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Sample records for microquasar cygnus x-1

  1. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic γ-γ interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  2. EPISODIC TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE MICROQUASAR CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Feroci, M.; Argan, A.; D'Ammando, F.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2010-03-20

    Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is the archetypal black hole binary system in our Galaxy. We report the main results of an extensive search for transient gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-1 carried out in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV by the AGILE satellite, during the period 2007 July-2009 October. The total exposure time is about 300 days, during which the source was in the 'hard' X-ray spectral state. We divided the observing intervals in 2-4 week periods, and searched for transient and persistent emission. We report an episode of significant transient gamma-ray emission detected on 2009 October 16 in a position compatible with Cyg X-1 optical position. This episode, which occurred during a hard spectral state of Cyg X-1, shows that a 1-2 day time variable emission above 100 MeV can be produced during hard spectral states, having important theoretical implications for current Comptonization models for Cyg X-1 and other microquasars. Except for this one short timescale episode, no significant gamma-ray emission was detected by AGILE. By integrating all available data, we obtain a 2{sigma} upper limit for the total integrated flux of F {sub {gamma}}{sub ,U.L.} = 3 x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV. We then clearly establish the existence of a spectral cutoff in the energy range 1-100 MeV that applies to the typical hard state outside the flaring period and that confirms the historically known spectral cutoff above 1 MeV.

  3. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pooley, Guy G.

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} and 1.6 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  4. Gamma-ray Observations of the Microquasars Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4 with Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Pooley, G. G.

    2013-04-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but important endeavor for understanding particle acceleration, the jet mechanism, and for testing leptonic/hadronic emission models. In this talk, we present results from a 1-d and 10-d likelihood analysis of ~4 years worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1--10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4. This allowed us to sample a variety of states and transitions in these X-ray bright microquasars. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE. In addition, there are 5 days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ~5σ that are not reported in the literature. We also find evidence for persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 which appears to be unrelated to the jets. There are several days on which Cyg X-1 displays low-significance 3--4σ) excesses, two of which are contemporaneous with reported gamma-ray flares detected (also at low significance) by AGILE. For GRS 1915+105 and GX 339-4, we derive 3σ upper limits of 3.9e-6 ph/cm2/s and 4.0e-6 ph/cm2/s, respectively, on the flux in the 0.1--10 GeV range. These results enable us to propose a list of general conditions which appear to be necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  5. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Microquasars Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Wilms, Jörn; Pooley, Guy G.

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ~4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ~5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (~3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339-4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 and 1.6 × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  6. Extreme particle acceleration in the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Piano, G; Sabatini, S; Striani, E; Evangelista, Y; Trois, A; Pooley, G; Trushkin, S; Nizhelskij, N A; McCollough, M; Koljonen, K I I; Pucella, G; Giuliani, A; Chen, A W; Costa, E; Vittorini, V; Trifoglio, M; Gianotti, F; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Mattaini, E; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mauri, A; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Santolamazza, P; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L

    2009-12-01

    Super-massive black holes in active galaxies can accelerate particles to relativistic energies, producing jets with associated gamma-ray emission. Galactic 'microquasars', which are binary systems consisting of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole accreting gas from a companion star, also produce relativistic jets, generally together with radio flares. Apart from an isolated event detected in Cygnus X-1, there has hitherto been no systematic evidence for the acceleration of particles to gigaelectronvolt or higher energies in a microquasar, with the consequence that we are as yet unsure about the mechanism of jet energization. Here we report four gamma-ray flares with energies above 100 MeV from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 (an exceptional X-ray binary that sporadically produces radio jets). There is a clear pattern of temporal correlations between the gamma-ray flares and transitional spectral states of the radio-frequency and X-ray emission. Particle acceleration occurred a few days before radio-jet ejections for two of the four flares, meaning that the process of jet formation implies the production of very energetic particles. In Cygnus X-3, particle energies during the flares can be thousands of times higher than during quiescent states. PMID:19935645

  7. Veritas observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration) and; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; and others

    2013-12-20

    We report results from TeV gamma-ray observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3. The observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) over a time period from 2007 June 11 to 2011 November 28. VERITAS is most sensitive to gamma rays at energies between 85 GeV and 30 TeV. The effective exposure time amounts to a total of about 44 hr, with the observations covering six distinct radio/X-ray states of the object. No significant TeV gamma-ray emission was detected in any of the states, nor with all observations combined. The lack of a positive signal, especially in the states where GeV gamma rays were detected, places constraints on TeV gamma-ray production in Cygnus X-3. We discuss the implications of the results.

  8. THE TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mark J.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2011-12-01

    We report a direct and accurate measurement of the distance to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which contains the first black hole to be discovered. The distance of 1.86{sup +0.12}{sub -0.11} kpc was obtained from a trigonometric parallax measurement using the Very Long Baseline Array. The position measurements are also sensitive to the 5.6 day binary orbit and we determine the orbit to be clockwise on the sky. We also measured the proper motion of Cygnus X-1 which, when coupled to the distance and Doppler shift, gives the three-dimensional space motion of the system. When corrected for differential Galactic rotation, the non-circular (peculiar) motion of the binary is only about 21 km s{sup -1}, indicating that the binary did not experience a large 'kick' at formation.

  9. Modulated high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaty, S; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Corbet, R; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dubus, G; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Koerding, E; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marchand, L; Marelli, M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McColl, N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Migliari, S; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Ong, R A; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pooley, G; Porter, T A; Pottschmidt, K; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stevenson, M; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tomsick, J A; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilms, J; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-12-11

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets. PMID:19965378

  10. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi LAT Collaboration; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chaty, S.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbel, S.; Corbet, R.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Koerding, E.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchand, L.; Marelli, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McColl, N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Migliari, S.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Ong, R. A.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pooley, G.; Porter, T. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, J.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilms, J.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. W.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  11. The Lukewarm Absorber in the Microquasar Cir X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2006-09-01

    Through many observations in the last decades the extreme and violent X-ray binary Cir X-1 has been classified as a microquasar, Z-source, X-ray burster, and accreting neutron star exhibiting ultrarelativistic jets. Since the launch of Chandra the source underwent a dramatic change from a high flux (1.5 Crab) source to a rather low persistent flux ( 30 mCrab) in the last year. Spectra from Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) taken during this transformation have revealed many details besides the large overall flux change ranging from blue-shifted absorption lines indicating high-velocity (< 2000 km/s) outflows during high flux, persistently bright lines emission throughout all phases to some form of warm absorption in the low flux phase. Newly released atomic data allows us to analyse specifically the Fe K line region with unprecedented detail for all flux phases observed so far. We also compare these new results with recently released findings of warm absorbers and outflow signatures observed in other microqasars such as GX 339+4, GRS J1655-40, and GRS1915+115.

  12. Lepto-hadronic model for the broadband emission of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Carolina; Vila, Gabriela S.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Cygnus X-1 is a well-observed microquasar. Broadband observations at all wavelengths have been collected over the years. The origin of the MeV tail observed with COMPTEL and INTEGRAL is still under debate and it has mostly been attributed to the corona, although its high degree of polarization suggests that it is synchrotron radiation from a jet. The origin of the transient emission above ~100 GeV is also unclear. Aims: We aim to clarify the origin of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of Cygnus X-1, focusing particularly on the gamma-ray emission, and to gain information on the physical conditions inside the jets. Methods: We developed a lepto-hadronic, inhomogeneous jet model and applied it to the non-thermal SED of Cygnus X-1. We calculated the contributions to the SED of both protons and electrons accelerated in an extended region of the jet. We also estimated the radiation of charged secondaries produced in hadronic interactions through several radiative processes. Absorption effects were considered. We produced synthetic maps of the jets at radio wavelengths. Results: We find two sets of model parameters that lead to good fits of the SED. One of the models fits all the observations, including the MeV tail. This model also predicts hadronic gamma-ray emission slightly below the current upper limits. The flux predicted at 8.4 GHz is in agreement with the observations available in the literature, although the synthetic source is more compact than the imaged radio jet. Conclusions: Our results show that the MeV emission in Cygnus X-1 may be jet synchrotron radiation. This depends mainly on the strength of the jet magnetic field and the location of the injection region of the relativistic particles. Our calculations show that there must be energetic electrons in the jets quite far from the black hole.

  13. XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.

  14. Absorption dips at low X-ray energies in Cygnus X-1. [observed with Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Absorbing material in Cygnus X-1 jitters near the line joining the two stars, out of the orbital plane is described. Three looks with the Copernicus satellite at Cygnus X-1 have produced four examples of absorption dips (decreases in the 2 to 7 keV flux from Cygnus X-1 with an increase of spectral hardness consistent with photoelectric absorption).

  15. On the nature of the episodic gamma-ray flare observed in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Orellana, M.

    The high-mass microquasar Cygnus X-1, the best established candidate for a stellar-mass black hole, has been detected in a flaring state at very high energies, E > 200 GeV (Albert et al. 2007). The observation was per- formed by the Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope MAGIC. It is the first experimental evidence of very high energy emission produced by a galactic stellar-mass black hole. The observed high energy excess occurred in coin- cidence with an X-ray flare. The flare took place at orbital phase = 0.91, being = 1 the moment when the black hole is behind the companion star. In this configuration the absorption of gamma-ray photons produced by photon-photon annihilation with the stellar field is expected to be the highest. We present detailed calculations of the gamma-ray opacity due to pair creation along the whole orbit, and for different locations of the emitter (height above the compact object). We discuss the location of the gamma- ray producing region in Cygnus X-1 and the energetics required to produce the flare.

  16. The X-ray halo of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, M. F.; Norwell, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Evans, A.

    1985-01-01

    Four Einstein HRI images of Cygnus X-1 were examined for the presence of a halo due to scattering of X-rays by interstellar grains. The analysis technique exploits the intrinsic aperiodic variability of the source to map the point response function of the optics. A residual, nonvariable component to the surface brightness distribution (comprising approximately more than 12 percent of the source flux) is interpreted as a scattered halo. The halo flux does not reflect the short term time variability of the central source as it is smoothed by differential time delays of order days. The Cygnus X-1 halo is consistent with those of other sources derived in previous studies using different techniques. Comparison is made with a scattering model, and the sensitivity of the halo flux to maximal grain size is demonstrated.

  17. Multi-frequency observation of Galactic micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 during flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, D.; Pal, S.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Rao, A. P.

    We studied the multi-frequency radio observations of the Galactic micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 244, 325, 614 and 1280 MHz and Very Large Array at 8.43, 22.5 and 43.3 GHz during various flaring activities between 2006 to 2009. We have calculated the two point spectral index from the simultaneous observations at 244 and 614 MHz. These spectral index varies from positive (optically thick) and negative (optically thin) values which is consistent with the synchrotron self absorption model. We calculated some physical parameters such as the size of emitting region, turn over frequency and corresponding peak flux using the synchrotron self absorption model. The size of the emitting region are different at different time of the flare.

  18. X-Ray Timing Properties of Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, Warren Bosworth

    Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2 are X-ray sources which are believed to be a black hole and a neutron star, respectively. We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot noise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. The detected shots are fit to several model templates. The fit shot parameters are found to be distributed. The cross spectrum of light curves from Cygnus X-1 in different energy bands is studied. Large, frequency dependent time lags are observed, along with high coherence. The high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. This implies that, if the lags are due to Compton scattering, variations in the seed intensity must originate in a region much smaller than the Comptonizing medium. The frequency dependence of the lags implies that, if they are due to Comptonization, the Comptonizing medium is nonuniform. The uniformity of the transfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. The energy spectrum of the radiation reaching us from Cygnus X-1 is found to fluctuate at the shortest timescales observable. This implies rapid changes in the geometry or temperature of some portions of the system, possibly due to dynamical instabilities of the system. The high counting rates and temporal resolution of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer allow more detailed investigation of the Horizontal Branch Oscillations (HBO) in Cygnus X-2 than has been possible previously, including observation of a second harmonic. The relations of the frequencies and widths of these peaks are investigated in order to shed light on their origin and thus the conditions in the region of their formation. The observations support the Magnetospheric Beat Frequency Modulated Accretion model for the origin of the HBO. The data indicate that neither rapid variation in the frequency of, nor short lifetime of, a locally

  19. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF CYGNUS X-1: THE FIRST MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION OF COMPACT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern; Grinberg, Victoria E-mail: jclee@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: hines@stsci.edu E-mail: joern.wilms@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de

    2011-07-20

    We report on a Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break-where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place-at about 2.9 x 10{sup 13} Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 {mu}m mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Rayleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f{sub {infinity}} {approx} 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anti-correlation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and Cygnus X-1's environment and/or the companion star's stellar wind.

  20. The Microquasar Cyg X-1: A Short Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Hanke, M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Markoff, S.

    2011-01-01

    We review the spectral properties of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-I. Specifically, we discuss two recent sets of multi-satellite observations. One comprises a 0.5-500 keY spectrum, obtained with eve!)' flying X-ray satellite at that time, that is among the hardest Cyg X-I spectra observed to date. The second set is comprised of 0.5-40 keV Chandra-HETG plus RXTE-PCA spectra from a radio-quiet, spectrally soft state. We first discuss the "messy astrophysics" often neglected in the study of Cyg X-I, i.e., ionized absorption from the wind of the secondary and the foreground dust scattering halo. We then discuss components common to both state extremes: a low temperature accretion disk, and a relativistically broadened Fe line and reflection. Hard state spectral models indicate that the disk inner edge does not extend beyond > or approx.= 40 GM/sq c , and may even approach as close as approx. = 6GM/sq c. The soft state exhibits a much more prominent disk component; however, its very low normalization plausibly indicates a spinning black hole in the Cyg X-I system. Key words. accretion, accretion disks - black hole physics - X-rays:binaries

  1. Shell-shocked: the interstellar medium near Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, P. H.; Heinz, S.; Richards, E.; Maccarone, T. J.; Russell, D. M.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R.; Markoff, S.; Nowak, M.

    2015-02-01

    We conduct a detailed case study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shock wave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is travelling at less than a few hundred km s-1 through a low-density ISM (<5 cm-3). We calculate a robust, 3σ upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shock wave and inflate the bubble, <2 × 1038 erg s-1. We then review possible origins of the shock wave. We find that a supernova origin to the shock wave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shock wave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shock wave is far from solved.

  2. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1: spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02, e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTBB=1.2+0.0-0.1keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC0 models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman [1]). A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTC=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7% in the 5-10keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such ``photon-starved'' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  3. The Variable Superorbital Modulation of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, Javier

    2008-08-01

    We study the superorbital modulation present in the Cygnus X-1 X-ray data, usually attributed to the precession of the accretion disk and relativistic jets. We find a new, strong, 326 ± 2 day period modulation starting in 2005, in Swift BAT and RXTE ASM light curves (LCs). We also investigate Vela 5B ASM and Ariel 5 ASM archival data and confirm the previously reported ~290 day periodic modulation, therefore confirming that the superorbital period is not constant. Finally, we study RXTE ASM LC before 2005 and find that the previously reported ~150 day period is most likely an artifact due to the use of a Fourier-power-based analysis under the assumption that the modulation has a constant period along the whole data sample. Instead, we find strong indications of several discrete changes of the precession period, happening in coincidence with soft and failed state transition episodes. We also find a hint of correlation between the period and the amplitude of the modulation. The detection of gamma rays above 100 GeV with MAGIC in 2006 September happened in coincidence with a maximum of the superorbital modulation. The next maximum will happen between 2008 July 2 and 14, when the observational conditions of Cygnus X-1 with ground-based Cerenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, are optimal.

  4. Catching Up on State Transitions in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeck, Moritz; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Pirner, Stefan; Grinberg, Victoria; Markoff, Sera; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Pooley, Guy

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 February we observed Cygnus X-1 over a period of 10 days quasi-continuously with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the Ryle telescope. We present the results of the spectral and timing analysis on a timescale of 90 min and show that the behavior of Cyg X-1 is similar to that found during our years long monitoring campaign. As a highlight we present evidence for a full transition from the hard to the soft state that happened during less than three hours. The observation provided a more complete picture of a state transition than before, especially concerning the evolution of the time lags, due to unique transition coverage and analysis with high time resolution.

  5. Gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Dean, A. J.; Perotti, F.

    1989-08-01

    The results of gamma-ray observations of the Galactic black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 are presented. The recent HEAO 3 results reported by Ling et al. (1987) on this source are confirmed: (1) the detection in 1979 of a gamma-ray excess of comparable flux; and (2) a spectral variation above about 25 keV going from 1979 to 1980, which implies and anticorrelation between hard X-ray and gamma-ray luminosities with a pivot point in the 200-400 keV band. A comparison of all the data available at gamma-ray energies gives further support to the existence of this anticorrelation, although its statistical significance is low. The hard X-ray/gamma-ray 1979 spectrum, which is well fitted by a power law with photon index alpha = 1.7, can be interpreted as thermal Comptonization of soft photons or in terms of nonthermal models with copious photon-photon absorption.

  6. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  7. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1 Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Gamma = 1.45+0.01 -0.02 , e-folding energy e(sub f) = 162+9 -8 keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody, with temperature kT(sub BB) = 1.2 +0.0 -0.1 keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC) models. A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth tau- = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kTc = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X red (exp 2) = 1.55). These models deviate from the data bv up to 7% in the 5-10 keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200 keV data, such "photon-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  8. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1 - I. Spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10-ks observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02 (a value considerably harder than is typically found), e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modelled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTbb=1.2+0.0-0.1keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fitted with a reflected power law with Γ=1.81+/-0.01 and covering fraction f=0.35+/-0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range are included, as there is no observed softening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms &38 Begelman, in which the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTc=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7 per cent in the 5-10keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such `photon-starved' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  9. A LIKELY MICRO-QUASAR IN THE SHADOW OF M82 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (10{sup 40}–10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1}) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ∼10{sup 39} erg s{sup −1}. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  10. A Likely Micro-Quasar in the Shadow of M82 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (1040-1041 erg s-1) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ˜1039 erg s-1. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  11. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. 1; Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.45(+0.01 -0.02) (a value considerably harder 0.02 than typically found), e-folding energy E(sub f) = 162(+9 -8) keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kT(sub bb) = 1.2(+0.0 -0.1) keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fit with a reflected power law with Gamma = 1.81 + or - 0.01 and covering fraction f = 0.35 + or - 0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range is included, as there is no observed hardening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman (1997a) - where the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth pi = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kT(sub c) = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X(exp 2 sub red) = 1.55). These models deviate from red the data by up to 7% in the 5 - 10 keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering bow successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10 - 200 keV data, such "pboton-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  12. Microquasars: observations and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribó, Marc

    Since their discovery nearly two decades ago, microquasars have been studied in great detail. These sources exhibit transient X-ray and gamma-ray emission, and multi-wavelength observa-tions from radio to gamma rays have revealed the existence of correlations and anti-correlations, which have helped to build up an scenario for the understanding of their outbursts. However, there are still several issues that are not understood, and the mechanism for triggering rela-tivistic jets is still a matter of debate. During the last year, we have seen the first unambiguous detection of a microquasar, Cygnus X-3, at energies above 1 GeV by the Fermi and AGILE satellites. This, together with the evidence of VHE emission from Cygnus X-1 obtained by MAGIC, has reinforced the possibility to detect microquasars by ground based Cherenkov tele-scopes. In this talk I will review microquasars from the observational point of view and I will discuss future strategies for their detection at TeV energies.

  13. Hard X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Marshall, F. E.; Levine, A. M.; Primini, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term measurements of the hard X-ray spectrum from 3 keV to 8 MeV of the black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1 in its low state are reported. Observations were made from October 26 to November 18, 1977 with the A2 (Cosmic X-ray) and A4 (Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma-Ray) experiments on board HEAO 1 in the spacecraft's scanning mode. The measured spectrum below 200 keV is found to agree well with previous spectra which have been fit by a model of the Compton scattering of optical or UV photons in a very hot plasma of electron temperature 32.4 keV and optical depth 3.9 or 1.6 for spherical or disk geometry, respectively. At energies above 300 keV, however, flux excess is observed which may be accounted for by a distribution of electron temperatures from 15 to about 100 keV.

  14. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M{sub {circle_dot}} black hole.

  15. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. Report 2; TIming Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present timing analysis for a Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observation of Cygnus X-1 in its hard/low state. This was the first RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 taken after it transited back to this state from its soft/high state. RXTE's large effective area, superior timing capabilities, and ability to obtain long, uninterrupted observations have allowed us to obtain measurements of the power spectral density (PSD), coherence function, and Fourier time lags to a decade lower in frequency and half a decade higher in frequency than typically was achieved with previous instruments. Notable aspects of our observations include a weak 0.005 Hz feature in the PSD coincident with a coherence recovery; a 'hardening' of the high-frequency PSD with increasing energy; a broad frequency range measurement of the coherence function, revealing rollovers from unity coherence at both low and high frequency; and an accurate determination of the Fourier time lags over two and a half decades in frequency. As has been noted in previous similar observations, the time delay is approximately proportional to f(exp -0.7), and at a fixed Fourier frequency the time delay of the hard X-rays compared to the softest energy channel tends to increase logarithmically with energy. Curiously, the 0.01-0.2 Hz coherence between the highest and lowest energy bands is actually slightly greater than the coherence between the second highest and lowest energy bands. We carefully describe all of the analysis techniques used in this paper, and we make comparisons of the data to general theoretical expectations. In a companion paper, we make specific comparisons to a Compton corona model that we have successfully used to describe the energy spectral data from this observation.

