular organisms, some unicellular microorganisms have been observed to contain LDs. The organelle has been isolated and characterized from numerous organisms. Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in LDs can be in excess of 50% of the dry weight in some microorganisms, and a maximum of 87% in some instances. These microorganisms include eukaryotes such as yeast and green algae as well as prokaryotes such as bacteria. Some organisms obtain carbon from CO2 via photosynthesis, while the majority utilizes carbon from various types of biomass. Therefore, high TAG content generated by utilizing waste or cheap biomass, coupled with an efficient conversion rate, present these organisms as bio-tech ‘factories’ to produce biodiesel. This review summarizes LD research in these organisms and provides useful information for further LD biological research and microorganism biodiesel development. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 575-581] PMID:24355300

  4. Human recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Mojica, Ángela J; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rodríguez, Alexander; Mosquera, Ángela; Díaz, Dennis; Beltrán, Laura; Díaz, Sergio; Pimentel, Natalia; Moreno, Jefferson; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Sánchez, Oscar F; Córdoba, Henry; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Barrera, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by accumulation of partially degraded substrates within the lysosome, as a result of a function loss of a lysosomal protein. Recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells, based on their capacity to carry out post-translational modifications similar to those observed in human native proteins. However, during the last years, a growing number of studies have shown the possibility to produce active forms of lysosomal proteins in other expression systems, such as plants and microorganisms. In this paper, we review the production and characterization of human lysosomal proteins, deficient in several LSDs, which have been produced in microorganisms. For this purpose, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Ogataea minuta have been used as expression systems. The recombinant lysosomal proteins expressed in these hosts have shown similar substrate specificities, and temperature and pH stability profiles to those produced in mammalian cells. In addition, pre-clinical results have shown that recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms can be taken-up by cells and reduce the substrate accumulated within the lysosome. Recently, metabolic engineering in yeasts has allowed the production of lysosomal enzymes with tailored N-glycosylations, while progresses in E. coli N-glycosylations offer a potential platform to improve the production of these recombinant lysosomal enzymes. In summary, microorganisms represent convenient platform for the production of recombinant lysosomal proteins for biochemical and physicochemical characterization, as well as for the development of ERT for LSD. PMID:26071627

  5. Metagenomics: Application of Genomics to Uncultured Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that avoided the bias imposed by culturing and led to the discovery of vast new lineages of microbial life. Although the portrait of the microbial world was revolutionized by analysis of 16S rRNA genes, such studies yielded only a phylogenetic description of community membership, providing little insight into the genetics, physiology, and biochemistry of the members. Metagenomics provides a second tier of technical innovation that facilitates study of the physiology and ecology of environmental microorganisms. Novel genes and gene products discovered through metagenomics include the first bacteriorhodopsin of bacterial origin; novel small molecules with antimicrobial activity; and new members of families of known proteins, such as an Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter, RecA, DNA polymerase, and antibiotic resistance determinants. Reassembly of multiple genomes has provided insight into energy and nutrient cycling within the community, genome structure, gene function, population genetics and microheterogeneity, and lateral gene transfer among members of an uncultured community. The application of metagenomic sequence information will facilitate the design of better culturing strategies to link genomic analysis with pure culture studies. PMID:15590779

  6. [DATABASE FOR DEPOSITARY DEPARTMENT OF MICROORGANISMS].

    PubMed

    Brovarnyk, V; Golovach, T M

    2015-01-01

    The database on microorganism culture depositary is designed with using MS Access 2010. Three major modules, namely general description, administration, storage, compound database kernel. Description of information in these modules is given. Web page of the depositary is developed on the database. PMID:26638488

  7. ATMOSPHERIC BENZENE DEPLETION BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous benzene was rapidly depleted in exposure chambers containing viable soils and plants. When separate components of the system were analyzed, no benzene was detected in soils, plants, or water. Soil microorganisms were shown to be responsible for metabolizing benzene, yield...

  8. [DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS TO POLYHEXAMETHYLENEGUANIDINE].