  16. What is special about Cygnus X-1?. [evidence for a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts are superposed upon shot-noise fluctuations arising from events of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which provide additional evidence that Cygnus X-1 is very likely a black hole.

  17. Wavelet analysis of fast photometry on Cygnus X-1 with the AstraLux camera

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Marti, J.; Combi, Jorge A.; Arjonilla, Alvaro Munoz; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2008-10-08

    We present sub-second fast photometry for the high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We try to observe variability due to instabilities in the accretion process at optical wavelengths. The observations were carried out using the high speed AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope, Spain, in November 2006 and August 2007. We report that the Cygnus X-1 system light curve sampled every 30 milli-second did not display strong enough evidence of any periodic component related to the source.

  18. Fermi-LAT Observation of Increased Gamma-ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Dubus, Guillaume; Corbet, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 has drastically dropped since 2016 Jan 11 (MJD 57398, as observed by Swift/BAT http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/, Krimm et al. 2013, ApJS 209, 14) indicating a possible transition to the soft state.

  19. Cygnus X-1: A Case for a Magnetic Accretion Disk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Dove, J.; Wilms, J.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), which is capable of broad spectral coverage and fast timing, as well as other instruments which are increasingly being used in multi-wavelength campaigns (via both space-based and ground-based observations), we must demand more of our theoretical models. No current model mimics all facets of a system as complex as an x-ray binary. However, a modern theory should qualitatively reproduce - or at the very least not fundamentally disagree with - all of Cygnus X-l's most basic average properties: energy spectrum (viewed within a broader framework of black hole candidate spectral behavior), power spectrum (PSD), and time delays and coherence between variability in different energy bands. Below we discuss each of these basic properties in turn, and we assess the health of one of the currently popular theories: Comptonization of photons from a cold disk. We find that the data pose substantial challenges for this theory, as well as all other in currently discussed models.

  20. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: Spectra and Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Nowak, M.; Vaughan, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present preliminary results from the analysis of an R.XTE observation of Cyg X-1 in the hard state. We show that the observed X-ray spectrum can be explained with a model for an accretion disk corona (ADC), in which a hot sphere is situated inside of a cold accretion disk (similar to an advection dominated model). ADC Models with a slab-geometry do not successfully fit the data. In addition to the spectral results we present the observed temporal properties of Cyg X-1, i.e. the coherence-function and the time-lags, and discuss the constraints the. temporal properties imply for the accretion geometry in Cyg X-1.

  1. Cygnus X-1: Dips and Low Frequency Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, Joern

    2000-01-01

    The primary science result to come out of this work is the discovery that the time lags between hard and soft variability in Cyg X-1 show dramatic spikes during the transitions between hard and soft states (and possibly during "failed transitions" to the soft state), but are remarkably similar between the main soft and hard states. This work is being continued and elaborated upon with ongoing RXTE monitoring campaigns.

  2. Studying the Warm Layer and the Hardening Factor in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Zhang, Shuangnan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Feng, Yuxin

    2002-01-01

    As the first dynamically determined black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1 has been studied extensively. However, its broadband spectrum observed with BeppoSax is still not well understood. Besides the soft excess described by the multi-color disk model (MCD), the power-law hard component and a broad excess feature above 10 keV (a disk reflection component), there is also an additional soft component around 1 keV, whose origin is not known currently. Here we propose that the additional soft component is due to the thermal Comptonization between the soft disk photons and a warm plasma cloud just above the disk, i.e., a warm layer. We use the Monte-Carlo technique to simulate this Compton scattering process and build a table model based on our simulation results. With this table model, we study the disk structure and estimate the hardening factor to the MCD component in Cygnus X-1.

  3. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  4. On the distance to Cygnus X-1. [extrapolation from nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.; Stone, R. P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar extinction of 50 stars in the immediate vicinity of Cyg X-1 is compared with color excess of HDE 226868. The fact that HDE 226868 has extinction drastically exceeding that of all stars in the field at less than 1 kpc is believed to be in conflict with the model of Trimble et al. (1973) in which the primary is a luminous undermassive star and with other similar models. Uniform extrapolation of the reddening yields a distance estimate of (2.5 plus or minus 0.4) kpc for Cygnus X-1, in agreement with the spectroscopic modulus for an O9 star.

  5. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: Spectra and Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Nowak, M.; Vaughan, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present first results from the analysis of an RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 in its low state, taken about two months after the end of the high state. With Gamma approx. equal to 1.45 the spectrum is considerably harder than previous low-state measurements. The observed spectrum can be explained by a Comptonization spectrum as that emitted from a spherical corona surrounded by a cold accretion disk. The optical depth of the corona is between 2 and 2.5 and the temperature is between 60 and 80 keV. Temporal analysis shows a typical Root Mean Square (RMS) noise of approximately 25%. The Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) can be described as consisting of a flat component followed by an 1/f power-law, followed by an f(sup -1.6) power-law. The lag of the hard photons with respect to the soft photons is consistent with prior observations. The coherence function is remarkably close to unity from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz.

  6. SMM/HXRBS observations of Cygnus X-1 from 1986 December to 1988 April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Orwig, L. E.; Dennis, B. R.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1991-07-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer made 30 measurements of Cygnus X-1 from December, 1986 to April, 1988, yielding a data set of broad synoptic coverage but limited duration for each data point. The hard X-ray intensity was found to be between the gamma(2) and gamma(3) levels, with a range of fluctuations about the average intensity level. The shape of the photon spectrum was found to be closest to that reported by Ling et al. (1983, 1987) during the time of the gamma(3) level emission, although the spectral shapes reported for the gamma(2) and gamma(1) levels were not precluded.

  7. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CYGNUS X-1 ABOVE 100 MeV IN THE HARD AND SOFT STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Del Santo, M.; Campana, R.; Evangelista, Y.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Giusti, M.; Striani, E.; Pooley, G.; Chen, A.; Giuliani, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of multi-year gamma-ray observations by the AGILE satellite of the black hole binary system Cygnus X-1. In a previous investigation we focused on gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1 in the hard state during the period mid-2007/2009. Here we present the results of the gamma-ray monitoring of Cygnus X-1 during the period 2010/mid-2012 which includes a remarkably prolonged 'soft state' phase (2010 June-2011 May). Previous 1-10 MeV observations of Cyg X-1 in this state hinted at a possible existence of a non-thermal particle component with substantial modifications of the Comptonized emission from the inner accretion disk. Our AGILE data, averaged over the mid-2010/mid-2011 soft state of Cygnus X-1, provide a significant upper limit for gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of F{sub soft} < 20 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} , excluding the existence of prominent non-thermal emission above 100 MeV during the soft state of Cygnus X-1. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings in the context of high-energy emission models of black hole accretion. We also discuss possible gamma-ray flares detected by AGILE. In addition to a previously reported episode observed by AGILE in 2009 October during the hard state, we report a weak but important candidate for enhanced emission which occurred at the end of 2010 June (2010 June 30 10:00-2010 July 2 10:00 UT) exactly coinciding with a hard-to-soft state transition and before an anomalous radio flare. An appendix summarizes all previous high-energy observations and possible detections of Cygnus X-1 above 1 MeV.

  8. A dark jet dominates the power output of the stellar black hole Cygnus X-1.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Elena; Fender, Rob; Kaiser, Christian; Russell, David; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Heinz, Sebastian

    2005-08-11

    Black holes undergoing accretion are thought to emit the bulk of their power in the X-ray band by releasing the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter. At the same time, they are capable of producing highly collimated jets of energy and particles flowing out of the system with relativistic velocities. Here we show that the 10-solar-mass (10M(o)) black hole in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (refs 3-5) is surrounded by a large-scale (approximately 5 pc in diameter) ring-like structure that appears to be inflated by the inner radio jet. We estimate that in order to sustain the observed emission of the ring, the jet of Cygnus X-1 has to carry a kinetic power that can be as high as the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the binary system. This result may imply that low-luminosity stellar-mass black holes as a whole dissipate the bulk of the liberated accretion power in the form of 'dark', radiatively inefficient relativistic outflows, rather than locally in the X-ray-emitting inflow. PMID:16094361

  9. THE EXTREME SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE IN CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gou Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Orosz, Jerome A.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-12-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole's accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a{sub *} > 0.95 (3{sigma}). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a{sub *} > 0.92 (3{sigma}). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk's low luminosity.

  10. On the orbital and physical parameters of the HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we explore the consequences of the recent determination of the mass m=(8.7±0.8) M ⊙ of Cygnus X-1, obtained from the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO)-photon index correlation scaling, on the orbital and physical properties of the binary system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1. By using such a result and the latest spectroscopic optical data of the HDE 226868 supergiant star we get M=(24±5) M ⊙ for its mass. It turns out that deviations from the third Kepler law significant at more than 1-sigma level would occur if the inclination i of the system’s orbital plane to the plane of the sky falls outside the range ≈41 56 deg: such deviations cannot be due to the first post-Newtonian (1PN) correction to the orbital period because of its smallness; interpreted in the framework of the Newtonian theory of gravitation as due to the stellar quadrupole mass moment Q, they are unphysical because Q would take unreasonably large values. By conservatively assuming that the third Kepler law is an adequate model for the orbital period we obtain i=(48±7) deg which yields for the relative semimajor axis a=(42±9) R ⊙ (≈0.2 AU).

  11. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole s accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a* > 0.95 (3(sigma)). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a. > 0.92 (3 ). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk s low luminosity.

  12. Polarized gamma-ray emission from the galactic black hole Cygnus X-1.

    PubMed

    Laurent, P; Rodriguez, J; Wilms, J; Cadolle Bel, M; Pottschmidt, K; Grinberg, V

    2011-04-22

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole x-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-1 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (INTEGRAL/IBIS) telescope. Spectral modeling of the data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250- to 400-keV (kilo-electron volt) data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400-keV to 2-MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band. PMID:21436402

  13. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.

    1980-01-01

    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  14. Using Monte-Carlo Simulations to Study the Disk Structure in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Feng, Y. X.

    2002-01-01

    As the first dynamically determined black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1 has been studied extensively. However, its broad-band spectra in hard state with BeppoSAX is still not well understood. Besides the soft excess described by the multi-color disk model (MCD), the power- law component and a broad excess feature above 10 keV (disk reflection component), there is also an additional soft component around 1 keV, whose origin is not known currently.We propose that the additional soft component is due to the thermal Comptonization process between the s oft disk photon and the warm plasma cloud just above the disk.i.e., a warm layer. We use Monte-Carlo technique t o simulate this Compton scattering process and build several table models based on our simulation results.

  15. Chaos and random processes in the x ray variability of Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lochner, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal variability of the x ray emission of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 was examined in an attempt to better characterize the source of the aperiodic variability. The emission is generally believed to come from a turbulent accretion disk surrounding the black hole. Two analysis techniques were applied to low energy x ray light curves: a search for a low-dimensional chaotic attractor; and a new technique to further develop the standard shot noise model. The search for a low-dimensional attractor tests the hypothesis that deterministic chaotic dynamics underlie the accretion disk physics. Using a standard time delay embedding, the phase space trajectory was constructed from the light curve, and the correlation integral was used to determine the dimension of the resulting manifold. The difficulties encountered by this method were investigated with a finite number of data points and a noise level not usually encountered in other applications. The data were not found to indicate that a low-dimensional attractor underlies the variability. This implies that the turbulence in the disk is well developed, and that simple models cannot reliably reconstruct the temporal variability. Shot noise models have long been used as phenomenological, stochastic models for the variability of Cygnus X-1, relying on random pulses of emission, each having a fixed shape and duration. A distribution of shot lengths from 0.01 s to 6.0 s was introduced to reproduce the power density spectrum of the data. The shot profile and the fraction of the emission are found by fitting the phase portrait of the data with trial shot models. Both sets of data are found to be consistent with shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay, and with the shot amplitude as a power law function of the shot length. These results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the disk.

  16. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. III. THE CASE OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-03-10

    In recent years, accurate observational constraints have become available for an increasing number of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs). Together with proper-motion measurements, we could reconstruct the full evolutionary history of XRBs back to the time of compact object formation. In this paper, we present the first study of the persistent X-ray source Cygnus X-1 that takes into account all available observational constraints. Our analysis accounts for three evolutionary phases: orbital evolution and motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of a black hole (BH), and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. We find that the mass of the BH immediate progenitor is 15.0-20.0 M{sub Sun }, and at the time of core collapse, the BH has potentially received a small kick velocity of {<=}77 km s{sup -1} at 95% confidence. If the BH progenitor mass is less than {approx}17 M{sub Sun }, a non-zero natal kick velocity is required to explain the currently observed properties of Cygnus X-1. Since the BH has only accreted mass from its companion's stellar wind, the negligible amount of accreted mass does not explain the observationally inferred BH spin of a{sub *} > 0.95, and the origin of this extreme BH spin must be connected to the BH formation itself. Right after the BH formation, we find that the BH companion is a 19.8-22.6 M{sub Sun} main-sequence star, orbiting the BH at a period of 4.7-5.2 days. Furthermore, recent observations show that the BH companion is currently super-synchronized. This super-synchronism indicates that the strength of tides exerted on the BH companion should be weaker by a factor of at least two compared to the usually adopted strength.

  17. Understanding Black Hole X-ray Binaries: The Case of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Black Hole X-ray Binaries are known to display distinct emission states that differ in their X-ray spectra, their X-ray timing properties (on times scales less than 1 s) and their radio emission. In recent years monitoring observations, specially with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), have provided us with detailed empirical modeling of the phenomenology of the different states as well as a unification scheme of the long term evolution of black holes, transient and persistent, in terms of these states. Observations of the persistent High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) Cygnus X-l have been at the forefront of learning about black hole states since its optical identification through a state transition in 1973. In this talk I will present in depth studies of several different aspects of the accretion process in this system. The main data base for these studies is an ongoing RXTE and Ryle radio telescope bi-weekly monitoring campaign that started in 1997. I will discuss high-resolution timing results, especially power spectra, which first gave rise to the Lorentzian description now widely used for black hole and neutron star binaries, and time lags, which we found to be especially well suited to identify state transitions. The evolution of spectral, timing, and radio parameters over years will be shown, including the rms-flux relation and the observation of a clearly correlated radio/x-ray flare. We also observed Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL, which allowed us to extend timing and spectral studies to higher energies, with XMM, which provided strong constraints on the parameters of the 6.4 keV iron fluorescence line, and with Chandra, which provided the most in depth study to date of the stellar wind in this system. Models based on the physical conditions in the accretion region are still mainly concentrated on the one or other of the observational areas but they are expanding: as an example I will review results from a jet model for the quantitative description of the

  18. Multi-Satellite Observations of Cygnus X-1 to Study the Focused Wind and Absorption Dips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Boeck, Moritz; Nowak, Michael A.; Schultz, Norbert S.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Lee, Julia C.

    2008-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binary systems are powered by the stellar wind of their donor stars. The X-ray state of Cygnus X-1 is correlated with the properties of the wind which defines the environment of mass accretion. Chandra-HETGS observations close to orbital phase 0 allow for an analysis of the photoionzed stellar wind at high resolution, but because of the strong variability due to soft X-ray absorption dips, simultaneous multi-satellite observations are required to track and understand the continuum, too. Besides an earlier joint Chandra and RXTE observation, we present first results from a recent campaign which represents the best broad-band spectrum of Cyg X-1 ever achieved: On 2008 April 18/19 we observed this source with XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, RXTE, INTEGRAL, Swift, and AGILE in X- and gamma-rays, as well as with VLA in the radio. After superior conjunction of the black hole, we detect soft X-ray absorption dips likely due to clumps in the focused wind covering greater than or equal to 95% of the X-ray source, with column densities likely to be of several 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2), which also affect photon energies above 20 keV via Compton scattering.

  19. What is special about Cygnus X-1 - Black holes in theory and observation: X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E.; Holt, S.; Rothschild, R.; Serlemitsos, P.

    1975-01-01

    Of the eight X-ray sources now known which may be associated with binary stellar systems, Cygnus X-1 is the most likely candidate for being a black hole. The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts (Rothschild et al., 1974) are superposed on shot-noise fluctuations (Terrell, 1972) arising from 'events' of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which indicate new measurements that need to be made in future experiments.

  20. Rapid variability of 10-140 keV X-rays from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Doty, J. P.; Levine, A. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Primini, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    On five occasions in 1977 and 1978, Cygnus X-1 was observed using the low-energy detectors of the UCSD/MIT Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma Ray experiment on the HEAO 1 satellite. Rapid (times between 0.08 and 1000 sec) variability was found in the 10-140 keV band. The power spectrum was white for frequencies between 0.001 and 0.05 Hz and was proportional to the inverse of the frequency for frequencies between 0.05 and 3 Hz, indicating correlations on all time scales less than approximately 20 s. The shape of the energy spectrum was correlated with intensity; it was harder at higher intensity. If the emission is produced by Comptonization of a soft photon flux in a hot cloud, the heating of the cloud cannot be constant; it must vary on time scales up to approximately 20 s. A variable accretion rate could cause the observed effects.

  1. Leveraging High Resolution Spectra to Understand the Disk and Relativistic Iron Line of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.; Schulz, N.; Corrales, L.

    2016-06-01

    In April 2008 we conducted an observation of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 that was performed simultaneously with every X-ray and gamma-ray satellite flying at that time, including Chandra-HETG. The HETG spectra are crucial for modeling the ionized absorbtion from the "focused-wind" of the secondary, which is present and must be accounted for in all of our spectra. These features, however, are unresolved in the non-gratings instruments (e.g., RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-EPIC, INTEGRAL). Similarly, we must account for differences in spatial resolution. The X-ray scattering dust halo, which is usually ignored in most analyses, is spatially resolved in the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra, but is unresolved in the other instruments. Thus one must account for dust scattering loss in the high spatial resolution spectra, and the scattering back into our line of site for the low resolution spectra. In this work, we attempt to arrive at a joint model for these spectra, and further comment on the cross calibration of each of the X-ray instruments participating in this campaign.

  2. Shot model parameters for Cygnus X-1 through phase portrait fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Lochner, J.C.; Swank, J.H.; Szymkowiak, A.E. )

    1991-07-01

    Shot models for systems having about 1/f power density spectrum are developed by utilizing a distribution of shot durations. Parameters of the distribution are determined by fitting the power spectrum either with analytic forms for the spectrum of a shot model with a given shot profile, or with the spectrum derived from numerical realizations of trial shot models. The shot fraction is specified by fitting the phase portrait, which is a plot of intensity at a given time versus intensity at a delayed time and in principle is sensitive to different shot profiles. These techniques have been extensively applied to the X-ray variability of Cygnus X-1, using HEAO 1 A-2 and an Exosat ME observation. The power spectra suggest models having characteristic shot durations lasting from milliseconds to a few seconds, while the phase portrait fits give shot fractions of about 50 percent. Best fits to the portraits are obtained if the amplitude of the shot is a power-law function of the duration of the shot. These fits prefer shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay. Results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the accretion disk. 30 refs.

  3. Spectroscopy of the Stellar Wind in the Cygnus X-1 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskovicova, Ivica; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray luminosity of black holes is produced through the accretion of material from their companion stars. Depending on the mass of the donor star, accretion of the material falling onto the black hole through the inner Lagrange point of the system or accretion by the strong stellar wind can occur. Cygnus X-1 is a high mass X-ray binary system, where the black hole is powered by accretion of the stellar wind of its supergiant companion star HDE226868. As the companion is close to filling its Roche lobe, the wind is not symmetric, but strongly focused towards the black hole. Chandra-HETGS observations allow for an investigation of this focused stellar wind, which is essential to understand the physics of the accretion flow. We compare observations at the distinct orbital phases of 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75. These correspond to different lines of sights towards the source, allowing us to probe the structure and the dynamics of the wind.

  4. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  5. Common Gamma-Ray Spectral Properties of GROJ0422+32 and CYGNUS X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, Wm. A.

    2003-03-01

    We report soft gamma-ray (30 keV to 1.7 MeV) spectral properties in the black hole GROJ0422+32, observed during its first known outburst in 1992, and similar to properties of Cygnus X-1 during its low-to-high state transitions in 1994 and 1996 (see Ling & Wheaton, 2003). In both cases, the high-intensity (``gamma2'') spectrum consists of two components: a Comptonized shape below 300 keV, plus a steep power-law tail above 300 keV. By contrast, the low-intensity spectrum (``gamma0'') has a power-law shape with an index of ˜2. The two spectra cross at ˜600 keV for GROJ0422+32, or about 1 MeV for Cyg X-1. We suggest a scenario for interpreting these common spectral features by including a separate non-thermal source region, possibly a jet, in the ADAF model of Esin et al (1998). During the high-intensity gamma2 state, the system consists of a hot inner corona, a cooler outer thin disk, and a region that produced the variable power-law gamma-ray emission. In this condition, the transition radius of the disk is ˜100 Schwarzschild radii. Electrons in the hot corona up-scatter the low-energy photons, produced both within the corona as well as from the outer disk, to form the Comptonized component that dominates the spectrum in the 35-300 keV range. The same electrons also down-scatter high energy (>10 MeV) photons produced nonthermally in the ``jet'' region, forming the softer power-law component observed in the 0.3-1 MeV range. During the low-intensity gamma0 state, a large soft flux cools the inner corona, and moves the transition radius inward, close to the event horizon. Under this condition, the Comptonized component in the 35-300 keV range is suppressed, and the source spectrum is dominated by the unperturbed power-law emission produced in the non-thermal source region, with a characteristic index of ˜2. The work described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under the contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ∼10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ∼6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  7. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ˜10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ˜6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  8. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  9. Constraints on the inclination and masses of the HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 system from the observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R.; Hartmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of two high-dispersions IUE spectra of HDE 226868 (the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1) are combined with studies of low-dispersion IUE spectra to provide a more accurate determination of the variation of C IV stellar wind absorption as a function of orbital phase. By incorporating these observational results into an analysis of the structure of the X-ray ionization cavity in the stellar wind, it is found that the orbital inclination must lie between 36 and 67 deg, leading to a mass for the compact object between 5.7 and 11.2 solar masses.

  10. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  11. Confirmation via the continuum-fitting method that the spin of the black hole in Cygnus X-1 is extreme

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Reid, Mark J.; Narayan, Ramesh; García, Javier; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Hanke, Manfred

    2014-07-20

    In Gou et al., we reported that the black hole primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 is a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a{sub *} > 0.95 (3σ). We confirm this result while setting a new and more stringent limit: a{sub *} > 0.983 at the 3σ (99.7%) confidence level. The earlier work, which was based on an analysis of all three useful spectra that were then available, was possibly biased by the presence in these spectra of a relatively strong Compton power-law component: the fraction of the thermal seed photons scattered into the power law was f{sub s} = 23%-31%, while the upper limit for reliable application of the continuum-fitting method is f{sub s} ≲ 25%. We have subsequently obtained six additional spectra of Cygnus X-1 suitable for the measurement of spin. Five of these spectra are of high quality with f{sub s} in the range 10%-19%, a regime where the continuum-fitting method has been shown to deliver reliable results. Individually, the six spectra give lower limits on the spin parameter that range from a{sub *} > 0.95 to a{sub *} > 0.98, allowing us to conservatively conclude that the spin of the black hole is a{sub *} > 0.983 (3σ).

  12. A self-consistent model for the long-term gamma-ray spectral variability of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Misra, Ranjeev

    1993-01-01

    The long-term transitions of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 (between the states gamma-1, gamma-2, and gamma-3) include the occasional appearance of a strong nearly-MeV bump (gamma-1), whose strength appears to be anticorrelated with the continuum flux (below 400 keV) due to the Compton upscattering of cold disk photons by the inner, hot corona. We develop a self-consistent disk picture in which the bump is seen as due to the self-Comptonization of bremsstrahlung photons emitted predominantly near the plane of the corona itself. A decrease by a factor of about two in the viscosity parameter alpha is responsible for quenching this bump and driving the system to the gamma-2 state, whereas a transition from gamma-2 to gamma-3 appears to be induced by an increase of about 25 percent in the accretion rate M. In view of the fact that most of the transitions observed in this source seem to be of the gamma-2-gamma-3 variety, we conclude that much of the long-term gamma-ray spectral variability in Cygnus X-1 is due to these small fluctuations in M. The unusual appearance of the gamma-1 state apparently reflects a change in the dissipative processes within the disk.

  13. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  14. Self-Consistent Thermal Accretion Disk Corona Models for Compact Objects. II; Application to Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Maisack, Michael; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent accretion disk corona (ADC) model, with two different geometries, to the broadband X-ray spectrum of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. As shown in a companion paper, models in which the Comptonizing medium is a slab surrounding the cold accretion disk cannot have a temperature higher than about 140 keV for optical depths greater than 0.2, resulting in spectra that are much softer than the observed 10-30 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1. In addition, the slab-geometry models predict a substantial "soft excess" at low energies, a feature not observed for Cyg X-1, and Fe K-alpha fluorescence lines that are stronger than observed. Previous Comptonization models in the literature have invoked a slab geometry with optical depth tau(sub T) approx. greater than 0.3 and coronal temperature T(sub c) approx. 150 keV, but they are not self-consistent. Therefore, ADC models with a slab geometry are not appropriate for explaining the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1. Models with a spherical corona and an exterior disk, however, predict much higher self-consistent coronal temperatures than the slab-geometry models. The higher coronal temperatures are due to the lower amount of reprocessing of coronal radiation in the accretion disk, giving rise to a lower Compton cooling rate. Therefore, for the sphere-plus-disk geometry, the predicted spectrum can be hard enough to describe the observed X-ray continuum of Cyg X-1 while predicting Fe fluorescence lines having an equivalent width of approx. 40 eV. Our best-fit parameter values for the sphere-plus-disk geometry are tau(sub T) approx. equal to 1.5 and T(sub c) approx. equal to 90 keV.

  15. Evidence for an approx. 300 day period in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Terrell, J.; Holt, S.S.

    1983-07-01

    We present the time history of X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 over an 11 year period, with 10 day resolution. The data were obtained by experiments on the Vela 5B (1969--1979) and Ariel 5 (1974--1980) satellites. Cyg X-1 varies by approx.25% with a 294 +- 4 day period. This modulation is apparently unrelated to the known transitions between the source high and low states. Flux minima occur at 1974.05+nP. The observed period is within the possible range for the precession period of an accretion disk, or of the companion star HDE 226868, in the Cyg X-1 system.

  16. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C.; Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ross, Randy R.; and others

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a {sub *} > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  17. Spectral State Dependence of the 0.4-2 MeV Polarized Emission in Cygnus X-1 Seen with INTEGRAL/IBIS, and Links with the AMI Radio Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jérôme; Grinberg, Victoria; Laurent, Philippe; Cadolle Bel, Marion; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy; Bodaghee, Arash; Wilms, Jörn; Gouiffès, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Polarization of the ≳ 400 keV hard tail of the microquasar Cygnus X-1 has been independently reported by INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS), and INTEGRAL/SPectrometer on INTEGRAL and interpreted as emission from a compact jet. These conclusions were, however, based on the accumulation of all INTEGRAL data regardless of the spectral state. We utilize additional INTEGRAL exposure accumulated until 2012 December, and include the AMI/Ryle (15 GHz) radio data in our study. We separate the observations into hard, soft, and intermediate/transitional states and detect radio emission from a compact jet in hard and intermediate states (IS), but not in the soft. The 10-400 keV INTEGRAL (JEM-X and IBIS) state resolved spectra are well modeled with thermal Comptonization and reflection components. We detect a hard tail in the 0.4-2 MeV range for the hard state only. We extract the state dependent polarigrams of Cyg X-1, which are all compatible with no or an undetectable level of polarization except in the 400-2000 keV range in the hard state where the polarization fraction is 75% ± 32% and the polarization angle 40.°0 ± 14.°3. An upper limit on the 0.4-2 MeV soft state polarization fraction is 70%. Due to the short exposure, we obtain no meaningful constraint for the IS. The likely detection of a \\gt 400 keV polarized tail in the hard state, together with the simultaneous presence of a radio jet, reinforce the notion of a compact jet origin of the \\gt 400 keV emission.

  18. New results from long-term observations of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6-day modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

  19. Observations of rapid X-ray flaring from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Oda, M.

    1977-01-01

    SAS-3 observations of Cyg X-1 in October 1976 show the source to be in a highly active state exhibiting rapid continual flaring on time scales of 1 to 10 s. The flares exhibit temporal structure and variable spectra, but their mean spectrum is similar to that of the source as a whole. The characteristic time scales of the source are 2 to 4 times longer than those previously observed. It is suggested that this active phase of Cyg X-1 signals a modified accretion-disk structure. The flares may result from correlated bunches of the same 'shots ' which are thought to explain the rest of the short-time-scale variability of the source. While the flares superficially resemble X-ray bursts, they are distinct in several respects.

  20. Image of the Black Hole, Cygnus X-1, Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This image of the suspected Black Hole, Cygnus X-1, was the first object seen by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. According to the theories to date, one concept of a black hole is a star, perhaps 10 times more massive than the Sun, that has entered the last stages of stelar evolution. There is an explosion triggered by nuclear reactions after which the star's outer shell of lighter elements and gases is blown away into space and the heavier elements in the stellar core begin to collapse upon themselves. Once this collapse begins, the inexorable force of gravity continues to compact the material until it becomes so dense it is squeezed into a mere point and nothing can escape from its extreme gravitational field, not even light. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy.

  1. IBIS preliminary results on Cygnus X-1 spectral and temporal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Capitanio, F.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Di Cocco, G.; Falanga, M.; Goldoni, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Malaguti, G.; Segreto, A.

    2003-11-01

    We report preliminary results of a broadband spectral and temporal study of the black-hole binary Cyg X-1 performed with the IBIS telescope. Cyg X-1 was the first pointed celestial target of IBIS during the INTEGRAL Performance and Verification Phase, 2002 Nov.-Dec., for a total observing time of ~ 2 Ms in both staring and dithering mode. Here, we report on only the staring, on-axis, observation performed in a stable instrument configuration. During the observing period the source was in its characteristic low/hard state, in which a few flares and dips have been detected. The IBIS/ISGRI results demonstrate that the INTEGRAL observatory offers a unique capability for studying correlations between hardness and/or flux in different bands over a wide photon energy range. One of our new results is finding that the hardness-flux correlation changes the sign twice over the 20-220 keV; first from positive to negative at ~ 50 keV, and then back to positive at ~ 120 keV. The former change appears to be due to the spectral curvature introduced by variable Compton reflection. The latter may be due spectral pivoting. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  2. Optical spectrum of HDE 226868 = Cygnus X-1. II. Spectrophotometry and mass estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, D.R.; Bolton, C.T.

    1986-05-01

    In part I of this series, Gies and Bolton (1982) have presented the results of radial velocity measures of 78 high-dispersion spectrograms of HDE 226868 = Cyg X-1. For the present study, 55 of the best plates considered by Gies and Bolton were selected to form 10 average spectra. An overall mean spectrum with S/N ratio = 300 was formed by coadding the 10 averaged spectra. There is no evidence for statistically significant variations of the spectral type about the mean value of 09.7 Iab, and all the absorption line strengths are normal for the spectral type. Evidence is presented that the He II lambda 4846 emission line is formed in the stellar wind above the substellar point on the visible star. Probable values regarding the mass for the visible star and its companion are 33 and 16 solar masses, respectively. Theoretical He II lambda 4686 emission line profiles are computed for the focused stellar wind model for the Cyg X-1 system considered by Friend and Castor (1982). 105 references.

  3. Linear polarization from tidal distortions of the Cygnus X-1 primary component

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, N.G.; Karitskaia, E.A.; Loskutov, V.M.; Sokolov, V.V.

    1986-02-01

    The variability that would be introduced into the optical linear polarization of the Cyg X-1 (V1357 Cyg) binary system due to tidal deformation or shallow partial eclipses of the primary component is calculated, allowing for the optical-depth variation of the source function and single-scattering albedo in a model stellar atmosphere with Teff = 32,900 K and log g = 3.1. Angular distributions of the intensity and polarization per unit area of the stellar surface are derived for selected wavelengths, and the wavelength dependence of the corresponding polarization variability amplitude Ap is predicted. In the optical range Ap should be less than about 0.025 percent, but in principle might be detectable at short wavelengths. The observed V-band variations in p are, however an order of magnitude stronger and cannot result from tidal distortions or partial eclipses. 24 references.

  4. X-ray Studies of the Black Hole Binary Cygnus X-1 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shin'ya

    2011-03-01

    In order to study X-ray properties of black hole binaries in so-called Low/Hard state, we analyzed 0.5--300 keV data of Cyg X-1, taken with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer and the Hard X-ray Detector onboard the X-ray satellite Suzaku. The data were acquired on 25 occasions from 2005 to 2009, with a total exposure of ~450 ks. The source was in the Low/Hard state throughout, and the 0.5-300 keV luminosity changed by a factor of 4, corresponding to 2-10% of the Eddington limit for a 10 Mo black hole. Among the 25 data sets, the first one was already analyzed by Makishima et al. (2008), who successfully reproduced the wide-band spectrum by a linear combination of an emission from a standard accretion disk, soft and hard Comptonization continua, and reprocessed features. Given this, we analyzed the 25 data sets for intensity-related spectral changes, on three different time scales using different analysis methods. One is the source behavior on time scales of days to months, studied via direct comparison among the 25 spectra which are averaged over individual observations. Another is spectral changes on time scales of 1-2 seconds, revealed through ``intensity-sorted spectroscopy''. The other is spectral changes on time scales down to ~0.1 seconds, conducted using ``shot analysis" technique which was originally developed by Negoro et al. (1997) with Ginga. These studies partially incorporated spectral fitting in terms of a thermal Comptonization model. We payed great attention to instrumental problems caused by the source brightness, and occasional ``dipping" episodes which affects the Cyg X-1 spectrum at low energies. The shot analysis incorporated a small fraction of XIS data that were taken in the P-sum mode with a time resolution of 7.8 msec. Through these consistent analyses of all the 25 data sets, we found that a significant soft X-ray excess develops as the source gets brighter. Comparing results from the different time scales, the soft excess was further

  5. Similar Gamma-Ray Spectral Characteristics of Thermal and Non-Thermal Emission Observed in Cygnus X-1, GROJ0422+32 and GROJ1719-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, Wm. A.

    2004-08-01

    BATSE-EBOP (Enhanced BATSE Occultation Package; Ling et al. 2000) gamma-ray (30 keV - 1 MeV) observations of Cygnus X-1, GROJ0422+32 and GROJ1719-24 showed that these sources displayed similar spectral characteristics when undergoing transitions between the high and low gamma-ray intensity states. The high gamma-ray state spectra (gamma-2 , for Cygnus X-1) featured two components: a Comptonized shape below 200-300 keV with a soft power-law tail (photon index > 3) that extended to ˜1 MeV or beyond. For the low gamma-ray state (gamma-0, for Cygnus X-1) spectra, however, the Comptonized spectral shape below 300 keV vanished and the entire spectrum from 30 keV to ˜1 MeV can be characterized by a single power law with a relatively harder photon index ˜2-2.7. The high and low-intensity gamma-ray spectra therefore intersect at ˜400 KeV-1 MeV range, in contrast to the spectral pivoting seen previously at lower ( ˜10 keV) energies. The presence of the power-law component in both the high- and low-intensity gamma-ray spectra strongly suggests that the non-thermal process is likely to be at work in both the high and the low-intensity situations. We have suggested a possible scenario (Ling & Wheaton, 2003,), combining the ADAF model of Esin et al. (1998) with a separate jet region that produces the non-thermal gamma-ray emission, and which explains the state transitions. Such a scenario will be discussed in the context of the observational evidence, summarized above. This work was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under the contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. References: Esin et al., 1998, ApJ, 505, 854. Ling et al.,2000, ApJS , 127, 70. Ling & Wheaton. 2003, ApJ, 584, 399.

  6. The Physical Interpretation of X-Ray Phase Lags and Coherence: RXTE Observations of Cygnus X-1 as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Vaughan, B. A.; Wilms, J.; Begelman, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    There have been a number of recent spectral models that have been successful in reproducing the observed X-ray spectra of galactic black hole candidates (GBHC). However, there still exists controversy over such issues as: what are the sources of hard radiation, what is the system's geometry, is the accretion efficient or inefficient, etc. A potentially powerful tool for distinguishing among these possibilities, made possible by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), is the variability data, especially the observed phase lags and variability coherence. These data, in conjunction with spectral modeling, have the potential of determining physical sizes of the system, as well as placing strong constraints on both Compton corona and advection models. As an example, we present RXTE variability data of Cygnus X-1.

  7. Probing the Inflow/Outflow and Accretion Disk of Cygnus X-1 in the High State with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y. X.; Tennant, A. F.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Cygnus X-1 was observed in the high state at the conjunction orbital phase (0) with Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). Strong and asymmetric absorption lines of highly ionized species were detected, such as Fe xxv, Fe xxiv, Fe xxiii, Si xiv, S xvi, Ne x, etc. In the high state the profile of the absorption lines is composed of an extended red wing and a less extended blue wing. The red wings of higher ionized species are more extended than those of lower ionized species. The detection of these lines provides a way to probe the properties of the flow around the companion and the black hole in Cyg X-1 during the high state. A broad emission feature around 6.5 keV was significantly detected from the spectra of both the Chandra/HETG and the RXTE/Proportional Counter Array. This feature appears to be symmetric and can be fitted with a Gaussian function rather than the Laor disk line model of the fluorescent Fe K(alpha) line from an accretion disk. The implications of these results on the structure of the accretion flow of Cyg X-1 in the high state are discussed.

  8. Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of the Focused Wind In the Cygnus X-1 System I. The Non-Dip Spectrum in the Low/Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Jorn; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert S.; Lee, Julia C.

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system CygnusX-1/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). CygX-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for CygX-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe K line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect two plasma components with velocities and densities consistent with the base of the spherical wind and a focused wind. A simple simulation of the photoionization zone suggests that large parts of the spherical wind outside of the focused stream are completely ionized, which is consistent with the low velocities (<200 km/s) observed in the absorption lines, as the position of absorbers in a spherical wind at low projected velocity is well constrained. Our observations provide input for models that couple the wind activity of HDE 226868 to the properties of the accretion flow onto the black hole.

  9. Detection of a bright radio flare of Cygnus X-1 at 7.2 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Bachetti, M.; Navarrini, A.; Trois, A.; Pilia, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Loru, S.; Sessini, A.; Grinberg, V.; Nowak, M.; Markoff, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilms, J.; Ballhausen, R.; Corbel, S.; Eikmann, W.; Fuerst, F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Marongiu, M.; Possenti, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of radio monitoring of NS/BH Galactic Binaries with Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it) during SRT Early Science Program S0013 (PI Egron), we detected Cyg X-1 in C-band through on-the-fly mapping centered on the source position (see also Atels #8921, #8849, #8821).

  10. Discovery of a low-frequency broad quasi-periodic oscillation peak in the power density spectrum of Cygnus X-1 with Granat/SIGMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Dyachkov, A.; Khavenson, N.; Kremnev, R.; Sukhanov, K.; Ballet, J.; Laurent, P.; Salotti, L.; Claret, A.; Olive, J. F.; Denis, M.; Mandrou, P.; Roques, J. P.

    1994-03-01

    A transient broad (delta(f)/f = 0.8 approximately 1) very low frequency (approximately 0.04-0.07 Hz) and strong (fractional rms variations are at the level of approximately 10-15% of total source intensity) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) feature was discovered by the SIGMA telescope onboard the Granat observatory in the power density spectra of Cygnus X-1; the source was during all the observations carried out in 1990-1992 in its standard (low or hard) spectral state (Sunyaev & Truemper 1979) with average 40-150 keV flux, corresponding appproximately to the 'nominal' gamma2 level of the source (Ling et al. 1979). The power density spectra, obtained in the 4 x 10-4-10 Hz frequency range, typically exhibit strong very low frequency noise below a few millihertz increasing toward lower frequencies, a nearly flat region from a few millihertz up to a break frequency fbr = 0.04 approximately 0.1 Hz and a power-law spectrum as f-1 above the break frequency. The QPO feature, when observed, was centered below or near the break frequency fbr.

  11. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: III. Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models. Report 3; Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Vaughan, Brian A.; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently shown that a 'sphere + disk' geometry Compton corona model provides a good description of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the hard/low state of Cygnus X-1. Separately, we have analyzed the temporal data provided by RXTE. In this paper we consider the implications of this timing analysis for our best-fit 'sphere + disk' Comptonization models. We focus our attention on the observed Fourier frequency-dependent time delays between hard and soft photons. We consider whether the observed time delays are: created in the disk but are merely reprocessed by the corona; created by differences between the hard and soft photon diffusion times in coronae with extremely large radii; or are due to 'propagation' of disturbances through the corona. We find that the time delays are most likely created directly within the corona; however, it is currently uncertain which specific model is the most likely explanation. Models that posit a large coronal radius [or equivalently, a large Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) region] do not fully address all the details of the observed spectrum. The Compton corona models that do address the full spectrum do not contain dynamical information. We show, however, that simple phenomenological propagation models for the observed time delays for these latter models imply extremely slow characteristic propagation speeds within the coronal region.

  12. Two distinct modes in the low (hard) state of Cygnus X-1 and 1E 1740.7-2942.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S.; Gilfanov, M.; Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Khavenson, N.; Dyachkov, A.; Laurent, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Cordier, B.; Vargas, M.; Mandrou, P.; Roques, J. P.; Jourdain, E.; Borrel, V.

    1996-02-01

    The entire dataset of the GRANAT/SIGMA observations of Cyg X-1 and 1E 1740.7-2942 in 1990-1994 was analyzed in order to search for correlations between primary observational characteristics of the hard X-ray (40-400 keV) emission - hard X-ray luminosity LX, hardness of the spectrum (quantified in terms of the best-fit thermal bremsstrahlung temperature kT) and the rms of short-term flux variations. Two distinct modes of the kT vs. LX dependence were found for both sources. At low luminosity - below the level corresponding approximately to the γ1 state of Cyg X-1 (Ling et al. 1987) - the kT increases as the LX increases. Quantitatively it corresponds to increase of the temperature from 70 keV at ≍0.5 Lγ1 to 150 keV at ≍1.2 Lγ1. Above the luminosity level of ≍1.2 Lγ1 the spectrum hardness is nearly constant (T ≍ 150 keV) and does not depend on the luminosity. In the case of Cyg X-1 (1E 1740.7-2942 is not bright enough and is located in the crowded Galactic Center region) the correlation of similar kind was found between the spectrum hardness and rms of the short-term flux variations. The increase of the kT, corresponding to the increasing branch on the kT vs. LX diagram, is accompanied with increase of the rms from ⪉ few percent level to ≍10-15%. Further increase of the rms is not accompanied with change of the kT and does not correlate with changes in the luminosity.