    PubMed

    Lysytsya, A V; Mandygra, Y M; Bojko, O P; Romanishyna, O O; Mandygra, M S

    2015-01-01

    Factors identified that affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG). Salts of PHMG chloride, valerate, maleate, succinate was to use. Test strains of Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Leptospira interrogans, Paenibacillus larvae, Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fortuitum, Aspergillus niger and some strains of viruses are taken as objects of research. We have determined that the cytoplasm membrane phospholipids is main "target" for the polycation molecules of PHMG. A differential sensitivity of the microorganisms to this drug is primarily determined by relative amount of lipids in membrane and their accessibility. Such trends exist: increase the relative contents of anionic lipids and more negative surface electric potential of membrane, and reduction of the sizes fat acid remainder of lipids bring to increase of microorganism sensitivity. Types of anion salt PHMG just have a certain value. Biocide activity of PHMG chloride is more, than its salts with organic acid. Feasibility of combining PHMG with other biocides in the multicomponent disinfectants studied and analyzed. This combination does not lead to a significant increase in the sensitivity of microorganisms tested in most cases. Most species of pathogenic bacteria can be quickly neutralized by aqueous solutions of PHMG in less than 1% concentrations. PMID:26638480

  9. PESTICIDE METABOLISM IN PLANTS AND MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding pesticide metabolism in plants and microorganisms is necessary for pesticide development, safe and efficient use, as well as for developing pesticide bioremediation strategies for contaminated soil and water. Pesticide biotransformation may occur via multi-step processes known as meta...

  10. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  11. Biomechanics of Aquatic Micro-Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedley, T. J.

    Aquatic micro-organisms play a major role in ocean ecology, the global carbon cycle and bioreactor engineering. The complex foodweb of an oceanic ecosystem may be modelled in terms of a few species of different types whose population densities obey coupled differential equations. However the functions and constants that appear in those equations depend in a complex way on the details of the dynamics of individual organisms and how they interact in larger scale phenomena. This talk will survey some of the following topics: (1) the fluid dynamics of micro-organism swimming, (2) the effect on nutrient uptake of an organism’s swimming motions, (3) chemotaxis in bacteria, (4) capture rate of phytoplankton by zooplankton when they all swim in a turbulent environment, (5) pattern-formation (e.g. bioconvection) in suspensions of upswimming micro-organisms (algae and bacteria), (6) the hydrodynamic interactions between swimming model micro-organisms and (7) their effect on the rheology and transport properties of the suspension as a whole. The long-term goal is to formulate a continuum model for concentrated suspensions of swimmers; this is not yet realised and may be impossible!

  12. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. PMID:26740559

  13. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  14. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  15. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  16. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  17. Modelling of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Introduction in Closed Artificial Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, N. S.; Brilkov, A. V.; Ganusov, V. V.; Kargatova, T. V.; Maksimova, E. E.; Popova, L. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of introducing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM) into simple biotic cycles of laboratory water microcosms was investigated. The survival of the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z905 (Apr, Lux+) in microcosms depends on the type of model ecosystems. During the absence of algae blooming in the model ecosystem, the part of plasmid-containing cells E. coli decreased fast, and the structure of the plasmid was also modified. In conditions of algae blooming (Ankistrodesmus sp.) an almost total maintenance of plasmid-containing cells was observed in E.coli population. A mathematics model of GEM's behavior in water ecosystems with different level of complexity has been formulated. Mechanisms causing the difference in luminescent exhibition of different species are discussed, and attempts are made to forecast the GEM's behavior in water ecosystems.

  18. Monitoring and identifying genetically-engineered microorganisms in the environment by time-resolved laser fluorometry

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, F.