  13. Search for scattered X-ray halos around variable sources - The X-ray halo of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, M. F.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Norwell, G. A.; Evans, A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a program to search for the presence of halos due to X-ray scattering by interstellar grains in the line-of-sight to variable X-ray sources are reported. As part of this program, four Einstein HRI images of Cyg X-1 were examined. The analysis technique exploits the intrinsic aperiodic variability of this source to map the point response function of the optics. Any scattered halo present will not reflect short-term central source time variability, since such variability is smoothed by differential time delays of order days. Thus, a residual, nonvariable component to the surface brightness distribution (comprising about 12 percent or more of the source flux) is interpreted as a scattered halo. The Cyg X-1 halo is consistent with those of other sources found in previous studies using different techniques. Comparison is also made with a scattering model and, despite uncertainties in source spectrum and distance, reasonable agreement with the observatons is found using a standard interstellar grain model. The potential of X-ray scattering as a probe of the properties of interstellar grains is demonstrated.

  14. Corona, Jet, and Relativistic Line Models for Suzaku/RXTE/Chandra-HETG Observations of the Cygnus X-1 Hard State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Hanke, Manfred; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Markoff, Sera B.; Wilms, Jörn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo; Maitra, Dipankar; Davis, John E.; Tramper, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard "low states." Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the "focused wind" from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2. All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2.

  15. Corona, Jet, and Relativistic Line Models for Suzaku/RXTE/Chandra-HETG Observations of the Cygnus X-1 Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Hanke, Manfred; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Markoff, Sera B.; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo; Maitra, Dipankar; Davis, Jhn E.; Tramper, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard "low states". Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the "focused wind" from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary s focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations, and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c2. All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum-dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is > 40 GM/c(sup 2).

  16. Polarization in massive X-ray binaries. I - A low-inclination model for Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, D. B.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that variable linear polarization in massive X-ray binaries is produced by electron scattering in an asymmetric stellar wind is investigated. The stellar wind is asymmetric because of the gravitational field of the secondary (X-ray source). The degree of asymmetry and the magnitude of the linear polarization are controlled by the degree to which the primary star fills its Roche lobe. For the well-observed X-ray binary Cyg X-1, the present model can produce the correct magnitude for the polarization. Provided that the inclination of the system is less than about 20 deg, the present model should also predict the correct phase dependence of the polarization. Modifications to the model are described which would enable it to apply to systems with higher inclination.

  17. Revealing the broad iron Kα line in Cygnus X-1 through simultaneous XMM-Newton, RXTE, and INTEGRAL observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Grinberg, Victoria; Miškovičová, Ivica; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Tomsick, John; Hanke, Manfred; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Kreykenbohm, Sonja; Cadolle Bel, Marion; Bodaghee, Arash; Lohfink, Anne; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-05-01

    We report on the analysis of the broad Fe Kα line feature of Cyg X-1 in the spectra of four simultaneous hard intermediate state observations made with the X-ray Multiple Mirror mission (XMM-Newton), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). The high quality of the XMM-Newton data taken in the Modified Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera provides a great opportunity to investigate the broadened Fe Kα reflection line at 6.4 keV with a very high signal to noise ratio. The 4-500 keV energy range is used to constrain the underlying continuum and the reflection at higher energies. We first investigate the data by applying a phenomenological model that consists of the sum of an exponentially cutoff power law and relativistically smeared reflection. Additionally, we apply a more physical approach and model the irradiation of the accretion disk directly from the lamp post geometry. All four observations show consistent values for the black hole parameters with a spin of a ~ 0.9, in agreement with recent measurements from reflection and disk continuum fitting. The inclination is found to be i ~ 30°, consistent with the orbital inclination and different from inclination measurements made during the soft state, which show a higher inclination. We speculate that the difference between the inclination measurements is due to changes in the inner region of the accretion disk.

  18. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, normalized power spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs for frequencies from 10-7 Hz to 10-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35-1.29. The fractional RMS variation η, calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties: (1) η slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) η increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, η is three times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-term variability during the low/hard state. The latter two can be understood as a result of high variability of the hard-tail component seen in the high/soft state with the above very low frequency range, although the origin of the variability remains inconclusive.

  19. A New Method to Resolve X-Ray Halos around Point Sources with Chandra Data and Its Application to Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Zhang, Shuang Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Feng, Yu-Xin

    2003-01-01

    With excellent angular resolution, good energy resolution, and a broad energy band, the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) is the best instrument for studying the X-ray halos around some Galactic X-ray point sources caused by the dust scattering of X-rays in the interstellar medium. However, the direct images of bright sources obtained with the ACIS usually suffer from severe pileup. Making use of the fact that an isotropic image could be reconstructed from its projection in to any direction, we can reconstruct the images of the X-ray halos from the data obtained with the High Energy Transition Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and/or in continuos clocking (CC) mode. These data have no or less serious pileup and enable us to take full advantage of the excellent angular resolution of Chandra. With the reconstructed high-resolution images, we can probe the X-ray halos as close as 1" to their associated point sources. Applying this method to Cygnus X-1 observed with the Chandra HETGS in CC mode, we derived an energy-dependent radial halo flux distribution and concluded that in a circular region (2' in radius) centered a the point source: (1) relative to the total intensity, the fractional halo intensity is about 15% at keV and drops to aboout 5% at approximately 6 keV (2) about 50% of the halo photons are within the region of a radius less than 40 inches and (3) the spectrum of the pooint source is slightly distorted by the halo contamination.

  20. Very fast X-ray spectral variability in Cygnus X-1: origin of the hard- and soft-state emission components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, Chris J.; McHardy, Ian M.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2013-09-01

    The way in which the X-ray photon index, Γ, varies as a function of count rate is a strong diagnostic of the emission processes and emission geometry around accreting compact objects. Here we present the results from a study using a new, and simple, method designed to improve sensitivity to the measurement of the variability of Γ on very short time-scales. We have measured Γ in ˜2 million spectra, extracted from observations with a variety of different accretion rates and spectral states, on time-scales as short as 16 ms for the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (and in a smaller number of spectra for the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4), and have cross-correlated these measurements with the source count rate. In the soft-state cross-correlation functions (CCFs), we find a positive peak at zero lag, stronger and narrower in the softer observations. Assuming that the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of soft seed photons by high-energy electrons in a corona, these results are consistent with Compton cooling of the corona by seed photons from the inner edge of the accretion disc, the truncation radius of which increases with increasing hardness ratio. The CCFs produced from the hard-state observations, however, show an anti-correlation which is most easily explained by variation in the energy of the electrons in the corona rather than in variation of the seed photon flux. The hard-state CCFs can be decomposed into a narrow anti-correlation at zero lag, which we tentatively associate with the effects of self-Comptonization of cyclo-synchrotron seed photons in either a hot, optically thin accretion flow or the base of the jet, and a second, asymmetric component which we suggest is produced as a consequence of a lag between the soft and hard X-ray emission. The lag may be caused by a radial temperature/energy gradient in the Comptonizing electrons combined with the inward propagation of accretion rate perturbations.

  1. CYGNUS X-3's LITTLE FRIEND

    SciTech Connect

    McCollough, M. L.; Smith, R. K.; Valencic, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique X-ray imaging capabilities of the Chandra X-ray observatory, a 2006 observation of Cygnus X-3 has provided insight into a singular feature associated with this well-known microquasar. This extended emission, located {approx}16'' from Cygnus X-3, varies in flux and orbital phase (shifted by 0.56 in phase) with Cygnus X-3, acting like a celestial X-ray 'mirror'. The feature's spectrum, flux, and time variations allow us to determine the location, size, density, and mass of the scatterer. We find that the scatterer is a Bok Globule located along our line of sight, and we discuss its relationship to Cygnus X-3. This is the first time such a feature has been identified with Chandra.

  2. Cygnus X-3's Little Friend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollough, M. L.; Smith, R. K.; Valencic, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the unique X-ray imaging capabilities of the Chandra X-ray observatory, a 2006 observation of Cygnus X-3 has provided insight into a singular feature associated with this well-known microquasar. This extended emission, located approx.16" from Cygnus X-3, varies in flux and orbital phase (shifted by 0.56 in phase) with Cygnus X-3, acting like a celestial X-ray "mirror." The feature s spectrum, flux, and time variations allow us to determine the location, size, density, and mass of the scatterer. We find that the scatterer is a Bok Globule located along our line of sight, and we discuss its relationship to Cygnus X-3. This is the first time such a feature has been identified with Chandra.

  3. Sensitivity of an underwater Čerenkov km 3 telescope to TeV neutrinos from Galactic microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Marzo, C.; De Rosa, G.; De Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper are presented the results of Monte Carlo simulations on the capability of the proposed NEMO-km 3 telescope to detect TeV muon neutrinos from Galactic microquasars. For each known microquasar we compute the number of detectable events, together with the atmospheric neutrino and muon background events. We also discuss the detector sensitivity to neutrino fluxes expected from known microquasars, optimizing the event selection also to reject the background; the number of events surviving the event selection are given. The best candidates are the steady microquasars SS433 and GX339-4 for which we estimate a sensitivity of about 5 × 10 -11 erg/cm 2 s; the predicted fluxes are expected to be well above this sensitivity. For bursting microquasars the most interesting candidates are Cygnus X-3, GRO J1655-40 and XTE J1118+480: their analyses are more complicated because of the stochastic nature of the bursts.

  4. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  5. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  6. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of focused wind in the Cygnus X-1 system. II. The non-dip spectrum in the low/hard state - modulations with orbital phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miškovičová, Ivica; Hell, Natalie; Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S.; Grinberg, Victoria; Duro, Refiz; Madej, Oliwia K.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Cadolle Bel, Marion; Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Lee, Julia C.; Brown, Gregory V.; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-05-01

    Accretion onto the black hole in the system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 is powered by the strong line-driven stellar wind of the O-type donor star. We study the X-ray properties of the stellar wind in the hard state of Cyg X-1, as determined using data from the Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings. Large density and temperature inhomogeneities are present in the wind, with a fraction of the wind consisting of clumps of matter with higher density and lower temperature embedded in a photoionized gas. Absorption dips observed in the light curve are believed to be caused by these clumps. This work concentrates on the non-dip spectra as a function of orbital phase. The spectra show lines of H-like and He-like ions of S, Si, Na, Mg, Al, and highly ionized Fe (Fe xvii-Fe xxiv). We measure velocity shifts, column densities, and thermal broadening of the line series. The excellent quality of these five observations allows us to investigate the orbital phase-dependence of these parameters. We show that the absorber is located close to the black hole. Doppler shifted lines point at a complex wind structure in this region, while emission lines seen in some observations are from a denser medium than the absorber. The observed line profiles are phase-dependent. Their shapes vary from pure, symmetric absorption at the superior conjunction to P Cygni profiles at the inferior conjunction of the black hole.

  7. INTEGRAL SPI observations of Cygnus X-1 in the soft state: What about the jet contribution in hard X-rays?

    SciTech Connect

    Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Chauvin, M.

    2014-07-01

    During the first 7 yr of the INTEGRAL mission (2003-2009), Cyg X-1 has essentially been detected in its hard state (HS), with some incursions in intermediate HSs. This long, spectrally stable period allowed in particular the measurement of the polarization of the high-energy component that has long been observed above 200 keV in this peculiar object. This result strongly suggests that here we see the contribution of the jet, known to emit a strong synchrotron radio emission. In 2010 June, Cyg X-1 underwent a completed transition toward a soft state (SS). It gave us the unique opportunity to study in detail the corona emission in this spectral state, and to investigate in particular the behavior of the jet contribution. Indeed, during the SS, the hard X-ray emission decreases drastically, with its maximum energy shifted toward lower energy and its flux divided by a factor of ∼5-10. Interestingly, the radio emission follows a similar drop, supporting the correlation between the jet emission and the hard component, even though the flux is too low to quantify the polarization characteristics.

  8. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 with Burst and Transient Source Experiment and All-Sky Monitor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Lin-Qing

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of all observations of Cyg X-1 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE; 20-300 keV) and by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer all-sky monitor (ASM; 1.5-12 keV) until 2002 June, including approximately 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between fluxes and hardnesses in different energy bands. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the 20-100 keV flux. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. There is also another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependencies of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We also study in detail recent soft states from late 2000 until 2002. The last of them has lasted thus far for more than 200 days. Their spectra are generally harder in the 1.5-5 keV band and similar or softer in the 3-12 keV band than the spectra of the 1996 soft state, whereas the rms variability is stronger in all the ASM bands. On the other hand, the 1994 soft state transition observed by BATSE appears very similar to the 1996 one. We interpret the variability patterns in terms of theoretical Comptonization

  9. Soft X-ray Excesses and X-ray Line Variability in Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlotta, Angelo; McCollough, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Cygnus X-3 is an X-ray binary (XRB) system containing a stellar-mass compact object, most likely a black hole, and a Wolf-Rayet companion star, which produces collimated, relativistic jets, placing it in the sub-class of XRBs known as microquasars. During a Swift/XRT monitoring program of Cygnus X-3, a soft X-ray excess (below 1 keV) was observed at certain states and phases of activity. This soft excess appears to be similar to the variable soft emission observed in Seyfert galaxies. The presence of these features in Cygnus X-3 would argue for a greater support of the black-hole nature of the compact object and serve to better highlight the similarities of microquasars and AGN. We present the results of our investigations of these soft excesses, as well as the variations of the X-ray Fe line region (6.4-7.0 keV) as a function of the state activity and orbital phase.

  10. Black hole binaries and microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2013-12-01

    This is a general review on the observations and physics of black hole X-ray binaries and microquasars, with the emphasize on recent developments in the high energy regime. The focus is put on understanding the accretion flows and measuring the parameters of black holes in them. It includes mainly two parts: i) Brief review of several recent review article on this subject; ii) Further development on several topics, including black hole spin measurements, hot accretion flows, corona formation, state transitions and thermal stability of standard think disk. This is thus not a regular bottom-up approach, which I feel not necessary at this stage. Major effort is made in making and incorporating from many sources useful plots and illustrations, in order to make this article more comprehensible to non-expert readers. In the end I attempt to make a unification scheme on the accretion-outflow (wind/jet) connections of all types of accreting BHs of all accretion rates and all BH mass scales, and finally provide a brief outlook.

  11. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  12. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  13. The beginning of a giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, S. A.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    As we suggested in ATel #9416, galactic microquasar Cygnus X-3 is currently undergoing a flaring activity. If on 30 August 2016 (MJD 57630.798) its fluxes were 120-128 mJy at 4.6, 8.2, 11.2 GHz in the RATAN-600 radio telescope observations, then on 31 August (MJD 57631.795) the fluxes became 60, 300, 570, 740, 800 mJy at 2.3, 4.6, 8.2, 11.2 and 21.7 GHz with typical errors about 3-7%.

  14. A search for new galactic microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarevsky, G. S.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Stathakis, R. A.; Kardashev, N. S.; Slee, O. B.

    2002-01-01

    The population of microquasars in our Galaxy} Accretion onto a supermassive black hole with a strong surrounding magnetic field can supply the necessary energy for AGNs (Kardashev 1995). Inside our own galaxy, accretion from a stellar component onto a black hole (or neutron star) in a close binary system can produce a similar kind of phenomenon. X-ray observations made by UHURU in 1978 attracted attention to the peculiar object SS 433 located in the very centre of the supernova remnant W50. When the orbital period was first determined, Shklovski (1978) suggested that SS 433 is a binary system associated with the ejection of relativistic particles, which are responsible for the strong, periodic radio emission. Many observations of SS 433 led to the conclusion that the system is a close binary consisting of a massive OB star and a neutron star or a black hole surrounded by a bright accretion disk opaque to X-rays. SS 433 and similar objects have been assigned to a special class called "microquasars" (see comprehensive review by Mirabel & Rodriguez, 1999). Only about 30 of ~280 known X-ray binaries (XRBs) have been detected in radio (Fender et al. 1997), and only a few of them have characteristic radio emission and morphology associated with the microquasars' family. Radio images of such objects bear a striking similarity to the structures of AGN: they have a compact core and two-sided jets of relativistic particles. Flux variability and superluminal motions are also quite common for the microquasars. GRO J1655--40 is a representative object of this class (Tingay at al. 1995). First discovered in X-rays, it produces relativistic radio jets with β = 0.92, and has an angular extent of 1arcsec. It is the intention of the project described here to search for similar features with the aim of increasing the number of known microquasars.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus cygnus (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Rahim Khan, Abdur; Kwon Jung, Byung; Park, Yung-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Cheon Park, Hee; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus cygnus (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was sequenced. The genome, consisting of 16 724 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and a control region (CR). Two rRNA genes for 12S rRNA (991 bases) and 16S rRNA (1608 bases) are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and divided by the tRNA-Val. The CR, of 1156 bp in length, is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. cygnus is G + C: 47.2%, A + T: 52.8%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. cygnus was closed to Cygnus columbianus. PMID:26153753

  16. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  17. MAGIC CONSTRAINTS ON {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: tysaito@mpp.mpg.d

    2010-09-20

    Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar consisting of an accreting compact object orbiting around a Wolf-Rayet star. It has been detected at radio frequencies and up to high-energy {gamma} rays (above 100 MeV). However, many models also predict a very high energy (VHE) emission (above hundreds of GeV) when the source displays relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. Therefore, detecting such emission would improve the understanding of the jet physics. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC observed Cygnus X-3 for about 70 hr between 2006 March and 2009 August in different X-ray/radio spectral states and also during a period of enhanced {gamma}-ray emission. MAGIC found no evidence for a VHE signal from the direction of the microquasar. An upper limit to the integral flux for energies higher than 250 GeV has been set to 2.2 x 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (95% confidence level). This is the best limit so far to the VHE emission from this source. The non-detection of a VHE signal during the period of activity in the high-energy band sheds light on the location of the possible VHE radiation favoring the emission from the innermost region of the jets, where absorption is significant. The current and future generations of Cherenkov telescopes may detect a signal under precise spectral conditions.

  18. SAS 3 observations of Cygnus X-1 - The intensity dips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Canizares, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    In general, the dips are observed to occur near superior conjunctions of the X-ray source, but one pair of 2-minute dips occurs when the X-ray source is closer to the observer than is the supergiant companion. The dips are analyzed spectrally with the aid of seven energy channels in the range 1.2-50 keV. Essentially, there is no change in the spectral index during the dips. Reductions in the count rates are observed at energies exceeding 6 keV for some of the dips, but the dip amplitude is always significantly greater in the 1.2-3 keV band. It is believed that absorption by partially ionized gas may best explain these results, since the observations of Pravdo et al. (1980) rule out absorption by unionized material. Estimates for the intervening gas density, extent, and distance from the X-ray source are presented. Attention is also given to the problems confronting the models for the injection of gas through the line of sight, believed to be inclined by approximately 30 deg from the binary pole.

  19. γ-Ray Generation in Microquasars: the link with AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, I. J.; Aye, K.-M.; Brown, A. M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Hadjichristidis, C. N.; Le Gallou, R.; McComb, T. J. L.; Nolan, S. J.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Noutsos, A.; Rayner, S. M.

    2005-02-01

    The link between the physical processes responsible for high energy emission from relativistic jets in AGN and microquasars is investigated. A Fortran code based on an existing inhomogeneous, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, for AGN is presented. The code is then applied to the AGN 3C 279 and the microquasar LS5039. Spectral energy distributions (SED's) are presented.

  20. Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

  1. Tour the Cygnus X Star Factory

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video opens with wide optical and infrared images of the constellation Cygnus, then zooms into the Cygnus X region using radio, infrared and gamma-ray images. Fermi LAT shows that gamma rays f...

  2. Cygnus: Electrochemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.G.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Vujic, J.; Solly, F.; Johnson, D.; Philipp, D.

    2000-07-01

    Electrochemical cleaning, commonly referred to as electropolishing, can be used to remove surface contamination by dissolving the underlying metal matrix. This is accomplished in the Cygnus process by passing an electric current through a dilute, acidic electrolyte. In the operation, the surface is polished, thereby removing contamination and irregularities to prevent recontamination. Mechanical decontamination processes, by comparison, leave the surface layer distorted, highly stressed, and contaminated with process media. Techniques employing grinding and particle impingement rework the surface of malleable metals such as stainless steel, folding the contamination into pockets where material is released for uncontrolled use. Solway, Ltd., developed the method to be more effective with respect to waste reduction and cost-effectiveness. Together with NUKEM Nuklear, the method was improved for a decontamination procedure in nuclear technology. One of the applications was the decontamination work at KRN Grundremmingen in Germany. The intensive work has shown that the method is suitable for decontamination services in both defense and commercial areas.

  3. GLAST Status and Application to Microquasars

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Richard; /SLAC

    2006-11-15

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a next generation high energy gamma-ray observatory due for launch in Fall 2007. The primary instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which will measure gamma-ray flux and spectra from 20 MeV to > 300 GeV and is a successor to the highly successful EGRET experiment on CGRO. The LAT will have better angular resolution, greater effective area, wider field of view and broader energy coverage than any previous experiment in this energy range. An overview of the LAT instrument design and construction is presented which includes performance estimates with particular emphasis on how these apply to studies of microquasars. The nature and quality of the data that will be provided by the LAT is described with results from recent detailed simulations that illustrate the potential of the LAT to observe gamma ray variability and spectra.

  4. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. 2: The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300-day record from the Ariel 5 All Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3.

  5. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

  6. Cygnus X-3 Little Friend's Counterpart, the Distance to Cygnus X-3 and Jets (Oh My!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Corrales, Lia

    2016-04-01

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature within 16" of Cygnus X-3 which varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule which is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report onobservations made with Submillimeter Array (SMA) to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's "little friend." We have found a counterpart in both 12CO and 13CO emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines we are able determine a kinematic distance to the little friend and in turn a distance to Cygnus X-3. The uncertainties in this distance estimate to Cygnus X-3 are less than 10%. An additional unexpected discovery was that Cygnus X-3 is not the only source to have jets!