    1992-01-01

    A large percentage of the applications of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms (GEMs) involve their release into the environment. At the present time there is no rapid analytical method that can accurately identify and quantify the number of microorganisms and their foreign genes. In the past several years the author's laboratory has used successfully laser-based enzymatic assays to identify and differentiate pathogens, microorganisms, and genetically modified microorganisms. This work focused on the use of the above technology to track and identify agricultural beneficially GEMs that have been released into the environment. The first stage of this work dealt with the detection of the marker gene, the lactose operon. It was successfully demonstrated that the laser-based enzymatic assay can detect enzymatic activity in E. coli after 5 minutes of induction. Moreover, the author has achieved quantitation of GEMs in the laboratory down to 10[sup 4] cells with only a 30 minute incubation time. The second stage of this work dealt with the characterization of the analytical blank present in environmental samples. Strategies were devised to circumvent this interference and new substrates were synthesized that improved the S/B of the analysis. The last stage of this research dealt with devising new instrumental methods to detect small number (single cell) of microorganisms. These included incorporation of time-resolved detection in flow cytometry, Capillary Electrophoresis of microorganisms, and two-photon spectroscopy of centrosymmetric probes. The results found here will complement the large array of techniques available for monitoring and identifying GEMs in the environment. Ultimately, the technique chosen will depend heavily on the type of gene being monitored, the sensitivity required, and the environmental conditions.

  19. Nature's Helpers: Using Microorganisms to Remove Trichloroethene (TCE) from Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. G.; Krajmlanik-Brown, R.; Fajardo-Williams, D.; Halloum, I.

    2015-12-01

    Organic chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are toxic pollutants threatening ground water quality worldwide and present at many superfund sites. Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising, green, efficient, and sustainable approach to remove PCE and TCE contamination from soil and groundwater. Under anaerobic conditions, specialized microorganisms (dechlorinators) can reduce these chlorinated ethenes to ethene, an innocuous product, and gain energy for growth by a process known as reductive dechlorination. Dechlorinators are most often present in the environment and in dechlorinating cultures alongside other microbes such as fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens. Fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens syntrophically provide essential nutrients and growth factors to dechlorinators, most specifically to the only members able to reduce TCE all the way to ethene: Dehalococcoides; unfortunately, they also compete with dechlorinators for electron donors. My laboratory devises reductive chlorination platforms to study competition and syntrophy among Dehalococcoides, and other microbes to optimize remediation reactions and transport in the subsurface. We look at competing processes present as part of the natural soil chemistry and microbiology and address these challenges through a combination of enrichment techniques, molecular microbial ecology (deep sequencing), water chemistry, and electron balances. We have applied knowledge gathered in my laboratory to: 1) enrich microbial dechlorinating cultures capable of some of the fastest rates of TCE to ethene dechlorination ever reported, and 2) successfully design and operate three different continuous dechlorinating reactor types. We attribute our successful reactor operations to our multidisciplinary approach which links microbiology and engineering. Our reactors produce robust dechlorinating cultures used for in-situ bioaugmentation of PCE and TCE at contaminated sites

  20. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Quarterly report ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, G.T.; Sperl, P.L.

    1992-12-31

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which can be exploited through simple supplementation to support the growth of microorganisms which aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix. Other compounds which may serve as nutritional sources for microorganisms are added to reservoirs during production and operation of oil fields. These materials include sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, volatile fatty acids, nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors, phosphorous-containing scale inhibitors and trace elements. Our experiments show that, with minimal supplementation, growth of naturally-occurring microorganisms can be used to produce viscosifying agents to aid oil recovery. This natural microflora is also capable of removing sulfide from oil reservoirs and preventing the formation of new sulfide leading to both more oil recovery and increased value of the produced oil. The metabolic products of these microorganisms are Co{sub 2}, water, N{sub 2} and oxidized forms of sulfur, all of which are environmentally innocuous. Laboratory experiments with both defined mixtures of microorganisms as well as mixed populations both release more oil from sand pack columns.

  1. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  2. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  3. Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Samani, Pedram; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Sylvester, Kayla; James, Brielle; Almeida, Pedro; Sampaio, José Paulo; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the ability of organisms to locally adapt is critical for determining the outcome of rapid climate changes, yet few studies have addressed this question in microorganisms. We investigated the role of a heterogeneous climate on adaptation of North American populations of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. We found abundant among-strain variation for fitness components across a range of temperatures, but this variation was only partially explained by climatic variation in the distribution area. Most of fitness variation was explained by the divergence of genetically distinct groups, distributed along a north–south cline, suggesting that these groups have adapted to distinct climatic conditions. Within-group fitness components were correlated with climatic conditions, illustrating that even ubiquitous microorganisms locally adapt and harbour standing genetic variation for climate-related traits. Our results suggest that global climatic changes could lead to adaptation to new conditions within groups, or changes in their geographical distributions. PMID:24403328