  7. The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, William

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

  8. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Orosz, Jerry; Tomsick, John

    2012-10-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  9. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Tomsick, John; Orosz, Jerry

    2011-10-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  10. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Orosz, Jerry; Tomsick, John

    2013-10-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  11. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Tomsick, John; Orosz, Jerry

    2011-04-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  12. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Orosz, Jerry; Tomsick, John

    2013-04-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  13. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Tomsick, John; Orosz, Jerry

    2012-04-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years.

  14. GLAST: Launched And Being Commissioned - Status And Prospects for Microquasars

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Richard; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    GLAST: Launched And Being Commissioned - Status And Prospects for Microquasars The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) is a next generation high energy gamma-ray observatory launched in June 2008. The primary instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which will measure gamma-ray flux and spectra from 20 MeV to > 300 GeV and is a successor to the highly successful EGRET experiment on CGRO. The LAT has better angular resolution, greater effective area, wider field of view and broader energy coverage than any previous experiment in this energy range. An overview of the LAT instrument design and construction is presented which includes performance estimates with particular emphasis on how these apply to studies of microquasars. Early results on LS I +61 303 detection are presented.

  15. NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-09-01

    Context: IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims: We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH binary systems. Methods: We have examined all four XMM-Newton observations of NGC 300 X-1, as well as the single XMM-Newton observation of IC 10 X-1. For each observation, we extracted lightcurves and spectra from the pn, MOS1 and MOS2 cameras; power density spectra were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Results: Each source exhibits power density spectra that are well described by a power law with index, γ, ~1. Such variability is characteristic of turbulence in wind accretion or disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 in the XMM-Newton observations are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC 300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC 10 X-1. Conclusions: The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC 300 X-1 in Observation 1 and that of IC 10 X-1 lends strong evidence for NGC 300 X-1 being a BH+WR binary. Our spectral modeling rules out Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a neutron star (NS) for NGC 300 X-1, but not a disc-accreting NS+WR system, nor a NS low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is merely coincident with the WR. We favour disc accretion for both systems, but cannot exclude Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a BH. The unusual spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 may be due to these systems existing in a persistently high state, whereas all known BH LMXBs

  16. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Orosz, Jerry; Tomsick, John; Loh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years. The proposed observations are optimized to discover and study (flux evolution, morphology, SED, proper motion, ...) new radio lobes from microquasars. This will have implications not only for the study of jets from Galactic X-ray binaries, but also for our understanding of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  18. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  19. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. II - The strong Cygnus sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The three bright 3-6 keV X-ray sources in Cygnus are examined for regular temporal variability with a 1300 day record from the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor. The only periods consistently observed are 5.6 days for Cyg X-1, 11.23 days for Cyg X-2, and 4.8 hours for Cyg X-3. The 78.4 day period of Kemp, Herman, and Barbour for Cyg X-1, the 9.843 day period of Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings for Cyg X-2, and the 16.75 day period of Holt et al. for Cyg X-3 are not confirmed.

  20. Search for UHE emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.J.; The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been searched for evidence of ultra high energy (UHE) emission from Cygnus X-3. An upper limit to continuous flux from the source is given. In addition, we find no evidence for episodic emission from Cygnus X-3 on any time scale from 3.3 minutes to 4 years. The results of searches for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 will be presented at the conference.

  1. Search for UHE emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been searched for evidence of ultra high energy (UHE) emission from Cygnus X-3. An upper limit to continuous flux from the source is given. In addition, we find no evidence for episodic emission from Cygnus X-3 on any time scale from 3.3 minutes to 4 years. The results of searches for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 will be presented at the conference.

  2. X-ray spectrum of the entire Cygnus Loop.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. C.; Riegler, G. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrum of the entire Cygnus Loop has been obtained using gas-filled proportional counters and filters flown on a Nike-Aerobee rocket. The results indicate an average spectral temperature of (2.8 plus or minus 0.2) x 1,000,000 K and the presence of excess emission in the energy range from 0.530 to 0.693 keV. If the excess emission originates in a single line at 0.658 keV, the intensity at the earth corresponds to 1.8 plus or minus 0.7 photons per sq cm per sec, or about 10% of the total energy received from the Loop. The spectrum of the entire Loop is found to be attenuated by an average of (4.8 plus or minus 0.2) x 10 to the 20th hydrogen atoms per sq cm.

  3. Prospects for High Energy Detection of Microquasars with the AGILE and GLAST Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Santolamazza, Patrizia; Pittori, Carlotta; Verrecchia, Francesco

    2007-08-21

    We estimate the sensitivities of the AGILE and GLAST {gamma}-ray experiments taking into account two cases for the galactic {gamma}-ray diffuse background (at high galactic latitude and toward the galactic center). Then we use sensitivities to estimate microquasar observability with the two experiments, assuming the {gamma}-ray emission above 100 MeV of a recent microquasar model.

  4. Cygnus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Swan; abbrev. Cyg, gen. Cygni; area 804 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cepheus and Vulpecula, and culminates at midnight in late July. Its origin is uncertain, though it was known to the ancient Greeks, who identified it with one of the forms assumed by Zeus during his amorous pursuits, or with other mythological swans. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c....

  5. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  6. X1 Exoskeleton

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Ironman-Like Exoskeleton Could Give Astronauts, Paraplegics Improved Mobility and Strength. While NASA's X1 robotic exoskeleton can't do what you see in the movies, the latest robotic, space...

  7. Search for neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, S.

    2012-12-01

    Neutrino telescopes are nowadays exploring a new window of observation on the high energy universe and may shed light on the longstanding problem regarding the origin of cosmic rays. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located underwater 40 km offshore from the Southern coast of France, on a plateau at 2475 m depth. Since 2007 it observes the high energy (>100 GeV) neutrino sky looking for cosmic neutrino sources. Among the candidate neutrino emitters are microquasars, i.e. galactic X-ray binaries exhibiting relativistic jets, which may accelerate hadrons thus producing neutrinos, under certain conditions. These sources are also variable in time and undergo X-ray or gamma ray outburst that can be related to the acceleration of relativistic particles witnessed by their radio emission. These events can provide a trigger to the neutrino search, with the advantage of drastically reducing the atmospheric neutrino background. A search for neutrino emission from microquasar during outbursts is presented based on the data collected by ANTARES between 2007 and 2010. Upper limits are shown and compared with the predictions.

  8. A study of 2-20 KeV X-rays from the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two rocket-borne proportional counters, each with 650 sq c, met area and 1.8 x 7.1 deg FWHM rectangular mechanical collimation, surveyed the Cygnus region in the 2 to 20 keV energy range on two occasions. X-ray spectral data gathered on 21 September 1970 from discrete sources in Cygnus are presented. The data from Cyg X-1, Cyg X-2, and Cyg X-3 have sufficient statistical significance to indicate mutually exclusive spectral forms for the three. Upper limits are presented for X-ray intensities above 2 keV for Cyg X-4 and Cyg X-5 (Cygnus loop). A search was made on 9 August 1971 for a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 degrees. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

  9. Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The brightest cosmic x-ray source in the constellation of Scorpius and the first cosmic x-ray source to be discovered. Detected for the first time in 1962 by instrumentation carried to an altitude of 225 km by an Aerobee rocket, Scorpius X-1 is, apart from occasional transient sources, the brightest cosmic source of x-radiation in the sky....

  10. Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Thomas; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin G. H.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Rodriguez, Jerome; Strong, Andrew W.; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-03-01

    Microquasars are stellar-mass black holes accreting matter from a companion star and ejecting plasma jets at almost the speed of light. They are analogues of quasars that contain supermassive black holes of 106 to 1010 solar masses. Accretion in microquasars varies on much shorter timescales than in quasars and occasionally produces exceptionally bright X-ray flares. How the flares are produced is unclear, as is the mechanism for launching the relativistic jets and their composition. An emission line near 511 kiloelectronvolts has long been sought in the emission spectrum of microquasars as evidence for the expected electron-positron plasma. Transient high-energy spectral features have been reported in two objects, but their positron interpretation remains contentious. Here we report observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity. The emission spectrum around 511 kiloelectronvolts shows clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, which implies a high rate of positron production. This supports the earlier conjecture that microquasars may be the main sources of the electron-positron plasma responsible for the bright diffuse emission of annihilation γ-rays in the bulge region of our Galaxy. Additionally, microquasars could be the origin of the observed megaelectronvolt continuum excess in the inner Galaxy.

  11. Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Thomas; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin G H; Beloborodov, Andrei M; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Rodriguez, Jerome; Strong, Andrew W; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-03-17

    Microquasars are stellar-mass black holes accreting matter from a companion star and ejecting plasma jets at almost the speed of light. They are analogues of quasars that contain supermassive black holes of 10(6) to 10(10) solar masses. Accretion in microquasars varies on much shorter timescales than in quasars and occasionally produces exceptionally bright X-ray flares. How the flares are produced is unclear, as is the mechanism for launching the relativistic jets and their composition. An emission line near 511 kiloelectronvolts has long been sought in the emission spectrum of microquasars as evidence for the expected electron-positron plasma. Transient high-energy spectral features have been reported in two objects, but their positron interpretation remains contentious. Here we report observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity. The emission spectrum around 511 kiloelectronvolts shows clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, which implies a high rate of positron production. This supports the earlier conjecture that microquasars may be the main sources of the electron-positron plasma responsible for the bright diffuse emission of annihilation γ-rays in the bulge region of our Galaxy. Additionally, microquasars could be the origin of the observed megaelectronvolt continuum excess in the inner Galaxy. PMID:26934231

  12. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  13. The violent past of Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Ulrich; Davies, Melvyn B.; King, Andrew; Ritter, Hans

    2000-09-01

    Cygnus X-2 appears to be the descendant of an intermediate-mass X-ray binary (IMXB). Using Mazzitelli's stellar code we compute detailed evolutionary sequences for the system and find that its prehistory is sensitive to stellar input parameters, in particular the amount of core overshooting during the main-sequence phase. With standard assumptions for convective overshooting a case B mass transfer starting with a 3.5-Msolar donor star is the most likely evolutionary solution for Cygnus X-2. This makes the currently observed state rather short-lived, of order 3Myr, and requires a formation rate > 10-7-10-6yr-1 of such systems in the Galaxy. Our calculations show that neutron star IMXBs with initially more massive donors (>~4Msolar) encounter a delayed dynamical instability; they are unlikely to survive this rapid mass transfer phase. We determine limits for the age and initial parameters of Cygnus X-2 and calculate possible dynamical orbits of the system in a realistic Galactic potential, given its observed radial velocity. We find trajectories which are consistent with a progenitor binary on a circular orbit in the Galactic plane inside the solar circle that received a kick velocity <=200kms-1 at the birth of the neutron star. The simulations suggest that about 7per cent of IMXBs receiving an arbitrary kick velocity from a standard kick velocity spectrum would end up in an orbit similar to Cygnus X-2, while about 10per cent of them reach yet larger Galactocentric distances.

  14. The primary orbit and the absorption lines of HDE 226868 (Cygnus X-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninkov, Z.; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S.

    1987-10-01

    From Reticon spectra of about 1 A resolution taken between 1980 and 1984, the radial velocity curve of HDE 226868 is found to be characteristic of a single-line spectroscopic binary with K = 75.0 + or - 1.0 km/s and e = 0.0. Combining historical velocities from the literature with present data and applying a period-folding analysis, a period of 5.59964 + or - 0.00001 days is found. These values agree well with those published by Gies and Bolton (1982). The value of v sin i is estimated to be 94.3 + or - 5 km/s from CFHT Reticon spectra taken at 0.1 A resolution. Assuming that the rotation of the primary is synchronized to the orbital revolution of the secondary gives a primary to secondary mass ratio between 1.5 and 2.3. An absolute magnitude of -6.5 + or - 0.2 is derived from the equivalent width of H-gamma (1.5 + or - 0.1 A) and the calibration of Walker and Millward (1985), which is consistent with the spectral classification of O9.7 Iab. Assuming 20 solar masses as a reasonable estimate for the mass of the primary implies a mass of 10 + or - 1 solar masses for the secondary.

  15. X-ray Variability Constraints on Compton Cloud Models of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Brian

    1999-01-01

    We have now completed this work, and all related publications have either appeared in print or are currently in press. A list of these publications is given below. There have been essentially three works that have arisen from this proposal. Spectral analysis of the data is presented in Dove et al. (1998a). Timing analysis is presented in Nowak et al. (1999a). Theoretical implications of the data analysis are discussed in Nowak et al. (1999b). Preliminary versions of all these works were presented at various conferences, and are reported in Nowak et al. (1997, 1998), Wilms et al. (1997), and Dove et al. (1998b). The grant was predominantly used for salary support for Dr. Michael Nowak, Dr. James Dove, and Dr. J. Wilms during the course of these projects. Grant funds were also used for Dr. Nowak to travel to Caltech to perform data analysis with Dr. Brian Vaughan, and for Dr. Wilms to visit JILA, University of Colorado, where much of this work was performed.

  16. Primary orbit and the absorption lines of HDE 226868 (Cygnus X-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ninkov, Z.; Walker, G.A.H.; Yang, S.

    1987-10-01

    From Reticon spectra of about 1 A resolution taken between 1980 and 1984, the radial velocity curve of HDE 226868 is found to be characteristic of a single-line spectroscopic binary with K = 75.0 + or - 1.0 km/s and e = 0.0. Combining historical velocities from the literature with present data and applying a period-folding analysis, a period of 5.59964 + or - 0.00001 days is found. These values agree well with those published by Gies and Bolton (1982). The value of v sin i is estimated to be 94.3 + or - 5 km/s from CFHT Reticon spectra taken at 0.1 A resolution. Assuming that the rotation of the primary is synchronized to the orbital revolution of the secondary gives a primary to secondary mass ratio between 1.5 and 2.3. An absolute magnitude of -6.5 + or - 0.2 is derived from the equivalent width of H-gamma (1.5 + or - 0.1 A) and the calibration of Walker and Millward (1985), which is consistent with the spectral classification of O9.7 Iab. Assuming 20 solar masses as a reasonable estimate for the mass of the primary implies a mass of 10 + or - 1 solar masses for the secondary. 62 references.

  17. Black hole-jet systems: From blazars to microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongquan

    Understanding black holes is one of the most intriguing and important topics in high energy astrophysics. Many astronomical black hole systems are known to contain three basic components: a black hole, an accretion disk, and a pair of collimated jets that are likely coupled physically to the accretion disk. For this thesis work, the focus is on two classes of black hole-jet systems, known as blazars and microquasars. There is growing evidence that the central engines in both types of systems are qualitatively similar. Collectively, they may, therefore, provide an excellent laboratory for studying common physical processes over a vast range of physical scales. Although both types of systems have been studied extensively, there are still many outstanding issues. The goal of this thesis work is to cast light on some of these important issues. First, to understand the energetics of the flaring phenomenon in blazars, it is necessary to get a handle on the size of the emitting region. An effective way to do so is to quantify timescales over which a source varies. I systematically studied X-ray flaring activities of the TeV blazar Mrk 501 and found flares over a wide range of timescale, with the most rapid one lasting for only about 800 s, which is the shortest ever seen in this system. The latter sets an upper limit of ~ 2.4 × 10^14 cm (i.e., 800 light seconds) on the size of the region that produces the flare, which is already comparable to the characteristic size of the black hole (of ~ 10 9 [Special characters omitted.] ). Second, a related question is what causes the observed flares in blazars. To this end, I studied X-ray spectral evolution of TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 during individual flares that last for a few days. Such a study has become possible only recently, with high-quality X-ray data taken during very active periods of the sources. I fitted the time-resolved X-ray spectra with a synchrotron model and found that, in order to account for the observed

  18. A Giant Radio Flare from Cygnus X-3 with Associated Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high energy gamma-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi/LAT and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy gamma-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (approx 20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E greater than or equal 100 MeV) reveal renewed gamma-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the gamma-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A 3-week period of gamma-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No gamma rays are observed during the one-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio quenched) state trigger gamma-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the gamma-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  19. Hadronic gamma-ray and neutrino emission from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Sahakyan, N.; Piano, G.; Tavani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is a remarkable Galactic microquasar (X-ray binary) emitting from radio to γ-ray energies. In this paper, we consider the hadronic model of emission of γ-rays above 100 MeV and their implications. We focus on the joint γ-ray and neutrino production resulting from proton-proton interactions within the binary system. We find that the required proton injection kinetic power, necessary to explain the γ-ray flux observed by AGILE and Fermi-LAT, is L{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}, a value in agreement with the average bolometric luminosity of the hypersoft state (when Cyg X-3 was repeatedly observed to produce transient γ-ray activity). If we assume an increase of the wind density at the superior conjunction, the asymmetric production of γ-rays along the orbit can reproduce the observed modulation. According to observational constraints and our modeling, a maximal flux of high-energy neutrinos would be produced for an initial proton distribution with a power-law index α = 2.4. The predicted neutrino flux is almost two orders of magnitude less than the two-month IceCube sensitivity at ∼1 TeV. If the protons are accelerated up to PeV energies, the predicted neutrino flux for a prolonged 'soft X-ray state' would be a factor of about three lower than the one-year IceCube sensitivity at ∼10 TeV. This study shows that, for a prolonged soft state (as observed in 2006) possibly related to γ-ray activity and a hard distribution of injected protons, Cyg X-3 might be close to being detectable by cubic-kilometer neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.

  20. The 2010 May Flaring Episode of Cygnus X-3 in Radio, X-Rays, and gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Pooley, Guy G.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jerome; Wilms, Joern; Migliari, Simone; Trushkin, Sergei A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) became the first microquasar to be detected in the GeV gamma-ray regime, via the satellites Fermi and AGILE. The addition of this new band to the observational toolbox holds promise for building a more detailed understanding of the relativistic jets of this and other systems. We present a rich dataset of radio, hard and soft X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of Cyg X-3 made during a flaring episode in 2010 May. We detect a approx.3-d softening and recovery of the X-ray emission, followed almost immediately by a approx.1-Jy radio flare at 15 GHz, followed by a 4.3sigma gamma-ray flare (E > 100 MeV) approx.1.5 d later. The radio sampling is sparse, but we use archival data to argue that it is unlikely the gamma-ray flare was followed by any significant unobserved radio flares. In this case, the sequencing of the observed events is difficult to explain in a model in which the gamma-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the companion star's radiation field. Our observations suggest that other mechanisms may also be responsible for gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3.

  1. Shocked clouds in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1994-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ROSAT PSPC and HRI images of the Cygnus Loop, an elderly supernova remnant. The project, as proposed, includes not only the usual analysis of ROSAT data; the ROSAT data is being combined with optical and UV data, and new model calculations are being performed. The status is reported on optical imagery, echelle data, IUE data, ROSAT data, and the grain model. The major question being addressed is whether the blastwave-cloud interaction in the feature known as XA is basically a converging shock in a fairly large cloud or turbulent stripping of material from the edges of a smaller cloud.

  2. Shocked clouds in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1994-02-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ROSAT PSPC and HRI images of the Cygnus Loop, an elderly supernova remnant. The project, as proposed, includes not only the usual analysis of ROSAT data; the ROSAT data is being combined with optical and UV data, and new model calculations are being performed. The status is reported on optical imagery, echelle data, IUE data, ROSAT data, and the grain model. The major question being addressed is whether the blastwave-cloud interaction in the feature known as XA is basically a converging shock in a fairly large cloud or turbulent stripping of material from the edges of a smaller cloud.

  3. Variable very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar LS I +61 303.

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, S R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Bock, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaría, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Goebel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Isar, P G; Jacon, P; Kalekin, O; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Laatiaoui, M; Laille, A; Lenisa, T; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduña, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Pooley, G; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Romero, G E; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, A; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2006-06-23

    Microquasars are binary star systems with relativistic radio-emitting jets. They are potential sources of cosmic rays and can be used to elucidate the physics of relativistic jets. We report the detection of variable gamma-ray emission above 100 gigaelectron volts from the microquasar LS I 61 + 303. Six orbital cycles were recorded. Several detections occur at a similar orbital phase, which suggests that the emission is periodic. The strongest gamma-ray emission is not observed when the two stars are closest to one another, implying a strong orbital modulation of the emission or absorption processes. PMID:16709745

  4. MODELING THE INFRARED EMISSION IN CYGNUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Privon, G. C.; Baum, S. A.; Noel-Storr, J.; O'Dea, C. P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Gallimore, J.