  4. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  5. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  6. FT-IR spectroscopy of microorganisms at the Robert Koch Institute: experiences gained during a successful project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    The characterization and identification of microorganisms by infrared or Raman spectroscopy is probably one of the best developed and most frequent applications of biomedical vibrational spectroscopy. The serial types of dedicated instruments for routine FT-IR characterizations of microorganisms are now available on the market and already used in routine microbiological laboratories. The experiences gained to date, especially the necessity to define standards for sampling and measurement procedures and the details of how data compatibility between different laboratories is achieve will be discussed as well as the problem to establish validated reference data bases for objective species or strain identifications.

  7. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria. PMID:22044674

  8. ESTIMATING MICROORGANISM DENSITIES IN AEROSOLS FROM SPRAY IRRIGATION OF WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes current knowledge about estimating the density of microorganisms in the air near wastewater management facilities, with emphasis on spray irrigation sites. One technique for modeling microorganism density in air is provided and an aerosol density estimati...

  9. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  10. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  11. MODELING THE FATE OF MICROORGANISMS IN WATER, WASTEWATER, AND SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The natural environment is filled with microorganisms, most of which are natural residents and colonize various ecological niches. These microorganisms either live independently within the environment, or live in association with various host organisms. There also are places and ...

  12. Investigation to identify paint coatings resistive to microorganism growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. W.; Kemp, H. T.

    1971-01-01

    All selected coatings contain nutrients that support microbial growth and survival. Incorporation of microbiocidal agents into coatings more susceptible to attack is recommended for improved inhibition of microorganism growth and for increased protection against deterioration of coatings by microorganisms.

  13. Pressure inactivation of microorganisms at moderate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, P.; Ludwig, H.

    1986-05-01

    The inactivation of bacteria, bacterial spores, yeasts and molds by high hydrostatic pressure was investigated over a pressure range up to 3000 bar. Survival curves were measured as a function of temperature and pressure applied on the microorganisms. Conditions are looked for under which heat or radiation sensitive pharmaceutical preparations can be sterilized by high pressure treatment at moderate temperatures. All organisms tested can be inactivated in the range of 2000-2500 bar and between 40-60 degrees.

  14. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    DOEpatents

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  15. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  16. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Speth, Daan R; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; Lücker, Sebastian

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 1890, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible, and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth rates but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26610025

  17. Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Lissette; Chi, An; Beard, Simon; Orell, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas; Shabanowitz, Jeff; Hunt, Donald F; Jerez, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The use of acidophilic, chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable of oxidizing iron and sulfur in industrial processes to recover metals from minerals containing copper, gold and uranium is a well established biotechnology with distinctive advantages over traditional mining. A consortium of different microorganisms participates in the oxidative reactions resulting in the extraction of dissolved metal values from ores. Considerable effort has been spent in the last years to understand the biochemistry of iron and sulfur compounds oxidation, bacteria-mineral interactions (chemotaxis, quorum sensing, adhesion, biofilm formation) and several adaptive responses allowing the microorganisms to survive in a bioleaching environment. All of these are considered key phenomena for understanding the process of biomining. The use of genomics, metagenomics and high throughput proteomics to study the global regulatory responses that the biomining community uses to adapt to their changing environment is just beginning to emerge in the last years. These powerful approaches are reviewed here since they offer the possibility of exciting new findings that will allow analyzing the community as a microbial system, determining the extent to which each of the individual participants contributes to the process, how they evolve in time to keep the conglomerate healthy and therefore efficient during the entire process of bioleaching. PMID:16288845

  18. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  19. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Grzymski, Joseph J.; Marsh, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text–identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function. PMID:24828817

  20. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  1. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  2. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  3. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  4. SiSPAT-Isotope, a coupled heat, water and stable isotope (HDO and H 218O) transport model for bare soil. Part II. Evaluation and sensitivity tests using two laboratory data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, I.; Bariac, T.; Vauclin, M.; Boujamlaoui, Z.; Gaudet, J. P.; Biron, Ph.; Richard, P.

    2005-07-01

    Stable water isotopes are tracers of water movement within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. They have the potential for a better understanding of water vapour transport within soils, evaporation and transpiration processes. To better understand those potentialities and possible lack of knowledge, a coupled heat-water and stable isotope transport model, called SiSPAT-Isotope was developed for bare soil. We presented the theoretical basis of the model in the first part of the paper, including a first validation of the likelihood of model results and a comparison with existing analytical solutions. In this companion paper, we go a step further by comparing the model results with two data sets collected on laboratory columns. In both cases, five soil columns were saturated and let drying during 173 and 253 days, respectively. At selected dates, one of the column was cut into slices and analysed to determine the volumetric water content, the deuterium and oxygen 18 concentrations profiles. The first data set was acquired on disturbed soil columns. The second one was collected on non-disturbed soil columns and it included a complete monitoring of atmospheric variables. It was not the case for the first one and a sensitivity analysis of model results to the air humidity was performed, showing its large influence on surface isotope concentrations. For both data sets, we also conducted a sensitivity analysis to the formulation of the kinetic fractionation factor, conditioning the resistance to isotope transport between the soil surface and the atmosphere, and to the value of soil tortuosity. The results showed that the model was able to reproduce the behaviour of the observed concentration profiles. A fair agreement between measured and calculated values was obtained for all profiles for the disturbed soil. Near surface concentrations were in general overestimated for the undisturbed soil, raising the question of possible influence of immobile water on concentrations

  5. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K

    2016-10-01

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials. PMID:27573579

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Project technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    The development of group-specific, 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface microorganisms is described. Because portions of the 16S RRNA molecule are unique to particular organisms or groups, these unique sequences can serve as targets for hybridization probes with varied specificity. Target sequences for selected microbial groups have been identified by analysis of the available RRNA sequence data for subsurface microbes. Hybridization probes for these target sequences were produced and their effectiveness and specificity tested with RNA cell blot and in situ hybridizations. Selected probes were used to study phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microbes and to classify these organisms into the specific groups that the probes are designed to detect. To date, this work has been performed on the P24 and C10 borehole isolates from the Savannah River Site. The probes will also be used, with in situ hybridizations, to detect and monitor selected microbial groups in freshly collected subsurface samples and laboratory microcosms in collaboration with other investigators. In situ hybridizations permit detection of selected microbial types without the necessity to isolate and culture them in the laboratory.

  7. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, Maartje A.H.J.; Speth, Daan R.; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H.; Op den Camp, Huub J.M.; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S.M.; Lücker, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is considered to first be oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and/or archaea (AOA), and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Described by Winogradsky already in 18901, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle2. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth-rates but higher growth-yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms3. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here, we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding on the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26610025

  8. Biofilms: Survival Mechanisms of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, Rodney M.; Costerton, J. William

    2002-01-01

    Though biofilms were first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the theory describing the biofilm process was not developed until 1978. We now understand that biofilms are universal, occurring in aquatic and industrial water systems as well as a large number of environments and medical devices relevant for public health. Using tools such as the scanning electron microscope and, more recently, the confocal laser scanning microscope, biofilm researchers now understand that biofilms are not unstructured, homogeneous deposits of cells and accumulated slime, but complex communities of surface-associated cells enclosed in a polymer matrix containing open water channels. Further studies have shown that the biofilm phenotype can be described in terms of the genes expressed by biofilm-associated cells. Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents by one or more mechanisms. Biofilm-associated microorganisms have been shown to be associated with several human diseases, such as native valve endocarditis and cystic fibrosis, and to colonize a wide variety of medical devices. Though epidemiologic evidence points to biofilms as a source of several infectious diseases, the exact mechanisms by which biofilm-associated microorganisms elicit disease are poorly understood. Detachment of cells or cell aggregates, production of endotoxin, increased resistance to the host immune system, and provision of a niche for the generation of resistant organisms are all biofilm processes which could initiate the disease process. Effective strategies to prevent or control biofilms on medical devices must take into consideration the unique and tenacious nature of biofilms. Current intervention strategies are designed to prevent initial device colonization, minimize microbial cell attachment to the device, penetrate the biofilm matrix and kill the associated cells, or remove the device from the patient. In the future, treatments may be based on inhibition of genes