    2012-03-01

    We present new Spitzer IRS spectroscopy of Cygnus A, one of the most luminous radio sources in the local universe. Data on the inner 20'' are combined with new reductions of MIPS and IRAC photometry as well as data from the literature to form a radio through mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). This SED is then modeled as a combination of torus reprocessed active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation, dust enshrouded starburst, and a synchrotron jet. This combination of physically motivated components successfully reproduces the observed emission over almost 5 dex in frequency. The bolometric AGN luminosity is found to be 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (90% of L{sub IR}), with a clumpy AGN-heated dust medium extending to {approx}130 pc from the supermassive black hole. Evidence is seen for a break or cutoff in the core synchrotron emission. The associated population of relativistic electrons could in principle be responsible for some of the observed X-ray emission though the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism. The SED requires a cool dust component, consistent with dust-reprocessed radiation from ongoing star formation. Star formation contributes at least 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun} to the bolometric output of Cygnus A, corresponding to a star formation rate of {approx}10 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  5. The Cygnus region of the galaxy: A VERITAS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming region ("Cygnus") is the richest star-forming region within 2 kpc of Earth and is home to a wealth of potential cosmic ray accelerators, including supernova remnants, massive star clusters, and pulsar wind nebulae. Over the past five years, discoveries by several gamma-ray observatories sensitive in different energy bands, including the identification by Fermi-LAT of a potential cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays, have pinpointed this region as a unique laboratory for studying the early phases of the cosmic ray life cycle. From 2007 to 2009 VERITAS, a very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) observatory in southern Arizona, undertook an extensive survey of the Cygnus region from 67 to 82 degrees Galactic longitude and from -1 to 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. In the years since, VERITAS has continued to accumulate data at specific locations within the survey region. We will review the discoveries and insights that this rich dataset has already provided. We will also consider the key role that we expect these data to play in interpreting the complex multiwavelength picture we have of the Cygnus region, particularly in the vicinity of the Cygnus cocoon. As part of this discussion we will summarize ongoing studies of VERITAS data in the Cygnus region, including the development of new data analysis techniques that dramatically increase VERITAS' sensitivity to sources on scales larger than a square degree.

  6. The Cluster of Galaxies Surrounding Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Hill, John M.

    1997-10-01

    We report optical imaging and spectroscopy of 41 galaxies in a 22' square region surrounding Cygnus A. The results show that there is an extensive rich cluster associated with Cyg A of Abell richness of at least 1 and possibly as high as 4. The velocity histogram has two peaks, one centered on Cyg A and a more significant peak redshifted by about 2060 km s-1 from the velocity of Cyg A. The dynamical centroid of the spatial distribution is also shifted somewhat to the northwest. However, statistical tests show only weak evidence that there are two distinct clusters. The entire system has a velocity dispersion of 1581 km s-1, which is slightly larger than other, well-studied examples of rich clusters.

  7. Red supergiants and the past of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Djupvik, A. A.; Schneider, N.; Pasquali, A.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Red supergiants are the evolved descendants of massive stars with initial masses between 7 and 40 M⊙. Their brightness makes them easily detectable in the near infrared, making them useful probes of star formation that occurred several tens of Myr ago. Aims: We investigate the past star formation history of Cygnus OB2, the nearest very massive OB association, using red supergiants as a probe. Our aim is to confirm the evidence, found by previous studies, that star formation in the Cygnus OB2 region started long before the latest burst that gave rise to the dense aggregate of early O-type stars that dominate the appearance of the association at present. Methods: Near-infrared star counts in the Cygnus region reveal moderate evidence for a peak in the areal density of bright, reddened stars approximately coincident with Cygnus OB2. A total of 11 sources are found within a circle of 1° radius centered on the association, of which 4 are non-supergiants based on existing observations. Near-infrared spectroscopy is presented of the remaining seven candidates, including four that have been already classified as M supergiants in the literature. Results: We confirm the presence of seven red supergiants in the region and argue that they are probably physically associated with Cygnus OB2. Their location is roughly coincident with that of the older population identified by previous studies, supporting the scenario in which the main star formation activity in the association has been shifting toward higher Galactic longitudes with time. Their luminosities are compared with the predictions of evolutionary tracks with and without rotation to estimate the mass of their progenitors and ages. In this way, we confirm that massive star formation was already taking place in the area of Cygnus OB2 over 20 Myr ago, and we estimate that the star formation rate in the latest 6 Myr represents a six-fold increase over the massive star formation rate at the time when the

  8. Modelling a Simultaneous Radio/X-Ray Flare from Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Konstantinos; Markoff, Sera; Wilsm, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Maitra, Dipankar; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy G.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Rotschild, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring campaign of Cyg X-1 has provided the detection of the first simultaneous radio/X-ray flare seen from that source. We investigate the physical characteristics of the event in terms of emission from a homogeneous, expanding blob of pair-plasma, superimposed on a baseline flux in both bands. We find that while the radio flare can be reconstructed under various configurations of a cooling blob, continuous (re)acceleration of particles inside the jet is necessary to sustain X-ray emission at the levels implied by the data, for the observed duration. We present major results of the modelling and discuss implications for the role of microquasar jets.

  9. The radio 'lobes' of Scorpius X-1 are unrelated background sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The VLA between 1981 and 1990 are used to produce high-resolution images of the radio emission from the region near Sco X-1. The radio proper motion of Sco X-1 was measured at 0.0148 +/-0.0011/yr, which agrees with the optical determination for the X-ray-emitting binary system. The proper motions of two nearby radio sources, juxtaposed 1 arcmin to the NE and to the SW, were measured and found to be stationary in the sky with upper limits of 0.004 arcsec/yr. A deep radio image of the 10-arcsec extended SW source shows a morphology strikingly similar to that of a typical luminous extragalactic radio source, which contains two edge-brightened lobes, a jet, and a core. The possibilities that the NE source, although nearly stationary in the sky, is associated with Sco X-1, are discussed, and it is concluded that it is an unrelated background source. It is inferred that Sco X-1 is not a miniature triple source or a 'microquasar', and its radio emission is confined to the binary system.

  10. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    A photo taken on 8 August 1955, showing the remains of the Bell X-1A The Bell X-1A (Serial # 48-1384) was designed for aerodynamic stability and air load research. It was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base on 7 January 1953. The aircraft made its first glide flight on 14 February with Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler at the controls. Ziegler also flew the first powered flight in the X-1A on 21 February. Contractor flights in the aircraft continued through April, at which time the X-1A was temporarily grounded for modifications. Flight operations were resumed on 21 November 1953 with Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager at the controls. During a flight on 12 December, Yeager took the X-1A to a record-breaking speed of Mach 2.44 at an altitude of 75,000 feet. He then encountered the unpleasant phenomemon of inertia coupling. The X-1A tumbled out of control, knocking Yeager unconscious briefly before entering an inverted spin. Fortunately Yeager regained his senses and control of the aircraft 60 miles from Edwards at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Shaken, but unharmed, he brought the rocket plane in for a safe landing on Rogers Dry Lake. Next, the X-1A was used for a series of high-altitude missions piloted by Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray. Fourteen flights proved necessary to meet the program requirements, with only four being successful. During the test series, Murray set several unofficial world altitude records. The highest (90,440 feet) was set on 26 August 1954. Following completion of the altitude program, the aircraft was turned over to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1A underwent more modifications and was returned to flight status in July 1955. The first NACA-sponsored flight, piloted by Joseph A. Walker, took place on 20 July. The second NACA mission was to be the 25th flight of the X-1A. The flight began normally on 8 August 1955, with the X-1A shackled to the underside of a JTB-29A (45-21800) piloted by Stanley Butchart and John 'Jack' Mc

  11. A discussion of the H-alpha filamentary nebulae and galactic structure in the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, T. A.; Simonson, S. C., III

    1971-01-01

    From observation of the galactic structure in Cygnus, the system of filamentary nebulae was found to lie at a distance of roughly 1.5 kpc, in the same region as about half the thermal radio sources in Cygnus X, the supernova remnant near gamma Cygni, and the association Cygnus OB2, in the direction of which the X-ray source Cygnus XR-3 is observed. The source of excitation was probably the pulse of radiation from a supernova explosion, as proposed in the case of Gum nebula. However continuing excitation by early stars in the region of Cygnus X cannot be excluded.

  12. Are 3C 120 and Other Active Galactic Nuclei Overweight Microquasars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2005-11-01

    The appearance of superluminal radio knots follows drops in the X-ray flux in the FR1 radio galaxy 3C 120 and possibly the FR2 source 3C 111. This corresponds in a very general way to the behavior of the X-ray binary GRS 1915 + 105, but the light curves of the microquasar are much richer in detail. Starting in 2003.7, the character of the radio and X-ray light curves of 3C 120 changed, perhaps signaling a new stage of activity. I discuss here what one might expect when a microquasar is scaled up to AGN dimensions, and compare this with what we see in 3C 120. There is a mismatch between expectations and observations.

  13. A search for time dependent neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Montaruli, T.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2014-09-01

    Results are presented on a search for neutrino emission from a sample of six microquasars, based on the data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope between 2007 and 2010. By means of appropriate time cuts, the neutrino search has been restricted to the periods when the acceleration of relativistic jets was taking place at the microquasars under study. The time cuts have been chosen using the information from the X-ray telescopes RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT, and, in one case, the gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT. No statistically significant excess has been observed, thus upper limits on the neutrino fluences have been derived and compared to the predictions by models. Constraints have been put on the ratio of proton to electron luminosity in the jets.

  14. Forbidden coronal iron emission in the Cygnus Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, R.G. )

    1990-12-01

    Forbidden iron line images of parts of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant are reported and discussed. Images in both the red and green lines on the rim of NGC 6995 cannot be well interpreted in terms of cloud evaporation, and instead support the reflected shock model of Hester and Cox (1986). On the northeast rim both lines are brightest at the radiative filaments of NGC 6992 and fade to invisibility in the remnant's interior, in agreement with the sheet model for the Cygnus Loop. Forbidden Fe X emission is also found just behind some of the nonradiative filaments lying northeast of the main optical nebulosity, at a location quantitatively consistent with the cosmic-ray shock model of Boulares and Cox (1988). However, the forbidden Fe X and forbidden Fe IV data taken together also qualitatively agree with a hydrodynamic shock and cavity explosion model for the event which created the Cygnus Loop. 20 refs.

  15. JET TRAILS AND MACH CONES: THE INTERACTION OF MICROQUASARS WITH THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, D.; Morsony, B.; Heinz, S.; Wiersema, K.; Fender, R. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sunyaev, R.

    2011-11-20

    A subset of microquasars exhibits high peculiar velocity with respect to the local standard of rest due to the kicks they receive when being born in supernovae. The interaction between the radio plasma released by microquasar jets from such high-velocity binaries with the interstellar medium must lead to the production of trails and bow shocks similar to what is observed in narrow-angle tailed radio galaxies and pulsar wind nebulae. We present a set of numerical simulations of this interaction that illuminate the long-term dynamical evolution and the observational properties of these microquasar bow-shock nebulae and trails. We find that this interaction always produces a structure that consists of a bow shock, a trailing neck, and an expanding bubble. Using our simulations to model emission, we predict that the shock surrounding the bubble and the neck should be visible in H{sub {alpha}} emission, the interior of the bubble should be visible in synchrotron radio emission, and only the bow shock is likely to be detectable in X-ray emission. We construct an analytic model for the evolution of the neck and bubble shape and compare this model with observations of the X-ray binary SAX J1712.6-3739.

  16. Large scale radio/X-ray jets in microquasars (NAPA part)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Fender, Rob; Kaaret, Philip; Orosz, Jerry; Tomsick, John; Loh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    The discovery with ATCA of large scale radio lobes around the microquasar XTE J1550-564 has led to the discovery with Chandra (for the first time) of moving relativistic X-ray jets in a galactic accreting source. The lobes are likely due to the interaction of relativistic plasma with the ISM. This ATCA proposal has allowed similar discovery in H 1743-322, and therefore that it maybe a common occurrence in the Galaxy. Recently, we have witnessed with ATCA the formation of similar lobes in the black hole GX 339-4. We propose to use the Compact Array to continue our search for radio lobes in microquasars that have been active in the past years. The proposed observations are optimized to discover and study (flux evolution, morphology, SED, proper motion, ...) new radio lobes from microquasars. This will have implications not only for the study of jets from Galactic X-ray binaries, but also for our understanding of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  17. Accretion disk winds as the jet suppression mechanism in the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C

    2009-03-26

    Stellar-mass black holes with relativistic jets, also known as microquasars, mimic the behaviour of quasars and active galactic nuclei. Because timescales around stellar-mass black holes are orders of magnitude smaller than those around more distant supermassive black holes, microquasars are ideal nearby 'laboratories' for studying the evolution of accretion disks and jet formation in black-hole systems. Whereas studies of black holes have revealed a complex array of accretion activity, the mechanisms that trigger and suppress jet formation remain a mystery. Here we report the presence of a broad emission line in the faint, hard states and narrow absorption lines in the bright, soft states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. ('Hard' and 'soft' denote the character of the emitted X-rays.) Because the hard states exhibit prominent radio jets, we argue that the broad emission line arises when the jet illuminates the inner accretion disk. The jet is weak or absent during the soft states, and we show that the absorption lines originate when the powerful radiation field around the black hole drives a hot wind off the accretion disk. Our analysis shows that this wind carries enough mass away from the disk to halt the flow of matter into the radio jet. PMID:19325629

  18. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, M.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  19. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  20. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.

    My thesis work consisted of the design, fabrication and launch of a sounding rocket payload to observe the spectrum of the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. This payload was designated the Cygnus X-ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) and launched from White Sands Missile Range on November 20th, 2006. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire- grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount which ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto never before flown Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 seconds of usable data between 43-49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log( T )=6.2 ( kT e =0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft x-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave with the walls of a precursor formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop.

  1. Global far-ultraviolet properties of the Cygnus Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Il-Joong; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Wonyong; Lim, Yeo-Myeong; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Edelstein, Jerry

    2014-03-20

    We present the C III λ977, O VI λλ1032, 1038 and N IV] λ1486 emission line maps of the Cygnus Loop, obtained with the newly processed data of the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR; also known as FIMS) mission. In addition, the Si IV+O IV] line complexes around 1400 Å are resolved into two separate emission lines whose intensity demonstrates a relatively high Si IV region that was predicted in the previous study. The morphological similarity between the O VI and X-ray images, as well as a comparison of the O VI intensity with the value expected from the X-ray results, indicates that large portions of the observed O VI emissions could be produced from X-ray emitting gas. Comparisons of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) images with the optical and H I 21 cm images reveal spatial variations of shock-velocity populations and high FUV extinction in the direction of a previously identified H I cloud. By calculating the FUV line ratios for several subregions of the Cygnus Loop, we investigate the spatial variation of the population of radiative shock velocities as well as the effects of resonance scattering, X-ray emitting gas, and nonradiative shocks. The FUV and X-ray luminosity comparisons between the Cygnus Loop and the Vela supernova remnant suggest that the fraction of shocks in the early evolutionary stages is much larger in the Cygnus Loop.

  2. Search for old neutron stars in molecular clouds: Cygnus rift and Cygnus OB7.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, T.; Zampieri, L.; Campana, S.

    1997-03-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for old isolated neutron stars (ONSs) in the direction of two giant molecular clouds in Cygnus (Rift and OB7). From theoretical calculations, we expect the detection of a large number of ONSs with the PSPC on board ROSAT. By analyzing the PSPC pointings in the direction of the clouds, we find four sources characterized by count rates (~10^-3^ct/s) and spectral properties consistent with the hypothesis that the X-ray radiation is produced by ONSs and also characterized by the absence of any measurable optical counterpart within their error circle in the digitized red plates of the Palomar All Sky Survey. The importance of follow-up deep observations in the direction of these ONS candidates is discussed. The observational and theoretical approach presented here could be fruitfully applied also to the systematic search for ONSs in other regions of the Galaxy.

  3. LINE-OF-SIGHT SHELL STRUCTURE OF THE CYGNUS LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Satoru; Kimura, Masashi; Kosugi, Hiroko; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2009-11-10

    We conducted a comprehensive study on the shell structure of the Cygnus Loop using 41 observation data obtained by the Suzaku and the XMM-Newton satellites. To investigate the detailed plasma structure of the Cygnus Loop, we divided our fields of view into 1042 box regions. From the spectral analysis, the spectra obtained from the limb of the Loop are well fitted by the single-component non-equilibrium ionization plasma model. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from the inner regions are well fitted by the two-component model. As a result, we confirmed that the low-temperature and high-temperature components originated from the surrounding interstellar matter (ISM) and the ejecta of the Loop, respectively. From the best-fit results, we showed a flux distribution of the ISM component. The distribution clearly shows the limb-brightening structure, and we found out some low-flux regions. Among them, the south blowout region has the lowest flux. We also found other large low-flux regions at slightly west and northeast from the center. We estimated the former thin shell region to be approx1.{sup 0}3 in diameter and concluded that there exists a blowout along the line of sight in addition to the south blowout. We also calculated the emission measure distribution of the ISM component and showed that the Cygnus Loop is far from the result obtained by a simple Sedov evolution model. From the results, we support that the Cygnus Loop originated from a cavity explosion. The emission measure distribution also suggests that the cavity-wall density is higher in the northeast than that in the southwest. These results suggest that the thickness of the cavity wall surrounding the Cygnus Loop is not uniform.

  4. The youngest known X-ray binary: Circinus X-1 and its natal supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, S.; Sell, P.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Calvelo-Santos, D. E.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Nowak, M. A.; Schulz, N. S.; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, M.

    2013-12-20

    Because supernova remnants are short-lived, studies of neutron star X-ray binaries within supernova remnants probe the earliest stages in the life of accreting neutron stars. However, such objects are exceedingly rare: none were known to exist in our Galaxy. We report the discovery of the natal supernova remnant of the accreting neutron star Circinus X-1, which places an upper limit of t < 4600 yr on its age, making it the youngest known X-ray binary and a unique tool to study accretion, neutron star evolution, and core-collapse supernovae. This discovery is based on a deep 2009 Chandra X-ray observation and new radio observations of Circinus X-1. Circinus X-1 produces type I X-ray bursts on the surface of the neutron star, indicating that the magnetic field of the neutron star is small. Thus, the young age implies either that neutron stars can be born with low magnetic fields or that they can rapidly become de-magnetized by accretion. Circinus X-1 is a microquasar, creating relativistic jets that were thought to power the arcminute-scale radio nebula surrounding the source. Instead, this nebula can now be attributed to non-thermal synchrotron emission from the forward shock of the supernova remnant. The young age is consistent with the observed rapid orbital evolution and the highly eccentric orbit of the system and offers the chance to test the physics of post-supernova orbital evolution in X-ray binaries in detail for the first time.

  5. Radio lobes and X-ray hot spots of the extraordinary microquasar in NGC 7793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Pakull, Manfred; Broderick, Jess; Corbel, Stephane; Motch, Christian

    2010-07-01

    We have studied the newly-discovered microquasar in NGC 7793 in radio, optical and X-ray bands. This system comprises a large (250×120 pc) line-emitting optical nebula, detected in Ha and HeII λ4686. The optical nebula coincides with a synchrotron-emitting radio cocoon, with a radio luminosity about 3 times that of Cas A. The central BH appears as a hard X-ray source with a point-like, blue optical counterpart. Two prominent radio lobes are located at the extremities of the cocoon. Just ahead of the radio hot spots, we found two X-ray hot spots, which we interpret as a signature of the bow shock into the interstellar medium. The X-ray hot spots, radio hot spots, X-ray core and major axis of the cocoon are well aligned, proving that the system is powered by a jet. From both the X-ray and optical data, we estimate a jet power ~a few×1040 erg s-1, active over a timescale ~105 yrs. This extraordinary system is a long-sought analog of the Galactic microquasar SS433 and may represent a new class of non-nuclear BHs dominated by mechanical power even at very high accretion rates.

  6. NuSTAR Observations of V404 Cygnus in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Dom; NuSTAR Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The Galactic LMXB V404 Cygnus, one of the closest known black hole binary systems, went through its first major outburst in ~25 years in summer 2015. Over the course of this event, the NuSTAR observatory played an active role in the substantial multi-wavelength campaign initiated, performing a series of exposures covering a span of several weeks. These observations revealed extreme variability on both long and short timescales, as well as complex broadband X-ray spectra. More recently, after having returned to quiescence, V404 Cygnus also exhibited an unexpected re-brightening only ~6 months later. In this talk I will present an overview of the NuSTAR campaign, and discuss some early results from these observations.

  7. Cygnus OB2: Star Formation Ugly Duckling Causes a Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Wright, Nicholas; Guarcello, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Cygnus OB2 is one of the largest known OB associations in our Galaxy, with a total stellar mass of 30,000 Msun and boasting an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. At a distance of only 1.4kpc, it is also the closest truly massive star forming region and provides a valuable testbed for star and planet formation theory. We have performed a deep stellar census using observations from X-ray to infrared, which has enabled studies of sub-structuring, mass segregation and dynamics, while infrared data reveal a story of protoplanetary disk attrition in an extremely harsh radiation environment. I will discuss how Cygnus OB2 challenges the idea that stars must form in dense, compact clusters, and demonstrates that stars as massive as 100 Msun can form in relatively low-density environments. Convincing evidence of disk photoevaporation poses a potential problem for planet formation and growth in starburst environments.

  8. Cygnus X-2 in a radio quiet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A.; Bach, U.; Spencer, R.; Kadler, M.; Church, M.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Wilms, J.; Hanke, M.; Zola, S.; Schulz, N.

    2009-05-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 was observed using the e- EVN (European VLBI Network) on May 12/13th 2009 between 23:00-13:00 UT at 5 GHz. The radio telescopes participating with the e-EVN at 5 GHz were Effelsberg, Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Sheshan, Yebes, Jodrell Bank MKII, Cambridge and Knockin. A maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps were achieved from four telescopes (Effelsberg, Onsala, Torun and Jodrell Bank MKII).