  9. Extremophilic microorganisms as candidates for extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckbach, Joseph; Oren, Aharon

    2000-12-01

    Microbial life is found all over the globe. Diverse communities are even found in such places in which extreme conditions with respect of temperature, salinity, pH, and pressure prevail. Many of these environments were until recently considered too harsh to harbor microbial life. The micro-organisms adapted to an existence at the edge of life are termed extremophiles. They include members of the Prokaryotes (domains Archaea and Bacteria) and the Eukarya, including algae and protozoa. Extremophilic microbes thrive at low and high temperatures -- from subzero levels to above the boiling point of water, at both sides of the pH scale -- in acidic as well as in alkaline media, in hypersaline environments with salt concentrations of up to saturation, at high pressure, both in the deep sea and in the terrestrial deep subsurface where they are exposed to pressures of hundreds of atmospheres, and in other extreme conditions. In many cases they tolerate combinations of more than one environmental stress factor. Some of the extremophiles may be considered as 'living fossils' since their environment resembles the conditions that may have existed during the time life arose on Earth, more than 3.5 billion years ago. In view of these properties the extremophilic micro-organisms may be considered as model organisms when exploring the possibilities of the existence of extraterrestrial life. For example, the microbes discovered in ice cores recovered from the depth of the Lake Vostok in Antarctica may serve as a model simulating conditions prevailing in the permafrost subsurface of Mars or Jupiter's moon Europa. Microbial life in the Dead Sea or in Great Salt Lake may resemble halophilic life forms that may exist elsewhere in the universe, adapted to life at low water activities. Likewise, hyperthermophilic micro-organisms present on Earth in hot springs, hydrothermal vents and other sites heated by volcanic activity in terrestrial or marine areas, may resemble life forms that may

  10. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  11. Sensory Transduction in Microorganisms 2008 Gordon Research Conference (January 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Ann M. Stock

    2009-04-08

    Research into the mechanisms involved in the sensing and responses of microorganisms to changes in their environments is currently very active in a large number of laboratories worldwide. An increasingly wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species are being studied with regard to their sensing of diverse chemical and physical stimuli, including nutrients, toxins, intercellular signaling molecules, redox indicators, light, pressure, magnetic fields, and surface contact, leading to adaptive responses affecting motile behavior, gene expression and/or development. The ease of manipulation of microorganisms has facilitated application of a broad range of techniques that have provided comprehensive descriptions of cellular behavior and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Systems and their molecular components have been probed at levels ranging from the whole organism down to atomic resolution using behavioral analyses; electrophysiology; genetics; molecular biology; biochemical and biophysical characterization; structural biology; single molecule, fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy; computational modeling; bioinformatics and genomic analyses. Several model systems such as bacterial chemotaxis and motility, fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus, and motility and development in Dictyostelium discoideum have traditionally been a focus of this meeting. By providing a basis for assessment of similarities and differences in mechanisms, understanding of these pathways has advanced the study of many other microbial sensing systems. This conference aims to bring together researchers investigating different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial systems using diverse approaches to compare data, share methodologies and ideas, and seek to understand the fundamental principles underlying sensory responses. Topic areas include: (1) Receptor Sensing and Signaling; (2) Intracellular Signaling (two-component, c-di-GMP, c-AMP, etc.); (3) Intracellular Localization and

  12. Temperature response of Antarctic cryptoendolithic photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; Meyer, M. A.; Chen, M.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Growth responses to temperatures between 12.5 [degrees] C and 25 degrees C were determined for five photosynthetic microorganisms isolated from the Ross Desert cryptoendolithic community. Among eukaryotic algae, two strains of Trebouxia sp. have an upper temperature limit of 20 degrees C, and two strains of Hemichloris antarctica of 25 degrees C. The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp., in contrast, grows at temperatures above 25 degrees C. These and earlier studies suggest that the eukaryotic algae of the Antarctic cryptoendolithic community have an upper temperature limit near 25 degrees C.