  9. Evidence for observation of underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelt, J.; Courant, H.; Heller, K.; Heppelmann, S.; Joyce, T.; Peterson, E.A.; Marshak, M.L.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M.; Ayres, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    We have observed evidence for an average underground muon flux of approx. = 7 x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ which points back to the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3 and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. These observations cannot be explained by conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, K.; Marshak, M.L.; Peterson, E.A.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M. . School of Physics and Astronomy); Ayres, D.S.; Fields, T.H.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E. )

    1989-09-11

    We report on 3.2 years live time of underground muon observations taken between 1981 and 1989 using the Soudan 1 proportional tube detector, located at a depth of 1800 m water equivalent. The post-1984 observations are consistent with our earlier data on an excess signal apparently correlated with the Cygnus X-3 orbital period. The signal-to-background ratio in the entire data sample is 1 to 3 percent, depending on phase width. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas James; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the massive star forming Cygnus OB2. Cygnus OB2 is the northern hemisphere's most massive star forming region and hosts a tremendously rich and diverse stellar population, with thousands of OB stars. The strong and highly variable extinction in the direction of the association have hindered previous studies of the region, but recent deep photometric surveys in the optical and near-infrared are opening the region up for study. The appreciation of the pivotal status of Cyg OB2 has led to a number of recent ambitious surveys of the cluster and its setting within the Cygnus-X region at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Chandra X-ray observations of two fields in the center of the association reveal 1720 X-ray sources, which we have combined with optical and near-IR photometry from the IPHAS and UKIDSS surveys. Near-IR photometry reveals a stellar population with a spread of ages greater than previously thought, overturning the picture of coeval star formation in the region. The distribution of young sources in the region shows evidence for clustering and significant mass segregation, which we judge to be primordial given the cluster's age.

  12. Catching a Galactic Football: Chandra Examines Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have found a giant football-shaped cavity within X-ray emitting hot gas surrounding the galaxy Cygnus A. The cavity in the hot gas has been created by two powerful jets emitted from the central black hole region in the nucleus of Cygnus A. Hot gas is steadily being piled up around the cavity as it continuously expands, creating a bright rim of X-ray emission. The jets themselves terminate in radio and X-ray emitting "hot spots" some 300,000 light years from the center of the galaxy. These results are being presented to the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Honolulu, HI, by Andrew S. Wilson, Andrew J. Young (University of Maryland) and Patrick L. Shopbell (California Institute of Technology). "This is a spectacular cavity, which is inflated by jets and completely surrounds the Cygnus A galaxy," said Dr. Wilson, who is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are witnessing a battle between the gravity of the Cygnus A galaxy, which is trying to pull the hot gas inwards, and the pressure of material created by the jets, which is trying to push the hot gas outwards." Cygnus A has long been famous as the brightest radio source in the sky. It is the nearest powerful radio galaxy. The Chandra X-ray image, which was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), shows the cavity surrounded by a vast sea of extremely hot gas. The elongated oval shape comes from the force of the outwardly moving jets as they push through the hot gas. Bright bands around the "equator of the football" are also visible, and this may be evidence of material swirling toward the central black hole. Cygnus A Illustration Illustration of Cygnus A Credit: CXC Without the jets, an X-ray image of Cygnus A, which is about 700 million light years from Earth, would appear as a more or less spherical region (about 2 million light years across) of hot gas slowly

  13. GBM Monitoring of Cyg X-1 During the Recent State Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Gary L., II; Baldridge, S.; Cherry, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Chaplin, V.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2011-09-01

    Cygnus X-1 is a high-mass x-ray binary with a black hole compact object. It is normally extremely bright in hard x-rays and low energy gamma rays and resides in the canonical hard spectral state. In July 2010, however, Cyg X-1 made a transition to the soft state, with a rise in the soft x-ray flux and a decrease in the flux in the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands. It remained in the soft state until April 2011 when it made the transition back to the hard state. We have been using the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on Fermi to monitor the fluxes of a number of sources, including Cyg X-1, in the 8-1000 keV energy range using the Earth occultation technique. We present light curves showing the decrease in the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy range during the hard-to-soft state transition, the several broad flares observed in these higher energies during the soft state, and then the transition back to the hard state. We also present preliminary spectra based on GBM data for the initial hard state, the spectral evolution to the soft state, and the spectral evolution back to the hard state. The implication of these results on the physical processes responsible for the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray emission will be discussed.

  14. Holleman in X-1 Reaction Control Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The X-1B and X-1E were simulated several times between 1956 and 1958 on both the AFFTC and NACA/NASA analog computers. The X-1 simulations were used for pilot training, envelope expansion studies, roll and inertial coupling studies, and reaction control studies.

  15. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  16. Decoding the heartbeat of the microquasar GRS 1915+105: Disk wind Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, Jon M.; Harrison, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    GRS 1915+105 is a microquasar that shows extreme variability in X-ray, IR and radio bands. It shows disk emission, relativistic jets and strong winds during its different states. We observed this source recently with NuSTAR and Chandra during the heartbeat state, characterized a 50 seconds strong oscillations. The oscillations are likely due to thermal/viscous instability in the inner disk when it deviates significantly from the standard Shakura & Sunyaev disk. Combining the high sensitivty of Nustar and the high resolution of Chandra, we use phase spectroscopy to study the details of these oscillation, revealing changes in the inner accretion disk as well as the launching of powerful winds during the oscillations. I will discuss the implications of these results on accretion physics, the thermal instability and the launching mechanism of the wind.

  17. Are gamma rays produced in the core region of microquasars and AGNs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiali, Behrouz; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Sol, Helene; del Valle, Maria Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic Ray (CR) acceleration is still challenging in high energy astrophysics. A first-order Fermi mechanism within magnetic reconnection layers has been demonstrated to be a powerful CR accelerator in recent studies. In this work we have investigated this acceleration process in the nuclear region of radio-galaxies and microquasars and found that the very high energy (VHE) emission from these astrophysical sources may be originated in the nuclear region around the central black hole. We employed both lepontic and hadronic models to interpret the observed gamma emission resulting from interactions of accelerated particles by magnetic reconnection with the ambient radiation, magnetic and matter fields. We compared the acceleration rate with the proper cooling rates obtaining the maximum particle energy and then reconstructed the spectral energy distribution (SED) for a few galactic and extragalactic sources and found that the are consistent with the observations. Also this model naturally explains the fast time variability of the emission of these sources.

  18. JET PROPULSION OF WIND EJECTA FROM A MAJOR FLARE IN THE BLACK HOLE MICROQUASAR SS433

    SciTech Connect

    Blundell, Katherine M.; Hirst, Paul

    2011-07-01

    We present direct evidence, from adaptive-optics near-infrared imaging, of the jets in the Galactic microquasar SS433 interacting with enhanced wind-outflow off the accretion disk that surrounds the black hole in this system. Radiant quantities of gas are transported significant distances away from the black hole approximately perpendicular to the accretion disk from which the wind emanates. We suggest that the material that comprised the resulting 'bow-tie' structure is associated with a major flare that the system exhibited 10 months prior to the observations. During this flare, excess matter was expelled by the accretion disk as an enhanced wind, which in turn is 'snow-ploughed', or propelled, out by the much faster jets that move at approximately a quarter of the speed of light. Successive instances of such bow-ties may be responsible for the large-scale X-ray cones observed within the W50 nebula by ROSAT.

  19. X-1E with Pilot Joe Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A photo of the X-1E with pilot Joe Walker suited up at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California. The dice and 'Little Joe' are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. (Little Joe is a dice players slang term for two deuces.) Five years later when Walker reached 354,200 feet in the X-15, that aircraft carried similar artwork - 'Little Joe the II.' Walker is shown in the photo above wearing an early partial pressure suit. This protected the pilot if cockpit pressure was lost above 50,000 feet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946

  20. X-1E Engine Ground Test Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E during a ground engine test run on the NACA High-Speed Flight Station ramp near the Rogers Dry Lake. The rocket technician is keeping the concrete cool by hosing it with water during the test. This also helps in washing away any chemicals that might spill. The test crew worked close to the aircraft during ground tests. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about

  1. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  2. Soft X-ray search of centre of Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Henry, R. C.; Charles, P. A.; Culhane, J. L.; Sanford, P. W.; Bleach, R.; Drake, J.

    1975-01-01

    Equipment on the Copernicus satellite has been used to search for evidence of a compact object in the center of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Rocket measurements reported by Rappaport et al. (1973) indicate that a central object exists. However, the study conducted with the aid of the satellite was negative. This negative result could indicate that the X-ray source was simply not in its high-intensity mode at the time of observation, or could arise because the source is at some other location in the Loop.

  3. X-1E with Pilot Joe Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A photo of the X-1E with pilot Joe Walker suited up at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California. The dice and 'Little Joe' are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. (Little Joe is a dice players slang term for two deuces.) Five years later when Walker reached 354,200 feet in the X-15, that aircraft carried similar artwork - 'Little Joe the II.' Walker is shown in the photo above wearing an early partial pressure suit. This protected the pilot if cockpit pressure was lost above 50,000 feet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946

  4. Understanding the Cray X1 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    2004-01-01

    This paper helps the reader understand the characteristics of the Cray X1 vector supercomputer system, and provides hints and information to enable the reader to port codes to the system. It provides a comparison between the basic performance of the X1 platform and other platforms that are available at NASA Ames Research Center. A set of codes, solving the Laplacian equation with different parallel paradigms, is used to understand some features of the X1 compiler. An example code from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks is used to demonstrate performance optimization on the X1 platform.

  5. X-1E canopy mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This photo appears to depict the design of the X-1E canopy. In 1955, the X-1-2 was modified. The modifications included a new thin wing and a low-pressure fuel system. The most visible change was a raised canopy that replaced the original flush windshield on the aircraft, which was called the X-1E. The modified aircraft made its first glide flight on December 12, 1955, and its first powered flight three days later. Over a three-year period, the X-1E made a total of 26 flights, reaching a speed of Mach 2.24. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) pilot Joseph Walker was the pilot for flights 1 through 21, while John McKay made flights 22 to 26. The final flight occurred on November 6, 1958. This was also the last flight by an X-1 aircraft. On April 29, 1960, the X-1E was mounted on a pole in front of the Flight Research Center (FRC) headquarters building. In 1976 the FRC became the Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center, and the X-1E remained in front of the headquarters building. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many

  6. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The flux of underground muons from the direction of the binary Cygnus X-3 was measured by the Soudan 2 proton decay detector. This time-projection calorimeter is located at a depth of 2200 m (water equivalent) in northern Minnesota at latitude 48 deg N, longitude 92 deg W. An analysis was then performed that compared both the total observed flux and the observed flux per transit with the number of events expected in the absence of a source. This expected number of events was determined by combining the detector acceptance as a function of time with detector acceptance as a function of the local spatial coordinates. These functions were evaluated by use of off-source events. The direction of Cygnus X-3 was defined as a 2 deg half-angle cone, centered on the nominal source coordinates. This definition is consistent with the expected appearance of a point source in the Soudan 2 detector after consideration of track reconstruction errors, multiple scattering in the rock, and possible systematic effects. Details of the analysis and the results are presented.

  7. Cygnus Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM) Flight Inertial Load Static Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, Giovanni; Mancini, Simone; Palmieri, Paolo; Rutigliano, Luigi

    2012-07-01

    Cygnus PCM Flight Inertial Load Static Test campaign has been performed by Thales Alenia Space - Italy (TAS-I) to achieve the Static Qualification of its Primary Structure. A “Proto-flight Approach” has been followed (as per [1] and [2]), thus the first flight unit, the PCM0, has been tested up to qualification level (qualification/acceptance factor equivalent to 1.2 [1]). The PCM0 has been constrained to a dummy Service Module (the second member of Cygnus Spacecraft), representative in terms of interfaces provisions, and flight load conditions have been reproduced with proper forces that have been applied by means of hydraulic jacks at internal PCM secondary structure interfaces. Test load cases have been defined in order to simulate load paths and relevant stress fields associated to the worst flight load conditions by using the FE model analyses. Tests have been monitored by means of gauges and displacement transducers and results have been utilized to correlate the PCM FEM following [3] requirements.

  8. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  9. A continuous watch of the northern sky above 40 TeV with the CYGNUS array

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.J.; Miller, R.; Sinnis, C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The aim of the project has been to continuously monitor the northern sky for transient high-energy gamma-ray emission from astrophysical sources. Potential objects of such emission include gamma-ray bursts and flares from active galaxies. At the start of this project, the CYGNUS extensive air shower array was used for the monitoring; CYGNUS has an energy threshold of {approximately}40 TeV. In August, 1996, the CYGNUS data-acquisition computer suffered a fatal hardware problem so data-taking with the array ended. The Milagrito detector, which is much more sensitive than CYGNUS, started taking data in February 1997 and has continued the sky monitoring. The authors are presently honing reconstruction algorithms for Milagrito. When this is complete, the data taken since February will be analyzed for transient emission.

  10. Nature of the high-energy particles from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, A.; Lord, J.J.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    If the published experimental results on both air showers and underground muons generated by particles from Cygnus X-3 are correct, then these particles cannot be any presently known elementary particles, neutral atoms, or micrograins of ordinary matter. The primary particles from Cygnus X-3 must be electrically neutral, relatively stable, strongly or electromagnetically interacting, and have rest mass less than 50 MeV/cS.

  11. Astronomy at ultra-high energies: Results from the CYGNUS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X-Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. ); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Kwok, P.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. ); Burman, R.L.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Zhang, W. ); C

    1990-01-01

    The CYGNUS experiment is composed of an air-shower array and muon detectors, located in Los Alamos, NM, and operating at energies above 50 TeV. Recent results include a search for emission from Cygnus X-3 during the radio outbursts of June and July 1989, preliminary results from a search for diffuse emission from the galactic plane, and preliminary results from a search for emission from possible northern hemisphere point sources, both known and unknown. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.

    2014-12-10

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest in time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification.

  13. VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS

  14. THE DISTANCE, INCLINATION, AND SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE MICROQUASAR H1743-322

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.

    2012-01-20

    During its 2003 outburst, the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 produced two-sided radio and X-ray jets. Applying a simple and symmetric kinematic model to the trajectories of these jets, we determine the source distance, 8.5 {+-} 0.8 kpc, and the inclination angle of the jets, 75 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign . Using these values, we estimate the spin of the black hole by fitting its Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer spectra, obtained during the 2003 outburst, to a standard relativistic accretion-disk model. For its spin, we find a{sub *} = 0.2 {+-} 0.3 (68% limits), -0.3 < a{sub *} < 0.7 at 90% confidence. We strongly rule against an extreme value of spin: a{sub *} < 0.92 at 99.7% confidence. H1743-322 is the third known microquasar (after A0620-00 and XTE J1550-564) that displays large-scale ballistic jets and has a moderate value of spin. Our result, which depends on an empirical distribution of black hole masses, takes into account all known sources of measurement error.

  15. Relativistic Iron Emission and Disk Reflection in Galactic Microquasar XTE J1748-288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; DiMatteo, T.; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2001-01-01

    We report evidence for an Fe K-alpha fluorescence line feature and disk reflection in the very high, high-, and low-state X-ray spectra of the Galactic microquasar XTE J1748 - 288 during its 1998 June outburst. Spectral analyses are made on data gathered throughout the outburst by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. Gaussian line, relativistic disk emission line, and ionized disk reflection models are fitted to the data. In the very high state the line profile appears strongly redshifted, consistent with disk emission from the innermost stable orbits around a maximally rotating Kerr black hole. In the high state the line profile is less redshifted and increasingly prominent. The low-state line profile is very strong (approx. 0.5 keV equivalent width) and centered at 6.7 +/- 0.10 keV; disk line emission model fits indicate that the inner edge of the disk fluctuates between approx. 20R(sub g) and - approx. 100R(sub g) in this state. The disk reflection fraction is traced through the outburst; reflection from an ionized disk is preferred in the very high and high states, and reflection from a relatively neutral disk is preferred in the low state. We discuss the implications of our findings for the binary system dynamics and accretion flow geometry in XTE J1748 - 288.

  16. Relativistic Iron Emission and Disk Reflection in Galactic Microquasar XTE J1748-288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; Matteo, T. DI; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2001-01-01

    We report evidence for an Fe K(alpha) fluorescence line feature and disk reflection in the very high, high-, and low-state X-ray spectra of the Galactic microquasar XTE J1748-288 during its 1998 June outburst. Spectral analyses are made on data gathered throughout the outburst by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. Gaussian line, relativistic disk emission line, and ionized disk reflection models are fitted to the data. In the very high state the line profile appears strongly redshifted, consistent with disk emission from the innermost stable orbits around a maximally rotating Kerr black hole. In the high state the line profile is less redshifted and increasingly prominent. The low-state line profile is very strong (approx. 0.5 keV equivalent width) and centered at 6.7 +/- 0.10 keV; disk line emission model fits indicate that the inner edge of the disk fluctuates between approx. 20Rg and approx. 100Rg in this state. The disk reflection fraction is traced through the outburst; reflection from an ionized disk is preferred in the very high and high states, and reflection from a relatively neutral disk is preferred in the low state. We discuss the implications of our findings for the binary system dynamics and accretion flow geometry in XTE J1748-288.

  17. Variable-Frequency QPOs from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Taam, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) whose frequency varies continuously from 1-15 Hz, during spectrally hard dips when the source is in a flaring state. NN'e report here analyses of simultaneous energy spectra and power density spectra at 4 s intervals. The energy spectrum is well fit at each time step by an optically thick accretion disk plus power law model, while the power density spectrum consists of a varying red noise component plus the variable frequency QPO. The features of both spectra are strongly correlated with one another. The 1-15 Hz QPOs appear when the power law component becomes hard and intense, and themselves have an energy spectrum consistent with the power law component (with root mean square amplitudes as high as 10%). The frequency of the oscillations, however, is most strikingly correlated with the parameters of the thermal disk component. The tightest correlation is between QPO frequency and the disk X-ray flux. This fact indicates that the properties of the QPO are not determined by solely a disk or solely a corona.

  18. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER MICROQUASAR 1E 1740.7-2942

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2010-06-20

    We present two Suzaku observations of the Galactic center microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942 separated by approximately 700 days. The source was observed on both occasions after a transition to the spectrally hard state. Significant emission from 1E 1740.7-2942 is detected out to an energy of 300 keV, with no spectral break or turnover evident in the data. We tentatively measure a lower limit to the cutoff energy of {approx}380 keV. The spectra are found to be consistent with a Comptonized corona on both occasions, where the high energy emission is consistent with a hard power-law ({Gamma} {approx} 1.8) with a significant contribution from an accretion disk with a temperature of {approx}0.4 keV at soft X-ray energies. The measured value for the inner radius of the accretion disk is found to be inconsistent with the picture whereby the disk is truncated at large radii in the low-hard state and instead favors a radius close to the ISCO (R{sub in} {approx} 10 - 20 R{sub g}).

  19. AR1429 Releases X1 Class Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the X1 flare, shown here in the 171 Angstrom wavelength, a wavelength typically shown in the color gold. This movie runs from 10 PM ET March 4 to 3 AM March ...

  20. Highly Structured Wind in Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Kretschmar, Peter; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Santangelo, Andrea; Ferrigno, Carlo; Staubert, Ruediger

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the spectral and temporal behavior of a long almost uninterrupted INTEGRAL observation of Vela X-1 in Nov/Dec 2003. In addition to an already high activity level, Vela X-1 exhibited several very intense flares with a maximum intensity of more than 5 Crab in the 20 40 keV band. Furthermore Vela X-1 exhibited several off states where the source became undetectable with ISGRI. We interpret flares and off states as being due to the strongly structured wind of the optical companion: when Vela X-1 encounters a cavity in the wind with strongly reduced density, the flux will drop, thus potentially triggering the onset of the propeller effect which inhibits further accretion, thus giving rise to the off states. The required drop in density to trigger the propeller effect in Vela X-1 is of the same order as predicted by theoretical papers for the densities in the OB star winds. The same structured wind can give rise to the giant flares when Vela X-1 encounters a dense blob in the wind. Further temporal analysis revealed that a short lived QPO with a period of 6800 sec is present. The part of the light curve during which the QPO is present is very close to the off states and just following a high intensity state, thus showing that all these phenomena are related.

  1. Subaru spectroscopy and spectral modeling of Cygnus A

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, Matthew J.; Perlman, Eric S.; Nikutta, Robert; Packham, Christopher; Elitzur, Moshe; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Levenson, N. A.; Radomski, James T.

    2014-06-10

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.''5) MIR spectra of the powerful radio galaxy, Cygnus A (Cyg A), obtained with the Subaru telescope. The overall shape of the spectra agree with previous high angular resolution MIR observations, as well as previous Spitzer spectra. Our spectra, both on and off nucleus, show a deep silicate absorption feature. The absorption feature can be modeled with a blackbody obscured by cold dust or a clumpy torus. The deep silicate feature is best fit by a simple model of a screened blackbody, suggesting that foreground absorption plays a significant, if not dominant, role in shaping the spectrum of Cyg A. This foreground absorption prevents a clear view of the central engine and surrounding torus, making it difficult to quantify the extent the torus attributes to the obscuration of the central engine, but does not eliminate the need for a torus in Cyg A.

  2. An infrared supershell surrounding the Cygnus OB1 association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saken, Jon M.; Shull, J. M.; Garmany, Catharine D.; Nichols-Bohlin, Joy; Fesen, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    New studies are reported of a large, 2 x 5 deg peanut-shaped cavity in the far-infrared emission seen using IRAS data for the Cygnus X region. A more complete and better defined infrared supershell than reported by Lozinskaya and Repin (1990) is found and connected to the Cyg OB1 association. It is shown that the cavity represents the early stages of a superbubble produced by the winds and possible SNe from 10 to 20 massive stars. The locations and properties of these stars are used to estimate the energy deposition rate and to understand the manner in which supershells form and propagate. In Cyg OB1, spatially distributed subclustering appears to have played an important role in determining the nonspherical morphology of the superbubble.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was revealed in this study. Total 16 739 base pairs (bp) of this mitogenome encoded genes for 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a D-loop (control region). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and segmentalized by the tRNA-Val. D-loop is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. olor is G + C: 47.8%, A + T: 52.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Following the phylogenetic analysis, the C. olor was closed to Anser cygnoides. PMID:26153738

  4. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  5. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  6. Cray X1 Evaluation Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J.S.

    2004-02-09

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science The Cray X1 is an attempt to incorporate the best aspects of previous Cray vector systems and massively-parallel-processing (MPP) systems into one design. Like the Cray T90, the X1 has high memory bandwidth, which is key to realizing a high percentage of theoretical peak performance. Like the Cray T3E, the X1 has a high-bandwidth, low-latency, scalable interconnect, and scalable system software. And, like the Cray SV1, the X1 leverages commodity off-the-shelf (CMOS) technology and incorporates non-traditional vector concepts, like vector caches and multi-streaming processors. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel benchmarks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation.

  7. A Resonantly Excited Disk-Oscillation Model of High-Frequency QPOs of Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    A possible model of twin high-frequency QPOs (HF QPOs) of microquasars is examined. The disk is assumed to have global magnetic fields and to be deformed with a two-armed pattern. In this deformed disk, a set of a two-armed (m = 2) vertical p-mode oscillation and an axisymmetric (m = 0) g-mode oscillation is considered. They resonantly interact through the disk deformation when their frequencies are the same. This resonant interaction amplifies the set of the above oscillations in the case where these two oscillations have wave energies of opposite signs. These oscillations are assumed to be excited most efficiently in the case where the radial group velocities of these two waves vanish at the same place. The above set of oscillations is not unique, depending on the node number n, of oscillations in the vertical direction. We consider that the basic two sets of oscillations correspond to the twin QPOs. The frequencies of these oscillations depend on the disk parameters, such as the strength of the magnetic fields. For observational mass ranges of GRS 1915+ 105, GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and HEAO H1743-322, the spins of these sources are estimated. High spins of these sources can be described if the disks have weak poloidal magnetic fields as well as toroidal magnetic fields of moderate strength. In this model the 3:2 frequency ratio of high-frequency QPOs is not related to their excitation, but occurs by chance.

  8. BLACK HOLE MASS AND SPIN FROM THE 2:3 TWIN-PEAK QPOs IN MICROQUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Soumen

    2010-01-10

    In the Galactic microquasars with double peak kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in X-ray fluxes, the ratio of the twin-peak frequencies is exactly, or almost exactly 2:3. This rather strongly supports the fact that they originate a few gravitational radii away from its center due to two modes of accretion disk oscillations. Numerical investigations suggest that post-shock matter, before they settle down in a subsonic branch, execute oscillations in the neighborhood region of 'shock transition'. This shock may excite QPO mechanism. The radial and vertical epicyclic modes of oscillating matter exactly match with these twin-peak QPOs. In fully general relativistic transonic flows, we investigate that shocks may form very close to the horizon around highly spinning Kerr black holes and appear as extremum in the inviscid flows. The extreme shock location provides upper limit of QPOs and hence fixes 'lower cutoff' of the spin. We conclude that the 2:3 ratio exactly occurs for spin parameters a >= 0.87 and almost exactly, for wide range of spin parameter, for example, XTE 1550-564, and GRO 1655-40 a>0.87, GRS 1915+105 a>0.83, XTE J1650-500 a>0.78, and H 1743-322 a>0.68. We also make an effort to measure unknown mass for XTE J1650-500(9.1 approx 14.1 M{sub sun}) and H 1743-322(6.6 approx 11.3 M{sub sun}).

  9. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  10. Testing modified gravity and no-hair relations for the Kerr-Newman metric through quasiperiodic oscillations of galactic microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipole moments for stationary, asymptotically flat, spacetime solutions to higher-order curvature theories of gravity. The moments are defined using 3 +1 techniques involving timelike Killing vector constructions as in the classic papers by Geroch and Hansen. Using the fact that the Kerr-Newman metric is a vacuum solution to a particular class of f (R ) theories of gravity, we compute all its moments, and find that they admit recurrence relations similar to those for the Kerr solution in general relativity. It has been proposed previously that modeling the measured frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations from galactic microquasars enables experimental tests of the no-hair theorem. We explore the possibility that, even if the no-hair relation is found to break down in the context of general relativity, there may be an f (R ) counterpart that is preserved. We apply the results to the microquasars GRS 1915 +105 and GRO J1655-40 using the diskoseismology and kinematic resonance models, and constrain the spins and "charges" of their black holes.

  11. Application of cosmic-ray shock theories to the Cygnus Loop - An alternative model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulares, Ahmed; Cox, Donald P.

    1988-01-01

    Steady state cosmic-ray shock models are investigated here in the light of observations of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. The predicted downstream temperature is derived for each model. The Cygnus Loop data and the application of the models to them, including wave dissipation, are presented. Heating rate and ionization fraction structures are provided along with an estimate of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient. It is found that the model of Voelk, Drury, and McKenzie (1984), in which the plasma waves are generated by the streaming instability of the cosmic rays and are dissipated into the gas, can be made consistent with some observed characteristics of the Cygnus Loop shocks. The model is used to deduce upstream densities and shock velocities and, compared to the usual pure gas shock interpretation, it is found that lower densities and approximately three times higher velocities are required.

  12. New measurements of the 12. 6 millisecond pulsar in Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Brazier, K.T.S.; Carraminana, A.; Chadwick, P.M.; Dipper, N.A.; Lincoln, E.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Evidence for a 12.59 ms pulsar in Cygnus X-3 is presented on the basis of TeV gamma-ray observations. Evidence for pulsed emission at a phase in the 4.8 hr cycle and with a pulsar period and secular period derivative are compatible with earlier measurements (Chadwick et al., 1985). The conservative overall Rayleigh probability of uniformity of phase for this new result is 1.7 x 10 to the -6th. Data from observations of Cygnus X-3 from 1981 to 1985 are analyzed using a new X-ray ephemeris of the 4.8 hr X-ray cycle. This suggests that Cygnus X-3 is producing sporadic very high energy gamma rays at a fixed time in the 4.8 hr X-ray cycle. 28 refs.

  13. Reexamination of the SAS 2 Cygnus X-3 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Lamb, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of Cygnus X-3 have shown marked variability of the radiation on short time scales. In particular, the bursts lasting on the order of 10 minutes, seen in both the infrared and very high energy (greater than 10 to the 11th eV) gamma-ray regions, and the time-variations on many scales at high energies, have stimulated a reanalysis of the March 6 to 13, 1973 SAS 2 high-energy gamma-ray data. Although a clear periodicity in the E greater 35 MeV gamma radiation is observed at the 4.79 hr period seen in X-rays, there is no evidence for major variations of the radiation from one day to the next, and no statistically significant evidence for bursts on the 10-minute time scale seen in the infrared or very high energy ranges. If the excess observed had been predominantly in the form of ten minute bursts even at a rate as high as two/day, a clearly significant set of bursts would have been seen.

  14. Discovery of dense absorbing clouds in Cygnus X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Schulz, Norbert S.; Church, Michael; Wilms, Joern; Hanke, Manfred

    We report results of several day-long observation of Cygnus X-2 using Chandra and XMM-Newton. The source displayed extensive dipping events in the lightcurve often seen before in the source and causing an additional track in the hardness-intensity Z-track diagram. For the first time we are able to investigate these events using both high efficiency CCD continuum spectra and highly-resolved grating data. In the XMM PN instrument, the dips are 30% deep and resemble those in the low mass X-ray binary dip sources. However, remarkably, in the Chandra HEG and MEG no absorption or edge features can be seen corresponding to expected increases of column density in excess of the interstellar column. Non-dip and dip PN spectra are fitted well with a model containing point-like blackbody emission which we associate with the neutron star plus Comptonized emission of the ADC which must be extended. Dipping can be explained without absorption of the blackbody emission, but by covering 40% of the extended ADC emission by dense absorber. In the covered fraction almost no flux remains and so no significant additional optical depths appear in the neutral K edges in the grating spectra. The dipping appears not to be explicable by absorption in the outer disk, but requires large, dense blobs of absorber that do not overlap the neutron star in the line-of-sight. The nature of these blobs is unknown.

  15. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration. PMID:26044143

  16. Evidence from the Soudan 1 experiment for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, D. S. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 1 experiment has yielded evidence for an average underground muon flux of approximately 7 x 10 to the minus 11th power/sq cm/s which points back to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. Underground muon events which seem to be associated with Cygnus X-3 also show evidence for longer time variability of the flux. Such underground muons cannot be explained by any conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays.

  17. Evidence from the Soudan 1 experiment for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.

    1985-09-01

    The Soudan 1 experiment has yielded evidence for an average underground muon flux of approx.7 x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ which points back to the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3, and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. Underground muon events which seem to be associated with Cygnus X-3 also show evidence for longer time variability of the flux. Such underground muons cannot be explained by conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Radio lobes and X-ray hotspots in the microquasar S26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Pakull, Manfred W.; Broderick, Jess W.; Corbel, Stephane; Motch, Christian

    2010-12-01

    We have studied the structure and energetics of the powerful microquasar/shock-ionized nebula S26 in NGC7793, with particular focus on its radio and X-ray properties. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have resolved for the first time the radio lobe structure and mapped the spectral index of the radio cocoon. The steep spectral index of the radio lobes is consistent with optically-thin synchrotron emission; outside the lobes, the spectral index is flatter, suggesting an additional contribution from free-free emission, and perhaps ongoing ejections near the core. The radio core is not detected, while the X-ray core has a 0.3-8 keV luminosity ~6 × 1036 erg s-1. The size of the radio cocoon matches that seen in the optical emission lines and diffuse soft X-ray emission. The total 5.5-GHz flux of cocoon and lobes is ~2.1 mJy, which at the assumed distance of 3.9 Mpc corresponds to about three times the luminosity of Cas A. The total 9.0-GHz flux is ~1.6 mJy. The X-ray hotspots (combined 0.3-8 keV luminosity ~2 × 1037 erg s-1) are located ~20 pc outwards of the radio hotspots (i.e. downstream along the jet direction), consistent with a different physical origin of X-ray and radio emission (thermal-plasma and synchrotron, respectively). The total particle energy in the bubble is ~1053 erg: from the observed radio flux, we estimate that only approximately a few times 1050 erg is stored in the relativistic electrons; the rest is stored in protons, nuclei and non-relativistic electrons. The X-ray-emitting component of the gas in the hotspots contains ~1051 erg, and ~1052 erg over the whole cocoon. We suggest that S26 provides a clue to understand how the ambient medium is heated by the mechanical power of a black hole near its Eddington accretion rate.

  19. Space X1 First Entry Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (m-GSC) was returned aboard Space X1 because of the importance of quickly knowing first-entry conditions in this new commercial module. This sample was analyzed alongside samples of the portable clean room (PCR) used in the Space X complex at KSC. The recoveries of C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 130, 129, and 132 %, respectively.

  20. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations related to the phenomenon of

  1. Photoevaporating Proplyd-like Objects in Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Drew, Janet E.; Guarcello, Mario G.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hora, Joseph L.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.

    2012-02-01

    We report the discovery of 10 proplyd-like objects in the vicinity of the massive OB association Cygnus OB2. They were discovered in IPHAS Hα images and are clearly resolved in broadband Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys, near-IR, and Spitzer mid-IR images. All exhibit the familiar tadpole shape seen in photoevaporating objects such as the Orion proplyds, with a bright ionization front at the head facing the central cluster of massive stars and a tail stretching in the opposite direction. Many also show secondary ionization fronts, complex tail morphologies, or multiple heads. We consider the evidence that these are either proplyds or "evaporating gaseous globules" (EGGs) left over from a fragmenting molecular cloud, but find that neither scenario fully explains the observations. Typical sizes are 50,000-100,000 AU, larger than the Orion proplyds, but in agreement with the theoretical scaling of proplyd size with distance from the ionizing source. These objects are located at projected separations of ~6-14 pc from the OB association, compared to ~0.1 pc for the Orion proplyds, but are clearly being photoionized by the ~65 O-type stars in Cyg OB2. Central star candidates are identified in near- and mid-IR images, supporting the proplyd scenario, though their large sizes and notable asymmetries are more consistent with the EGG scenario. A third possibility is therefore considered that these are a unique class of photoevaporating partially embedded young stellar objects that have survived the destruction of their natal molecular cloud. This has implications for the properties of stars that form in the vicinity of massive stars.

  2. PHOTOEVAPORATING PROPLYD-LIKE OBJECTS IN CYGNUS OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Guarcello, Mario G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Drew, Janet E.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.

    2012-02-20

    We report the discovery of 10 proplyd-like objects in the vicinity of the massive OB association Cygnus OB2. They were discovered in IPHAS H{alpha} images and are clearly resolved in broadband Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys, near-IR, and Spitzer mid-IR images. All exhibit the familiar tadpole shape seen in photoevaporating objects such as the Orion proplyds, with a bright ionization front at the head facing the central cluster of massive stars and a tail stretching in the opposite direction. Many also show secondary ionization fronts, complex tail morphologies, or multiple heads. We consider the evidence that these are either proplyds or 'evaporating gaseous globules' (EGGs) left over from a fragmenting molecular cloud, but find that neither scenario fully explains the observations. Typical sizes are 50,000-100,000 AU, larger than the Orion proplyds, but in agreement with the theoretical scaling of proplyd size with distance from the ionizing source. These objects are located at projected separations of {approx}6-14 pc from the OB association, compared to {approx}0.1 pc for the Orion proplyds, but are clearly being photoionized by the {approx}65 O-type stars in Cyg OB2. Central star candidates are identified in near- and mid-IR images, supporting the proplyd scenario, though their large sizes and notable asymmetries are more consistent with the EGG scenario. A third possibility is therefore considered that these are a unique class of photoevaporating partially embedded young stellar objects that have survived the destruction of their natal molecular cloud. This has implications for the properties of stars that form in the vicinity of massive stars.

  3. The massive star population of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drew, Janet E.; Mohr-Smith, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled a significantly updated and comprehensive census of massive stars in the nearby Cygnus OB2 association by gathering and homogenizing data from across the literature. The census contains 169 primary OB stars, including 52 O-type stars and 3 Wolf-Rayet stars. Spectral types and photometry are used to place the stars in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which is compared to both non-rotating and rotating stellar evolution models, from which stellar masses and ages are calculated. The star formation history and mass function of the association are assessed, and both are found to be heavily influenced by the evolution of the most massive stars to their end states. We find that the mass function of the most massive stars is consistent with a `universal' power-law slope of Γ = 1.3. The age distribution inferred from stellar evolutionary models with rotation and the mass function suggest the majority of star formation occurred more or less continuously between 1 and 7 Myr ago, in agreement with studies of low- and intermediate-mass stars in the association. We identify a nearby young pulsar and runaway O-type star that may have originated in Cyg OB2 and suggest that the association has already seen its first supernova. Finally we use the census and mass function to calculate the total mass of the association of 16 500^{+3800}_{-2800} M⊙, at the low end, but consistent with, previous estimates of the total mass of Cyg OB2. Despite this Cyg OB2 is still one of the most massive groups of young stars known in our Galaxy making it a prime target for studies of star formation on the largest scales.

  4. FIVE MORE MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Gilbert, Ian; Bird, Sarah; Chunev, Georgi

    2009-06-15

    We present the orbital solutions for four OB spectroscopic binaries, MT145, GSC 03161 - 00815, 2MASS J20294666+4105083, and Schulte 73, and the partial orbital solution to the B spectroscopic binary, MT372, as part of an ongoing study to determine the distribution of orbital parameters for massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. MT145 is a new, single-lined, moderately eccentric (e = 0.291 {+-} 0.009) spectroscopic binary with period of 25.140 {+-} 0.008 days. GSC 03161 - 00815 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.10 {+-} 0.01), eclipsing, interacting and double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 4.674 {+-} 0.004 days. 2MASS J20294666+4105083 is a moderately eccentric (e = 0.273 {+-} 0.002) double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.884 {+-} 0.001 days. Schulte 73 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.169 {+-} 0.009), double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 17.28 {+-} 0.03 days and the first 'twin' in our survey with a mass ratio of q = 0.99 {+-} 0.02. MT372 is a single-lined, eclipsing system with a period of 2.228 days and low eccentricity (e {approx} 0). Of the now 18 known OB binaries in Cyg OB2, 14 have periods and mass ratios. Emerging evidence also shows that the distribution of log(P) is flat and consistent with 'Oepik's Law'.

  5. Infrared study of H 1743-322 in outburst: a radio-quiet and NIR-dim microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaty, S.; Muñoz Arjonilla, A. J.; Dubus, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Microquasars are accreting Galactic sources that are commonly observed to launch relativistic jets. One of the most important issues regarding these sources is the energy budget of ejections relative to the accretion of matter. Aims: The X-ray binary, black hole candidate, and microquasar H 1743-322 exhibited a series of X-ray outbursts between 2003 and 2008. We took optical and near-infrared (OIR) observations with the ESO/NTT telescope during three of these outbursts (2003, 2004, and 2008). The goals of these observations were to investigate the presence of a jet, and to disentangle the various contributions constituting the spectral energy distribution (SED): accretion, ejection, and stellar emission. Methods: Photometric and spectroscopic OIR observations allowed us to produce a high time-resolution lightcurve in Ks-band, to analyze emission lines present in the IR spectra, to construct a multiwavelength SED including radio, IR, and X-ray data, and to complete the OIR vs. X-ray correlation of black hole binaries with H 1743-322 data points. Results: We detect rapid flares of duration ~5 min in the high time-resolution IR lightcurve. We identify hydrogen and helium emission lines in the IR spectra, coming from the accretion disk. The IR SED exhibits the spectral index typically associated with the X-ray high, soft state in our observations taken during the 2003 and 2004 outbursts, while the index changes to one that is typical of the X-ray low, hard state during the 2008 outburst. During this last outburst, we detected a change of slope in the NIR spectrum between the J and Ks bands, where the JH part is characteristic of an optically thick disk emission, while the HKs part is typical of optically thin synchrotron emission. Furthermore, the comparison of our IR data with radio and X-ray data shows that H 1743-322 exhibits a faint jet both in radio and NIR domains. Finally, we suggest that the companion star is a late-type main sequence star located in

  6. The dependence of protostellar luminosity on environment in the Cygnus-X star-forming complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, Howard A.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bontemps, S.; Schneider, N.; Kraemer, K.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.

    2014-07-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming complex is one of the most active regions of low- and high-mass star formation within 2 kpc of the Sun. Using mid-infrared photometry from the IRAC and MIPS Spitzer Cygnus-X Legacy Survey, we have identified over 1800 protostar candidates. We compare the protostellar luminosity functions of two regions within Cygnus-X: CygX-South and CygX-North. These two clouds show distinctly different morphologies suggestive of dissimilar star-forming environments. We find the luminosity functions of these two regions are statistically different. Furthermore, we compare the luminosity functions of protostars found in regions of high and low stellar density within Cygnus-X and find that the luminosity function in regions of high stellar density is biased to higher luminosities. In total, these observations provide further evidence that the luminosities of protostars depend on their natal environment. We discuss the implications this dependence has for the star formation process.

  7. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (Cygnus olor) from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 632 mute swans (Cygnus olor) collected from different areas of the USA. Sera were tested by T. gondii modified agglutination te...

  8. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, R. L.; Cash, W.

    2008-06-01

    The Cygnus X-Ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) sounding rocket payload was launched from White Sands Missile Range on 2006 November 20 and obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant in the soft X-ray. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire-grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount that ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 s of usable data between 43 and 49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first-order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log (T) = 6.2 (kTe = 0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave and the walls of a precursor-formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop and that this interaction can be described using equilibrium conditions.

  9. Application of cosmic-ray shock theories to the Cygnus Loop - an alternative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulares, Ahmed; Cox, Donald P.

    1988-10-01

    Steady state cosmic-ray shock models are investigated in light of observations of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. In this work the authors find that the model of Völk, Drury, and McKenzie, in which the plasma waves are generated by the streaming instability of the cosmic rays and are dissipated into the gas, can be made consistent with some observed characteristics of Cygnus Loop shocks. The waves heat the gas substantially in the cosmic-ray precursor, in addition to the usual heating in the (possibly weak) gas shock. The model is used to deduce upstream densities and shock velocities using known quantities for Cygnus Loop shocks. Compared to the usual pure gas shock interpretation, it is found that lower densities and approximately 3 times higher velocities are required. If the cosmic-ray models are valid, this could significantly alter our understanding of the Cygnus Loop's distance and age and of the energy released during the initial explosion.

  10. A Far-Ultraviolet Study of the Cygnus Loop Using the VOYAGER Ultraviolet Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancura, Olaf; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Holberg, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the Voyager 1 and 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometers to study the far-ultraviolet emissions from different types of shock waves in the Cygnus Loop. In the southeast and northern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR), we have measured the O(VI) lambda1035 surface brightness from the main blast wave. This value is several times below the average and more than one order of magnitude below the peak O(VI) brightness in the SNR as measured with Voyager. A simple blast wave model appears able to reproduce the observations in the southeast and the northern parts of the Cygnus Loop but can only account for 10%-15% of the total O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop. The brightest O(VI) and C(III) lambda977 emission is found coincident with optical filamentation and X-ray enhancements in the northeast. We interpret the observations in the northeast in terms of nonradiative and incomplete shocks whose surface area rises in the optical filamentary regions. We conclude that the bulk of the O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop arises from optically bright clouds within which intermediate-velocity (200 + 50 km/s) nonradiative and incomplete shocks are widespread.