  13. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  14. Lead resistance in micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Jarosławiecka, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an element present in the environment that negatively affects all living organisms. To diminish its high toxicity, micro-organisms have developed several mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to Pb(II). The main mechanisms of lead resistance involve adsorption by extracellular polysaccharides, cell exclusion, sequestration as insoluble phosphates, and ion efflux to the cell exterior. This review describes the various lead resistance mechanisms, and the regulation of their expression by lead binding regulatory proteins. Special attention is given to the Pbr system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which involves a unique mechanism combining efflux and lead precipitation. PMID:24124204

  15. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn. PMID:24059550

  16. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  17. Resistance of soil microorganisms to starvation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most groups of soil microorganisms died when exposed to prolonged starvation in a carbon-free solution, but the relative abundance of Bacillus and actinomycetes increased with time. Certain nonspore-forming bacteria also persisted. The ability of individual soil isolates to endure starvation in solution was not correlated with their glycogen content or rate of endogenous respiration. However, cells of the resistant populations were rich in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, whereas the starvation-susceptible bacteria generally contained little of this substance. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was used rapidly in cells deprived of exogenous sources of carbon.

  18. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results of a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, crossover study of extended-release dexmethylphenidate and D,L-methylphenidate and placebo in a laboratory classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raul; Muniz, Rafael; McCague, Kevin; Childress, Ann; Brams, Matthew; Mao, Alice

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of extended-release dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH-ER) to that of d,l-MPH-ER and placebo in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting. This multicenter, double-blind, crossover study randomized 82 children, 6 to 12 years of age, stabilized on a total daily dose to the nearest equivalent of 40 to 60 mg of d,l-MPH or 20 or 30 mg/day of d-MPH. Patients participated in a screening day and practice day, and were randomized to 1 of 10 sequences of all five treatments in five separate periods. Treatments included d-MPH-ER (20 mg/day), d-MPH-ER (30 mg/day), d,l-MPH-ER (36 mg/day), d,l-MPH-ER (54 mg/day), and placebo. Primary efficacy was measured by the change from predose on the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale-Combined scores at 2-h postdose during the 12-h laboratory assessment (d-MPH-ER 20 mg/day vs. d,l-MPH-ER 36 mg/day). Adverse events were monitored throughout the study period. d-MPH-ER (20 mg/day) was significantly more effective than d,l-MPH-ER (36 mg/day) in the primary efficacy variable, change from predose to 2-h postdose in SKAMP-combined score. In general, d-MPH-ER had an earlier onset of action than d,l-MPH-ER, while d,l-MPH-ER had a stronger effect at 12-h postdose. No serious adverse events were reported. Treatment with either agent was associated with significant improvements in ADHD symptoms. d-MPH-ER and d,l-MPH-ER can be differentiated on what part of the day each is more effective. PMID:18362868

  19. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  20. Nonenzymatic microorganism identification based on ribosomal RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Jeffrey T.; Pierini, Alicia M.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.; Read, Betsy; Bechtel, James H.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Effective defense against biological warfare (BW) agents requires rapid, fieldable and accurate systems. For micro- organisms like bacteria and viruses, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a valuable target with multiple advantages of species specificity and intrinsic target amplification. Vegetative and spore forms of bacteria contain approximately 104 copies of rRNA. Direct detection of rRNA copies can eliminate some of the interference and preparation difficulties involved in enzymatic amplification methods. In order to apply the advantages of rRNA to BW defense, we are developing a fieldable system based on 16S rRNA, physical disruption of the micro-organism, solid phase hybridization, and fluorescence detection. Our goals include species-specific identification, complete operation from raw sample to identification in 15 minutes or less, and compact, fieldable instrumentation. Initial work on this project has investigated the lysis and hybridization steps, the species-specificity of oligonucleotides probes, and the development of a novel electromagnetic method to physically disrupt the micro- organisms. Target bacteria have been Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Continuing work includes further development of methods to rapidly disrupt the micro-organisms and release the rRNA, improved integration and processing, and extension to bacterial and mammalian viruses like MS2 and vesicular stomatitis virus.

  1. Industrial and environmental applications of halophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with the thermophilic and the alkaliphilic extremophiles, halophilic microorganisms have as yet found relatively few biotechnological applications. Halophiles are involved in centuries-old processes such as the manufacturing of solar salt from seawater and the production of traditional fermented foods. Two biotechnological processes involving halophiles are highly successful: the production of beta-carotene by the green alga Dunaliella and the production of ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), used as a stabilizer for enzymes and now also applied in cosmetic products, from moderately halophilic bacteria. The potential use of bacteriorhodopsin, the retinal protein proton pump of Halobacterium, in optoelectronic devices and photochemical processes is being explored, and may well lead to commercial applications in the near future. Demand for salt-tolerant enzymes in current manufacturing or related processes is limited. Other possible uses of halophilic microorganisms such as treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewaters, and the production of exopolysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate bioplastics and biofuel are being investigated, but no large-scale applications have yet been reported. PMID:20662374

  2. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  3. Microorganisms capable of metabolizing the herbicide metolachlor.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A; Zhang, R W; Bollag, J M

    1987-01-01

    We screened several strains of microorganisms and microbial populations for their ability to mineralize or transform the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-acetami de] because such cultures would potentially be useful in the cleanup of contaminated sites. Although we used various inocula and enrichment culture techniques, we were not able to isolate microorganisms that could mineralize metolachlor. However, strains of Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Fusarium sp., Mucor racemosus, and an actinomycete were found to transform metolachlor. Several metabolites could be determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The tolerance of the strains to high concentrations of metolachlor was also evaluated for the usefulness of the strains for decontamination. Tolerance of the actinomycete to metolachlor concentrations over 200 ppm (200 micrograms/ml) was low and could not be increased by doubling the sucrose concentration in the growth medium or by using a large biomass as inoculum. However, a Fusarium sp. could grow and transform metolachlor up to a concentration of 300 ppm. PMID:3105457

  4. Venturing into new realms? Microorganisms in space.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles; Rettberg, Petra

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges of science is the determination of whether extraterrestrial life exists. Although potential habitable areas might be available for complex life, it is more likely that microbial life could exist in space. Many extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes have been found to be able to withstand numerous, combined environmental factors, such as high or low temperatures and pressures, high-salt conditions, high doses of radiation, desiccation or nutrient limitations. They may even survive the transit from one planet to another. Terrestrial Mars-analogue sites are one focus of researchers, in order to understand the microbial diversity in preparation for upcoming space missions aimed at the detection of life. However, such missions could also pose a risk with respect to contamination of the extraterrestrial environment by accidentally transferred terrestrial microorganisms. Closer to the Earth, the International Space Station is the most enclosed habitat, where humans work and live-and with them numerous microorganisms. It is still unknown how microbes adapt to this environment, possibly even creating a risk for the crew. Information on the microbiology of the ISS will have an impact on the planning and implementation of long-term human spaceflights in order to ensure a safe, stable and balanced microbiome on board. PMID:27354346

  5. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  6. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  7. DIALYSIS FLASK FOR CONCENTRATED CULTURE OF MICROORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Philipp; Gallup, D. M.

    1963-01-01

    Gerhardt, Philipp (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), and D. M. Gallup. Dialysis flask for concentrated culture of microorganisms. J. Bacteriol 86:919–929. 1963.—A twin-chambered dialysis flask was designed with a supported membrane clamped between a reservoir of medium in the bottom and a small volume of culture above, the unit being mounted on a shaking machine to provide aeration and agitation. The performance of different dialysis membranes and membrane filters was compared in glucose-diffusion and bacterial-culture tests. Some of the variables in dialysis culture were assessed and the growth response was characterized, with Serratia marcescens as the test organism. The general usefulness and concentrating effect of dialysis culture were demonstrated in trials with 16 representative types of microorganisms. Dialysis culture was shown to be especially suitable for producing dense populations of cells or their macromolecular products in an environment free from complex medium constituents, for removing toxic products that limit growth or fermentation, and for supplying oxygen by diffusion without the damage from usual aeration procedures. Images PMID:14080802

  8. Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human “Troy,” and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens. PMID:15084508

  9. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  10. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…